Sample records for ocean planet popular

  1. Ocean Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    _Ocean Planet_ is a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition that now has a companion on-line exhibition. It covers varied topics associated with the ocean, such as the science of the ocean, the animals, people, and communities who use the ocean, and pollution problems currently endangering ocean resources. The exhibit features all of the text and a good portion of the images from the traveling exhibit. The curator of this exhibit has put together six special interest tours including Biodiversity, Women and the Sea, and Pollution. Users can also build their own special tour from a list of key words. The current list contains only four words, but is expected to grow in the future. Visitors can also consult a comprehensive list of educational materials and ocean resources.

  2. Ocean Planet: Rough Planet Earth without Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  3. A New Family of Planets ? "Ocean Planets"

    E-print Network

    A. Leger; F. Selsis; C. Sotin; T. Guillot; D. Despois; H. Lammer; M. Ollivier; F. Brachet; A. Labeque; C. Valette

    2003-08-19

    A new family of planets is considered which is between rochy terrestrial planets and gaseous giant ones: "Ocean-Planets". We present the possible formation, composition and internal models of these putative planets, including that of their ocean, as well as their possible Exobiology interest. These planets should be detectable by planet detection missions such as Eddington and Kepler, and possibly COROT (lauch scheduled in 2006). They would be ideal targets for spectroscopic missions such as Darwin/TPF.

  4. Ocean Planet: Final Version

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  5. Ocean Planet: Pollution Solution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Focuses on sources of oil pollution and effects on ocean, marine life and humans. Students predict impacts of an oil spill and plan actions needed to protect and restore habitat and wildlife. Lab activities demonstrate properties of oil. Unit includes: background, instructions for the teacher, forms for student activities, discussion questions; all available online in PDF format. Resources include online version of the Ocean Planet exhibition.

  6. Ocean Planet Exhibition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This virtual tour of the Smithsonian Institution's Ocean Planet exhibit can be navigated by clicking on the floor plan which is pictured, or it can be searched by image, subject, or topic outline. Links to educational materials and to a special curator's tour are also included.

  7. The ocean planet.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    The Blue Planet is 70% water, and all but 3% of it is salt water. Life on earth first evolved in the primordial soup of ancient seas, and though today's seas provide 99% of all living space on the planet, little is known about the world's oceans. However, the fact that the greatest threats to the integrity of our oceans come from land-based activities is becoming clear. Humankind is in the process of annihilating the coastal and ocean ecosystems and the wealth of biodiversity they harbor. Mounting population and development pressures have taken a grim toll on coastal and ocean resources. The trend arising from such growth is the chronic overexploitation of marine resources, whereby rapidly expanding coastal populations and the growth of cities have contributed to a rising tide of pollution in nearly all of the world's seas. This crisis is made worse by government inaction and a frustrating inability to enforce existing coastal and ocean management regulations. Such inability is mainly because concerned areas contain so many different types of regulations and involve so many levels of government, that rational planning and coordination of efforts are rendered impossible. Concerted efforts are needed by national governments and the international community to start preserving the ultimate source of all life on earth. PMID:12349465

  8. Visit to an Ocean Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Visit to an Ocean Planet is an innovative CD-ROM that has been transferred to the web. Visit to an Ocean Planet is for grades 5-12 that makes science, ocean, climate and life education fun and interactive. There are three sections, expedition, mission and guide. The expedition section engages students in exploring the 1997 El Nino, a look at oceanographers and their work, and an ocean science research cruise planning exercise. In the mission section, students discover many details about the TOPEX/Poseidon mission and learn about previous and future missions. They also learn how to measure ocean topography. The guide section contains lessons and classroom activities in climate, oceanography, and life in our oceans. The climate activities cover properties of fresh water and sea water, Earth's hydrologic cycle, coastal versus inland temperatures ocean currents and coastal temperatures, metric measurements, solar energy and distance, salinity, deep ocean circulations and greenhouse gases. The oceanography activities cover density of water, evaporation, mixing, sound in water, wind-driven currents, tides, upwelling and the Cartesian diver. The life in our oceans activities cover plankton, bioluminescence, oil spils and plastics in the ocean. Classroom activities can be downloaded directly from the website as .pdf files. The guide section also contains movies, images, and background materials. If you are an educator or home schooler, you can obtain a copy of the "Visit to an Ocean Planet" CD-ROM free of charge from the JPL Physical Oceanography DAAC: http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/edu.

  9. Changing Planet: Ocean Acidification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC News

    This video addresses acidification of the ocean and the ecological and economic implications of the resulting pH change on marine life. It includes information about how ocean acidification resulting from increased absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere is affecting ocean species such as sea urchins and oysters. Scientists from the University of California at Santa Barbara discuss their experiments with sea creatures in acidic sea water. There is an associated lesson plan and classroom activity that has students test the effects of CO2 on water pH.

  10. Visit to An Ocean Planet: Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource uses text, images, maps and a laboratory exercise to explain how differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water cause the formation of deep-ocean currents. It is part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's "Ocean Surface Topography from Space" website. This material is also available on the "Visit to An Ocean Planet" CD-ROM.

  11. Oceans in Cold, Water-Rich Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2004-11-01

    The interiors of Uranus and Neptune are significantly different from those of the terrestrial and Jovian planets. Their large bulk densities are evidence for significant water content, so it is important to study the form in which that water exists. We examine a hypothetical planet by idealizing the density structure of Neptune and by making three major assumptions. First, we pin this planet's photospheric ( 0.5 bar) temperature and total pressure to Voyager measurements of Neptune. Second, we assume that this planet's water and hydrogen are uniformly mixed throughout the interior. Third, we assume that the water-poor photosphere and the water-rich interior will be joined either by a wet adiabat terminating at a cloud base (with a dry, adiabatic, gaseous interior) or by a wet adiabat in vapor equilibrium with a liquid water-hydrogen interior. For a high-entropy interior (a "hot" planet), the planetary cloud deck terminates at a cloud base, whereas for a low-entropy, "cold" planet, the cloud deck transitions to a liquid ocean at depth. As planets radiatively cool, they lose entropy; therefore the cloud bases in young planets become ocean surfaces as these planets age. Planets with clouds will have different observational signatures from planets with oceans. For Neptune, better knowledge of its gravitational moments should help decide whether or not an ocean exists. For transiting extrasolar planets, radii and bulk densities can be determined. Observations of warm, water-rich atmospheres, in those whose bulk densities are compatible with water, imply hot, gaseous interiors. Detection of cold, hydrogen-rich atmospheres would be consistent with liquid water-hydrogen oceans beneath. This work has benefited from the support of the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program.

  12. Ocean Planet: Final Version with Credits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1995-05-26

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  13. Ocean Planet: Rough Cut Hawaii Flyby

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  14. Ocean Planet: Map of Flight Path

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  15. Ocean Planet: Interdisciplinary Marine Science Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Babara Branca

    1997-06-20

    Ocean Planet's six lesson plans are adapted from several themes in the Smithsonian Institution exhibition created to share with the public what recent research has revealed about the oceans and to encourage ocean conservation. "Sea Secrets" explores ocean geography; "Sea Connections" looks at the plants and animals that live in different marine ecosystems. "Ocean Market" identifies and values many products of the seas. "Pollution Solution" examines the effects of an environmental crisis. "Stranded Along the Coast" explores both natural and human causes of animal strandings. Finally, "Reflections on the Sea" explores the influence of oceans on language and literature. Each of the six lesson plans has the same elements: background information; statement of learning objectives; list of required materials; step-by-step procedures; student handouts; and a list of additional resources, including connections to the online version of the Ocean Planet exhibition. The instructional approach in Ocean Planet is interdisciplinary. Lesson plans will work in different classes, from biology and mathematics to geography and social studies. Many activities employ students' writing skills.

  16. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land & Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Arthur F.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to South Africa, Cape Town and Johannesburg using NASA Terra MODIS data, Landsat data and 1m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Zoom in to any place South Africa using Earth Viewer 3D from Keyhole Inc. and Landsat data at 30 m resolution. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we present science to the public. See dust storms and flooding in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the north and south polar ice packs and with icebergs on the coasts of Greenland and off the coast of Antarctica. Spectacular new visualizations of the global land, atmosphere & oceans are shown. Listen to the pulse of our planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and biomass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite. The presentation will be made using the latest HDTV and video projection technology that is now done from a laptop computer through an entirely digital path.

  17. Atmospheric composition and stability of ocean planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wordsworth, R.; Pierrehumbert, R.

    2013-12-01

    Earth is an unusual planet because it possesses surface liquid water, but also because it simultaneously has surface land. Dynamical modeling suggests that many terrestrial exoplanets will form with many times Earth's present-day H2O inventory, and hence may initially be covered by global oceans. Understanding the climate evolution and volatile cycling of ocean planets is hence an important step towards predicting the range of possible atmospheric conditions for terrestrial-mass exoplanets in general. Here we use a combination of basic theory, 1D climate/escape modeling and 3D GCM calculations to study the stability of ocean planets to water loss via photolysis of H2O in the high atmosphere and associated hydrogen escape. We show that inside the runaway greenhouse limit, water loss is likely to be ineffective regardless of mass, age and atmospheric composition, due to a combination of cold-trapping at the tropopause and IR cooling in the high atmosphere by radiatively active gases such as CO2. Hence planets that form with a high water content should generally remain water-rich throughout their lifetimes. We also show via simple equilibrium ocean chemistry calculations that volatiles such as CO2 are likely to reach high atmospheric levels in the absence of surface land, resulting in hot surface conditions. Our calculations highlight the importance of future work to study the partitioning of H2O between the surface/crust and the deep mantle in rocky planets. They also imply that distinguishing between optically thick CO2/H2O-rich atmospheres and cases where surface IR emission to space is possible will be a key challenge for future super-Earth atmospheric characterization.

  18. Hydrothermal systems in small ocean planets.

    PubMed

    Vance, Steve; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Kimura, Jun; Hussmann, Hauke; Demartin, Brian; Brown, J Michael

    2007-12-01

    We examine means for driving hydrothermal activity in extraterrestrial oceans on planets and satellites of less than one Earth mass, with implications for sustaining a low level of biological activity over geological timescales. Assuming ocean planets have olivine-dominated lithospheres, a model for cooling-induced thermal cracking shows how variation in planet size and internal thermal energy may drive variation in the dominant type of hydrothermal system-for example, high or low temperature system or chemically driven system. As radiogenic heating diminishes over time, progressive exposure of new rock continues to the current epoch. Where fluid-rock interactions propagate slowly into a deep brittle layer, thermal energy from serpentinization may be the primary cause of hydrothermal activity in small ocean planets. We show that the time-varying hydrostatic head of a tidally forced ice shell may drive hydrothermal fluid flow through the seafloor, which can generate moderate but potentially important heat through viscous interaction with the matrix of porous seafloor rock. Considering all presently known potential ocean planets-Mars, a number of icy satellites, Pluto, and other trans-neptunian objects-and applying Earth-like material properties and cooling rates, we find depths of circulation are more than an order of magnitude greater than in Earth. In Europa and Enceladus, tidal flexing may drive hydrothermal circulation and, in Europa, may generate heat on the same order as present-day radiogenic heat flux at Earth's surface. In all objects, progressive serpentinization generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day radiogenic heating and hydrogen is produced at rates between 10(9) and 10(10) molecules cm(2) s(1). PMID:18163874

  19. Earth, the blue planet, is shaped and defined by oceanic

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    Earth, the blue planet, is shaped and defined by oceanic processes--above and below the water. Oceans cover two- thirds of our planet's surface; Yet much about them remains a mystery. We invite you to meet distin- guished scientists and explorers, and to learn more about our blue planet--in a series

  20. Painting Planets: Jupiter as Shown in Popular Works a Century Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    1999-05-01

    Book illustrations from one-hundred years ago tell us how the planets were then popularly envisioned. Surprisingly, while Jupiter's is the most dynamic disk in the Solar System when viewed through the telescope, that world was often depicted by the *same* illustration. This "paradigm" figure provides insight into the limitations of nineteenth-century planetary astronomy.

  1. Formation of early water oceans on rocky planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda T. Elkins-Tanton

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial planets, with silicate mantles and metallic cores, are likely to obtain water and carbon compounds during accretion. Here I examine the conditions that allow early formation of a surface water ocean (simultaneous with cooling to clement surface conditions), and the timeline of degassing the planetary interior into the atmosphere. The greatest fraction of a planet's initial volatile budget is

  2. Mantles of terrestrial planets immediately following magma ocean solidification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Scheinberg; L. T. Elkins-Tanton; S. Zhong; E. Parmentier

    2010-01-01

    Energy of accretion in terrestrial planets is expected to create liquid silicate magma oceans. Their solidification processes create silicate differentiation and set the initial mantle structure for the planet. Solidification results in a compositionally unstable density profile, leading to cumulate Rayleigh-Taylor overturn in the early stages of planetary history. The pattern and timescale of overturn, in which cold, dense surface

  3. Ocean Planet: Partial Tour with Map Route Inset

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  4. Formation of Early Water Oceans on Rocky Planets

    E-print Network

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial planets, with silicate mantles and metallic cores, are likely to obtain water and carbon compounds during accretion. Here I examine the conditions that allow early formation of a surface water ocean (simultaneous with cooling to clement surface conditions), and the timeline of degassing the planetary interior into the atmosphere. The greatest fraction of a planet's initial volatile budget is degassed into the atmosphere during the end of magma ocean solidification, leaving only a small fraction of the original volatiles to be released into the atmosphere through later volcanism. Rocky planets that accrete with water in their bulk mantle have two mechanisms for producing an early water ocean: First, if they accrete with at least 1 to 3 mass% of water in their bulk composition, liquid water may be extruded onto the planetary surface at the end of magma ocean solidification. Second, at initial water contents as low as 0.01 mass% or lower, during solidification a massive supercritical fluid and steam ...

  5. The unstable CO2 feedback cycle on ocean planets

    E-print Network

    Kitzmann, D; Godolt, M; Grenfell, J L; Heng, K; Patzer, A B C; Rauer, H; Stracke, B; von Paris, P

    2015-01-01

    Ocean planets are volatile rich planets, not present in our Solar System, which are thought to be dominated by deep, global oceans. This results in the formation of high-pressure water ice, separating the planetary crust from the liquid ocean and, thus, also from the atmosphere. Therefore, instead of a carbonate-silicate cycle like on the Earth, the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is governed by the capability of the ocean to dissolve carbon dioxide (CO2). In our study, we focus on the CO2 cycle between the atmosphere and the ocean which determines the atmospheric CO2 content. The atmospheric amount of CO2 is a fundamental quantity for assessing the potential habitability of the planet's surface because of its strong greenhouse effect, which determines the planetary surface temperature to a large degree. In contrast to the stabilising carbonate-silicate cycle regulating the long-term CO2 inventory of the Earth atmosphere, we find that the CO2 cycle feedback on ocean planets is negative and has strong...

  6. Formation of early water oceans on rocky planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda T. Elkins-Tanton

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial planets, with silicate mantles and metallic cores, are likely to obtain water and carbon compounds during accretion.\\u000a Here I examine the conditions that allow early formation of a surface water ocean (simultaneous with cooling to clement surface\\u000a conditions), and the timeline of degassing the planetary interior into the atmosphere. The greatest fraction of a planet’s\\u000a initial volatile budget is

  7. 121OUR CHANGING PLANET Ocean Bathymetry and

    E-print Network

    Sandwell, David T.

    sparse ship soundings and dense coverage from the GEOSAT (US Navy 1985) and ERS-1 (ESA 1994) satellite is critical for maintaining life on the Earth. Since one cannot directly map the topography of the ocean surveyed at the 200-meter resolution. It has been estimated that 125-200 ship-years of survey time

  8. Europa, tidally heated oceans, and habitable zones around giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, R. T.; McKay, C. P.; Kasting, J. F.

    Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain an environment favorable to life on the satellite surface or just below a thin ice layer. Europa could have a liquid ocean which may occasionally receive sunlight through cracks in the overlying ice shell. In such a case, sufficient solar energy could reach liquid water that organisms similar to those found under Antarctic ice could grow. In other solar systems, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could represent environments that are stable over an order of eons and in which life could perhaps evolve. A zone around a giant planet is defined in which such satellites could exist as a tidally-heated habitable zone. This zone can be compared to the habitable zone which results from heating due to the radiation of a central star. In this solar system, this radiatively-heated habitable zone contains the earth.

  9. Strong ocean tidal flow and heating on moons of the outer planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Tyler

    2008-01-01

    Data from recent space missions have added strong support for the idea that there are liquid oceans on several moons of the outer planets, with Jupiter's moon Europa having received the most attention. But given the extremely cold surface temperatures and meagre radiogenic heat sources of these moons, it is still unclear how these oceans remain liquid. The prevailing conjecture

  10. Models of Polarized Light from Oceans and Atmospheres of Earth-like Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    P. R. McCullough

    2006-10-17

    Specularly reflected light, or glint, from an ocean surface may provide a useful observational tool for studying extrasolar terrestrial planets. Detection of sea-surface glints would differentiate ocean-bearing terrestrial planets, i.e. those similar to Earth, from other terrestrial extrasolar planets. The brightness and degree of polarization of both sea-surface glints and atmospheric Rayleigh scattering are strong functions of the phase angle of the extrasolar planet. We modify analytic expressions for the bi-directional reflectances previously validated by satellite imagery of the Earth to account for the fractional linear polarization of sea-surface reflections and of Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere. We compare our models with Earth's total visual light and degree of linear polarization as observed in the ashen light of the Moon, or Earthshine. We predict the spatially-integrated reflected light and its degree of polarization as functions of the diurnal cycle and orbital phase of Earth and Earth-like planets of various imagined types. The difference in polarized reflectances of Earth-like planets may increase greatly the detectability of such planets in the glare of their host star. Finally, sea-surface glints potentially may provide a practical means to map the boundaries between oceans and continents on extrasolar planets.

  11. Emergence of two types of terrestrial planet on solidification of magma ocean.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Keiko; Abe, Yutaka; Genda, Hidenori

    2013-05-30

    Understanding the origins of the diversity in terrestrial planets is a fundamental goal in Earth and planetary sciences. In the Solar System, Venus has a similar size and bulk composition to those of Earth, but it lacks water. Because a richer variety of exoplanets is expected to be discovered, prediction of their atmospheres and surface environments requires a general framework for planetary evolution. Here we show that terrestrial planets can be divided into two distinct types on the basis of their evolutionary history during solidification from the initially hot molten state expected from the standard formation model. Even if, apart from their orbits, they were identical just after formation, the solidified planets can have different characteristics. A type?I planet, which is formed beyond a certain critical distance from the host star, solidifies within several million years. If the planet acquires water during formation, most of this water is retained and forms the earliest oceans. In contrast, on a type?II planet, which is formed inside the critical distance, a magma ocean can be sustained for longer, even with a larger initial amount of water. Its duration could be as long as 100 million years if the planet is formed together with a mass of water comparable to the total inventory of the modern Earth. Hydrodynamic escape desiccates type?II planets during the slow solidification process. Although Earth is categorized as type?I, it is not clear which type Venus is because its orbital distance is close to the critical distance. However, because the dryness of the surface and mantle predicted for type?II planets is consistent with the characteristics of Venus, it may be representative of type?II planets. Also, future observations may have a chance to detect not only terrestrial exoplanets covered with water ocean but also those covered with magma ocean around a young star. PMID:23719462

  12. On the Origins of Atmospheres and Oceans on Rocky Planets (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    The earliest atmospheres of terrestrial planets are likely a combination of degassing of their own material with captured nebular gases. Degassing occurs during giant accretionary impacts and solidification of impact-induced melt. Observations from our solar system indicate that accreting materials have sufficient volatiles to build dense atmospheres and oceans and also to populate the planetary interior with volatiles for later degassing through volcanism. Many questions remain about the efficiency of degassing magma oceans, the degree to which later impacts remove atmospheres and oceans, and the speed at which cooling steam atmospheres collapse into oceans and thus elude stripping by the energetic young star. Atmospheric stripping is an especially current topic: How much distance from the star, planetary mass, and the possibility of a magnetic dynamo protect the early atmosphere from stripping? Nonetheless, compositional data from meteorites and comets indicate that our planets obtained their water from rocky accreting materials, and observations from missions indicate that accretionary impacts do not entirely remove volatiles. The low initial water contents required to produce oceans (as little as a few hundred ppm water) indicate that rocky planets may be generally expected to produce water oceans through degassing, and that an Earth-sized planet would cool to clement conditions in just a few to tens of millions of years. Thus, rocky planets are likely to accrete with sufficient water to form early oceans. Though this first atmosphere is subsequently changed and depleted past recognition, it may also have played an important role in determining the planet's surface and habitability. Later atmospheres and oceans will inevitably comprise some combination of the volatiles degassed during accretion and cooling, volatiles delivered during the tail of accretion, and volatiles released from later volcanism.

  13. Mass–radius curve for extrasolar Earth-like planets and ocean planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sotin; O. Grasset; A. Mocquet

    2007-01-01

    By comparison with the Earth-like planets and the large icy satellites of the Solar System, one can model the internal structure of extrasolar planets. The input parameters are the composition of the star (Fe\\/Si and Mg\\/Si), the Mg content of the mantle (Mg#=Mg\\/[Mg+Fe]), the amount of H2O and the total mass of the planet. Equation of State (EoS) of the

  14. An observational signature of evolved oceans on extra-solar terrestrial planets

    E-print Network

    Jura, M

    2004-01-01

    The increase in luminosity with time of a main sequence star eventually can lead to substantial evaporation of the oceans on an orbiting terrestrial planet. Subsequently, the gas phase water in the planet's upper atmosphere can be photodissociated by stellar ultraviolet and the resulting atomic hydrogen then may be lost in a wind. This gaseous envelope may pass in front of the host star and produce tansient, detectable ultraviolet absorption in the Lyman lines in systems older than 1 Gyr.

  15. An observational signature of evolved oceans on extra-solar terrestrial planets

    E-print Network

    M. Jura

    2004-02-25

    The increase in luminosity with time of a main sequence star eventually can lead to substantial evaporation of the oceans on an orbiting terrestrial planet. Subsequently, the gas phase water in the planet's upper atmosphere can be photodissociated by stellar ultraviolet and the resulting atomic hydrogen then may be lost in a wind. This gaseous envelope may pass in front of the host star and produce tansient, detectable ultraviolet absorption in the Lyman lines in systems older than 1 Gyr.

  16. Detecting the Glint of Starlight on the Oceans of Distant Planets

    E-print Network

    D. M. Williams; E. Gaidos

    2008-01-11

    We propose that astronomers will be eventually be able to discriminate between extrasolar Earth-like planets with surface oceans and those without using the shape of phase light curves in the visible and near-IR spectrum. We model the visible light curves of planets having Earth-like surfaces, seasons, and optically-thin atmospheres with idealized diffuse-scattering clouds. We show that planets partially covered by water will appear measurably brighter near crescent phase (relative to Lambertian planets) because of the efficient specular reflection (i.e., glint) of starlight incident on their surfaces at a highly oblique angle. Planets on orbits within 30 degrees of edge-on orientation (half of all planets) will show pronounced glint over a sizeable range of orbital longitudes, from quadrature to crescent, all outside the glare of their parent stars. Also, water-covered planets will appear darker than a Lambertian disk near full illumination. Finally, we show that planets with a mixed land/water surface will polarize the reflected signal by as much as 30-70 percent. These results suggest several new ways of directly identifying water on distant planets.

  17. Moments of probable seas: statistical dynamics of Planet Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Greg

    The ocean is too big. From the scale of planetary radius to scales of turbulent microstructure, the range of length scales is 109. Likewise for time scales. Classical geophysical fluid dynamics does not have an apparatus for dealing with such complexity, while `brute force' computing on the most powerful supercomputers, extant or presently foreseen, barely scratches this complexity. Yet the everywhere-swirling-churning ocean interacts unpredictably in climate history and climate future - against which we attempt to devise planetary stewardship. Can we better take into account the unpredictability of oceans to improve upon present ocean/climate forecasting? What to do? First, recognize that our goal is to comprehend probabilities of possible oceans. Questions we would ask are posed as moments (expectations). Then the dynamical goal is clear: we seek equations of motion of moments of probable oceans. Classical fluid mechanics offers part of the answer but fails to recognize statistical dynamical aspects (missing the arrow of time as past==>future). At probabilities of oceans, the missing physics emerges: moments are forced by gradients of entropy with respect to moments. Time regains its arrow, and first (simplest) approximations to entropy-gradient forces enhance the fidelity of ocean theories and practical models.

  18. The persistence of oceans on Earth-like planets: insights from the deep-water cycle

    E-print Network

    Schaefer, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a series of models for the deep water cycle on super-Earths experiencing plate tectonics. The deep water cycle can be modeled through parameterized convection models coupled with a volatile recycling model. The convection of the silicate mantle is linked to the volatile cycle through the water-dependent viscosity. Important differences in surface water content are found for different parameterizations of convection. Surface oceans are smaller and more persistent for single layer convection, rather than convection by boundary layer instability. Smaller planets have initially larger oceans but also return that water to the mantle more rapidly than larger planets. Super-Earths may therefore be less habitable in their early years than smaller planets, but their habitability (assuming stable surface conditions), will persist much longer.

  19. The Blue Planet: Seas & Oceans. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beauregard, Diane Costa

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, facinate them and educate them, this volume explores the physical and environmental characteristics of the world's oceans. Topics are: (1) human exploration; (2) the food chain; (3) coral reefs; (4) currents and tides; (5) waves; (6)…

  20. Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Anderson

    2011-04-07

    What planets are in our solar system? Today, we are going to learn about the eight planets in our solar system. While learning, we're going to try to answer the question: What planets are in our solar system? Use this Planet Organizer to fill in information about the solar system that you learn on your journey! First, we're going to find ...

  1. An observational signature of evolved oceans on extra-solar terrestrial planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jura

    2004-01-01

    The increase in luminosity with time of a main sequence star eventually can\\u000alead to substantial evaporation of the oceans on an orbiting terrestrial\\u000aplanet. Subsequently, the gas phase water in the planet's upper atmosphere can\\u000abe photodissociated by stellar ultraviolet and the resulting atomic hydrogen\\u000athen may be lost in a wind. This gaseous envelope may pass in front

  2. Ocean-bearing planets near the ice line: How far does the water's edge go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidos, E.; Seager, S.; Gaudi, S.

    2008-12-01

    A leading theory for giant planet formation involves the accretion of a solid core, probably ice-rich, that in turn accretes a massive mantle of hydrogen-helium gas from a primordial disk. The relative timing of core formation and disappearance of nebular gas in a few millions of years is critical; the correlation between heavy element abundance in stellar photospheres and their propensity to host giant planets is cited as support for the theory. Conversely, systems that are relatively heavy element-poor or lose their gas earlier should contain either "failed" cores or a set of icy planetary embryos that did not accrete. Indeed, Uranus and Neptune may represent similar embryos that were scattered by Jupiter into the outer disk where they efficiently accreted planetesimals rich in volatiles with low condensation temperatures. We propose that a region straddling the "snowline" (3-5~AU for solar-mass stars) could frequently be inhabited by one or more water ice-rich, super-Earth-mass objects that accreted only a modest amount of nebular gas. We predict that metal-poor bulge and halo stars are more likely to host such objects. Current and future microlensing surveys will be able to determine the population of Earth-mass planets in this range of semimajor axes and test this hypothesis. If they are sufficiently frequent, the nearest examples will be detectable by the Space Interferometer Mission and perhaps a visible-light Terrestrial Planet Finder mission. We show that retention of a ~1~bar hydrogen-helium atmosphere is sufficient to maintain a surface water ocean, depending on semimajor axis and thermal history, and that sufficiently massive, "naked" ice planets can have interior oceans a la Europa. Planets with more substantial (>200~bar) atmospheres will be devoid of a liquid water phase at the surface. The existence of a surface water ocean could be inferred by the absence of highly soluble molecules such as NH3 or SO2 in the atmosphere. Objects with such oceans, although outside the conventional habitable zone, could nevertheless conceivably support life.

  3. Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    bhanks

    2006-11-02

    The purpose of this project is to gather information and learn interesting facts about the planets in our solar sytem to complete a research project for Mrs. Hutchinson\\'s class. Begin by taking a quiz to measure your knowledge. Click this link for information and quiz. Quiz Next, you will choose two of the following sites and search for information on the planets in our solar system. Fill in the questions on your work sheet as you go to each site. Factmonster Planets Kids Astronomy 9 planets for kids Windows to the Universe Just for ...

  4. Comment on “Effective thermal expansivity of Maxwellian oceanic lithosphere” by Jun Korenaga, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 257, 343 349, 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Henry N.

    2008-11-01

    Korenaga [Korenaga, J. Effective thermal expansivity of Maxwellian ocean lithosphere. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 257 (2007) 343-349], apparently unaware of Pollack [Pollack, H.N. On the use of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient in models of ocean floor topography. Tectonophysics 64 (1980) T45-47], has confirmed Pollack's essential result: the apparent volumetric thermal expansivity of oceanic lithosphere is less than the intrinsic value indicated by mineral physics data and less than the value suggested by models in which oceanic lithosphere is treated as a fully relaxed fluid.

  5. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: PLANETS, VOL. 118, 11551176, doi:10.1002/jgre.20068, 2013 Thermal evolution of an early magma ocean in interaction with

    E-print Network

    Brandeis, Geneviève

    be virtually infinite for an Earth-sized planet located at less than 0.66 AU from the Sun. Using a more evolution of an early magma ocean in interaction with the atmosphere T. Lebrun,1 H. Massol,1 E. Chassefière volatile inventories, the initial depth of the magma ocean, and the Sun-planet distance. Our results

  6. The Outer Planets/Solar Probe Project: "Between an ocean, a rock, and a hot place".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddock, R. W.; Clark, K. B.; Henry, C. A.; Hoffman, P. J.

    As part of NASA's Origins program, the Outer Planets/Solar Probe Project was established in early 1998. This flight project is composed of three challenging and exciting missions which span the far reaches of the solar system. Europa Orbiter, with a planned launch in November of 2003, will travel to Jupiter's moon, Europa, in search of a subsurface liquid water ocean which, if found, could provide a possible environment for the evolution of extraterrestrial life. Pluto-Kuiper Express, with a planned launch in December 2004, will travel to the last planet of the solar system yet to be visited and studied by a robotic spacecraft, and possibly continue on an extended mission to study the remnants from the creation of the solar system found within the Kuiper Belt. Solar Probe, with a planned launch in February 2007, will travel into the heart of the solar system, at three solar radii from the "surface" of the Sun, to study the structure of the corona as well as the source and mechanisms for the creation and acceleration of the Solar Wind. In order to ensure success of each of these missions, under stringent mass, power, and cost constraints, the Outer Planets/Solar Probe Project will rely heavily on several new technologies. Many of these technologies are currently being developed by the Deep Space System Technology Program's First Delivery Project (otherwise known as X2000). This paper summarizes each of the Outer Planet/Solar Probe missions, including the science objectives, mission description, and current spacecraft concepts. The commonalities between these three missions and their reliance on the X2000 project, as well as the mission specific technology developments required for each mission, are also discussed.

  7. Oceanic Communities in a Changing Planet - The Tara Oceans Project (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Raes, Jeroen [University of Brussels

    2011-04-28

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Jeroen Raes of the University of Brussels discusses the Tara-Oceans expedition at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

  8. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haser, Fritz; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the 2002 Winter Olympic Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes and "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science and on National and International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam and zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds. data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite.

  9. Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans Electronic-Theater 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Fredericton New Brunswick. Drop in on the Kennedy Space Center and Park City Utah, site of the 2002 Olympics using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and International global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & tornadoes. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA and Canadian remote sensing missions like Terra GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, and Radarsat that are visualized & explained. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science in cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC. See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images eg Landsat tours of the US, Africa, & New Zealand showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Onyx II Graphics Supercomputer with four CPUs, 8 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte of disk. With multiple projectors on a giant screen. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite.

  10. Ocean Planet or Thick Atmosphere: On the Mass-Radius Relationship for Solid Exoplanets with Massive Atmospheres

    E-print Network

    E. R. Adams; S. Seager; L. Elkins-Tanton

    2007-10-25

    The bulk composition of an exoplanet is commonly inferred from its average density. For small planets, however, the average density is not unique within the range of compositions. Variations of a number of important planetary parameters--which are difficult or impossible to constrain from measurements alone--produce planets with the same average densities but widely varying bulk compositions. We find that adding a gas envelope equivalent to 0.1%-10% of the mass of a solid planet causes the radius to increase 5-60% above its gas-free value. A planet with a given mass and radius might have substantial water ice content (a so-called ocean planet) or alternatively a large rocky-iron core and some H and/or He. For example, a wide variety of compositions can explain the observed radius of GJ 436b, although all models require some H/He. We conclude that the identification of water worlds based on the mass-radius relationship alone is impossible unless a significant gas layer can be ruled out by other means.

  11. NDSEG Essay 1 (transit)/ Ryan Yamada / Advisor: James P. Lloyd The search for extrasolar planets has been popular, prolific, and a driver of

    E-print Network

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    NDSEG Essay 1 (transit)/ Ryan Yamada / Advisor: James P. Lloyd The search for extrasolar planets extrasolar planets were found with optical radial velocity (RV) surveys; however, these surveys select goal of observing in infrared wavelengths to detect Earth-like extrasolar planets around the untouched

  12. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the Olympic Medals Plaza, the new Gateway Center, and the University of Utah Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through the Park City, and Snow Basin sites of the 2002 Winter Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. See the four seasons of the Wasatch Front as observed by Landsat 7 at 15m resolution and watch the trees turn color in the Fall, snow come and go in the mountains and the reservoirs freeze and melt. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies Including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers Of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software. tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vertexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tin) algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and biomass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Octane Graphics Supercomputer with two CPUs, 4 Gigabytes of RAM and 0.5 Terabyte of disk using two projectors across a super sized panoramic 48 foot screen. In addition new HDTV technology will be demonstrated from a portable computer server.

  13. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the Olympic Medals Plaza, the new Gateway Center, and the University of Utah Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through the Park City, and Snow Basin sites of the 2002 Winter Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. See the four seasons of the Wasatch Front as observed by Landsat 7 at 15m resolution and watch the trees turn color in the Fall, snow come and go in the mountains and the reservoirs freeze and melt. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Octane Graphics Supercomputer with two CPUs, 4 Gigabytes of RAM and 0.5 Terabyte of disk using two projectors across a super sized panoramic 48 foot screen. In addition new HDTV technology will be demonstrated from a portable computer server.

  14. Electronic-Theater 2001: Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Authur; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Wisconsin, Madison and the Monona Terrace Center. Drop in on the Kennedy Space Center and Park City Utah, site of the 2002 Olympics using I m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s pioneered by UW. Scientists and see them contrasted with the latest US and International global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & tornadoes. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 that are visualized & explained. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science in cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC. See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images eg Landsat tours of the US, Africa, & New Zealand showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See vortices and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nina/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Onyx 11 Graphics Supercomputer with four CPUs, 8 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte of disk. With five projectors on a giant IMAX sized 18 x 72 ft screen. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "nightvision" DMSP military satellite.

  15. What makes a planet habitable ?

    E-print Network

    Guyon, Olivier

    , but WILL "freeze away" with time When is a planet habitable ? #12;Water... Mars & Venus lost their oceans H2OWhat makes a planet habitable ? #12;#12;How to detect planets ? #12;Radial velocity #12;Transits Planet moves in front of star -> star gets dimmer · Planet size · Planet orbit · Large atmosphere ? #12

  16. The Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project: “Between an ocean, a rock, and a hot place”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Maddock; Karla B. Clark; Curt A. Henry; Pamela J. Hoffman

    1999-01-01

    As part of NASA's Origins program, the Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project (formerly known as the Ice and Fire Preprojects) was established in early 1998. This flight project is composed of three challenging and exciting missions which span the far reaches of the solar system. Europa Orbiter, with a planned launch in November of 2003, will travel to Jupiter's moon, Europa,

  17. Earth is a dynamic, living oasis in the desolation of space. The land, oceans, and air interact in complex ways to give our planet a unique set

    E-print Network

    Earth is a dynamic, living oasis in the desolation of space. The land, oceans, and air interact in this process. In the mid 1980s, NASA developed a systems-based approach to studying the Earth and called it "Earth System Science" to advance the knowledge of Earth as a planet. Space-based observations

  18. THE ORBITAL PHASES AND SECONDARY TRANSITS OF KEPLER-10b. A PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION BASED ON THE LAVA-OCEAN PLANET MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Rouan, D. [LESIA, UMR 8109 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, UVSQ, Universite Paris-Diderot, 5 pl. J. Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Deeg, H. J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Demangeon, O.; Samuel, B.; Cavarroc, C.; Leger, A. [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris-Sud, bat 121, F-91405 Orsay (France); Fegley, B., E-mail: daniel.rouan@obspm.fr [Planetary Chemistry Laboratory, McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2011-11-10

    The Kepler mission has made an important observation: the first detection of photons from a terrestrial planet by observing its phase curve (Kepler-10b). This opens a new field in exoplanet science: the possibility of obtaining information about the atmosphere and surface of rocky planets, objects of prime interest. In this Letter, we apply the Lava-ocean model to interpret the observed phase curve. The model, a planet without atmosphere and a surface partially made of molten rocks, has been proposed for planets of the class of CoRoT-7b, i.e., rocky planets very close to their star (at a few stellar radii). Kepler-10b is a typical member of this family. It predicts that the light from the planet has an important emission component in addition to the reflected one, even in the Kepler spectral band. Assuming an isotropical reflection of light by the planetary surface (Lambertian-like approximation), we find that a Bond albedo of {approx}50% can account for the observed amplitude of the phase curve, as opposed to a first attempt where an unusually high value was found. We propose a physical process to explain this still large value of the albedo. The overall interpretation can be tested in the future with instruments such as the James Webb Space Telescope or the Exoplanet Characterization Observatory. Our model predicts a spectral dependence that is clearly distinguishable from that of purely reflected light and from that of a planet at a uniform temperature.

  19. The effects of cloud radiative forcing on an ocean-covered planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Cumulus anvil clouds, whose importance has been emphasized by observationalists in recent years, exert a very powerful influence on deep tropical convection by tending to radiatively destabilize the troposphere. In addition, they radiatively warm the column in which they reside. Their strong influence on the simulated climate argues for a much more refined parameterization in the General Circulation Model (GCM). For Seaworld, the atmospheric cloud radiative forcing (ACRF) has a powerful influence on such basic climate parameters as the strength of the Hadley circulation, the existence of a single narrow InterTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the precipitable water content of the atmosphere. It seems likely, however, that in the real world the surface CRF feeds back negatively to suppress moist convection and the associated cloudiness, and so tends to counteract the effects of the ACRF. Many current climate models have fixed sea surface temperatures but variable land-surface temperatures. The tropical circulations of such models may experience a position feedback due to ACRF over the oceans, and a negative or weak feedback due to surface CRF over the land. The overall effects of the CRF on the climate system can only be firmly established through much further analysis, which can benefit greatly from the use of a coupled ocean-atmospheric model.

  20. The Polar Ocean in a Warming Planet: Understanding for managing a unique resource of the Humankind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzolini, R.; Campus, P.; Weber, J.

    2012-04-01

    There is no doubt that changes in the Polar Regions are of great significance at the global level, such as having far-reaching effects on atmospheric and ocean circulation. Changes in ocean currents, temperature conditions, ice cover and reduction of permafrost regions are having impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic Regions of Europe and Northern Hemisphere. Human activity is putting pressure on the environment in these regions; maritime transport between Europe and Asia through the northern sea route and accessibility conditions to hidden Arctic resources as well as new technologies of exploitation will have a significant impact on the marine environment, on the living resources and on the regional social organization and needs. There are still unresolved issues related to national claims on continental shelf and sea areas that involve international law; in these respects science can provide crucial elements for supporting political agreements. Such scenarios will present new opportunities for economic activities, but also risks which will result in new demands for marine management, monitoring systems, emergency response systems, search and rescue services as well as closer international cooperation. It will also require the development of an international regime based on the improvement of the present regulations on exploration, accessibility, exploitation and liability. Dialogue and international agreements based on scientific evidences and foresight are key elements for finding solutions. On the opposite hemisphere, the ocean surrounding Antarctica plays a primary role in all global climatic processes, through the annual sea ice evolution, the circum-Antarctic circulation driving the exchange of heat between low and high latitudes and the atmospheric circulation, through the density bottom currents that affect the global Thermohaline circulation (THC), and the biogeochemical cycles that have peculiar characteristics in the icy Antarctic waters. Besides this, the marine living resources and the reservoirs of energy and bio-chemical resources (e.g. gas hydrates, bio-prospecting) have a growing strategic importance in the global economy. The Antarctic Ocean, due to its isolation and extreme climatic conditions, has always been an area of international cooperation and technological challenges in support of scientific progress. In this scenario, the rapid environmental changes and the need of humankind for new and alternative reservoirs of food and energy to be exploited play a crucial role in understanding and managing the Polar oceans. The newly emerging opportunities and associated emerging threats for Arctic people increase the number of policy areas in which EU involvement is relevant and necessary. In order to gain insight into the this complex scenario and into the needs in terms of research programmes and infrastructures, policy and education to manage it, the European Polar Board launched an initiative in Polar marine science. The ESF/EPB marine initiative is intended to focus on various aspect of the Polar marine environment and to indicate a strategy focused on innovative scientific and technological topics, capable of combining together different research capacities as well as political, economic and strategic objectives, toward goals of economic and social interest. Therefore, it is based on a wide and multidisciplinary participation.

  1. Ocean Planet: Sea Connections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of a set of multidisciplinary lesson plans from the Smithsonian, this lesson plan examines the marine environment and how human activities can upset the delicate balance. Includes downloadable student activities, and tips on engaging students. Background material and most of the materials are provided. The "Resources" link provides an abundance of additional information, in the form of links and books, for each lesson.

  2. The Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Rindlisbacher

    2006-10-04

    The students will learn about the planets and about their attributes. What do they need to support human life? What are the names of the planets in the solar system? The Nine Planets What are the physical properties of each planet? The Solar System - Pictures of the planets Now you can make your own planet! Make Your Own Planet ...

  3. Blue Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site is a companion to the Discovery Channel/ BBC television series Blue Planet: Seas of Life. The Web site includes images, games, and expeditions all related to oceanography and marine biology. One feature that is particularly interesting is Ocean Alert, an interactive, current events feature where users can identify the topics that most interest them. News headlines, with links to more complete stories, are organized into twelve topics; users select the topics and area of the world of interest from a rotating map. This site is fun to use and informative, and users may appreciate the options to explore only as in-depth as they choose.

  4. JournalofGeophysicalResearch: Planets RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Shijie

    magma ocean solidification, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 119, doi:10.1002/2013JE004496. Received 4 AUG 2013 immediately following magma ocean solidification A. Scheinberg1 , L. T. Elkins-Tanton2,1 , and S. J. Zhong3 1 of accretion in terrestrial planets is expected to create liquid silicate magma oceans. Their solidification

  5. Ocean Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  6. Extrasolar Planets! Solar System Planets!

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Richard

    Extrasolar Planets! #12;Solar System Planets! #12;Small, rocky planets on the inside Large, gas-giant and ice-giant planets on the outside ! #12;Relative sizes of Solar System planets! #12;Relative sizes of Sun and planets The Sun is ~ 1000 times more massive than Jupiter Jupiter is ~ 300 times more massive

  7. Take a Planet Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Dwight

    2008-01-01

    Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create an…

  8. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic-Theater 2002. Spectacular Visualizations of our Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spectacular Visualizations of our Blue Marble The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the 2002 Winter Olympic Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC). See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vertexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nicola Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and biomass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite.

  9. Defining popular iconic metaphor.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings. PMID:12061600

  10. Role of the Midlatitude Oceanic Front in the Ozone-induced Climate Change in the Southern Hemisphere as Revealed in Aqua Planet Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Fumiaki; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Nishii, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Hisashi; Keenlyside, Noel

    2015-04-01

    The Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) is the dominant mode of low-frequency atmospheric variability in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere, exerting substantial climatic impacts on extensive regions. A decadal trend of SAM observed in the troposphere during the late 20th century is considered to be related to the intensification of the stratospheric polar vortex induced by the ozone depletion. Known as a manifestation of meridional displacements of the eddy-driven polar-front jet (PFJ) and associated storm-track, the tropospheric SAM and its trend may be sensitive to the near-surface baroclinicity associated with the midlatitude oceanic frontal zone. In the present study, aqua-planet experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model are conducted by prescribing two different latitudinal profiles of zonally symmetric sea-surface temperature (SST) with and without frontal gradient in midlatitudes. A comparison of the tropospheric response to the assigned stratospheric ozone depletion between the two SST profiles reveals critical importance of the frontal SST gradient for translating the direct response of the stratospheric polar vortex to the ozone depletion down to the surface by enhancing the SAM variability and allowing the SAM its deep structure into the stratosphere in late spring through early summer.

  11. Popular Education in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magendzo, Salomon; Vaccaro, Liliana

    1990-01-01

    Two articles ("Popular Education in Nongovernmental Organizations" by Magendzo and "Transference and Appropriation in Popular Education Interventions" by Vaccaro) provide a view of the Interdisciplinary Program for Research in Education's role as an organization sponsoring popular education programs and research in Chile and focus on one such…

  12. Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Butler

    2003-01-01

    None of the roughly one hundred hundred extrasolar planets found to date closely resembles the Solar System. Unlike the Solar System, most extrasolar planets are in eccentric orbits. The giant planets in the Solar System all orbit beyond 5 AU, while the known extrasolar planets (with one exception) all orbit within 4 AU, with several in extraordinarily small orbits with

  13. Take a Planet Walk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dwight Schuster

    2008-09-01

    Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create an environment where students generate questions based on their prior knowledge; and challenge students to think critically about the accuracy and limitations of a scale model of our solar system.

  14. Planet migration

    E-print Network

    Edward W. Thommes; Jack J. Lissauer

    2002-09-19

    A planetary system may undergo significant radial rearrangement during the early part of its lifetime. Planet migration can come about through interaction with the surrounding planetesimal disk and the gas disk--while the latter is still present--as well as through planet-planet interactions. We review the major proposed migration mechanisms in the context of the planet formation process, in our Solar System as well as in others.

  15. Extrasolar planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. C. Perryman

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of the first extra-solar planet surrounding a main-sequence star was announced in 1995, based on very precise radial velocity (Doppler) measurements. A total of 34 such planets were known by the end of March 2000, and their numbers are growing steadily. The newly discovered systems confirm some of the features predicted by standard theories of star and planet

  16. Microlensing Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets, B. Scott Gaudi, IAS Scientific Frontiers in Research on Extrasolar Planets, June 19, 2002 #12;Microlensing and PlanetsMicrolensing and Planets Microlensing Searches

  17. CompletePlanet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CompletePlanet concerns itself with the "deep" Web, "content that resides in searchable databases, the results from which can only be discovered by a direct query," and thus cannot be indexed or queried by traditional search engines. The site offers a number of resources related to the "deep" Web, including a listing of approximately 13,000 "deep" Websites (out of an estimated 100,000 total) organized in 20 subject categories. Each category breaks down into numerous topical headings, and listings for the individual sites include a description and rankings for relevance, popularity, and links. CompletePlanet's database is also keyword searchable. The site notes both new additions and the most popular sites and offers a detailed search tutorial. Users who would like to learn more about the "deep" Web are invited to read CompletePlanet's 41-page white paper, "The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value," offered in HTML, .pdf, and .zip formats. Users can also download a free 30-day trial version of a new utility (Lexibot) that can search the "deep" Web. The registered version costs $89.95.

  18. Primordial Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Rudolph E.; Gibson, Carl H.

    Recent spacecraft observations exploring solar system properties impact standard paradigms of the formation of stars, planets and comets. We stress the unexpected cloud of microscopic dust resulting from the DEEP IMPACT mission, and the existence of molten nodules in STARDUST samples. And the theory of star formation does not explain the common occurrence of binary and multiple star systems in the standard gas fragmentation scenario. No current theory of planet formation can explain the iron core of the earth, under oceans of water. These difficulties are avoided in a scenario where the planet mass objects form primordially and are today the baryonic dark matter. They have been detected in quasar microlensing and anomalous quasar radio brightening bursts. The primordial planets often concentrate together to form a star, with residual matter seen in pre-stellar accretion discs around the youngest stars. These primordial planet mass bodies were formed of hydrogen-helium, aggregated in dense clumps of a trillion at the time of plasma neutralization 380,000 years after the big bang. Most have been frozen and invisible, but are now manifesting themselves in numerous ways as sensitive modern space telescopes become operational. Their key detection signature is their thermal emission spectrum, pegged at the 13.8 degrees Kelvin triple point of hydrogen, the baryonic dark matter (Staplefeldt et al. 1999).

  19. Conditions for oceans on Earth-like planets orbiting within the habitable zone: importance of volcanic CO{sub 2} degassing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadoya, S. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Kiban Bldg. 408, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Tajika, E., E-mail: kadoya@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tajika@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Kiban Bldg. 409, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    Earth-like planets in the habitable zone (HZ) have been considered to have warm climates and liquid water on their surfaces if the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working as on Earth. However, it is known that even the present Earth may be globally ice-covered when the rate of CO{sub 2} degassing via volcanism becomes low. Here we discuss the climates of Earth-like planets in which the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working, with focusing particularly on insolation and the CO{sub 2} degassing rate. The climate of Earth-like planets within the HZ can be classified into three climate modes (hot, warm, and snowball climate modes). We found that the conditions for the existence of liquid water should be largely restricted even when the planet is orbiting within the HZ and the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working. We show that these conditions should depend strongly on the rate of CO{sub 2} degassing via volcanism. It is, therefore, suggested that thermal evolution of the planetary interiors will be a controlling factor for Earth-like planets to have liquid water on their surface.

  20. The Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tool allows users to find when planets are visible in a given year. The years covered by this site are 1900 to 2100. The positions given are for the 1st of the month, at 9 pm, and generally hold true for the entire month. Positions are noted by which constellation the planet is located in. The planets given are Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, and Pluto. Additional comments for Venus and Mars note their location and viewing times.

  1. Planet X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A name given to a hypothetical tenth major planet once believed to exist in the outer solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune. The `X', which stood for `unknown', was also appropriate as the roman numeral for `ten'. The label `Planet X' was originated by Percival Lowell. From the late nineteenth century, he and others, including William H Pickering, worked out orbits for a large tenth planet wh...

  2. Mystery Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-03

    This activity is about the study of planetary samples. Learners will use samples of crustal material to sort, classify, and make observations about an unknown planet. From their observations, students will interpret the geologic history of their mystery planet and make inferences about past life or the potential for life on the "Mystery" planet. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

  3. Determinants of Meme Popularity

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, James P; Baños, Raquel A; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-01-01

    Online social media have greatly affected the way in which we communicate with each other. However, little is known about what are the fundamental mechanisms driving dynamical information flow in online social systems. Here, we introduce a generative model for online sharing behavior and analytically show, using techniques from mathematical population genetics, that competition between memes for the limited resource of user attention leads to a type of self-organized criticality, with heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity: a few memes "go viral" but the majority become only moderately popular. The time-dependent solutions of the model are shown to fit empirical micro-blogging data on hashtag usage, and to predict novel scaling features of the data. The presented framework, in contrast to purely empirical studies or simulation-based models, clearly distinguishes the roles of two distinct factors affecting meme popularity: the memory time of users and the connectivity structure of the social network.

  4. Extreme Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the pulsar planet system discovered by Aleksander Wolszczan in 1992. Wolszczan used the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico to find three planets - the first of any kind ever found outside our solar system - circling a pulsar called PSR B1257+12. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars, which are the collapsed cores of exploded massive stars. They spin and pulse with radiation, much like a lighthouse beacon. Here, the pulsar's twisted magnetic fields are highlighted by the blue glow.

    All three pulsar planets are shown in this picture; the farthest two from the pulsar (closest in this view) are about the size of Earth. Radiation from charged pulsar particles would probably rain down on the planets, causing their night skies to light up with auroras similar to our Northern Lights. One such aurora is illustrated on the planet at the bottom of the picture.

    Since this landmark discovery, more than 160 extrasolar planets have been observed around stars that are burning nuclear fuel. The planets spotted by Wolszczan are still the only ones around a dead star. They also might be part of a second generation of planets, the first having been destroyed when their star blew up. The Spitzer Space Telescope's discovery of a dusty disk around a pulsar might represent the beginnings of a similarly 'reborn' planetary system.

  5. Planet X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Murdin

    2000-01-01

    A name given to a hypothetical tenth major planet once believed to exist in the outer solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune. The `X', which stood for `unknown', was also appropriate as the roman numeral for `ten'. The label `Planet X' was originated by Percival Lowell. From the late nineteenth century, he and others, including William H Pickering, worked

  6. Planet formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack J. Lissauer

    1993-01-01

    Models of planetary formation are developed using the present single example of a planetary system, supplemented by limited astrophysical observations of star-forming regions and circumstellar disks. The solar nebula theory and the planetesimal hypothesis are discussed. The latter is found to provide a viable theory of the growth of the terrestrial planets, the cores of the giant planets, and the

  7. Popular Science: Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Popular Science website, posts a range of articles on Science, Technology, History, Philosophy, Arts, and News & Ideas. Links to related books available through Amazon.com are provided at the end of each of the (fairly short) articles. The website also includes information on the Nobel Prize, including a list of all the Nobel Prize winners through 2001.

  8. Television: Polysemy and popularity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Fiske

    1986-01-01

    This essay argues that the television audience is composed of a wide variety of groups or subcultures, and that in order to be popular a television program must be polysemic so that different subcultures can find in it different meanings that correspond to their differing social relations. The dominant ideology is structured into the text as into the social system,

  9. Random popular matchings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Mahdian

    2006-01-01

    We consider matching markets where a centralized authority must find a matching between the agents on one side of the market, and the items on the other side. Such settings occur, for example, in mail-based DVD rental services such as NetFlix or in some job markets. The objective is to find a popular matching, or a matching that is preferred

  10. Popularity structure in friendship networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingegerd Jansson

    2000-01-01

    A model of popularity structure in social networks is introduced where popularity is viewed as a latent attribute of the individuals in the network. The group of individuals is assumed to have a latent popularity structure, composed of individuals from different popularity groups. An individual is assumed to choose other individuals within its own group or within groups of more

  11. Tomorrow's Forecast: Oceans and Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigielski, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on weather and climate and is tied to the traveling exhibition Ocean Planet from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The lessons encourage students to think about the profound influence the oceans have on planetary climate and life on earth. Sections of the lesson plan include: (1) "Ocean

  12. Planet Pals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gorgone, Judith.

    Created by designer, illustrator, and educator Judith Ann Gorgone, the Planet Pals Web site provides good material for young kids related to the health of the planet. The colorful pages contain basic information about the earth, energy, recycling, water conservation, pollution, and more. The fun and interactive Meet the Planet Pals area is especially interesting, where kids can listen to animated cartoons talk about various aspects of conservation. Even though the site is geared towards young children, they may have difficulty finding the educational specific pages by themselves; so, a parent's or teacher's assistance would most likely be helpful.

  13. Planet Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Quinn

    2005-01-01

    Motivating the study of planet formation is not difficult for any curious audience. One of the fundamental human questions\\u000a is that of origins: “where did I come from?„. Breaking this down into constituents produces a series of questions. How did\\u000a the Universe begin? How did stars form? How did planets form? How did life begin? How did intelligent life develop?

  14. Planet Party

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-26

    Learners and their families are encouraged to go outside on a clear evening and view the sky to see the planets for themselves. Using sky charts and other resources, and possibly in partnership with a local astronomical society, children navigate the night sky and view planets with the naked eye and binoculars or telescopes. This activity is part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

  15. A Planet Detection Tutorial and Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, David; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detection of extra-solar planets has been a very popular topic with the general public for years. Considerable media coverage of recent detections (currently at about 50) has only heightened the interest in the topic. School children are particularly interested in learning about recent astronomical discoveries. Scientists have the knowledge and responsibility to present this information in both an understandable and interesting format. Most classrooms and homes are now connected to the internet, which can be utilized to provide more than a traditional 'flat' presentation. An interactive software package on planet detection has been developed. The major topics include: "1996 - The Break Through Year In Planet Detection"; "What Determines If A Planet Is Habitable?"; "How Can We Find Other Planets (Search Methods)"; "All About the Kepler Mission: How To Find Terrestrial Planets"; and "A Planet Detection Simulator". Using the simulator, the student records simulated observations and then analyzes and interprets the data within the program. One can determine the orbit and planet size, the planet's temperature and surface gravity, and finally determine if the planet is habitable. Originally developed for the Macintosh, a web based browser version is being developed.

  16. Hot Planet - Cold Comfort

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page features videos from the "Hot Planet- Cold Comfort" television episode, related website articles and a student activity. The videos explore how the Gulf Stream conveyor belt may shut down; how Arctic river runoff and Alaskan glacial melt are freshening the oceans; and how ocean sediments and ice cores are being studied to understand the Little Ice Age. The videos total approximately one hour in length. The website articles explore the Little Ice Age; how the Arctic functions as a global thermostat, affecting global weather patterns; and great moments in climate change. The student activity is about light absorbtion. The site also contains a challenge activity to find details in a painting that depict Little Ice Age living conditions.

  17. Popular Education: Building from Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto; Fischman, Gustavo

    1994-01-01

    Two popular education projects--El Refugio de Los Angeles for Latino immigrants and native popular education in Buenos Aires--demonstrate how, while developing literacy skills, participants engaged in political and social analysis of their living conditions. (SK)

  18. Planet Jargon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Moeai

    2007-05-07

    Planet Jargon is a fun way to learn about computer jargon. Students will do research on vocabulary, parts of a computer, history of a computer, as well as interpreting the words through illustrations. Students will create a PowerPoint to show their findings. INTRODUCTION! You have landed on the Planet Jargon. The inhabitants use very strange words to communicate with each other. Some of the words are familiar computer terms to you, but others are completely alien. You will need to discover the meanings of the computer jargon in order to ...

  19. Planet Applet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juergen Giesen

    This Java applet calculates three views of the bright planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) and the Moon. It displays a diagram showing rise and set times over the year, a view at local horizon, and a view of the ecliptic plane.

  20. Planet Surfing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this astronomy activity (page 6 of the PDF), learners will compare and contrast two planets in the solar system using data obtained from the internet. They will convert distances from light years to miles and vice versa. Although this activity was created as a post visit for a workshop about astronomy, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity.

  1. Binary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  2. Popular Algorithms in Remote Claire MacDonald

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Popular Algorithms in Remote Sensing Claire MacDonald College of Earth, Ocean and Environment University of Delaware #12;Introduction ·Remote Sensing data must be converted into physical parameters algorithms ·Results will depend on input and algorithm (Rutgers)(Klemas and Deliberty) #12;Overview Levels

  3. Satisfaction Analysis of Experiential Learning-Based Popular Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzan, Wei-Yuan; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2015-01-01

    This study employed Kolb's experiential learning model-specific experiences, observations of reflections, abstract conceptualization, and experiment-action in activities to serve as the theoretical basis for popular science education planning. It designed the six activity themes of "Knowledge of the Ocean, Easy to Know, See the Large from the…

  4. What makes a planet habitable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammer, H.; Bredehöft, J. H.; Coustenis, A.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Kaltenegger, L.; Grasset, O.; Prieur, D.; Raulin, F.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Yamauchi, M.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Stangl, G.; Cockell, C. S.; Kulikov, Yu. N.; Grenfell, J. L.; Rauer, H.

    2009-06-01

    This work reviews factors which are important for the evolution of habitable Earth-like planets such as the effects of the host star dependent radiation and particle fluxes on the evolution of atmospheres and initial water inventories. We discuss the geodynamical and geophysical environments which are necessary for planets where plate tectonics remain active over geological time scales and for planets which evolve to one-plate planets. The discoveries of methane-ethane surface lakes on Saturn’s large moon Titan, subsurface water oceans or reservoirs inside the moons of Solar System gas giants such as Europa, Ganymede, Titan and Enceladus and more than 335 exoplanets, indicate that the classical definition of the habitable zone concept neglects more exotic habitats and may fail to be adequate for stars which are different from our Sun. A classification of four habitat types is proposed. Class I habitats represent bodies on which stellar and geophysical conditions allow Earth-analog planets to evolve so that complex multi-cellular life forms may originate. Class II habitats includes bodies on which life may evolve but due to stellar and geophysical conditions that are different from the class I habitats, the planets rather evolve toward Venus- or Mars-type worlds where complex life-forms may not develop. Class III habitats are planetary bodies where subsurface water oceans exist which interact directly with a silicate-rich core, while class IV habitats have liquid water layers between two ice layers, or liquids above ice. Furthermore, we discuss from the present viewpoint how life may have originated on early Earth, the possibilities that life may evolve on such Earth-like bodies and how future space missions may discover manifestations of extraterrestrial life.

  5. Lonely Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "Don't worry about whether your trip will work out. Just go!" This is the travel philosophy of Lonely Planet, one of the most respected publishers of off-the-beaten-path travel guidebooks worldwide. Whether you already know where you're going, or are looking for suggestions for your next trip, Lonely Planet's site is packed with information that you can actually use to plan your trip. Search or browse the section "DestiNATIONS" to find maps, facts and figures, and information on local history, culture, and transportation for 8 world regions, over 80 countries, and 20 different cities. Much of the health information found in LP's print guides is also now available here. In addition, there are links to destination-related newsgroups, tips on travel photography, and "Postcards," a forum in which travelers share experiences and give advice.

  6. Planet Oobleck

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2011-01-01

    Learners imagine a world covered in a mysterious substance called Oobleck. Learners make this substance and investigate its properties. Using an online program, they then design a spacecraft that can land on the planet, collect a sample, and return to Earth. A chart shows how their design compares to others' designs. Additionally, learners can build their spacecraft and test it. This activity presents a great engineering extension to other Oobleck-related activities posted elsewhere.

  7. The Ocean Conservancy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

  8. New Dimensions in Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Russel B., Ed.

    This document contains fifteen essays which study some of the didactic, moralistic literature which was popular in nineteenth century America, and speculate about the culture from which the literature evolved. The essays include "Millions of Moral Little Books: Sunday School Books in Their Popular Context"; "Nineteenth Century Gift Books: A…

  9. Rethinking Popular Culture and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

  10. Technology, Sound and Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Steve

    The ability to record sound is power over sound. Musicians, producers, recording engineers, and the popular music audience often refer to the sound of a recording as something distinct from the music it contains. Popular music is primarily mediated via electronics, via sound, and not by means of written notes. The ability to preserve or modify…

  11. Popular Music: An Ongoing Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutietta, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses tendencies to force popular music into existing school music program formats, rather than include it as a form with its own musical integrity and authenticity. Urges music teachers not to dismiss popular music or turn it into elevator music. (CH)

  12. American Civilization--Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol F.

    This syllabus introduces the purposes and organization of a course on Popular Culture as evidence of American civilization offered at Meramec Community College. The guide first presents a rationale for the study of popular culture and then lists course requirements; discusses techniques such as comparative analysis and psychoanalytic investigation…

  13. Make a Planet!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Make your own planet on this website! You can change the color of your planet and add land, water, trees, and weather. You can then name your planet and write a short story about it. For even more fun, compare the planets in our solar system with your planet!

  14. Extreme Planet Makeover

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Institute of Technology

    A multimedia, web-based interactive game from NASA and CalTech scientists lets you create your own planet by varying parameters such as star type, distance from star, planet size, and planet age. You get a descripion of how each parameter might affect habitability on your planet, you can then download the planet you create.

  15. Changing Planet: Fresh Water in the Arctic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    This Changing Planet video documents scientists' concerns regarding how melting Arctic sea ice will increase the amount of fresh water in the Beaufort Gyre, which could spill out into the Atlantic and cause major climate shifts in North America and Western Europe. The video includes interviews with scientists and a look at the basics of how scientists measure salinity in the ocean and how ocean circulation works in the Arctic.

  16. Milstein Hall of Ocean Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, created to complement the Hall of Ocean Life, looks at the cradle of life for our planet, along with its key to our future. It includes an in-depth look at the Hall of Ocean Life's dioramas, an exploration of the ocean's diverse communities and examines some of the ways in which life in water is different from life on land.

  17. Dynamical Outcomes of Planet-Planet Scattering

    E-print Network

    Sourav Chatterjee; Eric B. Ford; Soko Matsumura; Frederic A. Rasio

    2008-05-15

    Observations in the past decade have revealed extrasolar planets with a wide range of orbital semimajor axes and eccentricities. Based on the present understanding of planet formation via core accretion and oligarchic growth, we expect that giant planets often form in closely packed configurations. While the protoplanets are embedded in a protoplanetary gas disk, dissipation can prevent eccentricity growth and suppress instabilities from becoming manifest. However, once the disk dissipates, eccentricities can grow rapidly, leading to close encounters between planets. Strong planet--planet gravitational scattering could produce both high eccentricities and, after tidal circularization, very short-period planets, as observed in the exoplanet population. We present new results for this scenario based on extensive dynamical integrations of systems containing three giant planets, both with and without residual gas disks. We assign the initial planetary masses and orbits in a realistic manner following the core accretion model of planet formation. We show that, with realistic initial conditions, planet--planet scattering can reproduce quite well the observed eccentricity distribution. Our results also make testable predictions for the orbital inclinations of short-period giant planets formed via strong planet scattering followed by tidal circularization.

  18. The Nine Planets: Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This Nine Planets page contains details about the planet Mars. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on the planet, and results from exploration spacecraft. Phobos and Deimos (Mars satellites) are also covered in depth. The site provides links to more images, movies, and facts about Mars and its moons, and discusses unanswered questions about the planet.

  19. One World Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, students learn about ocean currents and the difference between salt and fresh water. They use colored ice cubes to see how cold and warm water mix and how this mixing causes currents. Also, students learn how surface currents occur due to wind streams. Lastly, they learn how fresh water floats on top of salt water, the difference between water in the ocean and fresh water throughout the planet, and how engineers are involved in the design of ocean water systems for human use.

  20. Observations of Extrasolar Planets Enabled by a Return to the Moon

    E-print Network

    P. R. McCullough

    2007-03-13

    Ambitious studies of Earth-like extrasolar planets are outlined in the context of an exploration initiative for a return to the Earth's Moon. Two mechanism for linearly polarizing light reflected from Earth-like planets are discussed: 1) Rayleigh-scattering from a planet's clear atmosphere, and 2) specular reflection from a planet's ocean. Both have physically simple and predictable polarized phase functions. The exoplanetary diurnal variation of the polarized light reflected from a ocean but not from a land surface has the potential to enable reconstruction of the continental boundaries on an Earth-like extrasolar planet. Digressions on the lunar exploration initiative also are presented.

  1. of planetsAstrobiology Biogeocatalysis Research Center

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    . #12;planet p R o f I l e Size 15 Earths Water Everywhere Temperature 15° C or 59° F Surface Water Water Subsurface ocean Temperature -20° C or - 4° F Surface Ice Interior Rocky, volcanically active in freezing water and in small cavities found in ice. These microbes swim using a long, thin tail called

  2. The Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Maddock; K. B. Clark; C. A. Henry; P. J. Hoffman

    1999-01-01

    As part of NASA's Origins program, the Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project was established in early 1998. This flight project is composed of three challenging and exciting missions which span the far reaches of the solar system. Europa Orbiter, with a planned launch in November of 2003, will travel to Jupiter's moon, Europa, in search of a subsurface liquid water ocean

  3. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Armitage, Philip J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)], E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu

    2009-07-10

    We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

  4. Disposable Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    BBC Online presents this six-part special on sustainable development. Created in anticipation of the now concluded Johannesburg Summit, this Web site provides a valuable resource for viewers wishing to learn more about sustainable development and related issues. The Web site consists of an overview and six sections: Population, Food, Cities, Waste, Tourism, and Energy. The sections offer an in-depth look at each topic and include audio clips of related interviews and news stories. The discussion forums are now closed, but visitors may read the occasionally insightful and often times heated comments that have already been posted. View the slide show to get a quick, visceral sense of human impact on the planet -- past, present, and future. Visitors may also take a quiz to calculate their ecological footprint, or how much of the earth's resources they individually consume each year.

  5. The Nine Planets: Pluto

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page of Nine Planets contains details about the planet Pluto. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and information about Pluto's moon, Charon. Unanswered questions are discussed, and links to more images, movies, and facts are provided.

  6. Dance of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    As students continue their monthly plotting of the planets along the ecliptic they should start to notice differences between inner and outer planet orbital motions, and their relative position or separation from the Sun. Both inner and outer planets have direct eastward motion, as well as retrograde motion. Inner planets Mercury and Venus,…

  7. The Nine Planets: Venus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page contains details about the planet Venus. Information includes planet mass, distance from the Sun, diameter, orbit, and mythology. Also covered is planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on the planet, and results of exploration spacecraft. Includes links to images, movies, and additional facts. Discusses unanswered questions about Venus as well.

  8. Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich

    E-print Network

    Heinrich, Mark

    Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich School of EECS University of Central Florida Orlando Ithaca, NY 14853 Email: mainak@csl.cornell.edu Abstract-- Ocean is a popular program from the SPLASH-2 parallel benchmark suite. A complete application, as opposed to a computational kernel, Ocean is often used

  9. Hydrothermal activity Hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges

    E-print Network

    Siebel, Wolfgang

    Drilling Program · Dredging of fracture zone scarps · Ophiolites #12;Oceanic Crust andOceanic Crust of a typical ophiolite sequence, based on theophiolite sequence, based on the Samial Ophiolite in Oman.Samial Ophiolite in Oman. BoudierBoudier and Nicolas (1985) Earthand Nicolas (1985) Earth Planet.Planet. Sci

  10. Magma Ocean Solidification Processes on Vesta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Elkins-Tanton; E. Maroon; M. J. Krawczynski; T. L. Grove

    2008-01-01

    The small size of Vesta creates significant physical differences in magma ocean solidification and overturn from those of a larger planet, and these differences may help explain the compositional paradoxes of eucrites and diogenites.

  11. The Nine Planets: Neptune

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This Nine Planets page contains details about the gas giant planet Neptune and its moons. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and results of spacecraft exploration. Neptune's moons and rings are also detailed, including Nereid, Triton, Proteus, and many others. Unanswered questions about the planet and its moons are covered, and links to more images, movies, and facts are given.

  12. The Nine Planets: Saturn

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page of Nine Planets contains details about the gas giant planet Saturn and its moons. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and results of spacecraft exploration. Saturn's moons and rings are also detailed, including Titan, Iapetus, Tethys, Rhea, Dione, and others. Unanswered questions about the planet are discussed, and links to more images, movies, and facts are given.

  13. Water contents of Earth-mass planets around M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Feng; Ida, Shigeru

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to identify habitable extrasolar planets have focused on systems around M dwarfs, faint stars with less than half the solar mass. Habitable planets around M dwarfs are thought to be more plentiful and easier to detect than those orbiting Sun-like G dwarfs. However, unlike G dwarfs, M dwarfs experience a prolonged decline in luminosity early in their history, leading to an inward migration of the habitable zone to where planets may have lost their water through dissociation and hydrodynamic escape. Water-poor planets, such as Venus, are considered uninhabitable. In contrast, planets with too much water (>1 wt%) would lack continents, leading to climate instability and nutrient limitation problems. Here we combine a numerical planet population synthesis model with a model for water loss to show that the evolution of stellar luminosity leads to two types of planets of Earth-like mass (0.1 to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zones around M dwarfs: ocean planets without continents, and desert planets, on which there are orders of magnitude less surface water than on Earth. According to our simulations, Earth-mass planets with Earth-like water contents are rare around M dwarfs and occur 10-100 times less frequently than around G dwarfs. We suggest that stars close to the size of the Sun should be the primary targets for detecting Earth-like planets.

  14. Disk-Planet Interactions During Planet Formation

    E-print Network

    J. C. B. Papaloizou; R. P. Nelson; W. Kley; F. S. Masset; P. Artymowicz

    2006-03-08

    The discovery of close orbiting extrasolar giant planets led to extensive studies of disk planet interactions and the forms of migration that can result as a means of accounting for their location. Early work established the type I and type II migration regimes for low mass embedded planets and high mass gap forming planets respectively. While providing an attractive means of accounting for close orbiting planets intially formed at several AU, inward migration times for objects in the earth mass range were found to be disturbingly short, making the survival of giant planet cores an issue. Recent progress in this area has come from the application of modern numerical techniques which make use of up to date supercomputer resources. These have enabled higher resolution studies of the regions close to the planet and the initiation of studies of planets interacting with disks undergoing MHD turbulence. This work has led to indications of how the inward migration of low to intermediate mass planets could be slowed down or reversed. In addition, the possibility of a new very fast type III migration regime, that can be directed inwards or outwards, that is relevant to partial gap forming planets in massive disks has been investigated.

  15. An Apple as the Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this demonstration, an apple is used to help students visualize the relative amounts of land and water resources on the planet, and highlights the vulnerability of these resources we share. The apple is sectioned proportionately according to different categories of resources and land use. Questions are provided to guide a discussion. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, One Global Ocean, part of the unit, Losing Biodiversity, in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

  16. Cardiff School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    system has behaved in the past. Why is the Earth like it is? The planet could have evolved like Venus of the planet is actually a misnomer, it shouldn't be called Earth as it's two thirds covered by water. The deep oceans are less well mapped than Venus and still constitute a major exploration frontier. A thorough

  17. Popular Music in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Peter G.; Roberts, Donald F.

    This paper examines young adolescents' involvement with popular music and the health implications of that involvement. Initial discussion explores three central concepts: music media, adolescence, and mass media effects. A summary of research on music media in adolescence is offereed in two sections discussing exposure to, and gratifications and…

  18. Popularity Ends at Grade 12!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm, Sylvia B.

    1988-01-01

    This presentation of a speech to gifted teenagers discusses the pressures of giftedness. It focuses on the demands placed on gifted teenagers by others and by themselves, their need to develop self-confidence, their uniqueness and yet similarities with others, the balance between creativity and conformity, and the unimportance of popularity. (JDD)

  19. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  20. Arab Stereotypes in Popular Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Janice J.

    1983-01-01

    Most popular fictional plots involving the Middle East--adventure stories, espionage, and themes of Western dependency on Arab oil--portray the Israelies as the good guys and the Arabs as the villians. People must be made aware that fictional literature is prejudiced and racially biased against Arabs. (RM)

  1. Extrasolar Carbon Planets

    E-print Network

    Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

    2005-05-02

    We suggest that some extrasolar planets planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk's C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptune-mass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures.

  2. Create Your Own Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Larsen

    2008-11-25

    In this project you will be the creator of a new planet in our solar system. You will be free to decide all of the characteristics of your planet. Look at the different websites below to find out more about the planets in our solar system and then decide what characteristics your planet will have. PLANET PICTURES AND FACTS I I I I I V Mercury Facts Venus Facts Earth Facts Mars Facts Jupiter Facts Saturn Facts Uranus Facts Neptune Facts PROJECT REQUIREMENTS: Your planet must have one moon or more. You must decide how long it takes your planet to rotate (length of a day on your planet). You must decide how long it takes your planet to ...

  3. Exploring the Planets: Comparing the Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Comparative planetology is a scientific discipline in which researchers seek to understand the planets by comparing their similarities and examining their differences. Some planets have similarities because the materials of which they are made and the processes that have shaped them are similar. However, each planet has a unique character, due to the intensity and length of time the processes have operated. At this site, selected planets are compared on the basis of their atmospheres, volcanoes, impact craters, wind, water and ice. In each instance, photographs are displayed side by side for direct comparison.

  4. The seven ages of a planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of almost universally held assumptions concerning the formation of the planets and the isolation of the solar system from outside influences it follows rather plausibly that all terrestrial planets pass in principle through seven stages. The processes involved include the solidification of grains from gas in the condensation stage, planetesimal interactions, and formation processes. Vigorous convection processes lead to the gravitational separation of iron and the outgassing of oceans. Other stages are related to plate tectonics and terminal volcanism. The ultimate stage of quiescence is characterized by a thick lithosphere and no volcanism.

  5. Searching for extra-terrestrial intelligence and the discovering of extrasolar planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-Jie Wu; Dao-Han Chen

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the significance, instrumentality, and the status in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence, and, in addition, the SETI program and its development, are introduced. Especial emphasis is on the discovery of extrasolar planets, its purpose, ways and means, achievement, and future.Finding extrasolar planets is one of the most popular issues at present. It will be one of the

  6. Create Your Own Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wendy Duroseau

    2012-04-30

    This activity can be used to evaluate students understanding of the characteristics of inner and outer planets. This activity allows the students to create their own planet with the appropriate characteristics. A rubric is attached.

  7. PLANET EARTH STRANGE NEWS

    E-print Network

    Wenseleers, Tom

    TECH HEALTH PLANET EARTH SPACE STRANGE NEWS ANIMALS HISTORY HUMAN NATURE SHOP 504kLikeLike +24142 Follow TECH HEALTH PLANET EARTH SPACE STRANGE NEWS ANIMALS HISTORY HUMAN NATURE SHOP TRENDING: Military

  8. Planet - Disk Symbiosis

    E-print Network

    Sari, R; Sari, Re'em; Goldreich, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Planets form in disks around young stars. Interactions with these disks cause them to migrate and thus affect their final orbital periods. We suggest that the connection between planets and disks may be deeper and involve a symbiotic evolution. By contributing to the outward transport of angular momentum, planets promote disk accretion. Here we demonstrate that planets sufficiently massive to open gaps could be the primary agents driving disk accretion. Those having masses below the gap opening threshold drift inward more rapidly than the disk material and can only play a minor role in its accretion. Eccentricity growth during gap formation may involve an even more intimate symbiosis. Given a small initial eccentricity, just a fraction of a percent, the orbital eccentricity of a massive planet may grow rapidly once a mass in excess of the planet's mass has been repelled to form a gap around the planet's orbit. Then, as the planet's radial excursions approach the gap's width, subsequent eccentricity growth slo...

  9. Popular democracy and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The US has moved from representative democracy to popular democracy and public scrutiny is unrelenting. Any hope of success on their part in resolving the nuclear waste question hinges on their ability to condition themselves to operate in a popular democracy environment. Those opposed to the siting of high- and low-level waste repositories have already developed a set of recurring themes: (1) the siting criteria are fatally flawed; (2) the criteria are not adequate; (3) the process is driven by politics not science; (4) unrealistic deadlines lead to dangerous shortcuts; (5) transportation experience is lacking; (6) the scientific community does not really know how to dispose of the wastes. They must continue to tell the public that if science has brought us problems, then the answer can be only more knowledge - not less. Failure by their profession to recognize that popular democracy is a fact and that nuclear issues need to be addressed in humanistic terms raises the question of whether America is philosophically suited for the expanded use of nuclear power in the future - or for that matter for leadership in the world of tomorrow.

  10. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Koczor, Ron; Lee, Jonathan; Grady, Kevin J.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Njoku, Eni G.

    1990-01-01

    To preserve the earth, it is necessary to understand the tremendously complex interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land, and man's activities deeply enough to construct models that can predict the consequences of our actions and help us make sound environmental, energy, agriculture, and economic decisions. Mission to Planet Earth is NASA's suggested share and the centerpiece of the U.S. contribution to understanding the environment, the Global Change Research Program. The first major element of the mission would be the Earth Observing System, which would give the simultaneous, comprehensive, long-term earth coverage lacking previously. NASA's Geosynchronous Earth Observatory with two additional similar spacecraft would be orbited by the U.S., plus one each by Japan and the European Space Agency. These would be the first geostationary satellites to span all the disciplines of the earth sciences. A number of diverse data gathering payloads are also planned to be carried aboard the Polar Orbiting Platform. Making possible the long, continuous observations planned and coping with the torrent of data acquired will require technical gains across a wide front. Finally, how all this data is consolidated and disseminated by the EOS Data and Information System is discussed.

  11. Planet Designer: Kelvin Climb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about the way distance, albedo, and atmosphere affect the temperature of a planet. Learners will create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet's temperature. They will then discuss their results in terms of greenhouse strength and the presence of liquid water. This lesson is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering education program focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

  12. The Nine Planets: Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page contains details about the planet Earth. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered is planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on planet, and data on its satellite: the Moon. Links are provided to more images, movies, and information about the Earth and Moon. This site discusses unanswered questions about Earth as well.

  13. Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets I for Extrasolar Planets, B. Scott Gaudi, IAS #12;The Search for Extrasolar PlanetsThe Search for Extrasolar Planets Why Search for Extrasolar Planets ? Frequency of Life Clues to Star Formation Low End

  14. Planets X and Pluto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Hoyt

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that man has discovered some fundamental truths about the universe through mathematics. The 'X' in the title of the reported study refers to the trans-Neptunian planet postulated by Percival Lowell. Attention is given to Uranus and the asteroids, Neptune, the first search for planet X, the second search for planet X, the consideration of a trans-Neptunian

  15. Planet Eart Interactive

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Deadliest Catch Dirty Jobs Future Weapons Human Body Man Vs. Wild MythBuste Raw Planet Eart Shark Animals Dinosaurs Egypt Global Warming History Planet Earth Sharks Space Survival Zone Technology Sign Up DVDs Gifts Telescopes Toys & Games Video Download When We Left Earth DVD Planet Earth DVD Eye- Shaped

  16. Peeking at the Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Provides information about each of the planets in our solar system. Focuses on information related to the space missions that have visited or flown near each planet, and includes a summary of what is known about some of the features of each planet. (DDR)

  17. Stylistic control of ocean water simulations 

    E-print Network

    Root, Christopher Wayne

    2009-05-15

    This thesis presents a new method for controlling the look of an ocean water simulation for the purpose of creating cartoon-styled fluid animations. Two popular techniques to simulate fluid, a statistical height field method via the Fast Fourier...

  18. In search of planet Vulcan. The ghost in Newton's clockwork universe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Baum; W. Sheehan

    1997-01-01

    Presented for the first time in popular form is the story of the search for the phantom planet Vulcan. It is rich in the eccentricities of human character, of astronomers far from the popular ideal. There is the autocratic Urbain J. J. Le Verrier, the mathematician who essentially created Vulcan, and James Craig Watson, who made the most credible (but

  19. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    PubMed

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope. PMID:26159097

  20. Life-sustaining planets in interstellar space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    1999-07-01

    During planet formation, rock and ice embryos of the order of Earth's mass may be formed, some of which may be ejected from the Solar System as they scatter gravitationally from proto-giant planets. These bodies can retain atmospheres rich in molecular hydrogen which, upon cooling, can have basal pressures of 102 to 104 bars. Pressure-induced far-infrared opacity of H2 may prevent these bodies from eliminating internal radioactive heat except by developing an extensive adiabatic (with no loss or gain of heat) convective atmosphere. This means that, although the effective temperature of the body is around 30 K, its surface temperature can exceed the melting point of water. Such bodies may therefore have water oceans whose surface pressure and temperature are like those found at the base of Earth's oceans. Such potential homes for life will be difficult to detect.

  1. Planets of young stars

    E-print Network

    E. W. Guenther; E. Esposito

    2007-01-10

    Since the first massive planet in a short period orbit was discovered, the question arised how such an object could have formed. There are basically two formation scenarios: migration due to planet-disk or planet-planet interaction. Which of the two scenarios is more realistic can be found out by observing short-period planets of stars with an age between 10E7 and 10E8 yrs. The second aim of the survey is to find out how many planets originally formed, and how many of these are destroyed in the first Gyrs: Do most young, close-in planets evaporate, or spiral into the host stars? In here we report on the first results of a radial-velocity search program for planets of young stars which we began in 2004. Using HARPS, we currently monitor 85 stars with ages between 10E7 and 10E8 yrs. We show that the detection of planets of young stars is possible. Up to now, we have identified 3 planet-candidates. Taking this result together with the results of other surveys, we conclude that the frequency of massive-short period planets of young stars is not dramatically higher than that of old stars.

  2. The Dark Ocean Inspired by "Now you see me, now you don't" on oceanexplorer.noaa.gov

    E-print Network

    Carrington, Emily

    & bioluminescence) Time frame: 80 minutes Materials · The Blue Planet: Open Ocean ­ The Deep DVD · Light powerpoint zones of the ocean o See figure in attached slides, show first clip of Blue Planet, The Deep · ExploreThe Dark Ocean Inspired by "Now you see me, now you don't" on oceanexplorer.noaa.gov Goals

  3. ConcepTest: Relative Planet Ages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How old are other planets in the Universe in comparison to the planets in our Solar System? a. Other planets are older than the planets in our Solar System. b. Other planets are younger than the planets in our ...

  4. The planet Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, Thérèse

    The exploration of Jupiter, the closest and biggest giant planet, has provided key information about the origin and evolution of the outer Solar system. Our knowledge has strongly benefited from the Voyager and Galileo space missions. We now have a good understanding of Jupiter's thermal structure, chemical composition and magnetospheric environment. There is still debate about the nature of the heating source responsible for the high thermospheric temperatures (precipitating particles and/or gravity waves). The measurement of elemental abundance ratios (C/H, N/H, S/H) gives strong support to the "nucleation" formation model, according to which giant planets formed from the accretion of an initial core and the collapse of the surrounding gaseous protosolar nebula. The D/H and 3He/4He ratios are found to be representative of their protosolar value. The helium abundance, in contrast, appears to be slightly depleted in the outer envelope with respect to the protosolar value; this departure is interpreted as an evolutionary effect, due to the condensation of helium droplets in the liquid hydrogen ocean inside Jupiter's interior. The cloud structure of Jupiter, characterized by the belt-zone system, is globally understood; also present are specific features like regions of strong infrared radiation ("hot spots"), colder regions ("white ovals") and the Great Red Spot (GRS). Clouds were surprisingly absent at the hot spot corresponding to the Galileo probe entry site, and the water abundance measured there was strongly depleted with respect to the solar O/H value. This probably implies that hot spots are dry, cloud-free regions of subsidence, while "normal" air, rich in condensibles, is transported upward by convective motions. As a result, the Jovian meteorology, still based on Halley-type cells, seems to be much more complex than a simple zone-belt system. The nature of the GRS, a giant anticyclonic storm, colder and higher than its environment, has been confirmed by the Galileo observations, but its internal structure appears to be very complex. Strong winds, probably driven by the Jovian internal source, were measured at deep tropospheric levels. The troposphere might be statically stable at pressures higher than 18 bars, but the extent of this putative radiative layer is still unknown.

  5. Ocean-sized threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Jane Lubchenco, professor of marine biology and zoology at Oregon State University, and president-elect of the International Council for Science, said that scientists can do more than they currently are doing to clearly communicate to the public and to policy-makers those issues associated with the many ecological threats faced by the world's oceans. In doing so, scientists can overcome popularly-held misperceptions about the health of the world's oceans and thus, help protect the seas.“Science,” Lubchenco said, “has a huge role to play in informing [the public] what is happening and to guide the choice of solutions.

  6. Archaeoastronomical Concepts in Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Broad public embrace of archaic astronomy probably began in the eighteenth century with awareness of the summer solstice sunrise's affiliation with Stonehenge. Since that time, Stonehenge has retained an astronomical mystique that attracts crowds mobilized by the monument's supposed cosmic purpose. They are committed to witness prehistoric heritage operating in real time and with enduring function. More recently, mass media have intermittently thrown a spotlight on new archaeoastronomical discoveries. While the details, ambiguities, and nuances of disciplined study of astronomy in antiquity do not usually infiltrate popular culture, some astronomical alignments, celestial events, sky-tempered symbols, and astral narratives have become well known and referenced in popular culture. Places and relics that command public interest with astronomical connotations are transformed into cultural icons and capture visitors on a quest for the authenticity the past is believed to possess. Monuments and ideas that successfully forge a romantic bond with the past and inspire an imagined sense of sharing the experience, perspective, and wisdom of antiquity persist in the cultural landscape.

  7. Astrobiological and Geological Implications of Convective Transport in Icy Outer Planet Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Zhong, Shi-Jie; Barr, Amy

    2005-01-01

    The oceans of large icy outer planet satellites are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life in our solar system. The goal of our project has been to develop models of ice convection in order to understand convection as an astrobiologically relevant transport mechanism within icy satellites, especially Europa. These models provide valuable constraints on modes of surface deformation and thus the implications of satellite surface geology for astrobiology, and for planetary protection. Over the term of this project, significant progress has been made in three areas: (1) the initiation of convection in large icy satellites, which we find probably requires tidal heating; (2) the relationship of surface features on Europa to internal ice convection, including the likely role of low-melting-temperature impurities; and (3) the effectiveness of convection as an agent of icy satellite surface-ocean material exchange, which seems most plausible if tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection work in combination. Descriptions of associated publications include: 3 published papers (including contributions to 1 review chapter), 1 manuscript in revision, 1 manuscript in preparation (currently being completed under separate funding), and 1 published popular article. A myriad of conference abstracts have also been published, and only those from the past year are listed.

  8. History of America: A Popular Music Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    The study of popular music can be an effective method of examining social and cultural life. Popular music emphasizes the variety of human existence, goals, outlooks, and biases. A pervading theme in popular American music between 1959 and 1984 has been the theme of "America." Over 200 songs reflect personal, social, and political concerns about…

  9. The Sun, eight planets and three dwarf planets

    E-print Network

    Jarrett, Thomas H.

    The Sun, eight planets and three dwarf planets are the largest bodies in our solar system. By 2006, 166 moons had been discovered orbiting the planets and dwarf planets. There are also thousands of our solar system. The planets all revolve around this extremely hot, giant ball of burning gas

  10. Conversations for a smarter planet: A planet of smarter cities.

    E-print Network

    Conversations for a smarter planet: A planet of smarter cities. © Copyright IBM Australia Limited logo, ibm.com, smarter planet and the planet icon are trademarks of IBM Corp registered in many economic and societal progress and a huge strain on the planet's infrastructure. In Australian cities

  11. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats (e.g., seagrasses, kelps), eutrophication processes, oil spills, and a variety of hazards in the coastal zone.

  12. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  13. New Planets / SETI

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Planets / SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) is a 48 minute radio broadcast that discusses three new planets discovered orbiting distant stars; how best to communicate with ET intelligence; and the progress of the radio-based search for ET intelligence. The new planet finds are smaller than previous extrasolar planet discoveries, on par with the planet Neptune in our solar system. There is discussion of the odds of finding life elsewhere in the universe, and if it is possible to find Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. The show also discusses: a paper published in the journal, Nature, that argues that for sending lots of data over long distances, it is hard to beat sending a physical artifact engraved with data; ways to communicate lots of information over long distances; and what SETI is listening for, and what they have heard.

  14. Bringing Ocean Science News To the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    One of the goals of COSEE-Ocean Systems and its partners is to work toward bridging the gap between "school science" and "scientist science," in the context of using ocean examples to guide science inquiry. This article addresses popular media as a valuable source of science information, keeping current science research (or "scientist science"), and its outcomes and implications in front of students.

  15. Magnetospheres of other Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mendez, J.

    This web page, authored and curated by David P. Stern, outlines the magnetic properties of the planets. Most large planets in the solar system have magnetic fields, probably produced quite differently from ours. This is part of a large work, "The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere", that gives a non-mathematical introduction to the magnetic properties of the planets and the sun, space weather, and the motion of charged particles in magnetic fields. A Spanish translation is available.

  16. The Amazing Red Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the planet Mars. This lesson will begin by discussing the location and size of Mars relative to Earth, as well as introduce many interesting facts about this red planet. Next, the history of Martian exploration is reviewed and students discover why scientists are so interested in studying this mysterious planet. The lesson concludes with students learning about future plans to visit Mars.

  17. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  18. What is a planet?

    E-print Network

    Steven Soter

    2006-11-29

    A planet is an end product of disk accretion around a primary star or substar. I quantify this definition by the degree to which a body dominates the other masses that share its orbital zone. Theoretical and observational measures of dynamical dominance reveal a gap of four to five orders of magnitude separating the eight planets of our solar system from the populations of asteroids and comets. The proposed definition dispenses with upper and lower mass limits for a planet. It reflects the tendency of disk evolution in a mature system to produce a small number of relatively large bodies (planets) in non-intersecting or resonant orbits, which prevent collisions between them.

  19. Terrestrial planet formation.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  20. Terrestrial planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (?106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  1. What is a planet?

    E-print Network

    Soter, S

    2006-01-01

    A planet is an end product of disk accretion around a primary star or substar. I quantify this definition by the degree to which a body dominates the other masses that share its orbital zone. Both theoretical and observational measures of dynamical dominance reveal a gap of five orders of magnitude separating the eight planets of our solar system from the populations of asteroids and comets. This simple definition dispenses with upper and lower mass limits for a planet. It reflects the tendency of disk evolution in a mature system to produce a small number of relatively large bodies (planets) in non-intersecting or resonant orbits, which prevent collisions between them.

  2. Planet - Disk Symbiosis

    E-print Network

    Re'em Sari; Peter Goldreich

    2003-07-05

    Planets form in disks around young stars. Interactions with these disks cause them to migrate and thus affect their final orbital periods. We suggest that the connection between planets and disks may be deeper and involve a symbiotic evolution. By contributing to the outward transport of angular momentum, planets promote disk accretion. Here we demonstrate that planets sufficiently massive to open gaps could be the primary agents driving disk accretion. Those having masses below the gap opening threshold drift inward more rapidly than the disk material and can only play a minor role in its accretion. Eccentricity growth during gap formation may involve an even more intimate symbiosis. Given a small initial eccentricity, just a fraction of a percent, the orbital eccentricity of a massive planet may grow rapidly once a mass in excess of the planet's mass has been repelled to form a gap around the planet's orbit. Then, as the planet's radial excursions approach the gap's width, subsequent eccentricity growth slows so that the planet's orbit continues to be confined within the gap.

  3. Global stratigraphy. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Scott, David H.; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to recent major advances in the definition and documentation of Martian stratigraphy and geology. Mariner 9 provided the images for the first global geologic mapping program, resulting in the recognition of the major geologic processes that have operated on the planet, and in the definition of the three major chronostratigraphic divisions: the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian Systems. Viking Orbiter images permitted the recognition of additional geologic units and the formal naming of many formations. Epochs are assigned absolute ages based on the densities of superposed craters and crater-flux models. Recommendations are made with regard to future areas of study, namely, crustal stratigraphy and structure, the highland-lowland boundary, the Tharsis Rise, Valles Marineris, channels and valley networks, and possible Martian oceans, lakes, and ponds.

  4. Origins of Eccentric Extrasolar Planets: Testing the Planet-Planet Scattering Model

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Ford; Frederic A. Rasio

    2008-06-06

    (Abridged) In planetary systems with two or more giant planets, dynamical instabilities can lead to collisions or ejections through strong planet--planet scattering. Previous studies for simple initial configurations with two equal-mass planets revealed some discrepancies between the results of numerical simulations and the observed orbital elements of extrasolar planets. Here, we show that simulations with two unequal mass planets starting on nearly circular orbits predict a reduced frequency of collisions and a broader range of final eccentricities. The two-planet scattering model can easily reproduce the observed eccentricities with a plausible distribution of planet mass ratios. Further, the two-planet scattering model predicts a maximum eccentricity of about 0.8, independent of the distribution of planet mass ratios, provided that both planets are initially place on nearly circular orbits. This compares favorably with current observations and will be tested by future planet discoveries. The combination of planet--planet scattering and tidal circularization may be able to explain the existence of some giant planets with very short period orbits. Orbital migration due to planet scattering could play an important role in explaining the increased rate of giant planets with very short period orbits. We also re-examine and discuss various possible correlations between eccentricities and other properties of observed extrasolar planets. We demonstrate that the observed distribution of planet masses, orbital periods, and eccentricities can provide constraints for models of planet formation and evolution.

  5. Thermal diffusion of the lunar magma ocean and the formation of the lunar crust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Zhu; S. Wang

    2010-01-01

    The magma ocean hypothesis is consistent with several lines of evidence including planet formation, core-mantle differentiation and geochemical observations, and it is proved as an inevitable stage in the early evolution of planets. The magma ocean is assumed to be homogeneous in previous models during solidification or crystallization[1]. Based on the recent advance and our new data in experimental igneous

  6. The Eight Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, by Caltech astronomer Mike Brown, is an article that recounts the reclassification of Pluto as a dwarf planet. The article explains the issues, tells how they were resolved, and answers related questions. At the bottom of the page is a link to a similar website about the dwarf planet Xena.

  7. Are Exoplanets Really Planets?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    This newsbrief, from Science magazine's electronic news source, Science now, airs the skepticism of three astronomers, who state that most of the 50 recently discovered "planets" orbiting stars other than our sun may not really be planets, but rather brown dwarfs. So, what are they? Read up, and form your own opinion.

  8. March of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The motion of the planets in their orbits can be demonstrated to students by using planetarium software programs. These allow time to be sped up so that the relative motions are readily observed. However, it is also valuable to have the students understand the real speed of the planets in their orbits. This paper describes an exercise that gives…

  9. Outer Planet Flagship Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Cutts; C. Niebur; L. Dudzinski; M. Coradini; J. Lebreton

    2008-01-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on

  10. Outer Planet Flagship Missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Niebur; L. Dudzinski; M. Coradini; J. Lebreton; J. A. Cutts

    2008-01-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEM and LaPlace, which focused on

  11. Five New Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey W. Marcy; R. Paul Butler; Steven S. Vogt; Debra A. Fischer; Gregory W. Henry; Greg Laughlin; Jason T. Wright; John A. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    We report multiple Doppler measurements of five nearby FGK main sequence stars and subgiants obtained during the past 4-6 years at the Keck observa- tory. These stars, namely, HD 183263, HD 117207, HD 188015, HD 45350, and HD 99492 all exhibit coherent variations in their Doppler shifts consistent with a planet in Keplerian motion. The five new planets occupy known

  12. PLANet: An Active Internetwork

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Hicks; Jonathan T. Moore; D. Scott Alexander; Carl A. Gunter; Scott M. Nettles

    1999-01-01

    We present PLANet: an active network architecture and im- plementation. In addition to a standard suite of Internet-like services, PLANet has two key programmability features: 1. all packets contain programs 2. router functionality may be extended dynamically Packet programs are written in our special purpose programming language PLAN, the Packet Language for Active Networks, while dynamic router extensions are written

  13. What is a Planet?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about the characteristics of planets, comets, asteroids, and trans-Neptunian objects. Learners will classify objects and then apply what they have learned by participating in a formal debate about a solar system object discovered by the New Horizons spacecraft and by defining the term planet.

  14. Asteroids Sun's Planets

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Asteroids #12;Sun's Planets · Earth · Historical planets: (, or wanderer) ­ Mercury ­ Venus often be approximated as a geometric series #12;Asteroids · means star-like · 1 Ceres: ­Over 1 million known ­Over 600,000 with orbits #12;Asteroid ProperFes · Largest

  15. Tidal Heating of Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets and Implications for their Habitability

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The tidal heating of hypothetical rocky (or terrestrial) extra-solar planets spans a wide range of values depending on stellar masses and initial orbits. Tidal heating may be sufficiently large (in many cases, in excess of radiogenic heating) and long-lived to drive plate tectonics, similar to the Earth's, which may enhance the planet's habitability. In other cases, excessive tidal heating may result in Io-like planets with violent volcanism, probably rendering them unsuitable for life. On water-rich planets, tidal heating may generate sub-surface oceans analogous to Europa's with similar prospects for habitability. Tidal heating may enhance the outgassing of volatiles, contributing to the formation and replenishment of a planet's atmosphere. To address these issues, we model the tidal heating and evolution of hypothetical extra-solar terrestrial planets. The results presented here constrain the orbital and physical properties required for planets to be habitable.

  16. Exploring the Planets Gallery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based upon the Exploring the Planets gallery at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC, this site provides information about our solar system and its exploration. The gallery begins with a Discovery Section, which explores the development of astronomical thought, beginning with the Greeks, the Renaissance, and Galileo, and ending with satellites and the discovery of new planets. A section on Exploration Tools investigates the past, present and future of earth-based exploration, telescopes, spacecraft, landers, orbiters and rovers. The Planetary Comparisons section discusses similarities and differences between planets such as their atmospheres and geography. An entire section is devoted to the planets themselves with data sets showing statistics on size, mass, orbits, satellites and more. Each planet and the asteroids have their own page with images, exploration facts and other data. There is also a section about comets discussing their discovery, history, observations, anatomy and images.

  17. Find That Planet!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students use internet resources to learn about celestial coordinates, and how to use an emphemeris to locate planets on a horizon sky map. The sky maps are then used for outdoor observing. A more advanced application has students draw maps in celestial coordinates. They first learn about the celestial coordinate system astronomers use and then they generate a position, or ephemeris, for a planet at a certain time on a certain night and plot that position on an appropriate sky map. While engaged in this activity, students will learn to use star maps for finding a planet, plot a planet path on star maps with coordinate grids, and be able to find out when a planet is visible.

  18. Extreme Planet Makeover

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    You may have heard of elaborate makeover television shows where some individual wishes to have various body enhancements performed or a new house is built in seven days. This fascinating extreme makeover website, from NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, is much more edifying. Here, visitors will have the opportunity to make their own planet via a series of customizable bells and whistles. Visitors can use the controls on the site to adjust key planetary attributes such as distance from a star, planet size, and planet age. After making these adjustments, visitors can learn about the planet they have created, and also compare it with other existing planets and outer-space bodies.

  19. Planet Population Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Benz, W; Alibert, Y; Lin, D N C; Mordasini, C

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of exoplanets discovered, statistical properties of the population as a whole become unique constraints on planet formation models provided a link between the description of the detailed processes playing a role in this formation and the observed population can be established. Planet population synthesis provides such a link. The approach allows to study how different physical models of individual processes (e.g., proto-planetary disc structure and evolution, planetesimal formation, gas accretion, migration, etc.) affect the overall properties of the population of emerging planets. By necessity, planet population synthesis relies on simplified descriptions of complex processes. These descriptions can be obtained from more detailed specialised simulations of these processes. The objective of this chapter is twofold: 1) provide an overview of the physics entering in the two main approaches to planet population synthesis and 2) present some of the results achieved as well as illustrate...

  20. Ocean Mammals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Teschner

    2011-04-06

    What are the different types of mammals that live in the ocean? First, you will need to use the Ocean Mammals Table 1. This website is here for you to learn about ocean mammals. Mammals 2. This website will help you learn about the different mammals that live in the ocean. Ocean Mammals 3. Here is some information about how oil spills effect animal skin in the ocean. Oil Spills 4. This link ...

  1. Ocean Currents: Sinking Nutrients

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This two-minute sound segment discusses the nutrients produced by phytoplankton, one-celled plants which live on the surface of the ocean and which form the basis of what scientists call biological productivity. A professor explains that the organic matter that comes sinking out of the surface actually sinks very far down into the water column before bacteria are actually able to break it back down into dissolved nutrients and it is difficult for the water that those nutrients are in to come back up to the surface. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

  2. Orbital Evolution and Migration of Giant Planets: Modeling Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Trilling; W. Benz; T. Guillot; J. I. Lunine; W. B. Hubbard; A. Burrows

    1998-01-01

    Giant planets in circumstellar disks can migrate inward from their initial (formation) positions. Radial migration is caused by inward torques between the planet and the disk, by outward torques between the planet and the spinning star, and by outward torques due to Roche lobe overflow and consequent mass loss from the planet. We present self-consistent numerical considerations of the problem

  3. ExtraSolar Planets Finding Extrasolar Planets. I

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ExtraSolar Planets #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. I Direct Searches Direct searches are difficult #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. II Transits #12;Transits Transits requires an edge-on orbit. ·Jupiter;How Transits Work #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. III Astrometric Wobble #12;Finding Extrasolar

  4. PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH Tristan Guillot

    E-print Network

    Guillot, Tristan

    1 PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH DARWIN/TPF Tristan Guillot/TPF. Extrasolar giant planets are milestones on the quest for our origins: they hold crucial information con for those objects with little or no atmosphere). On the other hand, extrasolar giant planets represent a new

  5. Extrasolar Planet Science with the Antarctic Planet Interferometer

    E-print Network

    Lloyd, James P.

    Extrasolar Planet Science with the Antarctic Planet Interferometer James P. Lloyda, Ben F. Lanea. The unique properties of the polar atmosphere can be exploited for Extrasolar Planet studies on the properties of the atmosphere at the South Pole and other Antarctic plateau sites for Extrasolar Planet

  6. ExtraSolar Planets Finding Extrasolar Planets. I

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ExtraSolar Planets #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. I Direct Searches Direct searches are difficult this? Yes, but it takes special techniques, and is not easy. #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. II Most The three planets of Gl 876: masses = 2.5 MJ, 0.8 MJ, and 7.5 M #12;Gliese 876 #12;Finding Extrasolar

  7. DetectingDetecting Planets in thePlanets in the

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    DetectingDetecting Planets in thePlanets in the Galactic BulgeGalactic Bulge B. Scott Gaudi Institute for Advanced Study #12;Abstract Determination of the frequency of planets in environments mechanisms of planets. There are three currently feasible methods of detecting planetary companions to stars

  8. The Role of Fresh Water and Salt Fluxes in Southern Ocean Deep-Ocean Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, V.; Bulusu, S.; Nyadjro, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a major role in global ocean circulation, a system of surface and deep currents, linking all oceans and one of the fundamental determinants of the planet's climate. Because the Southern Ocean around Antarctica is the only location where the ocean can circulate freely all the way around the globe without continental barriers, it's a huge part of the ocean cycle. Despite this recent increase in our understanding of the Southern Ocean system, there is still uncertainty in the fluxes and transport of fresh and salt water within this region. Difficulties arise when studying the fluxes and transports within the Southern Ocean due to lack of research focusing on the following: the sources of freshwater inputs into the Southern Ocean system, the circulation of the ocean, and the vertical stratification. Satellite-derived salinity from the Aquarius salinity mission (September, 2011-present) and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) Reanalysis (1950-2010) are used to estimate freshwater and salt fluxes. Our results indicate that recent changes in freshwater and salt fluxes are a major component of the deep-ocean warming in the Southern Ocean. In particular, the role of changes in these fluxes in causing surface cooling and increasing deep oceanic storage of heat in the Southern Ocean is investigated.

  9. The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  10. All for the Planet, the Planet for everyone!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndarski, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The Eco-Musketeers are unique voluntary group of students. They have been established in Belgrade, in Primary school 'Drinka Pavlovi?'. Since the founding in year 2000, Eco-Musketeers have been involved in peer and citizens education guided by motto: All for the planet, the planet for all! Main goals of this group are spreading and popularization of environmental approach as well as gaining knowledge through collaborative projects and research. A great number of students from other schools in Serbia have joined Eco-Musketeers in observations aiming to better understand the problem of global climate change. In the past several years Eco-Musketeers have also participated in many national and international projects related to the active citizenship and rising the awareness of the importance of biodiversity and environment for sustainable development of society. In this presentation we will show some of the main activities, eco-performances and actions of our organization related to the environment, biodiversity, conservation and recycling, such as: spring cleaning the streets of Belgrade, cleaning the Sava and the Danube river banks, removing insect moth pupae in the area of Lipovica forest near Belgrade. Also, Eco-Musketeers worked on education of employees of Coca-Cola HBC Serbia about energy efficiency. All the time, we have working on raising public awareness of the harmful effects of plastic bags on the environment, too. In order to draw attention on rare and endangered species in Serbia and around the globe, there were several performing street-plays about biodiversity and also the plays about the water ecological footprint. Eco-Musketeers also participated in international projects Greenwave-signs of spring (Fibonacci project), European Schools For A Living Planet (WWF Austria and Erste stiftung) and Eco Schools. The eco dream of Eco-Musketeers is to influence the Government of the Republic of Serbia to determine and declare a 'green habits week'. This should be a one week in a year during which all the citizens will act with a minimum negative impact on the environment. All previous activities of the Eco-Musketeers are the only a small step in a persevering process of conservation of the living world, but we strongly believe that though the activities of small group as we are, we can change the way of thinking of our fellows and citizens, so that they learn to love and protect nature for future generations.

  11. Pulse of the Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains the archive for Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a two-minute sound portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. Pulse of the Planet is broadcast over 320 public and commercial stations around the world and on the Voice of America and the Armed Forces Radio Network. In addition to the sound clips there are associated feature stories on everything from particle physics to the birds of the Pantanal and seasonal stories describing the ways that people interact with their environment.

  12. Share Your Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-03-13

    In this cooperative game, learners devise strategies about sharing a small space with each other. Similar to musical chairs, this game has players sharing a smaller and smaller number of "planets" (circles on the floor) until they find a way to share just one remaining planet. After the game, learners discuss how they managed to fit everyone in one planet, what "rules" of sharing they made up as they went along, and whether there were disagreements. This game can be a great activity for indoor recess. This activity can be found on pages 12-13 of the activity guide.

  13. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  14. Women in Popular Culture: A Reference Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishburn, Katherine

    This book explores how women have been portrayed in various forms of American popular culture over the years. In an introductory section, it is suggested that popular culture has generally used women to represent a social mythology that is built around women's subordinate status, a position that current feminists reject. Chapter 1 reviews books…

  15. Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillyard, Cinnamon

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

  16. Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways?

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways? N = N* fs fGHZ fp nH #12;What is a star? A star The real issue is that we need to know precisely what we mean when we use the word planet. Is Pluto a Planet? #12;Is Pluto a Planet? A body that: ·Orbits a star ·Is large enough for its gravity to make

  17. Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways?

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways? N = N* fs fp AST 248 #12;What is a star? A star The real issue is that we need to know precisely what we mean when we use the word planet. Is Pluto a Planet? #12;Is Pluto a Planet? A body that: ·Orbits a star ·Is large enough for its gravity to make

  18. Planet Designer: What's Trending Hot?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about the way distance, reflectivity, and atmosphere affect the temperature of a planet. Learners will create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet's temperature. This lesson is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering education program focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

  19. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell removed, pressure began to build in the compressed rocky kernel of Earth and eventually the rigid crust began to crack. The major energy source for planetary decompression and for heat emplacement at the base of the crust is the stored energy of protoplanetary compression. In response to decompression-driven volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and fold-mountain ranges form to accommodate changes in curvature. One of the most profound mysteries of modern planetary science is this: As the terrestrial planets are more-or-less of common chondritic composition, how does one account for the marked differences in their surface dynamics? Differences among the inner planets are principally due to the degree of compression experienced. Planetocentric georeactor nuclear fission, responsible for magnetic field generation and concomitant heat production, is applicable to compressed and non-compressed planets and large moons. The internal composition of Mercury is calculated based upon an analogy with the deep-Earth mass ratio relationships. The origin and implication of Mercurian hydrogen geysers is described. Besides Earth, only Venus appears to have sustained protoplanetary compression; the degree of which might eventually be estimated from understanding Venetian surface geology. A basis is provided for understanding that Mars essentially lacks a 'geothermal gradient' which implies potentially greater subsurface water reservoir capacity than previously expected. Resources at NuclearPlanet.com .

  20. Ocean Talk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ocean Talk provides a glimpse of oceanography and an awareness of the importance of the sea to our environment and our own well-being. There are scientific explanations of ocean bottom features, the properties of seawater, underwater sound, sea ice, ocean currents, tides, waves, and tsunamis. A history of marine exploration and descriptions of the Earth's oceans are also provided.

  1. The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, L. J.; Seager, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we examine what can be learned about extrasolar planet atmospheres by concentrating on a class of planets that transit their parent stars. As discussed in the previous chapter, one way of detecting an extrasolar planet is by observing the drop in stellar intensity as the planet passes in front of the star. A transit represents a special case in which the geometry of the planetary system is such that the planet s orbit is nearly edge-on as seen from Earth. As we will explore, the transiting planets provide opportunities for detailed follow-up observations that allow physical characterization of extrasolar planets, probing their bulk compositions and atmospheres.

  2. Spectropolarimetric signatures of Earth-like extrasolar planets

    E-print Network

    D. M. Stam

    2007-07-26

    We present results of numerical simulations of the flux (irradiance), F, and the degree of polarization (i.e. the ratio of polarized to total flux), P, of light that is reflected by Earth-like extrasolar planets orbiting solar-type stars, as functions of the wavelength (from 0.3 to 1.0 micron, with 0.001 micron spectral resolution) and as functions of the planetary phase angle. We use different surface coverages for our model planets, including vegetation and a Fresnel reflecting ocean, and clear and cloudy atmospheres. Our adding-doubling radiative transfer algorithm, which fully includes multiple scattering and polarization, handles horizontally homogeneous planets only; we simulate fluxes and polarization of horizontally inhomogeneous planets by weighting results for homogeneous planets. Like the flux, F, the degree of polarization, P, of the reflected starlight is shown to depend strongly on the phase angle, on the composition and structure of the planetary atmosphere, on the reflective properties of the underlying surface, and on the wavelength, in particular in wavelength regions with gaseous absorption bands. The sensitivity of P to a planet's physical properties appears to be different than that of F. Combining flux with polarization observations thus makes for a strong tool for characterizing extrasolar planets. The calculated total and polarized fluxes will be made available through the CDS.

  3. Extrasolar planets: Remote climes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam

    2007-05-01

    A distant planet traversing its orbit shows variations in its infrared brightness, providing the first map of its climate. These variations paint a picture of a dynamic world, with efficient redistribution of stellar heat.

  4. The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jean Schneider, of the Observatoire de Paris, put together this no-nonsense site featuring current information on the "detection and study of extrasolar planets, including exobiology." Schneider's commitment to the subject is clear with the inclusion of detailed scientific and technical articles, a tutorial (by Arizona State University) on the detection of extrasolar planets, and a hyperlinked bibliography of some 200 scientific journal articles, books, and reports. A catalog of extrasolar planets (with links to the scientific articles describing them) features dozens of confirmed planets (or brown dwarfs) around main sequence stars or pulsars, in addition to disks and unconfirmed objects. Whether you are a dedicated amateur or pro (and read English or French), these pages are clearly designed and well worth the orbit.

  5. Kepler's Multiple Planet Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Among the 1800 Kepler targets that have candidate planets, 20% have two or more candidate planets. While most of these objects have not yet been confirmed as true planets, several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations (assuming a nominal mass-radius relationship). Statistical studies performed on these candidates reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness of planetary systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. The characteristics of the confirmed Kepler multi-planet systems will also be discussed.

  6. The planet Saturn (1970)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The present-day knowledge on Saturn and its environment are described for designers of spacecraft which are to encounter and investigate the planet. The discussion includes physical properties of the planet, gravitational field, magnetic and electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, satellites and meteoroids, the ring system, charged particles, atmospheric composition and structure, and clouds and atmospheric motions. The environmental factors which have pertinence to spacecraft design criteria are also discussed.

  7. Planet/Moon Trivia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about defining characteristics or features of the planets and their moons. Learners will use the Solar System Update software to complete a worksheet asking them to find the planet and/or moon that matches each listed description. This activity requires the use of a computer with Internet access, and is Solar System Activity 1 in a larger resource, Space Update.

  8. Transit of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

  9. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  10. The Planet Pluto

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This series of webpages is part of a course called Astronomy 161: The Solar System, offered by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. This section covers the general features of Pluto, including information on whether it is the eighth or ninth planet from the Sun, and whether there are additional planets beyond Pluto. There are also subsections on the surface of Pluto and its moon, Charon, including Hubble Space Telescope images.

  11. Planets' magnetic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzerotti, L.J.; Uberoi, C.

    1989-02-01

    The magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and comets and the heliomagnetosphere are examined. The orientations of the planetary spin and magnetic axes, the size of the magnetospheres, and the magnetic properties and the radio emissions of the planets are compared. Results from spacecraft studies of the planets are included. Plans for the Voyager 2 mission and its expected study of the Neptune magnetosphere are considered.

  12. Building a virtual planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, V. S.

    2002-01-01

    The virtual Planetary Laboratory (VPL) is a recently funded 5-yr project, which seeks toimprove our understanding of the range of plausible environments and the likely signatures for life on extrasolar terrestrial planets. To achieve these goals we are developing a suite of innovative modeling tools to simulate the environments and spectra of extrasolar planets. The core of the VPL IS a coupled radiative transfer/climate/chemistry model, which is augmented by interchangeable modules which characterize geological, exogenic, atmospheric escape, and life processes. The VPL is validated using data derived from terrestrial planets within our own solar system. The VPL will be used to explore the plausible range of atmospheric composittions and globally averaged spectra for extrasolar planets and for early Earth, and will improve our understanding of the effect of life on a planet's atmospheric spectrum and composition. The models will also be used to create a comprehensive spectral catalog to provide recommendations on the optimum wavelength range, spectral resolution, and instrument sensitivity required to characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets. Although developed by our team, the VPL is envisioned to be a comprehensive and flexible tool, which can be collaboratively used by the broader planetary science and astrobiology communities. This presentation will describe the project concept, the tasks involved, and will outline current progress to date. This work is funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

  13. Thermal evolution of an early magma ocean in interaction with the atmosphere: conditions for the condensation of a

    E-print Network

    Brandeis, Geneviève

    , Earth and Venus. This time would be virtually infinite for an Earth-sized planet located at less than 0 modeling approach applied to the three terrestrial planets Mars, Earth and Venus if a water ocean ever conducted a parametric study and described the influences of some important parameters such as the Sun-planet

  14. Acid Test: The Global Challenge of Ocean Acidification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-09-17

    "Acid Test", a film produced by NRDC, was made to raise awareness about the largely unknown problem of ocean acidification, which poses a fundamental challenge to life in the seas and the health of the entire planet. Like global warming, ocean acidification stems from the increase of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere since the start of the Industrial Revolution.

  15. Fourier spectra from exoplanets with polar caps and ocean glint

    E-print Network

    Visser, P M

    2015-01-01

    The weak orbital-phase dependent reflection signal of an exoplanet contains information on the planet surface, such as the distribution of continents and oceans on terrestrial planets. This light curve is usually studied in the time domain, but because the signal from a stationary surface is (quasi)periodic, analysis of the Fourier series may provide an alternative, complementary approach. We study Fourier spectra from reflected light curves for geometrically simple configurations. Depending on its atmospheric properties, a rotating planet in the habitable zone could have circular polar ice caps. Tidally locked planets, on the other hand, may have symmetric circular oceans facing the star. These cases are interesting because the high-albedo contrast at the sharp edges of the ice-sheets and the glint from the host star in the ocean may produce recognizable light curves with orbital periodicity, which could also be interpreted in the Fourier domain. We derive a simple general expression for the Fourier coeffici...

  16. Proyecto para desarrollar un 'Teatro Popular Identificador'.

    E-print Network

    Zapata Olivella, Manuel

    1975-10-01

    "pueblo"; lo que debe dársele como manifestaciones teatrales desde un criterio burgués, de "populismo," y otro que surge de la entraña propia de la tradición popular sin más intención que mostrar la auten ticidad nacional. LA INVESTIGACIÓN...

  17. Space and Place – Popular Perceptions of Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl J. Griffin

    \\u000a Few spaces are as richly generative of such contradictory perceptions as forests. To some, forests are magical places of enchantment\\u000a or places of self-discovery. To others, forests are barbarous places, refuges of dangerous animals and even more dangerous\\u000a men. These contradictions have fuelled a rich seam of popular lore. The persistent popularity of fables such as Hansel and\\u000a Gretel attests

  18. Experimental determination of salt partition coefficients between aqueous fluids, ice VI and ice VII: implication for the composition of the deep ocean and the geodynamics of large icy moons and water rich planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Daniel, Isabelle; Cardon, Hervé; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Caracas, Razvan; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The potential habitability of extraterrestrial large aqueous reservoir in icy moons and exoplanets requires an input of nutrients and chemicals that may come from the rocky part of planetary body. Because of the presence of high pressure (HP) water ices (VI, VII, etc.) between the liquid ocean and the silicates, such interactions are considered to be limited in large icy moons, like Ganymede and Titan, and water rich exoplanets. In the case of salty-rich oceans, recent experimental and modeling works have shown that aqueous fluids can be stable at higher pressures [1, 2]. This can ultimately allow direct interaction with the rocky core of icy moons. This effect is nevertheless limited and for larger bodies such as water rich exoplanets with much higher pressures in their hydrosphere, HP ice should be present between the rocky core and a putative ocean. Salts are highly incompatible with low pressure ice Ih, but recent experimental work has shown that alkali metal and halogen salts are moderately incompatible with ice VII, that can incorporate up to several mol/kg of salts [3, 4, 5]. As far as we know, no similar study has been done on ice VI, a HP ice phase expected inside large icy moons. We present here the first experimental data on the partition coefficient of RbI salt between aqueous fluids, ice VI and ice VII using in-situ synchrotron X-Ray single crystal diffraction and X-Ray fluorescence mapping (ESRF - ID-27 beam line [6]). Our experiment enable us to observe a density inversion between ice VI and the salty fluid, and to measure the values of salt partition coefficients between the aqueous fluid and ice VI (strongly incompatible) and ice VII (moderately incompatible). Using the volumes determined with X-Ray diffraction, we were able to measure the density of salty ice VI and ice VII and determine that salty ice VI is lighter than pure H2O ice VI. These results are very relevant for the study of water rich planetary bodies interior because the partition coefficient will enable the computation of the chemical evolution in the deep ocean during the cooling of the hydrosphere. These results are also very important for the high pressure ice mantle dynamics as they show the great effects of dissolved salt on the ice phases densities and therefore the potential role of convecting ice to feed the overlaying ocean with life-sustaining chemicals. References [1] Journaux B, Daniel I, Caracas R, Montagnac G, Cardon H. Icarus. 2013; 226:35-63. [2] Vance S, Brown JM. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta. 2013; 110:176-89. [3] Frank M, Runge C, Scott H, Maglio S, Olson J, Prakapenka V, et al. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 2006; 155 :152-62. [4] Frank MR, Aarestad E, Scott HP, Prakapenka VB. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 2013; 215:12-20. [5] Klotz S, Bove L, Strässle T, Hansen T, Saitta A. Nat Mater. 2009; 8:405-9. [6] Mezouar, M. et al. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. 2005; 12, 659-664.

  19. California and Carnegie Planet Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The California and Carnegie Planet Research website presents the University of California Berkeley and the Carnegie Institution of Washington's investigations of planets around other stars. In the Public link, users can find easily understandable details on the diversity of exoplanets and on planet detection techniques. Researchers can find more technical details in the Scientific Research Site including a detailed almanac of planets and data on extrasolar planets. The website features publications, employment information, and team members' résumés. The materials are riddled with outside links to help users find other great planet-related educational and research websites.

  20. Chemistry of planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Sarah Elaine

    2008-02-01

    This thesis explores how the chemical environment in which planets develop influences planet formation. The total solid mass, gas/solid ratio, and specific ice inventory of protoplanetary disks can dramatically alter the planet's formation timescale, core/atmosphere mass ratio, and atmosphere composition. We present the results of three projects that probe the links between solar nebula composition and giant planet formation. The first project offers evidence that stars with planets exhibit statistically significant silicon and nickel enrichment over the general metal-rich population. To test whether this prediction is compatible with the core accretion theory of planet formation, we construct new numerical simulations of planet formation by core accretion that establish the timescale on which a planet forming at 5 AU reaches rapid gas accretion, t rga , as a function of solid surface density s solid : ( t rga /1 Myr) = (s solid /25.0 g cm -2 ) - 1.44 . This relation enables us to construct Monte Carlo simulations that predict the fraction of star-disk systems that form planets as a function of [Fe/H], [Si/Fe], disk mass, outer disk radius and disk lifetime. Our simulations reproduce both the known planet-metallicity correlation and the planet-silicon correlation reported in this paper. The simulations predict that 15% of Solar-type stars form Jupiter-mass planets, in agreement with 12% predicted from extrapolation of the observed planet frequency-semimajor axis distribution. Despite the success of our Monte Carlo simulation of the planet-silicon correlation at predicting the properties of extrasolar Jovian planets, there is still no in situ core accretion simulation that can successfully account for the formation of Saturn, Uranus or Neptune within the observed 2-3 Myr lifetimes of protoplanetary disks. Since solid accretion rate is directly proportional to the available planetesimal surface density, one way to speed up planet formation is to take a full inventory of all the solids present in the solar nebula. In Project 2 (Chapter 3) we combine a viscously evolving protostellar disk with a kinetic model of ice formation, which includes not just water but methane, ammonia, CO and 54 minor ices. We use this combined dynamical+chemical simulation to calculate the planetesimal composition and solid surface density in the solar nebula as a function of heliocentric distance and time. We find three effects that strongly favor giant planet formation: (1) a decretion flow that brings mass from the inner solar nebula to the giant planet-forming region, (2) recent lab results (Collings et al. 2004) showing that the ammonia and water ice lines should coincide, and (3) the presence of a substantial amount of methane ice in the trans-Saturnian region. Our results show higher solid surface densities than assumed in the core accretion models of Pollack et al. (1996) by a factor of 3-4 throughout the trans-Saturnian region. We also discuss the location of ice lines and their movement through the solar nebula, and provide new constraints on the possible initial disk configurations from gravitational stability arguments. Finally, we present a core accretion simulation of Saturn with a planet formation timescale of 3.37 Myr, consistent with observed protostellar disk lifetimes. The protostellar disk model underlying this simulation is also capable of forming Jupiter within 2.5 Myr. We observe a new manifestation of the core accretion theory, in which Saturn's solid core does not reach isolation mass, and argue that this paradigm should apply to Uranus and Neptune as well. The planet formation timescale is then governed primarily by the solid accretion rate instead of the gas contraction efficiency. Our model predicts a core mass of 44 M (+) for Saturn, heavier than inferred from observations by a factor of at least 2. We discuss possible mechanisms for reducing the core size without slowing down formation and comment on the similarity between our core- heavy Saturn model and the exoplanet HD 149026 b .

  1. What do Multiple Planet Systems Teach us about Planet Formation?

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Ford

    2005-12-29

    For centuries, our knowledge of planetary systems and ideas about planet formation were based on a single example, our solar system. During the last thirteen years, the discovery of ~170 planetary systems has ushered in a new era for astronomy. I review the surprising properties of extrasolar planetary systems and discuss how they are reshaping theories of planet formation. I focus on how multiple planet systems constrain the mechanisms proposed to explain the large eccentricities typical of extrasolar planets. I suggest that strong planet-planet scattering is common and most planetary systems underwent a phase of large eccentricities. I propose that a planetary system's final eccentricities may be strongly influenced by how much mass remains in a planetesimal disk after the last strong planet-planet scattering event.

  2. Planet formation, orbital evolution and planet-star tidal interaction

    E-print Network

    D. N. C. Lin; J. C. B. Papaloizou; G. Bryden; S. Ida; C. Terquem

    1998-09-15

    We consider several processes operating during the late stages of planet formation that can affect observed orbital elements. Disk-planet interactions, tidal interactions with the central star, long term orbital instability and the Kozai mechanism are discussed.

  3. Ocean circulation and climate during the past 120,000 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Rahmstorf

    2002-01-01

    Oceans cover more than two-thirds of our blue planet. The waters move in a global circulation system, driven by subtle density differences and transporting huge amounts of heat. Ocean circulation is thus an active and highly nonlinear player in the global climate game. Increasingly clear evidence implicates ocean circulation in abrupt and dramatic climate shifts, such as sudden temperature changes

  4. HARNESSING OCEAN WAVE ENERGY TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technical challenge to sustainability is finding an energy source that is abundant enough to meet global demands without producing greenhouse gases or radioactive waste. Energy from ocean surface waves can provide the people of this planet a clean, endless power source to me...

  5. Ocean Portal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IOC/IODE Marine Data Training Team

    Ocean Portal is a high-level directory of Ocean Data and Information related web sites. The object of the site is to help scientists and other ocean experts in locating data and information. Sites are listed in a directory with headings that include information, data, scientific topics, agencies and societies, among others.

  6. Changing Planet: Fading Corals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn/Windows to the Universe

    This video provides a comprehensive introduction to the role of coral reefs, the physiology of corals, and the impacts of both ocean warming and acidification on coral survival. It highlights experts from the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences and the University of Miami.

  7. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Giant Planets THE GIANT PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    (Petrovay) Giant Planets Differential rotation (a.k.a. zonal flows) Caused by: convective flows + Coriolis belts: late heavy bombardment ("Lunar cataclism") #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Giant Planets RINGS THE RINGS Planets Origin of sharp edges / thin rings: shepherd satellites. E.g. A sharp oter edge of A ring -- Atlas

  8. Planet Formation and the Characteristics of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary growth, emphasizing the formation of extrasolar planets, is presented. Models of planet formation are based upon observations of the Solar System, extrasolar planets, and young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but if they become massive enough before the protoplanetary disk dissipates, then they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  9. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Rocky planets ROCKY PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    , heavy cratering: Moon. #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Rocky planets VENUS a = 0.72 AU e = 0.07 i = 3 (Petrovay) Rocky planets THE ATMOSPHERE OF VENUS P = 94 bar (!), T = 750 K (!!!) ­ 96.5% CO2 ­ 3 % N2, atmosphere revolves around planet in 4­5 days (superrotation). Thick atmosphere orange sky Venus

  10. 82From Asteroids to Planets Planets are built in several

    E-print Network

    82From Asteroids to Planets Planets are built in several stages. Dust grains grow to large rocks in a million years, then rocks accumulate to form asteroids in a few years or so. The third stage combines kilometer-wide asteroids to make rocky planets. A simple model of this process can tell us about how long

  11. Astronomers Report Discovery of New Extra-solar Planets: Four Reports

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weinstock, Maia.

    2000-01-01

    If you are feeling alone in the universe, this news from 2000 of the search for new planets might inspire you. This account is from the popular space science Website, Space.com. It chronicles the latest detection of at least nine possible planetary bodies orbiting stars outside of our solar system. The text includes a discussion of how detection of wobble behavior is used in the search for extra-solar planets and plans for future planet hunts. This site also features links to Websites of the observatories involved in extra-solar planet detection, related Space.com stories, a diagram of Doppler shift due to stellar wobble and a table of the nine planet candidates's size and distance from Earth.

  12. Play Dough Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is a lesson about planet sizes. Learners will demonstrate the size (volume) differences between Earth, Earth’s Moon, and Mars. An extension to estimate the distance between the Earth and the Moon, and the Earth and Mars, using the scale of the play dough planets' sizes is provided. Advance preparation of the play dough (recipie provided) is required. This is lesson 3 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module. It was adapted from 3-D Model of the Earth and Moon, an activity in The Universe at Your Fingertips.

  13. Strange Planets Planetarium Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This planetarium show is designed to engage visitors directly in activities and demonstrations, and is optimized for group sizes of 25 to 70 people. Show content includes general planet-finding techniques (Doppler, astrometric, etc.), an audience activity about the transit method of extrasolar planet discovery, NASA Kepler mission, and Johannes Kepler's work. It is 50-minutes long, but modular, so that it can be adjusted for shorter lengths (suggestions for 30-minute and 40-minute versions are provided in the script). The script, images, movies and music are available for free download at the website provided.

  14. THE INTERIOR DYNAMICS OF WATER PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Roger; O'Connell, Richard J. [Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sasselov, Dimitar D., E-mail: rogerfu12@gmail.co, E-mail: richard_oconnell@harvard.ed, E-mail: sasselov@cfa.harvard.ed [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-01-10

    The ever-expanding catalog of detected super-Earths calls for theoretical studies of their properties in the case of a substantial water layer. This work considers such water planets with a range of masses and water mass fractions (2-5 M{sub Earth}, 0.02%-50% H{sub 2}O). First, we model the thermal and dynamical structure of the near-surface for icy and oceanic surfaces, finding separate regimes where the planet is expected to maintain a subsurface liquid ocean and where it is expected to exhibit ice tectonics. Newly discovered exoplanets may be placed into one of these regimes given estimates of surface temperature, heat flux, and gravity. Second, we construct a parameterized convection model for the underlying ice mantle of higher ice phases, finding that materials released from the silicate-iron core should traverse the ice mantle on the timescale of 0.1 to 100 megayears. We present the dependence of the overturn times of the ice mantle and the planetary radius on total mass and water mass fraction. Finally, we discuss the implications of these internal processes on atmospheric observables.

  15. Which Planet Shall We Visit?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learners will compare images of planets and select one planet to visit and tell the tale of their visit through a comic strip. This is activity 9 of 9 in Mars and Earth: Science Learning Activities for After School.

  16. USGS Map-a-Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS Astrogeology

    Explore global imagery of the planets and satellites from a variety of missions in an easy to use web interface. Customize and download your own image maps of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and other planets and moons.

  17. GEOLogic: Terrestrial and Jovian Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laura Guertin

    In this two-part example, students are given clues about properties about the terrestrial and Jovian planets respectively and asked to match up the planet with the correct equatorial radius, mean orbital velocity, and period of rotation.

  18. Extrasolar Binary Planets I: Formation by tidal capture during planet-planet scattering

    E-print Network

    Ochiai, H; Ida, S

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated i) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call "binary planets") from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and ii) the following long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star {\\it quasi-static} tides. For the initial evolution in phase i), we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semi-major axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semi-major axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by ...

  19. Ocean Terracing

    E-print Network

    Richard Cathcart; Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-09

    Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean Art is the technically possible 21-st Century terracing of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Art is applicable worldwide to places that might be practically improved by its judicious employment. Such Ocean Art may constitute an entirely unique category of solutions to coastal disaster prevention planning.

  20. Can Planets Survive Stellar Evolution?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Villaver; Mario Livio

    2007-01-01

    We study the survival of gas planets around stars with masses in the range 1-5 Msolar, as these stars evolve off the main sequence. We show that planets with masses smaller than one Jupiter mass do not survive the planetary nebula phase if located initially at orbital distances smaller than 3-5 AU. Planets more massive than two Jupiter masses around

  1. Extrasolar Planets in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Samuel J.

    2011-01-01

    The field of extrasolar planets is still, in comparison with other astrophysical topics, in its infancy. There have been about 300 or so extrasolar planets detected and their detection has been accomplished by various different techniques. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment to show how planets are detected using the transit technique.…

  2. Studying Extrasolar Planets with WFIRST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spergel, David N.

    2014-06-01

    The WFIRST mission will be a powerful tool for studying extrasolar planets. Through observations of gravitational microlensing, the mission will probe the demographics of extrasolar planetary systems. Its coronagraph will enable imaging and spectroscopic study of nearby planets. It will also be able to complement GAIA's astrometric measurements of masses and orbits of nearby planets.

  3. Radio Detection of Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    Radio Detection of Extrasolar Planets: Present and Future Prospects T. Joseph W. Lazio1 & W. M.23 (Fisher et al. 2003) In last decade, exciting discovery of extrasolar planets n ~ 100 planetary systems n of extrasolar planets n ~ 100 planetary systems n Indirect detection via optical signature from host star

  4. Planet X - The current status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Seidelmann; R. S. Harrington

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of solar-system dynamics which predict the existence of a 10th planet (planet X) are surveyed and compared with recent observations. The history of the discoveries of Neptune and Pluto on the basis of discrepancies in the orbit of Uranus is recalled in detail, and the persistence of such discrepancies in 9-planet computations is considered. Particular attention is given

  5. The Nine Planets: Appendices

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This Nine Planets page offers additional information not included in any other pages of the site. It includes tables of solar system data, discovery chronology, a brief look at the origin of the solar system, planetary linguistics, explanations of astronomical names, a master picture list, and links for more information.

  6. Binary Minor Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Richardson; Kevin J. Walsh

    2006-01-01

    A review of observations and theories regarding binary asteroids and binary trans-Neptunian objects [collectively, binary minor planets (BMPs)] is presented. To date, these objects have been discovered using a combination of direct imaging, lightcurve analysis, and radar. They are found throughout the Solar System, and present a challenge for theorists modeling their formation in the context of Solar System evolution.

  7. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  8. Our Growing Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elizabeth Lener

    2001-05-01

    Children are naturally curious and passionate about taking care of the world around them. To capitalize on these interests, the unit described in this article was the result of a schoolwide theme entitled People and the Planet (Wasserman 1996). The unit h

  9. Discovering Planet "X"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-03-29

    This activity and demonstration teaches the concept of parallax (the apparent movement of an object caused by a change in the viewer's position) and relates the concept to a real-world astronomical event, ­the discovery of Pluto. It employs the Blink Comparator, an online simulation illustrating the technique used by Clyde Tombaugh to discover the ninth planet on February 18, 1930.

  10. Location of Planet X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Harrington

    1988-01-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to

  11. Twist planet drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A planetary gear system includes a sun gear coupled to an annular ring gear through a plurality of twist-planet gears, a speeder gear, and a ground structure having an internal ring gear. Each planet gear includes a solid gear having a first half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes vertical gear teeth and a second half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes helical gear teeth that are offset from the vertical gear teeth and which contact helical gear teeth on the speeder gear and helical gear teeth on the outer ring gear. One half of the twist planet gears are preloaded downward, while the other half are preloaded upwards, each one alternating with the other so that each one twists in a motion opposite to its neighbor when rotated until each planet gear seats against the sun gear, the outer ring gear, the speeder gear, and the inner ring gear. The resulting configuration is an improved stiff anti-backlash gear system.

  12. The Planet Venus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Denning

    1871-01-01

    THIS beautiful planet being now very favourably situated for examination, it may interest many of your astronomical readers if I give a brief description of the markings which have recently been seen on her surface. That these markings are exceedingly difficult objects to detect, even with a powerful telescope and under favourable atmospheric conditions, there is no doubt, and many

  13. External Resource: Clay Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    In this activity, learners/students use given amounts of clay to create models of the solar system. Learners/students use clay to represent different planets and other objects in the solar system (asteroids, moons, etc.). The learners/students can use as

  14. Welcome to the Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of the best images from NASA's planetary exploration program includes descriptions of images with an audio format, planet profiles with data sets, spacecraft exploration information, and a zoom-in feature to view the image at closer range. There is also a glossary with hundreds of entries, and an explorer section to learn about past and future space missions.

  15. Neato-Magneto Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-07-11

    In this activity, teams of learners study magnetic fields at four separate stations: examining magnetic fields generated by everyday items, mapping out a magnetic field using a compass, creating models of Earth's and Jupiter's magnetic fields, and observing aurora produced by magnetic fields on both planets. This activity allows learners to do their own planetary investigations, similar to the research of the Juno mission.

  16. Planets and Pucks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brueningsen, Christopher; Krawiec, Wesley

    1993-01-01

    Presents a simple activity designed to allow students to experimentally verify Kepler's second law, sometimes called the law of equal areas. It states that areas swept out by a planet as it orbits the Sun are equal for equal time intervals. (PR)

  17. Planet Quest Observing Cards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The PlanetQuest Observing Cards are designed to give telescope operators and other interpreters a new way of explaining the night sky. Relating common observing objects to our search for exoplanets makes these spectacular sights more understandable. These cards are a great resource for use at observing night events, providing new stories to tell about commonly viewed celestial objects.

  18. FLIPPER: Validation for Remote Ocean Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    one of the determining factors in the planet s ability to support life is the same factor that makes the Blue Planet blue: water. Therefore, NASA researchers have a focused interest in understanding Earth s oceans and their ability to continue sustaining life. A critical objective in this study is to understand the global processes that control the changes of carbon and associated living elements in the oceans. Since oceans are so large, one of the most widely used methods of this research is remote sensing, using satellites to observe changes in the ocean color that may be indicative of changes occurring at the surface. Major changes in carbon are due to photosynthesis conducted by phytoplankton, showing, among other things, which areas are sustaining life. Although valuable for large-scale pictures of an ocean, remote sensing really only provides a surface, and therefore incomplete, depiction of that ocean s sustainability. True and complete testing of the water requires local testing in conjunction with the satellite images in order to generate the necessary algorithm parameters to calculate ocean health. For this reason, NASA has spearheaded research to provide onsite validation for its satellite imagery surveys.

  19. Oceans, Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Lightle

    2006-01-01

    What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

  20. Adolescents and popular culture. A psychodynamic overview.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, D S; Daniolos, P; Kass, N; Martin, A

    1999-01-01

    Adolescents occupy a difficult and seemingly elusive developmental space, which makes them enigmas to most adults, including psychotherapists. Building upon dynamic theory such as that formulated by Winnicott or Erikson, this paper explores the relationship between adolescents and material elements of popular culture within a psychodynamic and developmental framework. Theoretical perspectives are integrated with case material to illustrate some of the roles of popular music and fashion in the lives of teenagers as a means of expression and in potential therapeutic alliance formation, dynamic understanding and working through developmental conflicts in displacement. PMID:10748638

  1. ESTUDO DO MEIO EM UMESTUDO DO MEIO EM UM BAIRRO POPULAR NABAIRRO POPULAR NA

    E-print Network

    ESTUDO DO MEIO EM UMESTUDO DO MEIO EM UM BAIRRO POPULAR NABAIRRO POPULAR NA CIDADE DECIDADE DE DIDÁTICA EM QUE CONSITE O NOSSOEM QUE CONSITE O NOSSO PROJETO?PROJETO? MATERIAISMATERIAIS CAPACITAÇÃO PARTICIPATIVOORÇAMENTO PARTICIPATIVO #12;ALGUNS PROBLEMASALGUNS PROBLEMAS PROJETOS FUTUROSPROJETOS FUTUROS COORDENAÇÃO EM

  2. Planet frequency from microlensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassan, A.; Ranc, C.

    2014-12-01

    Galactic gravitational microlensing is a very efficient technique to detect brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets at large orbital distances from their stars, and down to Earth-mass planets. More than 50 planets have been discovered so far, with 31 already published. Recent statistical results on the frequency of exoplanets based on several years of microlensing observations find that planets should be the rule rather than the exception, and confirm that super-Earth are much more frequent that giant planets in the Galaxy.

  3. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frex, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins were mare-type basins produced 4 billion years ago by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upwards from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the Earth indicates that at least 50 percent of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60 percent oceanic, 40 percent continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  4. Observed properties of extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrew W

    2013-05-01

    Observational surveys for extrasolar planets probe the diverse outcomes of planet formation and evolution. These surveys measure the frequency of planets with different masses, sizes, orbital characteristics, and host star properties. Small planets between the sizes of Earth and Neptune substantially outnumber Jupiter-sized planets. The survey measurements support the core accretion model, in which planets form by the accumulation of solids and then gas in protoplanetary disks. The diversity of exoplanetary characteristics demonstrates that most of the gross features of the solar system are one outcome in a continuum of possibilities. The most common class of planetary system detectable today consists of one or more planets approximately one to three times Earth's size orbiting within a fraction of the Earth-Sun distance. PMID:23641110

  5. The internet and the popularization of mathematics

    E-print Network

    Ghys, Étienne

    The internet and the popularization of mathematics ´Etienne Ghys Abstract. In this paper activity with the general public. I would like to focus on the internet as a powerful tool to achieve of mathematics, Internet. 1. Introduction Even though the International Congress of Mathematicians has been

  6. Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,

    E-print Network

    van Harmelen, Frank

    Semantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I of the day, of temporary interest" #12;Which Semantic Web are we talking about? Semantic Web research anno

  7. Political parties, popular legitimacy and public privilege

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mair

    1995-01-01

    The challenge facing the established party democracies and the apparent growth in popular disenchantment with parties is not a function of party decline as such. Rather, it can be associated with a contradictory development in which parties at one and the same time become less relevant as representative agencies (in terms of both their purposive role and their position on

  8. Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take…

  9. Relationship Advice Columns from Two Popular Magazines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori R. Kogan; Julie A. Kellaway

    2004-01-01

    The relationship advice columns for two popular magazines (one targeted to female and the other to male readers) were discussed within the conceptual frameworks of centerfold syndrome and appearance obsession. Centerfold syndrome is a theory that describes the way men view women and sexuality. The female counterpart is appearance obsession which theorizes that women are motivated to meet unrealistic beauty

  10. Introduction to Triumpho del Govierno Popular

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Oravetz Albert

    2004-01-01

    The Triumpho del Govierno Popular, y de la Antiguedad Holandesa by Miguel de Barrios (Daniel Levi de Barrios) describes the political and religious 'government' of the community, and includes accounts of its literary and charitable associations, along with poems, encomia, funeral orations, and other miscellanea from de Barrios' Jewish oeuvre. This excerpt constitutes the opening of the work, part of

  11. Practical performance models for complex, popular applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eno Thereska; Bjoern Doebel; Alice X. Zheng; Peter Nobel

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps surprisingly, no practical performance models exist for popular (and complex) client applications such as Adobe's Cre- ative Suite, Microsoft's Office and Visual Studio, Mozilla, Halo 3, etc. There is currently no tool that automatically answers pro- gram developers', IT administrators' and end-users' simple what-if questions like \\

  12. Practical performance models for complex, popular applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eno Thereska; Bjoern Doebel; Alice X. Zheng; Peter Nobel

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps surprisingly, no practical performance models exist for popular (and complex) client applications such as Adobe's Creative Suite, Microsoft's Office and Visual Studio, Mozilla, Halo 3, etc. There is currently no tool that automatically answers program developers', IT administrators' and end-users' simple what-if questions like \\

  13. Popular Music, Television, and Generational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    Although previous generations have by no means been disloyal to the popular music of their youth, the tenacious attachment of the Baby Boomers to the music of the 1960s seems unprecedented. Three main reasons account for this constantly widening musical reclamation project. First, the Baby Boomers have a clearer sense of generational identity that…

  14. Using Popular Quotations to Enhance Therapeutic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiitala, Wyndy L.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the use of therapeutic writing as a technique for managing personal problems. It was hypothesized that having individuals intermittently read inspirational/motivational sayings would further enhance the benefit of therapeutic writing. The results indicate that popular quotations can be used with therapeutic writing to make the…

  15. Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

  16. Popular Media and the Teenage Sexual Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strover, Sharon

    A qualitative study examined how teenagers react to and interpret certain popular media messages. In addition it explored the relationship between content containing various sexual messages and teenagers' responses to those messages, with particular attention to the critical abilities this audience exhibits. Fifty male and female teenagers aged…

  17. Communicacion Popular: The Language of Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert A.

    "Communcacion popular" is an attempt by the peasant classes in Latin America to set up communication channels, independent of the hierarchy of intermediaries, that link them to the ruling elite. This language of liberation is self-reliant and defiant, coloring every aspect of its participants' lives. Its channels of communication are horizontal,…

  18. Forecasting Popularity of Videos Using Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; van der Schaar, Mihaela; Liu, Jiangchuan; Li, Haitao

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic online prediction method (Social-Forecast) that is capable to accurately forecast the popularity of videos promoted by social media. Social-Forecast explicitly considers the dynamically changing and evolving propagation patterns of videos in social media when making popularity forecasts, thereby being situation and context aware. Social-Forecast aims to maximize the forecast reward, which is defined as a tradeoff between the popularity prediction accuracy and the timeliness with which a prediction is issued. The forecasting is performed online and requires no training phase or a priori knowledge. We analytically bound the prediction performance loss of Social-Forecast as compared to that obtained by an omniscient oracle and prove that the bound is sublinear in the number of video arrivals, thereby guaranteeing its short-term performance as well as its asymptotic convergence to the optimal performance. In addition, we conduct extensive experiments using real-world data traces collected from the videos shared in RenRen, one of the largest online social networks in China. These experiments show that our proposed method outperforms existing view-based approaches for popularity prediction (which are not context-aware) by more than 30% in terms of prediction rewards.

  19. Practical Fishkeeping Popular shark myth dispelled

    E-print Network

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Practical Fishkeeping Popular shark myth dispelled The notion that sharks have the ability to smell studying the olfactory capabilities of five species of elasmobranchs (the group that includes sharks, skates and rays) and concluded that sharks had a sense of smell no better than that of a typical fish

  20. Popular Financial Reports: Accountability through Readability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard T.; Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses colleges' use of popular financial reporting to make their annual financial reports more readable to citizens and legislators and to make their reports useful marketing and recruitment tools. Highlights research about financial reports and performance reporting conducted by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board. Describes the…

  1. Caveat Lector: Reviewing Popular Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Vivian Scott

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems with reviews and criticisms of popular social science books: the quality and background of reviewers, the difficulty of distinguishing between fact and opinion, and the scarcity of competent reviewers. Analyzes reviews of Robert Ardrey's "African Genesis" and "The Territorial Imperative," Konrad Lorenz's "On Aggression," and…

  2. EECS Town Hall Agenda Most popular questions

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    EECS Town Hall Agenda Most popular questions: · - "How are faculty encouraged to be good advisers at this town hall and make sure that this is not just another report on shelf? - Faculty usually get feedback from graduate students through student administered quizzes. This is the first town hall in 10 years

  3. Teaching Theory through Popular Culture Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a pedagogical approach to teaching theory to pre-service teachers. This approach involves articulating academic texts that introduce theoretical ideas and tools with carefully selected popular culture texts that can be taken up to illustrate the elements of a particular theory. Examples of the theories…

  4. PREDICTING PLANETS IN KEPLER MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We investigate whether any multi-planet systems among Kepler candidates (2011 February release) can harbor additional terrestrial-mass planets or smaller bodies. We apply the packed planetary systems hypothesis that suggests all planetary systems are filled to capacity, and use a Hill stability criterion to identify eight two-planet systems with significant gaps between the innermost and outermost planets. For each of these systems, we perform long-term numerical integrations of 10{sup 7} years to investigate the stability of 4000-8000 test particles injected into the gaps. We map out stability regions in orbital parameter space, and therefore quantify the ranges of semimajor axes and eccentricities of stable particles. Strong mean-motion resonances can add additional regions of stability in otherwise unstable parameter space. We derive simple expressions for the extent of the stability regions, which is related to quantities such as the dynamical spacing {Delta}, the separation between two planets in units of their mutual Hill radii. Our results suggest that planets with separation {Delta} < 10 are unlikely to host extensive stability regions, and that about 95 out of a total of 115 two-planet systems in the Kepler sample may have sizeable stability regions. We predict that Kepler candidate systems including KOI 433, KOI 72/Kepler-10, KOI 555, KOI 1596, KOI 904, KOI 223, KOI 1590, and KOI 139 can harbor additional planets or low-mass bodies between the inner and outer detected planets. These predicted planets may be detected by future observations.

  5. Mass-Radius Relationships for Low-Mass Planets: From Iron Planets to Water Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Transit observations, and radial velocity measurements, have begun to populate the mass radius diagram for extrasolar planets; fubture astrometric measurements and direct images promise more mass and radius information. Clearly, the bulk density of a planet indicates something about a planet s composition--but what? I will attempt to answer this question in general for low-mass planets (planets obey a kind of universal mass-radius relationship: an expansion whose first term is M approx. R(sup 3).

  6. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems

    PubMed Central

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2001-01-01

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

  7. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Lunine, J

    2001-01-30

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

  8. Exploring the Planets: Discovery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes what early civilizations knew about our solar system and how astronomy developed over the centuries. The early theories describing the movements of the planets, development of the first telescopes, and discoveries of the planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are some of the topics addressed in Discovery. Here you will find the Pluto discovery plate, the photographic plate taken the day Pluto's position was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh. Other topics covered at this site include: the Renaissance with the ideas of Copernicus and Kepler; the age of the telescope, which traces its development; Galileo, who is credited with discovering the moons of Jupiter, phases of Venus, and the craters on the Moon; and planetary satellites.

  9. Outer Planet Auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M.

    Remarkable progress has been made in the past 10 years in studies of auroral processes on the outer, gas-giant planets and their satellites via the dramatic imaging provided by ground-based observations in the infrared (e.g., Satoh and Connerney, 1999, Icarus, 141, 236); by the Hubble Space Telescope in the ultraviolet (e.g., Clarke et al. 2002, Nature, 415, 997); by the Galileo spacecraft at visible wavelengths (e.g., Vasavada et al. 1999, JGR, 104, 27133); and by the Chandra Xray Observatory in the xray (e.g., Gladstone et al. 2002, Nature, 415, 1000). This talk will provide a brief overview of the recent observations, the accompanying modeling, and a short discussion of the contrast between outer planet and Earth auroral processes.

  10. Exploring the Planets: Venus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Venus, including mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), and diameter. Many discoveries about Venus have been made using Earth-based radio telescopes, however the images of Venus in this exhibit were collected by the Magellan spacecraft. Magellan used radar to produce the first high-resolution global map of Venus. Since Venus has no water erosion and little wind, volcanic eruptions are a major force reshaping the landscape. Geologic forces at work beneath the crust create mountains, rifts, and patterns of fractures, while the sluggish winds sculpt the surface in subtler ways but many mysteries remain. This site includes numerous images of the planet.

  11. Exploring the Planets: Voyager

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes the Voyager exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum and gives additional information about the Voyagers that were launched into space and the one remaining in the museum. The Voyager spacecraft displayed in the Exploring the Planets gallery is similar to the two Voyagers sent to explore Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. This portion of the exhibit details the Voyager missions, the spacecraft, and its instruments. Sixteen of the Voyager components and instrumentation are discussed in detail along with its unique power supply. The Museum's spacecraft is a full-scale replica of Voyager, parts of which were used for pre-launch engineering tests. Voyager is suspended above the Outer Planets display, which highlights some of the discoveries made through data and imagery returned by Voyagers 1 and 2.

  12. Live Tonight: The Planets!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-09-03

    This activity is about viewing the planet Mars (and others) through a telescope. Learners will go outside on a clear evening to view the planets and other celestial bodies for themselves. Using sky charts and other resources, and possibly in partnership with a local astronomical society or club, children and their families view Mars with binoculars and/or telescopes. The children who have participated in the other Explore: Life on Mars? activities may serve as docents at this public, community event, sharing what they have done and learned about what life is, the requirements for life, and the possibility for life on Mars now — or in the past! It is recommended that the viewing event be paired with the hands-on experiment within the Searching for Life activity if space and time allow. It also includes specific tips for effectively engaging girls in STEM. This is activity 8 in Explore: Life on Mars? that was developed specifically for use in libraries.

  13. Plant for the Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Young Voices on Climate Change

    This video describes the foundation Plant for the Planet, a foundation created by a 9-year-old German boy, Felix. This foundation has planted more than 500,000 trees in Germany, which he says help sequester carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The student rallies, first his community and then other children, to plant millions of trees to offset our energy-use emissions.

  14. Planet Forming Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubow, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The project achieved many of its objectives. The main area of investigation was the interaction of young binary stars with surrounding protostellar disks. A secondary objective was the interaction of young planets with their central stars and surrounding disks. The grant funds were used to support visits by coinvestigators and visitors: Pawel Artymowicz, James Pringle, and Gordon Ogilvie. Funds were also used to support travel to meetings by Lubow and to provide partial salary support.

  15. The Fate of Water in the Martian Magma Ocean and the Formation of an Early Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Elkins-Tanton; E. M. Parmentier

    2005-01-01

    A chondritic martian magma ocean degasses during solidification to create an initial water atmosphere consistent with the planet's current water content, while the mantle retains sufficient water to reduce viscosity and encourage convection.

  16. Educational And Public Outreach Software On Planet Detection For The Macintosh (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Brady, Victoria; Cannara, Rachel; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of extra-solar planets has been a very popular topic with the general public for years. Considerable media coverage of recent detections has only heightened the interest in the topic. School children are particularly interested in learning about space. Astronomers have the knowledge and responsibility to present this information in both an understandable and interesting format. Since most classrooms and homes are now equipped with computers this media can be utilized to provide more than a traditional "flat" presentation. An interactive "stack" has been developed using Hyperstudio (TM). The major topics include: "1996 - The Break Through Year In Planet Detection"; "What Determines If A Planet Is Habitable?"; "How Can We Find Other Planets (Search Methods)"; "All About the Kepler Mission: How To Find Earth-Sized Planets"; and "A Mission Simulator". Using the simulator, the student records simulated observations and then analyzes and interprets the data within the program stacks to determine the orbit and planet size, the planet's temperature and surface gravity, and finally determines if the planet is habitable. Additional related sections are also included. Many of the figures are animated to assist in comprehension of the material. A set of a dozen lesson plans for the middle school has also been drafted.

  17. Bullying, Social Power and Heteronormativity: Girls' Constructions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were derived…

  18. Focus: Popular Culture, Censorship, Religion in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Donald, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Kansas English" contains four articles related to popular culture, censorship, and religion. "Popular Culture Studies: A Complement to the Humanities" by Michael Marsden, focuses on the relationship between popular culture studies and the humanities, including English. "Popular Couture: La Vie En Blue" by Richard Martin, examines…

  19. Early planet formation as a trigger for further planet formation

    E-print Network

    Philip J. Armitage; Brad M. S. Hansen

    1999-12-08

    Recent discoveries of extrasolar planets at small orbital radii, or with significant eccentricities, indicate that interactions between massive planets and the disks of gas and dust from which they formed are vital for determining the final shape of planetary systems. We show that if this interaction occurs at an early epoch, when the protoplanetary disc was still massive, then rapid planet growth through accretion causes an otherwise stable disc to fragment into additional planetary mass bodies when the planetary mass reaches 4-5 Jupiter masses. We suggest that such catastrophic planet formation could account for apparent differences in the mass function of massive planets and brown dwarfs, and the existence of young stars that appear to have dissipated their discs at an early epoch. Subsequent gravitational interactions will lead to planetary systems comprising a small number of massive planets in eccentric orbits.

  20. Extrasolar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korechoff, R. P.; Diner, D. J.; Tubbs, E. F.; Gaiser, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of extrasolar planet detection using a large-aperture infared imaging telescope. Coronagraphic stellar apodization techniques are less efficient at infrared wavelengths compared to the visible, as a result of practical limitations on aperture dimensions, thus necessitating additional starlight suppression to make planet detection feasible in this spectral domain. We have been investigating the use of rotational shearing interferometry to provide up to three orders of magnitude of starlight suppression over broad spectral bandwidths. We present a theoretical analysis of the system performance requirements needed to make this a viable instrument for planet detection, including specifications on the interferometer design and telescope aperture characteristics. The concept of using rotational shearing interferometry as a wavefront error detector, thus providing a signal that can be used to adaptively correct the wavefront, will be discussed. We also present the status of laboratory studies of on-axis source suppression using a recently constructed rotational shearing interferometer that currently operates in the visible.

  1. Planet Formation with Migration

    E-print Network

    J. E. Chambers

    2006-10-30

    In the core-accretion model, gas-giant planets form solid cores which then accrete gaseous envelopes. Tidal interactions with disk gas cause a core to undergo inward type-I migration in 10^4 to 10^5 years. Cores must form faster than this to survive. Giant planets clear a gap in the disk and undergo inward type-II migration in migration times exceed typical disk lifetimes if viscous accretion occurs mainly in the surface layers of disks. Low turbulent viscosities near the midplane may allow planetesimals to form by coagulation of dust grains. The radius r of such planetesimals is unknown. If rmigration timescale and cores will survive. Migration is substantial in most cases, leading to a wide range of planetary orbits, consistent with the observed variety of extrasolar systems. When r is of order 100m and midplane alpha is of order 3 times 10^-5, giant planets similar to those in the Solar System can form.

  2. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1. PMID:22506608

  3. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  4. Ocean Optics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

  5. Ocean Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students discover that measurements from space can tell us the temperature of the ocean, both on an annual average and as measured on any given date. For the annual average the highest ocean temperatures are near the equator, and drop as one moves either northward or southward from the equator. Students will graph each temperature value as a function of latitude and write a linear equation that best fits the points on their graph. They can choose as data points any point at that approximate latitude because the temperature is not uniform for a certain latitude - some areas are hotter and some are cooler. They can also look at today's ocean temperatures via the link provided to see how the seasons affect whether the northern or southern oceans are warmer. Students will take ocean temperature data from a map and plot temperature versus angle from the equator.

  6. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    Mark S. Marley; Jonathan Fortney; Sara Seager; Travis Barman

    2006-02-21

    The key to understanding an extrasolar giant planet's spectrum--and hence its detectability and evolution--lies with its atmosphere. Now that direct observations of thermal emission from extrasolar giant planets are in hand, atmosphere models can be used to constrain atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and ultimately the formation and evolution of detected planets. We review the important physical processes that influence the atmospheric structure and evolution of extrasolar giant planets and consider what has already been learned from the first generation of observations and modeling. We pay particular attention to the roles of cloud structure, metallicity, and atmospheric chemistry in affecting detectable properties through Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting giant planets. Our review stresses the uncertainties that ultimately limit our ability to interpret EGP observations. Finally we will conclude with a look to the future as characterization of multiple individual planets in a single stellar system leads to the study of comparative planetary architectures.

  7. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The next decade will almost certainly see the direct imaging of extrasolar giant planets around nearby stars. Unlike purely radial velocity detections, direct imaging will open the door to characterizing the atmosphere and interiors of extrasola planets and ultimately provide clues on their formation and evolution through time. This process has already begun for the transiting planets, placing new constraints on their atmospheric structure, composition, and evolution. Indeed the key to understanding giant planet detectability, interpreting spectra, and constraining effective temperature and hence evolution-is the atmosphere. I will review the universe of extrasolar giant planet models, focusing on what we have already learned from modeling and what we will likely be able to learn from the first generation of direct detection data. In addition to these theoretical considerations, I will review the observations and interpretation of the - transiting hot Jupiters. These objects provide a test of our ability to model exotic atmospheres and challenge our current understanding of giant planet evolution.

  8. Microlensing search for extrasolar planets

    E-print Network

    A. Cassan; D. Kubas

    2006-12-01

    Microlensing has recently proven to be a valuable tool to search for extrasolar planets of Neptune- to super-Earth-mass planets at orbits of few AU. Since planetary signals are of very short duration, an intense and continuous monitoring is required, which is achieved by PLANET : ``Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork''. Up to now the detection number amounts to four, one of them being OGLE 2005-BLG-390Lb, an extrasolar planet of only ~5.5 M_earth orbiting its M-dwarf host star at ~2.6 AU. For non-planetary microlensing events observed from 1995 to 2006, we compute detection efficiency diagrams which can then be used to derive an estimate of the limit on the Galactic abundance of sub-Jupiter-mass planets, as well as relative abundance of Neptune-like planets.

  9. A Kepler Transiting Circumbinary Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, William F.; Orosz, J. A.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Haghighipour, N.; Short, D. R.; Kepler Team

    2014-01-01

    Among the thousands of planet candidates discovered by Kepler only a few have been detected in binary star systems. To date, seven transiting circumbinary planets have been confirmed, with several more candidates planets under investigation. Of the confirmed cases, the planets orbit short-period eclipsing binaries that have periods between one and seven weeks. The eclipsing binary nature of the stars allows their masses and radii to be accurately determined. Perturbations of the binary can be detected by eclipsing timing variations, sometimes allowing the mass of the planet to be measured. In this talk, we present the most recent Kepler transiting circumbinary planet. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF via grant AST-1109928, and from NASA via Kepler PSP grant NNX12AS23G and OSS grant NNX12AI76G.

  10. Finding Materials on American Popular Culture in the MSU Libraries: Popular Music, Television, Comics, Popular Fiction, Movies. How to Find Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Randall W., Comp.

    An introduction to popular culture materials in the Michigan State University Libraries, this combination library guide and bibliography presents finding tools for popular fiction, comic materials, popular music, movies, and television programming. It provides instruction on the use of the card catalog, suggested subject heading search terms, and…

  11. The Nature of Science in Popular Nonfiction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Austin

    2008-07-01

    To help make science relevant to student's everyday lives, the authors required their 10 th -grade summer school students to read selections from a popular nonfiction science book. By doing so, they were able to promote literacy and provide an authentic portrayal of the nature of science in a way that was fun and interesting for their students. This article describes their experience using a nonfiction science book in the classroom and suggests literacy activities to enhance science and reading comprehension.

  12. The Popularity of P&P

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The classes are often…

  13. A mathematical search for Planet X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Powell

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed that the systematic residuals in the positions of Uranus and Neptune may be due to an unknown planet: Planet X. Using the weighted-least-squares method, the orbit and mass of Planet X were computed from the residuals of Uranus. It is concluded that, if it exists, Planet X will be the tenth planet. However, it may not be

  14. ASTR 110L Name: Motion of Planets

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    of Planets" Plotting Orbits: 1. (5 pts.) For Venus, Earth & Mars, plot each planet's ecliptic longitudeASTR 110L Name: Fall 2011 Motion of Planets in conjunction with "Stellarium Activity #4 -- Phases planet with a smooth arc. Label the dates of the two endpoints for each planet. 2. (5 pts.) For Earth

  15. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Maciejewski; R. Neuhäuser; R. Errmann; M. Mugrauer; Ch. Adam; A. Berndt; T. Eisenbeiss; S. Fiedler; Ch. Ginski; M. Hohle; U. Kramm; C. Marka; M. Moualla; T. Pribulla; St. Raetz; T. Roell; T. O. B. Schmidt; M. Seeliger; I. Spaleniak; N. Tetzlaff; L. Trepl

    2011-01-01

    Transiting exoplanets (TEPs) observed just ~10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs), the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger

  16. Cooperation and popularity in spatial games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Selection of the competition opponent is crucial for the evolution of cooperation in evolutionary games. In this work, we introduce a simple rule, incorporating individual popularity via the single parameter ?, to study how the selection of the potential strategy sources influences individual behavior traits. For positive ? players with high popularity will be considered more likely, while for negative ? the opposite holds. Setting ? equal to zero returns the frequently adopted random selection of the opponent. We find that positive ? (namely, adopting the strategy from a more popular player) promotes the emergence of cooperation, which is robust against different interaction networks and game classes. The essence of this boosting effect can be attributed to the fact: increasing ? accelerates the microscopic organization of cooperator clusters to resist the exploitation of defectors. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the introduction of a new mechanism alters the impact of uncertainty by strategy adoption on the evolution of cooperation. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  17. LIGHT SCATTERING FROM EXOPLANET OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Zugger, M. E.; Kane, T. J. [Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University, P.O. Box 30, State College, PA 16804 (United States); Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Philbrick, C. R. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, 432 Riddick Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

    2010-11-10

    Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude (OL) = 180{sup 0}, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30{sup 0}. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74{sup 0}; however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90{sup 0}, but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however, polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination.

  18. Formation of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions planets with small cores/total heavy element abundances can accrete gaseous envelopes within the lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary disks.

  19. Planet X - ract or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1988-08-01

    The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

  20. Starting a Planet Protectors Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    If your mission is to teach children how to reduce, reuse, and recycle waste and create the next generation of Planet Protectors, perhaps leading a Planet Protectors Club is part of your future challenges. You don't have to be an expert in waste reduction and recycling to lead a a Planet Protectors Club. You don't even have to be a teacher. You do…

  1. Fourier spectra from exoplanets with polar caps and ocean glint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, P. M.; van de Bult, F. J.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The weak orbital-phase dependent reflection signal of an exoplanet contains information on the planet surface, such as the distribution of continents and oceans on terrestrial planets. This light curve is usually studied in the time domain, but because the signal from a stationary surface is (quasi)periodic, analysis of the Fourier series may provide an alternative, complementary approach. Aims: We study Fourier spectra from reflected light curves for geometrically simple configurations. Depending on its atmospheric properties, a rotating planet in the habitable zone could have circular polar ice caps. Tidally locked planets, on the other hand, may have symmetric circular oceans facing the star. These cases are interesting because the high-albedo contrast at the sharp edges of the ice-sheets and the glint from the host star in the ocean may produce recognizable light curves with orbital periodicity, which could also be interpreted in the Fourier domain. Methods: We derive a simple general expression for the Fourier coefficients of a quasiperiodic light curve in terms of the albedo map of a Lambertian planet surface. Analytic expressions for light curves and their spectra are calculated for idealized situations, and dependence of the spectral peaks on the key parameters inclination, obliquity, and cap size is studied. Results: The ice-scattering and ocean glint contributions can be separated out, because the coefficients for glint are all positive, whereas ice sheets lead to even-numbered, higher harmonics. An in-view polar cap on a planet without axial tilt only produces a single peak. The special situation of edge-on observation, which is important for planets in transit, leads to the most pronounced spectral behavior. Then the respective spectra from planets with a circumventing ocean, a circular ocean (eyeball world), polar caps, and rings, have characteristic power-law tails n-2, n-7/2, n-4, and (-1)n + 1n-2. Conclusions: Promising recently discovered planetary systems may be selected as candidates for long-term (multiyear) observation: their Fourier spectra could separate the different planets and reveal or identify a water-covered planet with polar caps. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Comprehensive Ocean Drilling

    E-print Network

    Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

  3. Dynamical Interactions Among Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughlin, G.

    For certain multiple planet systems such as GJ 876 and 55 Cancri, which have (1) been observed for a large number of orbital periods, and which (2) have strong planet-planet gravitational interactions, the approximation that the planets are orbiting on independent Keplerian ellipses is inadequate. We discuss the production of self-consistent dynamical fits to these interacting systems, in which a minimization scheme (such as the Levenberg-Marquardt technique, or a Genetic Algorithm) is used to repeatedly drive an N-body integrator and improve the agreement between the integrated reflex motion of the central star and the observed radial velocities.

  4. Terrestrial planets in high-mass disks without gas giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Elía, G. C.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that planetary systems consisting only of rocky planets are probably the most common in the Universe. Aims: We study the potential habitability of planets formed in high-mass disks without gas giants around solar-type stars. These systems are interesting because they are likely to harbor super-Earths or Neptune-mass planets on wide orbits, which one should be able to detect with the microlensing technique. Methods: First, a semi-analytical model was used to define the mass of the protoplanetary disks that produce Earth-like planets, super-Earths, or mini-Neptunes, but not gas giants. Using mean values for the parameters that describe a disk and its evolution, we infer that disks with masses lower than 0.15 M? are unable to form gas giants. Then, that semi-analytical model was used to describe the evolution of embryos and planetesimals during the gaseous phase for a given disk. Thus, initial conditions were obtained to perform N-body simulations of planetary accretion. We studied disks of 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15 M?. Results: All our simulations form massive planets on wide orbits. For a 0.1 M? disk, 2-3 super-Earths of 2.8 to 5.9 M? are formed between 2 and 5 AU. For disks of 0.125 and 0.15 M?, our simulations produce a 10-17.1 M? planet between 1.6 and 2.7 AU, and other super-Earths are formed in outer regions. Moreover, six planets survive in the habitable zone (HZ). These planets have masses from 1.9 to 4.7 M? and significant water contents ranging from 560 to 7482 Earth oceans, where one Earth ocean represents the amount of water on Earth's surface, which equals 2.8 × 10-4M?. Of the six planets formed in the HZ, three are water worlds with 39%-44% water by mass. These planets start the simulations beyond the snow line, which explains their high water abundances. In general terms, the smaller the mass of the planets observed on wide orbits, the higher the possibility to find water worlds in the HZ. In fact, massive planets can act as a dynamical barrier that prevents the inward diffusion of water-rich embryos located beyond the snow line. Conclusions: Systems without gas giants that harbor super-Earths or Neptune-mass planets on wide orbits around solar-type stars are of astrobiological interest. These systems are likely to harbor super-Earths in the HZ with significant water contents, which missions such as Kepler and Darwin should be able to find.

  5. 44How to Build a Planet from the Inside Out! The planet Osiris orbits 7 million

    E-print Network

    to rocky planets like Venus, Earth and Mars? Problem 1 - A hypothetical planet is modeled as a sphere44How to Build a Planet from the Inside Out! The planet Osiris orbits 7 million kilometers from has recently detected water, methane and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of this planet. The planet

  6. Earth's Mantle as the Product of Magma Ocean Solidification (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Tikoo, S. M.; Brown, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large accretionary impacts on rocky planets have long been thought to produce partial or even complete melting of the growing planet. Models indicate that these magma oceans may solidify extremely fast, on the order of a million years or less, and thus production and freezing of magma oceans is likely to occur several times during the growth of a young planet, though solidification could be delayed by a thick atmosphere or by heating from the young star. Many questions persist about how magma oceans solidify. Do they crystallize fractionally or in bulk? Under what conditions would quench crusts occur, and do they substantially change the solidification timescale or chemical differentiation? Can bubbles efficiently escape a convecting magma ocean? Models can predict the geochemical consequences of different scenarios, and increasingly, geochemical evidence can be compared to model results. New noble gas geochemical evidence from the Earth supports the multiple magma ocean model, and other isotopic evidence supports fractional solidification of at least the last magma ocean. We will present models and geochemical evidence for magma ocean solidification on the Earth, and discuss ramifications for early convective vigor, water content of the mantle, and the onset of plate tectonics.

  7. Irreversible evolution of the terrestrial planets (geological and petrological data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Comparative studying of tectonomagmatic evolution of the Earth and the Moon shows that cardinal irreversible change in character of tectonomagmatic processes occurred at middle stages of their evolution; very likely such changes took place on other terrestrial planets (Venus, Mars and Mercury). As a result, primordial crusts of the planets were in considerable degree replaced by secondary basaltic ones. The established succession of events on the Earth could be provided by a combination of two independent factors: (1) it was originally heterogeneous and 2) its downward heating was followed by the cooling of its outer shells. As a result the primary iron core material was long time remained untouched and was involved into global tectonomagmatic processes at ca. 2.4-2.3 Ga. We concluded about a similar scenario for the evolution of Moon and other terrestrial planets. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and Moon) was studied. What did major stages of their irreversible evolution occur before they turned into "dead" stone balls? We discuss these problems on examples of the Earth and the Moon, which evolution studied the best. According to modern views, after accretion of these bodies, magma oceans of some hundreds km deep appeared on their surface. According to Jeffries [1], solidification of large molted bodies, because of the difference between adiabatic gradient in silicate melts (0.3oC/km) and gradient of their melting points (3oC/km), could be going only upwards, from the bottom to the surface. As a result a powerful crystallizing differentiation of the oceans' magmas occurred with accumulation of the most low-melting components to the surface. Due to different deep of the magma oceans on the Earth and the Moon, the primordial crusts on these bodies were rather different: sialic on the Earth and basic (anorthosite) on the Moon.

  8. PLANETS & LIFE HUMAN & PLANETARY PERSPECTIVES PLANETS AND LIFE

    E-print Network

    Rothman, Daniel

    PLANETS & LIFE ­ HUMAN & PLANETARY PERSPECTIVES #12; 2 PLANETS AND LIFE HUMAN AND PLANETARY to thousands of years. Perhaps equally important is our genetic flexibility and the ability of our societies to significantly alter our environment on short and long timescales, based on both our knowledge of Earth's history

  9. Dynamical Evolution of Planets in Disks Planets in resonant Orbits

    E-print Network

    Kley, Willy

    :1 resonance. Resonant capture leads to a rise in the eccentricity and to an alignment of the of the spatialDynamical Evolution of Planets in Disks Planets in resonant Orbits W. Kley (wilhelm case a resonant trapping into the 3:1 resonance, and in the second case a trapping into the 2

  10. Comparing the Planets: Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set of images summarizes what scientists currently know about the occurrence of water ice and water vapor on the terrestrial planets and satellites in our Solar System. Accompanied by a brief description, the Jpeg images show the ice cap at Mars' south pole, ice rafting on Europa, liquid water covering the surface of Earth (the famous 'Blue Marble' photo), and an impact crater on the Moon that may contain water ice. There is also a diagram showing the possible distribution of ice on Mars, as it varies with latitude.

  11. Minor Planet Mariotti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    “Named in memory of Jean-Marie Mariotti (1955-1998), French astronomer, most recently in Garching at the European Southern Observatory. He led the pioneering project to establish optical interferometry with the new Very Large Telescope as a breakthrough new astronomical instrument for the next century. His interest was in the area of high angular resolution, and he was involved in interferometric projects both on the ground (e.g., FLUOR and VLTI) and in space (DARWIN). He hoped with these techniques to find low-mass companions, and ultimately planets outside our solar system. He had an extraordinarily effective mix of technical expertise and scientific eagerness."

  12. No Pseudosynchronous Rotation for Terrestrial Planets and Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael

    2013-02-01

    We re-examine the popular belief that a telluric planet or a satellite on an eccentric orbit can, outside a spin-orbit resonance, be captured in a quasi-static tidal equilibrium called pseudosynchronous rotation. The existence of such configurations was deduced from oversimplified tidal models assuming either a constant tidal torque or a torque linear in the tidal frequency. A more accurate treatment requires that the torque be decomposed into the Darwin-Kaula series over the tidal modes, and that this decomposition be combined with a realistic choice of rheological properties of the mantle, which we choose to be a combination of the Andrade model at ordinary frequencies and the Maxwell model at low frequencies. This development demonstrates that there exist no stable equilibrium states for solid planets and moons, other than spin-orbit resonances.

  13. Acid Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

  14. Inside-out planet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sourav [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: s.chatterjee@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: jt@astro.ufl.edu [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The compact multi-transiting planet systems discovered by Kepler challenge planet formation theories. Formation in situ from disks with radial mass surface density, ?, profiles similar to the minimum mass solar nebula but boosted in normalization by factors ? 10 has been suggested. We propose that a more natural way to create these planets in the inner disk is formation sequentially from the inside-out via creation of successive gravitationally unstable rings fed from a continuous stream of small (?cm-m size) 'pebbles', drifting inward via gas drag. Pebbles collect at the pressure maximum associated with the transition from a magnetorotational instability (MRI)-inactive ('dead zone') region to an inner MRI-active zone. A pebble ring builds up until it either becomes gravitationally unstable to form an ?1 M {sub ?} planet directly or induces gradual planet formation via core accretion. The planet may undergo Type I migration into the active region, allowing a new pebble ring and planet to form behind it. Alternatively, if migration is inefficient, the planet may continue to accrete from the disk until it becomes massive enough to isolate itself from the accretion flow. A variety of densities may result depending on the relative importance of residual gas accretion as the planet approaches its isolation mass. The process can repeat with a new pebble ring gathering at the new pressure maximum associated with the retreating dead-zone boundary. Our simple analytical model for this scenario of inside-out planet formation yields planetary masses, relative mass scalings with orbital radius, and minimum orbital separations consistent with those seen by Kepler. It provides an explanation of how massive planets can form with tightly packed and well-aligned system architectures, starting from typical protoplanetary disk properties.

  15. MATHEMATICS OF PLANET EARTH PRESS RELEASE

    E-print Network

    MATHEMATICS OF PLANET EARTH PRESS RELEASE MARCH 5 2013 MATHEMATICS OF PLANET EARTH DAY AT UNESCO Paris (France) ­ March 5 2013 in a major world-wide initiative: Mathematics of Planet Earth 2013 (MPE2013). This year

  16. Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres. The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ? ­ Smaller planet mass? ­ Lightweight gases? #12;Venus and the Runaway GreenhouseTerrestrial Planet Atmospheres. II. #12;The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere #12;Mercury for a Planet · Equator heated more than poles · Hadley cell transport heat poleward

  17. A Model of the Temporal Variability of Optical Light from Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Ford; Sara Seager; Edwin L. Turner

    2002-10-12

    The light scattered by an extrasolar Earth-like planet's surface and atmosphere will vary in intensity and color as the planet rotates; the resulting light curve will contain information about the planet's properties. Since most of the light comes from a small fraction of the planet's surface, the temporal flux variability can be quite significant, $\\sim$ 10-100%. In addition, for cloudless Earth-like extrasolar planet models, qualitative changes to the surface (such as ocean fraction, ice cover) significantly affect the light curve. Clouds dominate the temporal variability of the Earth but can be coherent over several days. In contrast to Earth's temporal variability, a uniformly, heavily clouded planet (e.g. Venus), would show almost no flux variability. We present light curves for an unresolved Earth and for Earth-like model planets calculated by changing the surface features. This work suggests that meteorological variability and the rotation period of an Earth-like planet could be derived from photometric observations. The inverse problem of deriving surface properties from a given light curve is complex and will require much more investigation.

  18. Effects of Oceans on Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2005-05-01

    The oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface and play a major role in regulating the weather and climate of the planet. Earth's oceans absorb heat from sunlight, hold on to that heat, and transport it around the globe through the movement of ocean currents. The motion of the atmosphere, or winds, above it, also affects the oceans currents. The energy in the wind gets transferred to the ocean at the ocean surface affecting the motion of the water there. With the use of sensitive instruments we are able to get a better view of the functioning of our oceans and atmosphere. This science guide will point teachers and students to resources to help develop a better understanding of some of the factors that impact Earth's weather and climate. Sites with recent research and satellite data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other organizations help students understand how changes in temperature or air circulation are part of complex, longer-term cycles. They'll also learn about the interconnections between air, sea, and land and that any change could have multiple causes--and multiple effects.

  19. Future Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

  20. On the Possible Properties of Small and Cold Extrasolar Planets: Is OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb Entirely Frozen?

    E-print Network

    David Ehrenreich; Alain Lecavelier Des Etangs; Jean-Philippe Beaulieu; Olivier Grasset

    2006-07-11

    Extrasolar planets as light as a few Earths are now being detected. Such planets are likely not gas or ice giants. Here, we present a study on the possible properties of the small and cold extrasolar planets, applied to the case of the recently discovered planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb (Beaulieu et al. 2006). This planet (5.5[+5.5/-2.7] Earth masses) orbits 2.6[+1.5/-0.6]-astronomical units away from an old M-type star of the Galactic Bulge. The planet should be entirely frozen given the low surface temperature (35 to 47 K). However, depending on the rock-to-ice mass ratio in the planet, the radiogenic heating could be sufficient to make the existence of liquid water within an icy crust possible. This possibility is estimated as a function of the planetary mass and the illumination received from the parent star, both being strongly related by the observational constraints. The results are presented for water-poor and water-rich planets. We find that no oceans can be present in any cases at 9-10 Gyr, a typical age for a star of the Bulge. However, we find that, in the past when the planet was planet is now likely to be entirely frozen.

  1. Comparing Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A variety of classroom activities and lessons that compare the world's oceans. Activities included: The Gulf of Maine, Satellite Comparisons, Design a Fish, What Migrations, Incredible Feasting of Whales, Paddle to the Sea, and Ocean Soundings. Discover why weather at identical latitudes is not always the same, learn the different ways whales eat, and find out the temperature difference between the Gulf Stream and surrounding water. Links to other Aquarium modules.

  2. Dynamical evidence for Planet X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Anderson; E. Myles Standish Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamical evidence for a planet beyond the orbit of Neptune is reviewed. Three years of radio tracking data from Pioneer 10 can be fit to the noise level with no evidence for unmodelled acceleration at a level higher than 5 x 10 to the -14th km\\/sq s. The evidence does not place severe limits on the Planet X model,

  3. Planet X — The current status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Seidelmann; R. S. Harrington

    1987-01-01

    Neptune and Pluto were discovered because of predictions derived from the differences between the observations and ephemerides of Uranus, but Pluto wasn't the predicted planet and the discrepancies still exist. This continuing existence of systematic differences between the observations and ephemerides of Uranus and Neptune has led to predictions of a Planet X. The demise of the dinosaurs and the

  4. Planet X --- The current status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Seidelmann; R. S. Harrington

    1987-01-01

    Neptune and Pluto were discovered because of predictions derived from the differences between the observations and ephemerides of Uranus, but Pluto wasn't the predicted planet and the discrepancies still exist. This continuing existence of systematic differences between the observations and ephemerides of Uranus and Neptune has led to predictions of a Planet X. The demise of the dinosaurs and the

  5. Finding Circumbinary Planets via Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhn, Jacob K.; Penny, Matthew; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Each of the circumbinary planets discovered so far using Kepler have separations of about 1 AU or less from their host binary. Microlensing can detect circumbinary planets at larger separations, which would be valuable for learning more about the formation of these planets. However, it is first important to know if circumbinary planets would be detected as such via microlensing. This largely depends on the shapes of the caustics of the system, which determine the lightcurves that would be observed. Here we examine the caustic structures of circumbinary systems. We also present animations showing how these caustics are affected by the parameters of the stellar binary. By examining the caustic structures, we can see which circumbinary systems are more likely to be detected.It is also possible to estimate the fraction of circumbinary planets that would be detected. When the trajectory of the lensed star crosses a caustic, the lightcurve exhibits a noticeable spike. By comparing the number of caustic crossings in the circumbinary systems to the number of caustic crossings in similar systems that do not contain a circumbinary planet, we can estimate the percentage of detectable circumbinary planets. We find that when the binary separation is large enough, detection of both the planet and the binary would be possible up to 50 percent of the time.

  6. Pluto: The Farthest Planet (Usually).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universe in the Classroom, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides background information about the planet Pluto. Includes the history of Pluto and discusses some of the common misconceptions about the planets. Addresses some of the recent discoveries about Pluto and contains a resource list of books, articles, and a videotape. (TW)

  7. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Schunk; A. F. Nagy

    1980-01-01

    The theory and observations relating to the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Venus, the earth and Mars are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on comparing the basic differences and similarities between the planetary ionospheres. The review covers the plasma and electric-magnetic field environments that surround the planets, the theory leading to the creation and transport of ionization in the ionspheres, the

  8. Get Me Off This Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    The purpose of this lesson is to teach students how a spacecraft gets from the surface of the Earth to Mars. Students first investigate rockets and how they are able to get us into space. Finally, the nature of an orbit is discussed as well as how orbits enable us to get from planet to planet — specifically from Earth to Mars.

  9. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Véronique; Breuer, Doris; Claeys, Philippe; Debaille, Vinciane; de Keyser, Johan; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Goderis, Steven; Karatekin, Ozgur; Matielli, Nadine; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Vanhaecke, Frank; van Hoolst, Tim; Wilquet, Valérie; The PLANET Topers Team

    2015-04-01

    The PLANET TOPERS (Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS) group is an Inter-university attraction pole (IAP) addressing the question of habitability in our Solar System. Based on the only known example of Earth, the concept refers to whether environmental conditions are available that could eventually support life, even if life does not currently exist. Life is believed to require liquid water, but important geodynamic processes affect the habitability conditions of a planet. The PLANET TOPERS group develops and closely integrates the geophysical, geological, and biological aspects of habitability with a particular focus on Earth neighboring planets, Mars and Venus. Habitability is commonly understood as "the potential of an environment (past or present) to support life of any kind" (Steele et al., 2005). Based on the only known example of Earth, the concept refers to whether environmental conditions are available that could eventually support life, even if life does not currently exist (Javaux and Dehant, 2010). Life includes properties such as consuming nutrients and producing waste, the ability to reproduce and grow, pass on genetic information, evolve, and adapt to the varying conditions on a planet (Sagan, 1970). Terrestrial life requires liquid water. The common view, however, is that extraterrestrial life would probably be based on organic chemistry in a water solvent (Pace, 2001) although alternative biochemistries have been hypothesized. The stability of liquid water at the surface of a planet defines a habitable zone (HZ) around a star. In the Solar System, it stretches between Venus and Mars, but excludes these two planets. If the greenhouse effect is taken into account, the habitable zone may have included early Mars while the case for Venus is still debated. The dynamic processes, e.g. internal dynamo, magnetic field, atmosphere, plate tectonics, mantle convection, volcanism, thermo-tectonic evolution, meteorite impacts, and erosion, modify the planetary surface, the possibility to have liquid water, the thermal state, the energy budget and the availability of nutrients. Shortly after formation (Hadean 4.4-4.0 Ga), evidence supports the presence of a liquid ocean and continental crust on Earth (Wilde et al., 2001), Earth may thus have been habitable very early on (Strasdeit, 2010). The origin of life is not understood yet but the oldest putative traces of life occur in the early Archaean (~3.5 Ga). The extreme values of environmental conditions in which life thrives today can also be used to characterize the "envelope" of the existence of life and the range of potential extraterrestrial habitats. The requirement of nutrients for biosynthesis, growth, and reproduction suggests that a tectonically active planet, with liquid water is required to replenish nutrients and sustain life (as currently known). These dynamic processes play a key role in the apparition and persistence of life. Mars is presently on the edge of the HZ, but may have been much more hospitable early in its history, as the examination of its surface suggests the existence of water very early on (about 4 Ga ago) (Bibring et al., 2005; 2006). Since then, Mars lost most of its atmosphere, preventing the presence of liquid water at the surface. In comparison Earth is habitable at present and has been for at least 3.5 Ga.

  10. Planet Classification: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, David A.

    2009-05-01

    As philosopher George Santayana famously said, "those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." The professional astronomy community, as embodied in the IAU, now suffers from Santayana's malady. Ceres was expelled from the community of planets because it apparently was not a planet; yet, no working, scientifically reasonable definition of the word planet existed in the early nineteenth century and so no rational basis existed for excluding or including Ceres or, for that matter, Uranus or the soon-to-be-discovered Neptune from the family of planets. Instead, William Herschel disparaged Ceres as only an "asteroid," a term he invented specifically to separate Ceres and Pallas and Vesta from the true planets. Clearly, in Herschel's view, Ceres was not big enough, and apparently, to Herschel, size mattered. So how big is big enough and by what method was size put in place as the critical scientific metric for assessing planethood? Certainly, as members of the newly discovered asteroid belt, the newly identified asteroids were members of a previously unknown family of objects in the solar system. But why did that make these non-classically known objects asteroids but not planets rather than asteroids and planets? Uranus and Neptune were also members of a newly identified and previously unknown family of solar system objects that we now call "ice giants." On what basis were these two objects embraced as planets and why have these two non-classical objects become known as ice giants and planets rather than ice giants but not planets? Perhaps our scientific predecessors were too quick to render judgment, as they lacked the scientific context in which to understand the many new objects discovered during the years 1781 to 1846. Is that a lesson from the past that we might remember today?

  11. Water Trapping on Tidally Locked Terrestrial Planets Requires Special Conditions

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jun; Hu, Yongyun; Abbot, Dorian S

    2014-01-01

    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea-ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, night-side sea ice remains O(10 m) thick and night-side water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000 m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's w...

  12. Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: selection and influence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher status adolescents, whereas higher status adolescents strive to maintain their status by keeping lower status adolescents at a distance. The results largely supported these expectations. Selection partially accounted for similarity in popularity among friends; adolescents preferred to affiliate with similar-status or higher status peers, reinforcing the attractiveness of popular adolescents and explaining stability of popularity at the individual level. Influence processes also accounted for similarity in popularity over time, showing that peers increase in popularity and become more similar to their friends. The results showed how selection and influence processes account for popularity dynamics in adolescent networks over time. PMID:22985296

  13. Planets and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary properties; C. The geological time scale S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; D. Astrobiological destinations on planet Earth J. Harnmeijer; E. Micro*scope web tool D. J. Patterson and M. L. Sogin; Index.

  14. THE FIRST PLANETS: THE CRITICAL METALLICITY FOR PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Li Hui, E-mail: jlj@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    A rapidly growing body of observational results suggests that planet formation takes place preferentially at high metallicity. In the core accretion model of planet formation this is expected because heavy elements are needed to form the dust grains which settle into the midplane of the protoplanetary disk and coagulate to form the planetesimals from which planetary cores are assembled. As well, there is observational evidence that the lifetimes of circumstellar disks are shorter at lower metallicities, likely due to greater susceptibility to photoevaporation. Here we estimate the minimum metallicity for planet formation, by comparing the timescale for dust grain growth and settling to that for disk photoevaporation. For a wide range of circumstellar disk models and dust grain properties, we find that the critical metallicity above which planets can form is a function of the distance r at which the planet orbits its host star. With the iron abundance relative to that of the Sun [Fe/H] as a proxy for the metallicity, we estimate a lower limit for the critical abundance for planet formation of [Fe/H]{sub crit} {approx_equal} -1.5 + log (r/1 AU), where an astronomical unit (AU) is the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This prediction is in agreement with the available observational data, and carries implications for the properties of the first planets and for the emergence of life in the early universe. In particular, it implies that the first Earth-like planets likely formed from circumstellar disks with metallicities Z {approx}> 0.1 Z{sub Sun }. If planets are found to orbit stars with metallicities below the critical metallicity, this may be a strong challenge to the core accretion model.

  15. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in Lunar Metal Grains: Solar, Lunar or Terrestrial Origin? 22) Isotopic Zoning in the Inner Solar System; 23) Redox Conditions on Small Bodies; 24) Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update; 25) Mantle Redox Evolution and the Rise of Atmospheric O2; 26) Variation of Kd for Fe-Mg Exchange Between Olivine and Melt for Compositions Ranging from Alkaline Basalt to Rhyolite; 27) Determining the Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO,) in Solutions on Mars; 28) The Influence of Oxygen Environment on Kinetic Properties of Silicate Rocks and Minerals; 29) Redox Evolution of Magmatic Systems; 30) The Constancy of Upper Mantlefo, Through Time Inferred from V/Sc Ratios in Basalts: Implications for the Rise in Atmospheric 0 2; 31) Nitrogen Solubility in Basaltic Melt. Effects of Oxygen Fugacity, Melt Composition and Gas Speciation; 32) Oxygen Isotope Anomalies in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars; 33) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Interdiffusion of Iron and Magnesium in Magnesiowiistite 34) The Calibration of the Pyroxene Eu-Oxybarometer for the Martian Meteorites; 35) The Europium Oxybarometer: Power and Pitfalls; 36) Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from PigeoniteMelt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium; 37) Oxidation-Reduction Processes on the Moon: Experimental Verification of Graphite Oxidation in the Apollo 17 Orange Glasses; 38) Oxygen and Core Formation in the Earth; 39) Geologic Record of the Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry Before the Oxygenation of the Early Earth s Atmosphere; 40) Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(CrCAl) Systematics in Chromite as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity; 41) How Well do Sulfur Isotopes Constrain Oxygen Abundance in the Ancient Atmospheres? 42) Experimental Constraints on the Oxygen Isotope (O-18/ O-16) Fractionation in the Ice vapor and Adsorbant vapor Systems of CO2 at Conditions Relevant to the Surface of Mars; 43) Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels andhe Oxidation State of Vanadium in Spinel-Melt Pairs; 44) Testing the Magma Ocean Hypothesis Using

  16. YouTube Around the World: Geographic Popularity of Videos

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yan

    YouTube Around the World: Geographic Popularity of Videos Anders Brodersen Google abrodersen@google.com ABSTRACT One of the most popular user activities on the Web is watch- ing videos. Services like YouTube, local region. In this work we study the relationship between popular- ity and locality of online YouTube

  17. Social Intelligence and Academic Achievement as Predictors of Adolescent Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijs, Noortje; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Segers, Eliane; Spijkerman, Renske

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the effects of social intelligence and cognitive intelligence, as measured by academic achievement, on adolescent popularity in two school contexts. A distinction was made between sociometric popularity, a measure of acceptance, and perceived popularity, a measure of social dominance. Participants were 512, 14-15 year-old…

  18. Academic Self-Presentation Strategies and Popularity in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Joan M.; Russotti, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined early adolescents' beliefs about which academic self-presentation strategies hypothetical hard-working, high-achieving students should use with popular peers, adolescents' own use of self-presentation strategies, and links between popularity and self-presentation strategies. In response to scenarios in which popular

  19. The Role of Attractiveness and Aggression in High School Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch, Casey; Hyde, Allen; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of physical attractiveness and aggression on popularity among high school students. Previous work has found positive relationships between aggression and popularity and physical attractiveness and popularity. The current study goes beyond this work by examining the interactive effects of physical attractiveness and…

  20. Exploring the Planets: Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students will learn that Mars, and each planet in the solar system, is unique due to the materials from which it is made and the processes that shaped it. Images and information from Mars exploration voyages, including the Viking Mission in 1975, the Pathfinder Landing in 1997, the Mars Global Surveyor project, the Mars Odyssey and Mars Express spacecrafts, the Mars Exploration Rovers, and the Reconnaissance Orbiter are presented. Students will learn about Mars mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), diameter, inclination to ecliptic, and number of observed satellites. The seasons, volcanoes, canyons and plains, craters, water, wind patterns, and two moons of Mars are also discussed.

  1. Planets on the Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsecchi, Francesca; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2014-05-01

    Hot Jupiters formed through circularization of high-eccentricity orbits should be found at orbital separations a exceeding twice that of their Roche limit a R. Nevertheless, about a dozen giant planets have now been found well within this limit (a R < a < 2 a R), with one coming as close as 1.2 a R. In this Letter, we show that orbital decay (starting beyond 2 a R) driven by tidal dissipation in the star can naturally explain these objects. For a few systems (WASP-4 and 19), this explanation requires the linear reduction in convective tidal dissipation proposed originally by Zahn and verified by recent numerical simulations, but rules out the quadratic prescription proposed by Goldreich & Nicholson. Additionally, we find that WASP-19-like systems could potentially provide direct empirical constraints on tidal dissipation, as we could soon be able to measure their orbital decay through high precision transit timing measurements.

  2. Monopole Planets and Galaxies

    E-print Network

    N. S. Manton

    2012-01-26

    Spherical clusters of SU(2) BPS monopoles are investigated here. A large class of monopole solutions is found using an abelian approximation, where the clusters are spherically symmetric, although exact solutions cannot have this symmetry precisely. Monopole clusters generalise the Bolognesi magnetic bag solution of the same charge, but they are always larger. Selected density profiles give structures analogous to planets of uniform density, and galaxies with a density decaying as the inverse square of the distance from the centre. The Bolognesi bag itself has features analogous to a black hole, and this analogy between monopole clusters and astrophysical objects with or without black holes in their central region is developed further. It is also shown that certain exact, platonic monopoles of small charge have sizes and other features consistent with what is expected for magnetic bags.

  3. Exploring the Planets: Saturn

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Information on this site about Saturn includes mean distance from the Sun, length of a year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, diameter, and number of observed satellites. The view from Earth shows how the appearance changes depending on the relative position in orbit. Pioneer at Saturn is one of the first spacecraft views of Saturn and was taken by Pioneer 11 three days before its closest encounter, and in this photograph the moon Titan is seen to the upper left. The Voyager Encounters provide close-up views of the rings, showing their intricate structure such as gaps, a braided ring and the mysterious spokes. This site discusses the violent atmosphere and strong magnetic field of the planet and offers three sections and tabular information about the moons of Saturn. There is also information about future exploration, a large photo gallery and links to more resources.

  4. Superflares and Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    Eric P Rubenstein

    2001-01-31

    Stellar flares 100-10^7 times more energetic than the most powerful solar flares have been detected from 9 normal F and G main sequence stars (Schaefer, King & Deliyannis 2000). Although these stars are not in close binary systems, their superflares show a remarkable similarity to the large stellar flares observed on RS Canum Venaticorum binary systems. Such flares are caused by magnetic reconnection events associated with the tangling of magnetic fields between the two stars. The superflare stars are certainly not of this class, although the mechanism may be similar. The superflares may be caused by magnetic reconnection between fields of the primary star and a close-in Jovian planet. This scenario explains the energies, durations, and spectra of superflares, as well as explain why our Sun does not have such events. Only known planetary properties and reconnection scenarios are required by this mechanism.

  5. PlanetDiary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brought to the Web by global educational publisher Addison Wesley Longman, the PlanetDiary site provides weekly coverage of "the events and phenomena that affect Earth and its residents." Each week, PlantDiary presents astronomical, biological, environmental, geological, and meteorological news from around the globe. An especially useful highlight of the Website is the Phenomena Backgrounders section. The pages within this section explain the science surrounding each event, provide links to local and up-to-the-minute information, and suggest online (and hands-on) activities. In addition, the Phenomena Backgrounders section is an excellent resource for research projects or for tracking weekly weather and geological activity. Other sections at the site include Current Phenomena (for the latest geological, environmental, and meteorological news), Calendar (for upcoming events), and Universal Measurements (for tips on converting times and distances).

  6. Coupled 142Nd143Nd evidence for a protracted magma ocean in Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Debaille; A. D. Brandon; Q. Z. Yin; B. Jacobsen

    2007-01-01

    Resolving early silicate differentiation timescales is crucial for understanding the chemical evolution and thermal histories of terrestrial planets. Planetary-scale magma oceans are thought to have formed during early stages of differentiation, but the longevity of such magma oceans is poorly constrained. In Mars, the absence of vigorous convection and plate tectonics has limited the scale of compositional mixing within its

  7. Chronological evidence that the Moon is either young or did not have a global magma ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars E. Borg; James N. Connelly; Maud Boyet; Richard W. Carlson

    2011-01-01

    Chemical evolution of planetary bodies, ranging from asteroids to the large rocky planets, is thought to begin with differentiation through solidification of magma oceans many hundreds of kilometres in depth. The Earth's Moon is the archetypical example of this type of differentiation. Evidence for a lunar magma ocean is derived largely from the widespread distribution, compositional and mineralogical characteristics, and

  8. Evidence for an ancient martian ocean in the topography of deformed shorelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Taylor Perron; Jerry X. Mitrovica; Michael Manga; Isamu Matsuyama; Mark A. Richards

    2007-01-01

    A suite of observations suggests that the northern plains of Mars, which cover nearly one third of the planet's surface, may once have contained an ocean. Perhaps the most provocative evidence for an ancient ocean is a set of surface features that ring the plains for thousands of kilometres and that have been interpreted as a series of palaeoshorelines of

  9. Which Ringed Planet...!?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Don't worry - you are not the only one who thought this was a nice amateur photo of planet Saturn, Lord of the Rings in our Solar System! But then the relative brightness and positions of the moons may appear somewhat unfamiliar... and the ring system does look unusually bright when compared to the planetary disk...?? Well, it is not Saturn, but Uranus , the next giant planet further out, located at a distance of about 3,000 million km, or 20 times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. The photo shows Uranus surrounded by its rings and some of the moons, as they appear on a near-infrared image that was obtained in the K s -band (at wavelength 2.2 µm) with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile) . The exposure was made on November 19, 2002 (03:00 hrs UT) during a planetary research programme. The observing conditions were excellent (seeing 0.5 arcsec) and the exposure lasted 5 min. The angular diameter of Uranus is about 3.5 arcsec. The observers at ISAAC were Emmanuel Lellouch and Thérése Encrenaz of the Observatoire de Paris (France) and Jean-Gabriel Cuby and Andreas Jaunsen (both ESO-Chile). The rings The rings of Uranus were discovered in 1977, from observations during a stellar occultation event by astronomer teams at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) and the Perth Observatory (Australia). Just before and after the planet moved in front of the (occulted) star, the surrounding rings caused the starlight to dim for short intervals of time. Photos obtained from the Voyager-2 spacecraft in 1986 showed a multitude of very tenuous rings. These rings are almost undetectable from the Earth in visible light. However, on the present VLT near-infrared picture, the contrast between the rings and the planet is strongly enhanced. At the particular wavelength at which this observation was made, the infalling sunlight is almost completely absorbed by gaseous methane present in the planetary atmosphere and the disk of Uranus therefore appears unsually dark. At the same time, the icy material in the rings reflects the sunlight and appears comparatively bright. Uranus is unique among the planets of the solar system in having a tilted rotation axis that is close to the main solar system plane in which most planets move (the "Ecliptic"). At the time of the Voyager-2 encounter (1986), the southern pole was oriented toward the Earth. Now, sixteen years later (corresponding to about one-fifth of Uranus' 84-year period of revolution), we observe the Uranian ring system at an angle that is comparable to the one under which we see Saturn when its ring system is most "open". The moons ESO PR Photo 31b/02 ESO PR Photo 31b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 526 pix - 76k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1460 x 1919 pix - 1.1M] Caption : PR Photo 31b/02 provides identifications of the Uranian moons present in PR Photo 31a/02 . The unidentified, round object to the left is a background star. The image scale in indicated by the bar. Seven of the moons of Uranus have been identified in PR Photo 31b/02 [1]. Of these, Titania and Oberon are the brightest (visual magnitude about 14). They were first seen in 1787 by the discoverer of Uranus, William Herschel (1738-1822), working at Bath in England. Ariel and Umbriel were found in 1851 by William Lassell (1799-1880) at Liverpool in the same country. Miranda was discovered in 1948 by Gerard Kuiper (1905-1973) at the 5-m Palomar telescope in California (USA). The much smaller and fainter Puck and Portia (visual magnitude about 21 and barely visible in the photo) were first found in 1985-86 by Stephen P. Synnott of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (USA), during a study of Voyager-2 photos obtained soon before this NASA spacecraft flew by Uranus in January 1986. Other VLT images If you now want to see a fine VLT photo of Saturn, please look at PR Photo 04a/02 , obtained in late 2001. It was made with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) Adaptive Optics facility and is therefore much less influenced by atmospheric turbulence and hence correspondingly shar

  10. Planet Hunters: A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Orosz, J. A.; Carter, J. A.; Fischer, D. A.; Howard, A. W.; Crepp, J. R.; Welsh, W. F.; Kaib, N. A.; Lintott, C. J.; Terrell, D.; Jek, K. J.; Gagliano, R.; Parrish, M.; Smith, A. M.; Lynn, S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    The Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) citizen science project uses the power of human pattern recognition via the World Wide Web to identify transits in the Kepler public data. Planet Hunters uses the Zooniverse (http://www.zooniverse.org) platform to present visitors to the Planet Hunters website with a randomly selected 30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler's 160,000 target stars. Volunteers are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits with multiple independent classifiers reviewing each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 170,000 members of the general public have participated in Planet Hunters contributing over 12.5 million classifications searching the 1 1/2 years of publicly released Kepler observations. Planet Hunters is a novel and complementary technique to the automated transit detection algorithms, providing an independent assessment of the completeness of the Kepler exoplanet inventory. We report the latest results from Planet Hunters, highlighting in particular our latest efforts to search for circumbinary planets (planets orbiting a binary star) and single transit events in the first 1.5 years of public Kepler data. We will present a status report of our search of the first 6 Quarters of Kepler data, introducing our new planet candidates and sharing the results of our observational follow-up campaign to characterize these planetary systems. Acknowledgements: MES is supported by a NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1003258. This is research is supported in part by an American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant.

  11. Structure of Science Popularizations: A Genre-Analysis Approach to the Schema of Popularized Medical Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwogu, Kevin N.

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to characterize one discourse type of science popularization, the Journalistic Reported Version (JRV) of research articles in science magazines and newspapers. Results indicate that the JRV has an identifiable schema by which the information it contains is structured, and a typical JRV text may have as many as nine schematic structures.…

  12. Patterns in Popular Culture: The Use of Popular Art in the Composition Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Harold; Semeiks, Jonna Gormely

    The popular arts are useful resources in college composition courses both because of their appeal for students and because they embody the fundamental patterns, or archetypes, found in myths, fairy tales, and classic literature. The nine basic archetypes examined in certain composition classes at Queens College (Flushing, New York) are the Shadow,…

  13. G. P. Kuiper's Early Studies of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    2005-08-01

    Gerard P. Kuiper was born on December 7, 1905; this is his centennial year. While he had an early interest in Solar System bodies, writing an extensive review about Mars for the popular Dutch astronomy journal, Hemel en Dampkring in 1931, Kuiper's first important observations began in 1944, when he discovered the atmosphere of Titan. In a letter dated February 29, 1944, to Lick Observatory director Joseph H. Moore, Kuiper noted that, ``The only reason I happened to observe the planets and the 10 brightest satellites was that they were nicely lined up in a region of the sky where I had run out of program stars (stars of large proper motion and parallax)." These spectroscopic observations were obtained with the new McDonald 82-inch telescope during a break from Kuiper's war-time work at Harvard's Radio Research Laboratory. In a letter of congratulations, his friend S. Chandrasekhar wrote, ``It is only on the impact of such discoveries that one realizes afresh the permanent value of science which no war -- not even of Hitler's -- can truly undermine. And it must be of satisfaction to you that if you took a vacation from war-work, it was only to make a fundamental discovery!" Using detectors declassified at the end of World War II, Kuiper began a study of the infrared spectra of planets and stars (with the first publication in 1947) that continued to the time of his death (December 24, 1973). Early in this work, on March 2, 1948, he wrote a lengthy letter to Henry Norris Russell in which he succinctly and enthusiastically summarized his observations and discoveries. Details in this letter give a fascinating perspective on some of the earliest physical studies of Solar System bodies, such as the detection of water ice on Saturn's rings and in the polar cap of Mars, spectral and photometric measurements of Mars' surface and atmospheric haze, and the discovery of Miranda.

  14. Ocean Planet: There Are Algae in Your House!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of this activity, students look in their own homes for foods that contain ingredients derived from seaweed . The activity points out that seaweeds are not really weeds but large forms of marine algae, and that seaweed derivatives are used in a large variety of foods and household products. Objectives, a list of materials, instructions, and a take-home worksheet are included.

  15. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to South Africa, Cape Town and Johannesburg using NASA Terra/MODIS data, Landsat data and 1 m IKONOS 'Spy Satellite' data. Zoom in to any place South Africa using Earth Viewer 3D from Keyhole Inc. and Landsat data at 30 m resolution Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & 'tornadoes'. See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASANOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained.

  16. Extrasolar Planet Orbits and Eccentricities

    E-print Network

    Scott Tremaine; Nadia L. Zakamska

    2003-12-01

    The known extrasolar planets exhibit many interesting and surprising features--extremely short-period orbits, high-eccentricity orbits, mean-motion and secular resonances, etc.--and have dramatically expanded our appreciation of the diversity of possible planetary systems. In this review we summarize the orbital properties of extrasolar planets. One of the most remarkable features of extrasolar planets is their high eccentricities, far larger than seen in the solar system. We review theoretical explanations for large eccentricities and point out the successes and shortcomings of existing theories.

  17. Goldilocks and the Three Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-06

    This is a lesson about planetary atmospheres. Learners will interpret real spectral graphs from missions to determine what some of Earth, Venus, and Mars’ atmosphere is composed of and then mathematically compare the amount of the greenhouse gas, CO2, on the planets Venus, Earth, and Mars in order to determine which has the most. Students brainstorm to figure out what things, along with greenhouse gases, can affect a planet’s temperature. The activity is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering program for middle-high school students, focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

  18. Tides in the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    Goldreich and Soter's (1966) discussion of tidal dissipation in the Jovian planets is reexamined for planetary models which possess an appreciable internal heat source. The tidal torque produced in a fully liquid planet is calculated as a function of the average viscosity in the interior. Turbulent viscosity, which is produced by the convection of internal heat to the surface, seems to be capable of producing small (about a few per cent) changes in the orbits of the innermost satellites of Jupiter over the age of the solar system. The basic regularity of many of the giant planet satellite systems is probably due to other, perhaps primordial, causes.

  19. Earth's Energy Imbalance and Ocean Heat Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Willis, J.; Leuliette, E.; Bleck, R.; Lo, K.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Sun, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Earth's energy imbalance, i.e., the difference between solar energy absorbed and thermal energy emitted by the planet, is fundamental to global climate change, as it measures the net forcing acting on the climate system. The imbalance is now positive on decadal time scales, due to dominance of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, and, with canonical climate sensitivity, it yields an estimate of the amount of global warming that remains "in the pipeline" due to GHGs already in the atmosphere. The ocean is the largest sink for excess incoming energy. Inference of information from the energy imbalance is affected by a trade-off between decreasing accuracy of earlier data and the added information from longer time scales. We use two atmosphere-ocean models, with ocean heat and sea level measurements, to study the roles of different climate forcings, unforced climate variability including ocean- cloud interactions, and limitations of data sampling. We find that observed decrease in ocean heat content in the upper 750m in 2004-2005 does not significantly alter the estimate of ~0.5C global warming still "in the pipeline". Continuation and refinement of measurements of ocean heat, sea level, and ice sheet mass balance have the potential to greatly refine understanding of global warming, its practical implications, and important climate processes, but to be most useful they need to be supplemented by better measurements of deep ocean heat content changes and precise measurements of changing climate forcings such as tropospheric aerosols.

  20. Water cycling between ocean and mantle: Super-earths need not be waterworlds

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying that most super-Earths should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. In other words, the continuously habitable zone for waterworlds is much narrower than for Earth-like planets. A planet's water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust depend negatively and positively on seafloor pressure, respectively, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water partitioning on terrestrial planets. Critically, hydrostatic seafloor pressure is proportional to surface gravity, so super-Earths with a deep water cycle will tend to store more water in the mantle. We conclude that a tectonically active terrestrial planet of any mass can maintain exposed continents if its water mass fraction is less than ?0.2%, dramatically increasing the odds that super-Earths are habitable. The greatest source of uncertainty in our study is Earth's current mantle water inventory: the greater its value, the more robust planets are to inundation. Lastly, we discuss how future missions can test our hypothesis by mapping the oceans and continents of massive terrestrial planets.

  1. Shallow Cavities in Multiple-planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffell, Paul C.; Dong, Ruobing

    2015-03-01

    Large cavities are often observed in protoplanetary disks, which might suggest the presence of planets opening gaps in the disk. Multiple planets are necessary to produce a wide cavity in the gas. However, multiple planets may also be a burden to the carving out of very deep gaps. When additional planets are added to the system, the time-dependent perturbations from these additional satellites can stir up gas in the gap, suppressing cavity opening. In this study, we perform two-dimensional numerical hydro calculations of gap opening for single and multiple planets, showing the effect that additional planets have on the gap depths. We show that multiple planets produce much shallower cavities than single planets, so that more massive planets are needed in the multiple-planet case to produce an equivalent gap depth as in the single-planet case. To deplete a gap by a factor of 100 for the parameters chosen in this study, one only requires Mp ? 3.5 MJ in the single-planet case, but much more massive planets, Mp ? 7 MJ are required in the multiple-planet case. This requirement of high-mass planets implies that such planets may be detectable in the next generation of direct imaging projects, in gaps whose depths are constrained to be sufficiently deep by ALMA.

  2. The andesite problem: Why is this planet to be the Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    One characteristic feature of the Earth is the bimodal height distribution at the surface. This is caused by the difference both in density and thickness of the crust. Two types of crust on the Earth, the oceanic and continental crusts, have been created at divergent and convergent plate boundaries, respectively, via. plate tectonics. The bulk composition of continental crust is andesitic (60 wt.% SiO2), in marked contrast with the basaltic oceanic crust with ?50 wt.% SiO2. This raises the question of how intra-oceanic arcs produce continental crust if the dominant product of mantle wedge melting and a major proportion of intra-oceanic arc lava is basaltic.The essential cause of operation of plate tectonics is the temperature difference within the mantle, which triggers mantle convection. The upper thermal boundary layer of this convection corresponds to the lithospheric plate, but behaves naturally as a stagnant-lid, i.e., the plate should not move. The presence of liquid water at the surface, on the other hand, strongly reduces the yield strength and could cause the fracture within the stagnant-lid, triggering the plate subsidence or subduction. Parameters that govern the presence and absence of liquid water on the terrestrial planets are: the distance from the Sun and the mass of a planet. A conclusion of this consideration would be that the Earth is a shore planet because of the presence of the ocean, which seems to be a conclusion of a Zen dialog.

  3. The Planet Venus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource covers early and modern views of Venus; the general features of Venus; its cloud layer, including high velocity winds, the absence of water vapor, and the different wavelengths used to analyze the Venusian atmosphere; properties of the Venusian atmosphere; a runaway greenhouse effect (where oceans would boil and rocks would sublimate), caused by radiation trapping by greenhouse gases; surface features of Venus, including different hemispheric views, mountains, volcanoes, lava flows, rift valleys and meteor craters; and a comparison of Venus and Earth.

  4. Ocean Acidification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vicki Osis

    The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

  5. Understanding Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Cahill

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on oceans currents and their effects. Students do a lab activity to show that temperature is what causes ocean currents. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  6. Ocean Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The European Geosciences Union has been working on a number of open access journals over the past few years, and Ocean Science is just such an endeavor. The intent of the journal is to publish research articles, review papers, and short communications of all stripes. Visitors can sign up for RSS feeds, look over the "General Information" area, and also learn about their submission guidelines. In the "Online Library OS" area, visitors can view recently revised papers, complete issues, special issues, and also search past works by title or author. Also, visitors are welcome to comment on published works and they can also sign up to receive an email subscription to Ocean Science.

  7. A UNIQUE SOLUTION OF PLANET AND STAR PARAMETERS FROM AN EXTRASOLAR PLANET TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    A UNIQUE SOLUTION OF PLANET AND STAR PARAMETERS FROM AN EXTRASOLAR PLANET TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE S There is a unique solution of the planet and star parameters from a planet transit light curve with two or more transits if the planet has a circular orbit and the light curve is observed in a bandpass where limb dark

  8. Migration & Extra-solar Terrestrial Planets: Watering the Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter-Bond, Jade C.; O'Brien, David P.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2014-04-01

    A diverse range of terrestrial planet compositions is believed to exist within known extrasolar planetary systems, ranging from those that are relatively Earth-like to those that are highly unusual, dominated by species such as refractory elements (Al and Ca) or C (as pure C, TiC and SiC)(Bond et al. 2010b). However, all prior simulations have ignored the impact that giant planet migration during planetary accretion may have on the final terrestrial planetary composition. Here, we combined chemical equilibrium models of the disk around five known planetary host stars (Solar, HD4203, HD19994, HD213240 and Gl777) with dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation incorporating various degrees of giant planet migration. Giant planet migration is found to drastically impact terrestrial planet composition by 1) increasing the amount of Mg-silicate species present in the final body; and 2) dramatically increasing the efficiency and amount of water delivered to the terrestrial bodies during their formation process.

  9. Bubble stability in vigorous convection: Ramifications for magma-ocean degassing and formation of an early atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sethian; J. Suckale; L. T. Elkins-Tanton

    2009-01-01

    The heat provided by energetic impacts, radioactive decay and core formation during the early stages in terrestrial planet evolution is sufficient to melt a silicate mantle partially or entirely. Thus, magma-ocean models provide an interesting hypothetical starting point for understanding mantle evolution of terrestrial planets. A key constraint in these models is the formation of an early atmosphere, because it

  10. A Primordial and Complicated Ocean of Magma on Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    It seems almost certain that the Moon was surrounded by an ocean of magma when it formed. This important idea has been applied to the other terrestrial planets and even to asteroids. Linda (Lindy) Elkins-Tanton and colleagues Mark Parmentier, Paul Hess, and Sarah Zaranek at Brown University, and Lars Borg and David Draper (University of New Mexico) have examined the

  11. Linked magma ocean solidification, cumulate mantle compositions, and atmospheric growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Elkins-Tanton; E. Parmentier

    2007-01-01

    Early in terrestrial planet evolution energetic impact, radiodecay, and core formation may have created one or more whole or partial silicate mantle magma oceans. The time to mantle solidification and then to clement surface conditions allowing liquid water is highly dependent upon heat flux from the planetary surface through a growing primitive atmosphere. Here we model the time to clement

  12. Research and developments on ocean thermal energy conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Wang; A. A. Yee; H. Krock; Z. Y. Tay

    2011-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a very promising source of clean and renewable energy for our planet. This review article presents the research and developments on OTEC with regard to energy utilisation, platform design and mooring system, heat exchanger system and environmental impact. It also includes very recent developments in realising the construction of large scale OTEC facilities.

  13. Surface Expression Models for Aqueous Oceanic Activity on Titan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Clark

    2006-01-01

    Drawing upon analogs from the rocky planets with geological features, subsurface acquifers and magmatism, the range of surface manifestations of a subsurface ocean on Titan comprise a series of models. Cryovolcanism of aqueous eutectics will produce flows which may be detectable as sporadic outcrops from the hydrocarbon-rich regolith, exhumed by aeolian and\\/or fluid processes. Solidification of extruded cryomagma, especially if

  14. On postglacial geoid subsidence over the equatorial oceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. X. Mitrovica; W. R. Peltier

    1991-01-01

    Two new formalisms are developed for the gravitationally self-consistent solution of sea level equation that governs the redistribution of the glacial melt water on a viscoelastic earth. The first formalism is a purely spectral technique based on an extension of Dahlen's (1976) theory for determining the equilibrium oceanic tide on an elastic planet. The second formalism, called 'pseudospectral', permits gravitationally

  15. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  16. Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, created to complement the Museum's Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth, offers a virtual visit to the Museum, complete with text, photos, and a downloadable desktop background. The site contains information on ten exhibition highlights.

  17. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Maciejewski; R. Neuhaeuser; R. Errmann; M. Mugrauer; Ch. Adam; A. Berndt; T. Eisenbeiss; S. Fiedler; Ch. Ginski; M. Hohle; U. Kramm; C. Marka; M. Moualla; T. Pribulla; St. Raetz; T. Roell; T. O. B. Schmidt; M. Seeliger; I. Spaleniak; N. Tetzlaff; L. Trepl

    2010-01-01

    Transiting exoplanets (TEPs) observed just about 10 Myrs after formation of\\u000atheir host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation\\u000atheories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet\\u000aformation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10\\u000aMyrs), the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by\\u000agravitational collapse (being

  18. Nine Planets: Planetary Picture List

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This section of The Nine Planets provides links to internet solar system images of the nine planets and their moons. Images include the Sun, Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Moon, Mars (Phobos, Deimos), Jupiter (Amalthea, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto), Saturn (Pan, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus, Phoebe), Uranus (Puck, Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon), Neptune (Triton, Proteus), and Pluto with Charon. Miscellanous images include asteroids, comets, meteorites, and spacecraft.

  19. Planet Hunters: Kepler by Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, C.; Fischer, D.; Smith, A. M.; Boyajian, T. S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Lynn, S.; Parrish, M.; Schawinski, K.; Schmitt, J.; Simpson, R.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org), part of the Zooniverse's (http://www.zooniverse.org) collection of online citizen science projects, uses the World Wide Web to enlist the general public to identify transits in the pubic Kepler light curves. Planet Hunters utilizes human pattern recognition to identify planet transits that may be missed by automated detection algorithms looking for periodic events. Referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’ or ‘citizen science’, the combined assessment of many non-expert human classifiers with minimal training can often equal or best that of a trained expert and in many cases outperform the best machine-learning algorithm. Visitors to the Planet Hunters' website are presented with a randomly selected ~30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler’s ~160,000 target stars and are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits in the web interface. 5-10 classifiers review each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 260,000 volunteers world wide have participated, contributing over 20 million classifications. We have demonstrated the success of a citizen science approach with the project’s more than 20 planet candidates, the discovery of PH1b, a transiting circumbinary planet in a quadruple star system, and the discovery of PH2-b, a confirmed Jupiter-sized planet in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star. I will provide an overview of Planet Hunters, highlighting several of project's most recent exoplanet and astrophysical discoveries. Acknowledgements: MES was supported in part by a NSF AAPF under award AST-1003258 and a American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant. We acknowledge support from NASA ADAP12-0172 grant to PI Fischer.

  20. The Planet-Metallicity Correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra A. Fischer; Jeff Valenti

    2005-01-01

    We have recently carried out spectral synthesis modeling to determine Teff, logg, vsini, and [Fe\\/H] for 1040 FGK-type stars on the Keck, Lick, and Anglo-Australian Telescope planet search programs. This is the first time that a single, uniform spectroscopic analysis has been made for every star on a large Doppler planet search survey. We identify a subset of 850 stars

  1. Development of a Habitable Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this lesson, students investigate the origin of the elements, the process of planet formation, the evolution of life on Earth, and the conditions necessary for life as we know it. Using multimedia resources and a classroom activity, students identify and sequence the major events that caused Earth to develop into the planet we know, understand where the ingredients for Earth originated, including the conditions necessary for life, and consider the likelihood of other habitable worlds.

  2. The Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broecker, Wallace S.

    1983-01-01

    The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

  3. Ocean World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The majority of Ocean World is devoted to a series of ten reference sections: coral reefs, currents, El Nino, Fisheries, Ice Ages, icebergs, JASON-1 (a satellite), the role of the ocean in weather, satellites and ocean exploration, and waves. Each section culminates with an interactive quiz, links to sources of related real-time data, and a list of additional related links. Also available is a set of supplementary services, including a glossary, a question and answer section called Ask Dr.Bob, an index page for all of the available real-time dataset sources, primer pages on the use of internet technology, and links to three distance learning courses in oceanography offered by Texas A&M university. An additional series of link lists are broken up into Four Star Sites, General Links, and (the site author's) Bookmarks. Finally, under a teacher's introductory section to the site, instructors can access a guide to using Ocean World in the classroom, find advice on teaching oceanography in general, locate technology lab stations, and follow links to additional teaching resources.

  4. Empty Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How does the human population affect the population of marine species? What can citizens do to sustain seafood populations? In this lesson, students will learn how pieces of the ocean food web, fish, are being removed faster than they can be replenished. Students will also learn how they can become informed consumers to promote sustainable seafood.

  5. Ocean Events

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Operational Signifcant Event Imagery

    This website from the Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) team produces high-resolution detailed imagery of significant ocean events. OSEI products typically include sea surface temperature plots and single-channel imagery of oil spills. The images are available in several different file sizes; standard (full resolution) and preview (thumbnail).

  6. Electrodynamics in Giant Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Cho, J.

    2014-12-01

    The atmospheres of close-in extrasolar giant planets such as HD209458b are strongly ionized by the UV flux of their host stars. We show that photoionization on such planets creates a dayside ionosphere that extends from the thermosphere to the 100 mbar level. The resulting peak electron density near the 1 mbar level is higher than that encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the model conductivity is in fact comparable to the atmospheres of Sun-like stars. As a result, the momentum and energy balance in the upper atmosphere of HD209458b and similar planets can be strongly affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Despite much weaker ionization, electrodynamics is nevertheless also important on the giant planets of the solar system. We use a generic framework to constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in extrasolar planets, and compare the results with conductivites based on the same approach for Jupiter and Saturn. By using a generalized Ohm's law and assumed magnetic fields, we then demonstrate the basic effects of wind-driven ion drag in giant planet atmospheres. Our results show that ion drag is often significant in the upper atmosphere where it can also substantially alter the energy budget through resistive heating.

  7. Habitable Planets with High Obliquities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. M.; Kasting, J. F.

    1996-03-01

    The obliquities of the terrestrial planets have been shown to vary chaotically and by large amounts in times less than 10 Myr, thus inviting the possibility for Earth to occasionally reach high obliquity where it might experience climatic conditions unfavorable for life. Although Earth escapes this fate by having its rotation axis stabilized by the Moon, many extrasolar Earth-like planets without large satellites should be subjected to periods of high obliquity. The number of worlds supporting life outside the Solar System, then, may be far fewer than has been suggested if high obliquities render moon-less Earths uninhabitable. Climates at high obliquity are particularly harsh on middle and high latitude continents that warm and cool rapidly in response to large insolation swings. These areas exhibit a wide range of temperatures over a seasonal cycle, with extremes reaching well above or below 273 Kelvin, making them seasonally unsuitable for water-dependent life. We demonstrate here that Earth-like planets will have their temperature extremes mitigated at high obliquity if they possess dense CO2 atmospheres, as is likely for many planets situated in the outer habitable zone (HZ) of a Sun-like star. The climate stabilizing mechanism governing atmospheric CO2 on Earth-like planets is carbonate-silicate weathering. Planets with atmospheres rich in CO2 demonstrate small latitudinal temperature gradients and seasonal temperature cycles, and thus remain habitable at high obliquities.

  8. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet

    E-print Network

    Plávalová, E

    2011-01-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun.We know its approximate mass, temperature, age and size. In our work with extrasolar planets database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification), for example, like the Harvard classification for stars. This new taxonomy has to be comprehensible and present the important information about extrasolar planets. The important information of extrasolar planets are their mass, radius, period, density, eccentricity, temperature, and their distance from the parent star. There are too many parameters, that is, taxonomy with six parameters would be complicated and difficult to apply. We propose following the extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with only four parameters. The first parameter is the information about the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of the units of the mass of other known planets, where M - Mercury, E - Earth, N - Neptune, and J - Jupiter. The second parameter is the distance from its pa...

  9. Hubble's View of Transiting Planets

    E-print Network

    David Charbonneau

    2004-10-27

    The Hubble Space Telescope is uniquely able to study planets that are observed to transit their parent stars. The extremely stable platform afforded by an orbiting spacecraft, free from the contaminating effects of the Earth's atmosphere, enables HST to conduct ultra-high precision photometry and spectroscopy of known transiting extrasolar planet systems. Among HST's list of successful observations of the first such system, HD 209458, are (1) the first detection of the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet, (2) the determination that gas is escaping from the planet, and (3) a search for Earth-sized satellites and circumplanetary rings. Numerous wide-field, ground-based transit surveys are poised to uncover a gaggle of new worlds for which HST may undertake similar studies, such as the newly-discovered planet TrES-1. With regard to the future of Hubble, it must be noted that it is the only observatory in existence capable of confirming transits of Earth-like planets that may be detected by NASA's Kepler mission. Kepler could reveal Earth-like transits by the year 2010, but without a servicing mission it is very unlikely that HST would still be in operation.

  10. Planets to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Casertano, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    Preface; 1. Hubble's view of transiting planets D. Charbonneau; 2. Unsolved problems in star formation C. J. Clarke; 3. Star formation in clusters S. S. Larson; 4. HST abundance studies of low metallicity stars J. W. Truran, C. Sneden, F. Primas, J. J. Cowan and T. Beers; 5. Physical environments and feedback: HST studies of intense star-forming environments J. S. Gallagher, L. J. Smith and R. W. O'Connell; 6. Quasar hosts: growing up with monstrous middles K. K. McLeod; 7. Reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei B. M. Peterson and K. Horne; 8. Feedback at high redshift A. E. Shapley; 9. The baryon content of the local intergalactic medium J. T. Stocke, J. M. Shull, and S. V. Penton; 10. Hot baryons in supercluster filaments E. D. Miller, R. A. Dupke and J. N. Bregman; 11. Galaxy assembly E. F. Bell; 12. Probing the reionization history of the Universe Z. Haiman; 13. Studying distant infrared-luminous galaxies with Spitzer and Hubble C. Papovich, E. Egami, E. Le Floc'h, P. Pérez-González, G. Rieke, J. Rigby, H. Dole and M. Reike; 14. Galaxies at z = g-i'-drop selection and the GLARE Project E. R. Stanway, K. Glazebrook, A. J. Bunker and the GLARE Consortium; 15. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field with NIMCOS R. I. Thompson, R. J. Bouwens and G. Illingworth.

  11. Our changing planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A report entitled “Our Changing Planet: A U.S. Strategy for Global Change Research,” was released on January 9 with President Reagan's 1990 budget. The report is intended to provide a coordinated foundation for planning the U.S. program to study changes in the Earth system, and it outlines a program of focused research that grows from $133.9 million in FY 89 to $190.5 million in FY 90. These funds are included in the budgets of the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Department of the Interior, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Commerce, Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture.The report was prepared by the Committee on Earth Sciences (CES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. The CES is chaired by Dallas Peck of the U.S. Geological Survey and has members from the Council on Environmental Quality, Department of State, Office of Management and Budget, Office of Science and Technology Policy, USDA, EPA, NASA, Department of Defense, DOE, DOC, Department of Transportation, and the NSF.

  12. Planets to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Casertano, Stefano

    2006-04-01

    Preface; 1. Hubble's view of transiting planets D. Charbonneau; 2. Unsolved problems in star formation C. J. Clarke; 3. Star formation in clusters S. S. Larson; 4. HST abundance studies of low metallicity stars J. W. Truran, C. Sneden, F. Primas, J. J. Cowan and T. Beers; 5. Physical environments and feedback: HST studies of intense star-forming environments J. S. Gallagher, L. J. Smith and R. W. O'Connell; 6. Quasar hosts: growing up with monstrous middles K. K. McLeod; 7. Reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei B. M. Peterson and K. Horne; 8. Feedback at high redshift A. E. Shapley; 9. The baryon content of the local intergalactic medium J. T. Stocke, J. M. Shull, and S. V. Penton; 10. Hot baryons in supercluster filaments E. D. Miller, R. A. Dupke and J. N. Bregman; 11. Galaxy assembly E. F. Bell; 12. Probing the reionization history of the Universe Z. Haiman; 13. Studying distant infrared-luminous galaxies with Spitzer and Hubble C. Papovich, E. Egami, E. Le Floc'h, P. Pérez-González, G. Rieke, J. Rigby, H. Dole and M. Reike; 14. Galaxies at z = g-i'-drop selection and the GLARE Project E. R. Stanway, K. Glazebrook, A. J. Bunker and the GLARE Consortium; 15. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field with NIMCOS R. I. Thompson, R. J. Bouwens and G. Illingworth.

  13. Rocky Planet Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-06-01

    The science tells us that a rocky body in the Solar system whose mass exceeds 3 ×1021 kg should be round. The Moon is 7.3 ×1022 kg, therefore its shape is round. But the Moon rotates around the Earth, therefore it should get flatter in the direction of rotation according to the relativistic length contraction, since the Moon's radius which is perpendicular on the trajectory is unchanged while the Moon's radius in the direction of the motion should get contracted. Yet, although the Moon orbits the Earth for geological time, it is not flat! In general, let's consider a rocky non-rotating cosmic body, with mass exceeding 3 ×1021 kg that orbits the Sun or one of the solar planets. The larger is the cosmic body's orbit, the simpler is to get a small part of its orbit that looks linear. Then this cosmic body should flatten in the direction of motion, according to the Theory of Relativity, but this is in contradiction to the previous science law that this cosmic body should be round.

  14. Mission to Planet Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These four written and computer activities cover concepts of remote sensing in general and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The first is a written activity asking students to consider what about the earth they would want to study. The second combines a written activity on the Galileo spacecraft with a computer activity. Students will view images of the earth taken from the spacecraft. In the third activity, students receive their first introduction to image processing programs as they view two earth images and are asked to detect differences. They work with several software tools and become comfortable opening files and applying various image processing techniques. In the final section, students work with whole earth optical images and then open up their first radar image, seeing first an image of Los Angeles and then a close-up view of Elysium Park and Dodger Stadium taken at the same time, and derive an understanding of the various advantages and limitations of the remote sensing platforms.

  15. Habitable planet finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.

    2012-09-01

    A notional space telescope configuration is presented that addresses issues of angular resolution, spectral bandwidth and rejection of host star glare by means of a double dispersion architecture. The telescope resolves angle by wavelength. In an earlier embodiment for surveys, a primary objective grating telescope architecture was shown to acquire millions of objects in one observation cycle, one wave length at a time. The proposed HPF can detect exquisite spectral signatures out of millions of wavelengths in albedos - one exoplanetary system at a time. Like its predecessor, the new HPF telescope has a ribbon-shaped flat gossamer membrane primary objective that lends itself to space deployment, but the preferred embodiment uses a holographic optical element rather than a plane grating. The HOE provides an improvement in efficiency at select wavelength bands. The considerable length of the membrane can be in the 100 meter class providing angular resolution sufficient to resolve planets in the habitable zone and also spectral resolution sufficient to earmark habitability. A novel interferometric secondary spectrograph rejects host star glare. However, the architecture cannot disambiguate multiple stellar sources and may require unprecedented focal lengths in the primary objective to isolate one system at a time.

  16. Evolution of Giant Planets in Eccentric Disks

    E-print Network

    Gennaro D'Angelo; Stephen H. Lubow; Matthew R. Bate

    2006-08-17

    We investigate the interaction between a giant planet and a viscous circumstellar disk by means of high-resolution, two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We consider planet masses that range from 1 to 3 Jupiter masses (Mjup) and initial orbital eccentricities that range from 0 to 0.4. We find that a planet can cause eccentricity growth in a disk region adjacent to the planet's orbit, even if the planet's orbit is circular. Disk-planet interactions lead to growth in a planet's orbital eccentricity. The orbital eccentricities of a 2 Mjup and a 3 Mjup planet increase from 0 to 0.11 within about 3000 orbits. Over a similar time period, the orbital eccentricity of a 1 Mjup planet grows from 0 to 0.02. For a case of a 1 Mjup planet with an initial eccentricity of 0.01, the orbital eccentricity grows to 0.09 over 4000 orbits. Radial migration is directed inwards, but slows considerably as a planet's orbit becomes eccentric. If a planet's orbital eccentricity becomes sufficiently large, e > ~0.2, migration can reverse and so be directed outwards. The accretion rate towards a planet depends on both the disk and the planet orbital eccentricity and is pulsed over the orbital period. Planet mass growth rates increase with planet orbital eccentricity. For e~0.2 the mass growth rate of a planet increases by approximately 30% above the value for e=0. For e > ~0.1, most of the accretion within the planet's Roche lobe occurs when the planet is near the apocenter. Similar accretion modulation occurs for flow at the inner disk boundary which represents accretion toward the star.

  17. Demographic studies of extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Timothy

    Uncovering the demographics of extrasolar planets is crucial to understanding the processes of their formation and evolution. In this thesis, we present four studies that contribute to this end, three of which relate to NASA's Kepler mission, which has revolutionized the field of exoplanets in the last few years. In the pre-Kepler study, we investigate a sample of exoplanet spin-orbit measurements---measurements of the inclination of a planet's orbit relative to the spin axis of its host star---to determine whether a dominant planet migration channel can be identified, and at what confidence. Applying methods of Bayesian model comparison to distinguish between the predictions of several different migration models, we find that the data strongly favor a two-mode migration scenario combining planet-planet scattering and disk migration over a single-mode Kozai migration scenario. While we test only the predictions of particular Kozai and scattering migration models in this work, these methods may be used to test the predictions of any other spin-orbit misaligning mechanism. We then present two studies addressing astrophysical false positives in Kepler data. The Kepler mission has identified thousands of transiting planet candidates, and only relatively few have yet been dynamically confirmed as bona fide planets, with only a handful more even conceivably amenable to future dynamical confirmation. As a result, the ability to draw detailed conclusions about the diversity of exoplanet systems from Kepler detections relies critically on understanding the probability that any individual candidate might be a false positive. We show that a typical a priori false positive probability for a well-vetted Kepler candidate is only about 5-10%, enabling confidence in demographic studies that treat candidates as true planets. We also present a detailed procedure that can be used to securely and efficiently validate any individual transit candidate using detailed information of the signal's shape as well as follow-up observations, if available. Finally, we calculate an empirical, non-parametric estimate of the shape of the radius distribution of small planets with periods less than 90 days orbiting cool (less than 4000K) dwarf stars in the Kepler catalog. This effort reveals several notable features of the distribution, in particular a maximum in the radius function around 1-1.25 Earth radii and a steep drop-off in the distribution larger than 2 Earth radii. Even more importantly, the methods presented in this work can be applied to a broader subsample of Kepler targets to understand how the radius function of planets changes across different types of host stars.

  18. Collisional Evolution of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnor, C. B.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2003-05-01

    The currently accepted model for the formation of terrestrial planets describes their growth as the collisional accumulation of rocky or sometimes molten planetesimals. The characteristics of the planets produced by this process are, to a large degree, determined by their collisional evolution, and their associated differentiation and thermal evolution. Studies of planet formation and planetary collisional evolution have typically been conducted separately. Most works of late-stage planet formation use perfectly inelastic mergers to model collisions (e.g. Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999, Chambers 2001, Levison & Agnor 2003), with certain recognized inadequacies, notably rotationally unstable spin rates acquired as a planet grows. Do planets really accrete in this manner? On the other hand, most of the work studying the collisional evolution of terrestrial planets has focused on determining the efficacy of single impacts to account for particular planetary characteristics and the formation of satellites (e.g. Benz et al. 1988, Canup & Asphaug 2001). It has been recognized for some time (Wetherill 1985) that the final characteristics (e.g. spin state, bulk composition, isotopic age) of an accreting planet are determined not by the last or single largest collision (Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999) but by all of the major collisional encounters in a planet's history. As demonstrated in our impact models, each major impact changes the silicate to metal ratio, the thermal state, and the spin state, and sets the stage for subsequent collisions. We have commenced a detailed study of collision dynamics and outcomes common to the late stage of terrestrial planet accretion. We are modeling collisions using smooth particle hydrodynamics to examine, primarily, the regimes of impact that truly allow for accretion (i.e. mass accumulation instead of mass loss). We are also studying the cumulative affect of giant impacts on major planetary characteristics (such as composition and spin) and the extent to which collisional processes may account for planetary heterogeneity. One initial outcome of this study, to be presented, is whether, and under which circumstances, the use of perfectly inelastic collisions in late stage accretion studies is appropriate.

  19. GIANT PLANETS ORBITING METAL-RICH STARS SHOW SIGNATURES OF PLANET-PLANET INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A., E-mail: rdawson@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-10, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    Gas giants orbiting interior to the ice line are thought to have been displaced from their formation locations by processes that remain debated. Here we uncover several new metallicity trends, which together may indicate that two competing mechanisms deliver close-in giant planets: gentle disk migration, operating in environments with a range of metallicities, and violent planet-planet gravitational interactions, primarily triggered in metal-rich systems in which multiple giant planets can form. First, we show with 99.1% confidence that giant planets with semimajor axes between 0.1 and 1 AU orbiting metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < 0) are confined to lower eccentricities than those orbiting metal-rich stars. Second, we show with 93.3% confidence that eccentric proto-hot Jupiters undergoing tidal circularization primarily orbit metal-rich stars. Finally, we show that only metal-rich stars host a pile-up of hot Jupiters, helping account for the lack of such a pile-up in the overall Kepler sample. Migration caused by stellar perturbers (e.g., stellar Kozai) is unlikely to account for the trends. These trends further motivate follow-up theoretical work addressing which hot Jupiter migration theories can also produce the observed population of eccentric giant planets between 0.1 and 1 AU.

  20. Societal Benefits of Ocean Altimetry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Leben, R.

    2006-07-01

    The NASA/CNES Jason satellite, follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/Poseidon mission, continues to provide oceanographers and marine operators across the globe with a continuous thirteen-year, high-quality stream of sea surface height data. The mission is expected to extend through 2008, when the NASA/NOAA/CNES follow-on mission, the ocean surface topography mission, will be launched. This unprecedented resource of valuable ocean data is being used to map sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed over the global oceans. Altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and improve our understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. Ocean altimeter data have many societal benefits and have proven invaluable in many practical applications including; -Climate research and forecasting -Hurricane forecasting and tracking -Ocean forecasting systems -Ship routing and marine operations -Marine mammal habitat monitoring -Education The data have been cited in over 2,100 research and popular articles since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992, and almost 200 scientific users receive the global coverage altimeter data on a monthly basis. In addition to the scientific and operational uses of the data, the educational community has seized the unique concepts highlighted by these altimeter missions as a resource for teaching ocean science to students from grade school through college. This presentation will highlight new societal benefits of ocean altimetry data in the areas of climate studies, marine operations, marine research, and non-ocean investigations.

  1. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING LEADS TO TIGHTLY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Barnes, Rory [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Veras, Dimitri [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Armitage, Philip J. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu

    2009-05-01

    The known extrasolar multiple-planet systems share a surprising dynamical attribute: they cluster just beyond the Hill stability boundary. Here we show that the planet-planet scattering model, which naturally explains the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution, can reproduce the observed distribution of dynamical configurations. We calculated how each of our scattered systems would appear over an appropriate range of viewing geometries; as Hill stability is weakly dependent on the masses, the mass-inclination degeneracy does not significantly affect our results. We consider a wide range of initial planetary mass distributions and find that some are poor fits to the observed systems. In fact, many of our scattering experiments overproduce systems very close to the stability boundary. The distribution of dynamical configurations of two-planet systems may provide better discrimination between scattering models than the distribution of eccentricity. Our results imply that, at least in their inner regions which are weakly affected by gas or planetesimal disks, planetary systems should be 'packed', with no large gaps between planets.

  2. A First Step Towards Understanding Popularity in YouTube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Chatzopoulou; Cheng Sheng; Michalis Faloutsos

    2010-01-01

    Being popular in YouTube is becoming a fundamental way of promoting one's self, services or products. In this paper, we conduct an in depth study of fundamental properties of video popularity in YouTube. We collect and study arguably the largest dataset of YouTube videos, roughly 37 million, accounting for 25% of all YouTube videos. We analyze popularity in a comprehensive

  3. Competition-induced criticality in a model of meme popularity

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, James P; O'Sullivan, Kevin P; Lee, William T

    2013-01-01

    Heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity occur naturally in a model of meme diffusion on social networks. Competition between multiple memes for the limited resource of user attention is identified as the mechanism that poises the system at criticality. The popularity growth of each meme is described by a critical branching process, and asymptotic analysis predicts power-law distributions of popularity with very heavy tails (exponent $\\alpha<2$, unlike preferential-attachment models), similar to those seen in empirical data.

  4. Competition-induced criticality in a model of meme popularity.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, James P; Ward, Jonathan A; O'Sullivan, Kevin P; Lee, William T

    2014-01-31

    Heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity occur naturally in a model of meme diffusion on social networks. Competition between multiple memes for the limited resource of user attention is identified as the mechanism that poises the system at criticality. The popularity growth of each meme is described by a critical branching process, and asymptotic analysis predicts power-law distributions of popularity with very heavy tails (exponent ?<2, unlike preferential-attachment models), similar to those seen in empirical data. PMID:24580496

  5. Modeling channel popularity dynamics in a large IPTV system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tongqing Qiu; Zihui Ge; Seungjoon Lee; Jia Wang; Qi Zhao; Jun Xu

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the channel popularity or content popularity is an important step in the workload characterization for modern infor- mation distribution systems (e.g., World Wide Web, peer-to-peer file-sharing systems, video-on-demand systems). In this paper, we focus on analyzing the channel popularity in the context of Inter- net Protocol Television (IPTV). In particular, we aim at capturing two important aspects of channel

  6. Evolution of Migrating Planets Undergoing Gas Accretion

    E-print Network

    Gennaro D'Angelo; Stephen H. Lubow

    2008-06-11

    We analyze the orbital and mass evolution of planets that undergo run-away gas accretion by means of 2D and 3D hydrodynamic simulations. The disk torque distribution per unit disk mass as a function of radius provides an important diagnostic for the nature of the disk-planet interactions. We first consider torque distributions for nonmigrating planets of fixed mass and show that there is general agreement with the expectations of resonance theory. We then present results of simulations for mass-gaining, migrating planets. For planets with an initial mass of 5 Earth masses, which are embedded in disks with standard parameters and which undergo run-away gas accretion to one Jupiter mass (Mjup), the torque distributions per unit disk mass are largely unaffected by migration and accretion for a given planet mass. The migration rates for these planets are in agreement with the predictions of the standard theory for planet migration (Type I and Type II migration). The planet mass growth occurs through gas capture within the planet's Bondi radius at lower planet masses, the Hill radius at intermediate planet masses, and through reduced accretion at higher planet masses due to gap formation. During run-away mass growth, a planet migrates inwards by only about 20% in radius before achieving a mass of ~1 Mjup. For the above models, we find no evidence of fast migration driven by coorbital torques, known as Type III migration. We do find evidence of Type III migration for a fixed mass planet of Saturn's mass that is immersed in a cold and massive disk. In this case the planet migration is assumed to begin before gap formation completes. The migration is understood through a model in which the torque is due to an asymmetry in density between trapped gas on the leading side of the planet and ambient gas on the trailing side of the planet.

  7. Habitable zone limits for dry planets.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yutaka; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Sleep, Norman H; Zahnle, Kevin J

    2011-06-01

    Most discussion of habitable planets has focused on Earth-like planets with globally abundant liquid water. For an "aqua planet" like Earth, the surface freezes if far from its sun, and the water vapor greenhouse effect runs away if too close. Here we show that "land planets" (desert worlds with limited surface water) have wider habitable zones than aqua planets. For planets at the inner edge of the habitable zone, a land planet has two advantages over an aqua planet: (i) the tropics can emit longwave radiation at rates above the traditional runaway limit because the air is unsaturated and (ii) the dry air creates a dry stratosphere that limits hydrogen escape. At the outer limits of the habitable zone, the land planet better resists global freezing because there is less water for clouds, snow, and ice. Here we describe a series of numerical experiments using a simple three-dimensional global climate model for Earth-sized planets. Other things (CO(2), rotation rate, surface pressure) unchanged, we found that liquid water remains stable at the poles of a low-obliquity land planet until net insolation exceeds 415 W/m(2) (170% that of modern Earth), compared to 330 W/m(2) (135%) for the aqua planet. At the outer limits, we found that a low-obliquity land planet freezes at 77%, while the aqua planet freezes at 90%. High-obliquity land and aqua planets freeze at 58% and 72%, respectively, with the poles offering the last refuge. We show that it is possible that, as the Sun brightens, an aqua planet like Earth can lose most of its hydrogen and become a land planet without first passing through a sterilizing runaway greenhouse. It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago. PMID:21707386

  8. Ocean Voyagers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ocean Voyagers is an educational outreach initiative consisting of an interdisciplinary curriculum program. It is designed to allow middle school teachers and students to gain real-world knowledge about oceanographic science, social science, maritime cultures, communication, literature, and the language arts. This site includes: integrated lesson plans on oceanographic science, maritime life and lore, technology and communications, and profiles of the Navy oceanographic survey fleet.

  9. Interactive Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is a collaboration of US and Canadian research institutions; it proposes an ocean observatory in the NE Pacific. A network of fiber optic cables on the Juan de Fuca plate will support sensors to monitor geological, chemical and biological events and provide shore-based researchers with real-time data. The site is intended to serve learners from K to college with web access to data, curricula and activities, as well as maps, images, videos of deep-sea environments.

  10. Oceanic Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L. (editor)

    1981-01-01

    Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

  11. Introduction to Ocean Models

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    Oceans cover over 70% of the surface of the earth, yet many details of their workings are not fully understood. To better understand and forecast the state of the ocean, we rely on numerical ocean models. Ocean models combine observations and physics to predict the ocean temperature, salinity, and currents at any time and any place across the ocean basins. This module will discuss what goes into numerical ocean models, including model physics, coordinate systems, parameterization, initialization, and boundary conditions.

  12. The maritime mystique: sustainable development, capital mobility, and nostalgia in the world ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip E Steinberg

    1999-01-01

    Three images of ocean space are becoming increasingly prevalent in policy and planning circles and popular culture: The image of the ocean as an empty void to be annihilated by hyper- mobile capital; as a resource-rich but fragile space requiring rational management for sustainable development; and as a source of consumable spectacles. In this paper I locate the emergence of

  13. Oceanic Hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batiza, Rodey

    2004-10-01

    The Wilson-Morgan hypothesis that fixed mantle plumes rising from deep in Earth's mantle give rise to linear island and seamount chains like Hawaii has been a leading idea in planetary geodynamics for many decades. However, the notion that these ascending columns of buoyant mantle material are fixed relative to each other or to a fixed reference frame has been questioned because the mean regional flow of the mantle (the so-called mantle wind) would be expected to entrain them and waft them about. Lately, even more fundamental questions have been raised regarding the existence of deep mantle conduits. In fact, the subject of plumes has become quite controversial, with important implications for ideas of mantle convection, Earth's differentiation, and planetary magma budgets and cooling. The appearance of Oceanic Hotspots: Intraplate Submarine Magmatism and Tectonics is thus timely. The 14 chapters contained in this nicely produced volume reflect in part the successful Franco-German collaboration spanning more than 17 years (1986 to present) and 15 expeditions to largely uncharted and unexplored regions of the South Pacific Ocean. The editors intended to produce a comprehensive multidisciplinary overview of oceanic plumes in this region, and in this they have succeeded, with both review and research chapters. Most papers document new discoveries and contain new data and/or new and original thinking, whereas others provide a broad overview and synthesis of existing data.

  14. Using Science Popularizations to Promote Learner-Centered Teaching

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David A. Dunbar

    2008-12-01

    This article attempts to evaluate why popularizations seem to generate positive reactions from learners and why the authors find themselves using popularizations more and more frequently. In doing a retrospective analysis, the authors have drawn on the changes advocated in Learner-Centered Teaching: Five Key Changes to Practice (Weimer 2003). This paper discusses how science popularizations can be utilized as part of a learner-centered classroom by looking at each of Weimer's five changes. Using Weimer's framework provides a window through which to view the benefits of popularizations.

  15. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons to a future volume. Our authors have taken on the task to look at climate on the terrestrial planets in the broadest sense possible — by comparing the atmospheric processes at work on the four terrestrial bodies, Earth, Venus, Mars, and Titan (Titan is included because it hosts many of the common processes), and on terrestrial planets around other stars. These processes include the interactions of shortwave and thermal radiation with the atmosphere, condensation and vaporization of volatiles, atmospheric dynamics, chemistry and aerosol formation, and the role of the surface and interior in the long-term evolution of climate. Chapters herein compare the scientific questions, analysis methods, numerical models, and spacecraft remote sensing experiments of Earth and the other terrestrial planets, emphasizing the underlying commonality of physical processes. We look to the future by identifying objectives for ongoing research and new missions. Through these pages we challenge practicing planetary scientists, and most importantly new students of any age, to find pathways and synergies for advancing the field. In Part I, Foundations, we introduce the fundamental physics of climate on terrestrial planets. Starting with the best studied planet by far, Earth, the first chapters discuss what is known and what is not known about the atmospheres and climates of the terrestrial planets of the solar system and beyond. In Part II, Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Dynamics, we focus on the processes that govern atmospheric motion and the role that general circulation models play in our current understanding. In Part III, Clouds and Hazes, we provide an in-depth look at the many effects of clouds and aerosols on planetary climate. Although this is a vigorous area of research in the Earth sciences, and very strongly influences climate modeling, the important role that aerosols and clouds play in the climate of all planets is not yet well constrained. This section is intended to stimulate further research on this critical subject. The study of climate involves much more than

  16. Collisional Evolution of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnor, C.; Asphaug, E.

    2004-12-01

    The terrestrial planets are generally thought to have formed via the collisional accumulation of rocky bodies. The characteristics of the planets produced by this process are, to a large degree, determined by their collisional evolution, and their associated differentiation and thermal evolution. Studies of planet formation and planetary collisional evolution have typically been conducted separately. Most works of late-stage planet formation use perfectly inelastic mergers to model collisions (e.g. Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999, Chambers 2001, Levison & Agnor 2003), with certain recognized inadequacies, notably prohibitively large spin angular momentum acquired as a planet grows. To date, studies of the collisional evolution of terrestrial planets has focused on determining the efficacy of single impacts to account for particular planetary characteristics and the formation of satellites (e.g. Benz et al. 1988, Canup & Asphaug 2001, Canup 2004). It has been recognized for some time (Wetherill 1985) that the final characteristics (e.g. spin state, bulk composition, isotopic age) of an accreting planet are determined not by the last or single largest collision but by all of the major collisional encounters in a planet's history (Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999). As demonstrated by our impact models, each major impact changes the silicate to metal ratio, the thermal state, and the spin state, and sets the stage for the subsequent collision. We are studying collisional dynamics and outcomes common to the late stage of terrestrial planet formation. We use smooth particle hydrodynamics model collisions in an effort to identify the range of impact dynamics that allow for accretion (i.e. mass growth instead of mass loss). In our initial study we found that for dynamical environments typical of most late stage accretion models, about half of all collisions between equal mass planetary embryos do not result in accumulation into a larger embryo (Agnor & Asphaug 2004). We will present new results of collisions for a variety of mass ratios and will discuss the cumulative affect of giant impacts and non-accretionary collisions on planetary characteristics (e.g. Mercury's collisional mantle loss and bulk composition, planetary spin states) and the extent to which collisional processes may account for planetary heterogeneity.

  17. Life on a tidally-locked planet

    E-print Network

    Singal, Ashok K

    2014-01-01

    A tidally-locked planet in its orbit around a star keeps the same face towards the star. This happens when the rotation period of the planet around its own axis becomes equal to its revolution period around the star. Many questions then arise. What gives rise to a tidal locking? Are there any tidally-locked planets somewhere? What will be the atmospheric system of a tidally-locked planet? Could life be sustained on a tidally-locked planet? What will be a sort of DAY in the life of a denizen of a tidally-locked planet? We dwell on these questions.

  18. Recent Kepler Results On Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-04-01

    Ranked near the top of the long list of exciting discoveries made with NASA's Kepler photometer is the detection of transiting circumbinary planets. In just over a year the number of such planets went from zero to seven, including a multi-planet system with one of the planets in the habitable zone (Kepler-47). We are quickly learning to better detect and characterize these planets, including the recognition of their transit timing and duration variation ``smoking gun'' signature. Even with only a handful of such planets, some exciting trends are emerging.

  19. Tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The tectonic style of each terrestrial planet, referring to the thickness and division of its lithosphere, can be inferred from surface features and compared to models of planetary thermal history. Factors governing planetary tectonic evolution are planet diameter, chemistry, and external and internal heat sources, all of which determine how a planet generates and rids itself of heat. The earth is distinguished by its distinct, mobile plates, which are recycled into the mantle and show large-scale lateral movements, whereas the moon, Mars, and Mercury are single spherical shells, showing no evidence of destruction and renewal of the lithospheric plates over the latter 80% of their history. Their smaller volume to surface area results in a more rapid cooling, formation, and thickening of the lithosphere. Vertical tectonics, due to lithospheric loading, is controlled by the local thickness and rheology of the lithosphere. Further studies of Venus, which displays both the craterlike surface features of the one-plate planets, and the rifts and plateaus of earth, may indicate which factors are most important in controlling the tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets.

  20. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search. XXII. Two New Multi-Planet Systems

    E-print Network

    Wittenyer, Robert A; Tuomi, M; Salter, G S; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; Jones, H R A; O'Toole, S J; Bailey, J; Carter, B D; Jenkins, J S; Zhang, Z; Vogt, S S; Rivera, E J

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005\\pm427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3M_Jup. HD142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 \\pm 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3\\pm1.3 days, and m sin i=0.73\\pm0.05 M_Jup. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

  1. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search. XXII. Two New Multi-planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Tuomi, Mikko; Salter, G. S.; Tinney, C. G.; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; O'Toole, S. J.; Bailey, J.; Carter, B. D.; Jenkins, J. S.; Zhang, Z.; Vogt, S. S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.

    2012-07-01

    We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005 ± 427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3 M Jup. HD 142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 ± 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3 ± 1.3 days and m sin i = 0.73 ± 0.05 M Jup. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

  2. THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXII. TWO NEW MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Salter, G. S.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Tuomi, Mikko; Zhang, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Butler, R. P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Jones, H. R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); O'Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Carter, B. D. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Jenkins, J. S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Vogt, S. S.; Rivera, Eugenio J., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005 {+-} 427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3 M{sub Jup}. HD 142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 {+-} 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3 {+-} 1.3 days and m sin i = 0.73 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Jup}. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

  3. The frequency of planets in multiple systems

    E-print Network

    M. Bonavita; S. Desidera

    2007-03-29

    The frequency of planets in binaries is an important issue in the field of extrasolar planet studies, because of its relevance in estimating of the global planet population of our Galaxy and the clues it can give to our understanding of planet formation and evolution. However, only preliminary estimates are available in the literature. We analyze and compare the frequency of planets in multiple systems to the frequency of planets orbiting single stars. We also try to highlight possible connections between the frequency of planets and the orbital parameters of the binaries (such as the periastron and mass ratio.) A literature search was performed for binaries and multiple systems among the stars of the sample with uniform planet detectability defined by Fischer & Valenti (2005), and 202 of the 850 stars of the sample turned out to be binaries, allowing a statistical comparison of the frequency of planets in binaries and single stars and a study of the run of the planet frequency as a function of the binary separation. We found that the global frequency of planets in the binaries of the sample is not statistically different from that of planets in single stars. Even conservatively taking the probable incompleteness of binary detection in our sample into account, we estimate that the frequency of planets in binaries can be no more than a factor of three lower than that of planets in single stars. There is no significant dependence of planet frequency on the binary separation, except for a lower value of frequency for close binaries. However, this is probably not as low as required to explain the presence of planets in close binaries only as the result of modifications of the binary orbit after the planet formation.

  4. Detecting New Planets in Transiting Systems

    E-print Network

    Jason H. Steffen

    2006-09-18

    I present an initial investigation into a new planet detection technique that uses the transit timing of a known, transiting planet. The transits of a solitary planet orbiting a star occur at equally spaced intervals in time. If a second planet is present, dynamical interactions within the system will cause the time interval between transits to vary. These transit time variations can be used to infer the orbital elements of the unseen, perturbing planet. I show analytic expressions for the amplitude of the transit time variations in several limiting cases. Under certain conditions the transit time variations can be comparable to the period of the transiting planet. I also present the application of this planet detection technique to existing transit observations of the TrES-1 and HD209458 systems. While no convincing evidence for a second planet in either system was found from those data, I constrain the mass that a perturbing planet could have as a function of the semi-major axis ratio of the two planets and the eccentricity of the perturbing planet. Near low-order, mean-motion resonances (within about 1% fractional deviation), I find that a secondary planet must generally have a mass comparable to or less than the mass of the Earth--showing that these data are the first to have sensitivity to sub Earth-mass planets orbiting main sequence stars. These results show that TTV will be an important tool in the detection and characterization of extrasolar planetary systems.

  5. Adaptive Scheduling Algorithms for Planet Searches

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Ford

    2007-12-17

    High-precision radial velocity planet searches have surveyed over ~2000 nearby stars and detected over ~200 planets. While these same stars likely harbor many additional planets, they will become increasingly challenging to detect, as they tend to have relatively small masses and/or relatively long orbital periods. Therefore, observers are increasing the precision of their observations, continuing to monitor stars over decade timescales, and also preparing to survey thousands more stars. Given the considerable amounts of telescope time required for such observing programs, it is important use the available resources as efficiently as possible. Previous studies have found that a wide range of predetermined scheduling algorithms result in planet searches with similar sensitivities. We have developed adaptive scheduling algorithms which have a solid basis in Bayesian inference and information theory and also are computationally feasible for modern planet searches. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations of plausible planet searches to test the power of adaptive scheduling algorithms. Our simulations demonstrate that planet searches performed with adaptive scheduling algorithms can simultaneously detect more planets, detect less massive planets, and measure orbital parameters more accurately than comparable surveys using a non-adaptive scheduling algorithm. We expect that these techniques will be particularly valuable for the N2K radial velocity planet search for short-period planets as well as future astrometric planet searches with the Space Interferometry Mission which aim to detect terrestrial mass planets.

  6. Detecting Planets in Planetary Nebulae

    E-print Network

    Noam Soker

    1998-08-25

    We examine the possibility of detecting signatures of surviving Uranus-Neptune-like planets inside planetary nebulae. Planets that are not too close to the stars, orbital separation larger than about 5 AU, are likely to survive the entire evolution of the star. As the star turns into a planetary nebula, it has a fast wind and a strong ionizing radiation. The interaction of the radiation and wind with a planet may lead to the formation of a compact condensation or tail inside the planetary nebula, which emits strongly in Halpha, but not in [OIII]. The position of the condensation (or tail) will change over a time of about 10 years. Such condensations might be detected with currently existing telescopes.

  7. Extra-solar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Extra-solar planet detection has been a goal of astronomers for many decades. This paper describes current efforts in planet detection using interferometric techniques. At present, the Mark III long baseline interferometer has been operational for a number of years. The Mark III has achieved significant improvement in astrometric accuracy in two areas, wide angle astrometry and double star astrometry. Two new interferometers are being developed. The first is a direct combination IR interferometer, an upgrade of the UCB IR heterodyne interferometer. The second is the Keck Interferometer Array. This instrument, to be operational at the end of the decade will be a major interferometric facility, with the capability to combine coherently the light from the two 10-meter Keck telescopes as well as four 1.5-meter movable outrigger telescopes. The last project directed at planet detection is OSI, a space-based long-baseline interferometer with a planned astrometric accuracy of 1-10 microarcsec.

  8. Hubble Extra Solar Planet Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a proposed third-generation Hubble instrument for extra-solar planet detection, the Hubble Extra-Solar Planet Interferometer (HESPI). This instrument would be able to achieve starlight cancellation at the 10 exp 6 to 10 exp 8 level, given a stellar wavefront with phase errors comparable to the present Hubble telescope wavefront. At 10 exp 6 starlight cancellation, HESPI would be able to detect a Jupiter-like planet next to a star at a distance of about 10 parsec, for which there are about 400 candidate stars. This paper describes a novel approach for starlight suppression, using a combination of active control and single-mode spatial filters, to achieve starlight suppression far below the classical limit set by scattering due to microsurface imperfections. In preliminary lab experiments, suppression by a factor of 40 below the classical scatter limit due to optical wavefront errors has been demonstrated.

  9. Characterizing K2 Planet Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Montet, Benjamin; Johnson, John; Buchhave, Lars A.; Zeng, Li; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; Harps-N Collaboration, The Robo-Ao Team

    2015-01-01

    We present an effort to confirm the first planet discovered by the two-wheeled Kepler mission. We analyzed K2 photometry, correcting for nonuniform detector response as a function of the spacecraft's pointing, and detected a transiting planet candidate. We describe our multi-telescope followup observing campaign, consisting of photometric, spectroscopic, and high resolution imaging observations, including over 40 HARPS-N radial velocity measurements. The new planet is a super-Earth orbiting a bright star amenable to followup observations. HARPS-N was funded by the Swiss Space Office, the Harvard Origin of Life Initiative, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the University of Geneva, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Italian National Astrophysical Institute, the University of St. Andrews, Queens University Belfast, and the University of Edinburgh.

  10. The image of place in American popular music, 1970-1990 

    E-print Network

    Seiler, Leslie Carl

    1997-01-01

    Popular music is examined from two geographical perspectives, the image of place as represented in the titles of popular songs and the changing geography of the popular music industry. Examining the trend in place reference in popular song titles...

  11. AN ULTRACOOL STAR'S CANDIDATE PLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Pravdo, Steven H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 306-431, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Shaklan, Stuart B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 301-451, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: spravdo@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: stuart.shaklan@jpl.nasa.gov

    2009-07-20

    We report here the discovery of the first planet around an ultracool dwarf star. It is also the first extrasolar giant planet astrometrically discovered around a main-sequence star. The statistical significance of the detection is shown in two ways. First, there is a 2 x 10{sup -8} probability that the astrometric motion fits a parallax-and-proper-motion-only model. Second, periodogram analysis shows a false alarm probability of 3 x 10{sup -5} that the discovered period is randomly generated. The planetary mass is M {sub 2} = 6.4 (+2.6,-3.1) Jupiter-masses (M {sub J}), and the orbital period is P = 0.744 (+0.013,-0.008) yr in the most likely model. In less likely models, companion masses that are higher than the 13 M {sub J} planetary mass limit are ruled out by past radial velocity (RV) measurements unless the system RV is more than twice the current upper limits and the near-periastron orbital phase was never observed. This new planetary system is remarkable, in part, because its star, VB 10, is near the lower mass limit for a star. Our astrometric observations provide a dynamical mass measurement and will in time allow us to confront the theoretical models of formation and evolution of such systems and their members. We thus add to the diversity of planetary systems and to the small number of known M-dwarf planets. Planets such as VB 10b could be the most numerous type of planets because M stars comprise >70% of all stars. To date they have remained hidden since the dominant RV planet-discovery technique is relatively insensitive to these dim, red systems.

  12. Habitable planets with high obliquities.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M; Kasting, J F

    1997-01-01

    Earth's obliquity would vary chaotically from 0 degrees to 85 degrees were it not for the presence of the Moon (J. Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, 1993, Nature 361, 615-617). The Moon itself is thought to be an accident of accretion, formed by a glancing blow from a Mars-sized planetesimal. Hence, planets with similar moons and stable obliquities may be extremely rare. This has lead Laskar and colleagues to suggest that the number of Earth-like planets with high obliquities and temperate, life-supporting climates may be small. To test this proposition, we have used an energy-balance climate model to simulate Earth's climate at obliquities up to 90 degrees. We show that Earth's climate would become regionally severe in such circumstances, with large seasonal cycles and accompanying temperature extremes on middle- and high-latitude continents which might be damaging to many forms of life. The response of other, hypothetical, Earth-like planets to large obliquity fluctuations depends on their land-sea distribution and on their position within the habitable zone (HZ) around their star. Planets with several modest-sized continents or equatorial supercontinents are more climatically stable than those with polar supercontinents. Planets farther out in the HZ are less affected by high obliquities because their atmospheres should accumulate CO2 in response to the carbonate-silicate cycle. Dense, CO2-rich atmospheres transport heat very effectively and therefore limit the magnitude of both seasonal cycles and latitudinal temperature gradients. We conclude that a significant fraction of extrasolar Earth-like planets may still be habitable, even if they are subject to large obliquity fluctuations. PMID:11541242

  13. Chemical kinetics on extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Moses, Julianne I

    2014-04-28

    Chemical kinetics plays an important role in controlling the atmospheric composition of all planetary atmospheres, including those of extrasolar planets. For the hottest exoplanets, the composition can closely follow thermochemical-equilibrium predictions, at least in the visible and infrared photosphere at dayside (eclipse) conditions. However, for atmospheric temperatures approximately <2000K, and in the uppermost atmosphere at any temperature, chemical kinetics matters. The two key mechanisms by which kinetic processes drive an exoplanet atmosphere out of equilibrium are photochemistry and transport-induced quenching. I review these disequilibrium processes in detail, discuss observational consequences and examine some of the current evidence for kinetic processes on extrasolar planets. PMID:24664912

  14. Extrasolar Planets: A Galactic Perspective

    E-print Network

    I. N. Reid

    2006-08-15

    The host stars of extrasolar planets tend to be metal-rich. We have examined the data for these stars for evidence of trends in other galactic parameters, without success. However, several ESP hosts are likely to be members of the thick disk population, indicating that planet formation has occurred throughout the full lifetime of the Galactic disk. We briefly consider the radial metallicity gradient and age-metallicity relation of the Galactic disk, and complete a back-of-the envelope estimate of the likely number of solar-type stars with planetary companions with 6 < R < 10 kpc.

  15. Stellar Collisions and Pulsar Planets

    E-print Network

    Brad M. S. Hansen

    2000-08-16

    I describe models for the formation of planetary systems surrounding the remnants of stellar mergers and collisions. I focus primarily on models for the viscous evolution of disks suitable for the formation of the planets surrounding the pulsar B1257+12. I show that the adaptation of models for traditional protoplanetary disks which invoke quiescent or `dead' zones are quite successful in producing disks appropriate for the formation of the pulsar planets. I also briefly describe some even more exotic possibilities that may arise from compact object mergers.

  16. Havana's popular gardens:sustainable prospects for urban agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott G. Chaplowe

    1998-01-01

    With the collapse of the Soviet Bloc and its economic support in 1989, as well as the tightening of the US economic embargo, Cuba has been forced to explore sustainable agriculture as a source of food security. This paper examines Havana's popular gardens, an important feature in Cuba's recent emphasis on self-reliant agriculture. Popular gardens are small plots of state-owned

  17. Men's Health--Is There a "Popular Press" Potential?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Angela; Parry-Langdon, Nina; Roberts, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of health messages delivered to males and females through the "popular" media of magazines that have a health content, and to consider the potential for "popular" magazines to play a role in communicating health promotion messages to men. Design: A qualitative approach that subscribes to content analysis of a sample…

  18. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…

  19. On Predicting the Popularity of Newly Emerging Hashtags in Twitter

    E-print Network

    Aixin, Sun

    On Predicting the Popularity of Newly Emerging Hashtags in Twitter Zongyang Ma, Aixin Sun, and Gao, Singapore. E-mail: zma4@e.ntu.edu.sg; {axsun, gaocong}@ntu.edu.sg Because of Twitter's popularity and the viral nature of information dissemination on Twitter, predicting which Twitter topics will become

  20. Participation in Environmental Popular Education Workshops: An Example from Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Beatriz

    2000-01-01

    Environmental popular education workshops intended to increase local capacity for sustainability in Mexico meet obstacles such as distrust and misunderstandings over jargon. Environmental popular education must be relevant to local concerns as well as increase communication about broader social, economic, and environmental issues. (Contains 21…

  1. Gender and the Rhetoric of Reproduction in Popular Science Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurkis, Elisa

    In academia, theorists in rhetoric are interested in viewing how race, gender, and class come into play in the language of literature. The same might be done with popular science texts. A rhetorical analysis of "Sperm Wars," a popular science article published in "Discover" magazine, suggests that cultural assumptions inform the language of…

  2. Social Influences on Paranormal Belief: Popular versus Scientific Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridolfo, Heather; Baxter, Amy; Lucas, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Paranormal claims enjoy relatively widespread popular support despite by definition being rejected by the scientific community. We propose that belief in paranormal claims is influenced by how popular those claims are as well as by dominant scientific views on the claims. We additionally propose that individuals will be most likely to be…

  3. ¡Que la fuerza te acompañe! Culturismo y cultura popular

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Ferrús Antón

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines body-building as a result of the corporal technologies of early XXI th century, and also as a popular practice that erases social borders between the walls of the gym. My purpose is to interrogate the bodybuilding magazines, and particularly, the publicity dedicated to products for instructors, in order to investigate the bond between body and popular culture

  4. Collages of Identity: Popular Culture, Emotion, and Online Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bronwyn T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses how online multimodal literacy practices are both filtered through and use popular culture. Using a combination of textual analysis and interviews with first-year university students, the author illustrates how the intersections of multimodal literacies and popular culture are shaping the ways that identities…

  5. Teaching through Film: Utilizing Popular Criminology in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, M.

    2013-01-01

    As technology and media become more popular pedagogical tools for instructors, the discussion of using films as a way to help students understand criminological concepts is also growing. Using a conceptual framework of popular criminology, the author set out to explore the ways in which films can be incorporated into a unique course aimed at…

  6. Popular music as a mode of communication, 1955–1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Chesebro; Davis A. Foulger; Jay E. Naghman; Andrew Yannelli

    1985-01-01

    Employing a dramatistic system based upon the critical frameworks of Kenneth Burke and Northrop Frye, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the fifteen most popular recorded single records each year between 1955 and 1982 is presented. Popular music is conceptually defined as a nondiscursive epideictic mode of communication and operationally defined as Billboard's top fifteen “hit” single records each year

  7. Popular Culture: A New Frontier for Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Wayne A.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the study and preservation of popular culture would lead to better understanding of the American people but that these cultural patterns have been largely ignored by the academic community. Four steps are outlined to facilitate the collection of popular culture materials by academic libraries. (CWM)

  8. Popularity, Friendship, and Emotional Adjustment during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses a model that suggests that popularity and friendship are linked to different forms of adjustment and emotional well-being and emphasizes that friendship is an important mediator between popularity and loneliness. Results of a study that involved 169 early adolescents in fifth and sixth grades supported the model. (BB)

  9. Fiestaware as an Icon in the Popular Culture of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Sharon; Dale, J. Alexander

    Fiestaware, the brightly colored dinnerware first introduced in the United States in 1936, has been a cultural phenomenon from its inception. This paper seeks to explain the extraordinary popularity of Fiestaware and to understand the role the ware occupies in U.S. popular culture. Fiestaware achieved enormous success, in spite of its introduction…

  10. The Unembarressed Muse: The Popular Arts in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Russel

    This book is a study of certain of the popular arts in American society, that is, the arts in their customarily accepted genres. "Popular" is interpreted to mean "generally dispersed and approved"--descriptive of those artistic productions which express the taste and understanding of the majority and which are free of control, in content and…

  11. Islamic Law, Women's Rights, and Popular Legal Consciousness in Malaysia

    E-print Network

    Islamic Law, Women's Rights, and Popular Legal Consciousness in Malaysia Tamir Moustafa Drawing in Islamic law. The survey finds a substan- tial disjuncture between popular legal consciousness and core epistemological commit- ments in Islamic legal theory. In its classic form, Islamic legal theory was marked by its

  12. Popularity Modeling for Mobile Apps: A Sequential Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hengshu; Liu, Chuanren; Ge, Yong; Xiong, Hui; Chen, Enhong

    2015-07-01

    The popularity information in App stores, such as chart rankings, user ratings, and user reviews, provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand user experiences with mobile Apps, learn the process of adoption of mobile Apps, and thus enables better mobile App services. While the importance of popularity information is well recognized in the literature, the use of the popularity information for mobile App services is still fragmented and under-explored. To this end, in this paper, we propose a sequential approach based on hidden Markov model (HMM) for modeling the popularity information of mobile Apps toward mobile App services. Specifically, we first propose a popularity based HMM (PHMM) to model the sequences of the heterogeneous popularity observations of mobile Apps. Then, we introduce a bipartite based method to precluster the popularity observations. This can help to learn the parameters and initial values of the PHMM efficiently. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PHMM is a general model and can be applicable for various mobile App services, such as trend based App recommendation, rating and review spam detection, and ranking fraud detection. Finally, we validate our approach on two real-world data sets collected from the Apple Appstore. Experimental results clearly validate both the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed popularity modeling approach. PMID:25204005

  13. The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H. (editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

  14. How climate evolved on the terrestrial planets.

    PubMed

    Kasting, J F; Toon, O B; Pollack, J B

    1988-02-01

    Planets with temperate, earthlike climates were once thought to be rare in our galaxy. Mathematical models now suggest that if planets do exist outside the solar system, many of them might be habitable. PMID:11538470

  15. ConcepTest: Jovian Planet Characteristics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The characteristics of four planets are listed below. Which planet is most likely to be classified as Jovian? a. Mainly rocky, volcanism, low gravity. b. Mainly rocky, no volcanism, high gravity. c. Mainly gaseous, ...

  16. Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James

    2007-04-01

    Paleoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the `albedo flip' property of water substance, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that `flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Ice sheet and ocean inertia provides only moderate delay to ice sheet disintegration and a burst of added global warming. Recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions place the Earth perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures. CO2 is the largest human-made climate forcing, but CH4, O3, N2O and black carbon (BC) are important. Only intense simultaneous efforts to slow CO2 emissions and reduce non-CO2 forcings can keep climate within or near the range of the past million years. Some forcings are especially effective at high latitudes, so concerted efforts to reduce their emissions could still ``save the Arctic,'' while also having major benefits for human health, agricultural productivity, and the global environment.

  17. NAAP ExtraSolar Planets 1/10 ExtraSolar Planets Student Guide

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Name: NAAP ­ ExtraSolar Planets 1/10 ExtraSolar Planets ­ Student Guide Background Material, Center of Mass, and ExtraSolar Planet Detection. Question 1: Label the positions on the star's orbit be moving. #12;NAAP ­ ExtraSolar Planets 2/10 Part I: Exoplanet Radial Velocity Simulator Introduction Open

  18. A Unique Solution of Planet and Star Parameters from an Extrasolar Planet Transit Light Curve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Seager; G. Mallén-Ornelas

    2003-01-01

    There is a unique solution of the planet and star parameters from a planet transit light curve with two or more transits if the planet has a circular orbit and the light curve is observed in a bandpass where limb darkening is negligible. The existence of this unique solution is very useful for current planet transit surveys for several reasons.

  19. THE ROLE OF GIANT PLANETS IN TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION Harold F. Levison1

    E-print Network

    Agnor, Craig B.

    THE ROLE OF GIANT PLANETS IN TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION Harold F. Levison1 and Craig Agnor2 stages of terrestrial planet formation under the gravitational influence of six different outer giant that the giant planets play in determining the number, mass, and orbital characteristics of the resulting

  20. From Clouds to Planet Systems Formation and Evolution of Stars and Planets

    E-print Network

    Wuchterl, Günther

    From Clouds to Planet Systems Formation and Evolution of Stars and Planets G¨unther Wuchterl June 13, 2005 Abstract The discovery of more than hundred extrasolar planet candidates chal- lenges our understanding of star and planet formation. Do we have to modify the theories that were mostly developed