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1

Ocean Planet: Ocean Market  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on foods, materials and medicines that comes form marine life, how these resources are harvested and processed and the impacts of fisheries. Students identify and classify consumer goods from the ocean and calculate their cost. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

2012-07-19

2

Planet Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will be taken into consideration, for instance, the value of the pH, using universal indicator paper, color, through visual evaluation and the temperature with the help of a thermometer. There will be also registered some existent chemical parameters as chloride, alkalinity, total hardness (Ca2+ and Mg2+), nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate. Two methods will be used for analysis, the titration and the kit of semi-quantitative chemical analyses. This kit is composed by biocompatible substances, which means they are not harmful for the environment and can be disposed of by domestic sewage systems. The results will be subsequently analyzed bearing in mind the maximum and recommended standards values for each one of the parameters. After this, the results achieved will be discussed. I believe this project contains characteristics that will be of interest to our students, thus enabling them to participate actively and effectively develop their knowledge and enhance their scientific curiosity.

Afonso, Isabel

2014-05-01

3

Ocean Planet: Rough Planet Earth without Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

4

Changing Planet: Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses the impact of higher amounts of carbon dioxide absorbed by the oceans on marine organisms and how they are adapting to the new environment. Changing Planet is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

2011-03-04

5

Ocean Planet: Final Version  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

6

Ocean Planet: Pollution Solution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Focuses on sources of oil pollution and effects on ocean, marine life and humans. Students predict impacts of an oil spill and plan actions needed to protect and restore habitat and wildlife. Lab activities demonstrate properties of oil. Unit includes: background, instructions for the teacher, forms for student activities, discussion questions; all available online in PDF format. Resources include online version of the Ocean Planet exhibition.

7

Planetans—oceanic planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of principles, systems, and instruments enable the detection of exoplanets with 6-8 Earth masses or less. The launches of specialized satellites, such as CoRoT (2006) and Kepler (2009), into orbits around the Earth have enabled the discovery of new exoplanetary systems. These missions are searching for relatively low-mass planets by observing their transits over the disks of their parent stars. At the same time, supporting studies of exoplanets using ground-based facilities (that measure Keplerian components of radial velocities) are in progress. The properties of at least two objects discovered by different methods, Kepler-22 and GJ 1214b, suggested that there was another class of celestial bodies among the known types of extrasolar planets: planetans, or oceanic planets. The structure of Kepler-22 and GJ 1214b suggest that they can be these oceanic planets. In this paper, we consider to what extent this statement is valid. The consideration of exoplanet Gl 581g as an oceanic planet is more feasible. Some specific features of the physical nature of these unusual planets are presented.

Ksanfomality, L. V.

2014-01-01

8

Ocean Planet Exhibition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour of the Smithsonian Institution's Ocean Planet exhibit can be navigated by clicking on the floor plan which is pictured, or it can be searched by image, subject, or topic outline. Links to educational materials and to a special curator's tour are also included.

9

The ocean planet.  

PubMed

The Blue Planet is 70% water, and all but 3% of it is salt water. Life on earth first evolved in the primordial soup of ancient seas, and though today's seas provide 99% of all living space on the planet, little is known about the world's oceans. However, the fact that the greatest threats to the integrity of our oceans come from land-based activities is becoming clear. Humankind is in the process of annihilating the coastal and ocean ecosystems and the wealth of biodiversity they harbor. Mounting population and development pressures have taken a grim toll on coastal and ocean resources. The trend arising from such growth is the chronic overexploitation of marine resources, whereby rapidly expanding coastal populations and the growth of cities have contributed to a rising tide of pollution in nearly all of the world's seas. This crisis is made worse by government inaction and a frustrating inability to enforce existing coastal and ocean management regulations. Such inability is mainly because concerned areas contain so many different types of regulations and involve so many levels of government, that rational planning and coordination of efforts are rendered impossible. Concerted efforts are needed by national governments and the international community to start preserving the ultimate source of all life on earth. PMID:12349465

Hinrichsen, D

1998-01-01

10

Visit to An Ocean Planet: Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource uses text, images, maps and a laboratory exercise to explain how differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water cause the formation of deep-ocean currents. It is part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's "Ocean Surface Topography from Space" website. This material is also available on the "Visit to An Ocean Planet" CD-ROM.

11

Ocean Planet: Interdisciplinary Marine Science Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a set of six interdisciplinary lesson plans from the Smithsonian, complementing their online "Ocean Planet" exhibit. Topics include: ocean bottom features and seafloor mapping; marine habitats and biodiversity; consumer goods from the ocean; oil spills impacts and solutions; causes of marine strandings; ocean-inspired vocabulary. Units contain: background; instructions for the teacher; maps, data and forms for students; discussion questions; all available online in PDF format. Student activities stress science, math, language arts and social studies.

2012-09-20

12

Ocean Planet: Rough Cut Hawaii Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

13

Ocean Planet: Final Version with Credits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1995-05-26

14

Ocean Planet: Map of Flight Path  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

15

Hydrothermal systems in small ocean planets.  

PubMed

We examine means for driving hydrothermal activity in extraterrestrial oceans on planets and satellites of less than one Earth mass, with implications for sustaining a low level of biological activity over geological timescales. Assuming ocean planets have olivine-dominated lithospheres, a model for cooling-induced thermal cracking shows how variation in planet size and internal thermal energy may drive variation in the dominant type of hydrothermal system-for example, high or low temperature system or chemically driven system. As radiogenic heating diminishes over time, progressive exposure of new rock continues to the current epoch. Where fluid-rock interactions propagate slowly into a deep brittle layer, thermal energy from serpentinization may be the primary cause of hydrothermal activity in small ocean planets. We show that the time-varying hydrostatic head of a tidally forced ice shell may drive hydrothermal fluid flow through the seafloor, which can generate moderate but potentially important heat through viscous interaction with the matrix of porous seafloor rock. Considering all presently known potential ocean planets-Mars, a number of icy satellites, Pluto, and other trans-neptunian objects-and applying Earth-like material properties and cooling rates, we find depths of circulation are more than an order of magnitude greater than in Earth. In Europa and Enceladus, tidal flexing may drive hydrothermal circulation and, in Europa, may generate heat on the same order as present-day radiogenic heat flux at Earth's surface. In all objects, progressive serpentinization generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day radiogenic heating and hydrogen is produced at rates between 10(9) and 10(10) molecules cm(2) s(1). PMID:18163874

Vance, Steve; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Kimura, Jun; Hussmann, Hauke; Demartin, Brian; Brown, J Michael

2007-12-01

16

Ocean Planet: Partial Tour with Map Route Inset  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

17

Ocean Planet: Rotation of an AVHRR Data Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

18

Ocean Planet: Rough Cut Ship and Submersible Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

19

Visit to an Ocean Planet - Classroom Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of classroom activities covers ocean study topics such as climate and the degree to which the ocean controls climate, physical properties of the ocean (density, salinity, currents, and others), and the scale of ocean life and life support structures. Each activity features an overview, concepts, a materials list, and instructions. Highlighted terms are linked to a glossary.

20

Applications of Ocean Acoustic Monitoring to Understanding Our Planet  

SciTech Connect

The ocean covers two-thirds of the surface of Earth, and hides long chains of seafloor volcanoes, bizarre and magnificent life forms, and many dynamic geological processes. Shrouded in darkness, much of what happens deep in the ocean is unknown to us. But sound can tell us a great deal about what is going on in the ocean. Changes in the physical properties of seawater with depth allow relatively quiet sounds to travel great distances without loosing much energy. In this way we are able to record many noises that occur within or on the boundary of the ocean, giving us insight into geological, biological and man-made activities in the ocean. One of the most interesting noises to a geophysicist is the sound of mid-ocean ridge volcanic eruptions. These eruptions are forming new surface for our planet and helping create an extraordinary seafloor ecosystem. Examples of sounds heard and some of their implications will be presented.

Tolstoy, Maya (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University) [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University

2005-10-26

21

DETECTING OCEANS ON EXTRASOLAR PLANETS USING THE GLINT EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

Glint, the specular reflection of sunlight off Earth's oceans, may reveal the presence of oceans on an extrasolar planet. As an Earth-like planet nears crescent phases, the size of the ocean glint spot increases relative to the fraction of the illuminated disk, while the reflectivity of this spot increases. Both effects change the planet's visible reflectivity as a function of phase. However, strong forward scattering of radiation by clouds can also produce increases in a planet's reflectivity as it approaches crescent phases, and surface glint can be obscured by Rayleigh scattering and atmospheric absorption. Here, we explore the detectability of glint in the presence of an atmosphere and realistic phase-dependent scattering from oceans and clouds. We use the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model to simulate Earth's broadband visible brightness and reflectivity over an orbit. Our validated simulations successfully reproduce phase-dependent Earthshine observations. We find that the glinting Earth can be as much as 100% brighter at crescent phases than simulations that do not include glint, and that the effect is dependent on both orbital inclination and wavelength, where the latter dependence is caused by Rayleigh scattering limiting sensitivity to the surface. We show that this phenomenon may be observable using the James Webb Space Telescope paired with an external occulter.

Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Crisp, David, E-mail: robinson@astro.washington.ed [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2010-09-20

22

Europa, tidally heated oceans, and habitable zones around giant planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain an environment favorable to life on the satellite surface or just below a thin ice layer. Europa could have a liquid ocean which may occasionally receive sunlight through cracks in the overlying ice shell. In such a case, sufficient solar energy could reach liquid water

R. T. Reynolds; C. P. McKay; J. F. Kasting

1987-01-01

23

Detecting Oceans on Extrasolar Planets Using the Glint Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glint, the specular reflection of sunlight off Earth's oceans, may reveal the presence of oceans on an extrasolar planet. As an Earth-like planet nears crescent phases, the size of the ocean glint spot increases relative to the fraction of the illuminated disk, while the reflectivity of this spot increases. Both effects change the planet's visible reflectivity as a function of phase. However, strong forward scattering of radiation by clouds can also produce increases in a planet's reflectivity as it approaches crescent phases, and surface glint can be obscured by Rayleigh scattering and atmospheric absorption. Here, we explore the detectability of glint in the presence of an atmosphere and realistic phase-dependent scattering from oceans and clouds. We use the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model to simulate Earth's broadband visible brightness and reflectivity over an orbit. Our validated simulations successfully reproduce phase-dependent Earthshine observations. We find that the glinting Earth can be as much as 100% brighter at crescent phases than simulations that do not include glint, and that the effect is dependent on both orbital inclination and wavelength, where the latter dependence is caused by Rayleigh scattering limiting sensitivity to the surface. We show that this phenomenon may be observable using the James Webb Space Telescope paired with an external occulter.

Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David

2010-09-01

24

Mission to Planet Earth. The living ocean: Observing ocean color from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of ocean color are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, which will assess how the global environment is changing. Using the unique perspective available from space, NASA will observe, monitor, and study large-scale environmental processes, focusing on quantifying climate change. NASA will distribute the results of these studies to researchers worldwide to furnish a basis for informed decisions on environmental protection and economic policy. This information packet includes discussion on the reasons for measuring ocean color, the carbon cycle and ocean color, priorities for global climate research, and SeWiFS (sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor) global ocean color measurements.

1994-01-01

25

Europa, tidally heated oceans, and habitable zones around giant planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain an environment favorable to life on the satellite surface or just below a thin ice layer. Europa could have a liquid ocean which may occasionally receive sunlight through cracks in the overlying ice shell. In such a case, sufficient solar energy could reach liquid water that organisms similar to those found under Antarctic ice could grow. In other solar systems, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could represent environments that are stable over an order of eons and in which life could perhaps evolve. A zone around a giant planet is defined in which such satellites could exist as a tidally-heated habitable zone. This zone can be compared to the habitable zone which results from heating due to the radiation of a central star. In this solar system, this radiatively-heated habitable zone contains the earth.

Reynolds, Ray T.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Kasting, James F.

1987-01-01

26

Europa, tidally heated oceans, and habitable zones around giant planets.  

PubMed

Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain an environment favorable to life on the satellite surface or just below a thin ice layer. In our own solar system, Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, could have a liquid ocean which may occasionally receive sunlight through cracks in the overlying ice shell. In such case, sufficient solar energy could reach liquid water that organisms similar to those found under Antarctic ice could grow. In other solar systems, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could represent environments that are stable over an order of Aeons and in which life could perhaps evolve. We define a zone around a giant planet in which such satellites could exist as a tidally-heated habitable zone. This zone can be compared to the habitable zone which results from heating due to the radiation of a central star. In our solar system, this radiatively-heated habitable zone contains the Earth. PMID:11538217

Reynolds, R T; McKay, C P; Kasting, J F

1987-01-01

27

Emergence of two types of terrestrial planet on solidification of magma ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origins of the diversity in terrestrial planets is a fundamental goal in Earth and planetary sciences. In the Solar System, Venus has a similar size and bulk composition to those of Earth, but it lacks water. Because a richer variety of exoplanets is expected to be discovered, prediction of their atmospheres and surface environments requires a general framework for planetary evolution. Here we show that terrestrial planets can be divided into two distinct types on the basis of their evolutionary history during solidification from the initially hot molten state expected from the standard formation model. Even if, apart from their orbits, they were identical just after formation, the solidified planets can have different characteristics. A typeI planet, which is formed beyond a certain critical distance from the host star, solidifies within several million years. If the planet acquires water during formation, most of this water is retained and forms the earliest oceans. In contrast, on a typeII planet, which is formed inside the critical distance, a magma ocean can be sustained for longer, even with a larger initial amount of water. Its duration could be as long as 100 million years if the planet is formed together with a mass of water comparable to the total inventory of the modern Earth. Hydrodynamic escape desiccates typeII planets during the slow solidification process. Although Earth is categorized as typeI, it is not clear which type Venus is because its orbital distance is close to the critical distance. However, because the dryness of the surface and mantle predicted for typeII planets is consistent with the characteristics of Venus, it may be representative of typeII planets. Also, future observations may have a chance to detect not only terrestrial exoplanets covered with water ocean but also those covered with magma ocean around a young star.

Hamano, Keiko; Abe, Yutaka; Genda, Hidenori

2013-05-01

28

Emergence of two types of terrestrial planet on solidification of magma ocean.  

PubMed

Understanding the origins of the diversity in terrestrial planets is a fundamental goal in Earth and planetary sciences. In the Solar System, Venus has a similar size and bulk composition to those of Earth, but it lacks water. Because a richer variety of exoplanets is expected to be discovered, prediction of their atmospheres and surface environments requires a general framework for planetary evolution. Here we show that terrestrial planets can be divided into two distinct types on the basis of their evolutionary history during solidification from the initially hot molten state expected from the standard formation model. Even if, apart from their orbits, they were identical just after formation, the solidified planets can have different characteristics. A type?I planet, which is formed beyond a certain critical distance from the host star, solidifies within several million years. If the planet acquires water during formation, most of this water is retained and forms the earliest oceans. In contrast, on a type?II planet, which is formed inside the critical distance, a magma ocean can be sustained for longer, even with a larger initial amount of water. Its duration could be as long as 100 million years if the planet is formed together with a mass of water comparable to the total inventory of the modern Earth. Hydrodynamic escape desiccates type?II planets during the slow solidification process. Although Earth is categorized as type?I, it is not clear which type Venus is because its orbital distance is close to the critical distance. However, because the dryness of the surface and mantle predicted for type?II planets is consistent with the characteristics of Venus, it may be representative of type?II planets. Also, future observations may have a chance to detect not only terrestrial exoplanets covered with water ocean but also those covered with magma ocean around a young star. PMID:23719462

Hamano, Keiko; Abe, Yutaka; Genda, Hidenori

2013-05-30

29

Mass–radius curve for extrasolar Earth-like planets and ocean planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

By comparison with the Earth-like planets and the large icy satellites of the Solar System, one can model the internal structure of extrasolar planets. The input parameters are the composition of the star (Fe\\/Si and Mg\\/Si), the Mg content of the mantle (Mg#=Mg\\/[Mg+Fe]), the amount of H2O and the total mass of the planet. Equation of State (EoS) of the

C. Sotin; O. Grasset; A. Mocquet

2007-01-01

30

Emergence of two types of terrestrial planet on solidification of magma ocean (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origins of the diversity in terrestrial planets is a fundamental goal in Earth and planetary sciences. In the Solar System, Venus has a similar size and bulk composition to those of Earth, but it lacks water. Because a richer variety of exoplanets is expected to be discovered, prediction of their atmospheres and surface environments requires a general framework for planetary evolution. Here we show that terrestrial planets can be divided into two distinct types on the basis of their evolutionary history during solidification from the initially hot molten state expected from the standard formation model. Even if, apart from their orbits, they were identical just after formation, the solidified planets can have different characteristics. A type I planet, which is formed beyond a certain critical distance from the host star, solidifies within several million years. If the planet acquires water during formation, most of this water is retained and forms the earliest oceans. In contrast, on a type II planet, which is formed inside the critical distance, a magma ocean can be sustained for longer, even with a larger initial amount of water. Its duration could be as long as 100 million years if the planet is formed together with a mass of water comparable to the total inventory of the modern Earth. Hydrodynamic escape desiccates type II planets during the slow solidification process. Although Earth is categorized as type I, it is not clear which type Venus is because its orbital distance is close to the critical distance. However, because the dryness of the surface and mantle predicted for type II planets is consistent with the characteristics of Venus, it may be representative of type II planets. The short timescale for planetary solidification on type-I planets suggests that exoplanet observations would have a chance to detect ocean covered planets even in young systems where planet formation is ongoing. Also, the presence of a long-lived magma ocean on type-II planets is encouraging for future detection of molten terrestrial planets.

Hamano, K.; Abe, Y.; Genda, H.

2013-12-01

31

On the Origins of Atmospheres and Oceans on Rocky Planets (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest atmospheres of terrestrial planets are likely a combination of degassing of their own material with captured nebular gases. Degassing occurs during giant accretionary impacts and solidification of impact-induced melt. Observations from our solar system indicate that accreting materials have sufficient volatiles to build dense atmospheres and oceans and also to populate the planetary interior with volatiles for later degassing through volcanism. Many questions remain about the efficiency of degassing magma oceans, the degree to which later impacts remove atmospheres and oceans, and the speed at which cooling steam atmospheres collapse into oceans and thus elude stripping by the energetic young star. Atmospheric stripping is an especially current topic: How much distance from the star, planetary mass, and the possibility of a magnetic dynamo protect the early atmosphere from stripping? Nonetheless, compositional data from meteorites and comets indicate that our planets obtained their water from rocky accreting materials, and observations from missions indicate that accretionary impacts do not entirely remove volatiles. The low initial water contents required to produce oceans (as little as a few hundred ppm water) indicate that rocky planets may be generally expected to produce water oceans through degassing, and that an Earth-sized planet would cool to clement conditions in just a few to tens of millions of years. Thus, rocky planets are likely to accrete with sufficient water to form early oceans. Though this first atmosphere is subsequently changed and depleted past recognition, it may also have played an important role in determining the planet's surface and habitability. Later atmospheres and oceans will inevitably comprise some combination of the volatiles degassed during accretion and cooling, volatiles delivered during the tail of accretion, and volatiles released from later volcanism.

Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

2013-12-01

32

Visit to an Ocean Planet - Fathometer in a Box  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity gives students an introduction to depth sounding and mapping ocean topography. The materials include an overview, concepts, a materials list, and instructions. Terms are linked to a glossary and a list of related sites is included.

33

The Blue Planet: Seas & Oceans. Young Discovery Library Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, facinate them and educate them, this volume explores the physical and environmental characteristics of the world's oceans. Topics are: (1) human exploration; (2) the food chain; (3) coral reefs; (4) currents and tides; (5) waves; (6)…

de Beauregard, Diane Costa

34

Layered double diffusive convection: From Earth oceans to giant planet interiors.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many unknowns remain concerning the internal structure and composition of giant gaseous planets. The existence and the properties of an hypothetical central core, in particular, are still debated. Contrary to conventional interior models for giant (exo)planets, we consider an inhomogeneous mixing of heavy elements in the gaseous H/He envelope of these objects. As in the oceans, such compositional gradients can give rise to layered convection which impedes large scale convection, yielding a hotter, super adiabatic interior. As a result, the metal enrichment predicted by this model is up to 30 to 60% larger than previously thought for Jupiter and Saturn. However, metals are preferentially redistributed in the gaseous envelope and coreless models can be found for Jupiter. This inefficient, layered convection, yielding a slower cooling, can help to explain anomalously inflated Hot Jupiters, but also opens a new window on our understanding of giant planet formation and history inside our Solar System.

Leconte, J.; Chabrier, G.

2012-12-01

35

An observational signature of evolved oceans on extra-solar terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in luminosity with time of a main sequence star eventually can\\u000alead to substantial evaporation of the oceans on an orbiting terrestrial\\u000aplanet. Subsequently, the gas phase water in the planet's upper atmosphere can\\u000abe photodissociated by stellar ultraviolet and the resulting atomic hydrogen\\u000athen may be lost in a wind. This gaseous envelope may pass in front

M. Jura

2004-01-01

36

Comment on “Effective thermal expansivity of Maxwellian oceanic lithosphere” by Jun Korenaga, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 257, 343 349, 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korenaga [Korenaga, J. Effective thermal expansivity of Maxwellian ocean lithosphere. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 257 (2007) 343-349], apparently unaware of Pollack [Pollack, H.N. On the use of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient in models of ocean floor topography. Tectonophysics 64 (1980) T45-47], has confirmed Pollack's essential result: the apparent volumetric thermal expansivity of oceanic lithosphere is less than the intrinsic value indicated by mineral physics data and less than the value suggested by models in which oceanic lithosphere is treated as a fully relaxed fluid.

Pollack, Henry N.

2008-11-01

37

Oceanic Communities in a Changing Planet - The Tara Oceans Project (GSC8 Meeting)  

ScienceCinema

The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Jeroen Raes of the University of Brussels discusses the Tara-Oceans expedition at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

38

Oceanic Communities in a Changing Planet - The Tara Oceans Project (GSC8 Meeting)  

ScienceCinema

The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Jeroen Raes of the University of Brussels discusses the Tara-Oceans expedition at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

Raes, Jeroen [University of Brussels

2011-04-28

39

Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA E-Theater 2003  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations from space in a spectacular way. Fly in from outer space to the conference location as well as the site of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games using data from NASA satellites and the IKONOS "Spy Satellite". See HDTV movie Destination Earth 2002 incorporating the Olympic Zooms, NBC footage of the 2002 Olympics, the shuttle, & the best NASA/NOAA Earth science visualizations. See the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes, typhoons & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations from NASA/NOAA and International remote sensing missions like Terra, Aqua, GOES, GMS , SeaWiFS, & Landsat. Feel the pulse of our planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the the "night-vision" DMSP satellite. The presentation will be made using the latest HDTV and video projection technology by: Dr. Fritz Hasler NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Hasler, Fritz

2003-01-01

40

Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA E-Theater 2003  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations from space in a spectacular way. Fly in from outer space to the conference location as well as the site of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games using data from NASA satellites and the IKONOS "Spy Satellite". See HDTV movie Destination Earth 2002 incorporating the Olympic Zooms, NBC footage of the 2002 Olympics, the shuttle, & the best NASA/NOAA Earth science visualizations. See the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes, typhoons & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations from NASA/NOAA and International remote sensing missions like Terra, Aqua, GOES, GMS, SeaWiFS, & Landsat. Feel the pulse of our planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP satellite. The presentation will be made using the latest HDTV and video projection technology by: Dr. Fritz Hasler NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Hasler, Fritz

2003-01-01

41

Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA E-Theater 2003  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations from space in a spectacular way. Fly in from outer space to the conference location as well as the site of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games using data from NASA satellites and the IKONOS 'Spy Satellite". See HDTV movie Destination Earth 2002 incorporating the Olympic Zooms, NBC footage of the 2002 Olympics, the shuttle, & the best NASA/NOAA Earth science visualizations. See the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes, typhoons & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations from NASA/NOAA and International remote sensing missions like Terra, Aqua, GOES, GMS, SeaWiFS, & Landsat. Feel the pulse of OUT planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP satellite. The presentation will be made using the latest HDTV and video projection technology by: Dr. Fritz Hasler NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

Hasler, Fritz

2003-01-01

42

The Torque of the Planet: NASA Researcher Uses NCCS Computers to Probe Atmosphere-Land-Ocean Coupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of Earth science is like a giant puzzle, says Braulio Sanchez. "The more you know about the individual pieces, the easier it is to fit them together." A researcher with Goddard's Space Geodesy Branch, Sanchez has been using NCCS supercomputer and mass storage resources to show how the angular momenta of the atmosphere, the oceans, and the solid Earth are dynamically coupled. Sanchez has calculated the magnitude of atmospheric torque on the planet and has determined some of the possible effects that torque has on Earth's rotation.

2002-01-01

43

The Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project: “Between an ocean, a rock, and a hot place”  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of NASA's Origins program, the Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project (formerly known as the Ice and Fire Preprojects) was established in early 1998. This flight project is composed of three challenging and exciting missions which span the far reaches of the solar system. Europa Orbiter, with a planned launch in November of 2003, will travel to Jupiter's moon, Europa,

Robert W. Maddock; Karla B. Clark; Curt A. Henry; Pamela J. Hoffman

1999-01-01

44

Climate of Extraterrestrial Planets with Oceans and Carbonate-Silicate Geochemical Cycle Under Various Obliquities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We systematically investigated the climate of water-rich terrestrial planets with a negative feedback mechanism of carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle against the climate under various obliquities and semi-major axes. We found that, while the permanent ice-cap mode (partially ice-covered throughout the year) and the seasonal ice-cap mode (partially ice-covered seasonally) exist stably at low obliquity conditions, the ranges of semi-major axis for these climate modes shrink and finally disappear with an increase of obliquity. When carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is taken into account, the ranges of semi-major axis for all the climate modes expand at any obliquities, compared with the cases without carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle, indicating that the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle strongly stabilizes the climate for the planets with any obliquities inside the habitable zone.

Watanabe, Yoshiyasu; Tajika, Eiichi; Kadoya, Shintaro

2014-04-01

45

Implications of possible internal liquid water oceans on Europa and other giant planets' satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The icy satellites around Jupiter and Saturn have been revealed as recently or presently active bodies of high interest for geology and astrobiology. Several of them show promising conditions for internal structures involving liquid water oceans. The surface features observed on Jupiter's Europa and Ganymede as well as Saturn's Titan and Enceladus moons display interesting evidence and multicomplex geological figures, which resemble terrestrial geoterrains in terms of structure and possibly followed similar formation mechanisms. All aforementioned satellites consist of differentiated interiors that are stratified into a high density rocky core, a mantle and an icy crust. The confirmation of the presence of a liquid water ocean within these satellites would have important implications on the existence of solid bodies with internal liquid water in the outer Solar System well beyond the "habitable zone", with important astrobiological consequences. Indeed, an underground liquid ocean could provide a possible habitat by resembling terrestrial life-hosting environments like the deep oceans and the hydrothermal active vents. In this study we review the surficial aspects of Europa, Ganymede, Titan, and Enceladus and connect them to possible models of interior structure, with emphasis on the astrobiological implications [1].

Solomonidou, A.; Coustenis, A.; Bampasidis, G.; Kyriakopoulos, K.; Moussas, X.; Bratsolis, E.; Hirtzig, M.

2011-10-01

46

A Perspective of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land, and Oceans: A View from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in true high definition (HD) format. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, TRMM, Landsat 7, QuikScat, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. Marvel at visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning, and global cloud properties. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over South America over 17 years, and its contrast to the North American and Africa continents. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans will be shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

King, Michael D.; Graham, Steven M.

2002-01-01

47

Popular Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popular diets are a constant in the lives of women. And while some restrictedcalorie plans recommending extreme differences\\u000a in the contribution of calories from fat, carbohydrate, and protein may promote weight loss in some women, they should not\\u000a be undertaken during pregnancy. Unfortunately, the scientific literature documenting the prevalence of use of popular diets\\u000a in pregnant women, or more importantly

Nancy Rodriguez; Michelle Price Judge

48

A Perspective of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land, and Oceans: A View from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to South America with its Andes Mountains and the glaciers of Patagonia, ending up close and personal in Buenos Aires. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, TRMM, Landsat 7, QuikScat, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in South America and Africa, and global cloud properties. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over South America over 17 years, and its contrast to the North American and Africa continents. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images from the Himalayas to the dynamics of the Pacific Ocean that affect the climate of South and North America. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of South America and Africa showing land use and land cover change from Patagonia to the Amazon Basin, including the Andes Mountains, the Pantanal, and the Bolivian highlands. Landsat flyins to Rio Di Janeiro and Buenos Aires will be shows to emphasize the capabilities of new satellite technology to visualize our natural environment. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisherman. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

King, Michael D.; Tucker, Compton

2002-01-01

49

The Polar Ocean in a Warming Planet: Understanding for managing a unique resource of the Humankind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no doubt that changes in the Polar Regions are of great significance at the global level, such as having far-reaching effects on atmospheric and ocean circulation. Changes in ocean currents, temperature conditions, ice cover and reduction of permafrost regions are having impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic Regions of Europe and Northern Hemisphere. Human activity is putting pressure on the environment in these regions; maritime transport between Europe and Asia through the northern sea route and accessibility conditions to hidden Arctic resources as well as new technologies of exploitation will have a significant impact on the marine environment, on the living resources and on the regional social organization and needs. There are still unresolved issues related to national claims on continental shelf and sea areas that involve international law; in these respects science can provide crucial elements for supporting political agreements. Such scenarios will present new opportunities for economic activities, but also risks which will result in new demands for marine management, monitoring systems, emergency response systems, search and rescue services as well as closer international cooperation. It will also require the development of an international regime based on the improvement of the present regulations on exploration, accessibility, exploitation and liability. Dialogue and international agreements based on scientific evidences and foresight are key elements for finding solutions. On the opposite hemisphere, the ocean surrounding Antarctica plays a primary role in all global climatic processes, through the annual sea ice evolution, the circum-Antarctic circulation driving the exchange of heat between low and high latitudes and the atmospheric circulation, through the density bottom currents that affect the global Thermohaline circulation (THC), and the biogeochemical cycles that have peculiar characteristics in the icy Antarctic waters. Besides this, the marine living resources and the reservoirs of energy and bio-chemical resources (e.g. gas hydrates, bio-prospecting) have a growing strategic importance in the global economy. The Antarctic Ocean, due to its isolation and extreme climatic conditions, has always been an area of international cooperation and technological challenges in support of scientific progress. In this scenario, the rapid environmental changes and the need of humankind for new and alternative reservoirs of food and energy to be exploited play a crucial role in understanding and managing the Polar oceans. The newly emerging opportunities and associated emerging threats for Arctic people increase the number of policy areas in which EU involvement is relevant and necessary. In order to gain insight into the this complex scenario and into the needs in terms of research programmes and infrastructures, policy and education to manage it, the European Polar Board launched an initiative in Polar marine science. The ESF/EPB marine initiative is intended to focus on various aspect of the Polar marine environment and to indicate a strategy focused on innovative scientific and technological topics, capable of combining together different research capacities as well as political, economic and strategic objectives, toward goals of economic and social interest. Therefore, it is based on a wide and multidisciplinary participation.

Azzolini, R.; Campus, P.; Weber, J.

2012-04-01

50

Oceans Alive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

Rosentrater, Lynn

51

Serpentinization-driven Hydrothermal Systems on Ocean Planets and Icy Moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ferromagnesian silicate minerals olivine and clinopyroxene are dominant in planetary mantles, and similar assemblages likely also typify the subsurface lithologies of icy moons endowed with rocky interiors, such as Jupiter's Europa. Water is also common in the Solar System. Liquid water may persist to the present day on Mars, Europa, Callisto, Enceladus and Titan. Within the P-T window applicable to ocean/seafloor interaction (10-200 MPa, 273-700 K), the presence of water causes olivine and clinopyroxene to be unstable with respect to the serpentine minerals (antigorite, lizardite and chrysotile). The ensuing hydration reaction, termed 'serpentinization', essentially acts to re-equilibrate the nascent water-deficient high-temperature state that attended planetary formation to the water-saturated low- temperature state that characterizes the planetary seafloor environment. Importantly, thermodynamic considerations require that this process is accompanied by the release of both (i) heat energy resulting from the exothermic nature of the reaction; and (ii) H2 gas resulting from unlike FeMg-1 partitioning in the reactants and products of the reaction. Because of their potential to provide heat energy, nutrients and electron- donors for extraterrestrial metabolism in the absense of sunlight, and act as crucibles for Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT-) synthesis of hydrocarbons, serpentinization-driven hydrothermal systems are of considerable interest to astrobiology. By assuming a bulk peridotitic composition and applying new insights on cracking depth, we constrain the potential heat- and H2 flux of extraterrestrial serpentinization over time. We further examine how different kinetic considerations affect the longevity of such systems. In the absence of crustal rejuvenation and under our assumed ideal conditions, serpentinization through progressive cracking persists on planetary timescales and generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day terrestrial radiogenic heating, whilst producing hydrogen at rates of 109-1010 molecules cm-2s-1. These values lie at the limiting extreme capable of sustaining life on Earth. We argue that the absence of macronutrient delivery, specifically phosphorus and electron acceptors (CO2, NO3-, etc.), may further be inhibitive of biology under these conditions. Serpentinization accompanying the initial onset of ocean/seafloor interaction, on the other hand, enjoys much shorter lifetimes on the order of 106 - 108 years, depending mostly on temperature and fluid accessibility. Although concomitant heat and hydrogen production is on the order of that encountered in hydrothermal systems on Earth today, such systems may be prohibitively short-lived to evolve and sustain biology.

Harnmeijer, J.; Vance, S.

2007-05-01

52

Ocean Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of Earth-size planets covered completely by a water envelope (water planets) has long fascinated scientists and the general public alike (Kuchner 2003; Leger et al. 2004). Sometimes referred to as "ocean planets", stemming from the implicit assumption of Habitable Zone (HZ) temperatures and a liquid water surface, water planets are a much broader class. Here we present a general approach to computing surface and atmospheric conditions on water planets in the HZ.

Kaltenegger, Lisa; Sasselov, Dimitar

2013-04-01

53

Ocean Planet: Sea Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a set of multidisciplinary lesson plans from the Smithsonian, this lesson plan examines the marine environment and how human activities can upset the delicate balance. Includes downloadable student activities, and tips on engaging students. Background material and most of the materials are provided. The "Resources" link provides an abundance of additional information, in the form of links and books, for each lesson.

54

Dwarf Planets as the Most Populous Class of Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dwarf planets should form whenever the surface density of a protoplanetary disk is low enough, and as a transient stage during planet formation in more massive disks. In terms of physical attributes (hydrostatic shape, presence of atmospheres, internal oceans, active geology, satellites) there is no clear dividing line bewteen dwarf planets and larger, \\

W. B. McKinnon

2009-01-01

55

Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Ocean habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can find out about Deep Ocean or Open Ocean! Ocean Life is a great website that tells about different parts of the ocean and about animals that live there. Ugie! You can start your mission to find out about Killer Whales by going to Orca or Killer Whales. Jakhia! You can start your mission to find ...

Ryan, Ms.

2013-02-12

56

Take a Planet Walk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create an…

Schuster, Dwight

2008-01-01

57

Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

2012-03-01

58

Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

2007-10-01

59

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

60

Popular Images of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawn from papers presented at the East-West Communication Institute Seminars on popular culture held yearly from 1974 to 1976, the essays in this report focus on popular images of America held in four countries. Essay topics are: images of the American woman in Japan, the changing images of America in Korean literature, images of America in Malay…

Kato, Hidetoshi, Ed.

61

Worlds Unnumbered: The Search for Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described by "Booklist" as an "exciting account of the new planets. The burning curiosity, of course, is whether the newcomers could support life: the answer is no; most are gigantic and too close to their stars, and an earth-size planet found orbiting a pulsar would obviously be a crispy critter...Goldsmith reports with the enthusiasm and clarity essential to popular works. Two dozen color plates, some imagining the appearance of the new planets, gussy up a wonderful science acquisition."

Goldsmith, Donald; Lomberg, Jon

62

Using ocean observing systems to promote lifelong ocean education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coming ocean observing system provides an unprecedented opportunity to change both the public perception of our ocean, and to inspire, captivate and motivate our children, our young adults and our peers to pursue careers allied with the ocean and to become stewards of our Planet's ocean. Within this context educators participating in the Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks Workshop

B. W. Meeson

2005-01-01

63

Extrasolar planets  

PubMed Central

The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems.

Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Ida, Shigeru

2000-01-01

64

The Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool allows users to find when planets are visible in a given year. The years covered by this site are 1900 to 2100. The positions given are for the 1st of the month, at 9 pm, and generally hold true for the entire month. Positions are noted by which constellation the planet is located in. The planets given are Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, and Pluto. Additional comments for Venus and Mars note their location and viewing times.

65

Planet Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the orbits of the planets in our Solar System. Learners will utilize the Sky Tonight online program to track the movement and visibility of the planets in our night sky. They will then attempt to locate these planets outside on a clear night. This activity requires the use of a computer with Internet access and access to the clear night sky. This activity is Sky Tonight Activity 3 in a larger resource, Space Update.

66

Mystery Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about the study of planetary samples. Learners will use samples of crustal material to sort, classify, and make observations about an unknown planet. From their observations, students will interpret the geologic history of their mystery planet and make inferences about past life or the potential for life on the "Mystery" planet. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

67

Detecting Volcanism on Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for extrasolar rocky planets has already found the first transiting rocky super-Earth, Corot 7b, with a surface temperature that allows for magma oceans. Here, we investigate whether we could distinguish rocky planets with recent major volcanism by remote observation. We develop a model for volcanic eruptions on an Earth-like exoplanet based on the present-day Earth and derive the

L. Kaltenegger; W. G. Henning; D. D. Sasselov

2010-01-01

68

CompletePlanet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CompletePlanet concerns itself with the "deep" Web, "content that resides in searchable databases, the results from which can only be discovered by a direct query," and thus cannot be indexed or queried by traditional search engines. The site offers a number of resources related to the "deep" Web, including a listing of approximately 13,000 "deep" Websites (out of an estimated 100,000 total) organized in 20 subject categories. Each category breaks down into numerous topical headings, and listings for the individual sites include a description and rankings for relevance, popularity, and links. CompletePlanet's database is also keyword searchable. The site notes both new additions and the most popular sites and offers a detailed search tutorial. Users who would like to learn more about the "deep" Web are invited to read CompletePlanet's 41-page white paper, "The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value," offered in HTML, .pdf, and .zip formats. Users can also download a free 30-day trial version of a new utility (Lexibot) that can search the "deep" Web. The registered version costs $89.95.

69

Planet Pals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by designer, illustrator, and educator Judith Ann Gorgone, the Planet Pals Web site provides good material for young kids related to the health of the planet. The colorful pages contain basic information about the earth, energy, recycling, water conservation, pollution, and more. The fun and interactive Meet the Planet Pals area is especially interesting, where kids can listen to animated cartoons talk about various aspects of conservation. Even though the site is geared towards young children, they may have difficulty finding the educational specific pages by themselves; so, a parent's or teacher's assistance would most likely be helpful.

Gorgone, Judith.

1991-01-01

70

[Extrasolar terrestrial planets and possibility of extraterrestrial life].  

PubMed

Recent development of research on extrasolar planets are reviewed. About 120 extrasolar Jupiter-mass planets have been discovered through the observation of Doppler shift in the light of their host stars that is caused by acceleration due to planet orbital motions. Although the extrasolar planets so far observed may be limited to gas giant planets and their orbits differ from those of giant planets in our Solar system (Jupiter and Saturn), the theoretically predicted probability of existence of extrasolar terrestrial planets that can have liquid water ocean on their surface is comparable to that of detectable gas giant planets. Based on the number of extrasolar gas giants detected so far, about 100 life-sustainable planets may exist within a range of 200 light years. Indirect observation of extrasolar terrestrial planets would be done with space telescopes within several years and direct one may be done within 20 years. The latter can detect biomarkers on these planets as well. PMID:15136756

Ida, Shigeru

2003-12-01

71

Planet Slayer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Broadcasting Company offers a fun, interactive way to learn about environmentally responsible consumption. Visitors are invited to follow Greena, eco-chic Warrior Princess, as she navigates the world of green living. The Web site contains loads of engaging animated features, such as the Adventures of Greena, a cartoon in which Greena battles some environmental ill in each chapter. In the Planet Slayer Game, players choose to play earnestly as Greena and save the planet or ironically as a pink-swathed Barbie-like character to slay the planet. With the Greenhouse Calculator, users can figure out their toll on the planet in terms of carbon dioxide emissions -- a service you could find easily enough on the Web, but this one features exploding pigs. Lots of other great features are available, as is a set of well-selected links for more information on ethical investing, Kyoto Protocol, the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development, and more.

72

Popular Science: Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Popular Science website, posts a range of articles on Science, Technology, History, Philosophy, Arts, and News & Ideas. Links to related books available through Amazon.com are provided at the end of each of the (fairly short) articles. The website also includes information on the Nobel Prize, including a list of all the Nobel Prize winners through 2001.

73

Television: Polysemy and popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues that the television audience is composed of a wide variety of groups or subcultures, and that in order to be popular a television program must be polysemic so that different subcultures can find in it different meanings that correspond to their differing social relations. The dominant ideology is structured into the text as into the social system,

John Fiske

1986-01-01

74

Planet Party  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners and their families are encouraged to go outside on a clear evening and view the sky to see the planets for themselves. Using sky charts and other resources, and possibly in partnership with a local astronomical society, children navigate the night sky and view planets with the naked eye and binoculars or telescopes. This activity is part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

75

Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Historical notes on planet formation Bodenheimer; 2. The formation and evolution of planetary systems Bouwman et al.; 3. Destruction of protoplanetary disks by photoevaporation Richling, Hollenbach and Yorke; 4. Turbulence in protoplanetary accretion disks Klahr, Rozyczka, Dziourkevitch, Wunsch and Johansen; 5. The origin of solids in the early solar system Trieloff and Palme; 6. Experiments on planetesimal formation Wurm and Blum; 7. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks Henning, Dullemond, Wolf and Dominik; 8. The accretion of giant planet cores Thommes and Duncan; 9. Planetary transits: direct vision of extrasolar planets Lecavelier des Etangs and Vidal-Madjar; 10. The core accretion - gas capture model Hubickyj; 11. Properties of exoplanets Marcy, Fischer, Butler and Vogt; 12. Giant planet formation: theories meet observations Boss; 13. From hot Jupiters to hot Neptures … and below Lovis, Mayor and Udry; 14. Disk-planet interaction and migration Masset and Kley; 15. The Brown Dwarf - planet relation Bate; 16. From astronomy to astrobiology Brandner; 17. Overview and prospective Lin.

Klahr, Hubert; Brandner, Wolfgang

2011-02-01

76

LIVING ON AN ALIEN PLANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alien—unlike one's own; strange; repugnant in nature Living on an alien planet will be difficult. Humankind has produced excessive amounts of greenhouse gases, discharged many thousands of hazardous chemicals into the environment, displaced huge numbers of species from their habitat, and depleted brood stock from oceanic fisheries. In addition, the period following peak oil will mean less energy for heating\\/cooling,

John Cairns

2007-01-01

77

Ocean Acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans play a central role in the maintenance of life on Earth. Oceans provide extensive ecosystems for marine animals and plants covering two-thirds of the Earth's surface, are essential sources of food, economic activity, and biodiversity, and are central to the global biogeochemical cycles. The oceans are the largest reservoir of carbon in the Planet, and absorb approximately one-third of the carbon emissions that are released to the Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities. Since the beginning of industrialization, humans have been responsible for the increase in one greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), from approximately 280 parts per million (ppm) at the end of the nineteenth century to the current levels of 390ppm. As well as affecting the surface ocean pH, and the organisms living at the ocean surface, these increases in CO2 are causing global mean surface temperatures to rise.

Iglesias-Rodriguez, Maria Debora

78

Planet Jargon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Planet Jargon is a fun way to learn about computer jargon. Students will do research on vocabulary, parts of a computer, history of a computer, as well as interpreting the words through illustrations. Students will create a PowerPoint to show their findings. INTRODUCTION! You have landed on the Planet Jargon. The inhabitants use very strange words to communicate with each other. Some of the words are familiar computer terms to you, but others are completely alien. You will need to discover the meanings of the computer jargon in order to ...

Moeai, Ms.

2007-05-07

79

Hot Planet - Cold Comfort  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features videos from the "Hot Planet- Cold Comfort" television episode, related website articles and a student activity. The videos explore how the Gulf Stream conveyor belt may shut down; how Arctic river runoff and Alaskan glacial melt are freshening the oceans; and how ocean sediments and ice cores are being studied to understand the Little Ice Age. The videos total approximately one hour in length. The website articles explore the Little Ice Age; how the Arctic functions as a global thermostat, affecting global weather patterns; and great moments in climate change. The student activity is about light absorbtion. The site also contains a challenge activity to find details in a painting that depict Little Ice Age living conditions.

80

Popular perceptions of Galileo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the most persistent popular misperceptions of Galileo is the image of an irreligious scientist who opposed the Catholic Church and was therefore convicted of heresy-was even excommunicated, according to some accounts, and denied Christian burial. In fact, Galileo considered himself a good Catholic. He accepted the Bible as the true word of God on matters pertaining to salvation, but insisted Scripture did not teach astronomy. Emboldened by his discovery of the Medicean Moons, he took a stand on Biblical exegesis that has since become the official Church position.

Sobel, Dava

2010-01-01

81

Lonely Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Don't worry about whether your trip will work out. Just go!" This is the travel philosophy of Lonely Planet, one of the most respected publishers of off-the-beaten-path travel guidebooks worldwide. Whether you already know where you're going, or are looking for suggestions for your next trip, Lonely Planet's site is packed with information that you can actually use to plan your trip. Search or browse the section "DestiNATIONS" to find maps, facts and figures, and information on local history, culture, and transportation for 8 world regions, over 80 countries, and 20 different cities. Much of the health information found in LP's print guides is also now available here. In addition, there are links to destination-related newsgroups, tips on travel photography, and "Postcards," a forum in which travelers share experiences and give advice.

1997-01-01

82

STEM Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

STEM Planet is a well designed website that is aimed at students of all levels and ages. The site is comprised of "employees of the National Network of Digital Schools (NNDS), a non-profit developer of the Lincoln Interactive online curriculum." These employees believe that students "succeed when their educational program offers a wide variety of learning opportunities." Visitors to the site will find that the learning opportunities consist of DIY experiments, discussion topics, polls, quizzes and activities. Some examples include making a homemade battery, origami engineering, taking a quiz on space phenomena, and exploring quantum mechanics. Visitors can join and comment on the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math "discussions" by simply registering on the site. Those only interested in reading the comments made in the forums under the discussion tab need not register. The "Experts" tab allows visitors to see all the great minds behind STEM Planet, including an extremely bright 14 year old.

2012-02-07

83

Barnard’s Star: Planets or Pretense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barnard’s Star remains popular with planet hunters because it is not only an extremely near, high proper motion star, but also the object of early planet-detection claims. In 1963, van de Kamp explained perturbations in its proper motion by the presence of a planet. In 1969, he produced another single-planet solution and a two-planet solution to the astrometric wobbles detected. At least 19 studies have failed to confirm his results using a range of techniques, including radial velocity, direct imaging, and speckle interferometry. However, most of them lacked the sensitivity to detect the planets he described, including astrometric studies at the McCormick and Naval Observatories. However, radial-velocity monitoring of Barnard’s Star at Lick and Keck Observatories from 1987 through 2012 appears to have ruled out such planets. Based upon observations made at the Sproul Observatory between 1916 and 1962, van de Kamp claimed that Barnard’s Star had a planet with about 1.6 times the mass of Jupiter and an orbital period of 24 years. After accounting for instrumentation effects that might have been partially responsible for his initial results, he continued to assert that this red dwarf had two planets. In his 1982 analysis of ~20,000 exposures collected between 1938 and 1981, he calculated that two planets with 0.7- and 0.5-Jupiter masses in 12- and 20-year orbits, respectively, orbited the second-closest stellar system to our own. Starting in 1995, the dramatic successes of radial velocity searches for extrasolar planets drove van de Kamp’s unsubstantiated claims from popular consciousness. Although many low-mass stellar companions were discovered through astrometry, the technique has been less successful for planets: “The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia” identifies one such discovery out of the 997 planets listed on 2013 September 23. Although Barnard’s Star has lost its pretensions to hosting the first extrasolar planets known, its intrinsic properties will keep it under observation. NSF grant AST 98-20711, Litton Marine Systems, Levinson Fund, University of Virginia, Hampden-Sydney College, and US Naval Observatory supported this research.

Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Ianna, P. A.

2014-01-01

84

Popular weight reduction diets.  

PubMed

The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

Volpe, Stella Lucia

2006-01-01

85

Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) and Earth's Moon display similar compositions, interior structures, and geologic histories. The terrestrial planets formed by accretion ˜ 4.5 Ga ago out of the solar nebula, whereas the Moon formed through accretion of material ejected off Earth during a giant impact event shortly after Earth formed. Geophysical investigations (gravity anomalies, seismic analysis, heat flow measurements, and magnetic field studies) reveal that all five bodies have differentiated into a low-density silicate crust, an intermediate density silicate mantle, and an iron-rich core. Seismic and heat flow measurements are only available for Earth and its Moon, and only Earth and Mercury currently exhibit actively produced magnetic fields (although Mars and the Moon retain remanent fields). Surface evolutions of all five bodies have been influenced by impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and mass wasting. Aeolian activity only occurs on bodies with a substantial atmosphere (Venus, Earth, and Mars) and only Earth and Mars display evidence of fluvial and glacial processes. Earth's volcanic and tectonic activity is largely driven by plate tectonics, whereas those processes on Venus result from vertical motions associated with hotspots and mantle upwellings. Mercury displays a unique tectonic regime of global contraction caused by gradual solidification of its large iron core. Early large impact events stripped away much of Mercury's crust and mantle, produced Venus' slow retrograde rotation, ejected material off Earth that became the Moon, and may have created the Martian hemispheric dichotomy. The similarities and differences between the interiors and surfaces of these five bodies provide scientists with a better understanding of terrestrial planet evolutionary paths.

Barlow, Nadine G.

86

The Nine Planets: Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nine Planets page contains details about the planet Mars. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on the planet, and results from exploration spacecraft. Phobos and Deimos (Mars satellites) are also covered in depth. The site provides links to more images, movies, and facts about Mars and its moons, and discusses unanswered questions about the planet.

Arnett, Bill

87

Rethinking Popular Culture and Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

2011-01-01

88

New Dimensions in Popular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains fifteen essays which study some of the didactic, moralistic literature which was popular in nineteenth century America, and speculate about the culture from which the literature evolved. The essays include "Millions of Moral Little Books: Sunday School Books in Their Popular Context"; "Nineteenth Century Gift Books: A…

Nye, Russel B., Ed.

89

Extrasolar Planets: New Clues for Planet Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 50 low-mass companions to solar type stars have been discovered using high precision radial velocity techniques. Recent discoveries include planets with minimum masses below that of Saturn, many systems with indications of multiple planets, and a jovian-mass companion to one of the nearest stars to the sun, epsilon Eridani. We review the present status of extrasolar planet candidates. The

W. D. Cochran

2000-01-01

90

PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS  

SciTech Connect

We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

Raymond, Sean N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Armitage, Philip J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)], E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu

2009-07-10

91

Changing Planet: Fresh Water in the Arctic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Changing Planet video documents scientists' concerns regarding how melting Arctic sea ice will increase the amount of fresh water in the Beaufort Gyre, which could spill out into the Atlantic and cause major climate shifts in North America and Western Europe. The video includes interviews with scientists and a look at the basics of how scientists measure salinity in the ocean and how ocean circulation works in the Arctic.

Learn, Nbc; Universe, Nesta -.

92

Commission 53: Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commission 53 on Extrasolar Planets was created at the 2006 Prague General Assembly of the IAU, in recognition of the outburst of astronomical progress in the field of extrasolar planet discovery, characterization, and theoretical work that has occurred since the discovery of the pulsar planets in 1992 and the discovery of the first planet in orbit around a solar-type star

Michel Mayor; Alan P. Boss; Paul R. Butler; William B. Hubbard; Philip A. Ianna; Martin Kürster; Jack J. Lissauer; Karen J. Meech; François Mignard; Alan J. Penny; Andreas Quirrenbach; Jill C. Tarter; Alfred Vidal-Madjar

2009-01-01

93

Dance of the Planets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As students continue their monthly plotting of the planets along the ecliptic they should start to notice differences between inner and outer planet orbital motions, and their relative position or separation from the Sun. Both inner and outer planets have direct eastward motion, as well as retrograde motion. Inner planets Mercury and Venus,…

Riddle, Bob

2005-01-01

94

The Nine Planets: Venus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains details about the planet Venus. Information includes planet mass, distance from the Sun, diameter, orbit, and mythology. Also covered is planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on the planet, and results of exploration spacecraft. Includes links to images, movies, and additional facts. Discusses unanswered questions about Venus as well.

Arnett, Bill

95

The Nine Planets: Mercury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Nine Planets highlights details about the planet Mercury. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, and the results of exploration spacecraft. The site provides links to images, movies, and more Mercury facts. Unanswered questions about the planet are also discussed.

Arnett, Bill

96

The Nine Planets: Pluto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Nine Planets contains details about the planet Pluto. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and information about Pluto's moon, Charon. Unanswered questions are discussed, and links to more images, movies, and facts are provided.

Arnett, Bill

97

Early societies popularize scientific research.  

PubMed

Private scientific societies, popular in the eighteenth century, supported and encouraged research on such devices as the electrostatic generator and the Leyden jar, paving the way for later electrophysiological research. PMID:6358812

Hackmann, W D

1983-01-01

98

Earth as an Extrasolar Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory 3-D line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model generates spatially- and temporally-resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth. The model can be used to simulate Earth's spectrum as it would appear to a distant observer at arbitrary viewing geometry over wavelengths from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared on timescales from minutes to years. We have validated our model against data from NASA's EPOXI mission, which obtained spatially- and temporally-resolved visible photometric (0.3-1.0 um) and near-infrared spectroscopic (1.05-4.8 um) observations of Earth on three dates. Further validations include comparisons to photometric Earthshine observations (0.4-0.7 um) which span a wide range of Earth phase as well as comparisons to date-specific, high spectral resolution mid-infrared observations (6-15 um) of Earth acquired by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. To reproduce the available observations we have run the model at a spatial resolution of almost 200 pixels, an atmospheric resolution of 48 pixels, and a cloud treatment with 4 categories of water clouds. Our validated model can now be used as a tool for feasibility studies for future space-based planet detection missions (e.g., NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder). The model can also be used to better understand sensitivity to global signatures of habitability and life in disk-integrated spectra of Earth. Example applications include an investigation into the ability of Earth's atmosphere and clouds to obscure direct surface temperature measurements from thermal-infrared observations as well as a study of the phase-dependent contribution of Earth's ocean "glint spot” to the overall brightness of the planet. The "glint spot" is generated by specular reflection of sunlight on Earth's oceans and could potentially be used to detect oceans on extrasolar planets. Both clouds and oceans exhibit phase-dependent reflectance behaviors, possibly obscuring the detection of, or eliminating, the ocean glint.

Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, V.; Crisp, D.

2010-10-01

99

The Nine Planets: Uranus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Nine Planets highlights details about the gas giant planet Uranus and its moons. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and results of spacecraft exploration. Uranus' moons and rings are detailed, including Titania, Oberon, Umbriel, Ariel, Miranda, and more. Discussion of unanswered questions about the planet and links to more images, movies, and facts are also provided.

Arnett, Bill

100

The Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of NASA's Origins program, the Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project was established in early 1998. This flight project is composed of three challenging and exciting missions which span the far reaches of the solar system. Europa Orbiter, with a planned launch in November of 2003, will travel to Jupiter's moon, Europa, in search of a subsurface liquid water ocean

R. W. Maddock; K. B. Clark; C. A. Henry; P. J. Hoffman

1999-01-01

101

Create Your Own Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will be the creator of a new planet in our solar system. You will be free to decide all of the characteristics of your planet. Look at the different websites below to find out more about the planets in our solar system and then decide what characteristics your planet will have. PLANET PICTURES AND FACTS I I I I I V Mercury Facts Venus Facts Earth Facts Mars Facts Jupiter Facts Saturn Facts Uranus Facts Neptune Facts PROJECT REQUIREMENTS: Your planet must have one moon or more. You must decide how long it takes your planet to rotate (length of a day on your planet). You must decide how long it takes your planet to ...

Larsen, Mr.

2008-11-25

102

Exploring the Planets: Comparing the Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comparative planetology is a scientific discipline in which researchers seek to understand the planets by comparing their similarities and examining their differences. Some planets have similarities because the materials of which they are made and the processes that have shaped them are similar. However, each planet has a unique character, due to the intensity and length of time the processes have operated. At this site, selected planets are compared on the basis of their atmospheres, volcanoes, impact craters, wind, water and ice. In each instance, photographs are displayed side by side for direct comparison.

103

Popularizing Space Education in Indian Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indians have many mythological stories about many constellations and stars. Hindu months are based on MOON and 27 stars on Zodiac. They are very important for many Indians in ritual, religious functions. By prompting them to identify their birth star, really makes them elevated. Similarly conveying them the importance of star gazing with respect to their day today life makes them to take interest and active participation in Space Activities. Space activities should be driven by public; their requirements; their dreams and imaginations. Their active participation definitely gives valuable inputs to space scientists. Hence, there is a need of involving common man or public mass by appropriate motivation by organising sky gazing sessions, exhibitions, workshops, etc. In this connection, even if the some organisation are able to attract a small percent of qualified engineers/scientists,, enthusiastic students, it would result in the creation of a sizable pool of talent in space sciences,which may well determine the future mankind on this planet. Some simple motivation acts have made the people to take interest in space. we have been using certain methodologies to popularize space science - 1] Conducting theory sessions on basics of star gazing and conveying importance of sky gazing with respect to day-today life. 2] Organising seminars, workshops, lectures and other academic/popular science activities with special reference to space science 3] Projects - a] Cubsat Missions b] Automatic Weather Station Facility c] Model making d] Creating and simulating space models and rover making competitions. The 50 year's of Exploration has left tremendous impact on many society's working towards space education and exploration.

Yalagi, Amrut

104

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

2012-05-03

105

Create Your Own Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity can be used to evaluate students understanding of the characteristics of inner and outer planets. This activity allows the students to create their own planet with the appropriate characteristics. A rubric is attached.

Duroseau, Wendy

2012-04-30

106

In Defense of Popular Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his book "The Closing of the American Mind," Allan Bloom criticizes popular music for the "emptiness of its values." It has only one appeal, says Bloom, "a barbaric appeal, to sexual desire--not love, not eros, but sexual desire, undeveloped and untutored." However, to say "rock music is this or that" is a proposition that quickly crumbles…

Luebke, Steven R.

107

Teaching the French Popular Front.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the French Popular Front of 1936 as a vehicle to investigate the turbulent decade of the 1930s. Reviews current historiography and discusses various facets of Leon Blum's government, examining the interrelationship of major economic and political forces. Concludes that the French Left still faces Blum's dilemma of implementing socialism…

Wall, Irwin M.

1987-01-01

108

Popular Media and Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few months ago, at an international communication conference in Nairobi, Kenya, a delegate asked me about the purpose of my studies in popular entertainment media. She was of the opinion that mindless and escapist media programming was, as she put it, \\

Arvind Singhal

2007-01-01

109

Popular Music in Early Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines young adolescents' involvement with popular music and the health implications of that involvement. Initial discussion explores three central concepts: music media, adolescence, and mass media effects. A summary of research on music media in adolescence is offereed in two sections discussing exposure to, and gratifications and…

Christenson, Peter G.; Roberts, Donald F.

110

Arab Stereotypes in Popular Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most popular fictional plots involving the Middle East--adventure stories, espionage, and themes of Western dependency on Arab oil--portray the Israelies as the good guys and the Arabs as the villians. People must be made aware that fictional literature is prejudiced and racially biased against Arabs. (RM)

Terry, Janice J.

1983-01-01

111

The Nine Planets: Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains details about the planet Earth. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered is planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on planet, and data on its satellite: the Moon. Links are provided to more images, movies, and information about the Earth and Moon. This site discusses unanswered questions about Earth as well.

Arnett, Bill

112

Planet Designer: Kelvin Climb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the way distance, albedo, and atmosphere affect the temperature of a planet. Learners will create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet's temperature. They will then discuss their results in terms of greenhouse strength and the presence of liquid water. This lesson is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering education program focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

113

The Dwarf Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, by California Institute of Technology astronomer Mike Brown, describes dwarf planets and the issues in their classification. A diagram show the "new" solar system, including the approximately 50 dwarf planets in the Kuiper Belt. A table shows the size and distance of each dwarf planet.

Brown, Mike

2009-12-10

114

All Planet Sizes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image, from the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, illustrates the approximate relative sizes of the Sun and planets and their relative locations. Although distance is not to scale, viewers can see that the small rocky planets are located close to the Sun and large gaseous planets are further away.

2010-11-30

115

Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

1985-01-01

116

Evaporation of extrasolar planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review on the observations and theoretical modeling of the evaporation of extrasolar planets. The observations and the resulting constraints on the upper atmosphere (thermosphere and exosphere) of the ``hot-Jupiters'' are described. The early observations of the first discovered transiting extrasolar planet, HD209458b, allowed the discovery that this planet has an extended atmosphere of escaping hydrogen. Subsequent

A. Lecavelier Des Etangs

2010-01-01

117

The planet Pluto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for a planet exterior to Neptune and the discovery of Pluto are discussed, and current knowledge of the planet Pluto is reviewed. Following a review of the discovery of the outer planets Uranus and Neptune, the 80-year search for a body which would account for the observed residuals in the motions of Uranus and Neptune is considered, with

A. J. Whyte

1980-01-01

118

A Definition of Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

It had proposed some definitions about what a planet is. It seems clear that the planet's mass superior limit should be lower than the threshold for deuterium thermonuclear fusion. However the inferior limit is more elusive. It had proposed either Pluto's mass or the minimum mass to produce a spherical form. The Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (WGESP) of the

H. J. Durand-Manterola

2005-01-01

119

Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To preserve the earth, it is necessary to understand the tremendously complex interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land, and man's activities deeply enough to construct models that can predict the consequences of our actions and help us make sound environmental, energy, agriculture, and economic decisions. Mission to Planet Earth is NASA's suggested share and the centerpiece of the U.S. contribution to understanding the environment, the Global Change Research Program. The first major element of the mission would be the Earth Observing System, which would give the simultaneous, comprehensive, long-term earth coverage lacking previously. NASA's Geosynchronous Earth Observatory with two additional similar spacecraft would be orbited by the U.S., plus one each by Japan and the European Space Agency. These would be the first geostationary satellites to span all the disciplines of the earth sciences. A number of diverse data gathering payloads are also planned to be carried aboard the Polar Orbiting Platform. Making possible the long, continuous observations planned and coping with the torrent of data acquired will require technical gains across a wide front. Finally, how all this data is consolidated and disseminated by the EOS Data and Information System is discussed.

Tilford, Shelby G.; Koczor, Ron; Lee, Jonathan; Grady, Kevin J.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Njoku, Eni G.

1990-01-01

120

On popularity quality: Growth and decay phases of publication popularities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within publication digital collections, citation analysis and publication score assignment are commonly used (i) to evaluate the impact of publications (and scientific collections, e.g., journals and conferences), and (ii) to order digital collection search outputs, e.g., Google Scholar. The popular citation-based web page (and, thus, publication) score measure PageRank is criticized for (a) computing only the current (and, thus, time-independent)

Sulieman Bani-Ahmad; Gultekin Ozsoyoglu

2009-01-01

121

Milstein Hall of Ocean Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Hall of Ocean Life, looks at the cradle of life for our planet, along with its key to our future. It includes an in-depth look at the Hall of Ocean Life's dioramas, an exploration of the ocean's diverse communities and examines some of the ways in which life in water is different from life on land.

122

Detecting Volcanism on Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for extrasolar rocky planets has already found the first transiting rocky super-Earth, Corot 7b, with a surface temperature that allows for magma oceans. Here, we investigate whether we could distinguish rocky planets with recent major volcanism by remote observation. We develop a model for volcanic eruptions on an Earth-like exoplanet based on the present-day Earth and derive the observable features in emergent and transmission spectra for multiple scenarios of gas distribution and cloud cover. We calculate the observation time needed to detect explosive volcanism on exoplanets in primary as well as secondary eclipse and discuss the likelihood of observing volcanism on transiting Earth-sized to super-Earth-sized exoplanets. We find that sulfur dioxide from large explosive eruptions does present a spectral signal that is remotely detectable especially for secondary eclipse measurements around the closest stars and ground-based telescopes, and report the frequency and magnitude of the expected signatures. The transit probability of a planet in the habitable zone decreases with distance from the host star, making small, nearby host stars the best targets.

Kaltenegger, L.; Henning, W. G.; Sasselov, D. D.

2010-11-01

123

Snowball Planets: A Possible Type of Water-Rich Terrestrial Planet in Extrasolar Planetary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existence of liquid water on the planetary surface is essential for life. However, terrestrial planets with abundant water have multiple climate modes, including an ice-free, a partially ice-covered, and a globally ice- covered state, even when the incident flux from the central star and the abundance of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere are the same. This multiplicity of climate mode is derived from large difference in the albedo of ice and water. Recent geological studies have revealed that the Earth experienced global glaciations ("snowball Earth" events) in its history. In the snowball glaciations, liquid water is thought to have existed under the ice shell because of geothermal heat flow from the Earth"fs interior. By analogy with the snowball glaciations, I discuss the conditions for an extrasolar terrestrial planet which is covered with ice but has an internal ocean for the timescale of planetary evolution owing to geothermal heat flow from the planetary interior. I show that liquid water can exist if the planetary mass and the water abundance are comparable to the Earth, although a planet with a mass of <0.4 Me (Me is the Earth's mass) would not be able to maintain the internal ocean. Liquid water would be absolutely stable for a planet with a mass of >4 Me (i.e., super- Earth), irrespective of planetary orbit and luminosity of the central star. It is therefore implied that super-Earth inevitably have liquid water either on its surface (for the ice-freee or partially ice-covered modes) or beneath the ice (for the globally ice-covered mode). Searches for terrestrial planets in extrasolar planetary systems should consider such a "snowball planet", which is a possible type of water-rich terrestrial planet other than an Earth-like "ocean planet". Because a snowball planet is much brighter than (more than twice) an ocean planet with the same size, it would be a good target for the astronomical observation in the future.

Tajika, E.

2008-12-01

124

Modelling ocean circulation in Deep-ocean aquaplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Léger et al. (2004) and Küchner (2003) hypothesised that Ocean planets, Super-Earth planets with liquid-water oceans covering their whole surfaces may exist. Planets with liquid water surfaces could have ocean depths of 70-100 km with bottom pressures of 1-5 GPa. To date, no general circulation models have been run on such oceans, primarily because of a lack of equation of state for seawater at such depths. In this work a deep-water seawater Equation of State is implemented in the MITgcm ocean model. The EOS depends not only on the salinity and temperature but also on CO2 concentration. Several proposed ocean compositions, in particular magnesium and sodium sulphates salts ,H2O / ammonia mixes are investigated. While geothermal plumes in pure water systems will rise through an the whole ocean depths, saline-enriched plumes do not, due to differential thermal expansions for saline fluids leading to a loss of buoyancy (Melosh et al., 2004). Vance and Brown (2005) have shown that double-diffusive convection is expected to be a significant feature of such high-pressure oceans: depending on ocean composition, a double-diffusive layer will frustrate deep ocean convective processes and hence heat transfer. Convection happens separately in the warm, saline layers below and cooler, more dilute layer above. While this has been seen in isolated areas on Earth, such as the Red Sea, we explore the effects of heat and salin transfer through this layer on global circulation for deep ocean planet.

McKinstry, A.

2012-04-01

125

Planet Masses and Densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The masses of Kepler planet candidates remain unknown until some dynamical technique measures the gravitational effect of that planet on either the star (with RV measurements) or other planets (with TTVs). Measuring planet masses is particularly important as, when combined with the transit-based planet radii, they yield the bulk density of the planets, constraining conditions in the interior, notably the amount of metal, rock, water, and gas. For planets smaller than 2 Earth-radii, the transition from Neptune-like to rocky planets is particularly intriguing, bearing on formation, evolution, and habitability. We report precise (2 m/s) Doppler RVs for 15 host stars of Kepler planet candidates. New RV techniques are now employed for faint stars of 13th mag, notably long-slit sky subtraction and statistical priors for the PSF and wavelength scale in the Doppler analysis. The RV observations are timed at moments near orbital quadrature to maximize the RV differences. We obtained 10-20 RVs for each of 15 host stars of Kepler planet candidates, with typical exposure times of 30 min. The RVs are fit with Keplerian models that include all transisting planets and their known ephemerides from the Kepler photometry. The two free parameters are only the masses of the planets and RV zero point. Both random and systematic errors will not be correlated with orbital phase, ensuring that the RV signal-to-noise improves as the square root of the number of RV observations. Orbital fits provide planet mass, density, and in some cases contraints on eccentricity. For RV non-detections, MCMC analyses provide upper limits to planet mass and density.

Marcy, Geoffrey W.

2012-05-01

126

Wave of a Planet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This plot tells astronomers that a fifth planet is in orbit around the star 55 Cancri, making the star the record-holder for hosting the most known exoplanets.

As planets circle around their stars, they cause the stars to wobble back and forth in a regular pattern. By looking for this motion in a star, scientists can find planets that can't be seen with telescopes.

The wobble caused by the fifth planet discovered around 55 Cancri is represented here by the sinuous line in blue. The actual data points are yellow and error bars are the lines above and below the yellow dots. The cycle of the wobble indicates that the planet circles around its star about every 260 days. The amplitude of the wobble indicates that the planet is a giant at least 45 times the mass of Earth.

The wobbles caused by the other four planets has been removed from this plot, to reveal that caused by the fifth. The departure from a perfect sine wave suggests the planet's orbit is not perfectly circular.

Because 55 Cancri has multiple planets, the star had to be observed for a long time before astronomers could find and confirm its fifth planet. These data were collected over a period of 18 years using both the Lick Observatory near San Jose, Calif., and the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii.

2007-01-01

127

Habitable Planets: Observational Arguments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of extrasolar planets and protostellar disks suggest that rocky worlds form commonly around young stars. At least 8% of stars are observed to have saturn- and jupiter-mass planets within 3 AU, and more planets are likely beyond 3 AU. The mass distribution of planets rises steeply with decreasing mass (Marcy & Butler 2000), implying that more small planets form than giant ones. Elliptical, rather than circular, orbits predominate among the 35 known planets beyond 0.2 AU. New Doppler and astrometric techniques may reveal planets having masses as low as 10 Earth-masses. Protoplanetary disks surround over half of young stars, with disk masses typically over 10X that of Jupiter. Their energy distributions from IR and mm-wave observations yield dust emissivities that imply the rapid growth (within 0.1 Myr) of dust particles to millimeter size. Thus, theoretical predictions of quick growth of rocky planets is supported. One may rationally estimate that 50% of all stars form with a retinue of rocky orbiting bodies. However, a nemesis looms for the survival of earths: dynamical scattering and ejection. The ubiquity of eccentric orbits among jupiters orbiting from 0.2--3 AU suggests that gravitational scattering among planets and planetesimals is a common phenomenon (see the following presentation by H. Levison). If so, the circular orbits and survival of the lowest mass, terrestrial planets are jeopardized. We acknowledge funding from NASA, NSF, and Sun Microsystems.

Marcy, G.; Butler, R. P.; Vogt, S. S.; Fischer, D. A.

2000-12-01

128

Searching for extra-terrestrial intelligence and the discovering of extrasolar planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the significance, instrumentality, and the status in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence, and, in addition, the SETI program and its development, are introduced. Especial emphasis is on the discovery of extrasolar planets, its purpose, ways and means, achievement, and future.Finding extrasolar planets is one of the most popular issues at present. It will be one of the

Guang-Jie Wu; Dao-Han Chen

2002-01-01

129

New Planets / SETI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New Planets / SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) is a 48 minute radio broadcast that discusses three new planets discovered orbiting distant stars; how best to communicate with ET intelligence; and the progress of the radio-based search for ET intelligence. The new planet finds are smaller than previous extrasolar planet discoveries, on par with the planet Neptune in our solar system. There is discussion of the odds of finding life elsewhere in the universe, and if it is possible to find Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. The show also discusses: a paper published in the journal, Nature, that argues that for sending lots of data over long distances, it is hard to beat sending a physical artifact engraved with data; ways to communicate lots of information over long distances; and what SETI is listening for, and what they have heard.

130

Formation of giant planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present calculations of giant planet formation based on extended core-accretion planet formation models taking into account disk structure and evolution and migration of the protoplanet. We show that these models lead to giant planet formation timescales compatible with disk lifetimes. Using these models, we show that we can reproduce the bulk internal structure of Jupiter and Saturn, as well as the enrichment in volatile species measured in situ by the Galileo probe (for Jupiter), and from the Earth (for Saturn). We then apply these models to the formation of the three Neptune mass planet system recently discovered by the HARPS collaboration (Lovis et al. 2006), and show that the two outer planets are likely to have accreted large amounts of water ice during their formation. Finally, the comparison with the extrasolar planets will be presented by C. Mordasini (this meeting, abstract EPSC2006-A-00672) using a Monte-Carlo approach.

Alibert, Y.; Mordasini, C.; Benz, W.

131

Earthshine and Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for life on extrasolar planets requires first that we find terrestrial-mass planets around nearby stars, and second that we determine habitability and search for signs of life. The Terrestrial Planet Finder missions, a Coronagraph (TPF-C) and an Interferometer (TPF-I in the US, also Darwin in Europe) are designed to carry out these tasks. This talk will focus on

W. A. Traub; L. Kaltenegger; M. C. Turnbull; K. W. Jucks

2006-01-01

132

Pulse of the Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pulse of the Planet audio programs provide listeners with two-minute sound portraits of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. Pulse of the Planet is broadcast over public and commercial stations around the world. Site materials include a link to the current day's program, featured stories, and to archives of daily programs.

133

The Amazing Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the planet Mars. This lesson will begin by discussing the location and size of Mars relative to Earth, as well as introduce many interesting facts about this red planet. Next, the history of Martian exploration is reviewed and students discover why scientists are so interested in studying this mysterious planet. The lesson concludes with students learning about future plans to visit Mars.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

134

Terrestrial planet formation.  

PubMed

Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

2011-11-29

135

Terrestrial planet formation  

PubMed Central

Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (?106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

Righter, K.; O'Brien, D. P.

2011-01-01

136

FLIPPER: Validation for Remote Ocean Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

one of the determining factors in the planet s ability to support life is the same factor that makes the Blue Planet blue: water. Therefore, NASA researchers have a focused interest in understanding Earth s oceans and their ability to continue sustaining ...

2006-01-01

137

Importance and Perspectives of the Earth Sciences Popularization in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our days the scientific popularization in Mexico has not a promising future and with the earth sciences is not better; most of the papers in the popularization magazines deal with subjects as earthquakes, volcanoes, plate tectonics, meteorite impacts and the massive extensions associated with them (e.g. Chicxulub). However, these subjects have not been enough to create conscience about the importance of earth sciences in the society and it has even motivated the idea of a community distant scientific with no social obligation, the idea that the earth scientists are responsible for all the problems in the planet (global warming, catastrophes) is wide spread. In these days that we need a change in our consumption, mainly in the energetic one, it's compulsory to change the relation between the subject and its environment; then, as we can not take care of something that we don't know, the scientific popularization has a fundamental role that we must start to pay attention to.

Flores-Estrella, H.; Yussim, S.

2007-05-01

138

Law in Popular Culture Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marlyn Robinson, reference librarian of the Tarlton Law Library at the University of Texas at Austin provides this site, which contains information about the library's collection of books and films related to how popular culture affects peoples' notions of the American legal system. The bibliography, a collection of information about nearly two hundred articles and books related to the subject, highlights this site. Visitors can find information about the library's collection of over 500 films featuring lawyers, as well as descriptive information about the library's collection of hundreds of books of "fiction in all genres, as well as legal humor, plays, comics, and pulp magazines" that either feature a lawyer in a central role or are authored by lawyers. Rounding out the site is a gallery of related movie stills and posters. Note that while the books are available via interlibrary loan, the films are not available outside the UT community.

1998-01-01

139

Node popularity as a hypertext browsing aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We have performed a user study where the popularity of each node in a hypertext database was presented with the links leading to that node. Popularity was computed by counting the number of users who had previously visited the node. Our users clearly incorporated popularity information in their decisions; we compare their browsing patterns with a control group for

R. PAUSCH; J. DETMER

1990-01-01

140

The Popularity of Middle School Bullies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the peer popularity of middle school students involved in bullying. Bullying was assessed by peer report using the School Climate Bullying Survey (SCBS) and popularity was assessed through peer nominations from a student roster. In a sample of 379 middle school students, bullies were among the most popular students in the…

Thunfors, Peter; Cornell, Dewey

2008-01-01

141

The New Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

I SEE that, in the notice which appeared in NATURE announcing the discovery of the new planet, it was suggested that the object might represent the outermost member of the family of planets formed from a portion of the sun drawn out by the attraction of the star the approach of which caused the catastrophic formation of the planetary system;

G. F. Daniell

1930-01-01

142

Astronomy 150: The Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains lab activities on planetary astronomy and the solar system. The labs cover: the earth-moon system, atmospheric escape, craters, meteorites, comets, lunar mapping, Mars, volcanoes on Io, Europa, Neptune, satellites of giant planets, and extra-solar planets.

Palen, Stacy

2004-07-16

143

Name That Planet!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students in groups explore one planet in the solar system and present their findings to the whole class. Focuses on the planet's location in the solar system, geological features, rate of revolutions, and calendar year. (YDS)

Beck, Judy; Rust, Cindy

2002-01-01

144

Theory of planet formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the current theoretical understanding how growth from micro-meter sized dust to massive giant planets occurs in disks around young stars. After introducing a number of observational constraints from the solar system, from observed protoplanetary disks, and from the extrasolar planets, we simplify the problem by dividing it into a number of discrete stages which are assumed to occur

Christoph Mordasini; Hubert Klahr; Yann Alibert; Willy Benz; Kai-Martin Dittkrist

2010-01-01

145

The Eight Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, by Caltech astronomer Mike Brown, is an article that recounts the reclassification of Pluto as a dwarf planet. The article explains the issues, tells how they were resolved, and answers related questions. At the bottom of the page is a link to a similar website about the dwarf planet Xena.

2007-07-03

146

Outer Planet Icy Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outer planet icy satellite is any one of the celestial bodies in orbit around Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, or Pluto. They range from large, planet-like geologically active worlds with significant atmospheres to tiny irregular objects tens of kilometers in diameter. These bodies are all believed to have some type of frozen volatile, existing alone or in combination with other volatiles.

Buratti, B.

1994-01-01

147

Outer planet satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon.

Schenk, Paul M.

1991-01-01

148

Pluto: Planet or  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 2006 during the XXVI General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), taken place in Prague, Czech Republic, new parameters to define a planet were established. According to this new definition Pluto will be no more the ninth planet of the Solar System but it will be changed to be a \\

M. R. Voelzke; M. S. T. de Araújo

2010-01-01

149

What is a Planet?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the characteristics of planets, comets, asteroids, and trans-Neptunian objects. Learners will classify objects and then apply what they have learned by participating in a formal debate about a solar system object discovered by the New Horizons spacecraft and by defining the term planet.

150

Find That Planet!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students use internet resources to learn about celestial coordinates, and how to use an emphemeris to locate planets on a horizon sky map. The sky maps are then used for outdoor observing. A more advanced application has students draw maps in celestial coordinates. They first learn about the celestial coordinate system astronomers use and then they generate a position, or ephemeris, for a planet at a certain time on a certain night and plot that position on an appropriate sky map. While engaged in this activity, students will learn to use star maps for finding a planet, plot a planet path on star maps with coordinate grids, and be able to find out when a planet is visible.

151

Extreme Planet Makeover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You may have heard of elaborate makeover television shows where some individual wishes to have various body enhancements performed or a new house is built in seven days. This fascinating extreme makeover website, from NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, is much more edifying. Here, visitors will have the opportunity to make their own planet via a series of customizable bells and whistles. Visitors can use the controls on the site to adjust key planetary attributes such as distance from a star, planet size, and planet age. After making these adjustments, visitors can learn about the planet they have created, and also compare it with other existing planets and outer-space bodies.

2011-04-03

152

Extreme Planet Makeover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You may have heard of elaborate makeover television shows where some individual wishes to have various body enhancements performed or a new house is built in seven days. This fascinating extreme makeover website, from NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, is much more edifying. Here, visitors will have the opportunity to make their own planet via a series of customizable bells and whistles. Visitors can use the controls on the site to adjust key planetary attributes such as distance from a star, planet size, and planet age. After making these adjustments, visitors can learn about the planet they have created, and also compare it with other existing planets and outer-space bodies.

153

Exploring the Planets Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based upon the Exploring the Planets gallery at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC, this site provides information about our solar system and its exploration. The gallery begins with a Discovery Section, which explores the development of astronomical thought, beginning with the Greeks, the Renaissance, and Galileo, and ending with satellites and the discovery of new planets. A section on Exploration Tools investigates the past, present and future of earth-based exploration, telescopes, spacecraft, landers, orbiters and rovers. The Planetary Comparisons section discusses similarities and differences between planets such as their atmospheres and geography. An entire section is devoted to the planets themselves with data sets showing statistics on size, mass, orbits, satellites and more. Each planet and the asteroids have their own page with images, exploration facts and other data. There is also a section about comets discussing their discovery, history, observations, anatomy and images.

154

Astrobiological and Geological Implications of Convective Transport in Icy Outer Planet Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oceans of large icy outer planet satellites are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life in our solar system. The goal of our project has been to develop models of ice convection in order to understand convection as an astrobiologically relevant transport mechanism within icy satellites, especially Europa. These models provide valuable constraints on modes of surface deformation and thus the implications of satellite surface geology for astrobiology, and for planetary protection. Over the term of this project, significant progress has been made in three areas: (1) the initiation of convection in large icy satellites, which we find probably requires tidal heating; (2) the relationship of surface features on Europa to internal ice convection, including the likely role of low-melting-temperature impurities; and (3) the effectiveness of convection as an agent of icy satellite surface-ocean material exchange, which seems most plausible if tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection work in combination. Descriptions of associated publications include: 3 published papers (including contributions to 1 review chapter), 1 manuscript in revision, 1 manuscript in preparation (currently being completed under separate funding), and 1 published popular article. A myriad of conference abstracts have also been published, and only those from the past year are listed.

Pappalardo, Robert T.; Zhong, Shi-Jie; Barr, Amy

2005-01-01

155

Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

156

The Gemini Planet Imager  

SciTech Connect

The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

Macintosh, B; al., e

2006-05-02

157

The planets and life.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

Young, R. S.

1971-01-01

158

Minor Planet Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on the activities of the Minor Planet Center for the year of 1998. The main product of this center is the Minor Planet Circulars, augmented by the Minor Planet Circulars Supplement which is a new series introduced in 1997 to include the actual observations, which are now only summarized MPC. The introduction of the Daily Orbit Update (DOU) lists all the orbits computed and identification found since the previous issue. There has been a fivefold increase in the reported Near Earth Objects, which includes the addition of 55 potentially hazardous asteroids.

Marsden, Brian G.

1999-01-01

159

Pulse of the Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains the archive for Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a two-minute sound portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. Pulse of the Planet is broadcast over 320 public and commercial stations around the world and on the Voice of America and the Armed Forces Radio Network. In addition to the sound clips there are associated feature stories on everything from particle physics to the birds of the Pantanal and seasonal stories describing the ways that people interact with their environment.

2008-04-14

160

Exploring the Planets: Mercury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Mercury. Facts about the planet include: mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), and diameter. The site explains why earth-based views of Mercury are so poor and describes the surface of the planet on the basis of probe photographs. The photographs do not prove whether the material on the surface is impact ejecta or volcanic. However, a colored digital mosaic of Mercury taken by Mariner 10 suggests that at least some of the mercurian smooth plains are the products of volcanism.

161

Conditions for the onset of plate tectonics on terrestrial planets and moons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plate tectonics on Earth is driven by the subduction and stirring of dense oceanic lithosphere into the underlying mantle. For such a regime to exist on any planet, stresses associated with mantle convection must exceed the strength of the lithosphere. This condition is sufficiently restrictive that plate tectonics currently operates only on Earth, and mantle convection in most terrestrial planets

C. O'Neill; A. M. Jellinek; A. Lenardic

2007-01-01

162

From meteorites to evolution and habitability of planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of planets is driven by the composition, structure, and thermal state of their internal core, mantle, lithosphere, and crust, and by interactions with a possible ocean and/or atmosphere. A planet's history is a long chronology of events with possibly a sequence of apocalyptic events in which asteroids, comets and their meteorite offspring play an important role. Large meteorite impacts on the young Earth could have contributed to the conditions for life to appear, and similarly large meteorite impacts could also create the conditions to erase life or drastically decrease biodiversity on the surface of the planet. Meteorites also contain valuable information to understand the evolution of a planet through their gas inclusion, their composition, and their cosmogenic isotopes. This paper addresses the evolution of the terrestrial bodies of our Solar System, in particular through all phenomena related to meteorites and what we can learn from them. This includes our present understanding of planet formation, their interior, their atmosphere, and the effects and relations of meteorites with respect to these reservoirs. It brings further insight into the origin and sustainability of life on planets, including Earth. Particular attention is devoted to Earth and Mars, as well as to planets and satellites possessing an atmosphere (Earth, Mars, Venus, and Titan) or a subsurface ocean (e.g., Europa), because those are the best candidates for hosting life. Though the conditions on the planets Earth, Mars, and Venus were probably similar soon after their formation, their histories have diverged about 4 billion years ago. The search for traces of life on early Earth serves as a case study to refine techniques/environments allowing the detection of potential habitats and possible life on other planets. A strong emphasis is placed on impact processes, an obvious shaper of planetary evolution, and on meteorites that document early Solar System evolution and witness the geological processes taking place on other planetary bodies.

Véronique, Dehant; Doris, Breuer; Philippe, Claeys; Vinciane, Debaille; Johan, De Keyser; Emmanuelle, Javaux; Steven, Goderis; Özgur, Karatekin; Tilman, Spohn; Ann Carine, Vandaele; Frank, Vanhaecke; Tim, Van Hoolst; Valérie, Wilquet

2012-11-01

163

All for the Planet, the Planet for everyone!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eco-Musketeers are unique voluntary group of students. They have been established in Belgrade, in Primary school 'Drinka Pavlovi?'. Since the founding in year 2000, Eco-Musketeers have been involved in peer and citizens education guided by motto: All for the planet, the planet for all! Main goals of this group are spreading and popularization of environmental approach as well as gaining knowledge through collaborative projects and research. A great number of students from other schools in Serbia have joined Eco-Musketeers in observations aiming to better understand the problem of global climate change. In the past several years Eco-Musketeers have also participated in many national and international projects related to the active citizenship and rising the awareness of the importance of biodiversity and environment for sustainable development of society. In this presentation we will show some of the main activities, eco-performances and actions of our organization related to the environment, biodiversity, conservation and recycling, such as: spring cleaning the streets of Belgrade, cleaning the Sava and the Danube river banks, removing insect moth pupae in the area of Lipovica forest near Belgrade. Also, Eco-Musketeers worked on education of employees of Coca-Cola HBC Serbia about energy efficiency. All the time, we have working on raising public awareness of the harmful effects of plastic bags on the environment, too. In order to draw attention on rare and endangered species in Serbia and around the globe, there were several performing street-plays about biodiversity and also the plays about the water ecological footprint. Eco-Musketeers also participated in international projects Greenwave-signs of spring (Fibonacci project), European Schools For A Living Planet (WWF Austria and Erste stiftung) and Eco Schools. The eco dream of Eco-Musketeers is to influence the Government of the Republic of Serbia to determine and declare a 'green habits week'. This should be a one week in a year during which all the citizens will act with a minimum negative impact on the environment. All previous activities of the Eco-Musketeers are the only a small step in a persevering process of conservation of the living world, but we strongly believe that though the activities of small group as we are, we can change the way of thinking of our fellows and citizens, so that they learn to love and protect nature for future generations.

Drndarski, Marina

2014-05-01

164

Protostars and planets II  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on protostars and planets. Topics covered include molecular clouds and star formation, physical conditions in isolated dark globules, infrared spectroscopy of protostars and young stellar objects, and molecular cloud cores.

Black, D.C.; Matthews, M.S.

1985-01-01

165

Kepler's Multiple Planet Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Among the 1800 Kepler targets that have candidate planets, 20% have two or more candidate planets. While most of these objects have not yet been confirmed as true planets, several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations (assuming a nominal mass-radius relationship). Statistical studies performed on these candidates reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness of planetary systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. The characteristics of the confirmed Kepler multi-planet systems will also be discussed.

Lissauer, Jack J.

2012-01-01

166

Magnetic Mystery Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This presentation highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines around "mystery planets" using orbiting "spacecraft" (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle/high school age audiences. However, we also show a scaled-down version that has been used with elementary school age audiences.

Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

2013-12-01

167

Magnetic Mystery Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

2014-07-01

168

The Antarctic Planet Interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Antarctic Planet Interferometer is an instrument concept designed to detect and characterize extrasolar planets by exploiting the unique potential of the best accessible site on earth for thermal infrared interferometry. High-precision interferometric techniques under development for extrasolar planet detection and characterization (differential phase, nulling and astrometry) all benefit substantially from the slow, low-altitude turbulence, low water vapor content, and low temperature found on the Antarctic plateau. At the best of these locations, such as the Concordia base being developed at Dome C, an interferometer with two-meter diameter class apertures has the potential to deliver unique science for a variety of topics, including extrasolar planets, active galactic nuclei, young stellar objects, and protoplanetary disks.

Swain, Mark R.; Walker, Christopher K.; Traub, Wesley A.; Storey, John W.; CoudeduForesto, Vincent; Fossat, Eric; Vakili, Farrok; Stark, Anthony A.; Lloyd, James P.; Lawson, Peter R.; Burrows, Adam S.; Ireland, Michael; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; vanBelle, Gerard T.; Lane, Benjamin; Vasisht, Gautam; Travouillon, Tony

2004-01-01

169

Which stars have planets?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of predicting which stars have planetary systems is discussed, with special attention given to the work of Nakano (1988), who combined scaling arguments with his theory (Nakano, 1987) of formation of planets in the solar system to estimate planetary growth rates around stars of various masses. It is argued that, in addition to stellar mass, the process of planet formation depends on other parameters, such as angular momentum and collisions. The existence of binary and multiple star systems of varying type demonstrates that angular momentum variations can play a crucial role, while the fact that the solar system has four giant planets and four terrestrial planets is considered to be due to the effects of random impacts and scatterings. It is concluded that, at present, the concept of determining what types of planetary systems are to be expected about stars of varying masses cannot be resolved.

Lissauer, J. J.

1989-01-01

170

The Antarctic Planet Interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic Planet Interferometer is a concept designed to detect and characterize extrasolar planets by exploiting the unique potential of the best accessible site on Earth for thermal infrared interferometry. High-precision interferometric techniques under development for extrasolar planet detection and characterization (differential phase, nulling and astrometry) all benefit substantially from the slow, low-altitude turbulence, low water vapor content, and low temperatures found on the Antarctic plateau. At the best of these locations, such as the Concordia base being developed at dome C, an interferometer with two-meter diameter class apertures has the potential to deliver unique science for a variety of topics, including extrasolar planets, active galactic nuclei, young stellar objects, and protoplanetary disks.

Swain, M.; Lloyd, J.; Traub, W.; Walker, C.; Stark, A.; Lawson, P.; Storey, J.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Fossat, E.; Ireland, M.; Burrows, A.; Vakili, F.

2003-12-01

171

Planets Around Neutron Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this proposal was to continue investigations of neutron star planetary systems in an effort to describe and understand their origin, orbital dynamics, basic physical properties and their relationship to planets around normal stars. This research represents an important element of the process of constraining the physics of planet formation around various types of stars. The research goals of this project included long-term timing measurements of the planets pulsar, PSR B1257+12, to search for more planets around it and to study the dynamics of the whole system, and sensitive searches for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of old, rapidly spinning neutron stars with planetary systems. The instrumentation used in our project included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the 100-m Green Bank Telescope with the Berkeley- Caltech Pulsar Machine (BCPM), and the 100-m Effelsberg and 64-m Parkes telescopes equipped with the observatory supplied backend hardware.

Wolszczan, Alexander; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Anderson, Stuart B.

2003-01-01

172

Managing Planet Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the human use of the planet earth. Describes the global patterns and the regional aspects of change. Four requirements for the cultivation of leadership and institutional competence are suggested. Lists five references for further reading. (YP)

Clark, William C.

1989-01-01

173

Planet Designer: What's Trending Hot?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the way distance, reflectivity, and atmosphere affect the temperature of a planet. Learners will create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet's temperature. This lesson is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering education program focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

174

Formation of the Outer Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of the origins of gas giant planets and ‘ice’ giant planets are discussed and related to formation theories of both smaller objects (terrestrial planets) and larger bodies (stars). The most detailed models of planetary formation are based upon observations of our own Solar System, of young stars and their environments, and of extrasolar planets. Stars form from the collapse,

Jack J. Lissauer

2005-01-01

175

Extrasolar Planets Orbiting Active Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

New discoveries of transiting extrasolar planets are reported weekly. Ground based surveys as well as space borne observatories like CoRoT and Kepler are responsible for filling the statistical voids of planets on distant stellar systems. I want to discuss the stellar activity and its impact on the discovery of extrasolar planets. Up to now the discovery of small rocky planets

Jörg Weingrill

2011-01-01

176

The Secret Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Planet X? That was discovered long ago. But NASA is keeping it secret, undoubtedly in close collaboration with observatories\\u000a throughout the world. The planet goes around the Sun every 3,600 years in an elongated orbit and is currently on a collision\\u000a course with the Earth. The disastrous portents of that imminent encounter – probably in 2012 – are visible everywhere.

Govert Schilling

177

Transit of Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

Doyle, Laurance R.

1998-01-01

178

Outer planet satellites  

SciTech Connect

Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

Schenk, P.M. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

179

The Planet Pluto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of webpages is part of a course called Astronomy 161: The Solar System, offered by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. This section covers the general features of Pluto, including information on whether it is the eighth or ninth planet from the Sun, and whether there are additional planets beyond Pluto. There are also subsections on the surface of Pluto and its moon, Charon, including Hubble Space Telescope images.

2007-04-14

180

The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this chapter we examine what can be learned about extrasolar planet atmospheres by concentrating on a class of planets that transit their parent stars. As discussed in the previous chapter, one way of detecting an extrasolar planet is by observing the drop in stellar intensity as the planet passes in front of the star. A transit represents a special case in which the geometry of the planetary system is such that the planet s orbit is nearly edge-on as seen from Earth. As we will explore, the transiting planets provide opportunities for detailed follow-up observations that allow physical characterization of extrasolar planets, probing their bulk compositions and atmospheres.

Richardson, L. J.; Seager, S.

2007-01-01

181

Building a virtual planet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The virtual Planetary Laboratory (VPL) is a recently funded 5-yr project, which seeks toimprove our understanding of the range of plausible environments and the likely signatures for life on extrasolar terrestrial planets. To achieve these goals we are developing a suite of innovative modeling tools to simulate the environments and spectra of extrasolar planets. The core of the VPL IS a coupled radiative transfer/climate/chemistry model, which is augmented by interchangeable modules which characterize geological, exogenic, atmospheric escape, and life processes. The VPL is validated using data derived from terrestrial planets within our own solar system. The VPL will be used to explore the plausible range of atmospheric composittions and globally averaged spectra for extrasolar planets and for early Earth, and will improve our understanding of the effect of life on a planet's atmospheric spectrum and composition. The models will also be used to create a comprehensive spectral catalog to provide recommendations on the optimum wavelength range, spectral resolution, and instrument sensitivity required to characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets. Although developed by our team, the VPL is envisioned to be a comprehensive and flexible tool, which can be collaboratively used by the broader planetary science and astrobiology communities. This presentation will describe the project concept, the tasks involved, and will outline current progress to date. This work is funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

Meadows, V. S.

2002-01-01

182

Evaporation of extrasolar planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a review on the observations and theoretical modeling of the evaporation of extrasolar planets. The observations and the resulting constraints on the upper atmosphere (thermosphere and exosphere) of the ``hot-Jupiters'' are described. The early observations of the first discovered transiting extrasolar planet, HD209458b, allowed the discovery that this planet has an extended atmosphere of escaping hydrogen. Subsequent observations showed the presence of oxygen and carbon at very high altitude. These observations give unique constraints on the escape rate and mechanism in the atmosphere of hot-Jupiters. The most recent Lyman-alpha HST observations of HD189733b and MgII observations of Wasp-12b allow for the first time a comparison of the evaporation from different planets in different environments. Models to quantify the escape rate from the measured occultation depths, and an energy diagram to describe the evaporation state of hot-Jupiters are presented. Using this diagram, it is shown that few already known planets like GJ876d or CoRot-7b could be remnants of formerly giant planets.

Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.

2010-12-01

183

Classifying Planets: Nature vs. Nurture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of a planet was so simple when we learned about the solar system in elementary school. Now students and professional s alike are faced with confusing array of definitions --- from "Brown Dwarfs” to "Super Jupiters", from "Super Earths” to "Terrestrial Planets", and from "Planets” to "Small, Sort-of Round Things That Aren't Really Planets". I will discuss how planets might be defined by how they formed, where they are found, or by the life they might support.

Beichman, Charles A.

2009-05-01

184

Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While the most common photographs of Earth taken from space show the planet covered in blue water, NASA has managed to produce detailed color images, using satellite imagery, that show the remarkable variation of colors that actually make up the oceanic s...

2005-01-01

185

Polarimetry of gas planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quest for new worlds was not only an adventure at the times of Columbus. Also nowadays mankind searches for new, undiscovered territories. But today they lie no longer only on our Earth, but also well outside the solar system. There, new planets are sought and found. One of the challenges of modern astrophysics is the direct detection of extra- solar planets. To reach this goal, the largest available telescopes and most sophisticated detection techniques are required. A promising method to "see" and analyse extra-solar planets is based on the fact, that light reflected by a planet can be polarised. For its detection, accurate polarisation measurements are needed. This is one of the methods ESO intends to make use of to find new planets outside the solar system. The Institute of Astronomy of ETH Zürich contributes ZIMPOL to this planet-finder project. ZIMPOL is a very sensitive imaging polarimeter. This thesis is situated within the ESO-planet-finder project. It deals with two problems that are crucial for a successful mission: (1) Instrumental polarisation can seriously hamper the performance of the instrument. It is therefore essential, to keep instrumental polarisation very low. (2) A knowledge of the polarisation properties of our targets would be very helpful. For this reason the polarisation properties of our solar system planets are investigated. Promising candidates for a detection with ZIMPOL are large planets with atmospheres similar to those of our giant gas planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. In the first part of the thesis the planet-finder project is presented and the role of ZIMPOL is explained. To obtain the instrumental polarisation, the polarimetric properties of mirrors and other optical components of our planet- finder instrument are analysed. The instrumental polarisation for the wavelength range of 600 to 1000 nm and for all zenith distances is calculated with Mueller matrices. Methods for reducing the instrumental polarisation are proposed and checked by the renewed application of the Mueller calculus. The correction of the instrumental polarisation is divided into two parts. First, a combination of a rotating half-wave plate and a plane mirror compensate the polarisation introduced by the Nasmyth mirror. Secondly, a rotatable and tiltable glass plate compensates the residual polarisation introduced by oblique reflections on mirrors after the Nasmyth mirror. Further, possible aging effects of the mirrors are considered and consequences for the polarisation are highlighted. An error budget for non perfect retardation of the half-wave plate is also regarded, and the effects for the polarisation are calculated. In the second part spectropolarimetric measurements of the four gas planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune for the wavelength range from 530 to 930 nm are presented. Our measurements of Uranus and Neptune are the first of their kind. For Uranus and Neptune a second-order scattering effect, leading to limb polarisation, has been measured. This effect is expected in atmospheres of Rayleigh scattering type and allows conclusions on the properties of the scatterers and the stratification inside the atmosphere. The limb polarisation reaches a maximum of more than 3% on Uranus. Spectropolarimetric plots for selected regions on Uranus and polarimetric profiles parallel to the spectrographic slits are presented. An enhanced polarisation in the methane absorption bands is detected. For both planets the limb polarisation decreases with wavelength. For Jupiter and Saturn profiles parallel to the slits and polarimetric spectra for some selected regions such as the poles of Jupiter or the ring system of Saturn are presented. The poles of Jupiter exhibit a large polarisation (up to 10%) perpendicular to the limb. In the methane absorption bands at the Jovian poles the polarisation is enhanced compared to the adjacent higher albedo regions. The polarisation decreases from short wavelengths towards longer wavelengths. Disc resolved spectropolarimetry of Saturn has not yet been publi

Joos, Franco

186

Planet-Metallicity Correlation For Planets of Different Sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallicity of exoplanet systems can serve as a critical diagnosis on the planet formation mechanisms. Previous studies took followup observations to measure metallicity of a sample of Kepler planet candidates host stars. It is shown in these studies that planet-metallicity exists for large planets (RP ? 4 RE), but there is a lack of such correlation for smaller planets. We use a sample 1166 multi-planet candidates from Kepler Objects of Interest and with metallicity estimation from Kepler Input Catalog to study the planet-metallicity correlation. The sample is a factor of 3-4 larger than those in previous studies. Unlike previous studies, we consider both detections and non-detections of planet candidates. We use a ratio between the number of planet candidates and the number of searched stars (planet-star ratio) in a RP -[Fe/H] parameter space as an estimation of planet frequency. For orbital period within 100 days, we found a strong planet-metallicity correlation for gas giant planets (5 RE ? RP ? 22 RE). Planet frequency is 2.6 times higher for the super-solar metallicity group ([Fe/H] ? 0.0) than the sub-solar metallicity group ([Fe/H] ? 0.0). For Neptune-like planets (2 RE ? RP ? 5 RE ), planet frequency for the metal-rich sample is 1.4 times higher than the metal-poor sample, but this conclusion depends on corrections for different stellar populations of two metallicity groups. Planet frequency correlation with metallicity for small-radii planets (RP ? 2 RE) is consistent with non-positive correlation.

Wang, Ji

2014-01-01

187

Living-History Villages as Popular Entertainers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the furor created when Walt Disney Studios announced plans to develop a "historic amusement park" near the Manassas (Virginia) National Battlefield Park. Maintains that the public debate over the popular understanding of history reflects an ongoing tension between academic historians and the purveyors of popular history. (CFR)

Geist, Christopher D.

1994-01-01

188

Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

189

Seamless Channel Transition for Popular Video Broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal goal of near video-on-demand system is to minimize the average user waiting time. The user waiting time of popular videos can be reduced significantly by using broadcasting schemes such as fast broadcasting. Instead of allocating channels uniformly to all the videos, channels are nonuniformly distributed according to the relative popularity of the videos to minimize the average user

Salahuddin A. Azad; M. Manzur Murshed

2005-01-01

190

Investigating the Worldwide Popularity of Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of forensic science has increased dramatically over the past decade throughout the United States. However, has this popularity spread to other countries around the world and to what extent? In the United States, there are numerous television shows focusing on the law and crime scene analysis, including “CSI,” “Law and Order,” “24,” “Crossing Jordan,” and “Forensic Files,” just

Heather Stankiewicz

2007-01-01

191

New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell removed, pressure began to build in the compressed rocky kernel of Earth and eventually the rigid crust began to crack. The major energy source for planetary decompression and for heat emplacement at the base of the crust is the stored energy of protoplanetary compression. In response to decompression-driven volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and fold-mountain ranges form to accommodate changes in curvature. One of the most profound mysteries of modern planetary science is this: As the terrestrial planets are more-or-less of common chondritic composition, how does one account for the marked differences in their surface dynamics? Differences among the inner planets are principally due to the degree of compression experienced. Planetocentric georeactor nuclear fission, responsible for magnetic field generation and concomitant heat production, is applicable to compressed and non-compressed planets and large moons. The internal composition of Mercury is calculated based upon an analogy with the deep-Earth mass ratio relationships. The origin and implication of Mercurian hydrogen geysers is described. Besides Earth, only Venus appears to have sustained protoplanetary compression; the degree of which might eventually be estimated from understanding Venetian surface geology. A basis is provided for understanding that Mars essentially lacks a 'geothermal gradient' which implies potentially greater subsurface water reservoir capacity than previously expected. Resources at NuclearPlanet.com .

Marvin Herndon, J.

2014-05-01

192

Formation of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early phases of formation in the inner solar system were dominated by collisions and short-range dynamical interactions among planetesimals. But the later phases, which account for most of the differences among planets, are unsure because the dynamics are more subtle. Jupiter's influence became more important, leading to drastic clearing out of the asteroid belt and the stunting of Mars's growth. Further in, the effect of Jupiter-- both directly and indirectly, through ejection of mass in the outer solar system-- was probably to speed up the process without greatly affecting the outcome. The great variety in bulk properties of the terrestrial bodies indicate a terminal phase of great collisions, so that the outcome is the result of small-N statistics. Mercury, 65 percent iron, appears to be a residual core from a high-velocity collision. All planets appear to require a late phase of high energy impacts to erode their atmospheres: including the Earth, to remove CO2 so that its ocean could form by condensation of water. Consistent with this model is that the largest collision, about 0.2 Earth masses, was into the proto-Earth, although the only property that appears to require it is the great lack of iron in the Moon. The other large differences between the Earth and Venus, angular momentum (spin plus satellite) and inert gas abundances, must arise from origin circumstances, but neither require nor forbid the giant impact. Venus's higher ratio of light to heavy inert gases argues for it receiving a large icy impactor, about 10-6 Earth masses from far out, requiring some improbable dynamics to get a low enough approach velocity. Core formation in both planets probably started rather early during accretion. Some geochemical evidences argue for the Moon coming from the Earth's mantle, but are inconclusive. Large scale melting of the mantle by the giant impact would plausibly have led to stratification. But the "lock-up" at the end of turbulent mantle convection is a trade-off between rates: crystallization of constituents of small density difference versus overall freezing. Also, factors such as differences in melting temperatures and densities, melt compressibilities, and phase transitions may have had homogenizing effects in the subsequent mantle convection.

Kaula, William M.

1994-01-01

193

The Gemini Planet Imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation adaptive optics coronagraph designed for direct imaging and spectroscopy of extrasolar planets and polarimetry of circumstellar disks. It is the first such facility-class instrument deployed on a 8-m telescope, designed to achieve contrast levels of up to 10^7. This allows observations of warm self-luminous planets, with masses greater than a Jupiter mass and ages less than a few hundred megayears. GPI will be used for a large-scale survey of 600 nearby young stars, as well as for guest observer science. I will present first-light science results and discuss the scientific capabilities of GPI.

Macintosh, Bruce

2014-06-01

194

Living Planet Report 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The second edition of the World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) Living Planet Report (last discussed in the October 9, 1998 Scout Report) has been placed online. The report attempts to quantify the speed at which nature is disappearing from Earth and trace human pressures on the natural environment. The first part of the report, the Living Planet Index (LPI), measures natural wealth and how it has changed between 1970 and 1995. According to the WWF, the LPI declined by 30 percent in this period, indicating that the world has lost "30 per cent of its natural wealth in the space of one generation." The second part of the Living Planet Report examines six causes of global environmental change related to human consumption of renewable and non-renewable resources.Users may view an executive summary and highlights of the report or download the full text in .pdf.

1999-01-01

195

Is Commercial Culture Popular Culture?: A Question for Popular Communication Scholars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay compares commercial culture with popular culture, reviewing different conceptualizations of the terms. It posits that there are significant differences, but that commercial culture increasingly intrudes on other forms of culture. The essay ar- gues that popular communication scholars are well positioned to develop new per- spectives and techniques to understand hybrid versions of popular-commercial cul- ture. Watts and

Matthew P. McAllister

2003-01-01

196

Bing & Bong's Tiny Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bing & Bong's Tiny Planet website, a supplement to the educational television series, offers excellent science activities, games, and online books for small children. Users can sail around the planet to learn about wind, read an online story to discover space, take an adventure through the water cycle, and much more. Visitors can also learn the essentials of colors, shapes, and light through short videos and interactive modules. The colorful website offers a great way for children to begin learning about the fascinating world.

197

Protostars and planets II  

SciTech Connect

Various papers on the formation of stars and planets are presented. The general topics addressed include: molecular clouds and star formation, young stellar objects and circumstellar disks, chemistry and grains in molecular clouds and the solar nebula, formation of giant planets, and models of the solar nebula and other planetary systems. Individual papers address: molecular cloud cores, physical conditions in isolated dark globules, rotation in dark clouds, and turbulence in molecular clouds. Also discussed are: fragmentation and hierarchical structure in the interstellar medium, formation of bound stellar clusters, ambient radiation field of young solar systems, and magnetic fields.

Black, D.C.; Matthews, M.S.

1985-01-01

198

Play Dough Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about planet sizes. Learners will demonstrate the size (volume) differences between Earth, Earthâs Moon, and Mars. An extension to estimate the distance between the Earth and the Moon, and the Earth and Mars, using the scale of the play dough planets' sizes is provided. Advance preparation of the play dough (recipie provided) is required. This is lesson 3 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module. It was adapted from 3-D Model of the Earth and Moon, an activity in The Universe at Your Fingertips.

199

How giant planets cool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how giant planets cool is key to the study of their interior structure, composition and hence formation. I will review how the observed luminosities of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune may be accounted for, mostly by convective transport of heat limited by the atmospheric lip, but with several complications (sedimentation of helium droplets, gradients of composition...). Conversely, I will show that the the cooling of strongly irradiated giant planets ("Pegasids") is limited by heat transport in a thick external radiative zone with a possibility of a significant dissipation of heat due to tides. In all cases, both radiative transport and atmospheric/interior dynamics play crucial roles and require further studies.

Guillot, T.

2006-12-01

200

Strange Planets Planetarium Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This planetarium show is designed to engage visitors directly in activities and demonstrations, and is optimized for group sizes of 25 to 70 people. Show content includes general planet-finding techniques (Doppler, astrometric, etc.), an audience activity about the transit method of extrasolar planet discovery, NASA Kepler mission, and Johannes Kepler's work. It is 50-minutes long, but modular, so that it can be adjusted for shorter lengths (suggestions for 30-minute and 40-minute versions are provided in the script). The script, images, movies and music are available for free download at the website provided.

201

Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

1994-01-01

202

THE STEPPENWOLF: A PROPOSAL FOR A HABITABLE PLANET IN INTERSTELLAR SPACE  

SciTech Connect

Rogue planets have been ejected from their planetary system. We investigate the possibility that a rogue planet could maintain a liquid ocean under layers of thermally insulating water ice and frozen gas as a result of geothermal heat flux. We find that a rogue planet of Earth-like composition and age could maintain a subglacial liquid ocean if it were {approx}3.5 times more massive than Earth, corresponding to {approx}8 km of ice. Suppression of the melting point by contaminants, a layer of frozen gas, or a larger complement of water could significantly reduce the planetary mass that is required to maintain a liquid ocean. Such a planet could be detected from reflected solar radiation, and its thermal emission could be characterized in the far-IR if it were to pass within O(1000) AU of Earth.

Abbot, D. S. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Switzer, E. R., E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu, E-mail: switzer@kicp.uchicago.edu [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2011-07-10

203

Bringing Ocean Science News To the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the goals of COSEE-Ocean Systems and its partners is to work toward bridging the gap between "school science" and "scientist science," in the context of using ocean examples to guide science inquiry. This article addresses popular media as a valuable source of science information, keeping current science research (or "scientist science"), and its outcomes and implications in front of students.

Decharon, Annette; Manahan, Abigail

2011-03-31

204

Finding Planets around other stars  

NASA Video Gallery

Just as the Earth revolves around the sun, our closest star, other planets might orbit the stars you see in the night sky. Think of all the planets in the universe that may be just the right distan...

205

Planets With Detectable Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop honors Michel Mayor for his watershed detection of the first extrasolar planetary system in 1995. It is worth remembering that prior to this discovery, there was an intense debate among well-qualified scientists as to whether or not other planetary systems existed. Now we have come to know over 100 planets circling other stars, with more discoveries announced almost

Tobias Owen

2006-01-01

206

Welcome to the Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of the best images from NASA's planetary exploration program includes descriptions of images with an audio format, planet profiles with data sets, spacecraft exploration information, and a zoom-in feature to view the image at closer range. There is also a glossary with hundreds of entries, and an explorer section to learn about past and future space missions.

207

Twist planet drive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A planetary gear system includes a sun gear coupled to an annular ring gear through a plurality of twist-planet gears, a speeder gear, and a ground structure having an internal ring gear. Each planet gear includes a solid gear having a first half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes vertical gear teeth and a second half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes helical gear teeth that are offset from the vertical gear teeth and which contact helical gear teeth on the speeder gear and helical gear teeth on the outer ring gear. One half of the twist planet gears are preloaded downward, while the other half are preloaded upwards, each one alternating with the other so that each one twists in a motion opposite to its neighbor when rotated until each planet gear seats against the sun gear, the outer ring gear, the speeder gear, and the inner ring gear. The resulting configuration is an improved stiff anti-backlash gear system.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

208

The Artificial Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

Glover, D. R.

209

Planet Quest Observing Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PlanetQuest Observing Cards are designed to give telescope operators and other interpreters a new way of explaining the night sky. Relating common observing objects to our search for exoplanets makes these spectacular sights more understandable. These cards are a great resource for use at observing night events, providing new stories to tell about commonly viewed celestial objects.

210

Single planet, divided world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike other forms of life on planet earth, humans have contrived to flourish—or at least multiply—by splitting themselves horizontally into incommensurable units and vertically into a species above, or privileged within, the realm of nature. The human proclivity for division, exclusion, and alienation is not absolute; it is endlessly challenged and often diluted by integrating tendencies. Historically, phenomena such as

Richard Matthew

1994-01-01

211

External Resource: Clay Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners/students use given amounts of clay to create models of the solar system. Learners/students use clay to represent different planets and other objects in the solar system (asteroids, moons, etc.). The learners/students can use as

1900-01-01

212

Tilt of planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most planets have their axis of rotation tilted with respect to the normal to the plane of the orbit. The planetary magnetic field is also tilted and is also inclined with respect to the axis of rotation. So far, there has been no satisfactory explanation. Chaotic stability is like accepting the tilts as they happen to be there. Giant impacts

J. N. Nanda

1999-01-01

213

Accumulation of the planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

Wetherill, G. W.

1987-01-01

214

Dwarf Planet Pluto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Views of the Solar System provides access to images and animations of the binary dwarf planet composed of Pluto and Charon. Did you know that the Hubble Space Telescope discovered two additional moons in the Pluto-Charon system?

Hamilton, Calvin J.; Self-Published

215

A Planet for Goldilocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for life beyond Earth has inspired Solar System exploration and SETI surveys. Today, the search for life also leads to exoplanet discovery and characterization. Launched in March 2009, NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of exoplanets with diverse properties. Though each new world is interesting in its own right, Kepler aims to understand the population as a whole. Its primary objective is to determine the frequency of exoplanets of different sizes and orbital periods. Of special interest are the Earth-size planets in the “Goldilocks” (or habitable) Zone where the flux of incoming starlight is conducive to the existence of surface liquid water. Once Kepler establishes the prevalence of such planets in the Solar neighborhood, future missions can be designed to find not just a planet in the Goldilocks Zone but a planet for Goldilocks—a truly habitable environment for life as we know it. Kepler discoveries and progress will be described as well as the resources available to bring Kepler science to the public and into the classroom. The possibility of finding evidence of life beyond Earth is working its way into the public consciousness and has the potential to inspire generations. Scientific literacy is a natural consequence of awakening the spirit of exploration and discovery that led Goldilocks into the forest and leads humans into space.

Batalha, N.

2014-07-01

216

Pluto - The distant planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the history of the discovery of Pluto. It is noted that two scientists, Pickering and Lowell, worked independently in searching for Pluto. Attention is given to the peculiarities of the orbit of Pluto; its rotation, diameter, and surface structure; Pluto's moon, Charon; and the possible existence of an additional planet.

N. Vogt

1980-01-01

217

Popular Kids May Be Targets for Bullying  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Popular Kids May Be Targets for Bullying: Study Competition for social status could play a ... Preidt Tuesday, April 1, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Bullying TUESDAY, April 1, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Becoming more ...

218

'Breast Milk Banks' Gain in Popularity  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. 'Breast Milk Banks' Gain in Popularity Experts say they're safer ... News) -- A wave of new nonprofit breast milk banks are opening across North America, driven by research ...

219

What is a Planet? Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a video about the IAU definition of a planet. Learners will watch 3D animation designed to illustrate the history behind the discussion defining the question, what is a planet?, and to outline some of the traits that may be associated with the definition of a planet.

220

The atmospheres of extrasolar planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of extrasolar planets, or "exoplanets" - i.e., planets orbiting around other stars - may be seen as the major discovery of astronomy over the past two decades. About twenty years ago, in 1992, the first discovery of a couple of planets around a pulsar was announced by A. Wolszczan and D. Frail.

Encrenaz, Thérèse

2014-01-01

221

Extrasolar Planets in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of extrasolar planets is still, in comparison with other astrophysical topics, in its infancy. There have been about 300 or so extrasolar planets detected and their detection has been accomplished by various different techniques. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment to show how planets are detected using the transit technique.…

George, Samuel J.

2011-01-01

222

Studying Extrasolar Planets with WFIRST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WFIRST mission will be a powerful tool for studying extrasolar planets. Through observations of gravitational microlensing, the mission will probe the demographics of extrasolar planetary systems. Its coronagraph will enable imaging and spectroscopic study of nearby planets. It will also be able to complement GAIA's astrometric measurements of masses and orbits of nearby planets.

Spergel, David N.

2014-06-01

223

Almost All of Kepler's Multiple-planet Candidates Are Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a statistical analysis that demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) indeed represent true, physically associated transiting planets. Binary stars provide the primary source of false positives among Kepler planet candidates, implying that false positives should be nearly randomly distributed among Kepler targets. In contrast, true transiting planets would appear clustered around a smaller number of Kepler targets if detectable planets tend to come in systems and/or if the orbital planes of planets encircling the same star are correlated. There are more than one hundred times as many Kepler planet candidates in multi-candidate systems as would be predicted from a random distribution of candidates, implying that the vast majority are true planets. Most of these multis are multiple-planet systems orbiting the Kepler target star, but there are likely cases where (1) the planetary system orbits a fainter star, and the planets are thus significantly larger than has been estimated, or (2) the planets orbit different stars within a binary/multiple star system. We use the low overall false-positive rate among Kepler multis, together with analysis of Kepler spacecraft and ground-based data, to validate the closely packed Kepler-33 planetary system, which orbits a star that has evolved somewhat off of the main sequence. Kepler-33 hosts five transiting planets, with periods ranging from 5.67 to 41 days.

Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Adams, Elisabeth; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Cochran, William D.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Holman, Matthew J.; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G.; Morehead, Robert C.; Ragozzine, Darin; Seader, Shawn E.; Tanenbaum, Peter G.; Torres, Guillermo; Twicken, Joseph D.

2012-05-01

224

Climate of Eccentric Terrestrial Planets with Carbonate-Silicate Geochemical Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent discovery of extrasolar planets indicates that some of them have much higher eccentricity than the planets in the solar system. Here, we investigate the climate of such eccentric terrestrial planets with oceans and carbonate-silicate geochemical cycles. We find that the climate of the planets are dependent on the annual mean insolation as shown in previous works. We also find that the planets orbiting slightly further from our Sun than the Earth are globally ice-covered even if the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle works under the same CO2 degassing rate as on the present Earth. However, when the CO2 degassing rate is higher, the planets avoid being globally ice-covered owing to the high level.

Kadoya, Shintaro; Tajika, Eiichi; Watanabe, Yoshiyasu

2014-04-01

225

Ocean Circulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses ocean circulation. First it explains what ocean currents are and what causes them. Then it explains other aspects of the global conveyor belt such as gyres and ocean-atmosphere interactions.

Administration, National O.

2011-08-09

226

Ocean Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of mammals that live in the ocean? First, you will need to use the Ocean Mammals Table 1. This website is here for you to learn about ocean mammals. Mammals 2. This website will help you learn about the different mammals that live in the ocean. Ocean Mammals 3. Here is some information about how oil spills effect animal skin in the ocean. Oil Spills 4. This link ...

Teschner, Miss

2011-04-06

227

Is our blue planet dying. The natural history of our overpopulated earth; Stirbt unser blauer planet. Die naturgeschichte unserer uebervoelkerten erde  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of both mankind and earth is discussed from a scientific ; point of view in popular language. As key problem, the population explosion is ; emphasized and its various aspects are outlined. Production of food and energy ; for the increasing population will inevitably pollute the planet. For air, soil, ; and water, the self-decontamination capacities are discussed

Haber

1973-01-01

228

Exploring the Planets: Venus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Venus, including mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), and diameter. Many discoveries about Venus have been made using Earth-based radio telescopes, however the images of Venus in this exhibit were collected by the Magellan spacecraft. Magellan used radar to produce the first high-resolution global map of Venus. Since Venus has no water erosion and little wind, volcanic eruptions are a major force reshaping the landscape. Geologic forces at work beneath the crust create mountains, rifts, and patterns of fractures, while the sluggish winds sculpt the surface in subtler ways but many mysteries remain. This site includes numerous images of the planet.

229

Planet Under Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Planet Under Pressure is a six-part British Broadcasting Company (BBC) News Online series looking at some of the most pressing environmental issues facing the human race today. The series takes a detailed look at six areas where most experts agree that a crisis is brewing. They include food, water, energy, climate change, biodiversity, and pollution. In addition there are special features including: an animated guide that shows how the greenhouse effect might shape our climate; before and after images of the effects of climate change; the European Union (EU) emissions trading scheme and the carbon revolution; opinions about the Kyoto Protocol; graphic climate evidence of a warming world, rising sea, and melting ice; teenagers' opinions on how they would tackle environmental damage; the results of an eco-friendly garden competition; pictures of environmental change around the world; and a link to a BBC website exploring the UN's goals for the planet in 2015.

230

Exploring the Planets: Discovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes what early civilizations knew about our solar system and how astronomy developed over the centuries. The early theories describing the movements of the planets, development of the first telescopes, and discoveries of the planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are some of the topics addressed in Discovery. Here you will find the Pluto discovery plate, the photographic plate taken the day Pluto's position was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh. Other topics covered at this site include: the Renaissance with the ideas of Copernicus and Kepler; the age of the telescope, which traces its development; Galileo, who is credited with discovering the moons of Jupiter, phases of Venus, and the craters on the Moon; and planetary satellites.

231

Searching for nonsolar planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of infrared techniques to search for nonsolar planets is examined and compared with other possible methods. Long focus astrometry, spectroscopic radial velocity measurements and spaceborne apodization all use visible light and need further refinement to be practical. Infrared offers an advantage of about 10 to the 5th over visible light as regards the ratio of power received from star and planet. Long baseline infrared interferometry from earth orbit could place an interferometric null on the star to enhance planetary radiation and a spinning interferometer would modulate planetary emission to permit synchronous detection; such an interferometer is illustrated. The limit to sensitivity would be set by thermal radiation to the detector and the infrared component of zodiacal light.

Bracewell, R. N.; Macphie, R. H.

1979-01-01

232

Mass-Radius Relationships for Low-Mass Planets: From Iron Planets to Water Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transit observations, and radial velocity measurements, have begun to populate the mass radius diagram for extrasolar planets; fubture astrometric measurements and direct images promise more mass and radius information. Clearly, the bulk density of a planet indicates something about a planet s composition--but what? I will attempt to answer this question in general for low-mass planets (planets obey a kind of universal mass-radius relationship: an expansion whose first term is M approx. R(sup 3).

Kuchner, Marc

2007-01-01

233

Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy of mass-radius relationships for silicate-rich and ice-rich planets up to 100 Earth masses. The Astrophysical Journal 693, 722-733. Wagner, F.W., Sohl, F., Hussmann, H., Grott, M., and Rauer, H. (2011). Interior structure models of solid exoplanets using material laws in the infinite pressure limit. Icarus 214, 366-376. Lammer, H., Bredehöft, J.H., Coustenis, A., Khodachenko, M.L., Kaltenegger, L., Grasset, O., Prieur, D., Raulin, F., Ehrenfreund, P., Yamauchi, M., Wahlund, J.-E., Grießmeier, J.-M., Stangl, G., Cockell, C.S., Kulikov, Yu.N., Grenfell, J.L., and Rauer, H. (2009). What makes a planet habitable? Astron Astrophys Rev 17, 181-249.

Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

2014-05-01

234

Light Scattering from Exoplanet Oceans and Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude (OL) = 180°, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30°. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74° however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90°, but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however, polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination.

Zugger, M. E.; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M.; Kane, T. J.; Philbrick, C. R.

2010-11-01

235

Ocean Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Talk provides a glimpse of oceanography and an awareness of the importance of the sea to our environment and our own well-being. There are scientific explanations of ocean bottom features, the properties of seawater, underwater sound, sea ice, ocean currents, tides, waves, and tsunamis. A history of marine exploration and descriptions of the Earth's oceans are also provided.

236

Astrometric Planet Searches with SIM PlanetQuest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SIM will search for planets with masses as small as the Earth's orbiting in the habitable zones' around more than 100 of the stars and could discover many dozen if Earth-like planets are common. With a planned 'Deep Survey' of 100-450 stars (depending on desired mass sensitivity) SIM will search for terrestrial planets around all of the candidate target stars for future direct detection missions such as Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin, SIM's 'Broad Survey' of 2010 stars will characterize single and multiple-planet systems around a wide variety of stellar types, including many now inaccessible with the radial velocity technique. In particular, SIM will search for planets around young stars providing insights into how planetary systems are born and evolve with time.

Beichman, Charles A.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; March, Geoffrey W.

2007-01-01

237

Darwin and the popularization of evolution.  

PubMed

Evolution was popularized from 1860 to 1900 in the USA and Britain in a wide variety of media. Here I investigate traditional texts associated with the intellectual elite, including philosophical or scientific monographs, sermons, and published lectures. Evolution was rarely popularized in ways that reflected Darwin's major contribution to biology, his theory of natural selection. This meant that the reading audience more often encountered an alternative to Darwin's naturalistic, non-directional and non-progressive evolutionary perspective. There were at least four different versions of evolution circulating in the period from 1860 to 1900, and only one conformed to Darwin's vision. PMID:20503821

Lightman, Bernard

2010-03-20

238

Books and the popularization of science  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article discusses best-selling science books, the characteristics of the audience for popular science books, and the role of books within science popularization and science education. Best-selling science books have been rare, but generally readable. Regional books, also important sources of scientific information, aim at much smaller, far more price-sensitive audiences. Many successful regional, nontechnical science books are readable, heavily illustrated, and in some cases, cross-disciplinary. To increase the attentive audience for scientific information, improvement in science education is necessary, and the most efficacious role for scientific institutions may be the production of materials that can be easily incorporated into school curricula. ?? 1991 Springer.

Buchanan, R.

1991-01-01

239

Formation of Outer Planets: Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of current theories of planetary formation, with emphasis on giant planets is presented. The most detailed models are based upon observation of our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believe to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. According to the prevailing core instability model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk disspates. The primary questions regarding the core instability model is whether planets with small cores can accrete gaseous enveloples within the lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary disks. The main alternative giant planet formation model is the disk instability model, in which gaseous planets form directly via gravitational instabilities within protoplanetary disks. Formation of giant planets via gas instability has never been demonstrated for realistic disk conditions. Moreover, this model has difficulty explaining the supersolar abundances of heavy elements in Jupiter and Saturn, and it does not explain the orgin of planets like Uranus and Neptune.

Lissauer, Jack

2003-01-01

240

Planet-planet scattering in circumstellar gas disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Hydrodynamical simulations of two giant planets embedded in a gaseous disk have shown that in case of a smooth convergent migration they end up trapped into a mean motion resonance. These findings have led to the conviction that the onset of dynamical instability causing close encounters between the planets can occur only after the dissipation of the gas when the eccentricity damping is over. Aims: We show that a system of three giant planets may undergo planet-planet scattering when the gaseous disk, with density values comparable to that of the minimum mass solar nebula, is still interacting with the planets. Methods: The hydrodynamical code FARGO-2D-1D is used to model the evolution of the disk and planets, modified to properly handle close encounters between the massive bodies. Results: Our simulations predict a variety of different outcomes of the scattering phase, which includes orbital exchange, planet merging and scattering of a planet in a hyperbolic orbit. Conclusions: This implies that the final fate of a multiplanet system under the action of the disk torques is not necessarily a packed resonant configuration.

Marzari, F.; Baruteau, C.; Scholl, H.

2010-05-01

241

Planet Within a Planet: Implications of Principal Component Analysis of Global Tomographic Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dziewonski et al. (2010) identified five layers in the mantle with different spectral characteristics of lateral heterogeneity: three layers in the upper mantle and two in the lower mantle. Subsequent principal component analysis (PCA) of recent 3-D shear velocity models shows there are three distinct zones, or layers, expressed by the radial eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues. Each radial eigenvector is associated with a pattern of lateral velocity variations. The near surface layer (Moho - 300 km; Heterosphere or 'Plate Tectonics Planet') and the lower mantle (650 - CMB; 'Superplume Planet') have nearly no overlap in terms of the corresponding eigenvector distribution as a function of depth: it is as if they represented heterogeneity within two different planets. These two 'planets' are connected by an 'Inter-Planetary Interaction Zone' (IPIZ; 300 - 650 km depth) where the eigenvectors show some overlap suggesting a degree of a convective and/or conductive flux between the zones. The largest principal component is associated with the 'Plate Tectonics Planet'; it represents ~50% of variance in the entire model and it is virtually confined to the top 250-300 km. As might be expected, the horizontal pattern of velocity variations corresponding to this eigenvector looks very much like a map of shear velocity anomalies between 100 and 150 km. It shows mid-ocean ridges, age-dependent oceanic lithosphere, cratons, and tectonically active regions. The power of heterogeneity falls by an order of magnitude between 200 and 300 km depth, although slight differences between continents and oceans may persist. Such a rapid change, considering that radial resolution is about 75 km at this depth, is consistent with a partial decoupling between the lid and the underlying mantle. The second largest PC (~20% of variance) is largely confined to the lower mantle, where it contains much of the degree 2 signal, with the largest amplitudes near the CMB. We call the lower mantle a 'Superplume Planet' because its structure is very much dominated by the degree 2 and 3 signal, which decreases at shallower depths but retains its characteristic signal of the African and Pacific Superplumes separated by a ring of faster than average velocities (Lekic et al., 2012). The next four eigenvalues contribute ~20% of the model variance, such that after their contributions to the model are added, >90-95% of the variance is explained by the first 6 PC's and, except for the middle mantle, the 'synthetic' model contains all important features of the input model. In addition to the surface and bottom boundary layers, the top and the bottom of IPIZ are essential in determining the flow in the mantle. It is important that their existence and significance be appreciated, or at least acknowledged, by the community. We use the "different planets" hyperbole in the context of search for 'Super-Earths' among exoplanets and speculations on whether their dynamics could be similar to plate tectonics on the Earth. Our ability to predict whether plate tectonics is likely on exoplanets may well depend on our understanding of the relationship between our own Superplume and Plate Tectonics planets.

Dziewonski, A. M.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.

2013-12-01

242

Water Loss from Terrestrial Planets with CO2-rich Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO2 can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO2 atmospheric partial pressures (0.1-1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but X-ray and ultraviolet/ultravoilet luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on water loss for planets like Earth. In contrast, for a CO2-rich early Venus, diffusion limits on water loss are only important if clouds caused strong cooling, implying that scenarios where the planet never had surface liquid water are indeed plausible. Around M-stars, water loss is primarily a function of orbital distance, with planets that absorb less flux than ~270 W m-2 (global mean) unlikely to lose more than one Earth ocean of H2O over their lifetimes unless they lose all their atmospheric N2/CO2 early on. Because of the variability of H2O delivery during accretion, our results suggest that many "Earth-like" exoplanets in the habitable zone may have ocean-covered surfaces, stable CO2/H2O-rich atmospheres, and high mean surface temperatures.

Wordsworth, R. D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.

2013-12-01

243

A Kepler Transiting Circumbinary Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the thousands of planet candidates discovered by Kepler only a few have been detected in binary star systems. To date, seven transiting circumbinary planets have been confirmed, with several more candidates planets under investigation. Of the confirmed cases, the planets orbit short-period eclipsing binaries that have periods between one and seven weeks. The eclipsing binary nature of the stars allows their masses and radii to be accurately determined. Perturbations of the binary can be detected by eclipsing timing variations, sometimes allowing the mass of the planet to be measured. In this talk, we present the most recent Kepler transiting circumbinary planet. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF via grant AST-1109928, and from NASA via Kepler PSP grant NNX12AS23G and OSS grant NNX12AI76G.

Welsh, William F.; Orosz, J. A.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Haghighipour, N.; Short, D. R.; Kepler Team

2014-01-01

244

Debris Disks and Hidden Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a planet orbits inside a debris disk like the disk around Vega or Beta Pictoris, the planet may be invisible, but the patterns it creates in the disk may give it away. Observing and decoding these patterns may be the only way we can detect exo-Neptunes orbiting more than 20 AU from their stars, and the only way we can spot planets in systems undergoing the late stages of planet formation. Fortunately, every few months, a new image of a debris disk appears with curious structures begging for explanation. I'll describe some new ideas in the theory of these planet-disk interactions and provide a buyers guide to the latest models (and the planets they predict).

Kuchner, Marc

2008-01-01

245

[Lawyers and Litigation in the Popular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of Focus on Law Studies contains the following articles: "T.V. Law: Image versus Reality" (Suzanne Frentz); "Teaching about Civil Rights in the 1990's" (Cynthia Hamilton); "A Social History of Black Lawyers in Popular Culture" (Ric Sheffield); "Will the Real Lawyers Please Stand Up!" (Susan Adair Dwyer-Shick); "Equality, 'Political…

Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

1991-01-01

246

Is Being Popular a Risky Proposition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal associations between social preference, perceived popularity, and risk behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and sexual activity) were examined in a sample of high school students. Social preference did not predict any of the risk behaviors assessed, although the interaction between gender and social preference was predictive of sexual…

Mayeux, Lara; Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

2008-01-01

247

Weight Control as Portrayed in Popular Magazines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents findings on the overall profile of weight control information portrayed in popular magazines and compares the assessment by professional judges with that of lay judges. Results indicate that, although articles differed in quality, weight control content was basically factual and reliable. (Author/JN)

Parham, Ellen S.; And Others

1982-01-01

248

The Nature of Science in Popular Nonfiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help make science relevant to student's everyday lives, the authors required their 10th-grade summer school students to read selections from a popular nonfiction science book. By doing so, they were able to promote literacy and provide an authentic portrayal of the nature of science in a way that was fun and interesting for their students. This…

Austin, Barbara; Menasco, Jackie; Vannette, Trenda

2008-01-01

249

Shakespeare Cereals: A Popular Culture Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers an exercise involving popular culture to help students experience the contemporary power of Shakespeare. Explains that after reading a Shakespeare play, students develop new cereal brands based upon the work's plot, characters, or themes, afterward naming, designing, creating, and displaying the cereal package. Combines literary analysis,…

Schiff, Peter

1997-01-01

250

Popular Music, Television, and Generational Identity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous generations have by no means been disloyal to the popular music of their youth, the tenacious attachment of the Baby Boomers to the music of the 1960s seems unprecedented. Three main reasons account for this constantly widening musical reclamation project. First, the Baby Boomers have a clearer sense of generational identity that…

Burns, Gary

251

Breeding widely adapted, popular maize hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

World trend is to more maize hectarage grown to fewer, more widely-adapted hbrids. My purpose is to document research events leading to the most popular corn hybrids, Pioneer Brand 3780 and 3732. I provide background on maize adaptedness, on the seed maize business, on commercial maize hybrid development process, and on cultural practice change. I provide historical information on the

A. Forrest Troyer

1996-01-01

252

The Guide to Teaching with Popular Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular music is often characterized as a short work with a prominent melody and simple chordal accompaniment. Yet, teaching with pop music in the era of standards-based curriculum can present challenges. These standards offer teachers a blueprint for teaching music performance, composition, improvisation, and the relationship of music to other…

Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA.

253

Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

2012-01-01

254

American Popular Music 1950-2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and discusses some of the chief resources in the study of post-World War II mainstream popular music. In addition to indicating major areas of research, it can serve as a guide to collection development in the discipline.

Lonergan, David

2011-01-01

255

Teaching Theory through Popular Culture Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author describes a pedagogical approach to teaching theory to pre?service teachers. This approach involves articulating academic texts that introduce theoretical ideas and tools with carefully selected popular culture texts that can be taken up to illustrate the elements of a particular theory. Examples of the theories discussed in the article are preferred, negotiated and oppositional readings;

James Trier

2007-01-01

256

Impact of search engines on page popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies show that a majority of Web page accesses are referred by search engines. In this paper we study the widespread use of Web search engines and its impact on the ecology of the Web. In particular, we study how much impact search engines have on the popularity evolution of Web pages. For example, given that search engines return

Junghoo Cho; Sourashis Roy

2004-01-01

257

Watching How Planets Form  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anatomy of a Planet-Forming Disc around a Star More Massive than the Sun With the VISIR instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have mapped the disc around a star more massive than the Sun. The very extended and flared disc most likely contains enough gas and dust to spawn planets. It appears as a precursor of debris discs such as the one around Vega-like stars and thus provides the rare opportunity to witness the conditions prevailing prior to or during planet formation. "Planets form in massive, gaseous and dusty proto-planetary discs that surround nascent stars. This process must be rather ubiquitous as more than 200 planets have now been found around stars other than the Sun," said Pierre-Olivier Lagage, from CEA Saclay (France) and leader of the team that carried out the observations. "However, very little is known about these discs, especially those around stars more massive than the Sun. Such stars are much more luminous and could have a large influence on their disc, possibly quickly destroying the inner part." The astronomers used the VISIR instrument [1] on ESO's Very Large Telescope to map in the infrared the disc surrounding the young star HD 97048. With an age of a few million years [2], HD 97048 belongs to the Chameleon I dark cloud, a stellar nursery 600 light-years away. The star is 40 times more luminous than our Sun and is 2.5 times as massive. The astronomers could only have achieved such a detailed view due to the high angular resolution offered by an 8-metre size telescope in the infrared, reaching a resolution of 0.33 arcsecond. They discovered a very large disc, at least 12 times more extended than the orbit of the farthest planet in the Solar System, Neptune. The observations suggest the disc to be flared. "This is the first time such a structure, predicted by some theoretical models, is imaged around a massive star," said Lagage. ESO PR Photo 36/06 ESO PR Photo 36/06 A Flared Proto-Planetary Disc Such a geometry can only be explained if the disc contains a large amount of gas, in this case, at least as much as 10 times the mass of Jupiter. It should also contain more than 50 Earth masses in dust. The dust mass derived here is more than thousand times larger than what is observed in debris discs and Kuiper belt-like structures found around older, 'Vega-like' stars, such as Beta Pictoris, Vega, Fomalhaut and HR 4796. The dust around these stars is thought to be produced by collisions of larger bodies. The dust mass observed around HD 97048 is similar to the mass invoked for the (undetected) parent bodies in the more evolved systems. HD 97048's disc is thus most likely a precursor of debris discs observed around older stars. "From the structure of the disc, we infer that planetary embryos may be present in the inner part of the disc," said Lagage. "We are planning follow-up observations at higher angular resolution with ESO's VLT interferometer in order to probe these regions." A video, made by the CEA, is also available. More Information The scientists report their discovery in the 28 September issue of Science Express, the rapid online publication service of the journal Science: "Anatomy of a flaring proto-planetary disc around a young intermediate-mass star", by P.-O. Lagage et al. The team is composed of Pierre-Olivier Lagage, Coralie Doucet, and Eric Pantin, (CEA Saclay, France), Sébastien Charnoz (Paris 7 Denis Diderot University), Emilie Habart (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, France), Gaspard Duchêne, François Ménard, and Christophe Pinte (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, France), and Jan-Willem Pel (Groningen University, The Netherlands).

2006-09-01

258

Imbalance in the oceanic strontium budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palmer and Edmond [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 92 (1989) 11–26] indicated that thermally plausible oceanic hydrothermal inputs of strontium to the oceans are not sufficient to balance the riverine input. It has recently been suggested that off-axis low-temperature hydrothermal circulation may reconcile this discrepancy [e.g. Butterfield et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65 (2001) 4141–4153]. Strontium isotope alteration profiles are compiled

Amy C. Davis; Mike J. Bickle; Damon A. H. Teagle

2003-01-01

259

Starting a Planet Protectors Club  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If your mission is to teach children how to reduce, reuse, and recycle waste and create the next generation of Planet Protectors, perhaps leading a Planet Protectors Club is part of your future challenges. You don't have to be an expert in waste reduction and recycling to lead a a Planet Protectors Club. You don't even have to be a teacher. You do…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

2007-01-01

260

The Planet-Metallicity Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tendency of planets to be found preferentially around metal-rich stars is now well established. This correlation gives strong support for most planets being formed by a core accretion scenario. The situation for planets around stars with sub-solar metallicity is, however, much less clear. In the metallicity range -0.8<[Fe\\/H]<-0.2, the overwhelming majority of stars belong to the thin-disk, but most

William D. Cochran; M. Endl; P. J. MacQueen; S. Barnes

2008-01-01

261

What makes a planet habitable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reviews factors which are important for the evolution of habitable Earth-like planets such as the effects of the\\u000a host star dependent radiation and particle fluxes on the evolution of atmospheres and initial water inventories. We discuss\\u000a the geodynamical and geophysical environments which are necessary for planets where plate tectonics remain active over geological\\u000a time scales and for planets

H. Lammer; J. H. Bredehöft; A. Coustenis; M. L. Khodachenko; L. Kaltenegger; O. Grasset; D. Prieur; F. Raulin; P. Ehrenfreund; M. Yamauchi; J.-E. Wahlund; J.-M. Grießmeier; G. Stangl; C. S. Cockell; Yu. N. Kulikov; J. L. Grenfell; H. Rauer

2009-01-01

262

Planet X - ract or fiction  

SciTech Connect

The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

Anderson, J.

1988-08-01

263

Planet X - Fact or fiction?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

Anderson, John

1988-01-01

264

PlanetDiary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PlanetDiary records the events and phenomena that affect Earth and its residents. Every week this site presents 'Current Phenomena', which is news from around the globe on geology, astronomy, meteorology, biology, and environmental science issues. The site accompanies specific chapters in Pearson Education texts. These are: Science Explorer - Life Science, Earth Science, Physical Science; Science Insights - Living Things, Matter and Energy, Exploring Earth and Space; and Environmental Science. Students can check back each week and follow a story as it unfolds. Teachers can use these articles as the basis for classroom discussion, to introduce topics, or to pose a research question. Every story is linked to a 'Phenomena Backgrounder' relating to the events so students can explore the topic in more depth. These pages also provide links to additional hands-on and online activities. A review of each activity is given with the objective of the exercise, the concepts covered, and the preparation teachers and students should have before starting an activity. An archive contains prior PlanetDiary reports dating back to 1998. A page is devoted to universal measurements that links to outside sources which calculate conversions for time, numerous dimension units, and also link to map sources and earth statistics. Dates for eclipses, environmental-awareness days, the beginning of hurricane season, and many other events are found in the PlanetDiary calendar. An informative guide aids in site navigation. Also, a link is provided to Prentice Hall School with information on textbooks, accompanying multimedia, and online support for grades 6 through 12.

265

Find That Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is part of the Science Education Gateway (SEGway) project, funded by NASA, which is a national consortium of scientists, museums, and educators working together to bring the latest science to students, teachers, and the general public. In this lesson, students use Internet resources to learn about celestial coordinates, and how to use an emphemeris to locate planets on a horizon sky map. The sky maps are then used for outdoor observing. A more advanced application has students draw maps in celestial coordinates. The teacher's page contains vocabulary, homework ideas, materials, preparation, and classroom and assessment strategies.

Gould, Alan

266

Comparing the Planets: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of images summarizes what scientists currently know about the occurrence of water ice and water vapor on the terrestrial planets and satellites in our Solar System. Accompanied by a brief description, the Jpeg images show the ice cap at Mars' south pole, ice rafting on Europa, liquid water covering the surface of Earth (the famous 'Blue Marble' photo), and an impact crater on the Moon that may contain water ice. There is also a diagram showing the possible distribution of ice on Mars, as it varies with latitude.

267

Neato-Magneto Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about magnetic fields. Learners will study magnetic fields at four separate stations: examining magnetic fields generated by everyday items, mapping out a magnetic field using a compass, creating models of Earth's and Jupiter's magnetic fields, and observing aurora produced by magnetic fields on both planets. This activity is part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments. (Note: the activity was adapted for informal education from Magnetic Globe, by Sonoma State University, and Exploring Magnetism, by Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley)

268

Anchoring spacecraft to planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For planet tracking, the immense mass relative to applied nongravitational forces (for even the smaller asteroids) removes limitations on the ability to model orbital motion mathematically. A lander on a natural satellite (other than the moon) would not suffer from nongravitational effects, and would further have a large mean motion, which is important for observing gravitational effects. The tracking of a Mars lander over a long period would yield conclusions in the areas of relativity (determination of the parameter beta), the inertial framework, Mars' internal structure (based on the polar moment), and Mars' physical ephemeris.

Cain, D. L.

1971-01-01

269

Fear of a Lonely Planet: author anxieties and the mainstreaming of a guidebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lonely Planet (LP) guidebooks are one of the most popular guidebook brands in tourism, but few studies have examined the guidebooks in detail or their relationship with tourism and tourists. Utilising an inductive research approach, this exploratory study aims to make a contribution to the theory and knowledge of guidebooks. Interviews with guidebook writers reveal a sense of frustration created

Benjamin Lucca Iaquinto

2011-01-01

270

The naked planet Earth : Most essential pre-requisite for the origin and evolution of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our blue planet Earth has long been regarded as a standard to host evolving life with full of nutrients since the birth of the planet. Here, we synthesize the processes that led to the birth of early life on Earth and its aftermath, finally leading to the evolution of metazoans, based on an evaluation of: (1) source of nutrients, (2) chemistry of primordial ocean, (3) initial mass of ocean, and (4) size of rocky planet. Among the life-building nutrients, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) play a key role. Only three types of rocks can serve as adequate source of nutrients. (a) Continent-forming TTG (granite), enabling the evolution of life to metazoans. (b) Primordial continents carrying anorthosite with KREEP (Potassium, Rare Earth Elements, and Phosphorus) basalts, which is a key to bear life. (c) Carbonatite magma, enriched in radiogenic elements such as U and Th, that can cause mutation to speed up evolution, and promote the birth of new species in continental rift settings. Second important factor is ocean chemistry. The primordial ocean was extremely acidic (pH=1-2) and enriched in halogens (Cl, F and others), S and N and metallic elements (Cd, Cu, Zn, and others), inhibiting the birth of life. Plate tectonics cleaned up these elements which interfered with RNA. Blue ocean finally appeared in the Phanerozoic with pH=7 through extensive interaction with surface continental crust by weathering, erosion and transportation into ocean. The initial ocean mass was also important. The birth of life and aftermath of evolution was possible in the habitable zone under a tight initial condition of 3-5 km thick ocean which enabled supply of sufficient nutrients. Without a huge landmass, sufficient amount of nutrients cannot be supplied into ocean. Finally, the size of the planet determines the fate of a planet. Due to suitable planet size, the dawn of Phanerozoic witnessed the initiation of return-flow of seawater into mantle, leading to the emergence of huge landmass above sea-level, and the distribution of nutrients on a global scale. It is necessary to meet above 4 conditions to enable the Earth as a habitable planet with evolved life forms. The tight constraints that we evaluate for birth and evolution of life on Earth would provide important guidelines for hunting for life in the exo-solar planets.

Maruyama, S.; Ikoma, M.; Genda, H.; Hirose, K.; Yokoyama, T.; Santosh, M.

2013-12-01

271

Acid Test: The Global Challenge of Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Acid Test", a film produced by NRDC, was made to raise awareness about the largely unknown problem of ocean acidification, which poses a fundamental challenge to life in the seas and the health of the entire planet. Like global warming, ocean acidification stems from the increase of carbon dioxide in the earthâs atmosphere since the start of the Industrial Revolution.

2009-09-17

272

The atmospheric evolution of Venus the habitable planet. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern theories of planetary accumulation do not build Venus dry and Earth wet save by unlucky chance. If Venus and Earth were built of the same stuff, Venus’s descent into ruin must have been caused by its proximity to the Sun: too much sunlight brought a runaway greenhouse effect, the oceans and seas evaporated, and the hydrogen in the water was irrevocably lost to space. If the story has a moral, Venus would be the earth that lost its water. A complication to the story is that early Venus occupies an ambiguous position with respect to the runaway greenhouse effect. If Venus began as an ocean planet like Earth, both runaway and non-runaway states are plausible at first. In the 50 Myr before the Sun reached the main sequence, the Sun was both bright and faint, with Venus moving in and out of the conventional habitable zone. Once the Sun reached the main sequence it settled to a luminosity 70% of today’s. At this point the critical albedo triggering the runaway greenhouse on Venus was ~0.32, slightly higher than Earth’s today. This means that Earth’s albedo would put an ocean-covered Venus in the runaway greenhouse state, but only just barely, while an albedo of a slightly cloudier planet would have let Venus’s ancient oceans condenses. Early Venus’s indecisive state makes the recovery of liquid water oceans from giant impacts such as Earth’s moon-forming impact questionable. Another interesting plot twist is that dry planets (desert worlds with limited surface water) are expected to have some immunity with respect to the runaway greenhouse effect, because the limited water can be cold trapped at high latitudes. On a hot dry planet the dearth of tropical water vapor has two effects: it stabilizes the greenhouse effect (the tropics can radiate at rates well above the traditional runaway limit because the tropical atmosphere is not saturated) and it creates a dry stratosphere that severely limits hydrogen escape. Young Venus, if dry, would have been well within the dry-planet habitable zone. Here we consider the possibility that an ocean planet can evolve into a dry but habitable planet as the Sun brightens without first passing through an uninhabitable runaway greenhouse phase. This can happen because hydrogen escape in the diffusion limit depends on the wetness of the stratosphere: a warm planet can have a wet stratosphere and fast hydrogen escape while maintaining liquid water at the surface, provided that the atmosphere is not too thick. This requires in particular that most of the CO2 now in Venus’s atmosphere was sequestered as carbonate rock. If these conditions were all met, it is possible that Venus may have been a habitable planet as recently as 1 billion years ago.

Zahnle, K. J.; Abe, Y.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Sleep, N. H.

2010-12-01

273

Ocean Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the intent to publicize information on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) major ocean exploration efforts, the Ocean Explorer Website provides a platform to follow such explorations in near real-time, learn about ocean exploration technologies, observe remote marine areas through multimedia technology, and review NOAA's 200-year history of ocean exploration. Additional NOAA resources in the Library include related links, historical books and documents, expedition reports, and journal articles significant to NOAA's historical and current ocean exploration activities. The Calendar and Projects sections provide, respectively, a descriptive schedule of upcoming explorations and information on related activities and events.

274

Planet-planet scattering in the upsilon Andromedae system.  

PubMed

Doppler spectroscopy has detected 152 planets around nearby stars. A major puzzle is why many of their orbits are highly eccentric; all planets in our Solar System are on nearly circular orbits, as is expected if they formed by accretion processes in a protostellar disk. Several mechanisms have been proposed to generate large eccentricities after planet formation, but so far there has been little observational evidence to support any particular model. Here we report that the current orbital configuration of the three giant planets around upsilon Andromedae (upsilon And) probably results from a close dynamical interaction with another planet, now lost from the system. The planets started on nearly circular orbits, but chaotic evolution caused the outer planet (upsilon And d) to be perturbed suddenly into a higher-eccentricity orbit. The coupled evolution of the system then causes slow periodic variations in the eccentricity of the middle planet (upsilon And c). Indeed, we show that upsilon And c periodically returns to a very nearly circular state every 6,700 years. PMID:15829958

Ford, Eric B; Lystad, Verene; Rasio, Frederic A

2005-04-14

275

Live Tonight: The Planets!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about viewing the planet Mars (and others) through a telescope. Learners will go outside on a clear evening to view the planets and other celestial bodies for themselves. Using sky charts and other resources, and possibly in partnership with a local astronomical society or club, children and their families view Mars with binoculars and/or telescopes. The children who have participated in the other Explore: Life on Mars? activities may serve as docents at this public, community event, sharing what they have done and learned about what life is, the requirements for life, and the possibility for life on Mars now â or in the past! It is recommended that the viewing event be paired with the hands-on experiment within the Searching for Life activity if space and time allow. It also includes specific tips for effectively engaging girls in STEM. This is activity 8 in Explore: Life on Mars? that was developed specifically for use in libraries.

276

Stars and Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Estrelas e Planetas' (Stars and Planets) project was developed during the academic year 2009/2010 and was tested on three 3rd grade classes of one school in Quarteira, Portugal. The aim was to encourage the learning of science and the natural and physical phenomena through the construction and manipulation of materials that promote these themes - in this case astronomy. Throughout the project the students built a small book containing three themes of astronomy: differences between stars and planets, the solar system and the phases of the Moon. To each topic was devoted two sessions of about an hour each: the first to teach the theoretical aspects of the theme and the second session to assembly two pages of the book. All materials used (for theoretical sessions and for the construction of the book) and videos of the finished book are available for free use in www.miguelneta.pt/estrelaseplanetas. So far there is only a Portuguese version but soon will be published in English as well. This project won the Excellency Prize 2011 of Casa das Ciências, a portuguese site for teachers supported by the Calouste Gulbenkian Fundation (www.casadasciencias.org).

Neta, Miguel

2014-05-01

277

EUCLID microlensing planet search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of extrasolar planets is arguably the most exciting development in astrophysics during the past 15 years, rivalled only by the detection of dark energy. Two projects unite the communities of exoplanet scientists and cosmologists: the proposed ESA M class mission EUCLID and the large space mission WFIRST, top ranked by the Astronomy 2010 Decadal Survey report. The later states that: "Space-based microlensing is the optimal approach to providing a true statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, over a range of likely semi-major axes". They also add: "This census, combined with that made by the Kepler mission, will determine how common Earth-like planets are over a wide range of orbital parameters" We will present a status report of the results obtained by microlensing on exoplanets, the new objectives of the next generation of ground based wide field imager networks. We will finally present the fantastic prospect offered by space based microlensing at the horizon 2020-2025.

Beaulieu, J.-P.; Tisserand, P.; Batista, V.

2013-09-01

278

Origin of Giant Planet Instabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar giant planets has been successfully reproduced (e.g. Juric and Tremaine, 2008; Chatterjee et al., 2008) assuming that said planets formed in systems of at least three planets that became unstable. However, these works placed the planets initially on circular and non-resonant orbits that were too close to each other to be stable. In reality, giant planets form in disks of gas, and their orbits should be the result of migration and eccentricity-damping processes induced by their gravitational interaction with said disks. In this work we simulate the evolution of systems of three planets as they grow in sequence to Jupiter mass. We use the hydro-dynamical code FARGO (Masset, 2000) that we modified to implement the algorithm Symba (Duncan et al., 1998) to solve the gravitational interactions among the planets, handling also close-encounters and mutual collisions. We start our simulations with sets of three embryos of 20 Earth masses in resonant configuration. The growth of each embryo to Jupiter mass leads to a global instability, but the damping action of the gas eventually re-stabilizes the system into a new orbital configuration. However, once the three planets are all giants, their orbital eccentricities can grow to large values on short timescales through their mutual resonant interactions, while migrating towards the star. We study their subsequent evolution as a function of the disk mass and dissipation time. We conclude that the observed large eccentricities of many extrasolar planets are best reproduced if planets become giants towards the end of the disk lifetime, when the density of gas is rapidly decaying. Instead, if they form in massive disks, their orbital instabilities lead to systems with fewer planets and/or separated orbits with small eccentricities, due to the strong damping action of the disk, as in Marzari et al (2010).

Lega, Elena; Morbidelli, A.; Nesvorny, D.

2012-10-01

279

Educational And Public Outreach Software On Planet Detection For The Macintosh (TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of extra-solar planets has been a very popular topic with the general public for years. Considerable media coverage of recent detections has only heightened the interest in the topic. School children are particularly interested in learning about space. Astronomers have the knowledge and responsibility to present this information in both an understandable and interesting format. Since most classrooms and homes are now equipped with computers this media can be utilized to provide more than a traditional "flat" presentation. An interactive "stack" has been developed using Hyperstudio (TM). The major topics include: "1996 - The Break Through Year In Planet Detection"; "What Determines If A Planet Is Habitable?"; "How Can We Find Other Planets (Search Methods)"; "All About the Kepler Mission: How To Find Earth-Sized Planets"; and "A Mission Simulator". Using the simulator, the student records simulated observations and then analyzes and interprets the data within the program stacks to determine the orbit and planet size, the planet's temperature and surface gravity, and finally determines if the planet is habitable. Additional related sections are also included. Many of the figures are animated to assist in comprehension of the material. A set of a dozen lesson plans for the middle school has also been drafted.

Koch, David; Brady, Victoria; Cannara, Rachel; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

280

Planet Formation around Stars of Various Masses: The Snow Line and the Frequency of Giant Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a semianalytic circumstellar disk model that considers movement of the snow line through evolution of accretion and the central star to investigate how gas giant frequency changes with stellar mass. The snow line distance changes weakly with stellar mass; thus, giant planets form over a wide range of spectral types. The probability that a given star has at least one gas giant increases linearly with stellar mass from 0.4 to 3 Msolar. Stars more massive than 3 Msolar evolve quickly to the main sequence, which pushes the snow line to 10-15 AU before protoplanets form and limits the range of disk masses that form giant planet cores. If the frequency of gas giants around solar mass stars is 6%, we predict occurrence rates of 1% for 0.4 Msolar stars and 10% for 1.5 Msolar stars. This result is largely insensitive to our assumed model parameters. Finally, the movement of the snow line as stars >~2.5 Msolar move to the main sequence may allow the ocean planets suggested by Léger et al. to form without migration.

Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.

2008-01-01

281

Habitable Planets: Interior Dynamics and Long-Term Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, the state of our knowledge regarding the interior dynamics and evolution of habitable terrestrial planets including Earth and super-Earths is reviewed, and illustrated using state-of-the-art numerical models. Convection of the rocky mantle is the key process that drives the evolution of the interior: it causes plate tectonics, controls heat loss from the metallic core (which generates the magnetic field) and drives long-term volatile cycling between the atmosphere/ocean and interior. Geoscientists have been studying the dynamics and evolution of Earth's interior since the discovery of plate tectonics in the late 1960s and on many topics our understanding is very good, yet many first-order questions remain. It is commonly thought that plate tectonics is necessary for planetary habitability because of its role in long-term volatile cycles that regulate the surface environment. Plate tectonics is the surface manifestation of convection in the 2900-km deep rocky mantle, yet exactly how plate tectonics arises is still quite uncertain; other terrestrial planets like Venus and Mars instead have a stagnant lithosphere- essentially a single plate covering the entire planet. Nevertheless, simple scalings as well as more complex models indicate that plate tectonics should be easier on larger planets (super-Earths), other things being equal. The dynamics of terrestrial planets, both their surface tectonics and deep mantle dynamics, change over billions of years as a planet cools. Partial melting is a key process influencing solid planet evolution. Due to the very high pressure inside super-Earths' mantles the viscosity would normally be expected to be very high, as is also indicated by our density function theory (DFT) calculations. Feedback between internal heating, temperature and viscosity leads to a superadiabatic temperature profile and self-regulation of the mantle viscosity such that sluggish convection still occurs.

Tackley, Paul J.; Ammann, Michael M.; Brodholt, John P.; Dobson, David P.; Valencia, Diana

2014-04-01

282

The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems  

PubMed Central

Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets.

Lunine, Jonathan I.

2001-01-01

283

The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems.  

PubMed

Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

Lunine, J

2001-01-30

284

Ocean Surface Topography From Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information on the many aspects of the study of the sea surface from space. Measuring the ocean surface topography provides information for studying global ocean circulation and the oceans heat budget. Regular scanning of the ocean surface to maintain a database of ocean surface topography can help predict short-term changes in weather and longer-term patterns of climate. Educational materials include a wide variety of games, puzzles, and facts; educational entertainment; on-line resources for educators; information about useful books; and links to lesson plans and classroom activities. There is information on obtaining a variety of visual materials on Oceanography and El Nino in both hardcopy form or PDF files. A class activities area presents plans for classroom activities in Oceans, Climate and Life from the "Visit to an Ocean Planet" CD-ROM in PDF format; shows how an El Nino works using common household items; and describes an El Nino Skit for primary grades. This area also lists on-line resources for educators, information about useful books, and links to lesson plans and classroom activities.

Kawasaki, Kristy

2002-12-13

285

NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

2003-03-01

286

Tarlton Law Library in Popular Culture Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tarlton Law Library at the University of Texas School of Law hosts this collection, which focuses on law in popular culture. The goal of the collection is "to provide as broad a picture as possible of the image of the lawyer in the United States and British Commonwealth." The collection consists of works of fiction in all genres as well as legal humor, plays, and feature films. If you can't make it to Austin to check out these materials in person the site provides quite a bit for the virtual visitor. There are a number of E-texts available including "Collins to Grisham: A brief history of the legal thriller" as well as an entire bibliography of e-texts which tell "the lawyer's story." Visitors may also want to check out the fun section entitled "Lawyerly Quotations from Popular Culture". In addition, the site provides a number of movie posters, movie stills, and lobby cards to peruse.

287

The use of popular science articles in teaching scientific literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the use of popular science articles in teaching scientific literacy. Comparing the discourse features of popular science with research article and textbook science – the last two being target forms for students – it argues that popular science articles cannot serve as models for scientific writing. It does, however, suggest that popular articles can make science more

Jean Parkinson; Ralph Adendorff

2004-01-01

288

Lights, Camera, Action: Integrating Popular Film in the Health Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the benefits as well as the important considerations that should be taken into account in integrating popular films in health education classes. Use of popular films in the classroom, termed "cinema education," is becoming increasingly popular in teaching health education. As a matter of convenience, popular films are easy…

Diez, Keri S.; Pleban, Francis T.; Wood, Ralph J.

2005-01-01

289

Numerical modeling of oceanic crustal hydrothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceanic crust is a complex rock-mineral formation which extends up to several kilometers below the sea floor and covers laterally about two thirds of the planet. Hydrothermal circulation within the crust is driven by magmatic sources and carried by the fluid residing in pores and cracks. Hydrothermal advection transfers about one quarter of the Earth's total heat power from

Konstantin Latychev

2000-01-01

290

HARNESSING OCEAN WAVE ENERGY TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A technical challenge to sustainability is finding an energy source that is abundant enough to meet global demands without producing greenhouse gases or radioactive waste. Energy from ocean surface waves can provide the people of this planet a clean, endless power source to me...

291

The Nature of Science in Popular Nonfiction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help make science relevant to student's everyday lives, the authors required their 10 th -grade summer school students to read selections from a popular nonfiction science book. By doing so, they were able to promote literacy and provide an authentic portrayal of the nature of science in a way that was fun and interesting for their students. This article describes their experience using a nonfiction science book in the classroom and suggests literacy activities to enhance science and reading comprehension.

Austin, Barbara; Menasco, Jackie; Vannette, Trenda

2008-07-01

292

Book Review of a Popular Science Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each student selects a popular science book on a geoscience topic of interest to them, finds two book reviews of that book, and writes a book review that includes some description of the book as well as some commentary and review. Each student also gives a short (three-four minute) oral presentation of their review to their classmates (either stand-alone or with one Powerpoint slide).

Macdonald, Heather

293

The Popularity of P&P  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The classes are often…

Ruffins, Paul

2006-01-01

294

PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PLANET TOPERS (Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS) group is an Inter-university attraction pole (IAP) addressing the question of habitability in our Solar System. Habitability is commonly understood as "the potential of an environment (past or present) to support life of any kind" (Steele et al., 2005, http://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/archive.html). Based on the only known example of Earth, the concept refers to whether environmental conditions are available that could eventually support life, even if life does not currently exist (Javaux and Dehant, 2010, Astron. Astrophys. Rev., 18, 383-416, DOI: 10.1007/s00159-010-0030-4). Life includes properties such as consuming nutrients and producing waste, the ability to reproduce and grow, pass on genetic information, evolve, and adapt to the varying conditions on a planet (Sagan, 1970, Encyclopedia Britannica, 22, 964-981). Terrestrial life requires liquid water. The stability of liquid water at the surface of a planet defines a habitable zone (HZ) around a star. In the Solar System, it stretches between Venus and Mars, but excludes these two planets. If the greenhouse effect is taken into account, the habitable zone may have included early Mars while the case for Venus is still debated. Important geodynamic processes affect the habitability conditions of a planet. As envisaged by the group, this IAP develops and closely integrates the geophysical, geological, and biological aspects of habitability with a particular focus on Earth neighboring planets, Mars and Venus. It works in an interdisciplinary approach to understand habitability and in close collaboration with another group, the Helmholtz Alliance "Life and Planet Evolution", which has similar objectives. The dynamic processes, e.g. internal dynamo, magnetic field, atmosphere, plate tectonics, mantle convection, volcanism, thermo-tectonic evolution, meteorite impacts, and erosion, modify the planetary surface, the possibility to have liquid water, the thermal state, the energy budget and the availability of nutrients. Shortly after formation (Hadean 4.4-4.0 Ga (billion years)), evidence supports the presence of a liquid ocean and continental crust on Earth (Wilde et al., 2001, Nature, 409, 175-178), Earth may thus have been habitable very early on. The origin of life is not understood yet but the oldest putative traces of life occur in the early Archaean (~3.5 Ga). Studies of early Earth habitats documented in rock containing traces of fossil life provide information about environmental conditions suitable for life beyond Earth, as well as methodologies for their identification and analyses. The extreme values of environmental conditions in which life thrives today can also be used to characterize the "envelope" of the existence of life and the range of potential extraterrestrial habitats. The requirement of nutrients for biosynthesis, growth, and reproduction suggest that a tectonically active planet, with liquid water is required to replenish nutrients and sustain life (as currently known). These dynamic processes play a key role in the apparition and persistence of life. This contribution will focus on the highlights of the work of the IAP Planet TOPERS.

Dehant, Veronique; Breuer, Doris; Claeys, Philippe; Debaille, Vinciane; De Keyser, Johan; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Goderis, Steven; Karatekin, Ozgur; Mattielli, Nadine; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Vanhaecke, Frank; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wilquet, Valerie

2013-04-01

295

Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the most common photographs of Earth taken from space show the planet covered in blue water, NASA has managed to produce detailed color images, using satellite imagery, that show the remarkable variation of colors that actually make up the oceanic surface. An ocean s color is determined by the interaction of surface waters with sunlight, and surface waters can contain any number of different particles and dissolved substances, which could then change the color. Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet? The particles are mostly phytoplankton, the microscopic, single-celled ocean plants that are the primary food source for much marine life. Remote detection of phytoplankton provides information about the uptake and cycling of carbon by the ocean through photosynthesis, as well as the overall health of the water. Inorganic particles and substances dissolved in the water also affect its color, particularly in coastal regions. Satellite images can be used to calculate the concentrations of these materials in surface waters, as well as the levels of biological activity. The satellites allow a global view that is not available from ship or shore. NASA s orbiting satellites offer a unique vantage point for studying the oceans. By resolving the biological, chemical, and physical conditions in surface waters, they have allowed the oceanographic community to make huge leaps in its understanding of oceanographic processes on regional and global fronts. The study of ocean color, in particular, has been integral in helping researchers understand the natural and human-induced changes in the global environment and establishing the role of the oceans in the biochemical cycles of elements that influence the climate and the distribution of life on Earth.

2005-01-01

296

Get Me Off This Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to teach students how a spacecraft gets from the surface of the Earth to Mars. Students first investigate rockets and how they are able to get us into space. Finally, the nature of an orbit is discussed as well as how orbits enable us to get from planet to planet â specifically from Earth to Mars.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

297

Planet discovered outside solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomers have reported the discovery of a planet orbiting a star outside our solar system, which, if verified, would be the first time that a direct observation has been made. Using a relatively new technique called speckle interferometry, astronomers from the University of Arizona and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) have identified what they believe to be a planet

David W. Robb

1984-01-01

298

Experiences Building PlanetLab  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports our experiences building PlanetLab over the last four years. It identifies the re- quirements that shaped PlanetLab, explains the design decisions that resulted from resolving conflicts among these requirements, and reports our experience imple- menting and supporting the system. Due in large part to the nature of the \\

Larry L. Peterson; Andy C. Bavier; Marc E. Fiuczynski; Steve Muir

2006-01-01

299

Stellar Metallicity and Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe results from two independent analyses of the [Fe/H] abundance of stars in two separate planet search programs. For the Keck, AAT, and Lick (KAL) planet search program, we determined stellar parameters spectroscopically. Results for the CORALIE and KAL both show a similar steep increase in the fraction of stars with known planets as stellar [Fe/H] increase. This planet metallicity correlation is a key observational constraint on the formation and evolution of giant planets. We rule out changes in velocity precision as the cause of the correlation. By comparing stars with different convection zone depths (along and off the main-sequence), we rule out chemical enrichment by accretion as the origin of the correlation. Most known planets have migrated inwards since formation. The end point of migration does not depend on stellar [Fe/H], but it is still possible that migration occurs only above some metallicity threshold. The planet-metallicity correlation is consistent with core-accretion scenarios of giant planet formation.

Valenti, J.; Fischer, D.

2008-04-01

300

Pluto: The Farthest Planet (Usually).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information about the planet Pluto. Includes the history of Pluto and discusses some of the common misconceptions about the planets. Addresses some of the recent discoveries about Pluto and contains a resource list of books, articles, and a videotape. (TW)

Universe in the Classroom, 1988

1988-01-01

301

Journal of Religion and Popular Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Professor Mary Ann Beavis of the University of Saskatchewan, the Journal of Religion and Popular Culture is a âÂÂweb-based, peer-reviewed journal committed to academic exploration, analysis and interpretation, from a range of disciplinary perspectives, of the interrelations between religion and religious expression and popular culture, broadly defined as the products of contemporary mass culture.â It is quite a broad area to cover, and they do so admirably, and members of the public and those in the world of higher education will want to look over their site closely. Published three times a year, visitors can browse through the online archive offered here, or take a look at their most recent issue. Some of the articles that have appeared in recent issues include âÂÂThe Apocalyptic Imagination and Popular CultureâÂÂ, âÂÂSeeking the Roots of Terrorism: An Islamic Traditional ExperienceâÂÂ, and âÂÂUnder the Influence? The Bible, Culture and Nick CaveâÂÂ.

302

Explanatory Framework for Popular Physics Lectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Popular physics lectures provide a `translation' that bridges the gap between the specialized knowledge that formal scientific content is based on, and the audience's informal prior knowledge. This paper presents an overview of a grounded theory explanatory framework for Translated Scientific Explanations (TSE) in such lectures, focusing on one of its aspects, the conceptual blending cluster. The framework is derived from a comparative study of three exemplary popular physics lectures from two perspectives: the explanations in the lecture (as artifacts), and the design of the explanation from the lecturer's point of view. The framework consists of four clusters of categories: 1. Conceptual blending (e.g. metaphor). 2. Story (e.g. narrative). 3. Content (e.g. selection of level). 4. Knowledge organization (e.g. structure). The framework shows how the lecturers customized the content of the presentation to the audience's knowledge. Lecture profiles based upon this framework can serve as guides for utilizing popular physics lectures when teaching contemporary physics to learners lacking the necessary science background. These features are demonstrated through the conceptual blending cluster.

Kapon, Shulamit; Ganiel, Uri; Eylon, Bat Sheva

2007-11-01

303

Explanatory Framework for Popular Physics Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Popular physics lectures provide a `translation' that bridges the gap between the specialized knowledge that formal scientific content is based on, and the audience's informal prior knowledge. This paper presents an overview of a grounded theory explanatory framework for Translated Scientific Explanations (TSE) in such lectures, focusing on one of its aspects, the conceptual blending cluster. The framework is derived from a comparative study of three exemplary popular physics lectures from two perspectives: the explanations in the lecture (as artifacts), and the design of the explanation from the lecturer's point of view. The framework consists of four clusters of categories: 1. Conceptual blending (e.g. metaphor). 2. Story (e.g. narrative). 3. Content (e.g. selection of level). 4. Knowledge organization (e.g. structure). The framework shows how the lecturers customized the content of the presentation to the audience's knowledge. Lecture profiles based upon this framework can serve as guides for utilizing popular physics lectures when teaching contemporary physics to learners lacking the necessary science background. These features are demonstrated through the conceptual blending cluster.

Kapon, Shulamit; Ganiel, Uri; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

2009-07-06

304

Progress in Extra-Solar Planet Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress in extra-solar planet detection is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the definition of a planet; (2) the weakness of planet signals; (3) direct techniques - imaging and spectral detection; and (4) indirect techniques - reflex...

R. A. Brown

1991-01-01

305

Exploring the Oceans With OOI and IODP: A New Partnership in Education and Outreach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), a new program supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), will investigate ocean and Earth processes using deep-sea and coastal observatories, as well as a lithospheric plate-scale cabled observatory that spans most of the geological and oceanographic processes of our planet. October 2003 marked the beginning of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), the third

H. Gröschel; V. Robigou; J. Whitman; S. K. Jagoda; D. Randle

2003-01-01

306

Ocean circulation and climate during the past 120,000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceans cover more than two-thirds of our blue planet. The waters move in a global circulation system, driven by subtle density differences and transporting huge amounts of heat. Ocean circulation is thus an active and highly nonlinear player in the global climate game. Increasingly clear evidence implicates ocean circulation in abrupt and dramatic climate shifts, such as sudden temperature changes

Stefan Rahmstorf

2002-01-01

307

Planets and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary properties; C. The geological time scale S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; D. Astrobiological destinations on planet Earth J. Harnmeijer; E. Micro*scope web tool D. J. Patterson and M. L. Sogin; Index.

Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

2007-09-01

308

Ocean tides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

Hendershott, M. C.

1975-01-01

309

Aggressive effects of prioritizing popularity in early adolescence.  

PubMed

This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the association between early adolescents' popularity and their aggressive, leadership, and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were 288 14-year-olds from The Netherlands who completed a sociometric instrument and an assessment of how much they prioritized popularity over other personal goals. Results indicated that prioritizing popularity was distinct from actual popularity in the peer group. Further, prioritizing popularity moderated the association of popularity with aggressive and leadership behaviors, with adolescents who were both popular and who prioritized popularity being particularly aggressive and scoring high on leadership behaviors. This trend was especially true for boys. The same moderating effect was not found for prosocial behaviors. Motivational and social-cognitive factors in the dynamics of peer popularity are highlighted. PMID:24338722

Cillessen, Antonius H N; Mayeux, Lara; Ha, Thao; de Bruyn, Eddy H; LaFontana, Kathryn M

2014-01-01

310

Ocean Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Portal is a high-level directory of Ocean Data and Information related web sites. The object of the site is to help scientists and other ocean experts in locating data and information. Sites are listed in a directory with headings that include information, data, scientific topics, agencies and societies, among others.

Team, Ioc/iode M.; Oceanportal.org

311

Terrestrial planets in high-mass disks without gas giants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that planetary systems consisting only of rocky planets are probably the most common in the Universe. Aims: We study the potential habitability of planets formed in high-mass disks without gas giants around solar-type stars. These systems are interesting because they are likely to harbor super-Earths or Neptune-mass planets on wide orbits, which one should be able to detect with the microlensing technique. Methods: First, a semi-analytical model was used to define the mass of the protoplanetary disks that produce Earth-like planets, super-Earths, or mini-Neptunes, but not gas giants. Using mean values for the parameters that describe a disk and its evolution, we infer that disks with masses lower than 0.15 M? are unable to form gas giants. Then, that semi-analytical model was used to describe the evolution of embryos and planetesimals during the gaseous phase for a given disk. Thus, initial conditions were obtained to perform N-body simulations of planetary accretion. We studied disks of 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15 M?. Results: All our simulations form massive planets on wide orbits. For a 0.1 M? disk, 2-3 super-Earths of 2.8 to 5.9 M? are formed between 2 and 5 AU. For disks of 0.125 and 0.15 M?, our simulations produce a 10-17.1 M? planet between 1.6 and 2.7 AU, and other super-Earths are formed in outer regions. Moreover, six planets survive in the habitable zone (HZ). These planets have masses from 1.9 to 4.7 M? and significant water contents ranging from 560 to 7482 Earth oceans, where one Earth ocean represents the amount of water on Earth's surface, which equals 2.8 × 10-4M?. Of the six planets formed in the HZ, three are water worlds with 39%-44% water by mass. These planets start the simulations beyond the snow line, which explains their high water abundances. In general terms, the smaller the mass of the planets observed on wide orbits, the higher the possibility to find water worlds in the HZ. In fact, massive planets can act as a dynamical barrier that prevents the inward diffusion of water-rich embryos located beyond the snow line. Conclusions: Systems without gas giants that harbor super-Earths or Neptune-mass planets on wide orbits around solar-type stars are of astrobiological interest. These systems are likely to harbor super-Earths in the HZ with significant water contents, which missions such as Kepler and Darwin should be able to find.

de Elía, G. C.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

2013-09-01

312

Extrasolar Planets Orbiting Active Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New discoveries of transiting extrasolar planets are reported weekly. Ground based surveys as well as space borne observatories like CoRoT and Kepler are responsible for filling the statistical voids of planets on distant stellar systems. I want to discuss the stellar activity and its impact on the discovery of extrasolar planets. Up to now the discovery of small rocky planets called "Super-Earths" like CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b are the only exceptions. The question arises, why among over 500 detected and verified planets the amount of smaller planets is strikingly low. An explanation besides that the verification of small planets is an intriguing task, is the high level of stellar activity that has been observed. Stellar activity can be observed at different time-scales from long term irradiance variations similar to the well known solar cycle, over stellar rotation in the regime of days, down to the observations of acoustic modes in the domain of minutes. But also non periodic events like flares or the activity signal of the granulation can prevent the detection of a transiting Earth sized planet. I will describe methods to detect transit-like signals in stellar photometric data, the influences introduced by the star, the observer and their impact on the success. Finally different mathematical models and approximations of transit signals will be examined on their sensibility of stellar activity. I present a statistical overview of stellar activity in the CoRoT dataset. The influence of stellar activity will be analysed on different transiting planets: CoRoT-2b, CoRoT-4b und CoRoT-6b. Stellar activity can prevent the successful detection of a transiting planet, where CoRoT-7b marks the borderline. Future missions like Plato will be required to provide long-term observations with mmag precision to overcome the limitations set by active stars in our Galactic neighbourhood.

Weingrill, Jörg

2011-09-01

313

Magma Oceans on Exoplanets and Early Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late, giant accretionary impacts likely form multiple magma oceans of some depth in young rocky planets. Models of magma ocean solidification that incorporate water, carbon, and other incompatible volatile elements in small amounts predict a range of first-order outcomes important to planetary evolution. First, initial planetary bulk composition and size determine the composition of the earliest degassed atmosphere. This early atmosphere appears in a rapid burst at the end of solidification, determined by the ability of nucleating bubbles to reach the surface. Larger planets will have briefer and more catastrophic atmospheric degassing during solidification of any magma ocean. Second, this early atmosphere is sufficiently insulating to keep the planetary surface hot for millions of years. Depending upon the atmospheric composition and temperature structure these hot young planets may be observable from Earth or from satellites. Third, small but significant quantities of volatiles remain in the planet's solid mantle, encouraging convection, plate tectonics, and later atmospheric degassing through volcanism. A critical outcome of magma ocean solidification is the development of a solid mantle density gradient with den-sity increasing with radius, which will flow to gravitational stability. Shallow, dense, damp material will carry its water content as it sinks into the perovskite stability zone and transforms into perovskite. Even in models with very low initial water contents, a large fraction of the sinking upper mantle material will be forced to dewater as it crosses the boundary into the relatively dry lower mantle, leaving its water behind in a rapid flux as it sinks. This water ad-dition could initiate or speed convection in planets in which perovskite is stable, that is, planets larger than Mars.

Elkins-Tanton, Linda

2009-09-01

314

Finding Materials on American Popular Culture in the MSU Libraries: Popular Music, Television, Comics, Popular Fiction, Movies. How to Find Series No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An introduction to popular culture materials in the Michigan State University Libraries, this combination library guide and bibliography presents finding tools for popular fiction, comic materials, popular music, movies, and television programming. It provides instruction on the use of the card catalog, suggested subject heading search terms, and…

Scott, Randall W., Comp.

315

Planets on the Edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot Jupiters formed through circularization of high-eccentricity orbits should be found at orbital separations a exceeding twice that of their Roche limit a R. Nevertheless, about a dozen giant planets have now been found well within this limit (a R < a < 2 a R), with one coming as close as 1.2 a R. In this Letter, we show that orbital decay (starting beyond 2 a R) driven by tidal dissipation in the star can naturally explain these objects. For a few systems (WASP-4 and 19), this explanation requires the linear reduction in convective tidal dissipation proposed originally by Zahn and verified by recent numerical simulations, but rules out the quadratic prescription proposed by Goldreich & Nicholson. Additionally, we find that WASP-19-like systems could potentially provide direct empirical constraints on tidal dissipation, as we could soon be able to measure their orbital decay through high precision transit timing measurements.

Valsecchi, Francesca; Rasio, Frederic A.

2014-05-01

316

Angry Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mystery puts the reader in control, Mission Control, as he/she helps with a simulated flight to Mars. In this simulation, four "bionauts" are sealed into identical pods containing plants, animals and water. The goal is for them to survive for six months receiving no water, food or air from outside. The reader monitors the conditions in each pod, simulating Misson Control back on Earth. This story begins on the 34th day of the simulation, when the reader notices something wrong in one of the pods. The oxygen is getting low - why? Besides the usual Science Mystery themes (literacy, inquiry-based learning, problem-solving logic, inductive and deductive reasoning), "Angry Red Planet" puts your students hands-on with facts about respiration, ecosystems and ecological cycles, chemical and biochemical reactions, carbon dioxide poisoning, and the effects of stress on human physiology and psychology. They must learn how to read graphs and evaluate data to solve the mystery.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Ken Eklund N:Eklund;Ken ORG:WriterGuy REV:2005-04-06 END:VCARD

2000-12-15

317

Search for planet X  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observation of the region of the sky in which it is believed Planet X should now be, based on perturbations observed in the motions of Uranus and Neptune, was determined, and there was no reason to update that determination. A limited area of that region was photographed, and that will be continued. A given area is photographed with the twin 20 cm astrograph in New Zealand on two successive nights near the time that area is in opposition, and these plates are blinked in Washington to identify anything that has moved. The predicted region is in the south, which requires observations from a southern station, and it is in opposition in the April to June period, which means observations have not yet started for the year. Blinking will be done as soon as the plates are received in Washington.

Harrington, Robert S.

1991-01-01

318

Exploring the Planets: Saturn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information on this site about Saturn includes mean distance from the Sun, length of a year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, diameter, and number of observed satellites. The view from Earth shows how the appearance changes depending on the relative position in orbit. Pioneer at Saturn is one of the first spacecraft views of Saturn and was taken by Pioneer 11 three days before its closest encounter, and in this photograph the moon Titan is seen to the upper left. The Voyager Encounters provide close-up views of the rings, showing their intricate structure such as gaps, a braided ring and the mysterious spokes. This site discusses the violent atmosphere and strong magnetic field of the planet and offers three sections and tabular information about the moons of Saturn. There is also information about future exploration, a large photo gallery and links to more resources.

319

Which Ringed Planet...!?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Don't worry - you are not the only one who thought this was a nice amateur photo of planet Saturn, Lord of the Rings in our Solar System! But then the relative brightness and positions of the moons may appear somewhat unfamiliar... and the ring system does look unusually bright when compared to the planetary disk...?? Well, it is not Saturn, but Uranus , the next giant planet further out, located at a distance of about 3,000 million km, or 20 times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. The photo shows Uranus surrounded by its rings and some of the moons, as they appear on a near-infrared image that was obtained in the K s -band (at wavelength 2.2 µm) with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile) . The exposure was made on November 19, 2002 (03:00 hrs UT) during a planetary research programme. The observing conditions were excellent (seeing 0.5 arcsec) and the exposure lasted 5 min. The angular diameter of Uranus is about 3.5 arcsec. The observers at ISAAC were Emmanuel Lellouch and Thérése Encrenaz of the Observatoire de Paris (France) and Jean-Gabriel Cuby and Andreas Jaunsen (both ESO-Chile). The rings The rings of Uranus were discovered in 1977, from observations during a stellar occultation event by astronomer teams at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) and the Perth Observatory (Australia). Just before and after the planet moved in front of the (occulted) star, the surrounding rings caused the starlight to dim for short intervals of time. Photos obtained from the Voyager-2 spacecraft in 1986 showed a multitude of very tenuous rings. These rings are almost undetectable from the Earth in visible light. However, on the present VLT near-infrared picture, the contrast between the rings and the planet is strongly enhanced. At the particular wavelength at which this observation was made, the infalling sunlight is almost completely absorbed by gaseous methane present in the planetary atmosphere and the disk of Uranus therefore appears unsually dark. At the same time, the icy material in the rings reflects the sunlight and appears comparatively bright. Uranus is unique among the planets of the solar system in having a tilted rotation axis that is close to the main solar system plane in which most planets move (the "Ecliptic"). At the time of the Voyager-2 encounter (1986), the southern pole was oriented toward the Earth. Now, sixteen years later (corresponding to about one-fifth of Uranus' 84-year period of revolution), we observe the Uranian ring system at an angle that is comparable to the one under which we see Saturn when its ring system is most "open". The moons ESO PR Photo 31b/02 ESO PR Photo 31b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 526 pix - 76k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1460 x 1919 pix - 1.1M] Caption : PR Photo 31b/02 provides identifications of the Uranian moons present in PR Photo 31a/02 . The unidentified, round object to the left is a background star. The image scale in indicated by the bar. Seven of the moons of Uranus have been identified in PR Photo 31b/02 [1]. Of these, Titania and Oberon are the brightest (visual magnitude about 14). They were first seen in 1787 by the discoverer of Uranus, William Herschel (1738-1822), working at Bath in England. Ariel and Umbriel were found in 1851 by William Lassell (1799-1880) at Liverpool in the same country. Miranda was discovered in 1948 by Gerard Kuiper (1905-1973) at the 5-m Palomar telescope in California (USA). The much smaller and fainter Puck and Portia (visual magnitude about 21 and barely visible in the photo) were first found in 1985-86 by Stephen P. Synnott of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (USA), during a study of Voyager-2 photos obtained soon before this NASA spacecraft flew by Uranus in January 1986. Other VLT images If you now want to see a fine VLT photo of Saturn, please look at PR Photo 04a/02 , obtained in late 2001. It was made with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) Adaptive Optics facility and is therefore much less influenced by atmospheric turbulence and hence correspondingly shar

2002-12-01

320

Eccentricity Evolution of Migrating Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the eccentricity evolution of a system of two planets locked in a mean motion resonance, in which either the outer or both planets lose energy and angular momentum. The sink of energy and angular momentum could be a gas or planetesimal disk. We analytically calculate the eccentricity damping rate in the case of a single planet migrating through a planetesimal disk. When the planetesimal disk is cold (the average eccentricity is much less than 1), the circularization time is comparable to the inward migration time, as previous calculations have found for the case of a gas disk. If the planetesimal disk is hot, the migration time can be an order of magnitude shorter. We show that the eccentricity of both planetary bodies can grow to large values, particularly if the inner body does not directly exchange energy or angular momentum with the disk. We present the results of numerical integrations of two migrating resonant planets showing rapid growth of eccentricity. We also present integrations in which a Jupiter-mass planet is forced to migrate inward through a system of 5-10 roughly Earth-mass planets. The migrating planets can eject or accrete the smaller bodies; roughly 5% of the mass (averaged over all the integrations) accretes onto the central star. The results are discussed in the context of the currently known extrasolar planetary systems.

Murray, N.; Paskowitz, M.; Holman, M.

2002-01-01

321

Gravitational scattering by giant planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We seek to characterize giant-planet systems by their gravitational scattering properties. We do this to a given system by integrating it numerically along with a large number of hypothetical small bodies that are initially in eccentric habitable zone (HZ)-crossing orbits. Our analysis produces a single number, the escape rate, which represents the rate at which the small-body flux is perturbed away by the giant planets into orbits that no longer pose a threat to terrestrial planets inside the HZ. Obtaining the escape rate this way is similar to computing the largest Liapunov exponent as the exponential rate of divergence of two nearby orbits. For a terrestrial planet inside the HZ, the escape rate value quantifies the "protective" effect that the studied giant-planet system offers. Therefore, escape rates could provide information on whether certain giant-planet configurations produce a more desirable environment for life than the others. We present some computed escape rates on selected planetary systems, focusing on effects of varying the masses and semi-major axes of the giant planets. In the case of our Solar System we find rather surprisingly that Jupiter, in its current orbit, may provide a minimal amount of protection to the Earth.

Laakso, T.; Rantala, J.; Kaasalainen, M.

2006-09-01

322

Planet Hunters: A Status Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) citizen science project uses the power of human pattern recognition via the World Wide Web to identify transits in the Kepler public data. Planet Hunters uses the Zooniverse (http://www.zooniverse.org) platform to present visitors to the Planet Hunters website with a randomly selected 30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler's 160,000 target stars. Volunteers are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits with multiple independent classifiers reviewing each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 170,000 members of the general public have participated in Planet Hunters contributing over 12.5 million classifications searching the 1 1/2 years of publicly released Kepler observations. Planet Hunters is a novel and complementary technique to the automated transit detection algorithms, providing an independent assessment of the completeness of the Kepler exoplanet inventory. We report the latest results from Planet Hunters, highlighting in particular our latest efforts to search for circumbinary planets (planets orbiting a binary star) and single transit events in the first 1.5 years of public Kepler data. We will present a status report of our search of the first 6 Quarters of Kepler data, introducing our new planet candidates and sharing the results of our observational follow-up campaign to characterize these planetary systems. Acknowledgements: MES is supported by a NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1003258. This is research is supported in part by an American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant.

Schwamb, Megan E.; Orosz, J. A.; Carter, J. A.; Fischer, D. A.; Howard, A. W.; Crepp, J. R.; Welsh, W. F.; Kaib, N. A.; Lintott, C. J.; Terrell, D.; Jek, K. J.; Gagliano, R.; Parrish, M.; Smith, A. M.; Lynn, S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R. J.

2012-10-01

323

Oceans, Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-01-01

324

Oceans, Climate, and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-10-01

325

FLIPPER: Validation for Remote Ocean Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

one of the determining factors in the planet s ability to support life is the same factor that makes the Blue Planet blue: water. Therefore, NASA researchers have a focused interest in understanding Earth s oceans and their ability to continue sustaining life. A critical objective in this study is to understand the global processes that control the changes of carbon and associated living elements in the oceans. Since oceans are so large, one of the most widely used methods of this research is remote sensing, using satellites to observe changes in the ocean color that may be indicative of changes occurring at the surface. Major changes in carbon are due to photosynthesis conducted by phytoplankton, showing, among other things, which areas are sustaining life. Although valuable for large-scale pictures of an ocean, remote sensing really only provides a surface, and therefore incomplete, depiction of that ocean s sustainability. True and complete testing of the water requires local testing in conjunction with the satellite images in order to generate the necessary algorithm parameters to calculate ocean health. For this reason, NASA has spearheaded research to provide onsite validation for its satellite imagery surveys.

2006-01-01

326

Solar system: A planet more, a planet less?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further observations of an object dubbed 2003 UB313, which lies beyond Neptune, show that its diameter is around 3,100 kilometres. This makes it larger than Pluto, the smallest `traditional' Solar System planet.

Scott S. Sheppard

2006-01-01

327

The Planet Venus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource covers early and modern views of Venus; the general features of Venus; its cloud layer, including high velocity winds, the absence of water vapor, and the different wavelengths used to analyze the Venusian atmosphere; properties of the Venusian atmosphere; a runaway greenhouse effect (where oceans would boil and rocks would sublimate), caused by radiation trapping by greenhouse gases; surface features of Venus, including different hemispheric views, mountains, volcanoes, lava flows, rift valleys and meteor craters; and a comparison of Venus and Earth.

2007-05-12

328

Optimizing Coronagraphic Surveys for Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated extremely high contrast imaging near a bright point source tep{tra07}, a pre-requisite for coronagraphic surveys for extrasolar planets with TPF and precursor telescopes. As the technology is now maturing, the question of which stars to target and how to optimize a direct imaging planet search needs to be addressed, so I discuss scaling relations and analytic estimates for how to optimize the number of planets detected (not necessarily in the habitable zone), taking into account noise from zodiacal light, exo-zodiacal light, and speckle noise, as well as the diversity among stellar and planetary systems.

Agol, E.

329

Evolution of planets in disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main properties of the observed extrasolar planets are reviewed with respect to their relevance to the formation scenario of planetary systems. Results of numerical computations of embedded planets in viscously evolving disks are presented. Emphasis is given to the accretion and migration process. New calculations on inviscid disks are shown. The second part of the talk concentrates on resonant planetary systems. Among the observed extrasolar systems there are 3 confirmed cases, Gl 876, HD 82943 and 55 Cnc, where the planets orbit their central star in a low order mean motion resonance. Results of numerical simulations modeling the formation and evolution of such systems are presented.

Kley, Wilhelm

2003-10-01

330

Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in Lunar Metal Grains: Solar, Lunar or Terrestrial Origin? 22) Isotopic Zoning in the Inner Solar System; 23) Redox Conditions on Small Bodies; 24) Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update; 25) Mantle Redox Evolution and the Rise of Atmospheric O2; 26) Variation of Kd for Fe-Mg Exchange Between Olivine and Melt for Compositions Ranging from Alkaline Basalt to Rhyolite; 27) Determining the Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO,) in Solutions on Mars; 28) The Influence of Oxygen Environment on Kinetic Properties of Silicate Rocks and Minerals; 29) Redox Evolution of Magmatic Systems; 30) The Constancy of Upper Mantlefo, Through Time Inferred from V/Sc Ratios in Basalts: Implications for the Rise in Atmospheric 0 2; 31) Nitrogen Solubility in Basaltic Melt. Effects of Oxygen Fugacity, Melt Composition and Gas Speciation; 32) Oxygen Isotope Anomalies in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars; 33) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Interdiffusion of Iron and Magnesium in Magnesiowiistite 34) The Calibration of the Pyroxene Eu-Oxybarometer for the Martian Meteorites; 35) The Europium Oxybarometer: Power and Pitfalls; 36) Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from PigeoniteMelt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium; 37) Oxidation-Reduction Processes on the Moon: Experimental Verification of Graphite Oxidation in the Apollo 17 Orange Glasses; 38) Oxygen and Core Formation in the Earth; 39) Geologic Record of the Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry Before the Oxygenation of the Early Earth s Atmosphere; 40) Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(CrCAl) Systematics in Chromite as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity; 41) How Well do Sulfur Isotopes Constrain Oxygen Abundance in the Ancient Atmospheres? 42) Experimental Constraints on the Oxygen Isotope (O-18/ O-16) Fractionation in the Ice vapor and Adsorbant vapor Systems of CO2 at Conditions Relevant to the Surface of Mars; 43) Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels andhe Oxidation State of Vanadium in Spinel-Melt Pairs; 44) Testing the Magma Ocean Hypothesis Using

2004-01-01

331

Migration & Extra-solar Terrestrial Planets: Watering the Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diverse range of terrestrial planet compositions is believed to exist within known extrasolar planetary systems, ranging from those that are relatively Earth-like to those that are highly unusual, dominated by species such as refractory elements (Al and Ca) or C (as pure C, TiC and SiC)(Bond et al. 2010b). However, all prior simulations have ignored the impact that giant planet migration during planetary accretion may have on the final terrestrial planetary composition. Here, we combined chemical equilibrium models of the disk around five known planetary host stars (Solar, HD4203, HD19994, HD213240 and Gl777) with dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation incorporating various degrees of giant planet migration. Giant planet migration is found to drastically impact terrestrial planet composition by 1) increasing the amount of Mg-silicate species present in the final body; and 2) dramatically increasing the efficiency and amount of water delivered to the terrestrial bodies during their formation process.

Carter-Bond, Jade C.; O'Brien, David P.; Raymond, Sean N.

2014-04-01

332

Planet Earth: Its Past, Our Present, A Future (?)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We who have lived through the second half of the 20th century into the 21st century have witnessed a profound transition in the biological and physical relationship between humans and the rest of the planet. In the middle of the last century, our planet still had undeveloped islands: there were frontiers that held new lands, mysteries, adventures, cultures, and resources. However, these islands have merged into a relatively seamless planet by a mobile and expanding population, science and technology, and global communication. We are subject to stealth as well as natural disasters. Natural disasters result from the ongoing geological and meteorological processes on our planet, increasingly exacerbated by human presence and behavior. Stealth disasters, on the other hand, are caused by humans, but involve the natural systems that support us. Examples of stealth disasters are climate change, loss of soils, acidification of the oceans, desertification, and loss of groundwater resources. Civilization is a complex system. It has emergent properties, and a tuning parameter--a parameter that is "tuned" until the unexpected happens. The tuning parameter for populations is the number of members relative to the capacities that support them. Because of our sheer numbers, we are driving the stealth disasters, and we will be affected more severely by natural disasters than we have been in the past on a less densely populated planet. To guide our thinking about geoethical issues, we propose a (hypothetical) world organization modeled after the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the U.S., and call it the Center for Disaster Control for Planet Earth (CDCPE). This center would have a scientific body to provide impartial facts and uncertainties, an engineering body to propose and implement technical solutions, a negotiating body to balance the realities of political, economic, religious and cultural values, and an enforcement body that is responsive to all of the inputs. How shall we start?

Kieffer, S. W.

2012-04-01

333

G. P. Kuiper's Early Studies of Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gerard P. Kuiper was born on December 7, 1905; this is his centennial year. While he had an early interest in Solar System bodies, writing an extensive review about Mars for the popular Dutch astronomy journal, Hemel en Dampkring in 1931, Kuiper's first important observations began in 1944, when he discovered the atmosphere of Titan. In a letter dated February 29, 1944, to Lick Observatory director Joseph H. Moore, Kuiper noted that, ``The only reason I happened to observe the planets and the 10 brightest satellites was that they were nicely lined up in a region of the sky where I had run out of program stars (stars of large proper motion and parallax)." These spectroscopic observations were obtained with the new McDonald 82-inch telescope during a break from Kuiper's war-time work at Harvard's Radio Research Laboratory. In a letter of congratulations, his friend S. Chandrasekhar wrote, ``It is only on the impact of such discoveries that one realizes afresh the permanent value of science which no war -- not even of Hitler's -- can truly undermine. And it must be of satisfaction to you that if you took a vacation from war-work, it was only to make a fundamental discovery!" Using detectors declassified at the end of World War II, Kuiper began a study of the infrared spectra of planets and stars (with the first publication in 1947) that continued to the time of his death (December 24, 1973). Early in this work, on March 2, 1948, he wrote a lengthy letter to Henry Norris Russell in which he succinctly and enthusiastically summarized his observations and discoveries. Details in this letter give a fascinating perspective on some of the earliest physical studies of Solar System bodies, such as the detection of water ice on Saturn's rings and in the polar cap of Mars, spectral and photometric measurements of Mars' surface and atmospheric haze, and the discovery of Miranda.

Cruikshank, D. P.

2005-08-01

334

Planets to Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Hubble's view of transiting planets D. Charbonneau; 2. Unsolved problems in star formation C. J. Clarke; 3. Star formation in clusters S. S. Larson; 4. HST abundance studies of low metallicity stars J. W. Truran, C. Sneden, F. Primas, J. J. Cowan and T. Beers; 5. Physical environments and feedback: HST studies of intense star-forming environments J. S. Gallagher, L. J. Smith and R. W. O'Connell; 6. Quasar hosts: growing up with monstrous middles K. K. McLeod; 7. Reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei B. M. Peterson and K. Horne; 8. Feedback at high redshift A. E. Shapley; 9. The baryon content of the local intergalactic medium J. T. Stocke, J. M. Shull, and S. V. Penton; 10. Hot baryons in supercluster filaments E. D. Miller, R. A. Dupke and J. N. Bregman; 11. Galaxy assembly E. F. Bell; 12. Probing the reionization history of the Universe Z. Haiman; 13. Studying distant infrared-luminous galaxies with Spitzer and Hubble C. Papovich, E. Egami, E. Le Floc'h, P. Pérez-González, G. Rieke, J. Rigby, H. Dole and M. Reike; 14. Galaxies at z = g-i'-drop selection and the GLARE Project E. R. Stanway, K. Glazebrook, A. J. Bunker and the GLARE Consortium; 15. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field with NIMCOS R. I. Thompson, R. J. Bouwens and G. Illingworth.

Livio, Mario; Casertano, Stefano

2011-11-01

335

Planets to Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Hubble's view of transiting planets D. Charbonneau; 2. Unsolved problems in star formation C. J. Clarke; 3. Star formation in clusters S. S. Larson; 4. HST abundance studies of low metallicity stars J. W. Truran, C. Sneden, F. Primas, J. J. Cowan and T. Beers; 5. Physical environments and feedback: HST studies of intense star-forming environments J. S. Gallagher, L. J. Smith and R. W. O'Connell; 6. Quasar hosts: growing up with monstrous middles K. K. McLeod; 7. Reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei B. M. Peterson and K. Horne; 8. Feedback at high redshift A. E. Shapley; 9. The baryon content of the local intergalactic medium J. T. Stocke, J. M. Shull, and S. V. Penton; 10. Hot baryons in supercluster filaments E. D. Miller, R. A. Dupke and J. N. Bregman; 11. Galaxy assembly E. F. Bell; 12. Probing the reionization history of the Universe Z. Haiman; 13. Studying distant infrared-luminous galaxies with Spitzer and Hubble C. Papovich, E. Egami, E. Le Floc'h, P. Pérez-González, G. Rieke, J. Rigby, H. Dole and M. Reike; 14. Galaxies at z = g-i'-drop selection and the GLARE Project E. R. Stanway, K. Glazebrook, A. J. Bunker and the GLARE Consortium; 15. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field with NIMCOS R. I. Thompson, R. J. Bouwens and G. Illingworth.

Livio, Mario; Casertano, Stefano

2006-04-01

336

Mission to Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These four written and computer activities cover concepts of remote sensing in general and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The first is a written activity asking students to consider what about the earth they would want to study. The second combines a written activity on the Galileo spacecraft with a computer activity. Students will view images of the earth taken from the spacecraft. In the third activity, students receive their first introduction to image processing programs as they view two earth images and are asked to detect differences. They work with several software tools and become comfortable opening files and applying various image processing techniques. In the final section, students work with whole earth optical images and then open up their first radar image, seeing first an image of Los Angeles and then a close-up view of Elysium Park and Dodger Stadium taken at the same time, and derive an understanding of the various advantages and limitations of the remote sensing platforms.

337

What Should Children Know about the Arctic Ocean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists essential information about the Arctic Ocean which should be taught in elementary social studies courses, and which teacher training programs should cover. Discusses popular misconceptions regarding the Arctic Ocean and factors, such as the coloration on maps and globes, which lead to these misconceptions. (LS)

Stockard, James W., Jr.

1989-01-01

338

Origin of the earth's ocean basins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

Frey, H.

1977-01-01

339

Origin of the earth's ocean basins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The earth's original ocean basins were mare-type basins produced 4 billion years ago by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upwards from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the Earth indicates that at least 50 percent of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60 percent oceanic, 40 percent continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

Frex, H.

1977-01-01

340

Ocean circulation under snowball earth conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of ocean circulation under Snowball conditions is still largely unexplored. Here we study oceanic circulation under a complete ice cover using the MIT oceanic general circulation model. We use idealized aqua-planet conditions with meridionally variable sea glacier depth and surface temperature, and spatially constant geothermal heating. We examine convection and meridional circulation developing due to brine rejection associated with ice production and freezing temperature variations, due to the dependence of freezing temperature on pressure and thus on the ice thickness. We show that variable freezing temperature and salinity have a crucial role on ocean circulation. These two factors may therefore have a significant effect on sea glacier dynamics as the heat flux at the bottom of the ice, and hence ice melting, is strongly affected by ocean circulation.

Ashkenazy, Y.; Gildor, H.; Losch, M.; Schrag, D.; Tziperman, E.

2012-04-01

341

Magnetospheres of the outer planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five qualitatively different types of magnetism that a planet body can exhibit are outlined. Potential sources of energetic particles in a planetary magnetosphere are discussed. The magnetosphere of Uranus and Neptune are then described using Pioneer 10 data.

Vanallen, James A.

1987-01-01

342

Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Museum's Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth, offers a virtual visit to the Museum, complete with text, photos, and a downloadable desktop background. The site contains information on ten exhibition highlights.

343

Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

1973-01-01

344

Magnetospheres of the Outer Planets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The five qualitatively different types of magnetism that a planet body can exhibit are outlined. Potential sources of energetic particles in a planetary magnetosphere are discussed. The magnetosphere of Uranus and Neptune are then described using Pioneer ...

J. A. Vanallen

1987-01-01

345

Voyager to the Seventh Planet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents recent findings obtained by the Voyager 2 mission on Uranus. Updates information on the planet's moons, rings, atmosphere, and magnetic field. Illustrations and diagrams of selected aspects of Uranus are included. (ML)

Gold, Michael

1986-01-01

346

Tools for discovering and characterizing extrasolar planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the group of extrasolar planets, transiting planets provide a great opportunity to obtain direct measurements for the basic physical properties, such as mass and radius of these objects. These planets are therefore highly important in the understanding of the evolution and formation of planetary systems: from the observations of photometric transits, the interior structure of the planet and atmospheric

András Pál

2009-01-01

347

Spectra of Irradiated Giant Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many as 101 extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) have been detected by radial-velocity techniques, but none has been detected directly by its own emission or by reflection of the light from its parent star. We review the current state-of-the-art in the theoretical modeling of the spectra of giant planets outside the solar system and the basic theory of EGP spectra

Adam Burrows; David Sudarsky

2002-01-01

348

Security for a Smarter Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bit by bit, our planet is getting smarter. By this, we mean the systems that run, the way we live and work as a society. Three\\u000a things have brought this about - the world is becoming instrumented, interconnected and intelligent. Given the planet is becoming\\u000a instrumented and interconnected, this opens up more risks that need to be managed. Escalating security

Nataraj Nagaratnam

2009-01-01

349

Working Group on Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (hereafter the WGESP) was created at a meeting of the IAU Executive Council in 1999 as a Working Group of IAU Division III and was renewed for three more years at the IAU General Assembly in 2003. The charge of the WGESP is to act as a focal point for international research on extrasolar planets. The membership of the WGESP has remained unchanged for the last three years.

Boss, Alan P.; Butler, R. Paul; Hubbard, William B.; Ianna, Philip A.; Kürster, Martin; Lissauer, Jack J.; Mayor, Michel; Meech, Karen J.; Mignard, Francois; Penny, Alan J.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Tarter, Jill C.; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

2007-03-01

350

MIPS Lightcurves for Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a Spitzer campaign to measure the day-night temperature differences of planets in the brightest known `Hot Jupiter' systems. We use the MIPS instrument at 24 microns, making use of the zodiacal background as a flux reference. Initial results suggest the presence of significant day-night temperature differences on these planets. We will also discuss some of the preliminary implications of these measurements.

Hansen, Bradley M.; Harrington, J.; Luszcz, S.; Deming, D.; Seager, S.; Menou, K.; Cho, J.; Richardson, J.

2006-12-01

351

White Dwarf Planets from GAIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the potential of high-precision astrometry with GAIA for detection of giant planetary companions to nearby white dwarfs. If one considers that, to date, no confirmed planets around single white dwarfs are known, the results from GAIA will be crucial to study the late-stage evolution of planetary systems and to verify the possibility that 2nd-generation planets are formed.

Silvotti, Roberto; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Mario

2011-03-01

352

The foreshocks of outer planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of non-absorbing planetary obstacles in the supermagnetosonic solar wind makes foreshocks a rather common element throughout the solar system. Although the observations at Earth represent a vital element in the study of the physical processes occurring on planetary foreshocks at large, these phenomena necessarily occur at the particular parameter values relevant for our planet. In particular, the shocks of the outer planets are characterized by high solar wind Mach numbers, and in the case of the giant planets, by an extremely high size parameter/solar wind ion gyroradius ratio, in contrast to small magnetized planets, or unmagnetized planets such as Mercury and Mars, respectively. In addition, the geometry of their foreshocks present symmetries associated with the evolution of the interplanetary magnetic field direction with heliospheric distance, and waves within a range of frequencies which is unusual for the inner solar system. In this work, we review past and current studies on the foreshocks of outer planets from in situ magnetic field and plasma observations, with emphasis on Jupiter and Saturn. In particular, we will discuss the properties of plasma waves found within their ion foreshocks, the possible mechanisms generating them, and the similarities and differences with foreshock wave phenomena at Earth.

Bertucci, C.; Andres, N.; Gomez, D. O.; Mazelle, C. X.; Achilleos, N. A.; Dougherty, M. K.

2012-12-01

353

Planet packing in circumbinary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of planets orbiting main-sequence binaries will provide crucial constraints for theories of binary and planet formation. The formation pathway for these planets is complicated by uncertainties in the formation mechanism of the host stars. In this paper, we compare the dynamical states of single- and binary-star planetary systems. Specifically, we pose two questions: (1) What does it mean for a circumbinary system to be dynamically packed? (2) How many systems are required to differentiate between a population of packed or sparse planets? We determine when circumbinary systems become dynamically unstable as a function of the separation between the host-stars and the inner planet, and the first and second planets. We show that these represent unique stability constraints compared to single-star systems. We find that although the existing Kepler data is insufficient to distinguish between a population of packed or sparse circumbinary systems, a more thorough study of circumbinary Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) combined with an order of magnitude increase in the number of systems may prove conclusive. Future space missions such as TESS provide the best opportunity for increasing the sample size.

Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

2014-02-01

354

Popular Names of U.S. Government Reports. A Catalog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although many government publications become known by popular names, they are usually indexed under institutional names. This catalog lists government reports alphabetically by popular names. Most entries have the Library of Congress record as a bibliogra...

B. A. Bernier

1976-01-01

355

The differentiation history of the terrestrial planets as recorded on the moon  

SciTech Connect

The outline for this report is: (1) Factors Leading to Lunar Magma Ocean Model for Planetary Differentiation (2) Rationale for Magma Oceans on Other Planets Means for early efficient differentiation (Works on Moon why not here?) (3) Some Inconsistencies between the Lunar Magma Ocean Model and Observations. The conclusions are: (1) Differentiation via solidification of a magma ocean is derived from geologic observations of the Moon (2) Although geologic observations on other bodies are often consistent with differentiation via magma ocean solidification, it is not generally required. (3) There are some fundamental inconsistencies between observed lunar data and the model, that will require this model to be modified (4) Nevertheless, the Moon is the only location we know of to study magma ocean process in detail.

Borg, L

2007-02-20

356

Terraforming planet Dune: Climate-vegetation interactions on a sandy planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate and the biosphere of planet Earth interact in multiple, complicated ways and on many spatial and temporal scales. Some of these processes can be studied with the help of simple mathematical models, as done for the effects of vegetation on albedo in desert areas and for the mechanisms by which terrestrial vegetation affects water fluxes in arid environments. Conceptual models of this kind do not attempt at providing quantitative descriptions of the climate-biosphere interaction, but rather to explore avenues and mechanisms which can play a role in the real system, providing inspiration for further research. In this work, we develop a simple conceptual box model in the spirit illustrated above, to explore whether and how vegetation affects the planetary hydrologic cycle. We imagine a planet with no oceans and whose surface is entirely covered with sand, quite similar to planet Dune of the science-fiction series by Frank Herbert (1965). We suppose that water is entirely in the sand, below the surface. Without vegetation, only evaporation takes place, affecting the upper sand layer for a maximum depth of a few cm. The amount of water that is evaporated in the atmosphere is relatively small, and not sufficient to trigger a full hydrologic cycle. The question is what happens to this planet when vegetation is introduced: the root depth can reach a meter or more, and plant transpiration can then transfer a much larger amount of water to the atmosphere. One may wonder whether the presence of vegetation is sufficient to trigger a hydrologic cycle with enough precipitation to sustain the vegetation itself and, if the answer is positive, what is the minimum vegetation cover that is required to maintain the cycle active. In more precise terms, we want to know whether the introduction of vegetation and of the evapotranspiration feedback allows for the existence of multiple equilibria (or solutions) in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Although the box model introduced here is best formulated in terms of a hypothetical sandy planet, the results can be used to study the hydrologic cycle on wide continental regions of the Earth. On the other hand, our findings show how the definition of a habitable climate may also depend on surface characteristics, and in particular on biosphere and climate interactions.

Cresto Aleina, F.; Baudena, M.; D'Andrea, F.; Provenzale, A.

2012-04-01

357

Media in Cultural Context: Popular Readerships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course, offered as part of MIT's OpenCourseWare initiative, starts off by asking "What is the history of popular reading in the Western world?" It continues on by asking a number of equally powerful questions, and the generally curious will enjoy exploring the materials offered here. The course was created by Professor Sarah Brouillette, and originally took place in the fall of 2007. Interested parties can read the syllabus, look over selected readings, and even check out the assignments for the course. Some of the many topics covered in the course include Oprah's Book Club, the sociology of reading, reading as resistance, and the bestseller. The assignments are a real pip, and they include writing essays on niche romance audiences and bestsellers.

Brouillette, Sarah, 1977-

2007-01-01

358

Hookah smoking: a popular alternative to cigarettes.  

PubMed

Hookah smoking has recently emerged as a popular alternative to cigarette smoking, particularly among young adults. The perception that hookah smoking is cleaner and less harmful than cigarette smoking appears to be key to its increased use, although this is not the case. Hookah tobacco smoking delivers the powerful addictive drug nicotine, higher levels of carbon monoxide than a cigarette as well as many of the carcinogens in cigarette smoke. There is also significantly increased risk associated with secondhand smoke from hookah smoke. Communal hookah use increases the risk of transmission of infectious diseases. Transition from social to individual hookah use is a critical step toward nicotine dependence as well as progression to cigarette use. Prevention and intervention in patients' tobacco use should include discussion of cigarette alternatives including hookah smoking. PMID:21834366

Rankin, K Vendrell

2011-05-01

359

Contribution to the popularization of the astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this report is the representation of a WEB-book, related to astronomy, astro-photography, optics and some additional areas that have direct practice for the amateur astronomers. The popularization of astronomy worldwide is the purpose of many amateur astronomers. It is interesting and maybe fascinated, requires often innovative solutions from the hobby star observers. Today it is possible to share the science information by different methods, using the modern information technologies - a possibility used by the amateur astronomers too. In Internet existing currently thousands of WEB- sites, related to astronomy, completed training programs developed by amateur astronomers are included. They are addressed often to the schools, to the hobby beginners or to the wide audience.

Markishki, Pencho

360

Visit to an Ocean Planet - Timing the Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tide tables, commonly seen in newspapers and on television in coastal areas, show that comparable local high and low tides occur almost one hour later from one day to the next. The motion of the Moon as it revolves around the Earth largely accounts for the time lag. Students participating in this activity will investigate this time lag by using the tide time diagram and instructions which are provided. They should be able to describe how and why the times of low and high tide change from one day to the next.

361

Ocean Planet: There Are Algae in Your House!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of this activity, students look in their own homes for foods that contain ingredients derived from seaweed . The activity points out that seaweeds are not really weeds but large forms of marine algae, and that seaweed derivatives are used in a large variety of foods and household products. Objectives, a list of materials, instructions, and a take-home worksheet are included.

362

Welding the four most popular aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect

The fact that business is good in aluminum welding is a sure sign that more manufacturers and fabricators are using GMA and GTA welding to build new products out of this lightweight nonferrous metal. Among the most widely specified weldable grades are Alloys 6061, 5083, 5052 and 5454. A rundown on these four alloys, including properties and selected applications, is provided. Any company working with aluminum for the first time needs to know something about these four alloys. Alloys of copper-magnesium-silicon combination, of which 6061 is one, are heat-treatable. The three 5XXX series alloys, on the other hand, are nonheat-treatable. According to P.B. Dickerson, consultant, Lower Burrell, Pa., 5083, because of its high magnesium content, is the easiest of the four alloys to arc weld. Dickerson put the cut-off point in weldability at 3.5% magnesium. To prevent cracking, he added, both 6061 and 5052 require much more filler metal than do the other two alloys. Alloy 6061 consists of 0.25Cu, 0.6Si, 1.0Mg, and 0.20Cr. The main applications for 6061 aluminum are structural, architectural, automotive, railway, marine and pipe. It has good formability, weldability, corrosion resistance and strength. Although the 6XXX series alloys are prone to hot cracking, this condition can be readily overcome by correct choice of joint design and electrode. The most popular temper for 6061 is T6, although the -T651, -T4, and -F temper are also popular. The -T651 temper is like a -T6 temper, only it has received some final stretch hardening. The -T4 temper has been solution heat-treated and quenched. The -F temper is in the as-fabricated condition.

Irving, B.

1994-02-01

363

Producing "Postman Pat": The Popular Cultural Construction of Idyllic Rurality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper concerns the popular cultural representation of English rurality. It focuses upon "Postman Pat", a popular cultural phenomenon which has come to be routinely cited as exemplary and iconic of contemporary imaginings of the English countryside as "idyllic". The idea that Anglocentric popular culture (re)produces this sort of "rural…

Horton, John

2008-01-01

364

Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Colin Kirkwood); "Introductory Essay: Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today" (Ian Martin); "Popular Education and the Struggle for Democracy" (Jim Crowther); "Social Movements and the Politics of Educational Change" (Lindsay Paterson); "Learning from Popular Education in Latin…

Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Martin, Ian, Ed.; Shaw, Mae, Ed.

365

Academic Self-Presentation Strategies and Popularity in Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined early adolescents' beliefs about which academic self-presentation strategies hypothetical hard-working, high-achieving students should use with popular peers, adolescents' own use of self-presentation strategies, and links between popularity and self-presentation strategies. In response to scenarios in which popular

Zook, Joan M.; Russotti, Justin M.

2013-01-01

366

How Does Popularity Information Affect Choices? A Field Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popularity information is usually thought to reinforce existing sales trends by encouraging customers to flock to mainstream products with broad appeal. We suggest a countervailing market force: popularity information may benefit niche products with narrow appeal disproportionately, because the same level of popularity implies higher quality for narrow-appeal products than for broad-appeal products. We examine this hypothesis empirically using field

Catherine Tucker; Juanjuan Zhang

2011-01-01

367

Mining temporal patterns in popularity of web items  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huge amounts of various web items (e.g., images, keywords, and web pages) are being made available on the Web. The popularity of such web items continuously changes over time, and mining for temporal patterns in the popularity of web items is an important problem that is useful for several Web applications; for example, the temporal patterns in the popularity of

Woong-Kee Loh; Sandeep Mane; Jaideep Srivastava

2011-01-01

368

Demographic studies of extrasolar planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncovering the demographics of extrasolar planets is crucial to understanding the processes of their formation and evolution. In this thesis, we present four studies that contribute to this end, three of which relate to NASA's Kepler mission, which has revolutionized the field of exoplanets in the last few years. In the pre-Kepler study, we investigate a sample of exoplanet spin-orbit measurements---measurements of the inclination of a planet's orbit relative to the spin axis of its host star---to determine whether a dominant planet migration channel can be identified, and at what confidence. Applying methods of Bayesian model comparison to distinguish between the predictions of several different migration models, we find that the data strongly favor a two-mode migration scenario combining planet-planet scattering and disk migration over a single-mode Kozai migration scenario. While we test only the predictions of particular Kozai and scattering migration models in this work, these methods may be used to test the predictions of any other spin-orbit misaligning mechanism. We then present two studies addressing astrophysical false positives in Kepler data. The Kepler mission has identified thousands of transiting planet candidates, and only relatively few have yet been dynamically confirmed as bona fide planets, with only a handful more even conceivably amenable to future dynamical confirmation. As a result, the ability to draw detailed conclusions about the diversity of exoplanet systems from Kepler detections relies critically on understanding the probability that any individual candidate might be a false positive. We show that a typical a priori false positive probability for a well-vetted Kepler candidate is only about 5-10%, enabling confidence in demographic studies that treat candidates as true planets. We also present a detailed procedure that can be used to securely and efficiently validate any individual transit candidate using detailed information of the signal's shape as well as follow-up observations, if available. Finally, we calculate an empirical, non-parametric estimate of the shape of the radius distribution of small planets with periods less than 90 days orbiting cool (less than 4000K) dwarf stars in the Kepler catalog. This effort reveals several notable features of the distribution, in particular a maximum in the radius function around 1-1.25 Earth radii and a steep drop-off in the distribution larger than 2 Earth radii. Even more importantly, the methods presented in this work can be applied to a broader subsample of Kepler targets to understand how the radius function of planets changes across different types of host stars.

Morton, Timothy

369

Ocean geography for ocean science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanding needs for ocean resources, together with the design and diffusion of new kinds of deep-ocean and coastal management\\u000a patterns, have changed profoundly in the transition from modern to post-modern society. As a result, the scientific approach\\u000a to the ocean has also undergone profound changes, which have marked the epistemology of disciplines, their logical backgrounds\\u000a and methods. This process

Adalberto Vallega

1999-01-01

370

A Multi-Scale Detection Technique for Anomaly on Ocean Surface Using Optical Satellite Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using satellite images for monitoring oceanic surface has become popular recently. One of the striking feature can be detected from satellite image is the anomalous phenomenon on oceanic surface. In general, it is easy to observe the diversified anomalies, caused by abrupt change of the reflectance on oceanic surface, on the optical satellite images. Among them, the anomaly caused by

Chi-Farn Chen; Li-Yu Chang

371

PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING LEADS TO TIGHTLY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The known extrasolar multiple-planet systems share a surprising dynamical attribute: they cluster just beyond the Hill stability boundary. Here we show that the planet-planet scattering model, which naturally explains the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution, can reproduce the observed distribution of dynamical configurations. We calculated how each of our scattered systems would appear over an appropriate range of viewing geometries; as Hill stability is weakly dependent on the masses, the mass-inclination degeneracy does not significantly affect our results. We consider a wide range of initial planetary mass distributions and find that some are poor fits to the observed systems. In fact, many of our scattering experiments overproduce systems very close to the stability boundary. The distribution of dynamical configurations of two-planet systems may provide better discrimination between scattering models than the distribution of eccentricity. Our results imply that, at least in their inner regions which are weakly affected by gas or planetesimal disks, planetary systems should be 'packed', with no large gaps between planets.

Raymond, Sean N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Barnes, Rory [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Veras, Dimitri [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Armitage, Philip J. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu

2009-05-01

372

Arctic Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that...

C. L. Parkinson

2000-01-01

373

Ocean Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

Nasa

374

Ocean eddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and empirical data for three classes of ocean eddies are summarized: 1) gigantic anticyclonic gyres; 2) meanders, rings, and synoptic eddies in the open ocean; and, 3) mesoscale eddies (lenses of foreign waters and rotating cells of forced convection). A number of new results obtained in the last few years are reported: linear and nonlinear instability of gigantic

A S Monin; G M Zhikharev

1990-01-01

375

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students discover that measurements from space can tell us the temperature of the ocean, both on an annual average and as measured on any given date. For the annual average the highest ocean temperatures are near the equator, and drop as one moves either northward or southward from the equator. Students will graph each temperature value as a function of latitude and write a linear equation that best fits the points on their graph. They can choose as data points any point at that approximate latitude because the temperature is not uniform for a certain latitude - some areas are hotter and some are cooler. They can also look at today's ocean temperatures via the link provided to see how the seasons affect whether the northern or southern oceans are warmer. Students will take ocean temperature data from a map and plot temperature versus angle from the equator.

376

Slime Worlds: Possibilities for Detection of Microbial Life on Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest that on extrasolar planets on which life has not made the transition to mult-cellular organisms, land surfaces may be covered by bacterial mats, algae, or slimes. If photosynthetic, such land-based, large-scale microbial colonies would show the well-known "red edge" of chlorophylls in their spectra. They would give much stronger spectral signatures for detection of life on extrasolar planets than microbes/algae in oceans or lakes, and their spectra would resemble the chlorophyll signatures of land vegetation. Therefore, life may be detectable on extrasolar planets early in their history, before the relatively late (if similar to Earth) advent of land plants, or if the transition to multicellular life does not occur at all. We show synthetic spectra of land microorganisms on Earth-like extrasolar planets.

Knacke, R. F.

2004-12-01

377

Light Scattering from Exoplanet Oceans and Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude = 180deg, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30deg. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74deg; however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column, dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90deg, but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination. This research was funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, the University of Washington Virtual Planetary Laboratory, and the Penn State Astrobiology Institute. Authors M. Zugger, J. Kasting, and D. Williams are members of the Penn State Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds.

Zugger, Michael; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M.; Kane, T. J.; Philbrick, C. R.

2011-01-01

378

LIGHT SCATTERING FROM EXOPLANET OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect

Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude (OL) = 180{sup 0}, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30{sup 0}. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74{sup 0}; however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90{sup 0}, but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however, polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination.

Zugger, M. E.; Kane, T. J. [Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University, P.O. Box 30, State College, PA 16804 (United States); Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Philbrick, C. R. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, 432 Riddick Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

2010-11-10

379

Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons to a future volume. Our authors have taken on the task to look at climate on the terrestrial planets in the broadest sense possible — by comparing the atmospheric processes at work on the four terrestrial bodies, Earth, Venus, Mars, and Titan (Titan is included because it hosts many of the common processes), and on terrestrial planets around other stars. These processes include the interactions of shortwave and thermal radiation with the atmosphere, condensation and vaporization of volatiles, atmospheric dynamics, chemistry and aerosol formation, and the role of the surface and interior in the long-term evolution of climate. Chapters herein compare the scientific questions, analysis methods, numerical models, and spacecraft remote sensing experiments of Earth and the other terrestrial planets, emphasizing the underlying commonality of physical processes. We look to the future by identifying objectives for ongoing research and new missions. Through these pages we challenge practicing planetary scientists, and most importantly new students of any age, to find pathways and synergies for advancing the field. In Part I, Foundations, we introduce the fundamental physics of climate on terrestrial planets. Starting with the best studied planet by far, Earth, the first chapters discuss what is known and what is not known about the atmospheres and climates of the terrestrial planets of the solar system and beyond. In Part II, Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Dynamics, we focus on the processes that govern atmospheric motion and the role that general circulation models play in our current understanding. In Part III, Clouds and Hazes, we provide an in-depth look at the many effects of clouds and aerosols on planetary climate. Although this is a vigorous area of research in the Earth sciences, and very strongly influences climate modeling, the important role that aerosols and clouds play in the climate of all planets is not yet well constrained. This section is intended to stimulate further research on this critical subject. The study of climate involves much more than

Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

380

Scattering outcomes of close-in planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many exoplanets in close-in orbits are observed to have relatively high eccentricities and large stellar obliquities. We explore the possibility that these result from planet-planet scattering by studying the dynamical outcomes from a large number of orbit integrations in systems with two and three gas-giant planets in close-in orbits (0.05 AU< a <0.15 AU). We find that at these orbital separations, unstable systems generally lead to planet-planet collisions in which the collision product is a planet on a low-eccentricity, low-inclination orbit. This result is inconsistent with the observations. We conclude that eccentricity and inclination excitation from planet-planet scattering must precede migration of planets into short-period orbits.

Petrovich, Cristobal; Rafikov, Roman R

2014-05-01

381

Behavioral Changes Predicting Temporal Changes in Perceived Popular Status  

PubMed Central

The primary objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent to which young adolescents are stable in high perceived popular status across the middle school transition and to examine whether changes in social behaviors predict the stability, gain, and loss of perceived popular status after the transition. The sample included 672 young adolescents (323 boys) who completed peer-nomination assessments of social behavior and perceived popularity at the end of elementary school (5th grade) and the beginning of middle school (6th grade). Findings indicated that 62 percent of perceived popular adolescents remained stable in their high popular status across the middle school transition. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that a combination of aggression and arrogance/conceit was associated with stable and newly-gained perceived popular status after the middle school transition. Taken together, findings highlight the significance of contextual and temporal changes in adolescents’ perceived popular status.

Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Buskirk-Cohen, Alison; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

2009-01-01

382

Water Cycling Between Ocean and Mantle: Super-Earths Need Not be Waterworlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying they should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. Quantitatively, a planet ten times the mass of Earth is not expected to have exposed continents unless it has a water mass fraction less than 3×10-5, roughly ten times drier than Earth. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. Water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust are mediated by sea-floor pressure, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water-partitioning on terrestrial planets. Since hydrostatic pressure is proportional to gravity, super-Earths with a deep water cycle will tend to store most of their water in the mantle. We conclude that tectonically active terrestrial planets with H2O mass fractions less than 3×10-3 will have both oceans and exposed continents. The circumstellar habitable zone is therefore equally wide for any tectonically active planet.

Cowan, Nicolas B.; Abbot, D. S.

2014-01-01

383

Planet Finder: Discovering Extra-solar Planets Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates the technique for detecting extrasolar planets through measurements of the Doppler shift of spectral lines of the star due to the star's reflex motion. The applet generates randomized data of the Doppler velocity representing observations of a planetary system. The object of the game is to adjust the parameters of the orbit so that the Doppler curve will fit the specified data. The user can control the semi-major axis, eccentricity, inclination, node angle, planet mass and the phase. This is part of a larger collection of applets by STEM Colorado focused mostly on topics in astronomy.

Mccray, Richard; Koelemay, Andrew

2008-11-04

384

Habitable zone limits for dry planets.  

PubMed

Most discussion of habitable planets has focused on Earth-like planets with globally abundant liquid water. For an "aqua planet" like Earth, the surface freezes if far from its sun, and the water vapor greenhouse effect runs away if too close. Here we show that "land planets" (desert worlds with limited surface water) have wider habitable zones than aqua planets. For planets at the inner edge of the habitable zone, a land planet has two advantages over an aqua planet: (i) the tropics can emit longwave radiation at rates above the traditional runaway limit because the air is unsaturated and (ii) the dry air creates a dry stratosphere that limits hydrogen escape. At the outer limits of the habitable zone, the land planet better resists global freezing because there is less water for clouds, snow, and ice. Here we describe a series of numerical experiments using a simple three-dimensional global climate model for Earth-sized planets. Other things (CO(2), rotation rate, surface pressure) unchanged, we found that liquid water remains stable at the poles of a low-obliquity land planet until net insolation exceeds 415 W/m(2) (170% that of modern Earth), compared to 330 W/m(2) (135%) for the aqua planet. At the outer limits, we found that a low-obliquity land planet freezes at 77%, while the aqua planet freezes at 90%. High-obliquity land and aqua planets freeze at 58% and 72%, respectively, with the poles offering the last refuge. We show that it is possible that, as the Sun brightens, an aqua planet like Earth can lose most of its hydrogen and become a land planet without first passing through a sterilizing runaway greenhouse. It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago. PMID:21707386

Abe, Yutaka; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Sleep, Norman H; Zahnle, Kevin J

2011-06-01

385

Earth's Mantle as the Product of Magma Ocean Solidification (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large accretionary impacts on rocky planets have long been thought to produce partial or even complete melting of the growing planet. Models indicate that these magma oceans may solidify extremely fast, on the order of a million years or less, and thus production and freezing of magma oceans is likely to occur several times during the growth of a young planet, though solidification could be delayed by a thick atmosphere or by heating from the young star. Many questions persist about how magma oceans solidify. Do they crystallize fractionally or in bulk? Under what conditions would quench crusts occur, and do they substantially change the solidification timescale or chemical differentiation? Can bubbles efficiently escape a convecting magma ocean? Models can predict the geochemical consequences of different scenarios, and increasingly, geochemical evidence can be compared to model results. New noble gas geochemical evidence from the Earth supports the multiple magma ocean model, and other isotopic evidence supports fractional solidification of at least the last magma ocean. We will present models and geochemical evidence for magma ocean solidification on the Earth, and discuss ramifications for early convective vigor, water content of the mantle, and the onset of plate tectonics.

Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Tikoo, S. M.; Brown, S. M.

2013-12-01

386

Ecological Footprint: Only One Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute sound segment discusses the concept of your ecological footprint. This is the amount of nature it takes to support your lifestyle. The speaker explains that if we divide up the total ecologically productive space on the planet by the number of people, what we get is five acres per person. In the United States, on average, we use about twenty-five to thirty acres per person to provide all of our services. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

2006-10-13

387

Growth of planets from planetesimals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of terrestrial planets and the cores of Jovian planets is reviewed in the framework of the planetesimal hypothesis, wherein planets are assumed to grow via the pairwise accumulation of small solid bodies. The rate of (proto)planetary growth is determined by the size and mass of the protoplanet, the surface density of planetesimals, and the distribution of planetesimal velocities relative to the protoplanet. Planetesimal velocities are modified by mutual gravitational interactions and collisions, which convert energy present in the ordered relative motions of orbiting particles (Keplerian shear) into random motions and tend to reduce the velocities of the largest bodies in the swarm relative to those of smaller bodies, as well as by gas drag, which damps eccentricities and inclinations.

Lissauer, Jack J.; Stewart, Glen R.

1991-01-01

388

Growth of planets from planetesimals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reviews the formation of terrestrial planets and the cores of Jovian planets within the framework of the planetesimal hypothesis, wherein planets are assumed to grow via the pairwise accumulation of small solid bodies. The rate of (proto)planetary growth is determined by the size and mass of the protoplanet, the surface density of planetesimals, and the distribution of planetesimal velocities relative to the protoplanet. Planetesimal velocities are modified by mutual gravitational interactions and collisions, which convert energy present in the ordered relative motions of orbiting particles into random motions and tend to reduce the velocities of the largest bodies in the swarm relative to those of smaller bodies, as well as by gas drag, which damps eccentricities and inclinations. The evolution of planetesimal size distribution is determined by the gravitationally enhanced collision cross section, which favors collisions between planetesimals with smaller velocities.

Lissauer, Jack J.; Stewart, Glen R.

1993-01-01

389

Recent Kepler Results On Circumbinary Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ranked near the top of the long list of exciting discoveries made with NASA's Kepler photometer is the detection of transiting circumbinary planets. In just over a year the number of such planets went from zero to seven, including a multi-planet system with one of the planets in the habitable zone (Kepler-47). We are quickly learning to better detect and characterize these planets, including the recognition of their transit timing and duration variation ``smoking gun'' signature. Even with only a handful of such planets, some exciting trends are emerging.

Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

2014-04-01

390

Elliptical instability in terrestrial planets and moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The presence of celestial companions means that any planet may be subject to three kinds of harmonic mechanical forcing: tides, precession/nutation, and libration. These forcings can generate flows in internal fluid layers, such as fluid cores and subsurface oceans, whose dynamics then significantly differ from solid body rotation. In particular, tides in non-synchronized bodies and libration in synchronized ones are known to be capable of exciting the so-called elliptical instability, i.e. a generic instability corresponding to the destabilization of two-dimensional flows with elliptical streamlines, leading to three-dimensional turbulence. Aims: We aim here at confirming the relevance of such an elliptical instability in terrestrial bodies by determining its growth rate, as well as its consequences on energy dissipation, on magnetic field induction, and on heat flux fluctuations on planetary scales. Methods: Previous studies and theoretical results for the elliptical instability are re-evaluated and extended to cope with an astrophysical context. In particular, generic analytical expressions of the elliptical instability growth rate are obtained using a local WKB approach, simultaneously considering for the first time (i) a local temperature gradient due to an imposed temperature contrast across the considered layer or to the presence of a volumic heat source and (ii) an imposed magnetic field along the rotation axis, coming from an external source. Results: The theoretical results are applied to the telluric planets and moons of the solar system as well as to three Super-Earths: 55 CnC e, CoRoT-7b, and GJ 1214b. For the tide-driven elliptical instability in non-synchronized bodies, only the early Earth core is shown to be clearly unstable. For the libration-driven elliptical instability in synchronized bodies, the core of Io is shown to be stable, contrary to previously thoughts, whereas Europa, 55 CnC e, CoRoT-7b, and GJ 1214b cores can be unstable. The subsurface ocean of Europa is slightly unstable. However, these present states do not preclude more unstable situations in the past.

Cebron, D.; Le Bars, M.; Moutou, C.; Le Gal, P.

2012-03-01

391

Earth's Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides a good introduction to the structure of the ocean. Included are excellent graphics and text about patterns of ocean salinity and temperature with depth, as well as surface currents, deep ocean circulation and even the water cycle. Extensive in-text links provide the means for users to explore the content in an open-ended fashion, although some might find the lack of any obvious top-level navigation to be disorienting.

2008-01-01

392

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

393

Ocean Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an overview of ocean surface circulation. Satellite and model data allows high school students to investigate circulation patterns, navigation, associated weather and climate, natural hazards and marine resources. There are five lessons affiliated with this site; the teacher and student guides to each can be accessed directly from the home page. (Note that these lessons are cataloged individually.) Other links provide information on background, impact, gathering data, researchers, data resources and a glossary. There are also online quizzes on the home page on navigation, coriolis force, satellites, ocean warming, energy balance, and ocean gyres.

394

The association between valuing popularity and relational aggression: the moderating effects of actual popularity and physiological reactivity to exclusion.  

PubMed

The association between having a reputation for valuing popularity and relational aggression was assessed in a sample of 126 female children and adolescents (mean age = 12.43 years) at a 54-day residential summer camp for girls. Having a reputation for valuing popularity was positively related to relational aggression. This association was moderated by both popularity and physiological reactivity to social exclusion (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity [RSAR] and heart rate reactivity [HRR]). Popular girls with a reputation for valuing popularity were at greater risk for engaging in relational aggression when they also exhibited blunted reactivity to social exclusion. Conversely, girls who had a reputation for valuing popularity but were not popular (i.e., the "wannabes") were at risk for engaging in relational aggression when they exhibited heightened reactivity to exclusion. PMID:21530979

Shoulberg, Erin K; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Murray-Close, Dianna

2011-09-01

395

Radio Search For Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical justification and ongoing observational efforts in view of detecting radio emissions from extrasolar planets will be presented. On the "prediction" side, a heuris- tic scaling law has been established relating the radio output of any magnetized flow- obstacle system to the incident magnetic energy flux on the obstacle. Its confirmation by the observation of radio emission from extrasolar planets would help to understand the energy budget of such a system. On the "detection" side, specific procedures have been developed for interference mitigation and weak burst detection.

Zarka, P.

396

Modeling Hot and Cold Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the student pages for a three part lesson plan in which students investigate a physical model representing a cold and a hot planet. In the second part, the students interact with a computer model that simulates extreme conditions on some planets, and in the third part they will utilize a data source from the internet to determine the average temperature of the earth and specify the characteristics of a sampling necessary to achieve an accurate average. The lesson plan includes an overview, learning objectives, a list of materials, procedure, data analysis, and worksheets. Teachers' notes are also included.

397

Chemical kinetics on extrasolar planets.  

PubMed

Chemical kinetics plays an important role in controlling the atmospheric composition of all planetary atmospheres, including those of extrasolar planets. For the hottest exoplanets, the composition can closely follow thermochemical-equilibrium predictions, at least in the visible and infrared photosphere at dayside (eclipse) conditions. However, for atmospheric temperatures approximately <2000K, and in the uppermost atmosphere at any temperature, chemical kinetics matters. The two key mechanisms by which kinetic processes drive an exoplanet atmosphere out of equilibrium are photochemistry and transport-induced quenching. I review these disequilibrium processes in detail, discuss observational consequences and examine some of the current evidence for kinetic processes on extrasolar planets. PMID:24664912

Moses, Julianne I

2014-04-28

398

THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXII. TWO NEW MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005 {+-} 427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3 M{sub Jup}. HD 142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 {+-} 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3 {+-} 1.3 days and m sin i = 0.73 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Jup}. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Salter, G. S.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Tuomi, Mikko; Zhang, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Butler, R. P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Jones, H. R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); O'Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Carter, B. D. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Jenkins, J. S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Vogt, S. S.; Rivera, Eugenio J., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-07-10

399

Planet-star and moon-planet interaction (Saur+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We list stellar wind properties calculated for all extrasolar planets known until 2012/11/14. Furthermore we provide values of the Poynting flux and its properties generated at these extrasolar planets. Note, in many cases stellar properties are unknown and had to be estimated. Similarly, the existences, strengths and orientations of the magnetic moments of extrasolar planets are unknown. We used a scaling law to derive magnetic moments which enter into our calculations of the total Poynting fluxes. See Section 4.1 of the paper for further details. Notes: * All values are local properties at the distance of the exoplanets orbit. * We use a counterclockwise polar coordinate system. * Vsw and Br are defined in radial direction, Vorbit and Bphi in azimuthal direction. * Vorbit is calculated with Kepler's third law. * To calculate the relative plasma velocity in the rest-frame of the extrasolar planets the negative orbital velocity v_orbit must be considered. * The model of Parker (1958ApJ...128..664P) was used to calculate the other stellar wind properties. (1 data file).

Saur, J.; Grambusch, T.; Duling, S.; Neubauer, F. M.; Simon, S.

2013-01-01

400

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Climate Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni�o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. Learning Outcomes:� Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.� Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.� Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.� List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

401

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Precipitation and Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni�o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. Learning Outcomes:� Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.� Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.� Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.� List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

402

Imbalance in the oceanic strontium budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palmer and Edmond [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 92 (1989) 11-26] indicated that thermally plausible oceanic hydrothermal inputs of strontium to the oceans are not sufficient to balance the riverine input. It has recently been suggested that off-axis low-temperature hydrothermal circulation may reconcile this discrepancy [e.g. Butterfield et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65 (2001) 4141-4153]. Strontium isotope alteration profiles are compiled for sampled in situ ocean and ophiolite crust to calculate a sustainable cumulative hydrothermal flux to the oceanic strontium budget. High-temperature circulation contributes ˜1.8×10 9 mol yr -1 of basaltic strontium to the oceans. Enhanced hydrothermal systems in arc-related spreading environments (10% of the crust) may increase this to ˜2.3×10 9 mol yr -1. It is shown that low-temperature flow cannot supply the remaining flux required to reconcile the oceanic strontium budget (˜8.7×10 9 mol yr -1) because this would require 100% exchange of seawater strontium for basaltic strontium over an 820 m section of MORB-like crust. Currently sampled in situ ocean crust is not altered to this extent. The isotopic alteration intensity of 120 Myr crust sampled in DSDP Holes 417D and 418A indicates that off-axis low-temperature flow may contribute up to ˜8×10 8 mol yr -1 of basaltic strontium (9% of that required). The ocean crust can sustain a total basaltic strontium flux of ˜3.1±0.8×10 9 mol yr -1 ( 87Sr/ 86Sr ˜0.7025) to the oceans. This is consistent with hydrothermal flux estimates, but remains less than a third of the flux required to balance the oceanic strontium budget. The ocean crust cannot support a higher hydrothermal contribution unless the average ocean crust is significantly more altered than current observation.

Davis, Amy C.; Bickle, Mike J.; Teagle, Damon A. H.

2003-06-01

403

Future Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

404

Ocean Acre.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume reverberation resulting from the deep scattering layers (DSL) is an important source of interference to acoustic systems in large areas of the world's oceans. Much is unknown about how volume reverberation varies, diurnally, seasonally, and geograp...

1970-01-01

405

Ocean Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website offers a review of the surface circulation of Earth's ocean and classroom investigations appropriate for various disciplines at the high school level. Articles and video interviews about ocean current research, interactive data visualizes, news articles, simplified models, teacher and student guides will create resources for diverse audiences who are impacted by ocean surface currents. This site highlights use of data derived from the on-line satellite data of Earth for understanding patterns of ocean surface currents and how they relate to issues of human exploration, commerce, science, weather/climate, and pollution. Classroom-ready, interdisciplinary investigation swill help high school students practice science, mathematics and writing skills matched to national standards and will be keyed to topics covered in the traditional high school curriculum. Each investigation is keyed to the stages of the 5 E's teacher/learning model.

Tweedie, Sara

2010-09-17

406

Magma ocean formation due to giant impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of giant impacts on the initial chemical and thermal states of the terrestrial planets is just now being explored. A large high speed impact creates an approximately hemispherical melt region with a radius that depends on the projectile's radius and impact speed. It is shown that giant impacts on large planets can create large, intact melt regions containing melt volumes up to a few times the volume of the projectile. These large melt regions are not created on asteroid sized bodies. If extruded to the surface, these regions contain enough melt to create a magma ocean of considerable depth, depending on the impact speed, projectile radius, and gravity of the target planet.

Tonks, W. B.; Melosh, H. J.

1992-01-01

407

Orbits and Interiors of Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing independent constraints for the solar system's birth environment. Next, we addressed a significant drawback of the original Nice model, namely its inability to create the physically unique, cold classical population of the Kuiper Belt. Specifically, we showed that a locally-formed cold belt can survive the transient instability, and its relatively calm dynamical structure can be reproduced. The last four chapters of this thesis address various aspects and consequences of dynamical relaxation of planetary orbits through dissipative effects as well as the formation of planets in binary stellar systems. Using octopole-order secular perturbation theory, we demonstrated that in multi-planet systems, tidal dissipation often drives orbits onto dynamical "fixed points," characterized by apsidal alignment and lack of periodic variations in eccentricities. We applied this formalism towards investigating the possibility that the large orbital eccentricity of the transiting Neptune-mass planet Gliese 436b is maintained in the face of tidal dissipation by a second planet in the system and computed a locus of possible orbits for the putative perturber. Following up along similar lines, we used various permutations of secular theory to show that when applied specifically to close-in low-mass planetary systems, various terms in the perturbation equations become separable, and the true masses of the planets can be solved for algebraically. In practice, this means that precise knowledge of the system's orbital state can resolve the sin( i) degeneracy inherent to non-transiting planets. Subsequently, we investigated the onset of chaotic motion in dissipative planetary systems. We worked in the context of classical secular perturbation theory, and showed that planetary systems approach chaos via the so-called period-doubling route. Furthermore, we demonstrated that chaotic strange attractors can exist in mildly damped systems, such as photo-evaporating nebulae that host multiple planets. Finally, we considered planetary formation in highly inclined binary systems,

Batygin, Konstantin

2012-05-01

408

Europa - The prospects for an ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain a liquid water ocean below a thin ice layer. In the solar system, Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, may have such an ocean. Both theoretical calculations and certain observations support its existence, although proof is lacking. The putative ocean would probably have temperatures, pressures, and chemistry conducive to biologic activity. However, the environment would be severely energy limited. Possible energy sources include transient transmission of sunlight through fractures in the ice and hydrothermal activity on the ocean floor. While temporary conditions could exist that are within the range of adaptation of certain terrestrial organisms, origin of life under such conditions seems unlikely. In other solar systems, however, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could provide environments that are stable over an order of aeons and in which life could perhaps evolve.

Reynolds, R. T.; Mckay, C. P.; Kasting, J. F.; Squires, S. W.

1988-01-01

409

Comparing Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A variety of classroom activities and lessons that compare the world's oceans. Activities included: The Gulf of Maine, Satellite Comparisons, Design a Fish, What Migrations, Incredible Feasting of Whales, Paddle to the Sea, and Ocean Soundings. Discover why weather at identical latitudes is not always the same, learn the different ways whales eat, and find out the temperature difference between the Gulf Stream and surrounding water. Links to other Aquarium modules.

410

Effects of Oceans on Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface and play a major role in regulating the weather and climate of the planet. Earth's oceans absorb heat from sunlight, hold on to that heat, and transport it around the globe through the movement of ocean currents. The motion of the atmosphere, or winds, above it, also affects the oceans currents. The energy in the wind gets transferred to the ocean at the ocean surface affecting the motion of the water there. With the use of sensitive instruments we are able to get a better view of the functioning of our oceans and atmosphere. This science guide will point teachers and students to resources to help develop a better understanding of some of the factors that impact Earth's weather and climate. Sites with recent research and satellite data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other organizations help students understand how changes in temperature or air circulation are part of complex, longer-term cycles. They'll also learn about the interconnections between air, sea, and land and that any change could have multiple causes--and multiple effects.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-05-01

411

Magma ocean formation due to giant impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal effects of giant impacts are studied by estimating the melt volume generated by the initial shock wave and corresponding magma ocean depths. Additionally, the effects of the planet's initial temperature on the generated melt volume are examined. The shock pressure required to completely melt the material is determined using the Hugoniot curve plotted in pressure-entropy space. Once the melting pressure is known, an impact melting model is used to estimate the radial distance melting occurred from the impact site. The melt region's geometry then determines the associated melt volume. The model is also used to estimate the partial melt volume. Magma ocean depths resulting from both excavated and retained melt are calculated, and the melt fraction not excavated during the formation of the crater is estimated. The fraction of a planet melted by the initial shock wave is also estimated using the model.

Tonks, W. B.; Melosh, H. J.

1993-01-01

412

Kepler Discovers Its First Rocky Planet  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Kepler mission confirmed the discovery of its first rocky planet, named Kepler-10b. Measuring 1.4 times the size of Earth, it is the smallest planet ever discovered outside our solar system....

413

The debris disk - terrestrial planet connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eccentric orbits of the known extrasolar giant planets provide evidence that most planet-forming environments undergo violent dynamical instabilities. Here, we numerically simulate the impact of giant planet instabilities on planetary systems as a whole. We find that populations of inner rocky and outer icy bodies are both shaped by the giant planet dynamics and are naturally correlated. Strong instabilities - those with very eccentric surviving giant planets - completely clear out their inner and outer regions. In contrast, systems with stable or low-mass giant planets form terrestrial planets in their inner regions and outer icy bodies produce dust that is observable as debris disks at mid-infrared wavelengths. Fifteen to twenty percent of old stars are observed to have bright debris disks (at ? ~ 70?m) and we predict that these signpost dynamically calm environments that should contain terrestrial planets.

Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Booth, Mark; Wyatt, Mark C.; Armstrong, John C.; Mandell, Avi M.; Selsis, Franck

2011-11-01

414

The geology of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

Carr, M. H. (editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

1984-01-01

415

Kepler Discovers Earth-size Planet Candidates  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Kepler mission has discovered its first Earth-size planet candidates and its first candidates in the habitable zone, a region where liquid water could exist on a planet's surface. Five of th...

416

Tour of Planet With Extreme Temperature Swings  

NASA Video Gallery

A computer simulation of the planet HD 80606b. The point of closest approach -- and maximum heating -- occurs about 4.5 seconds into the animation. As the planet whips around the star, we see the e...

417

Formation of the terrestrial planets from planetesimals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formation of the terrestrial planets from planetesimals is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) formation of the original planetesimals; (2) growth of planetesimals into planetary embryos; and (3) growth of runaway planetary embryos into terrestrial planets.

Wetherill, George W.

1991-01-01

418

ConcepTest: Jovian Planet Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The characteristics of four planets are listed below. Which planet is most likely to be classified as Jovian? a. Mainly rocky, volcanism, low gravity. b. Mainly rocky, no volcanism, high gravity. c. Mainly gaseous, ...

419

Characterizing and Modeling the Dynamics of Online Popularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Online popularity has an enormous impact on opinions, culture, policy, and profits. We provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the dynamics of online content popularity in two massive model systems: the Wikipedia and an entire country’s Web space. We find that the dynamics of popularity are characterized by bursts, displaying characteristic features of critical systems such as fat-tailed distributions of magnitude and interevent time. We propose a minimal model combining the classic preferential popularity increase mechanism with the occurrence of random popularity shifts due to exogenous factors. The model recovers the critical features observed in the empirical analysis of the systems analyzed here, highlighting the key factors needed in the description of popularity dynamics.

Ratkiewicz, Jacob; Fortunato, Santo; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo; Vespignani, Alessandro

2010-10-01

420

Characterizing and modeling the dynamics of online popularity.  

PubMed

Online popularity has an enormous impact on opinions, culture, policy, and profits. We provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the dynamics of online content popularity in two massive model systems: the Wikipedia and an entire country's Web space. We find that the dynamics of popularity are characterized by bursts, displaying characteristic features of critical systems such as fat-tailed distributions of magnitude and interevent time. We propose a minimal model combining the classic preferential popularity increase mechanism with the occurrence of random popularity shifts due to exogenous factors. The model recovers the critical features observed in the empirical analysis of the systems analyzed here, highlighting the key factors needed in the description of popularity dynamics. PMID:21230945

Ratkiewicz, Jacob; Fortunato, Santo; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo; Vespignani, Alessandro

2010-10-01

421

Terrestrial Planet Finder: science overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) seeks to revolutionize our understanding of humanity's place in the universe - by searching for Earth-like planets using reflected light, or thermal emission in the mid-infrared. Direct detection implies that TPF must separate planet light from glare of the nearby star, a technical challenge which has only in recent years been recognized as surmountable. TPF will obtain a low-resolution spectra of each planets it detects, providing some of its basic physical characteristics and its main atmospheric constituents, thereby allowing us to assess the likelihood that habitable conditions exist there. NASA has decided the scientific importance of this research is so high that TPF will be pursued as two complementary space observatories: a visible-light coronagraph and a mid-infrared formation flying interferometer. The combination of spectra from both wavebands is much more valuable than either taken separately, and it will allow a much fuller understanding of the wide diversity of planetary atmospheres that may be expected to exist. Measurements across a broad wavelength range will yield not only physical properties such as size and albedo, but will also serve as the foundations of a reliable and robust assessment of habitability and the presence of life.

Unwin, Stephen C.; Beichman, C. A.

2004-01-01

422

The Chemistry of the Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces knowledge of planetary chemistry for possible use in teaching. Discusses the chemical composition of the planets; the atmosphere and clouds of Venus, Jupiter and its moons, and Titan. Includes diagrams of the greenhouse effects in the solar system, elemental abundances, and the chemical composition of Jupiter. (RT)

Blake, Peter

1988-01-01

423

The Nine Planets: Small Bodies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Nine Planets contains links and information about asteroids and comets in our solar system. It includes information on Comet Halley and Shoemaker-Levy 9, as well as the Asteroid Belt, interplanetary matter, the Oort Cloud, and the Kuiper Belt. Also provided are links for more information, movies, and images.

Arnett, Bill

424

MEMS AO for Planet Finding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul

2008-01-01

425

OUTLOOK: TESTING PLANET FORMATION THEORIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of the first planetary companion to a solar-type star by Mayor and Queloz (1995) launched the extrasolar planetary systems era. Observational and theoretical progress in this area has been made at a breathtaking pace since 1995, as evidenced by this workshop. We now have a large and growing sample of extrasolar gas giant planets with which to test

A. P. BOSS

426

Anderson testifies on Planet Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU president Don Anderson joined former astronaut Sally Ride and National Aeronautics and Space Administration official Lennard Fisk March 8 in testifying before the Senate committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. The three had been asked to speak on the future of the Mission to Planet Earth, proposed both in a National Academy of Sciences report and a NASA study.Anderson was chairman of the National Academy of Science's Task Group on Earth Sciences, which prepared the report Mission to Planet Earth as part of the series Space Science in the Twenty-First Century. In his testimony, Anderson highlighted parts of the report and quoted the frontispiece “We now have the technology and the incentive to move boldly forward on a Mission to Planet Earth. We call on the nation to implement an integrated global program using both spaceborne and earth-based instrumentation for fundamental research on the origin, evolution and nature of our planet, its place in our solar system, and its interaction with living things, including mankind.”

Wainger, Lisa A.

427

Do Other Planets Have Summer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's important to keep two things in mind when thinking about the cause of the seasons: (1) Earth and all the other planets except Pluto and Mercury move around the Sun in almost perfect circles, getting neither closer nor farther away from the Sun during the year; and (2) Earth's rotation axis is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit…

Nelson, George

2005-01-01

428

Perils of a Restless Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

From epidemics and earthquakes to tornados and tidal waves, the overwhelming power of nature never ceases to instill humankind with both terror and awe. As natural disasters continue to claim human lives and leave destruction in their wake, Perils of a Restless Planet examines our attempts to understand and anticipate such phenomena. Now available in paperback, this highly acclaimed book

Ernest Zebrowski Jr.

1999-01-01

429

Jupiter: Lord of the Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a chapter from an introductory college-level astronomy textbook in which full-color photographs and numerous diagrams highlight an extensive description of the planet Jupiter. Topics include Jupiter's geology, rotation, magnetic field, atmosphere (including clouds and winds), and the Great Red Spot. (DH)

Kaufmann, William

1984-01-01

430

Jovian Planet Finder optical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jovian Planet Finder (JPF) is a proposed NASA MIDEX mission to place a highly optimized coronagraphic telescope on the International Space Station (ISS) to image Jupiter-like planets around nearby stars. The optical system is an off-axis, unobscured telescope with a 1.5 m primary mirror. A classical Lyot coronagraph with apodized occulting spots is used to reduce diffracted light from the central star. In order to provide the necessary contrast for detection of a planet, scattered light from mid-spatial-frequency errors is reduced by using super-smooth optics. Recent advances in polishing optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography have shown that a factor of >30 reduction in midfrequency errors relative to those in the Hubble Space Telescope is possible (corresponding to a reduction in scattered light of nearly 1000x). The low level of scattered and diffracted light, together with a novel utilization of field rotation introduced by the alt-azimuth ISS telescope mounting, will provide a relatively low-cost facility for not only imaging extrasolar planets, but also circumstellar disks, host galaxies of quasars, and low-mass substellar companions such as brown dwarfs.

Krist, John E.; Clampin, Mark; Petro, Larry; Woodruff, Robert A.; Ford, Holland C.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Ftaclas, Christ

2003-02-01

431

Formation of the outer planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion is given of a number of physical processes which were probably important during the formation of the outer planets if these formed from a gaseous solar nebula in which magnetic effects were not important. Arguments are given that large-scale gravitational instabilities in the solar nebula did not occur. Qualitative consideration is given to the conditions in which dynamical

A. G. W. Cameron

1973-01-01

432

Final Stages of Planet Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address three questions regarding solar system planets: What determined their number? Why are their orbits nearly circular and coplanar? How long did they take to form? Runaway accretion in a disk of small bodies resulted in a tiny fraction of the bodies growing much larger than all the others. These big bodies dominated the viscous stirring of all bodies.

Peter Goldreich; Yoram Lithwick; Re'em Sari

2004-01-01

433

How Common are Habitable Planets?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth is teeming with life, which, occupies a diverse array of environments; other bodies in our Solar System offer fewer, if any, niches which are habitable by life as we know it. Nonetheless, astronomical studies suggest that a large number of habitable planets-are likely to be present within our Galaxy.

Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

434

Water Planet-FOSS Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Planet Module consists of five sequential investigations, each designed to introduce or reinforce concepts in earth science. The investigations start with Earth in the solar system, and then focus on the dynamics of weather and water cycling in Earth's atmosphere.

Web, Foss

2012-01-03

435

Slingshot to the Outer Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the engineering challenges involved with interplanetary space travel. In particular, they learn about the gravity assist or "slingshot" maneuver often used by engineers to send spacecraft to the outer planets. Using magnets and ball bearings to simulate a planetary flyby, students investigate what factors influence the deflection angle of a gravity assist maneuver.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

436

Extrasolar planets: An infernal Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbiting less than two stellar radii above the visible surface of a Sun-like star, the Earth-sized exoplanet Kepler-78b is a hellish world. But its existence bodes well for the discovery and characterization of habitable planets. See Letters p.377 & p.381

Deming, Drake

2013-11-01

437

The Colors of Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color of an extrasolar planet is an important property because, for the case of direct detection, color is likely to be the first post-detection quantity to be measured. We show here that color carries considerable information on planetary properties. The next most likely measurable quantity is a low resolution spectrum, and we show what additional information this carries. Several

W. A. Traub

2003-01-01

438

A First Step Towards Understanding Popularity in YouTube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being popular in YouTube is becoming a fundamental way of promoting one's self, services or products. In this paper, we conduct an in depth study of fundamental properties of video popularity in YouTube. We collect and study arguably the largest dataset of YouTube videos, roughly 37 million, accounting for 25% of all YouTube videos. We analyze popularity in a comprehensive

Gloria Chatzopoulou; Cheng Sheng; Michalis Faloutsos

2010-01-01

439

Competition-induced criticality in a model of meme popularity.  

PubMed

Heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity occur naturally in a model of meme diffusion on social networks. Competition between multiple memes for the limited resource of user attention is identified as the mechanism that poises the system at criticality. The popularity growth of each meme is described by a critical branching process, and asymptotic analysis predicts power-law distributions of popularity with very heavy tails (exponent ?<2, unlike preferential-attachment models), similar to those seen in empirical data. PMID:24580496

Gleeson, James P; Ward, Jonathan A; O'Sullivan, Kevin P; Lee, William T

2014-01-31

440

Competition-Induced Criticality in a Model of Meme Popularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity occur naturally in a model of meme diffusion on social networks. Competition between multiple memes for the limited resource of user attention is identified as the mechanism that poises the system at criticality. The popularity growth of each meme is described by a critical branching process, and asymptotic analysis predicts power-law distributions of popularity with very heavy tails (exponent ? <2, unlike preferential-attachment models), similar to those seen in empirical data.

Gleeson, James P.; Ward, Jonathan A.; O'Sullivan, Kevin P.; Lee, William T.

2014-01-01

441

Heterogeneity of popular boys: Antisocial and prosocial configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined subtypes of popular 4th-6th grade boys (N = 452). Popular-prosocial (model) and popular-antisocial (tough) configurations were identified by means of teacher ratings and compared with peer and self-assessments and social centrality measures. Peers perceived model boys as cool, athletic, leaders, cooperative, studious, not shy, and nonaggressive. Peers perceived tough boys as cool, athletic, and antisocial. Model boys

Philip C. Rodkin; Thomas W. Farmer; Ruth Pearl; Richard Van Acker

2000-01-01

442

Tidal Dissipation in Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many known extra-solar giant planets lie close to their host stars. Around 60 have their semi-major axes smaller than 0.05 AU. In contrast to planets further out, the vast majority of these close-in planets have low eccentricity orbits. This suggests that their orbits have been circularized likely due to tidal dissipation inside the planets. These exoplanets share with our own Jupiter at least one trait in common: when they are subject to periodic tidal forcing, they behave like a lossy spring, with a tidal "quality factor", Q, of order 105. This parameter is the ratio between the energy in the tide and the energy dissipated per period. To explain this, a possible solution is resonantly forced internal oscillation. If the frequency of the tidal forcing happens to land on that of an internal eigenmode, this mode can be resonantly excited to a very large amplitude. The damping of such a mode inside the planet may explain the observed Q value. The only normal modes that fall in the frequency range of the tidal forcing (˜ few days) are inertial modes, modes restored by the Coriolis force. We present a new numerical technique to solve for inertial modes in a convective, rotating sphere. This technique combines the use of an ellipsoidal coordinate system with a pseudo-spectral method to solve the partial differential equation that governs the inertial oscillations. We show that, this technique produces highly accurate solutions when the density profile is smooth. In particular, the lines of nodes are roughly parallel to the ellipsoidal coordinate axes. In particular, using these accurate solutions, we estimate the resultant tidal dissipation for giant planets, and find that turbulent dissipation of inertial modes in planets with smooth density profiles do not give rise to dissipation as strong as the one observed. We also study inertial modes in density profiles that exhibit discontinuities, as some recent models of Jupiter show. We found that, in this case, our method could not produce convergent solutions for the inertial modes. Additionally, we propose a way to observe inertial modes inside Saturn indirectly, by observing waves in its rings that may be excited by inertial modes inside Saturn.

Pena, Fernando Gabriel

2010-08-01

443

Outlook: Testing Planet Formation Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of the first planetary companion to a solar-type star by Mayor and Queloz (1995) launched the extrasolar planetary systems era. Observational and theoretical progress in this area has been made at a breathtaking pace since 1995, as evidenced by this workshop. We now have a large and growing sample of extrasolar gas giant planets with which to test our theories of their formation and evolution. The two competing theories for the formation of gas giant planets, core accretion and disk instability, appear to have testable predictions: (i) Core accretion seems to require exceptionally long-lived disks, implying that gas giants should be somewhat rare, while disk instability can occur in even the shortest-lived disk, implying that gas giants should be abundant. The ongoing census of gas giants by the spectroscopic search programs will determine the frequency of gas giants on Jupiter-like orbits within the next decade. (ii) Core accretion takes millions of years to form gas giants, while disk instability forms gaseous protoplanets in thousands of years. Determining the epoch of gas giant planet formation by searching for astrometric wobbles indicative of gas giant companions around young stars with a range of ages (˜ 0.1 Myr to ˜ 10 Myr) should be possible with the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). (iii) Core accretion would seem to be bolstered by a higher ratio of dust to gas, whereas disk instability occurs equally well for a range of dust opacities. Determining whether a high primordial metallicity is necessary for gas giant planet formation can be accomplished by spectroscopic and astrometric searches for gas giants around metal-poor stars. Eventually, ice giant planets will be detectable as well. If ice giants are found to be much more frequent that gas giants, this may imply that core accretion occurs, but usually fails to form a gas giant. Terrestrial planets will be detected through photometry by Kepler and Eddington, astrometry by SIM, and imaging by Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin. Ultimately these detections will clarify the process of Earth formation by collisional accumulation, the only contending theory.

Boss, A. P.

444

Radar Images of the Earth: Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features links to seven NASA radar images of the world's oceans, including brief descriptions of the respective processes and settings. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radar illuminates Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

445

The Stability of the Terrestrial Planets in Systems with a Planet in the Asteroid Belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

If a massive planetary-sized body was present in the asteroid belt, the orbits of the terrestrial planets and those of the giant planets would be more closely coupled. A greater exchange in angular momentum could affect the stability of the terrestrial planets. To study this effect, we have simulated several systems consisting of the solar system planets and a planetary-sized

E. V. Quintana; E. J. Rivera; J. J. Lissauer; M. J. Duncan

2000-01-01

446

A fourth planet orbiting upsilo Andromedae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 4-planet Keplerian fit for the radial velocity curve of the F8V star upsilo Andromeda, indicating the presence of a fourth planet in the system. We detect an additional fifth coherent signal in the radial velocity curve which we attribute to stellar activity. The discovery of a new planet around upsilo Andromedae makes this system the fifth to

S. Curiel; J. Cantó; L. Georgiev; C. E. Chávez; A. Poveda

2011-01-01

447

Binary star systems and extrasolar planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

For ten years, planets around stars similar to the Sun have been discovered, confirmed, and their properties studied. Planets have been found in a variety of environments previously thought impossible. The results have revolutionized the way in which scientists understand planet and star formation and evolution, and provide context for the roles of the Earth and our own solar system.

Matthew Ward Muterspaugh

2005-01-01

448

Progress in extra-solar planet detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in extra-solar planet detection is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the definition of a planet; (2) the weakness of planet signals; (3) direct techniques - imaging and spectral detection; and (4) indirect techniques - reflex motion and occultations.

Brown, Robert A.

1991-01-01

449

The Cambridge Photographic Guide to the Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cambridge Photographic Guide to the Planets includes a broad selection of the latest images of the planets, moons, comets, and asteroids of the Earth's Solar System. Beginning with a comprehensive introduction to the planetary system, its origin and its evolution, physicist Frederick Taylor devotes each chapter to a different planet or Solar System body, with a thorough presentation of

Fredric W. Taylor

2001-01-01

450

Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the `albedo flip' property of water substance, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that `flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Ice sheet and ocean inertia provides only moderate delay to ice sheet disintegration and a burst of added global warming. Recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions place the Earth perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures. CO2 is the largest human-made climate forcing, but CH4, O3, N2O and black carbon (BC) are important. Only intense simultaneous efforts to slow CO2 emissions and reduce non-CO2 forcings can keep climate within or near the range of the past million years. Some forcings are especially effective at high latitudes, so concerted efforts to reduce their emissions could still ``save the Arctic,'' while also having major benefits for human health, agricultural productivity, and the global environment.

Hansen, James

2007-04-01

451

Tidally-driven ocean circulation in close-in Super-Earths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Léger et al. (2004) and Küüchner (2003) hypothesised that Ocean planets, Super-Earth planets with liquid-water oceans covering their whole surfaces may exist. Some may have already been discovered, such as GJ 1214b. However at this time we need predictions of observables to uniquely identify ocean planets. On such planets, the climate will be dominated by the nature of the ocean, which is currently poorly understood. However, Super-Earths which orbit close-in to dwarf M-stars will have very large tidal forcings, several orders of magnitude larger than Earth. The current work explores the effects of such a tidal forcing on the ocean circulation of such a planet. In particular, we aim to answer two questions: (1) Is there a deep circulation connecting the surface to the ocean floor, and (2) what is the scale of heat redistribution in the ocean. The nature of the circulation is crucial for determining the composition of the ocean. In the lack of a connecting circulation, most solids would be expected to precipitate to the ocean floor, hence inhibiting life. We examine the case of GJ-1214b, and evaluate the prospects for a liquid-water ocean. For a air-liquid phase transition to exist, a high albedo and hence cloud cover is required. We investigate the heat transfer required to generate cloud cover with a water ocean and H/He dominated atmosphere, and make preliminary predictions on the observables in such a climate, in particular the albedo from cloud layers and thermal emission profile.

McKinstry, Alastair; Shearer, Andy

2010-05-01

452

Formation and Survival of Water Vapor in the Terrestrial Planet-Forming Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent astronomical observations have revealed what may prove to be the ubiquity of water vapor during the early stages of planet formation. We present here a simple mechanism showing how water vapor forms in situ and is capable of shielding itself from molecule-destroying stellar radiation. The absorption of this radiation by water can control the thermodynamics of the terrestrial planet-forming zone. Similar to Earth's ozone layer, which shelters the chemistry of life, the water layer protects other water molecules and allows for a rich organic chemistry. The total abundance of water vapor in the natal habitable zone is equal to that of several thousand oceans.

Bethell, Thomas; Bergin, Edwin

2009-12-01

453

Oceans Effect on Climate and Weather: Global Circulation Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni�o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. Learning Outcomes: � Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents. � Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year. � Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns. � List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocea

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

454

High Tech High interns develop a mid-ocean ridge database for research and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mid-ocean ridges (MOR) represent one of the most important geographic features on planet Earth. MORs are the locations where plates spread apart, they are the locations of most of the earths' volcanoes that harbor some of the most extreme life forms. These concepts attract much research, but mid-ocean ridges are still effectively not represented in the earth science class rooms.

D. Staudigel; R. Delaney; H. Staudigel; A. Koppers; S. Miller

2003-01-01

455

Search for Terrestrial Planets with SIM Planet Quest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SIM is an astrometric mission that will be capable of 1 microarcsec relative astrometric accuracy in a single measurement of approx.1000 sec. The search for terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around nearby stars is one of the main science goals of the project. In 2001, NASA through the peer review process selected 10 key projects, two of which had as its goal, the search for terrestrial planets around nearby stars. The two teams, one led by G. Marcy (UC Berkeley) and one lead by M. Shao (JPL), have an extensive preparatory science program underway. This paper describes the status of this activity as well as the technology status of SIM's narrow angle astrometry capability, to reach 1 uas in a single epoch measure and its ability to average multiple epoch measurements to well below 1 uas.

Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Catanzarite, Joseph H.

2006-01-01

456

The Earth: A Changing Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

text: We describe a didactic unit that rises from our own living impression about our experience on the planet. Most of us feel the Earth to be a very static place. Rocks don't easily move and most landscapes always look the same over time. Anyone would say (the same way most scientists believed until the beginning of the last century) that our planet has always remained unchanged, never transformed. But then, all of a sudden, as a misfortune for so many humans, natural hazards appear on the scene: an earthquake causing so many disasters, a tsunami carrying away everything in its path, an eruption that can destroy huge surrounding areas but also bring new geographical relief. Science cannot remain oblivious to these events, we must wonder beyond. What does an earthquake mean? Why does it happen? What about an eruption? If it comes from the inside, what can we guess from it? Researching about all of these events, scientists have been able to arrive to some important knowledge of the planet itself: It has been possible to theorize about Earth's interior. It has also been confirmed that the planet has not always been the quiet and stable place we once thought. Continents, as Wegener supposed, do move about and the Tectonic Plates Theory, thanks to the information obtained through earthquakes and eruption, can provide some interesting explanations. But how do we know about our planet's past? How can we prove that the Earth has always been moving and that its surface changes? The Earth's rocks yield the answer. Rocks have been the only witnesses throughout millions of years, since the planet first came to existence. Let's learn how to read them… Shouldn't we realize that rocks are to Geology what books are to History? This discursive process has been distributed in four learning sequences: 1. Land is not as solid nor firm as it would seem, 2. The Earth planet: a puzzle, 3. The rocks also recycle , 4. Field trip to "Sant Miquel del Fai". The subjects take about 30 hours of class time for students from 13 to 14 years of age. During the learning process, different methodological tools of teaching and learning have been used. After reading and understanding news about natural disasters such as earthquakes and eruptions, cooperative group work and an oral presentation are prepared. In addition, it has been very useful to follow-up with some web simulations to predict natural phenomena, which can then be tested in the laboratory. Finally, the students apply their new understanding on a visit to a geological formation, where applying the language learned by observing the rocks, they demonstrate that the planet Earth has changed over the course of many millions of years. Natural hazards are a small and timely demonstration of the ability to change our planet.

Ribas, Núria; Màrquez, Conxita

2013-04-01

457

Controls on the Climates of Tidally Locked Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of M-dwarf stars may be very common. Due to strong tidal forces, these planets in circulate orbits are expected to be tidally locked, with one hemisphere experiencing perpetual day and the other permanent night. Previous studies on the climates of tidally locked planets were primarily based on complex 3D general circulation models (GCMs). The central question to be answered in this work is: what is the minimum necessary physics needed to understand the climates simulated by GCMs? A two-column model, primarily based on the weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation (Sobel et al. 2001) and the fixed anvil temperature (FAT) hypothesis (Hartmann and Larson 2002) for the tropical climate of Earth, is developed for understanding the climates of tidally locked planets. This highly idealized model well reproduces fundamental features of the climates obtained in complicated GCMs (Yang et al. 2013), including planetary albedo, longwave cloud forcing, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and atmospheric energy transport. This suggests that the WTG approximation and the FAT hypothesis ma