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1

Ocean Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Ocean Planet_ is a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition that now has a companion on-line exhibition. It covers varied topics associated with the ocean, such as the science of the ocean, the animals, people, and communities who use the ocean, and pollution problems currently endangering ocean resources. The exhibit features all of the text and a good portion of the images from the traveling exhibit. The curator of this exhibit has put together six special interest tours including Biodiversity, Women and the Sea, and Pollution. Users can also build their own special tour from a list of key words. The current list contains only four words, but is expected to grow in the future. Visitors can also consult a comprehensive list of educational materials and ocean resources.

2

Ocean Planet: Ocean Market  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on foods, materials and medicines that comes form marine life, how these resources are harvested and processed and the impacts of fisheries. Students identify and classify consumer goods from the ocean and calculate their cost. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

3

Ocean Planet: Sea Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on ocean bottom features including continental shelf, deep ocean plain, and mid-ocean ridges. Students study the discovery and mapping of seafloor features, learn to read seafloor maps, then create a map of Atlantic seafloor features. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; maps and forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

4

A New Family of Planets ? "Ocean Planets"  

E-print Network

A new family of planets is considered which is between rochy terrestrial planets and gaseous giant ones: "Ocean-Planets". We present the possible formation, composition and internal models of these putative planets, including that of their ocean, as well as their possible Exobiology interest. These planets should be detectable by planet detection missions such as Eddington and Kepler, and possibly COROT (lauch scheduled in 2006). They would be ideal targets for spectroscopic missions such as Darwin/TPF.

A. Leger; F. Selsis; C. Sotin; T. Guillot; D. Despois; H. Lammer; M. Ollivier; F. Brachet; A. Labeque; C. Valette

2003-08-19

5

Ocean Planet: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Planet is now an archival version of the 1995 Smithsonian Institution traveling exhibition which is no longer on display. This website spotlights 32 organisms to demonstrate the incredible diversity found in the oceans, images included. Over 99 percent of living space on earth is in the ocean, but we still know only a little about it.

6

Ocean Planet: Final Version  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Dave Pape

1994-04-29

7

Visit to an Ocean Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visit to an Ocean Planet is an innovative CD-ROM that has been transferred to the web. Visit to an Ocean Planet is for grades 5-12 that makes science, ocean, climate and life education fun and interactive. There are three sections, expedition, mission and guide. The expedition section engages students in exploring the 1997 El Nino, a look at oceanographers and their work, and an ocean science research cruise planning exercise. In the mission section, students discover many details about the TOPEX/Poseidon mission and learn about previous and future missions. They also learn how to measure ocean topography. The guide section contains lessons and classroom activities in climate, oceanography, and life in our oceans. The climate activities cover properties of fresh water and sea water, Earth's hydrologic cycle, coastal versus inland temperatures ocean currents and coastal temperatures, metric measurements, solar energy and distance, salinity, deep ocean circulations and greenhouse gases. The oceanography activities cover density of water, evaporation, mixing, sound in water, wind-driven currents, tides, upwelling and the Cartesian diver. The life in our oceans activities cover plankton, bioluminescence, oil spils and plastics in the ocean. Classroom activities can be downloaded directly from the website as .pdf files. The guide section also contains movies, images, and background materials. If you are an educator or home schooler, you can obtain a copy of the "Visit to an Ocean Planet" CD-ROM free of charge from the JPL Physical Oceanography DAAC: http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/edu.

1998-01-01

8

Visit to An Ocean Planet: Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource uses text, images, maps and a laboratory exercise to explain how differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water cause the formation of deep-ocean currents. It is part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's "Ocean Surface Topography from Space" website. This material is also available on the "Visit to An Ocean Planet" CD-ROM.

9

Ocean Planet: Final Version with Credits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Dave Pape

1995-05-26

10

Ocean Planet: Rough Cut Galapagos Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Dave Pape

1994-04-29

11

Ocean Planet: Rough Cut Hawaii Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Dave Pape

1994-04-29

12

121OUR CHANGING PLANET Ocean Bathymetry and  

E-print Network

the seafloor bathymetry. Seafloor spread- ing creates an axial rift and corrugated hills. Spreading ridges Subduction at Trench Seafloor Spreading at Mid-Ocean Ridge Subduction at TrenchVolcanic Arc Subduction Zone is the tallest feature on our planet rising 9,700 meters (31,800 feet) above the seafloor. (Data derived from

Sandwell, David T.

13

Ocean Planet - Staying on Top  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The map and narrative presented here explain how "low-tech" methods of scientific observation can be used to discern ocean current patterns. 60,000 Nike shoes lost overboard from a storm-tossed cargo ship in the northeastern Pacific in May 1990 began to wash ashore at times and places that coincided with the known surface current in the North Pacific Ocean, which moves in a large slow circle called a gyre.

14

Hydrothermal systems in small ocean planets.  

PubMed

We examine means for driving hydrothermal activity in extraterrestrial oceans on planets and satellites of less than one Earth mass, with implications for sustaining a low level of biological activity over geological timescales. Assuming ocean planets have olivine-dominated lithospheres, a model for cooling-induced thermal cracking shows how variation in planet size and internal thermal energy may drive variation in the dominant type of hydrothermal system-for example, high or low temperature system or chemically driven system. As radiogenic heating diminishes over time, progressive exposure of new rock continues to the current epoch. Where fluid-rock interactions propagate slowly into a deep brittle layer, thermal energy from serpentinization may be the primary cause of hydrothermal activity in small ocean planets. We show that the time-varying hydrostatic head of a tidally forced ice shell may drive hydrothermal fluid flow through the seafloor, which can generate moderate but potentially important heat through viscous interaction with the matrix of porous seafloor rock. Considering all presently known potential ocean planets-Mars, a number of icy satellites, Pluto, and other trans-neptunian objects-and applying Earth-like material properties and cooling rates, we find depths of circulation are more than an order of magnitude greater than in Earth. In Europa and Enceladus, tidal flexing may drive hydrothermal circulation and, in Europa, may generate heat on the same order as present-day radiogenic heat flux at Earth's surface. In all objects, progressive serpentinization generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day radiogenic heating and hydrogen is produced at rates between 10(9) and 10(10) molecules cm(2) s(1). PMID:18163874

Vance, Steve; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Kimura, Jun; Hussmann, Hauke; Demartin, Brian; Brown, J Michael

2007-12-01

15

Persistence of oceans on Earth-like planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The habitable zone is an orbital region around a star in which an Earth-like planet can maintain liquid water on its surface given a variety of atmospheric compositions. However, the abundance of water on the Earth's surface is not controlled by the atmosphere, but rather by the deep water/silicate cycle. On the Earth, volcanic outgassing of water from the mantle is balanced by loss of water to the mantle through subduction of water-rich oceanic seafloor. Much of this water is released immediately back to the surface through shallow, water-induced volcanism. However, a small but significant fraction of the water can be transported to deeper levels of the mantle. Mantle convection has therefore played an important role in controlling the size of Earth's surface oceans over the planet's lifetime.The deep water cycle of Earth has been studied with parameterized convection models incorporating a water-dependent viscosity. The abundance of water in the mantle, which lowers the convective viscosity, evolves along with the mantle temperature. Here we present results from a parameterized convection model extended to high pressures to study the deep water cycles of super-Earths. Assuming compositions similar to the Earth, our models indicate that ocean formation will be delayed on 5 MEarth planets by ~1 Gyr after planet formation. Although ocean mass on these planets increases with time, the oceans remain much shallower than for smaller planets, consistent with previous studies. Intermediate mass planets (2-4 MEarth) have immediate, but gradual outgassing and persistent oceans. Small terrestrial planets (? 1 MEarth) have rapid initial outgassing, but will gradually lose a significant fraction of their surface oceans due to mantle sequestration over their lifetimes.

Schaefer, Laura; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

2015-01-01

16

Ocean Planet: Partial Tour with Map Route Inset  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Dave Pape

1994-04-29

17

Ocean Planet: Rough Cut Ship and Submersible Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

18

Applications of Ocean Acoustic Monitoring to Understanding Our Planet  

SciTech Connect

The ocean covers two-thirds of the surface of Earth, and hides long chains of seafloor volcanoes, bizarre and magnificent life forms, and many dynamic geological processes. Shrouded in darkness, much of what happens deep in the ocean is unknown to us. But sound can tell us a great deal about what is going on in the ocean. Changes in the physical properties of seawater with depth allow relatively quiet sounds to travel great distances without loosing much energy. In this way we are able to record many noises that occur within or on the boundary of the ocean, giving us insight into geological, biological and man-made activities in the ocean. One of the most interesting noises to a geophysicist is the sound of mid-ocean ridge volcanic eruptions. These eruptions are forming new surface for our planet and helping create an extraordinary seafloor ecosystem. Examples of sounds heard and some of their implications will be presented.

Tolstoy, Maya (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University) [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University

2005-10-26

19

DETECTING OCEANS ON EXTRASOLAR PLANETS USING THE GLINT EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

Glint, the specular reflection of sunlight off Earth's oceans, may reveal the presence of oceans on an extrasolar planet. As an Earth-like planet nears crescent phases, the size of the ocean glint spot increases relative to the fraction of the illuminated disk, while the reflectivity of this spot increases. Both effects change the planet's visible reflectivity as a function of phase. However, strong forward scattering of radiation by clouds can also produce increases in a planet's reflectivity as it approaches crescent phases, and surface glint can be obscured by Rayleigh scattering and atmospheric absorption. Here, we explore the detectability of glint in the presence of an atmosphere and realistic phase-dependent scattering from oceans and clouds. We use the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model to simulate Earth's broadband visible brightness and reflectivity over an orbit. Our validated simulations successfully reproduce phase-dependent Earthshine observations. We find that the glinting Earth can be as much as 100% brighter at crescent phases than simulations that do not include glint, and that the effect is dependent on both orbital inclination and wavelength, where the latter dependence is caused by Rayleigh scattering limiting sensitivity to the surface. We show that this phenomenon may be observable using the James Webb Space Telescope paired with an external occulter.

Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Crisp, David, E-mail: robinson@astro.washington.ed [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2010-09-20

20

The persistence of oceans on Earth-like planets: insights from the deep-water cycle  

E-print Network

In this paper we present a series of models for the deep water cycle on super-Earths experiencing plate tectonics. The deep water cycle can be modeled through parameterized convection models coupled with a volatile recycling model. The convection of the silicate mantle is linked to the volatile cycle through the water-dependent viscosity. Important differences in surface water content are found for different parameterizations of convection. Surface oceans are smaller and more persistent for single layer convection, rather than convection by boundary layer instability. Smaller planets have initially larger oceans but also return that water to the mantle more rapidly than larger planets. Super-Earths may therefore be less habitable in their early years than smaller planets, but their habitability (assuming stable surface conditions), will persist much longer.

Schaefer, Laura

2015-01-01

21

The Blue Planet: Seas & Oceans. Young Discovery Library Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, facinate them and educate them, this volume explores the physical and environmental characteristics of the world's oceans. Topics are: (1) human exploration; (2) the food chain; (3) coral reefs; (4) currents and tides; (5) waves; (6)…

de Beauregard, Diane Costa

22

It's Only a Little Planet: A Primer for Ocean Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Day on the Bay Cruise Program, funded by the National Sea Grant Program, this learner's manual outlines ocean studies conducted on a seven-hour cruise of the Galveston Bay area. A description of the geology and human use of Galveston Bay follows a general introduction to coastal and estuarine ecology. Line drawings…

Meyland, Sarah J.

23

Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast discusses developments in the search for extraterrestrial planets. Topics include what causes a planet to form, and how they are detected. There is also speculation on the liklihood of an Earth-like planet being found and the basic requirements for extraterrestrial life. The broadcast is 42 minutes in length.

24

Possible lava flows on the red planet: the key for the mathematical approach in computing how deep Martian oceans were during each period of the planet history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Covering certain area of the planet long enough and accumulating the impacts of meteors, ocean prevents appearance of craters on the surface. Even if ocean dries up once, associated territory will still contain relatively smaller number of craters. Mathematically, this influence can be described as correlation between topology profile of the planet and distribution of craters. However, large lava flows can also erase craters from the surface, so we can not directly determine from the correlation whether the oceans existed and how large they were. If the possible lava flows could be determined, then it would also be possible to compute whether the remained territory - not flooded with the lava - had been covered by the ocean, because nothing else can influence the correlation in such large amount (a meteor large enough to erase almost all other craters from the Martian northern hemisphere would certainly leave clearly visible trace, while atmosphere would pass trough only large meteors and would erase all small craters in lowlands by winds and sand-storms). Using precise topographic globes obtained by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, all possible lava sources can be marked, and then, through the simulation, all territory that could have been flooded by the lava can also be excluded from computations. However, we do not know exactly how much the planet topography was changing. To solve the problem, simulations were made assuming different changes of the planet topography resulting in different areas that could have been flooded by the lava. In all cases, from the most optimistic one where insignificantly low percentage of the planet territory is excluded, to the most pessimistic one where most of the planet territory is excluded, results were always the same with only slight differences in precision. This leads to the conclusion that the lava could not have influenced the correlation in required amount, leaving the oceans as the only possible explanation. Once this was confirmed, the lava-flow simulation that most closely matches the lava-flows visible on images obtained by the Mars Orbiter Camera was chosen, resulting in as precise input for mathematical analysis as possible. The obtained pairs (ocean depth in meters, time in millions of years) are: (9688, -4750), (9688, -4500), (9621, -4250), (9554, -4000), (9489, -3750), (9422, -3500), (9351, -3250), (9276, -3000), (9141, -2750), (6867, -2500), (6569, -2250), (6328, -2000), (6157, -1750), (5928, -1500), (5660, -1250), (5276, -1000), (4742, -750), (4425, -500), (3901, -250), (3728, -200), (3501, -150), (3107, -100), (0, -50).

Salamuniccar, G.

25

The Outer Planets/Solar Probe Project: "Between an ocean, a rock, and a hot place".  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of NASA's Origins program, the Outer Planets/Solar Probe Project was established in early 1998. This flight project is composed of three challenging and exciting missions which span the far reaches of the solar system. Europa Orbiter, with a planned launch in November of 2003, will travel to Jupiter's moon, Europa, in search of a subsurface liquid water ocean which, if found, could provide a possible environment for the evolution of extraterrestrial life. Pluto-Kuiper Express, with a planned launch in December 2004, will travel to the last planet of the solar system yet to be visited and studied by a robotic spacecraft, and possibly continue on an extended mission to study the remnants from the creation of the solar system found within the Kuiper Belt. Solar Probe, with a planned launch in February 2007, will travel into the heart of the solar system, at three solar radii from the "surface" of the Sun, to study the structure of the corona as well as the source and mechanisms for the creation and acceleration of the Solar Wind. In order to ensure success of each of these missions, under stringent mass, power, and cost constraints, the Outer Planets/Solar Probe Project will rely heavily on several new technologies. Many of these technologies are currently being developed by the Deep Space System Technology Program's First Delivery Project (otherwise known as X2000). This paper summarizes each of the Outer Planet/Solar Probe missions, including the science objectives, mission description, and current spacecraft concepts. The commonalities between these three missions and their reliance on the X2000 project, as well as the mission specific technology developments required for each mission, are also discussed.

Maddock, R. W.; Clark, K. B.; Henry, C. A.; Hoffman, P. J.

26

Oceanic Communities in a Changing Planet - The Tara Oceans Project (GSC8 Meeting)  

ScienceCinema

The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Jeroen Raes of the University of Brussels discusses the Tara-Oceans expedition at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

Raes, Jeroen [University of Brussels

2011-04-28

27

Oceanic Communities in a Changing Planet - The Tara Oceans Project (GSC8 Meeting)  

SciTech Connect

The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Jeroen Raes of the University of Brussels discusses the Tara-Oceans expedition at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

Raes, Jeroen [University of Brussels] [University of Brussels

2009-09-09

28

ARTICLE IN PRESS YICAR:8261 Please cite this article in press as: F. Selsis et al., Could we identify hot ocean-planets with CoRoT, Kepler and Doppler velocimetry?, Icarus (2007),  

E-print Network

. If migration stops within the habitable zone, this may produce a new kind of planets, called ocean-planets identify hot ocean-planets with CoRoT, Kepler and Doppler velocimetry?, Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j ··· (····) ···­··· www.elsevier.com/locate/icarus Could we identify hot ocean-planets with CoRoT, Kepler and Doppler

Bordé, Pascal J.

29

Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans Electronic-Theater 2001  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/NOAA/AMS Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Fredericton New Brunswick. Drop in on the Kennedy Space Center and Park City Utah, site of the 2002 Olympics using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and International global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & tornadoes. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA and Canadian remote sensing missions like Terra GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, and Radarsat that are visualized & explained. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science in cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC. See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images eg Landsat tours of the US, Africa, & New Zealand showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Onyx II Graphics Supercomputer with four CPUs, 8 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte of disk. With multiple projectors on a giant screen. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite.

Hasler, A. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

30

Ocean Planet or Thick Atmosphere: On the Mass-Radius Relationship for Solid Exoplanets with Massive Atmospheres  

E-print Network

The bulk composition of an exoplanet is commonly inferred from its average density. For small planets, however, the average density is not unique within the range of compositions. Variations of a number of important planetary parameters--which are difficult or impossible to constrain from measurements alone--produce planets with the same average densities but widely varying bulk compositions. We find that adding a gas envelope equivalent to 0.1%-10% of the mass of a solid planet causes the radius to increase 5-60% above its gas-free value. A planet with a given mass and radius might have substantial water ice content (a so-called ocean planet) or alternatively a large rocky-iron core and some H and/or He. For example, a wide variety of compositions can explain the observed radius of GJ 436b, although all models require some H/He. We conclude that the identification of water worlds based on the mass-radius relationship alone is impossible unless a significant gas layer can be ruled out by other means.

E. R. Adams; S. Seager; L. Elkins-Tanton

2007-10-25

31

Electronic-Theater 2001: Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/NOAA/AMS Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Wisconsin, Madison and the Monona Terrace Center. Drop in on the Kennedy Space Center and Park City Utah, site of the 2002 Olympics using I m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s pioneered by UW. Scientists and see them contrasted with the latest US and International global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & tornadoes. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 that are visualized & explained. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science in cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC. See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images eg Landsat tours of the US, Africa, & New Zealand showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See vortices and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nina/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Onyx 11 Graphics Supercomputer with four CPUs, 8 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte of disk. With five projectors on a giant IMAX sized 18 x 72 ft screen. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "nightvision" DMSP military satellite.

Hasler, Authur; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

32

The Torque of the Planet: NASA Researcher Uses NCCS Computers to Probe Atmosphere-Land-Ocean Coupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of Earth science is like a giant puzzle, says Braulio Sanchez. "The more you know about the individual pieces, the easier it is to fit them together." A researcher with Goddard's Space Geodesy Branch, Sanchez has been using NCCS supercomputer and mass storage resources to show how the angular momenta of the atmosphere, the oceans, and the solid Earth are dynamically coupled. Sanchez has calculated the magnitude of atmospheric torque on the planet and has determined some of the possible effects that torque has on Earth's rotation.

2002-01-01

33

The Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project: “Between an ocean, a rock, and a hot place”  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of NASA's Origins program, the Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project (formerly known as the Ice and Fire Preprojects) was established in early 1998. This flight project is composed of three challenging and exciting missions which span the far reaches of the solar system. Europa Orbiter, with a planned launch in November of 2003, will travel to Jupiter's moon, Europa,

Robert W. Maddock; Karla B. Clark; Curt A. Henry; Pamela J. Hoffman

1999-01-01

34

Earth is a dynamic, living oasis in the desolation of space. The land, oceans, and air interact in complex ways to give our planet a unique set  

E-print Network

Earth is a dynamic, living oasis in the desolation of space. The land, oceans, and air interact in this process. In the mid 1980s, NASA developed a systems-based approach to studying the Earth and called it "Earth System Science" to advance the knowledge of Earth as a planet. Space-based observations

35

A new family of planets?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new family of planets is considered which is in between rocky terrestrial planets and gaseous giant ones, Ocean-Planets. We envision that these planets would have formed in an ice-rich environment and migrated closer to their star, in the Habitable Zone. We present hereafter preliminary internal models of these putative planets. We assume that their mass is between 1 and

A. Léger; F. Selsis; C. Sotin; T. Guillot; D. Despois; H. Lammer; M. Ollivier; F. Brachet

2003-01-01

36

The Orbital Phases and Secondary Transits of Kepler-10b. A Physical Interpretation Based on the Lava-ocean Planet Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler mission has made an important observation: the first detection of photons from a terrestrial planet by observing its phase curve (Kepler-10b). This opens a new field in exoplanet science: the possibility of obtaining information about the atmosphere and surface of rocky planets, objects of prime interest. In this Letter, we apply the Lava-ocean model to interpret the observed phase curve. The model, a planet without atmosphere and a surface partially made of molten rocks, has been proposed for planets of the class of CoRoT-7b, i.e., rocky planets very close to their star (at a few stellar radii). Kepler-10b is a typical member of this family. It predicts that the light from the planet has an important emission component in addition to the reflected one, even in the Kepler spectral band. Assuming an isotropical reflection of light by the planetary surface (Lambertian-like approximation), we find that a Bond albedo of ~50% can account for the observed amplitude of the phase curve, as opposed to a first attempt where an unusually high value was found. We propose a physical process to explain this still large value of the albedo. The overall interpretation can be tested in the future with instruments such as the James Webb Space Telescope or the Exoplanet Characterization Observatory. Our model predicts a spectral dependence that is clearly distinguishable from that of purely reflected light and from that of a planet at a uniform temperature.

Rouan, D.; Deeg, H. J.; Demangeon, O.; Samuel, B.; Cavarroc, C.; Fegley, B.; Léger, A.

2011-11-01

37

THE ORBITAL PHASES AND SECONDARY TRANSITS OF KEPLER-10b. A PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION BASED ON THE LAVA-OCEAN PLANET MODEL  

SciTech Connect

The Kepler mission has made an important observation: the first detection of photons from a terrestrial planet by observing its phase curve (Kepler-10b). This opens a new field in exoplanet science: the possibility of obtaining information about the atmosphere and surface of rocky planets, objects of prime interest. In this Letter, we apply the Lava-ocean model to interpret the observed phase curve. The model, a planet without atmosphere and a surface partially made of molten rocks, has been proposed for planets of the class of CoRoT-7b, i.e., rocky planets very close to their star (at a few stellar radii). Kepler-10b is a typical member of this family. It predicts that the light from the planet has an important emission component in addition to the reflected one, even in the Kepler spectral band. Assuming an isotropical reflection of light by the planetary surface (Lambertian-like approximation), we find that a Bond albedo of {approx}50% can account for the observed amplitude of the phase curve, as opposed to a first attempt where an unusually high value was found. We propose a physical process to explain this still large value of the albedo. The overall interpretation can be tested in the future with instruments such as the James Webb Space Telescope or the Exoplanet Characterization Observatory. Our model predicts a spectral dependence that is clearly distinguishable from that of purely reflected light and from that of a planet at a uniform temperature.

Rouan, D. [LESIA, UMR 8109 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, UVSQ, Universite Paris-Diderot, 5 pl. J. Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Deeg, H. J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Demangeon, O.; Samuel, B.; Cavarroc, C.; Leger, A. [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris-Sud, bat 121, F-91405 Orsay (France); Fegley, B., E-mail: daniel.rouan@obspm.fr [Planetary Chemistry Laboratory, McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

2011-11-10

38

Popular Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popular diets are a constant in the lives of women. And while some restrictedcalorie plans recommending extreme differences\\u000a in the contribution of calories from fat, carbohydrate, and protein may promote weight loss in some women, they should not\\u000a be undertaken during pregnancy. Unfortunately, the scientific literature documenting the prevalence of use of popular diets\\u000a in pregnant women, or more importantly

Nancy Rodriguez; Michelle Price Judge

39

Oceans Alive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

Rosentrater, Lynn

40

Building Planet Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental plates, moving as fast as human hair grows, collide, mountains buckle, the ocean abyss sucks in the Earth's crust, and volcanos explode. Here is a story that Hollywood wished it could option: the dynamic cycle of geological destruction and renewal that has stretched across billions of years and shaped our planet in its current image. Scene by scene, this action-packed blockbuster can be experienced in Building Planet Earth. Peter Cattermole begins the story by describing a cloud of matter that surrounds a primitive Sun. Out of this the Earth was formed through compaction and internal heating to the point at which it became a stable, layered structure with a core, mantle, and crust. Using eye-catching images, artwork, and diagrams, Building Planet Earth presents this geological development and goes on to discuss what is happening to our planet now and what we can expect in the future. Cattermole covers in fascinating detail the impact of mass extinctions, global-warming, and ozone holes. The book features 241 illustrations--128 in full-color--and a number of useful appendices. For anyone who has ever wondered how this miraculous planet continues to thrive and surprise, this elegantly-written book will be an essential read. Peter Cattermole is a principal investigator with NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program. He has written several books on geology and astronomy as well as numerous articles for both scholarly and popular media, including Atlas of Venus (Cambridge University Press, 1997) and The Story of the Earth (Cambridge University Press, 1985).

Cattermole, Peter

2000-03-01

41

The effects of cloud radiative forcing on an ocean-covered planet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cumulus anvil clouds, whose importance has been emphasized by observationalists in recent years, exert a very powerful influence on deep tropical convection by tending to radiatively destabilize the troposphere. In addition, they radiatively warm the column in which they reside. Their strong influence on the simulated climate argues for a much more refined parameterization in the General Circulation Model (GCM). For Seaworld, the atmospheric cloud radiative forcing (ACRF) has a powerful influence on such basic climate parameters as the strength of the Hadley circulation, the existence of a single narrow InterTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the precipitable water content of the atmosphere. It seems likely, however, that in the real world the surface CRF feeds back negatively to suppress moist convection and the associated cloudiness, and so tends to counteract the effects of the ACRF. Many current climate models have fixed sea surface temperatures but variable land-surface temperatures. The tropical circulations of such models may experience a position feedback due to ACRF over the oceans, and a negative or weak feedback due to surface CRF over the land. The overall effects of the CRF on the climate system can only be firmly established through much further analysis, which can benefit greatly from the use of a coupled ocean-atmospheric model.

Randall, David A.

1990-01-01

42

Ocean Planet: Sea Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of a set of multidisciplinary lesson plans from the Smithsonian. This lesson plan examines the marine environment and how human activities can upset the delicate balance. Includes downloadable student activities and tips on engaging students. Background material and most of the materials are provided. The "Resources" link provides an abundance of additional information, in the form of links and books, for each lesson.

2012-07-18

43

The orbital phases and secondary transit of Kepler-10b - A physical interpretation based on the Lava-ocean planet model -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we apply the Lava-ocean model that has been proposed for planets of the class of CoRoT-7b, i.e. rocky planets at a few stellar radii from their star, since Kepler-10b is a typical member of this family. The model predicts that the light from the planet has an important emission component in addition to the reflected one, even in the Kepler spectral band. Assuming an isotropical reflection of light by the planetary surface (Lambertian-like approximation), we find that a plausible Bond albedo of ˜ 50% can account for the observed phase amplitude, as opposed to a first attempt where an unusually high value was found. We propose a test of this interpretation: future observations of the planetary phases, in the near-IR, with instruments as JWST or Echo. The predicted spectral dependence of the secondary transit is clearly distinguishable from that of purely reflected light. The measurements would permit the determination of the temperature distribution at the planetary surface, which could be compared to the predictions of the Lavaocean model, with significant details.

Leger, A.; Deeg, H. J.; Demangeon, O.; Samuel, B.; Cavaroc, C.; Fegley, B.; Rouan, D.

2011-10-01

44

Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridge: Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center. Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center, is a growing collection of on-line marine education resources. It provides educators with ...

45

Dwarf Planets as the Most Populous Class of Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dwarf planets should form whenever the surface density of a protoplanetary disk is low enough, and as a transient stage during planet formation in more massive disks. In terms of physical attributes (hydrostatic shape, presence of atmospheres, internal oceans, active geology, satellites) there is no clear dividing line bewteen dwarf planets and larger, \\

W. B. McKinnon

2009-01-01

46

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the Earth work? What is its relationship to the other planets? These are but a few important questions answered by this creative instructional series created by WQED in Pittsburgh, in association with the National Academy of Sciences. The series was designed to present information about "our solar system and Earth's oceans, climate, and mineral and energy sources." The Annenberg Media group has placed this entire series online, and visitors can view all seven installments here. The programs include "The Climate Puzzle", "Gifts from the Earth", and "The Solar Sea". Teachers will note that the site also contains links to other educational resources, reviews, and related resources from the Annenberg Media organization.

1986-01-01

47

More than two-thirds of the Earth's surface is covered with water, so it is not surprising that the planet's oceans, lakes, rivers, streams and wetlands are considered valuable natural  

E-print Network

Lakes Science Center (USGS), and the Great Lakes Fisheries Commission (U.S. and Canada) provide settings that the planet's oceans, lakes, rivers, streams and wetlands are considered valuable natural resources and on a variety of related subject areas, including fisheries, risk assessments, watershed management, river

Edwards, Paul N.

48

Subsurface oceans and deep interiors of medium-sized outer planet satellites and large trans-neptunian objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of induced magnetic fields in the vicinity of the jovian satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto is one of the most surprising findings of the Galileo mission to Jupiter. The observed magnetic signature cannot be generated in solid ice or in silicate rock. It rather suggests the existence of electrically conducting reservoirs of liquid water beneath the satellites' outermost icy shells that may contain even more water than all terrestrial oceans combined. The maintenance of liquid water layers is closely related to the internal structure, composition, and thermal state of the corresponding satellite interior. In this study we investigate the possibility of subsurface oceans in the medium-sized icy satellites and the largest trans-neptunian objects (TNO's). Controlling parameters for subsurface ocean formation are the radiogenic heating rate of the silicate component and the effectiveness of the heat transfer to the surface. Furthermore, the melting temperature of ice will be significantly reduced by small amounts of salts and/or incorporated volatiles such as methane and ammonia that are highly abundant in the outer Solar System. Based on the assumption that the satellites are differentiated and using an equilibrium condition between the heat production rate in the rocky cores and the heat loss through the ice shell, we find that subsurface oceans are possible on Rhea, Titania, Oberon, Triton, and Pluto and on the largest TNO's 2003 UB 313, Sedna, and 2004 DW. Subsurface oceans can even exist if only small amounts of ammonia are available. The liquid subsurface reservoirs are located deeply underneath an ice-I shell of more than 100 km thickness. However, they may be indirectly detectable by their interaction with the surrounding magnetic fields and charged particles and by the magnitude of a satellite's response to tides exerted by the primary. The latter is strongly dependent on the occurrence of a subsurface ocean which provides greater flexibility to a satellite's rigid outer ice shell.

Hussmann, Hauke; Sohl, Frank; Spohn, Tilman

2006-11-01

49

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

50

Take a Planet Walk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create an…

Schuster, Dwight

2008-01-01

51

Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

None of the roughly one hundred hundred extrasolar planets found to date closely resembles the Solar System. Unlike the Solar System, most extrasolar planets are in eccentric orbits. The giant planets in the Solar System all orbit beyond 5 AU, while the known extrasolar planets (with one exception) all orbit within 4 AU, with several in extraordinarily small orbits with

P. Butler

2003-01-01

52

Using ocean observing systems to promote lifelong ocean education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coming ocean observing system provides an unprecedented opportunity to change both the public perception of our ocean, and to inspire, captivate and motivate our children, our young adults and our peers to pursue careers allied with the ocean and to become stewards of our Planet's ocean. Within this context educators participating in the Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks Workshop

B. W. Meeson

2005-01-01

53

The Popular Culture Explosion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture is defined here as anything produced by and/or dissembled by the mass media or mass production or transportation, either directly or indirectly, and that reaches the majority of the people. This sampler from mass magazines, intended for use in the study of popular culture, includes fiction from "Playboy"; articles on cars, Johnny…

Browne, Ray B.; Madden, David

54

Popular Communication After Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of popular communication is carried out in many disciplines and many sites. It is often haunted by anxieties over high culture versus low culture and authenticity versus commercialization. Rejecting those binaries in favor of the domi- nance of the latter term in each, this article initially defines popular communica- tion as objects widely circulated by mass media, texts

Joshua Gunn; Barry Brummett

2004-01-01

55

Take a Planet Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create an environment where students generate questions based on their prior knowledge; and challenge students to think critically about the accuracy and limitations of a scale model of our solar system.

Dwight Schuster

2008-09-01

56

Giant Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond the inner solar system's terrestrial planets, with their compact orbits and rock -metal compositions, lies the realm of the outer solar system and the giant planets. Here the distance between planets jumps by an order of magnitude relative to the spacing of the terrestrial planets, and the masses of the giants are one to two orders of magnitude greater than Venus and Earth - the largest terrestrial bodies. Composition changes as well, since the giant planets are largely gaseous, with inferred admixtures of ice, rock, and metal, while the terrestrial planets are essentially pure rock and metal. The giant planets have many more moons than do the terrestrial planets, and the range of magnetic field strengths is larger in the outer solar system. It is the giant planets that sport rings, ranging from the magnificent ones around Saturn to the variable ring arcs of Neptune. Were it not for the fact that only Earth supports abundant life (with life possibly existing, but not proved to exist, in the martian crust and liquid water regions underneath the ice of Jupiter's moon Europa), the terrestrial planets would pale in interest next to the giant planets for any extraterrestrial visitor.

Lunine, J. I.

57

Determinants of Meme Popularity  

E-print Network

Online social media have greatly affected the way in which we communicate with each other. However, little is known about what are the fundamental mechanisms driving dynamical information flow in online social systems. Here, we introduce a generative model for online sharing behavior and analytically show, using techniques from mathematical population genetics, that competition between memes for the limited resource of user attention leads to a type of self-organized criticality, with heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity: a few memes "go viral" but the majority become only moderately popular. The time-dependent solutions of the model are shown to fit empirical micro-blogging data on hashtag usage, and to predict novel scaling features of the data. The presented framework, in contrast to purely empirical studies or simulation-based models, clearly distinguishes the roles of two distinct factors affecting meme popularity: the memory time of users and the connectivity structure of the social network.

Gleeson, James P; Baños, Raquel A; Moreno, Yamir

2015-01-01

58

Ocean warning: avoid drowning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean is a popular program from the SPLASH-2 parallel benchmark suite. A complete application, as opposed to a computational kernel, Ocean is often used as a representative of a well-tuned parallel program in architectural studies. However, we find there is a danger in using Ocean to evaluate proposed enhancements that purport to either improve scalability or reduce synchronization overhead. The

Mark Heinrich; Mainak Chaudhuri

2003-01-01

59

Extrasolar planets  

PubMed Central

The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems. PMID:11035782

Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Ida, Shigeru

2000-01-01

60

Popularity in Wonderland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specialists in the field of children's literature, who publish research and decide on awards for individual books, should give serious study to what children themselves choose to read. Among the children's books that were not originally awarded top honors by critics but that have proved extremely popular with children are the Oz books by L. Frank…

Nist, J.S.

61

Planet hop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive game, students find the coordinates of four planets shown on the grid or locate the planets when given the coordinates. Finally, they must find the slope and y-intercept of the line connecting the planets in order to write its equation. Players select one of three levels of difficulty. Tips for students are available as well as a full explanation of the key instructional ideas underlying the game.

2007-12-12

62

Planet X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A name given to a hypothetical tenth major planet once believed to exist in the outer solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune. The `X', which stood for `unknown', was also appropriate as the roman numeral for `ten'. The label `Planet X' was originated by Percival Lowell. From the late nineteenth century, he and others, including William H Pickering, worked out orbits for a large tenth planet wh...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

63

The Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool allows users to find when planets are visible in a given year. The years covered by this site are 1900 to 2100. The positions given are for the 1st of the month, at 9 pm, and generally hold true for the entire month. Positions are noted by which constellation the planet is located in. The planets given are Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, and Pluto. Additional comments for Venus and Mars note their location and viewing times.

64

Mystery Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about the study of planetary samples. Learners will use samples of crustal material to sort, classify, and make observations about an unknown planet. From their observations, students will interpret the geologic history of their mystery planet and make inferences about past life or the potential for life on the "Mystery" planet. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

65

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in a global view of the weather, Planet Earth is a "real-time 3-D model of the Earth with continuously updating night shadows and clouds." Cloud images are provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Planet Earth is shareware with a fee of $29.95.

66

Planet Business  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The directory Planet Business aims to provide a "great gateway between Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania." Business metasites from around the world are listed in an A-Z index and by region, and the new Marketplace of Planet Business connects potential business partners among importers, exporters, traders, and distributors.

67

Extreme Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept depicts the pulsar planet system discovered by Aleksander Wolszczan in 1992. Wolszczan used the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico to find three planets - the first of any kind ever found outside our solar system - circling a pulsar called PSR B1257+12. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars, which are the collapsed cores of exploded massive stars. They spin and pulse with radiation, much like a lighthouse beacon. Here, the pulsar's twisted magnetic fields are highlighted by the blue glow.

All three pulsar planets are shown in this picture; the farthest two from the pulsar (closest in this view) are about the size of Earth. Radiation from charged pulsar particles would probably rain down on the planets, causing their night skies to light up with auroras similar to our Northern Lights. One such aurora is illustrated on the planet at the bottom of the picture.

Since this landmark discovery, more than 160 extrasolar planets have been observed around stars that are burning nuclear fuel. The planets spotted by Wolszczan are still the only ones around a dead star. They also might be part of a second generation of planets, the first having been destroyed when their star blew up. The Spitzer Space Telescope's discovery of a dusty disk around a pulsar might represent the beginnings of a similarly 'reborn' planetary system.

2006-01-01

68

The Terrestrial Planets Large Bodies  

E-print Network

: Greenhouse Effect: Solar heating & atmospheric cooling balance Helps determine if H2O is liquid, ice atmosphere. May have had early oceans that evaporated resulting in a Runaway Greenhouse Effect. Gravity elements. #12;The evolution of Terrestrial Planet atmospheres is driven by three primary effects

Gaudi, B. Scott

69

Popular knowledge and beliefs.  

PubMed

Although few things are as common as yawning, it has traditionally held little interest for researchers and enquiring minds of all disciplines. Yawning is a recognized behavior in almost all vertebrates, present throughout life, which often procures a sense of well-being for the yawner. Modern science is still searching for a complete explanation of the mechanisms and purpose of yawning, with debate about its usefulness as a stimulatory mechanism still ongoing. In this paper, we offer an overview of the popular beliefs and myths seen within Arabic, Western and Indian cultures. PMID:20357458

Walusinski, Olivier

2010-01-01

70

Planet Pals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by designer, illustrator, and educator Judith Ann Gorgone, the Planet Pals Web site provides good material for young kids related to the health of the planet. The colorful pages contain basic information about the earth, energy, recycling, water conservation, pollution, and more. The fun and interactive Meet the Planet Pals area is especially interesting, where kids can listen to animated cartoons talk about various aspects of conservation. Even though the site is geared towards young children, they may have difficulty finding the educational specific pages by themselves; so, a parent's or teacher's assistance would most likely be helpful.

Gorgone, Judith.

1991-01-01

71

Planet Slayer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Broadcasting Company offers a fun, interactive way to learn about environmentally responsible consumption. Visitors are invited to follow Greena, eco-chic Warrior Princess, as she navigates the world of green living. The Web site contains loads of engaging animated features, such as the Adventures of Greena, a cartoon in which Greena battles some environmental ill in each chapter. In the Planet Slayer Game, players choose to play earnestly as Greena and save the planet or ironically as a pink-swathed Barbie-like character to slay the planet. With the Greenhouse Calculator, users can figure out their toll on the planet in terms of carbon dioxide emissions -- a service you could find easily enough on the Web, but this one features exploding pigs. Lots of other great features are available, as is a set of well-selected links for more information on ethical investing, Kyoto Protocol, the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development, and more.

72

Planet Party  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners and their families are encouraged to go outside on a clear evening and view the sky to see the planets for themselves. Using sky charts and other resources, and possibly in partnership with a local astronomical society, children navigate the night sky and view planets with the naked eye and binoculars or telescopes. This activity is part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

73

Tomorrow's Forecast: Oceans and Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on weather and climate and is tied to the traveling exhibition Ocean Planet from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The lessons encourage students to think about the profound influence the oceans have on planetary climate and life on earth. Sections of the lesson plan include: (1) "Ocean

Smigielski, Alan

1995-01-01

74

Pulse of the Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Akin to a living creature, Earths land, air, oceans, ice, and life fit together into a complex, interlocking system. Space affords a unique vantage point from which to observe the daily, seasonal, and annual changes in Earths systems. Using data from advanced satellites, NASA visualizations portray a majestic, and sometimes violent, natural world and also capture the influences humans have on the planet. Over 80 NASA-related earth science animations created over the past 8 years implementing realtime and non-realtime techniques have been used on this visual journey. Tools used included IDL, Lightwave3D, Final Cut Pro, Performer, Vis5D, and custom software.

Kekesi, Alex; Snodgrass, Stuart; Shirah, Greg; Bridgman, Tom; Thomson, Joycelyn; Perkins, Lori

2002-03-05

75

A Planet Detection Tutorial and Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detection of extra-solar planets has been a very popular topic with the general public for years. Considerable media coverage of recent detections (currently at about 50) has only heightened the interest in the topic. School children are particularly interested in learning about recent astronomical discoveries. Scientists have the knowledge and responsibility to present this information in both an understandable and interesting format. Most classrooms and homes are now connected to the internet, which can be utilized to provide more than a traditional 'flat' presentation. An interactive software package on planet detection has been developed. The major topics include: "1996 - The Break Through Year In Planet Detection"; "What Determines If A Planet Is Habitable?"; "How Can We Find Other Planets (Search Methods)"; "All About the Kepler Mission: How To Find Terrestrial Planets"; and "A Planet Detection Simulator". Using the simulator, the student records simulated observations and then analyzes and interprets the data within the program. One can determine the orbit and planet size, the planet's temperature and surface gravity, and finally determine if the planet is habitable. Originally developed for the Macintosh, a web based browser version is being developed.

Knoch, David; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

76

Nebulous networks: Virginia Woolf and popular astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates Virginia Woolf's fascination with advances in astronomy and telescopic technologies of the 1920s and 30s. Grounded in the cultural studies of science, and the work of theorists such as Donna Haraway and Bruno Latour, the dissertation reconstructs the complex interconnections between Woolf's fiction and prose writing and an explosive popular interest in astronomy and cosmology. Woolf's aesthetic and political practices were shaped by emerging visualization technologies ranging from astronomical telescopes to the hand-held camera. While her writing provides a focus for this investigation, the dissertation offers close readings of fiction and essays by multiple British authors and science writers in the context of these converging phenomena. As a result of glimpsing tiny worlds through her own telescope, Virginia Woolf formulated a global aesthetic and a global politics. Gazing at the moon and stars reminded her that earth is a planet in space, and that earth's inhabitants must rely on this small, fragile globe for their future survival. The opening chapter establishes the cultural context for the study. In 1923, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble determined that the Andromeda galaxy was located far beyond the limits of the Milky Way, then believed to comprise the entire universe. Hubble's radical reconfiguration of the universe contributed to a pervasive sense, in the modern period, of a decentering and re-scaling of humans in the universe. In the chapters that follow, the dissertation offers readings of Woolf's novels and short fiction in relation to her fascination with astronomy and explores how the wildly popular British cosmologist and science writer, Sir James jeans, had a shaping effect on popular culture and on Woolf's narrative practices and pacifist politics. Despite his oblique connections to what became Bloomsbury, jeans and his popular science texts were to play a considerable role in Woolf's formulation of a global aesthetic.

Henry, Holly Grace

77

Planet Jargon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Planet Jargon is a fun way to learn about computer jargon. Students will do research on vocabulary, parts of a computer, history of a computer, as well as interpreting the words through illustrations. Students will create a PowerPoint to show their findings. INTRODUCTION! You have landed on the Planet Jargon. The inhabitants use very strange words to communicate with each other. Some of the words are familiar computer terms to you, but others are completely alien. You will need to discover the meanings of the computer jargon in order to ...

Moeai, Ms.

2007-05-07

78

Giant Planets  

E-print Network

We review the interior structure and evolution of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and giant exoplanets with particular emphasis on constraining their global composition. Compared to the first edition of this review, we provide a new discussion of the atmospheric compositions of the solar system giant planets, we discuss the discovery of oscillations of Jupiter and Saturn, the significant improvements in our understanding of the behavior of material at high pressures and the consequences for interior and evolution models. We place the giant planets in our Solar System in context with the trends seen for exoplanets.

Guillot, Tristan

2014-01-01

79

Planet Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet calculates three views of the bright planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) and the Moon. It displays a diagram showing rise and set times over the year, a view at local horizon, and a view of the ecliptic plane.

Giesen, Juergen

80

Earth and Terrestrial Planet Formation  

E-print Network

The growth and composition of Earth is a direct consequence of planet formation throughout the Solar System. We discuss the known history of the Solar System, the proposed stages of growth and how the early stages of planet formation may be dominated by pebble growth processes. Pebbles are small bodies whose strong interactions with the nebula gas lead to remarkable new accretion mechanisms for the formation of planetesimals and the growth of planetary embryos. Many of the popular models for the later stages of planet formation are presented. The classical models with the giant planets on fixed orbits are not consistent with the known history of the Solar System, fail to create a high Earth/Mars mass ratio, and, in many cases, are also internally inconsistent. The successful Grand Tack model creates a small Mars, a wet Earth, a realistic asteroid belt and the mass-orbit structure of the terrestrial planets. In the Grand Tack scenario, growth curves for Earth most closely match a Weibull model. The feeding zon...

Jacobson, Seth A

2015-01-01

81

Barnard’s Star: Planets or Pretense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barnard’s Star remains popular with planet hunters because it is not only an extremely near, high proper motion star, but also the object of early planet-detection claims. In 1963, van de Kamp explained perturbations in its proper motion by the presence of a planet. In 1969, he produced another single-planet solution and a two-planet solution to the astrometric wobbles detected. At least 19 studies have failed to confirm his results using a range of techniques, including radial velocity, direct imaging, and speckle interferometry. However, most of them lacked the sensitivity to detect the planets he described, including astrometric studies at the McCormick and Naval Observatories. However, radial-velocity monitoring of Barnard’s Star at Lick and Keck Observatories from 1987 through 2012 appears to have ruled out such planets. Based upon observations made at the Sproul Observatory between 1916 and 1962, van de Kamp claimed that Barnard’s Star had a planet with about 1.6 times the mass of Jupiter and an orbital period of 24 years. After accounting for instrumentation effects that might have been partially responsible for his initial results, he continued to assert that this red dwarf had two planets. In his 1982 analysis of ~20,000 exposures collected between 1938 and 1981, he calculated that two planets with 0.7- and 0.5-Jupiter masses in 12- and 20-year orbits, respectively, orbited the second-closest stellar system to our own. Starting in 1995, the dramatic successes of radial velocity searches for extrasolar planets drove van de Kamp’s unsubstantiated claims from popular consciousness. Although many low-mass stellar companions were discovered through astrometry, the technique has been less successful for planets: “The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia” identifies one such discovery out of the 997 planets listed on 2013 September 23. Although Barnard’s Star has lost its pretensions to hosting the first extrasolar planets known, its intrinsic properties will keep it under observation. NSF grant AST 98-20711, Litton Marine Systems, Levinson Fund, University of Virginia, Hampden-Sydney College, and US Naval Observatory supported this research.

Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Ianna, P. A.

2014-01-01

82

New Dimensions in Popular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains fifteen essays which study some of the didactic, moralistic literature which was popular in nineteenth century America, and speculate about the culture from which the literature evolved. The essays include "Millions of Moral Little Books: Sunday School Books in Their Popular Context"; "Nineteenth Century Gift Books: A…

Nye, Russel B., Ed.

83

American Civilization--Popular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This syllabus introduces the purposes and organization of a course on Popular Culture as evidence of American civilization offered at Meramec Community College. The guide first presents a rationale for the study of popular culture and then lists course requirements; discusses techniques such as comparative analysis and psychoanalytic investigation…

Miller, Carol F.

84

Lonely Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Don't worry about whether your trip will work out. Just go!" This is the travel philosophy of Lonely Planet, one of the most respected publishers of off-the-beaten-path travel guidebooks worldwide. Whether you already know where you're going, or are looking for suggestions for your next trip, Lonely Planet's site is packed with information that you can actually use to plan your trip. Search or browse the section "DestiNATIONS" to find maps, facts and figures, and information on local history, culture, and transportation for 8 world regions, over 80 countries, and 20 different cities. Much of the health information found in LP's print guides is also now available here. In addition, there are links to destination-related newsgroups, tips on travel photography, and "Postcards," a forum in which travelers share experiences and give advice.

85

Planet Oobleck  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners imagine a world covered in a mysterious substance called Oobleck. Learners make this substance and investigate its properties. Using an online program, they then design a spacecraft that can land on the planet, collect a sample, and return to Earth. A chart shows how their design compares to others' designs. Additionally, learners can build their spacecraft and test it. This activity presents a great engineering extension to other Oobleck-related activities posted elsewhere.

Science, Lawrence H.

2011-01-01

86

Kid's Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Web sitedesigned just for kids by Defenders of Wildlife, Kid's Planet has much to offer for teachers and students. Teacher's Table contains downloadable .pdf lesson plans and activities. Designed primarily for middle school students, these lesson plans and essay contests cover topics like wolves and sea otters. With electronic fact sheets on over 50 species, the section titled Get the Facts may prove useful. This editor particularly enjoyed weaving through the Web of Life with the garden spider.

2002-01-01

87

Changing Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NBC Learn, in partnership with the National Science Foundation, explores the impact of climate change on Earth. Each video uses interviews, maps, simulations and real-world film footage to illustrate how climate change influences the environments around us from lakes, oceans, glaciers to permafrost, ice and crops. Each video has a free, related lesson plan from the National Earth Science Teachers Association.

2011-03-29

88

Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) and Earth's Moon display similar compositions, interior structures, and geologic histories. The terrestrial planets formed by accretion ˜ 4.5 Ga ago out of the solar nebula, whereas the Moon formed through accretion of material ejected off Earth during a giant impact event shortly after Earth formed. Geophysical investigations (gravity anomalies, seismic analysis, heat flow measurements, and magnetic field studies) reveal that all five bodies have differentiated into a low-density silicate crust, an intermediate density silicate mantle, and an iron-rich core. Seismic and heat flow measurements are only available for Earth and its Moon, and only Earth and Mercury currently exhibit actively produced magnetic fields (although Mars and the Moon retain remanent fields). Surface evolutions of all five bodies have been influenced by impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and mass wasting. Aeolian activity only occurs on bodies with a substantial atmosphere (Venus, Earth, and Mars) and only Earth and Mars display evidence of fluvial and glacial processes. Earth's volcanic and tectonic activity is largely driven by plate tectonics, whereas those processes on Venus result from vertical motions associated with hotspots and mantle upwellings. Mercury displays a unique tectonic regime of global contraction caused by gradual solidification of its large iron core. Early large impact events stripped away much of Mercury's crust and mantle, produced Venus' slow retrograde rotation, ejected material off Earth that became the Moon, and may have created the Martian hemispheric dichotomy. The similarities and differences between the interiors and surfaces of these five bodies provide scientists with a better understanding of terrestrial planet evolutionary paths.

Barlow, Nadine G.

89

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

90

The Nine Planets: Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nine Planets page contains details about the planet Mars. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on the planet, and results from exploration spacecraft. Phobos and Deimos (Mars satellites) are also covered in depth. The site provides links to more images, movies, and facts about Mars and its moons, and discusses unanswered questions about the planet.

Bill Arnett

91

Popularizing Space Education in Indian Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indians have many mythological stories about many constellations and stars. Hindu months are based on MOON and 27 stars on Zodiac. They are very important for many Indians in ritual, religious functions. By prompting them to identify their birth star, really makes them elevated. Similarly conveying them the importance of star gazing with respect to their day today life makes them to take interest and active participation in Space Activities. Space activities should be driven by public; their requirements; their dreams and imaginations. Their active participation definitely gives valuable inputs to space scientists. Hence, there is a need of involving common man or public mass by appropriate motivation by organising sky gazing sessions, exhibitions, workshops, etc. In this connection, even if the some organisation are able to attract a small percent of qualified engineers/scientists,, enthusiastic students, it would result in the creation of a sizable pool of talent in space sciences,which may well determine the future mankind on this planet. Some simple motivation acts have made the people to take interest in space. we have been using certain methodologies to popularize space science - 1] Conducting theory sessions on basics of star gazing and conveying importance of sky gazing with respect to day-today life. 2] Organising seminars, workshops, lectures and other academic/popular science activities with special reference to space science 3] Projects - a] Cubsat Missions b] Automatic Weather Station Facility c] Model making d] Creating and simulating space models and rover making competitions. The 50 year's of Exploration has left tremendous impact on many society's working towards space education and exploration.

Yalagi, Amrut

92

of planetsAstrobiology Biogeocatalysis Research Center  

E-print Network

. #12;planet p R o f I l e Size 15 Earths Water Everywhere Temperature 15° C or 59° F Surface Water Water Subsurface ocean Temperature -20° C or - 4° F Surface Ice Interior Rocky, volcanically active in freezing water and in small cavities found in ice. These microbes swim using a long, thin tail called

Maxwell, Bruce D.

93

The Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of NASA's Origins program, the Outer Planets\\/Solar Probe Project was established in early 1998. This flight project is composed of three challenging and exciting missions which span the far reaches of the solar system. Europa Orbiter, with a planned launch in November of 2003, will travel to Jupiter's moon, Europa, in search of a subsurface liquid water ocean

R. W. Maddock; K. B. Clark; C. A. Henry; P. J. Hoffman

1999-01-01

94

One World Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about ocean currents and the difference between salt and fresh water. They use colored ice cubes to see how cold and warm water mix and how this mixing causes currents. Also, students learn how surface currents occur due to wind streams. Lastly, they learn how fresh water floats on top of salt water, the difference between water in the ocean and fresh water throughout the planet, and how engineers are involved in the design of ocean water systems for human use.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

95

The Nine Planets: Pluto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Nine Planets contains details about the planet Pluto. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and information about Pluto's moon, Charon. Unanswered questions are discussed, and links to more images, movies, and facts are provided.

Arnett, Bill

96

A lopsided planet Photolibrary  

E-print Network

planet, about the size of Pluto. An asteroid that large can leave a serious dent in a planet>> A lopsided planet Photolibrary Where was the biggest impact in the Solar System? Rick Lovett by an asteroid. Nothing surprising in that: one look at the Red Planet's crater- pocked surface is enough

Nimmo, Francis

97

The Nine Planets: Venus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains details about the planet Venus. Information includes planet mass, distance from the Sun, diameter, orbit, and mythology. Also covered is planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on the planet, and results of exploration spacecraft. Includes links to images, movies, and additional facts. Discusses unanswered questions about Venus as well.

Arnett, Bill

98

Body Modification and Popular Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is safe to say that contemporary North America is obsessed with the body. Popular culture abounds with references to the body: from products for the body (hair care, skin care, teeth whitening products, fashion, etc.) to representations of the body (the white body, the gay body, the beautiful body, etc.). All of these references create a discourse around the

Tarah Hogue

99

by popular demand: Addiction II  

E-print Network

by popular demand: Addiction II PSY/NEU338:Animal learning and decision making: Psychological, computational and neural perspectives drug addiction · huge and diverse field of research (many different drugs) · addiction = continued compulsive making of maladaptive choices despite adverse consequences to the user

Niv, Yael

100

Arab Stereotypes in Popular Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most popular fictional plots involving the Middle East--adventure stories, espionage, and themes of Western dependency on Arab oil--portray the Israelies as the good guys and the Arabs as the villians. People must be made aware that fictional literature is prejudiced and racially biased against Arabs. (RM)

Terry, Janice J.

1983-01-01

101

The Nine Planets: Jupiter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Nine Planets contains details about the gas giant planet Jupiter. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, results from exploration spacecraft, and temperature on the planet. Jupiters' moons are also covered in detail, including Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, and others. The site provides links to more images and facts, and discusses unanswered questions about Jupiter and its moons.

Bill Arnett

102

The Nine Planets: Uranus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Nine Planets highlights details about the gas giant planet Uranus and its moons. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and results of spacecraft exploration. Uranus' moons and rings are detailed, including Titania, Oberon, Umbriel, Ariel, Miranda, and more. Discussion of unanswered questions about the planet and links to more images, movies, and facts are also provided.

Bill Arnett

103

The Nine Planets: Neptune  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nine Planets page contains details about the gas giant planet Neptune and its moons. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and results of spacecraft exploration. Neptune's moons and rings are also detailed, including Nereid, Triton, Proteus, and many others. Unanswered questions about the planet and its moons are covered, and links to more images, movies, and facts are given.

Arnett, Bill

104

Disk-Planet Interactions During Planet Formation  

E-print Network

The discovery of close orbiting extrasolar giant planets led to extensive studies of disk planet interactions and the forms of migration that can result as a means of accounting for their location. Early work established the type I and type II migration regimes for low mass embedded planets and high mass gap forming planets respectively. While providing an attractive means of accounting for close orbiting planets intially formed at several AU, inward migration times for objects in the earth mass range were found to be disturbingly short, making the survival of giant planet cores an issue. Recent progress in this area has come from the application of modern numerical techniques which make use of up to date supercomputer resources. These have enabled higher resolution studies of the regions close to the planet and the initiation of studies of planets interacting with disks undergoing MHD turbulence. This work has led to indications of how the inward migration of low to intermediate mass planets could be slowed down or reversed. In addition, the possibility of a new very fast type III migration regime, that can be directed inwards or outwards, that is relevant to partial gap forming planets in massive disks has been investigated.

J. C. B. Papaloizou; R. P. Nelson; W. Kley; F. S. Masset; P. Artymowicz

2006-03-08

105

Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich  

E-print Network

Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich School of EECS University of Central Florida Orlando Ithaca, NY 14853 Email: mainak@csl.cornell.edu Abstract-- Ocean is a popular program from the SPLASH-2 parallel benchmark suite. A complete application, as opposed to a computational kernel, Ocean is often used

Heinrich, Mark

106

Create Your Own Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will be the creator of a new planet in our solar system. You will be free to decide all of the characteristics of your planet. Look at the different websites below to find out more about the planets in our solar system and then decide what characteristics your planet will have. PLANET PICTURES AND FACTS I I I I I V Mercury Facts Venus Facts Earth Facts Mars Facts Jupiter Facts Saturn Facts Uranus Facts Neptune Facts PROJECT REQUIREMENTS: Your planet must have one moon or more. You must decide how long it takes your planet to rotate (length of a day on your planet). You must decide how long it takes your planet to ...

Mr. Larsen

2008-11-25

107

Create Your Own Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity can be used to evaluate students understanding of the characteristics of inner and outer planets. This activity allows the students to create their own planet with the appropriate characteristics. A rubric is attached.

Wendy Duroseau

2012-04-30

108

PLANET EARTH STRANGE NEWS  

E-print Network

& Spy Tech // Global Warming // 3D Printing // OurAmazingPlanet // Best Fitness Trackers // Human Follow TECH HEALTH PLANET EARTH SPACE STRANGE NEWS ANIMALS HISTORY HUMAN NATURE SHOP TRENDING: Military

Wenseleers, Tom

109

Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To preserve the earth, it is necessary to understand the tremendously complex interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land, and man's activities deeply enough to construct models that can predict the consequences of our actions and help us make sound environmental, energy, agriculture, and economic decisions. Mission to Planet Earth is NASA's suggested share and the centerpiece of the U.S. contribution to understanding the environment, the Global Change Research Program. The first major element of the mission would be the Earth Observing System, which would give the simultaneous, comprehensive, long-term earth coverage lacking previously. NASA's Geosynchronous Earth Observatory with two additional similar spacecraft would be orbited by the U.S., plus one each by Japan and the European Space Agency. These would be the first geostationary satellites to span all the disciplines of the earth sciences. A number of diverse data gathering payloads are also planned to be carried aboard the Polar Orbiting Platform. Making possible the long, continuous observations planned and coping with the torrent of data acquired will require technical gains across a wide front. Finally, how all this data is consolidated and disseminated by the EOS Data and Information System is discussed.

Tilford, Shelby G.; Koczor, Ron; Lee, Jonathan; Grady, Kevin J.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Njoku, Eni G.

1990-01-01

110

Planet Designer: Kelvin Climb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the way distance, albedo, and atmosphere affect the temperature of a planet. Learners will create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet's temperature. They will then discuss their results in terms of greenhouse strength and the presence of liquid water. This lesson is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering education program focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

111

Archaeoastronomical Concepts in Popular Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad public embrace of archaic astronomy probably began in the eighteenth century with awareness of the summer solstice sunrise's affiliation with Stonehenge. Since that time, Stonehenge has retained an astronomical mystique that attracts crowds mobilized by the monument's supposed cosmic purpose. They are committed to witness prehistoric heritage operating in real time and with enduring function. More recently, mass media have intermittently thrown a spotlight on new archaeoastronomical discoveries. While the details, ambiguities, and nuances of disciplined study of astronomy in antiquity do not usually infiltrate popular culture, some astronomical alignments, celestial events, sky-tempered symbols, and astral narratives have become well known and referenced in popular culture. Places and relics that command public interest with astronomical connotations are transformed into cultural icons and capture visitors on a quest for the authenticity the past is believed to possess. Monuments and ideas that successfully forge a romantic bond with the past and inspire an imagined sense of sharing the experience, perspective, and wisdom of antiquity persist in the cultural landscape.

Krupp, Edwin C.

112

A Definition of Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

It had proposed some definitions about what a planet is. It seems clear that the planet's mass superior limit should be lower than the threshold for deuterium thermonuclear fusion. However the inferior limit is more elusive. It had proposed either Pluto's mass or the minimum mass to produce a spherical form. The Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (WGESP) of the

H. J. Durand-Manterola

2005-01-01

113

The planet Pluto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for a planet exterior to Neptune and the discovery of Pluto are discussed, and current knowledge of the planet Pluto is reviewed. Following a review of the discovery of the outer planets Uranus and Neptune, the 80-year search for a body which would account for the observed residuals in the motions of Uranus and Neptune is considered, with

A. J. Whyte

1980-01-01

114

Planets X and Pluto  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that man has discovered some fundamental truths about the universe through mathematics. The 'X' in the title of the reported study refers to the trans-Neptunian planet postulated by Percival Lowell. Attention is given to Uranus and the asteroids, Neptune, the first search for planet X, the second search for planet X, the consideration of a trans-Neptunian

W. G. Hoyt

1980-01-01

115

Eddington's planet finding capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capabilities of Eddington for the detection and analysis of extrasolar planets are outlined. The primary goal of the PF (Planet finding) part of the mission is the detection of planets that are Earth like - which limits their size to less then 3 Earth radii - and which are potentially habitable - which limits their temperature or their orbital

H. J. Deeg; K. Horne

2002-01-01

116

Journey to Planet Seven.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An imaginary journey to Planet Seven is used to introduce the concept of number systems not based on ten. Activities include making a base 7 chart, performing base 7 addition and subtraction, designing Planet Seven currency, and developing other base systems for other planets. (MT)

Gow, Ellen

1987-01-01

117

Evaporation of extrasolar planets  

E-print Network

Atomic hydrogen escaping from the extrasolar giant planet HD209458b provides the largest observational signature ever detected for an extrasolar planet atmosphere. In fact, the upper atmosphere of this planet is evaporating. Observational evidences and interpretations coming from various models are reviewed. Implications for exoplanetology are discussed.

David Ehrenreich

2008-07-11

118

Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

1985-01-01

119

The Dwarf Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, by California Institute of Technology astronomer Mike Brown, describes dwarf planets and the issues in their classification. A diagram show the "new" solar system, including the approximately 50 dwarf planets in the Kuiper Belt. A table shows the size and distance of each dwarf planet.

Brown, Mike

2009-12-10

120

A Strange New Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists have been looking for extra-solar planets for decades, but only recently, with better equipment and improved techniques, have they finally unveiled new and unusual planets. Since 1995, over 155 planets have been discovered orbiting stars other than our Sun. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, gives an account of the discovery of the first confirmed extra-solar planet, a Jupiter-sized giant orbiting the star 51 Pegasi, and discusses the search for other extra-solar planets. The segment is three minutes nine seconds in length.

121

A Strange New Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists have been looking for extra-solar planets for decades, but only recently, with better equipment and improved techniques, have they finally unveiled new and unusual planets. Since 1995, over 155 planets have been discovered orbiting stars other than our Sun. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, gives an account of the discovery of the first confirmed extra-solar planet, a Jupiter-sized giant orbiting the star 51 Pegasi, and discusses the search for other extra-solar planets. The segment is three minutes nine seconds in length.

2011-05-05

122

The Popularity of Middle School Bullies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the peer popularity of middle school students involved in bullying. Bullying was assessed by peer report using the School Climate Bullying Survey (SCBS) and popularity was assessed through peer nominations from a student roster. In a sample of 379 middle school students, bullies were among the most popular students in the…

Thunfors, Peter; Cornell, Dewey

2008-01-01

123

THE POPULAR IN THE POLITICAL SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a systems theoretical re-reading of popular communication and the Popular in the political system. Luhmann' anti-humanist notion of communication helps to reframe the discussion of the Popular: it is not defined by an en- or decoding instance, but by a particular mode of ‘connectivity'. Drawing from heterogeneous material (Mars Attacks!, crowd psychology, theory of democracy), it is

Urs Stäheli

2003-01-01

124

Planets Around Massive Subgiants  

E-print Network

Compared to planets around Sun-like stars, relatively little is known about the occurrence rate and orbital properties of planets around stars more massive than 1.3 Msun. The apparent deficit of planets around massive stars is due to a strong selection bias against early-type dwarfs in Doppler-based planet searches. One method to circumvent the difficulties inherent to massive main-sequence stars is to instead observe them after they have evolved onto the subgiant branch. We show how the cooler atmospheres and slower rotation velocities of subgiants make them ideal proxies for F- and A-type stars. We present the early results from our planet search that reveal a paucity of planets orbiting within 1 AU of stars more massive than 1.5 Msun, and evidence of a rising trend in giant planet occurrence with stellar mass.

John A. Johnson

2007-10-16

125

Stylistic control of ocean water simulations  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a new method for controlling the look of an ocean water simulation for the purpose of creating cartoon-styled fluid animations. Two popular techniques to simulate fluid, a statistical height field method via the Fast Fourier...

Root, Christopher Wayne

2009-05-15

126

Are extrasolar oceans common throughout the Galaxy?  

E-print Network

Light and cold extrasolar planets such as OGLE 2005-BLG-390Lb, a 5.5 Earth-mass planet detected via microlensing, could be frequent in the Galaxy according to some preliminary results from microlensing experiments. These planets can be frozen rocky- or ocean-planets, situated beyond the snow line and, therefore, beyond the habitable zone of their system. They can nonetheless host a layer of liquid water, heated by radiogenic energy, underneath an ice shell surface for billions of years, before freezing completely. These results suggest that oceans under ice, like those suspected to be present on icy moons in the Solar system, could be a common feature of cold low-mass extrasolar planets.

David Ehrenreich; Arnaud Cassan

2007-04-23

127

Extrasolar Planets and Prospects for Terrestrial Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of ˜2000 sun--like stars has revealed 97 planets (as of 2002 Nov), all residing within our Milky Way Galaxy and within ˜200 light years of our Solar System. They have masses between 0.1 and 10 times that of Jupiter, and orbital sizes of 0.05--5 AU. Thus planets occupy the entire detectable domain of mass and orbits. News &summaries about

Geoffrey W. Marcy; R. Paul Butler; Steven S. Vogt; Debra A. Fischer

2004-01-01

128

Astrobiological and Geological Implications of Convective Transport in Icy Outer Planet Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oceans of large icy outer planet satellites are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life in our solar system. The goal of our project has been to develop models of ice convection in order to understand convection as an astrobiologically relevant transport mechanism within icy satellites, especially Europa. These models provide valuable constraints on modes of surface deformation and thus the implications of satellite surface geology for astrobiology, and for planetary protection. Over the term of this project, significant progress has been made in three areas: (1) the initiation of convection in large icy satellites, which we find probably requires tidal heating; (2) the relationship of surface features on Europa to internal ice convection, including the likely role of low-melting-temperature impurities; and (3) the effectiveness of convection as an agent of icy satellite surface-ocean material exchange, which seems most plausible if tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection work in combination. Descriptions of associated publications include: 3 published papers (including contributions to 1 review chapter), 1 manuscript in revision, 1 manuscript in preparation (currently being completed under separate funding), and 1 published popular article. A myriad of conference abstracts have also been published, and only those from the past year are listed.

Pappalardo, Robert T.; Zhong, Shi-Jie; Barr, Amy

2005-01-01

129

27THE FOURTH PARADIGM he global ocean is the last physical frontier on Earth.  

E-print Network

on Earth and perhaps on other planets. The oceans connect all continents; they are owned by no one, yet half of the fossil carbon released since 1800. The ocean basins are a source of hazards: earthquakes

Carrington, Emily

130

Identifying Obstacles to Incorporating Ocean Content into California Secondary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ocean is the dominant feature on this planet that makes all life on Earth possible. Marine educators and scientists across the country have identified essential principles and concepts that define what an "ocean literate" person should know, but there is a lack of comprehensive ocean content coverage in secondary classrooms across the United…

Stock, Jennifer

2010-01-01

131

The Role of Popularity Goal in Early Adolescents' Behaviors and Popularity Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of popularity goal on the use of 3 popularity-related behaviors and later popularity status was examined in a diverse sample of 314 6th-grade students (176 girls and 138 boys) in both fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters. Popularity goal and the use of popularity-driven behaviors (e.g., "I change the way I dress in order to…

Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling

2014-01-01

132

Seismology of Giant Planets  

E-print Network

Seismology applied to giant planets could drastically change our understanding of their deep interiors, as it has happened with the Earth, the Sun, and many main-sequence and evolved stars. The study of giant planets' composition is important for understanding both the mechanisms enabling their formation and the origins of planetary systems, in particular our own. Unfortunately, its determination is complicated by the fact that their interior is thought not to be homogeneous, so that spectroscopic determinations of atmospheric abundances are probably not representative of the planet as a whole. Instead, the determination of their composition and structure must rely on indirect measurements and interior models. Giant planets are mostly fluid and convective, which makes their seismology much closer to that of solar-like stars than that of terrestrial planets. Hence, helioseismology techniques naturally transfer to giant planets. In addition, two alternative methods can be used: photometry of the solar light ref...

Gaulme, Patrick; Schmider, Francois-Xavier; Guillot, Tristan

2014-01-01

133

New Planets / SETI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New Planets / SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) is a 48 minute radio broadcast that discusses three new planets discovered orbiting distant stars; how best to communicate with ET intelligence; and the progress of the radio-based search for ET intelligence. The new planet finds are smaller than previous extrasolar planet discoveries, on par with the planet Neptune in our solar system. There is discussion of the odds of finding life elsewhere in the universe, and if it is possible to find Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. The show also discusses: a paper published in the journal, Nature, that argues that for sending lots of data over long distances, it is hard to beat sending a physical artifact engraved with data; ways to communicate lots of information over long distances; and what SETI is listening for, and what they have heard.

134

The Amazing Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the planet Mars. This lesson will begin by discussing the location and size of Mars relative to Earth, as well as introduce many interesting facts about this red planet. Next, the history of Martian exploration is reviewed and students discover why scientists are so interested in studying this mysterious planet. The lesson concludes with students learning about future plans to visit Mars.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

135

Observations of minor planets. V  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is given about the minor planet survey performed in 1984 on Tautenburg Schmidt plates. The authors discovered 84 planets and calculated 205 positions for them. There are 17 numbered planets among them, 16 already earlier observed and 51 new planets with provisional designations. Tautenburg observations could give a tribute to seven planets numbered in the period of this

F. Boerngen; K. Kirsch

1986-01-01

136

Effect of Planet Size and Initial Water Content on the Formation of Anorthosite Crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anorthosite crust formation in magma ocean in small planets were quantitatively investigated. Anorthosite crust is hardly formed in planetesimals smaller than ~several hundreds km and water content more than ~0.2 wt%.

Sakai, R.; Nagahara, H.; Ozawa, K.

2013-10-01

137

Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research\\u000a aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using\\u000a messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of\\u000a “likes” voted by fans, and examined

Bei Yu; Miao Chen; Linchi Kwok

2011-01-01

138

Appearance of high-pressure H2O ice on ice-covered terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lot of terrestrial exoplanets and free-floating planets have been discovered. Whether terrestrial planets with liquid water exist is an important question to consider, especially in terms of their habitability. Even in a globally ice-covered state, liquid water could exist beneath the surface ice shell because sufficient geothermal heat flow from the planetary interior is likely to melt the interior ice, so that an internal ocean under the surface ice shell could appear (e.g., Hoffman & Schrag 2002). In this study, we argue the conditions that must be satisfied for ice-covered terrestrial planets to have an internal ocean on the timescale of planetary evolution (Ueta & Sasaki 2013). Geothermal heat flow calculated by a parameterized convection model (e.g., McGovern & Schubert 1989) is considered as the heat source at the origin of the internal ocean. By applying and improving the model of Tajika (2008), we also examine how the amount of radiogenic heat and H2O mass affect these conditions. Moreover, we investigate the structures of surface H2O layers of ice-covered planets by considering the effects of ice under high pressure (high-pressure ice). At 1 AU from the central star, as shown in Fig. 1, a 1M.+ planet with 0.6-25 times H2O mass of the Earth could have an internal ocean. When the planet has an H2O mass over 25 times that of the Earth, high-pressure ice layers may appear between the internal ocean and the rock-part of the planet. The results indicate that planetary size and surface H2O mass strongly ristrict the conditions under which an extrasolar terrestrial planet could have an internal ocean without high-pressure ice existing under the internal ocean. The habitability of a planet might be influenced by the existence of such high-pressure ice layers.

Ueta, S.; Sasaki, T.

2014-03-01

139

Popularizing dissent: A civil society perspective.  

PubMed

This article theorizes civil society groups' attempts to popularize opposition to genetic modification in New Zealand as deliberative interventions that seek to open up public participation in science-society governance. In this case, the popularization strategies were designed to intensify concerns about social justice and democratic incursions, mobilize dissent and offer meaningful mechanisms for navigating and participating in public protest. Such civic popularization efforts, we argue, are more likely to succeed when popularity and politicization strategies are judiciously integrated to escalate controversy, re-negotiate power relations and provoke agency and action. PMID:25394361

Motion, Judy; Leitch, Shirley; Weaver, C Kay

2014-11-12

140

Bringing Ocean Science News To the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the goals of COSEE-Ocean Systems and its partners is to work toward bridging the gap between "school science" and "scientist science," in the context of using ocean examples to guide science inquiry. This article addresses popular media as a valuable source of science information, keeping current science research (or "scientist science"), and its outcomes and implications in front of students.

141

Outer planet satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon.

Schenk, Paul M.

1991-01-01

142

Outer Planet Icy Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outer planet icy satellite is any one of the celestial bodies in orbit around Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, or Pluto. They range from large, planet-like geologically active worlds with significant atmospheres to tiny irregular objects tens of kilometers in diameter. These bodies are all believed to have some type of frozen volatile, existing alone or in combination with other volatiles.

Buratti, B.

1994-01-01

143

Pluto: Planet or  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 2006 during the XXVI General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), taken place in Prague, Czech Republic, new parameters to define a planet were established. According to this new definition Pluto will be no more the ninth planet of the Solar System but it will be changed to be a \\

M. R. Voelzke; M. S. T. de Araújo

2010-01-01

144

The Eight Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, by Caltech astronomer Mike Brown, is an article that recounts the reclassification of Pluto as a dwarf planet. The article explains the issues, tells how they were resolved, and answers related questions. At the bottom of the page is a link to a similar website about the dwarf planet Xena.

145

Planet -Star Plasma Interactions  

E-print Network

Planet - Star Plasma Interactions Philippe Zarka LESIA, Observatoire de Paris/CNRS, Meudon philippe.zarka@obspm.fr References : · Zarka, P., Plasma interactions of exoplanets with their parent star and associated radio emissions, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 598-617, 2007. · Griessmeier, J.-M., P. Zarka and H. Spreeuw, Predicting

Demoulin, Pascal

146

What is a Planet?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the characteristics of planets, comets, asteroids, and trans-Neptunian objects. Learners will classify objects and then apply what they have learned by participating in a formal debate about a solar system object discovered by the New Horizons spacecraft and by defining the term planet.

147

Name That Planet!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students in groups explore one planet in the solar system and present their findings to the whole class. Focuses on the planet's location in the solar system, geological features, rate of revolutions, and calendar year. (YDS)

Beck, Judy; Rust, Cindy

2002-01-01

148

Five New Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report multiple Doppler measurements of five nearby FGK main sequence stars and subgiants obtained during the past 4-6 years at the Keck observa- tory. These stars, namely, HD 183263, HD 117207, HD 188015, HD 45350, and HD 99492 all exhibit coherent variations in their Doppler shifts consistent with a planet in Keplerian motion. The five new planets occupy known

Geoffrey W. Marcy; R. Paul Butler; Steven S. Vogt; Debra A. Fischer; Gregory W. Henry; Greg Laughlin; Jason T. Wright; John A. Johnson

2005-01-01

149

Five New Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report multiple Doppler measurements of five nearby FGK main-sequence stars and subgiants obtained during the past 4-6 yr at the Keck Observatory. These stars, namely, HD 183263, HD 117207, HD 188015, HD 45350, and HD 99492, all exhibit coherent variations in their Doppler shifts consistent with a planet in Keplerian motion. The five new planets occupy known realms of

Geoffrey W. Marcy; R. Paul Butler; Steven S. Vogt; Debra A. Fischer; Gregory W. Henry; Greg Laughlin; Jason T. Wright; John A. Johnson

2005-01-01

150

The New Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

I SEE that, in the notice which appeared in NATURE announcing the discovery of the new planet, it was suggested that the object might represent the outermost member of the family of planets formed from a portion of the sun drawn out by the attraction of the star the approach of which caused the catastrophic formation of the planetary system;

G. F. Daniell

1930-01-01

151

Astronomy 150: The Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains lab activities on planetary astronomy and the solar system. The labs cover: the earth-moon system, atmospheric escape, craters, meteorites, comets, lunar mapping, Mars, volcanoes on Io, Europa, Neptune, satellites of giant planets, and extra-solar planets.

Palen, Stacy

2004-07-16

152

Commission 53: Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commission 53 on Extrasolar Planets was created at the 2006 Prague General Assembly of the IAU, in recognition of the outburst of astronomical progress in the field of extrasolar planet discovery, characterization, and theoretical work that has occurred since the discovery of the pulsar planets in 1992 and the discovery of the first planet in orbit around a solar-type star in 1995. Commission 53 is the logical successor to the IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets WG-ESP, which ended its six years of existence in August 2006. The founding president of Commission 53 is Michael Mayor, in honor of his seminal contributions to this new field of astronomy. The vice-president is Alan Boss, the former chair of the WG-ESP, and the members of the Commission 53 Organizing Committee are the other former members of the WG-ESP.

Mayor, Michel; Boss, Alan P.; Butler, Paul R.; Hubbard, William B.; Ianna, Philip A.; Kürster, Martin; Lissauer, Jack J.; Meech, Karen J.; Mignard, François; Penny, Alan J.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Tarter, Jill C.; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

153

Find That Planet!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students use internet resources to learn about celestial coordinates, and how to use an emphemeris to locate planets on a horizon sky map. The sky maps are then used for outdoor observing. A more advanced application has students draw maps in celestial coordinates. They first learn about the celestial coordinate system astronomers use and then they generate a position, or ephemeris, for a planet at a certain time on a certain night and plot that position on an appropriate sky map. While engaged in this activity, students will learn to use star maps for finding a planet, plot a planet path on star maps with coordinate grids, and be able to find out when a planet is visible.

154

Exploring the Planets Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based upon the Exploring the Planets gallery at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC, this site provides information about our solar system and its exploration. The gallery begins with a Discovery Section, which explores the development of astronomical thought, beginning with the Greeks, the Renaissance, and Galileo, and ending with satellites and the discovery of new planets. A section on Exploration Tools investigates the past, present and future of earth-based exploration, telescopes, spacecraft, landers, orbiters and rovers. The Planetary Comparisons section discusses similarities and differences between planets such as their atmospheres and geography. An entire section is devoted to the planets themselves with data sets showing statistics on size, mass, orbits, satellites and more. Each planet and the asteroids have their own page with images, exploration facts and other data. There is also a section about comets discussing their discovery, history, observations, anatomy and images.

155

Extreme Planet Makeover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You may have heard of elaborate makeover television shows where some individual wishes to have various body enhancements performed or a new house is built in seven days. This fascinating extreme makeover website, from NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, is much more edifying. Here, visitors will have the opportunity to make their own planet via a series of customizable bells and whistles. Visitors can use the controls on the site to adjust key planetary attributes such as distance from a star, planet size, and planet age. After making these adjustments, visitors can learn about the planet they have created, and also compare it with other existing planets and outer-space bodies.

156

Popular Adult Education: The Bolivian Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion paper on popular adult non-formal education in rural Bolivia, based on four months of 1982 fieldwork, focuses on the nature of popular education and its meaning in a contemporary Bolivian context, program methods and operational strategies employed, outcomes and impacts on peasant participants (many of them Indians), and problems and…

Luft, Murray

157

Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

Hillyard, Cinnamon

2007-01-01

158

Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

Cardoso, Ana Maria P.

1993-01-01

159

Optimal Planet Properties For Plate Tectonics Through Time And Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the time and the location of planet formation shape a rocky planet’s mass, interior composition and structure, and hence also its tectonic mode. The tectonic mode of a planet can vary between two end-member solutions, plate tectonics and stagnant lid convection, and does significantly impact outgassing and biogeochemical cycles on any rocky planet. Therefore, estimating how the tectonic mode of a planet is affected by a planet’s age, mass, structure, and composition is a major step towards understanding habitability of exoplanets and geophysical false positives to biosignature gases. We connect geophysics to astronomy in order to understand how we could identify and where we could find planet candidates with optimal conditions for plate tectonics. To achieve this goal, we use thermal evolution models, account for the current wide range of uncertainties, and simulate various alien planets. Based on our best model estimates, we predict that the ideal targets for plate tectonics are oxygen-dominated (C/O<1) (solar system like) rocky planets of ~1 Earth mass with surface oceans, large metallic cores super-Mercury, rocky body densities of ~7000kgm-3), and with small mantle concentrations of iron 0%), water 0%), and radiogenic isotopes 10 times less than Earth). Super-Earths, undifferentiated planets, and especially hypothetical carbon planets, speculated to consist of SiC and C, are not optimal for the occurrence of plate tectonics. These results put Earth close to an ideal compositional and structural configuration for plate tectonics. Moreover, the results indicate that plate tectonics might have never existed on planets formed soon after the Big Bang—but instead is favored on planets formed from an evolved interstellar medium enriched in iron but depleted in silicon, oxygen, and especially in Th, K, and U relative to iron. This possibly sets a belated Galactic start for complex Earth-like surface life if plate tectonics significantly impacts the build up and regulation of gases relevant for life. This allows for the first time to discuss the tectonic mode of a rocky planet from a practical astrophysical perspective.

Stamenkovic, Vlada; Seager, Sara

2014-11-01

160

Planet Formation by Coagulation: A Focus on Uranus and Neptune  

E-print Network

Planets form in the circumstellar disks of young stars. We review the basic physical processes by which solid bodies accrete each other and alter each others' random velocities, and we provide order-of-magnitude derivations for the rates of these processes. We discuss and exercise the two-groups approximation, a simple yet powerful technique for solving the evolution equations for protoplanet growth. We describe orderly, runaway, neutral, and oligarchic growth. We also delineate the conditions under which each occurs. We refute a popular misconception by showing that the outer planets formed quickly by accreting small bodies. Then we address the final stages of planet formation. Oligarchy ends when the surface density of the oligarchs becomes comparable to that of the small bodies. Dynamical friction is no longer able to balance viscous stirring and the oligarchs' random velocities increase. In the inner-planet system, oligarchs collide and coalesce. In the outer-planet system, some of the oligarchs are ejected. In both the inner- and outer-planet systems, this stage ends once the number of big bodies has been reduced to the point that their mutual interactions no longer produce large-scale chaos. Subsequently, dynamical friction by the residual small bodies circularizes and flattens their orbits. The final stage of planet formation involves the clean up of the residual small bodies. Clean up has been poorly explored.

Peter Goldreich; Yoram Lithwick; Re'em Sari

2004-05-11

161

Climate Threat to the Planet * Implications for Energy Policy  

E-print Network

. Shifting Climatic Zones 300-350 4. Alpine Water Supplies 300-350 5. Avoid Ocean Acidification 300Climate Threat to the Planet * Implications for Energy Policy Jim Hansen 3 June 2008 PACON. Planetary Emergency - Climate Feedbacks Climate is Sensitive - Climate Inertia Warming in Pipeline - CO2

Hansen, James E.

162

Orbital Evolution and Migration of Giant Planets: Modeling Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant planets in circumstellar disks can migrate inward from their initial (formation) positions. Radial migration is caused by inward torques between the planet and the disk, by outward torques between the planet and the spinning star, and by outward torques due to Roche lobe overflow and consequent mass loss from the planet. We present self-consistent numerical considerations of the problem

D. E. Trilling; W. Benz; T. Guillot; J. I. Lunine; W. B. Hubbard; A. Burrows

1998-01-01

163

All for the Planet, the Planet for everyone!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eco-Musketeers are unique voluntary group of students. They have been established in Belgrade, in Primary school 'Drinka Pavlovi?'. Since the founding in year 2000, Eco-Musketeers have been involved in peer and citizens education guided by motto: All for the planet, the planet for all! Main goals of this group are spreading and popularization of environmental approach as well as gaining knowledge through collaborative projects and research. A great number of students from other schools in Serbia have joined Eco-Musketeers in observations aiming to better understand the problem of global climate change. In the past several years Eco-Musketeers have also participated in many national and international projects related to the active citizenship and rising the awareness of the importance of biodiversity and environment for sustainable development of society. In this presentation we will show some of the main activities, eco-performances and actions of our organization related to the environment, biodiversity, conservation and recycling, such as: spring cleaning the streets of Belgrade, cleaning the Sava and the Danube river banks, removing insect moth pupae in the area of Lipovica forest near Belgrade. Also, Eco-Musketeers worked on education of employees of Coca-Cola HBC Serbia about energy efficiency. All the time, we have working on raising public awareness of the harmful effects of plastic bags on the environment, too. In order to draw attention on rare and endangered species in Serbia and around the globe, there were several performing street-plays about biodiversity and also the plays about the water ecological footprint. Eco-Musketeers also participated in international projects Greenwave-signs of spring (Fibonacci project), European Schools For A Living Planet (WWF Austria and Erste stiftung) and Eco Schools. The eco dream of Eco-Musketeers is to influence the Government of the Republic of Serbia to determine and declare a 'green habits week'. This should be a one week in a year during which all the citizens will act with a minimum negative impact on the environment. All previous activities of the Eco-Musketeers are the only a small step in a persevering process of conservation of the living world, but we strongly believe that though the activities of small group as we are, we can change the way of thinking of our fellows and citizens, so that they learn to love and protect nature for future generations.

Drndarski, Marina

2014-05-01

164

Exploring the Planets: Mercury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Mercury. Facts about the planet include: mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), and diameter. The site explains why earth-based views of Mercury are so poor and describes the surface of the planet on the basis of probe photographs. The photographs do not prove whether the material on the surface is impact ejecta or volcanic. However, a colored digital mosaic of Mercury taken by Mariner 10 suggests that at least some of the mercurian smooth plains are the products of volcanism.

165

Ocean Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of mammals that live in the ocean? First, you will need to use the Ocean Mammals Table 1. This website is here for you to learn about ocean mammals. Mammals 2. This website will help you learn about the different mammals that live in the ocean. Ocean Mammals 3. Here is some information about how oil spills effect animal skin in the ocean. Oil Spills 4. This link ...

Teschner, Miss

2011-04-06

166

Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways?  

E-print Network

Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways? N = N* fs fGHZ fp nH #12;What is a star? A star The real issue is that we need to know precisely what we mean when we use the word planet. Is Pluto a Planet? #12;Is Pluto a Planet? A body that: ·Orbits a star ·Is large enough for its gravity to make

Walter, Frederick M.

167

Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways?  

E-print Network

Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways? N = N* fs fp AST 248 #12;What is a star? A star The real issue is that we need to know precisely what we mean when we use the word planet. Is Pluto a Planet? #12;Is Pluto a Planet? A body that: ·Orbits a star ·Is large enough for its gravity to make

Walter, Frederick M.

168

Planet Designer: What's Trending Hot?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the way distance, reflectivity, and atmosphere affect the temperature of a planet. Learners will create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet's temperature. This lesson is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering education program focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

169

Magnetic Mystery Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

2014-07-01

170

Terrestrial Planet Finder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrating and testing the proposed Terrestrial Planet Finder imposes constraints on the design. Some of these will be discussed including the dimensions of existing test facilities, the effects of gravity, ambient vibrations and the size of GSE optics.

Smith, Andrew

2004-01-01

171

The Antarctic Planet Interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Antarctic Planet Interferometer is an instrument concept designed to detect and characterize extrasolar planets by exploiting the unique potential of the best accessible site on earth for thermal infrared interferometry. High-precision interferometric techniques under development for extrasolar planet detection and characterization (differential phase, nulling and astrometry) all benefit substantially from the slow, low-altitude turbulence, low water vapor content, and low temperature found on the Antarctic plateau. At the best of these locations, such as the Concordia base being developed at Dome C, an interferometer with two-meter diameter class apertures has the potential to deliver unique science for a variety of topics, including extrasolar planets, active galactic nuclei, young stellar objects, and protoplanetary disks.

Swain, Mark R.; Walker, Christopher K.; Traub, Wesley A.; Storey, John W.; CoudeduForesto, Vincent; Fossat, Eric; Vakili, Farrok; Stark, Anthony A.; Lloyd, James P.; Lawson, Peter R.; Burrows, Adam S.; Ireland, Michael; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; vanBelle, Gerard T.; Lane, Benjamin; Vasisht, Gautam; Travouillon, Tony

2004-01-01

172

Welcome to the Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of over 200 of the best images from NASA's planetary exploration program. There are captioned images from the major planets, small bodies, and the space craft used for the images.

1995-01-01

173

Transit of Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

Doyle, Laurance R.

1998-01-01

174

Planet/Moon Trivia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about defining characteristics or features of the planets and their moons. Learners will use the Solar System Update software to complete a worksheet asking them to find the planet and/or moon that matches each listed description. This activity requires the use of a computer with Internet access, and is Solar System Activity 1 in a larger resource, Space Update.

175

The Terrestrial Planet Finder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) missions has as its goal the detection and characterization of earth-like planets around nearby stars. NASA is currently funding a number of small studies to look at the trade-offs in the design of TPF. The possible trade-offs include orbit location (1 to 5 AU), aperture size (6 to 1.5m), physically connected baselines or separated spacecraft flying in close formation.

Beichman, Charles

1997-01-01

176

Planets' magnetic environments  

SciTech Connect

The magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and comets and the heliomagnetosphere are examined. The orientations of the planetary spin and magnetic axes, the size of the magnetospheres, and the magnetic properties and the radio emissions of the planets are compared. Results from spacecraft studies of the planets are included. Plans for the Voyager 2 mission and its expected study of the Neptune magnetosphere are considered.

Lanzerotti, L.J.; Uberoi, C.

1989-02-01

177

The planet Saturn (1970)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present-day knowledge on Saturn and its environment are described for designers of spacecraft which are to encounter and investigate the planet. The discussion includes physical properties of the planet, gravitational field, magnetic and electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, satellites and meteoroids, the ring system, charged particles, atmospheric composition and structure, and clouds and atmospheric motions. The environmental factors which have pertinence to spacecraft design criteria are also discussed.

1972-01-01

178

The Planet Pluto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of webpages is part of a course called Astronomy 161: The Solar System, offered by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. This section covers the general features of Pluto, including information on whether it is the eighth or ninth planet from the Sun, and whether there are additional planets beyond Pluto. There are also subsections on the surface of Pluto and its moon, Charon, including Hubble Space Telescope images.

2007-04-14

179

Outer planet satellites  

SciTech Connect

Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

Schenk, P.M. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

180

Popularity versus similarity in growing networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preferential attachment is a powerful mechanism explaining the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are established preferentially to more popular nodes in a network, then the network is scale-free. Here we show that not only popularity but also similarity is a strong force shaping the network structure and dynamics. We develop a framework where new connections, instead of preferring popular nodes, optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity. The framework admits a geometric interpretation, in which preferential attachment emerges from local optimization processes. As opposed to preferential attachment, the optimization framework accurately describes large-scale evolution of technological (Internet), social (web of trust), and biological (E.coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links in them with a remarkable precision. The developed framework can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon.

Krioukov, Dmitri; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, Mariangeles; Boguna, Marian

2012-02-01

181

Yoga Gaining in Popularity Among Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... account for yoga's surge in popularity, Dr. Josephine Briggs, director of the U.S. National Center for Complementary ... in San Francisco. "A good example is vitamin D and probiotics," Roberts said. "Increasingly, people are recognizing ...

182

Proyecto para desarrollar un 'Teatro Popular Identificador'.  

E-print Network

se encargue de ellos en los infiernos. . . . RAÍCES PARA UN TEATRO NACIONAL POPULAR. La diversidad de elementos teatrales existentes en las farsas carnavalescas de la Costa Atlántica y otras regiones del país —Blancos y Negros en Pasto y Tumaco...

Zapata Olivella, Manuel

1975-10-01

183

Classifying Planets: Nature vs. Nurture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of a planet was so simple when we learned about the solar system in elementary school. Now students and professional s alike are faced with confusing array of definitions --- from "Brown Dwarfs” to "Super Jupiters", from "Super Earths” to "Terrestrial Planets", and from "Planets” to "Small, Sort-of Round Things That Aren't Really Planets". I will discuss how planets might be defined by how they formed, where they are found, or by the life they might support.

Beichman, Charles A.

2009-05-01

184

Mapping the Red Planet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since September 1997 the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has been orbiting the planet Mars and acquiring new data about the red planet that is changing our view of its present state and past history. Except for a few weeks in October 1997 and a few months in the Spring/Summer of 1998 when special science operations were conducted the spacecraft spent the first 18 months if its time at Mars getting to the right orbital geometry for the mapping mission. But on March 1, 1999 the MGS spacecraft trained its instruments onto the planet to begin a full Mars year (684 Earth days) of continuous systematic mapping and observation of the planet. The camera began wide angle and high resolution mapping, the thermal emission spectrometer began sensing the atmosphere and the material properties of the surface, the magnetometer searched out regions of abnormally high magnetism, the altimeter began determining the precise shape of the planet, and the radio science experiment began determining atmospheric pressures, temperatures and mapping the planet's gravity field. In a matter of a month more data was acquired about

Smith, David E.; Smith, David E.

2001-01-01

185

Classical mythology in the Victorian popular theatre  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that our picture of the uses of Greek and Roman authors in nineteenth-century Britain will remain incomplete\\u000a unless the popular and culturally subversive genre of classical burlesque, a staple of the mid-Victorian popular theatre,\\u000a is taken seriously by scholars. Dozens of burlesques of ancient epic and tragedy were performed between James Robinson Planch?’sOlympic Revels of 1831 and

Edith Hall

1999-01-01

186

THE STEPPENWOLF: A PROPOSAL FOR A HABITABLE PLANET IN INTERSTELLAR SPACE  

SciTech Connect

Rogue planets have been ejected from their planetary system. We investigate the possibility that a rogue planet could maintain a liquid ocean under layers of thermally insulating water ice and frozen gas as a result of geothermal heat flux. We find that a rogue planet of Earth-like composition and age could maintain a subglacial liquid ocean if it were {approx}3.5 times more massive than Earth, corresponding to {approx}8 km of ice. Suppression of the melting point by contaminants, a layer of frozen gas, or a larger complement of water could significantly reduce the planetary mass that is required to maintain a liquid ocean. Such a planet could be detected from reflected solar radiation, and its thermal emission could be characterized in the far-IR if it were to pass within O(1000) AU of Earth.

Abbot, D. S. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Switzer, E. R., E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu, E-mail: switzer@kicp.uchicago.edu [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2011-07-10

187

Atmospheric models for post- giant impact planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The final assembly of terrestrial planets is now universally thought to have occurred through a series of giant impacts, such as Earth's own Moon-forming impact. These collisions take place over a time interval of about 100 million years, during which time it takes at least 10 collisions between planets to make a Venus or an Earth. In the aftermath of one of these collisions the surviving planet is hot, and can remain hot for millions of years. During this phase of accretion, the proto-terrestrial planet may have a dense steam atmosphere, that will affect both the cooling of the planet and our ability to detect it. Here we explore the atmospheric chemistry, photochemistry, and spectral signatures of post-giant-impact terrestrial planets enveloped by thick atmospheres consisting of vaporized rock material. The atmospheric chemistry is computed self-consistently for atmospheres in equilibrium with hot surfaces, with compositions reflecting either the bulk silicate Earth (BSE, which includes the crust, mantle, atmosphere and oceans) or Earth's continental crust (CC). These two cases allow us to examine differences in atmospheres formed by outgassing of silica-rich (felsic) rocks - like the Earth's continental crust - and MgO- and FeO-rich (mafic) rocks - like the BSE. Studies of detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Australia, show that the continental crust existed 164 million years after the formation of the solar system, in which case the material vaporized in a giant impact should likely reflect the CC composition. However, if at the time of impact the surface of the planet does not yet exhibit the formation of continents, then the BSE case becomes relevant. We compute atmospheric profiles for surface temperatures ranging from 1000 to 2200 K, surface pressures of 10 and 100 bar, and surface gravities of 10 and 30 m/s^2. We account for all major molecular and atomic opacity sources, including collision-induced absorption, to derive the atmospheric structure and compute the reflected and emergent flux. We find that these atmospheres are dominated by H2O and CO2, while the formation of CH4, and NH3 is quenched due to short dynamical timescales. Other important constituents are HF, HCl, NaCl, and SO2. These are apparent in the emerging spectra, and can be indicative that an impact has occurred. Estimates including photochemistry and vertical mixing show that these atmospheres are enhanced in sulfur-bearing species, particularly SO2, one of the most important absorbers. At this stage we do not address cloud formation and aerosol opacity. Estimated luminosities for post-impact planets, although lower than predicted by previous models, show that the hottest post-giant-impact planets will be detectable with the planned 30 m-class telescopes. Finally, we use the models to describe the cooling of a post-impact terrestrial planet and briefly investigate its time evolution, which ends as the planet transitions into a more conventional steam atmosphere runaway greenhouse. This calculation brings a significant improvement over previous runaway greenhouse models, by including additional opacity sources and comprehensive line lists for H2O and CO2. We find that the cooling timescale for post-giant impact Earths ranges between about 10^5 and 10^6 years, where the slower cooling is associated with the planet going through a runaway greenhouse stage.

Lupu, R.; Zahnle, K. J.; Marley, M. S.; Schaefer, L. K.; Fegley, B.; Morley, C.; Cahoy, K.; Freedman, R. S.; Fortney, J. J.

2013-12-01

188

Canada's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview of Canadanain oceans outlines the characteristics of the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic marine ecosystems. After a brief look at Canada's ocean environments from a global perspective, additional chapters provide an overview of the physical properties, fauna and human impacts associated with Canada's oceans. For each ocean there is information on water properties, currents, tides, and the ocean floor. Ocean floor information includes descriptions of ocean basins, submarine ridges, continental shelves and sedimentation while current information includes the causes, effects, and names of the currents. There is an explanation of the cause of tides and how they affect each shoreline.

189

Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface

L. Cao; K. Caldeira

2008-01-01

190

Protostars and Planets VI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Protostars and Planets book and conference series has been a long-standing tradition that commenced with the first meeting led by Tom Gehrels and held in Tucson, Arizona, in 1978. The goal then, as it still is today, was to bridge the gap between the fields of star and planet formation as well as the investigation of planetary systems and planets. As Tom Gehrels stated in the preface to the first Protostars and Planets book, "Cross-fertilization of information and understanding is bound to occur when investigators who are familiar with the stellar and interstellar phases meet with those who study the early phases of solar system formation." The central goal remained the same for the subsequent editions of the books and conferences Protostars and Planets II in 1984, Protostars and Planets III in 1990, Protostars and Planets IV in 1998, and Protostars and Planets V in 2005, but has now been greatly expanded by the flood of new discoveries in the field of exoplanet science. The original concept of the Protostars and Planets series also formed the basis for the sixth conference in the series, which took place on July 15-20, 2013. It was held for the first time outside of the United States in the bustling university town of Heidelberg, Germany. The meeting attracted 852 participants from 32 countries, and was centered around 38 review talks and more than 600 posters. The review talks were expanded to form the 38 chapters of this book, written by a total of 250 contributing authors. This Protostars and Planets volume reflects the current state-of-the-art in star and planet formation, and tightly connects the fields with each other. It is structured into four sections covering key aspects of molecular cloud and star formation, disk formation and evolution, planetary systems, and astrophysical conditions for life. All poster presentations from the conference can be found at www.ppvi.org. In the eight years that have passed since the fifth conference and book in the Protostars and Planets series, the field of star and planet formation has progressed enormously. The advent of new space observatories like Spitzer and more recently Herschel have opened entirely new windows to study the interstellar medium, the birthplaces of new stars, and the properties of protoplanetary disks. Millimeter and radio observatories, in particular interferometers, allow us to investigate even the most deeply embedded and youngest protostars. Complementary to these observational achievements, novel multi-scale and multi-physics theoretical and numerical models have provided new insights into the physical and chemical processes that govern the birth of stars and their planetary systems. Sophisticated radiative transfer modeling is critical in order to better connect theories with observations. Since the last Protostars and Planets volume, more than 1000 new extrasolar planets have been identified and there are thousands more waiting to be verified. Such a large database allows for the first time a statistical assessment of the planetary properties as well as their evolution pathways. These investigations show the enormous diversity of the architecture of planetary systems and the properties of planets. High-contrast imaging at short and long wavelengths has resolved protoplanetary disks and associated planets, and transit spectroscopy is a new tool that allows us to study even the physical properties of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. The understanding of our own solar system has also progressed enormously since 2005. For instance, the sample-return Stardust mission has provided direct insight into the composition of comets and asteroids, and has demonstrated the importance of mixing processes in the early solar system. And much more is now known about the origin and role of short-lived nuclides at these stages of the solar system. For generations of astronomers, the Protostars and Planets volumes have served as an essential resource for our understanding of star and planet formation. They are used by students to dive into new topics, and

Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

191

Climate of Eccentric Terrestrial Planets with Carbonate-Silicate Geochemical Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent discovery of extrasolar planets indicates that some of them have much higher eccentricity than the planets in the solar system. Here, we investigate the climate of such eccentric terrestrial planets with oceans and carbonate-silicate geochemical cycles. We find that the climate of the planets are dependent on the annual mean insolation as shown in previous works. We also find that the planets orbiting slightly further from our Sun than the Earth are globally ice-covered even if the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle works under the same CO2 degassing rate as on the present Earth. However, when the CO2 degassing rate is higher, the planets avoid being globally ice-covered owing to the high level.

Kadoya, Shintaro; Tajika, Eiichi; Watanabe, Yoshiyasu

2014-04-01

192

Commission 53: Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commission 53 was created at the 2006 Prague General Assembly (GA) of the IAU, in recognition of the outburst of astronomical progress in the field of extrasolar planet discovery, characterization, and theoretical work that has occurred since the discovery of the first planet in orbit around a solar-type star in 1995. Commission 53 is the logical successor to the IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (WGESP), which ended its six years of existence in August 2006. The founding President of Commission 53 was Michael Mayor, in honor of his seminal contributions to this new field of astronomy. The current President is Alan Boss, the former chair of the WGESP. The current members of the Commission 53 (C53) Organizing Committee (OC) began their service in August 2009 at the conclusion of the Rio de Janeiro IAU GA.

Boss, Alan; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Mayor, Michel; Bodenheimer, Peter; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Mardling, Rosemary; Minniti, Dante; Queloz, Didier

2012-04-01

193

The Effect of Star-Planet Interactions on Planetary Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work I explored the effect on planetary climate and habitability of interactions between a host star, an orbiting planet and additional planets in a stellar system. I developed and tested models that include both radiative and gravitational effects, and simulated planets covered by ocean, land and water ice, with incident stellar radiation from stars of different spectral types. These simulations showed that ice-covered conditions occurred on an F-dwarf planet with a much smaller decrease in stellar flux than planets orbiting stars with less near-UV radiation, due to ice reflecting strongly in the visible and near-UV. The surface ice-albedo feedback effect is less important at the outer edge of the habitable zone, where ?3-10 bars of CO2 could entirely mask the climatic effect of ice and snow, leaving the traditional outer limit of the habitable zone unaffected by the spectral dependence of water ice and snow albedo. The exit out of global ice cover was also sensitive to host star spectral energy distribution. A planet orbiting an M-dwarf star exhibited a smaller resistance to melting out of a frozen state, requiring a smaller stellar flux to initiate deglaciation than planets orbiting hotter, brighter stars. Given their greater climate stability, planets orbiting cooler, lower-mass stars may be the best candidates for long-term habitability and life beyond the Solar System. A specific case was explored—that of Kepler-62f, a potentially habitable planet in a five-planet system orbiting a K-dwarf star. Simulations using a 3-D Global Climate Model indicated that Kepler-62f would have areas of the planet with surface temperatures above the freezing point of water with 1 bar or more of CO2 in its atmosphere. In a low-CO2 case, increases in planetary obliquity and orbital eccentricity coupled with an orbital configuration that places the summer solstice at or near pericenter generated regions of the planet with above-freezing surface temperatures, which may cause surface melting of an ice sheet formed during an annual cycle. The methods presented here can be used to assess the possible climates of newly discovered potentially habitable planets in systems with a wide range of orbital architectures.

Shields, Aomawa; Meadows, Victoria; Bitz, Cecilia; Pierrehumbert, Raymond; Joshi, Manoj; Robinson, Tyler; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Charnay, Benjamin; Virtual Planetary Laboratory

2015-01-01

194

Changing Planet: Fading Corals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video provides a comprehensive introduction to the role of coral reefs, the physiology of corals, and the impacts of both ocean warming and acidification on coral survival. It highlights experts from the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences and the University of Miami.

Universe, Nbc L.

195

Popular Science Writing:Why? Who? How?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why? Under the threats of anti-science, pseudo-science, and indifference to science, popularization of physics is changing from a genteel art to a necessity for survival. Science writing is one element in a campaign that includes TV, museums, lectures, school visits, etc. Who? Five percent of the total effort of every physics department should be devoted to popularization. The academic reward system should reflect this obligation. How? Hints and suggestions for effective science writing, based on extensive experience, will be presented.

von Baeyer, Hans Christian

1998-04-01

196

Strange Planets Planetarium Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This planetarium show is designed to engage visitors directly in activities and demonstrations, and is optimized for group sizes of 25 to 70 people. Show content includes general planet-finding techniques (Doppler, astrometric, etc.), an audience activity about the transit method of extrasolar planet discovery, NASA Kepler mission, and Johannes Kepler's work. It is 50-minutes long, but modular, so that it can be adjusted for shorter lengths (suggestions for 30-minute and 40-minute versions are provided in the script). The script, images, movies and music are available for free download at the website provided.

2012-12-06

197

Location of Planet X  

SciTech Connect

Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

Harrington, R.S.

1988-10-01

198

Bing & Bong's Tiny Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bing & Bong's Tiny Planet website, a supplement to the educational television series, offers excellent science activities, games, and online books for small children. Users can sail around the planet to learn about wind, read an online story to discover space, take an adventure through the water cycle, and much more. Visitors can also learn the essentials of colors, shapes, and light through short videos and interactive modules. The colorful website offers a great way for children to begin learning about the fascinating world.

199

Acid Test: The Global Challenge of Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Acid Test", a film produced by NRDC, was made to raise awareness about the largely unknown problem of ocean acidification, which poses a fundamental challenge to life in the seas and the health of the entire planet. Like global warming, ocean acidification stems from the increase of carbon dioxide in the earthâs atmosphere since the start of the Industrial Revolution.

2009-09-17

200

Early planet formation as a trigger for further planet formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discoveries of extrasolar giant planets at small orbital radii, or having significant orbital eccentricities, suggest that the planets interacted with the disks of dust and gas from which they and the central stars formed. Here we show that if a gas-giant planet reaches a mass of 4-5 jovian masses sufficiently early, when the protoplanetary disk is still massive, an

Philip J. Armitage; Brad M. S. Hansen

1999-01-01

201

From Protoplanets to Terrestrial Planets: Statistical Properties of Assembled Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard scenario of terrestrial planet formation consists of three stages: (1) dust to planetesimals, (2) planetesimals to protoplanets, and (3) protoplanets to planets. The stage (3) is known as giant impact stage where protoplanets collide one another to form the final planets. As this process is stochastic, in order to clarify it, it is necessary to investigate it statistically.

E. Kokubo; J. Kominami; S. Ida

2005-01-01

202

PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH Tristan Guillot  

E-print Network

for those objects with little or no atmosphere). On the other hand, extrasolar giant planets represent a new1 PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH DARWIN/TPF Tristan Guillot of such instruments as DARWIN or TPF represents a great opportunity to study in detail a new population

Guillot, Tristan

203

Pragmatism and Popular Culture: Shusterman, Popular Art, and the Challenge of Visuality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses Richard Shusterman's defense of popular culture and intends to show that the entertainment industry has a dark side which Shusterman tends to ignore. Richard Shusterman is a pragmatist aesthetician who promotes art as an integral part of the ever-changing stream of life, believing that popular culture provides…

Snaevarr, Stefan

2007-01-01

204

USGS Map-a-Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore global imagery of the planets and satellites from a variety of missions in an easy to use web interface. Customize and download your own image maps of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and other planets and moons.

USGS Astrogeology

205

Sun and planets from a climate point of view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun plays a dominant role as the gravity centre and the energy source of a planetary system. A simple estimate shows that it is mainly the distance from the Sun that determines the climate of a planet. The solar electromagnetic radiation received by a planet is very unevenly distributed on the dayside of the planet. The climate tries to equilibrate the system by transporting energy through the atmosphere and the oceans provided they exist. These quasi steady state conditions are continuously disturbed by a variety of processes and effects. Potential causes of disturbance on the Sun are the energy generation in the core, the energy transport trough the convection zone, and the energy emission from the photosphere. Well understood are the effects of the orbital parameters responsible for the total amount of solar power received by a planet and its relative distribution on the planet's surface. On a planet, many factors determine how much of the arriving energy enters the climate system and how it is distributed and ultimately reemitted back into space. On Earth, there is growing evidence that in the past solar variability played a significant role in climate change.

Beer, J.; Abreu, J. A.; Steinhilber, F.

2009-03-01

206

Using Popular Children's Films in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Watching films is a common activity for children outside of school, and incorporating popular films that contain scientific references has the potential to spark interest in the classroom. Clips rather than entire films can be used, as the children will maintain focus on the lesson objectives while being excited by the appeal of the film. The use…

Wadsworth, Elle; Croker, Stev; Harrison, Tim

2012-01-01

207

Literacy and Prisoners: Reassessing Popular Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research findings are discussed that lead to a reassessment of popular perceptions about literacy and prisoners, particularly that the percentage of illiterate prisoners is higher than in the general population and that many prisoners are reluctant to participate in prison literacy programs. (Contains 24 references.) (LB)

Black, Stephen

1991-01-01

208

Caveat Lector: Reviewing Popular Social Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses problems with reviews and criticisms of popular social science books: the quality and background of reviewers, the difficulty of distinguishing between fact and opinion, and the scarcity of competent reviewers. Analyzes reviews of Robert Ardrey's "African Genesis" and "The Territorial Imperative," Konrad Lorenz's "On Aggression," and…

Hixson, Vivian Scott

1981-01-01

209

Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I of the day, of temporary interest" #12;Which Semantic Web are we talking about? Semantic Web research anno

van Harmelen, Frank

210

Understanding and Developing Black Popular Music Collections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enumerates types of black popular music (work songs, spirituals, gospel music, blues, race records, rock and roll, soul, funk, disco, Caribbean, and African) and discusses collection development (current, retrospective, monographs, periodicals, sheet music, motion picture film, photographs, oral history), cataloging, and preservation. A 229-item…

Murray, James Briggs

1983-01-01

211

Predicting bullying: maladjustment, social skills and popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies and victims, despite the fact that bully-victims are known to be the

Silvia Postigo; Remedios González; Carmen Mateu; Inmaculada Montoya

2012-01-01

212

Impact of search engines on page popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies show that a majority of Web page accesses are referred by search engines. In this paper we study the widespread use of Web search engines and its impact on the ecology of the Web. In particular, we study how much impact search engines have on the popularity evolution of Web pages. For example, given that search engines return

Junghoo Cho; Sourashis Roy

2004-01-01

213

Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

2012-01-01

214

Popular Education and the "Party Line"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular education, by which is meant adult education within and in support of radical social movements, has become a major topic in academic adult education in recent times. This paper criticises the lack of attention paid in most of this writing to the history, theory and practice of revolutionary parties in the communist and socialist tradition.…

Boughton, Bob

2013-01-01

215

Practical performance models for complex, popular applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perhaps surprisingly, no practical performance models exist for popular (and complex) client applications such as Adobe's Cre- ative Suite, Microsoft's Office and Visual Studio, Mozilla, Halo 3, etc. There is currently no tool that automatically answers pro- gram developers', IT administrators' and end-users' simple what-if questions like \\

Eno Thereska; Bjoern Doebel; Alice X. Zheng; Peter Nobel

2010-01-01

216

Practical performance models for complex, popular applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perhaps surprisingly, no practical performance models exist for popular (and complex) client applications such as Adobe's Creative Suite, Microsoft's Office and Visual Studio, Mozilla, Halo 3, etc. There is currently no tool that automatically answers program developers', IT administrators' and end-users' simple what-if questions like \\

Eno Thereska; Bjoern Doebel; Alice X. Zheng; Peter Nobel

2010-01-01

217

Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take…

Newkirk, Thomas

218

UWP 011: Popular Science and Technology Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

UWP 011: Popular Science & Technology Writing is a sophomore-level course designed as an introduction to rhetoric of science at UC Davis, a science-focused land-grant university. The course fulfills the general education requirements for written literacy and for topical breadth in arts and humanities. The catalog describes the course as…

Perrault, Sarah

2012-01-01

219

Global warming: Popular vision vs. scientific fact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the popular vision, environmental apocalypse looms over the land. It's a vision of catastrophic global warming that ultimately leads to crop failures, rapid and inundating surges in sea level, enormous hurricanes, and burning forests incapable of renewing themselves. It's become warmer, yes, and perhaps will be warmer still, but to the degree of catastrophe The available data on climate

Michaels

2009-01-01

220

Astronomers Report Discovery of New Extra-solar Planets: Four Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are feeling alone in the universe, this news from 2000 of the search for new planets might inspire you. This account is from the popular space science Website, Space.com. It chronicles the latest detection of at least nine possible planetary bodies orbiting stars outside of our solar system. The text includes a discussion of how detection of wobble behavior is used in the search for extra-solar planets and plans for future planet hunts. This site also features links to Websites of the observatories involved in extra-solar planet detection, related Space.com stories, a diagram of Doppler shift due to stellar wobble and a table of the nine planet candidates's size and distance from Earth.

Weinstock, Maia.

2000-01-01

221

What makes a planet habitable ?  

E-print Network

volcanic eruption...) #12;#12;Solar system rocky planets #12;Conclusions COMPLEX life, AS WE KNOW planets ? #12;#12;#12;#12;·Too many collisions in the first few 100 Myr ·Stellar activity decreases BUT many many "suitable" planets in our galaxy, and many many galaxies... (Drake equation) Within next

Guyon, Olivier

222

Studying Extrasolar Planets with WFIRST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WFIRST mission will be a powerful tool for studying extrasolar planets. Through observations of gravitational microlensing, the mission will probe the demographics of extrasolar planetary systems. Its coronagraph will enable imaging and spectroscopic study of nearby planets. It will also be able to complement GAIA's astrometric measurements of masses and orbits of nearby planets.

Spergel, David N.

2014-06-01

223

What is a Planet? Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a video about the IAU definition of a planet. Learners will watch 3D animation designed to illustrate the history behind the discussion defining the question, what is a planet?, and to outline some of the traits that may be associated with the definition of a planet.

224

Single planet, divided world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike other forms of life on planet earth, humans have contrived to flourish—or at least multiply—by splitting themselves horizontally into incommensurable units and vertically into a species above, or privileged within, the realm of nature. The human proclivity for division, exclusion, and alienation is not absolute; it is endlessly challenged and often diluted by integrating tendencies. Historically, phenomena such as

Richard Matthew

1994-01-01

225

Pluto - The distant planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the history of the discovery of Pluto. It is noted that two scientists, Pickering and Lowell, worked independently in searching for Pluto. Attention is given to the peculiarities of the orbit of Pluto; its rotation, diameter, and surface structure; Pluto's moon, Charon; and the possible existence of an additional planet.

N. Vogt

1980-01-01

226

The Nine Planets: Appendices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nine Planets page offers additional information not included in any other pages of the site. It includes tables of solar system data, discovery chronology, a brief look at the origin of the solar system, planetary linguistics, explanations of astronomical names, a master picture list, and links for more information.

Bill Arnett

227

Accumulation of the planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

Wetherill, G. W.

1987-01-01

228

A Planet for Goldilocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for life beyond Earth has inspired Solar System exploration and SETI surveys. Today, the search for life also leads to exoplanet discovery and characterization. Launched in March 2009, NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of exoplanets with diverse properties. Though each new world is interesting in its own right, Kepler aims to understand the population as a whole. Its primary objective is to determine the frequency of exoplanets of different sizes and orbital periods. Of special interest are the Earth-size planets in the “Goldilocks” (or habitable) Zone where the flux of incoming starlight is conducive to the existence of surface liquid water. Once Kepler establishes the prevalence of such planets in the Solar neighborhood, future missions can be designed to find not just a planet in the Goldilocks Zone but a planet for Goldilocks—a truly habitable environment for life as we know it. Kepler discoveries and progress will be described as well as the resources available to bring Kepler science to the public and into the classroom. The possibility of finding evidence of life beyond Earth is working its way into the public consciousness and has the potential to inspire generations. Scientific literacy is a natural consequence of awakening the spirit of exploration and discovery that led Goldilocks into the forest and leads humans into space.

Batalha, N.

2014-07-01

229

Planet Quest Observing Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PlanetQuest Observing Cards are designed to give telescope operators and other interpreters a new way of explaining the night sky. Relating common observing objects to our search for exoplanets makes these spectacular sights more understandable. These cards are a great resource for use at observing night events, providing new stories to tell about commonly viewed celestial objects.

230

Terrestrials Dwarf Planets  

E-print Network

Terrestrials Gas Giants Ice Giants Dwarf Planets The Solar System #12;Neptune Uranus Saturn Jupiter Density: 3900 ­ 5500 kg m-3 #12;Jupiter 318 ME 5.2 AU Uranus 15 ME 19.6 AUSaturn 95 ME 9.5 AU Neptune 17 3.88 RE Uranus Neptune Uranus and Neptune are Ice Giants made mostly of ices with thin Hydrogen

Gaudi, B. Scott

231

The Outer Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the outermost planets of our solar system: Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. They also learn about characteristics of Pluto and its interactions with Neptune. Students learn a little about the history of space travel as well as the different technologies that engineers develop to make space travel and scientific discovery possible.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

232

External Resource: Clay Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners/students use given amounts of clay to create models of the solar system. Learners/students use clay to represent different planets and other objects in the solar system (asteroids, moons, etc.). The learners/students can use as

1900-01-01

233

Ocean circulation and climate during the past 120,000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceans cover more than two-thirds of our blue planet. The waters move in a global circulation system, driven by subtle density differences and transporting huge amounts of heat. Ocean circulation is thus an active and highly nonlinear player in the global climate game. Increasingly clear evidence implicates ocean circulation in abrupt and dramatic climate shifts, such as sudden temperature changes

Stefan Rahmstorf

2002-01-01

234

Ocean Terracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean

Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

2007-01-01

235

Water Cycling Between Ocean and Mantle: Super-Earths Need Not be Waterworlds  

E-print Network

Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying that most super-Earths should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. In other words, the continuously habitable zone for waterworlds is much narrower than for Earth-like planets. A planet's water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust depend negatively and positively on seafloor pressure, respectively, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water pa...

Cowan, Nicolas B

2014-01-01

236

The Diversity of Icy Ocean Worlds (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that several of the outer planet satellites might contain subsurface water oceans was first proposed by Lewis (1971) and others in the early seventies. Since the late nineties, evidence for the presence of those liquid layers was provided by the Galileo mission for Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto and by Cassini data for Saturn's moon Enceladus. Modelling suggests that

H. Hussmann

2010-01-01

237

Mean motion resonances from planet-planet scattering  

E-print Network

Planet-planet scattering is the leading mechanism to explain the large eccentricities of the observed exoplanet population. However, scattering has not been considered important to the production of pairs of planets in mean motion resonances (MMRs). We present results from a large number of numerical simulations of dynamical instabilities in 3-planet systems. We show that MMRs arise naturally in about five percent of cases. The most common resonances we populate are the 2:1 and 3:1 MMRs, although a wide variety of MMRs can occur, including high-order MMRs (up to eleventh order). MMRs are generated preferentially in systems with uneven mass distributions: the smallest planet is typically ejected after a series of close encounters, leaving the remaining, more massive planets in resonance. The distribution of resonant planets is consistent with the phase-space density of resonant orbits, meaning that planets are randomly thrown into MMRs rather than being slowly pulled into them. It may be possible to distinguish between MMRs created by scattering vs. convergent migration in a gaseous disk by considering planetary mass ratios: resonant pairs of planets beyond ~1 AU with more massive outer planets are likely to have formed by scattering. In addition, scattering may be responsible for pairs of planets in high-order MMRs (3:1 and higher) that are not easily populated by migration. The frequency of MMRs from scattering is comparable to the expected survival rate of MMRs in turbulent disks. Thus, planet-planet scattering is likely to be a major contributor to the population of resonant planets.

Sean N. Raymond; Rory Barnes; Philip J. Armitage; Noel Gorelick

2008-09-19

238

Planet frequency from microlensing observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galactic gravitational microlensing is a very efficient technique to detect brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets at large orbital distances from their stars, and down to Earth-mass planets. More than 50 planets have been discovered so far, with 31 already published. Recent statistical results on the frequency of exoplanets based on several years of microlensing observations find that planets should be the rule rather than the exception, and confirm that super-Earth are much more frequent that giant planets in the Galaxy.

Cassan, A.; Ranc, C.

2014-12-01

239

Ocean Terracing  

E-print Network

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean Art is the technically possible 21-st Century terracing of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Art is applicable worldwide to places that might be practically improved by its judicious employment. Such Ocean Art may constitute an entirely unique category of solutions to coastal disaster prevention planning.

Richard Cathcart; Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-09

240

Lights, Camera, Action: Integrating Popular Film in the Health Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the benefits as well as the important considerations that should be taken into account in integrating popular films in health education classes. Use of popular films in the classroom, termed "cinema education," is becoming increasingly popular in teaching health education. As a matter of convenience, popular films are easy…

Diez, Keri S.; Pleban, Francis T.; Wood, Ralph J.

2005-01-01

241

New Martian paradigms. [concerning planet's nature and evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several interrelated paradigms concerning the nature and the evolution of Mars are discussed. These include an impact origin of the northern lowland, Mars as a water-rich planet, former oceans in the northern lowlands, a warm wet climate on early Mars, and the possibility of ancient life on Mars. Locations on Mars suggested for the search of possible ancient life include the heavily cratered terrain dissected by valley networks, possible lacustrine deposits in Valles Marineris, the oxidizing layer below the surface, sites along the fringes of the hypothetical northern circumpolar ocean, and in evaporite deposits.

Mcewen, Alfred S.

1991-01-01

242

The naked planet Earth : Most essential pre-requisite for the origin and evolution of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our blue planet Earth has long been regarded as a standard to host evolving life with full of nutrients since the birth of the planet. Here, we synthesize the processes that led to the birth of early life on Earth and its aftermath, finally leading to the evolution of metazoans, based on an evaluation of: (1) source of nutrients, (2) chemistry of primordial ocean, (3) initial mass of ocean, and (4) size of rocky planet. Among the life-building nutrients, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) play a key role. Only three types of rocks can serve as adequate source of nutrients. (a) Continent-forming TTG (granite), enabling the evolution of life to metazoans. (b) Primordial continents carrying anorthosite with KREEP (Potassium, Rare Earth Elements, and Phosphorus) basalts, which is a key to bear life. (c) Carbonatite magma, enriched in radiogenic elements such as U and Th, that can cause mutation to speed up evolution, and promote the birth of new species in continental rift settings. Second important factor is ocean chemistry. The primordial ocean was extremely acidic (pH=1-2) and enriched in halogens (Cl, F and others), S and N and metallic elements (Cd, Cu, Zn, and others), inhibiting the birth of life. Plate tectonics cleaned up these elements which interfered with RNA. Blue ocean finally appeared in the Phanerozoic with pH=7 through extensive interaction with surface continental crust by weathering, erosion and transportation into ocean. The initial ocean mass was also important. The birth of life and aftermath of evolution was possible in the habitable zone under a tight initial condition of 3-5 km thick ocean which enabled supply of sufficient nutrients. Without a huge landmass, sufficient amount of nutrients cannot be supplied into ocean. Finally, the size of the planet determines the fate of a planet. Due to suitable planet size, the dawn of Phanerozoic witnessed the initiation of return-flow of seawater into mantle, leading to the emergence of huge landmass above sea-level, and the distribution of nutrients on a global scale. It is necessary to meet above 4 conditions to enable the Earth as a habitable planet with evolved life forms. The tight constraints that we evaluate for birth and evolution of life on Earth would provide important guidelines for hunting for life in the exo-solar planets.

Maruyama, S.; Ikoma, M.; Genda, H.; Hirose, K.; Yokoyama, T.; Santosh, M.

2013-12-01

243

Tarlton Law Library in Popular Culture Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tarlton Law Library at the University of Texas School of Law hosts this collection, which focuses on law in popular culture. The goal of the collection is "to provide as broad a picture as possible of the image of the lawyer in the United States and British Commonwealth." The collection consists of works of fiction in all genres as well as legal humor, plays, and feature films. If you can't make it to Austin to check out these materials in person the site provides quite a bit for the virtual visitor. There are a number of E-texts available including "Collins to Grisham: A brief history of the legal thriller" as well as an entire bibliography of e-texts which tell "the lawyer's story." Visitors may also want to check out the fun section entitled "Lawyerly Quotations from Popular Culture". In addition, the site provides a number of movie posters, movie stills, and lobby cards to peruse.

244

Book Review of a Popular Science Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each student selects a popular science book on a geoscience topic of interest to them, finds two book reviews of that book, and writes a book review that includes some description of the book as well as some commentary and review. Each student also gives a short (three-four minute) oral presentation of their review to their classmates (either stand-alone or with one Powerpoint slide).

Heather Macdonald

245

The Popularity of P&P  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The classes are often…

Ruffins, Paul

2006-01-01

246

Mass-Radius Relationships for Low-Mass Planets: From Iron Planets to Water Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transit observations, and radial velocity measurements, have begun to populate the mass radius diagram for extrasolar planets; fubture astrometric measurements and direct images promise more mass and radius information. Clearly, the bulk density of a planet indicates something about a planet s composition--but what? I will attempt to answer this question in general for low-mass planets (planets obey a kind of universal mass-radius relationship: an expansion whose first term is M approx. R(sup 3).

Kuchner, Marc

2007-01-01

247

FLIPPER: Validation for Remote Ocean Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

one of the determining factors in the planet s ability to support life is the same factor that makes the Blue Planet blue: water. Therefore, NASA researchers have a focused interest in understanding Earth s oceans and their ability to continue sustaining life. A critical objective in this study is to understand the global processes that control the changes of carbon and associated living elements in the oceans. Since oceans are so large, one of the most widely used methods of this research is remote sensing, using satellites to observe changes in the ocean color that may be indicative of changes occurring at the surface. Major changes in carbon are due to photosynthesis conducted by phytoplankton, showing, among other things, which areas are sustaining life. Although valuable for large-scale pictures of an ocean, remote sensing really only provides a surface, and therefore incomplete, depiction of that ocean s sustainability. True and complete testing of the water requires local testing in conjunction with the satellite images in order to generate the necessary algorithm parameters to calculate ocean health. For this reason, NASA has spearheaded research to provide onsite validation for its satellite imagery surveys.

2006-01-01

248

Journal of Religion and Popular Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Professor Mary Ann Beavis of the University of Saskatchewan, the Journal of Religion and Popular Culture is a âÂÂweb-based, peer-reviewed journal committed to academic exploration, analysis and interpretation, from a range of disciplinary perspectives, of the interrelations between religion and religious expression and popular culture, broadly defined as the products of contemporary mass culture.â It is quite a broad area to cover, and they do so admirably, and members of the public and those in the world of higher education will want to look over their site closely. Published three times a year, visitors can browse through the online archive offered here, or take a look at their most recent issue. Some of the articles that have appeared in recent issues include âÂÂThe Apocalyptic Imagination and Popular CultureâÂÂ, âÂÂSeeking the Roots of Terrorism: An Islamic Traditional ExperienceâÂÂ, and âÂÂUnder the Influence? The Bible, Culture and Nick CaveâÂÂ.

249

Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

1992-01-01

250

Planet Size Comparison  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature lets students compare the sizes of the planets in our solar system. Users can select two solar system bodies (planets, Sun, Earth's moon) and view side-by-side images at the same scale, along with their diameters in kilometers or miles, and a ratio. Science NetLinks is part of MarcoPolo, a partnership between the Verizon Foundation and eight premier educational organizations. The MarcoPolo partnership provides free, Internet-based content across academic disciplines. Science NetLinks is managed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and its role is to provide a wealth of standards-based resources for K-12 science educators, including lesson plans, interactives and reviewed Internet resources.

251

Planet Size Comparison  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature lets students compare the sizes of the planets in our solar system. Users can select two solar system bodies (planets, Sun, Earth's moon) and view side-by-side images at the same scale, along with their diameters in kilometers or miles, and a ratio. Science NetLinks is part of MarcoPolo, a partnership between the Verizon Foundation and eight premier educational organizations. The MarcoPolo partnership provides free, Internet-based content across academic disciplines. Science NetLinks is managed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and its role is to provide a wealth of standards-based resources for K-12 science educators, including lesson plans, interactives and reviewed Internet resources.

2010-11-19

252

Exploring the Planets: Jupiter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Jupiter, including mean distance from the Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, spacecraft encounters, diameter, and number of observed satellites. The Galilean satellites Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, and Io are shown here in their correct positions relative to the planet and the odd moon Amalthea is discussed. There is tabular data on several of the other major moons. There are many thumbnail photographs that can be enlarged, including a grand view of the red spot. The radiation and radio noise of Jupiter is discussed, along with its atmosphere as compared to Saturn. The Galileo mission is discussed and links are provided for more information.

253

Exploring the Planets: Voyager  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Voyager exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum and gives additional information about the Voyagers that were launched into space and the one remaining in the museum. The Voyager spacecraft displayed in the Exploring the Planets gallery is similar to the two Voyagers sent to explore Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. This portion of the exhibit details the Voyager missions, the spacecraft, and its instruments. Sixteen of the Voyager components and instrumentation are discussed in detail along with its unique power supply. The Museum's spacecraft is a full-scale replica of Voyager, parts of which were used for pre-launch engineering tests. Voyager is suspended above the Outer Planets display, which highlights some of the discoveries made through data and imagery returned by Voyagers 1 and 2.

254

Exploring the Planets: Venus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Venus, including mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), and diameter. Many discoveries about Venus have been made using Earth-based radio telescopes, however the images of Venus in this exhibit were collected by the Magellan spacecraft. Magellan used radar to produce the first high-resolution global map of Venus. Since Venus has no water erosion and little wind, volcanic eruptions are a major force reshaping the landscape. Geologic forces at work beneath the crust create mountains, rifts, and patterns of fractures, while the sluggish winds sculpt the surface in subtler ways but many mysteries remain. This site includes numerous images of the planet.

255

Exploring the Planets: Discovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes what early civilizations knew about our solar system and how astronomy developed over the centuries. The early theories describing the movements of the planets, development of the first telescopes, and discoveries of the planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are some of the topics addressed in Discovery. Here you will find the Pluto discovery plate, the photographic plate taken the day Pluto's position was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh. Other topics covered at this site include: the Renaissance with the ideas of Copernicus and Kepler; the age of the telescope, which traces its development; Galileo, who is credited with discovering the moons of Jupiter, phases of Venus, and the craters on the Moon; and planetary satellites.

256

Planet Under Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Planet Under Pressure is a six-part British Broadcasting Company (BBC) News Online series looking at some of the most pressing environmental issues facing the human race today. The series takes a detailed look at six areas where most experts agree that a crisis is brewing. They include food, water, energy, climate change, biodiversity, and pollution. In addition there are special features including: an animated guide that shows how the greenhouse effect might shape our climate; before and after images of the effects of climate change; the European Union (EU) emissions trading scheme and the carbon revolution; opinions about the Kyoto Protocol; graphic climate evidence of a warming world, rising sea, and melting ice; teenagers' opinions on how they would tackle environmental damage; the results of an eco-friendly garden competition; pictures of environmental change around the world; and a link to a BBC website exploring the UN's goals for the planet in 2015.

257

Water Trapping on Tidally Locked Terrestrial Planets Requires Special Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld, we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, nightside sea ice remains {O}(10 m) thick and nightside water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets {O}(1000 m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's would therefore experience a large decrease in sea level when plate tectonics drives their continents onto the night side, but would not experience complete dayside dessiccation. Only planets with a geothermal heat flux lower than Earth's, much of their surface covered by continents, and a surface water reservoir {O}(10%) of Earth's would be susceptible to complete water trapping.

Yang, Jun; Liu, Yonggang; Hu, Yongyun; Abbot, Dorian S.

2014-12-01

258

Oceans, Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-01-01

259

Planet Within a Planet: Implications of Principal Component Analysis of Global Tomographic Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dziewonski et al. (2010) identified five layers in the mantle with different spectral characteristics of lateral heterogeneity: three layers in the upper mantle and two in the lower mantle. Subsequent principal component analysis (PCA) of recent 3-D shear velocity models shows there are three distinct zones, or layers, expressed by the radial eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues. Each radial eigenvector is associated with a pattern of lateral velocity variations. The near surface layer (Moho - 300 km; Heterosphere or 'Plate Tectonics Planet') and the lower mantle (650 - CMB; 'Superplume Planet') have nearly no overlap in terms of the corresponding eigenvector distribution as a function of depth: it is as if they represented heterogeneity within two different planets. These two 'planets' are connected by an 'Inter-Planetary Interaction Zone' (IPIZ; 300 - 650 km depth) where the eigenvectors show some overlap suggesting a degree of a convective and/or conductive flux between the zones. The largest principal component is associated with the 'Plate Tectonics Planet'; it represents ~50% of variance in the entire model and it is virtually confined to the top 250-300 km. As might be expected, the horizontal pattern of velocity variations corresponding to this eigenvector looks very much like a map of shear velocity anomalies between 100 and 150 km. It shows mid-ocean ridges, age-dependent oceanic lithosphere, cratons, and tectonically active regions. The power of heterogeneity falls by an order of magnitude between 200 and 300 km depth, although slight differences between continents and oceans may persist. Such a rapid change, considering that radial resolution is about 75 km at this depth, is consistent with a partial decoupling between the lid and the underlying mantle. The second largest PC (~20% of variance) is largely confined to the lower mantle, where it contains much of the degree 2 signal, with the largest amplitudes near the CMB. We call the lower mantle a 'Superplume Planet' because its structure is very much dominated by the degree 2 and 3 signal, which decreases at shallower depths but retains its characteristic signal of the African and Pacific Superplumes separated by a ring of faster than average velocities (Lekic et al., 2012). The next four eigenvalues contribute ~20% of the model variance, such that after their contributions to the model are added, >90-95% of the variance is explained by the first 6 PC's and, except for the middle mantle, the 'synthetic' model contains all important features of the input model. In addition to the surface and bottom boundary layers, the top and the bottom of IPIZ are essential in determining the flow in the mantle. It is important that their existence and significance be appreciated, or at least acknowledged, by the community. We use the "different planets" hyperbole in the context of search for 'Super-Earths' among exoplanets and speculations on whether their dynamics could be similar to plate tectonics on the Earth. Our ability to predict whether plate tectonics is likely on exoplanets may well depend on our understanding of the relationship between our own Superplume and Plate Tectonics planets.

Dziewonski, A. M.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.

2013-12-01

260

The genesis of planets.  

PubMed

Barely a decade ago scientists who study how planets form had to base their theory on a single example-our solar system. Now they have dozens of mature systems and dozens more in birth throes. No two are alike. The basic idea behind the leading theory of planetary formation--tiny grains stick together and swoop up gas--conceals many levels of intricacy. A chaotic interplay among competing mechanisms leads to a huge diversity of outcomes. PMID:18444325

Lin, Douglas N C

2008-05-01

261

The New Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

DANS le numéro de NATURE du 12 avril, p. 577, le rédacteur de la note ``The New Planet'' suppose gratuitement que j'ai commis une erreur de raisonne-ment dans le calcul du diamètre photométrique de la nouvelle planète. L'inexactitude de cette supposition se trouve démontrée par ma Note, présentée à l'Aca-démie des Sciences de Paris dans sa séance du lundi 7

F. Baldet

1930-01-01

262

The Gemini Planet Imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of GPI has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. GPI has undergone a year of commissioning, verification, and calibration work. We have achieved an estimated H-band contrast (5-sigma) of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds in spectral mode, and suppression of unpolarized starlight by a factor of 800 in imaging polarimetry mode. Early science observations include study of the spectra of ? Pic b and HR 8799, orbital investigations of ? Pic b and PZ Tel, and observations of the debris disk systems associated with ? Pic, AU Mic, and HR 4796A. An 890-hour exoplanet survey with GPI is scheduled to begin in late 2014. A status report for the campaign will be presented.

Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marois, Christian; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam Seth; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert John J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Kathleen M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Norton, Andew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemeyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew W.; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schulyer; Gpi/Gpies Team

2015-01-01

263

Astrometric Planet Searches with SIM PlanetQuest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SIM will search for planets with masses as small as the Earth's orbiting in the habitable zones' around more than 100 of the stars and could discover many dozen if Earth-like planets are common. With a planned 'Deep Survey' of 100-450 stars (depending on desired mass sensitivity) SIM will search for terrestrial planets around all of the candidate target stars for future direct detection missions such as Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin, SIM's 'Broad Survey' of 2010 stars will characterize single and multiple-planet systems around a wide variety of stellar types, including many now inaccessible with the radial velocity technique. In particular, SIM will search for planets around young stars providing insights into how planetary systems are born and evolve with time.

Beichman, Charles A.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; March, Geoffrey W.

2007-01-01

264

The atmospheric evolution of Venus the habitable planet. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern theories of planetary accumulation do not build Venus dry and Earth wet save by unlucky chance. If Venus and Earth were built of the same stuff, Venus’s descent into ruin must have been caused by its proximity to the Sun: too much sunlight brought a runaway greenhouse effect, the oceans and seas evaporated, and the hydrogen in the water was irrevocably lost to space. If the story has a moral, Venus would be the earth that lost its water. A complication to the story is that early Venus occupies an ambiguous position with respect to the runaway greenhouse effect. If Venus began as an ocean planet like Earth, both runaway and non-runaway states are plausible at first. In the 50 Myr before the Sun reached the main sequence, the Sun was both bright and faint, with Venus moving in and out of the conventional habitable zone. Once the Sun reached the main sequence it settled to a luminosity 70% of today’s. At this point the critical albedo triggering the runaway greenhouse on Venus was ~0.32, slightly higher than Earth’s today. This means that Earth’s albedo would put an ocean-covered Venus in the runaway greenhouse state, but only just barely, while an albedo of a slightly cloudier planet would have let Venus’s ancient oceans condenses. Early Venus’s indecisive state makes the recovery of liquid water oceans from giant impacts such as Earth’s moon-forming impact questionable. Another interesting plot twist is that dry planets (desert worlds with limited surface water) are expected to have some immunity with respect to the runaway greenhouse effect, because the limited water can be cold trapped at high latitudes. On a hot dry planet the dearth of tropical water vapor has two effects: it stabilizes the greenhouse effect (the tropics can radiate at rates well above the traditional runaway limit because the tropical atmosphere is not saturated) and it creates a dry stratosphere that severely limits hydrogen escape. Young Venus, if dry, would have been well within the dry-planet habitable zone. Here we consider the possibility that an ocean planet can evolve into a dry but habitable planet as the Sun brightens without first passing through an uninhabitable runaway greenhouse phase. This can happen because hydrogen escape in the diffusion limit depends on the wetness of the stratosphere: a warm planet can have a wet stratosphere and fast hydrogen escape while maintaining liquid water at the surface, provided that the atmosphere is not too thick. This requires in particular that most of the CO2 now in Venus’s atmosphere was sequestered as carbonate rock. If these conditions were all met, it is possible that Venus may have been a habitable planet as recently as 1 billion years ago.

Zahnle, K. J.; Abe, Y.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Sleep, N. H.

2010-12-01

265

Origin of the earth's ocean basins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The earth's original ocean basins were mare-type basins produced 4 billion years ago by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upwards from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the Earth indicates that at least 50 percent of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60 percent oceanic, 40 percent continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

Frex, H.

1977-01-01

266

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data â both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Lightle, Kimberly; Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-10-01

267

Astrobiology And Extrasolar Planets- A New Lecture Course At Potsdam University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life on Earth and in the Universe. This addresses a very wide range of questions that have been asked by mankind from the beginning. On the other hand, the discovery of the first extrasolar planet orbiting a Sun-like star by Mayor and Queloz in 1995 opened a new area for astrobiological research. Although most of the newly discovered extrasolar planets are giants with no underlying solid surfaces or oceans that could support a biosphere, the distribution of masses lets scientists suppose that there must be a multitude of planets with lower masses, including Earth-mass planets. The lecture course contains the following topics: Survey about Extrasolar Planets, Detection Methods, Simple Earth System Models, Dynamical Earth System Models, Habitable Zones, Dynamical Habitability, Rare Earth Hypothesis, Drake Formula, Panspermia, Origin of Life, Cambrian Explosion, Impacts and Climate, Long-Term Future Scenarios, Future Space Missions.

Franck, S. A.; von Bloh, W.; Bounama, Ch.

2006-08-01

268

Ocean FEST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean FEST family science nights feature hands-on, standards-based, ocean-themed science activities for students in grades 3-6 and their families. Our goals are to: (1) educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their communities; and (2) inspire students - especially those from underrepresented groups - to pursue careers in the ocean and earth sciences. The teacher guide provides all information (including supply lists) necessary to perform these activities in a classroom. Some supply funding is available--see Teacher Resources section for more information.

Bruno, Barbara; Hsia, Michelle; Wiener, Carlie

269

Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the most common photographs of Earth taken from space show the planet covered in blue water, NASA has managed to produce detailed color images, using satellite imagery, that show the remarkable variation of colors that actually make up the oceanic surface. An ocean s color is determined by the interaction of surface waters with sunlight, and surface waters can contain any number of different particles and dissolved substances, which could then change the color. Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet? The particles are mostly phytoplankton, the microscopic, single-celled ocean plants that are the primary food source for much marine life. Remote detection of phytoplankton provides information about the uptake and cycling of carbon by the ocean through photosynthesis, as well as the overall health of the water. Inorganic particles and substances dissolved in the water also affect its color, particularly in coastal regions. Satellite images can be used to calculate the concentrations of these materials in surface waters, as well as the levels of biological activity. The satellites allow a global view that is not available from ship or shore. NASA s orbiting satellites offer a unique vantage point for studying the oceans. By resolving the biological, chemical, and physical conditions in surface waters, they have allowed the oceanographic community to make huge leaps in its understanding of oceanographic processes on regional and global fronts. The study of ocean color, in particular, has been integral in helping researchers understand the natural and human-induced changes in the global environment and establishing the role of the oceans in the biochemical cycles of elements that influence the climate and the distribution of life on Earth.

2005-01-01

270

Microlensing search for extrasolar planets  

E-print Network

Microlensing has recently proven to be a valuable tool to search for extrasolar planets of Neptune- to super-Earth-mass planets at orbits of few AU. Since planetary signals are of very short duration, an intense and continuous monitoring is required, which is achieved by PLANET : ``Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork''. Up to now the detection number amounts to four, one of them being OGLE 2005-BLG-390Lb, an extrasolar planet of only ~5.5 M_earth orbiting its M-dwarf host star at ~2.6 AU. For non-planetary microlensing events observed from 1995 to 2006, we compute detection efficiency diagrams which can then be used to derive an estimate of the limit on the Galactic abundance of sub-Jupiter-mass planets, as well as relative abundance of Neptune-like planets.

A. Cassan; D. Kubas

2006-12-01

271

Habitable Planets: Interior Dynamics and Long-Term Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, the state of our knowledge regarding the interior dynamics and evolution of habitable terrestrial planets including Earth and super-Earths is reviewed, and illustrated using state-of-the-art numerical models. Convection of the rocky mantle is the key process that drives the evolution of the interior: it causes plate tectonics, controls heat loss from the metallic core (which generates the magnetic field) and drives long-term volatile cycling between the atmosphere/ocean and interior. Geoscientists have been studying the dynamics and evolution of Earth's interior since the discovery of plate tectonics in the late 1960s and on many topics our understanding is very good, yet many first-order questions remain. It is commonly thought that plate tectonics is necessary for planetary habitability because of its role in long-term volatile cycles that regulate the surface environment. Plate tectonics is the surface manifestation of convection in the 2900-km deep rocky mantle, yet exactly how plate tectonics arises is still quite uncertain; other terrestrial planets like Venus and Mars instead have a stagnant lithosphere- essentially a single plate covering the entire planet. Nevertheless, simple scalings as well as more complex models indicate that plate tectonics should be easier on larger planets (super-Earths), other things being equal. The dynamics of terrestrial planets, both their surface tectonics and deep mantle dynamics, change over billions of years as a planet cools. Partial melting is a key process influencing solid planet evolution. Due to the very high pressure inside super-Earths' mantles the viscosity would normally be expected to be very high, as is also indicated by our density function theory (DFT) calculations. Feedback between internal heating, temperature and viscosity leads to a superadiabatic temperature profile and self-regulation of the mantle viscosity such that sluggish convection still occurs.

Tackley, Paul J.; Ammann, Michael M.; Brodholt, John P.; Dobson, David P.; Valencia, Diana

2014-04-01

272

Formation of the giant planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions planets with small cores/total heavy element abundances can accrete gaseous envelopes within the lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary disks.

Lissauer, Jack J.

2006-01-01

273

Planets in Evolved Binary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exo-planets are typically thought to form in protoplanetary disks left over from protostellar disk of their newly formed host star. However, additional planetary formation and evolution routes may exist in old evolved binary systems. Here we discuss the implications of binary stellar evolution on planetary systems in such environments. In these binary systems stellar evolution could lead to the formation of symbiotic stars, where mass is lost from one star and could be transferred to its binary companion, and may form an accretion disk around it. This raises the possibility that such a disk could provide the necessary environment for the formation of a new, second generation of planets in both circumstellar or circumbinary configurations. Pre-existing first generation planets surviving the post-MS evolution of such systems would be dynamically effected by the mass loss in the systems and may also interact with the newly formed disk. Such planets and/or planetesimals may also serve as seeds for the formation of the second generation planets, and/or interact with them, possibly forming atypical planetary systems. Second generation planetary systems should be typically found in white dwarf binary systems, and may show various observational signatures. Most notably, second generation planets could form in environment which are inaccessible, or less favorable, for first generation planets. The orbital phase space available for the second generation planets could be forbidden (in terms of the system stability) to first generation planets in the pre-evolved progenitor binaries. In addition planets could form in metal poor environments such as globular clusters and/or in double compact object binaries. Observations of exo-planets in such forbidden or unfavorable regions could possibly serve to uniquely identify their second generation character. Finally, we point out a few observed candidate second generation planetary systems, including Gl 86, HD 27442 and all of the currently observed circumbinary planet candidates. A second generation origin for these systems could naturally explain their unique configurations.

Perets, Hagai B.

2011-03-01

274

Planet X - Fact or fiction?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

Anderson, John

1988-01-01

275

Planet X - ract or fiction  

SciTech Connect

The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

Anderson, J.

1988-08-01

276

Five Planets Orbiting 55 Cancri  

E-print Network

We report 18 years of Doppler shift measurements of a nearby star, 55 Cancri, that exhibit strong evidence for five orbiting planets. The four previously reported planets are strongly confirmed here. A fifth planet is presented, with an apparent orbital period of 260 days, placing it 0.78 AU from the star in the large empty zone between two other planets. The velocity wobble amplitude of 4.9 \\ms implies a minimum planet mass \\msini = 45.7 \\mearthe. The orbital eccentricity is consistent with a circular orbit, but modest eccentricity solutions give similar \\chisq fits. All five planets reside in low eccentricity orbits, four having eccentricities under 0.1. The outermost planet orbits 5.8 AU from the star and has a minimum mass, \\msini = 3.8 \\mjupe, making it more massive than the inner four planets combined. Its orbital distance is the largest for an exoplanet with a well defined orbit. The innermost planet has a semi-major axis of only 0.038 AU and has a minimum mass, \\msinie, of only 10.8 \\mearthe, one of the lowest mass exoplanets known. The five known planets within 6 AU define a {\\em minimum mass protoplanetary nebula} to compare with the classical minimum mass solar nebula. Numerical N-body simulations show this system of five planets to be dynamically stable and show that the planets with periods of 14.65 and 44.3 d are not in a mean-motion resonance. Millimagnitude photometry during 11 years reveals no brightness variations at any of the radial velocity periods, providing support for their interpretation as planetary.

Debra A. Fischer; Geoffrey W. Marcy; R. Paul Butler; Steven S. Vogt; Greg Laughlin; Gregory W. Henry; David Abouav; Kathryn M. G. Peek; Jason T. Wright; John A. Johnson; Chris McCarthy; Howard Isaacson

2007-12-27

277

The evolution of ocean color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analog examples of what primeval oceans might have looked in the Precambrian are probably extant in various regions and at various size scales in present day oceans albeit they have not been sufficiently recognized and/or studied. The Eastern Boundary Current Ecosystems (EBCEs), with their characteristic high productivity-inducing coastal upwelling events, their extensive and intensive anoxic/hypoxic water column and methane and sulfide-rich benthic environment, appear to represent such analogs. Moreover, recent studies have shown that they possess diverse anaerobic prokaryotic communities of mat-forming large multi-cellular filamentous bacteria similar to fossils found in Archean and Proterozoic rocks. Observations in the Bay of Concepcion, central Chile (~36°S), inserted in the second most productive EBCE of the world, suggests that given similar oceanographic dynamics, past oceans may have presented different predominant colorations after the first probable "red" color of the reduced iron-rich Archean ocean and prior to the present day "blue" color. In this coastal ecosystem a "black" coloration has been observed to form as the result of the floating to the surface layer of sulfide-blackened benthic detritus together with chunks of microbial mats, and a "milky to turquoise" coloration resulting from different concentrations of colloidal, nano-sized particles which may include elemental sulfur and/or microorganisms. If the present is the key to the past we posit that "black" color oceans could have existed during the Proterozoic "Canfield sulfidic ocean" followed by "milky to turquoise" colored oceans during later stages of the Proterozoic. Meso-scale examples of "milky" and "turquoise" portions of oceans, caused by elemental sulfur from oxidized hydrogen sulfide eruptions, have been described from off Namibia and there appear to also exist elsewhere. Examples of "black" oceans have apparently not been reported but the name of the Black Sea, the largest permanent anoxic basin on Earth, suggests that at some point in time it may have been black, at least locally and/or for short periods, prompting the name. We conclude suggesting that analogous to the present "Blue Planet" denomination, in the past our Earth could possibly have deserved the successive names of "Red", "Black" and "Milky-Turquoise" Planet.

Gallardo, Victor A.; Espinoza, Carola

2008-08-01

278

A mathematical search for Planet X  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that the systematic residuals in the positions of Uranus and Neptune may be due to an unknown planet: Planet X. Using the weighted-least-squares method, the orbit and mass of Planet X were computed from the residuals of Uranus. It is concluded that, if it exists, Planet X will be the tenth planet. However, it may not be

C. Powell

1989-01-01

279

Watching How Planets Form  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anatomy of a Planet-Forming Disc around a Star More Massive than the Sun With the VISIR instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have mapped the disc around a star more massive than the Sun. The very extended and flared disc most likely contains enough gas and dust to spawn planets. It appears as a precursor of debris discs such as the one around Vega-like stars and thus provides the rare opportunity to witness the conditions prevailing prior to or during planet formation. "Planets form in massive, gaseous and dusty proto-planetary discs that surround nascent stars. This process must be rather ubiquitous as more than 200 planets have now been found around stars other than the Sun," said Pierre-Olivier Lagage, from CEA Saclay (France) and leader of the team that carried out the observations. "However, very little is known about these discs, especially those around stars more massive than the Sun. Such stars are much more luminous and could have a large influence on their disc, possibly quickly destroying the inner part." The astronomers used the VISIR instrument [1] on ESO's Very Large Telescope to map in the infrared the disc surrounding the young star HD 97048. With an age of a few million years [2], HD 97048 belongs to the Chameleon I dark cloud, a stellar nursery 600 light-years away. The star is 40 times more luminous than our Sun and is 2.5 times as massive. The astronomers could only have achieved such a detailed view due to the high angular resolution offered by an 8-metre size telescope in the infrared, reaching a resolution of 0.33 arcsecond. They discovered a very large disc, at least 12 times more extended than the orbit of the farthest planet in the Solar System, Neptune. The observations suggest the disc to be flared. "This is the first time such a structure, predicted by some theoretical models, is imaged around a massive star," said Lagage. ESO PR Photo 36/06 ESO PR Photo 36/06 A Flared Proto-Planetary Disc Such a geometry can only be explained if the disc contains a large amount of gas, in this case, at least as much as 10 times the mass of Jupiter. It should also contain more than 50 Earth masses in dust. The dust mass derived here is more than thousand times larger than what is observed in debris discs and Kuiper belt-like structures found around older, 'Vega-like' stars, such as Beta Pictoris, Vega, Fomalhaut and HR 4796. The dust around these stars is thought to be produced by collisions of larger bodies. The dust mass observed around HD 97048 is similar to the mass invoked for the (undetected) parent bodies in the more evolved systems. HD 97048's disc is thus most likely a precursor of debris discs observed around older stars. "From the structure of the disc, we infer that planetary embryos may be present in the inner part of the disc," said Lagage. "We are planning follow-up observations at higher angular resolution with ESO's VLT interferometer in order to probe these regions." A video, made by the CEA, is also available. More Information The scientists report their discovery in the 28 September issue of Science Express, the rapid online publication service of the journal Science: "Anatomy of a flaring proto-planetary disc around a young intermediate-mass star", by P.-O. Lagage et al. The team is composed of Pierre-Olivier Lagage, Coralie Doucet, and Eric Pantin, (CEA Saclay, France), Sébastien Charnoz (Paris 7 Denis Diderot University), Emilie Habart (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, France), Gaspard Duchêne, François Ménard, and Christophe Pinte (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, France), and Jan-Willem Pel (Groningen University, The Netherlands).

2006-09-01

280

Families of minor planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical studies of individual family members show that at least the Themis, Eos, Koronis, Nysa/Hertha, and Budrosa families of minor planets are the result of the breakup of discrete parent bodies. Only a few families have been studied in detail, and even in those few cases, the full force of observational techniques has not been applied. Crucial for the understanding of families and their parent bodies are detailed physical studies of family members; precise mineralogical interpretation of observational data to identify the geochemistry of the parent bodies; and studies of the collisional evolution of family members.

Gradie, J. C.; Chapman, C. R.; Williams, J. G.

1979-01-01

281

Neato-Magneto Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about magnetic fields. Learners will study magnetic fields at four separate stations: examining magnetic fields generated by everyday items, mapping out a magnetic field using a compass, creating models of Earth's and Jupiter's magnetic fields, and observing aurora produced by magnetic fields on both planets. This activity is part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments. (Note: the activity was adapted for informal education from Magnetic Globe, by Sonoma State University, and Exploring Magnetism, by Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley)

282

Exploring the Planets: Uranus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Facts on this site about Uranus include mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), diameter, and number of observed satellites. Uranus' axis of rotation is tilted nearly 98 degrees, almost perpendicular to its orbit. Consequently, the seasons and days on Uranus are strange. At times, the north pole points toward the Sun. At other times the south pole does. This site offers information about and many photographs of the rings, satellites, and of the planet itself. There is also tabular data on the fifteen moons and links to more information.

283

Spinning Stardust into Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized animation simulates the formation of a stellar disk and planets. Ten images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) show young stellar disks (taken with the Near-Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS)) and stellar disks around young stars (taken with the Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2)). Dr. Deborah Padgett describes what astronomers see in the images of young stellar disks and Dr. Karl Stapelfeldt explains HST's role in helping astronomers to examine young stars in order to understand how solar systems like our own may form.

2001-01-01

284

Comparing the Planets: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of images summarizes what scientists currently know about the occurrence of water ice and water vapor on the terrestrial planets and satellites in our Solar System. Accompanied by a brief description, the Jpeg images show the ice cap at Mars' south pole, ice rafting on Europa, liquid water covering the surface of Earth (the famous 'Blue Marble' photo), and an impact crater on the Moon that may contain water ice. There is also a diagram showing the possible distribution of ice on Mars, as it varies with latitude.

285

Ocean Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWeb's monthly newsletter summarizing recent news, views and events concerning marine and coastal environments and wildlife. Site also features The Ocean Report, a series of ninety-second radio slots highlighting a wide range of news and issues relating to the ocean, and Give Swordfish a Break, a successful campaign that helped restore depleted North Atlantic swordfish populations.

286

and Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of electromagnetic induction within a hemispherical conducting sheet over a nonconductor and underlain by a concentric sphere of uniform conductivity is de- scribed. The theory is applied to the induction by Sq in a vast ocean. It is concluded that the electric currents induced in the ocean are considerably smaller than those estimated for a single hemispherical sheet,

TSUNEJI IIKITAKE

1961-01-01

287

Ocean Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

NASA

288

The Popularization of Astronomy in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Canada, astronomy has a longer history than most other sciences. The European settlers had to master the rudiments of astronomical practice, while the natural setting promoted geophysical observations of all kinds. In the nineteenth century, astronomy was part of natural theology and a resource for timekeepers and cartographers, but was increasingly pursued for its own sake by laymen. The creation of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada marks a turning point. Though it appeared to unite professionals and amateurs, it became early on a conduit for the knowledge of the former to flow to the latter, supplementing the purely academic stream. It followed upon the success of new publications meant to acquaint readers with the facts of astronomy, for the hitherto unsuspected pleasures they might bring. In fact, some Canadian works of this kind reached a wide audience, in Canada and abroad, and the post-WWII period saw an almost complete disjunction between the formerly utilitarian aspects of popularization a nd the catering to interested laypeople, distinct from the professionals. By 1976, the transformation was complete. The science mastered by explorers and appealed to by believers had become both a field for professional investigations and a widely popularized corpus of star lore

Trudel, J.-L.

1996-12-01

289

PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PLANET TOPERS (Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS) group is an Inter-university attraction pole (IAP) addressing the question of habitability in our Solar System. Habitability is commonly understood as "the potential of an environment (past or present) to support life of any kind" (Steele et al., 2005, http://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/archive.html). Based on the only known example of Earth, the concept refers to whether environmental conditions are available that could eventually support life, even if life does not currently exist (Javaux and Dehant, 2010, Astron. Astrophys. Rev., 18, 383-416, DOI: 10.1007/s00159-010-0030-4). Life includes properties such as consuming nutrients and producing waste, the ability to reproduce and grow, pass on genetic information, evolve, and adapt to the varying conditions on a planet (Sagan, 1970, Encyclopedia Britannica, 22, 964-981). Terrestrial life requires liquid water. The stability of liquid water at the surface of a planet defines a habitable zone (HZ) around a star. In the Solar System, it stretches between Venus and Mars, but excludes these two planets. If the greenhouse effect is taken into account, the habitable zone may have included early Mars while the case for Venus is still debated. Important geodynamic processes affect the habitability conditions of a planet. As envisaged by the group, this IAP develops and closely integrates the geophysical, geological, and biological aspects of habitability with a particular focus on Earth neighboring planets, Mars and Venus. It works in an interdisciplinary approach to understand habitability and in close collaboration with another group, the Helmholtz Alliance "Life and Planet Evolution", which has similar objectives. The dynamic processes, e.g. internal dynamo, magnetic field, atmosphere, plate tectonics, mantle convection, volcanism, thermo-tectonic evolution, meteorite impacts, and erosion, modify the planetary surface, the possibility to have liquid water, the thermal state, the energy budget and the availability of nutrients. Shortly after formation (Hadean 4.4-4.0 Ga (billion years)), evidence supports the presence of a liquid ocean and continental crust on Earth (Wilde et al., 2001, Nature, 409, 175-178), Earth may thus have been habitable very early on. The origin of life is not understood yet but the oldest putative traces of life occur in the early Archaean (~3.5 Ga). Studies of early Earth habitats documented in rock containing traces of fossil life provide information about environmental conditions suitable for life beyond Earth, as well as methodologies for their identification and analyses. The extreme values of environmental conditions in which life thrives today can also be used to characterize the "envelope" of the existence of life and the range of potential extraterrestrial habitats. The requirement of nutrients for biosynthesis, growth, and reproduction suggest that a tectonically active planet, with liquid water is required to replenish nutrients and sustain life (as currently known). These dynamic processes play a key role in the apparition and persistence of life. This contribution will focus on the highlights of the work of the IAP Planet TOPERS.

Dehant, Veronique; Breuer, Doris; Claeys, Philippe; Debaille, Vinciane; De Keyser, Johan; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Goderis, Steven; Karatekin, Ozgur; Mattielli, Nadine; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Vanhaecke, Frank; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wilquet, Valerie

2013-04-01

290

Why Is Earth Called the "Water Planet?"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comparing the amounts of land and water on Earth's surface leads students to discover why it is called the water planet. Students examine photos of Earth taken from space, analyze the results of a globe toss game and compare ocean sizes using pieces of clay to gain a perspective on the amount of surface area that is covered by water. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. The teacher's guide will begin with a two-page module overview and a list of all standards addressed. This is Investigation 1 of four found in the Grades K-4 Module 2 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 2, while related, can be done independently.

291

PLANETS & LIFE HUMAN & PLANETARY PERSPECTIVES PLANETS AND LIFE  

E-print Network

and our theoretical understanding of planet evolution. We will study processes between the deep interior perspective. · Destroy myths; quantify facts. ASSESSMENT FOR STUDENTS (GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE) Assessment but are interesting literature linked to the ideas that we will be investigating. Evolution of a habitable planet: 1

Rothman, Daniel

292

Planet-planet scattering in the upsilon Andromedae system.  

PubMed

Doppler spectroscopy has detected 152 planets around nearby stars. A major puzzle is why many of their orbits are highly eccentric; all planets in our Solar System are on nearly circular orbits, as is expected if they formed by accretion processes in a protostellar disk. Several mechanisms have been proposed to generate large eccentricities after planet formation, but so far there has been little observational evidence to support any particular model. Here we report that the current orbital configuration of the three giant planets around upsilon Andromedae (upsilon And) probably results from a close dynamical interaction with another planet, now lost from the system. The planets started on nearly circular orbits, but chaotic evolution caused the outer planet (upsilon And d) to be perturbed suddenly into a higher-eccentricity orbit. The coupled evolution of the system then causes slow periodic variations in the eccentricity of the middle planet (upsilon And c). Indeed, we show that upsilon And c periodically returns to a very nearly circular state every 6,700 years. PMID:15829958

Ford, Eric B; Lystad, Verene; Rasio, Frederic A

2005-04-14

293

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students discover that measurements from space can tell us the temperature of the ocean, both on an annual average and as measured on any given date. For the annual average the highest ocean temperatures are near the equator, and drop as one moves either northward or southward from the equator. Students will graph each temperature value as a function of latitude and write a linear equation that best fits the points on their graph. They can choose as data points any point at that approximate latitude because the temperature is not uniform for a certain latitude - some areas are hotter and some are cooler. They can also look at today's ocean temperatures via the link provided to see how the seasons affect whether the northern or southern oceans are warmer. Students will take ocean temperature data from a map and plot temperature versus angle from the equator.

2007-12-12

294

The Dark Ocean Inspired by "Now you see me, now you don't" on oceanexplorer.noaa.gov  

E-print Network

& bioluminescence) Time frame: 80 minutes Materials · The Blue Planet: Open Ocean ­ The Deep DVD · Light powerpointThe Dark Ocean Inspired by "Now you see me, now you don't" on oceanexplorer.noaa.gov Goals of the ocean is exposed to sunlight · Organisms have adapted to different light conditions (coloration

Carrington, Emily

295

ocean sciences. North American research clearly enjoys a preference, but the scope is always widened to a competent  

E-print Network

ocean sciences. North American research clearly enjoys a preference, but the scope is always widened to a competent global perspective of ``planet ocean.'' I recommend this fascinating book without hesitation to anyone with an interest in ocean sciences, in the history of exploration of the sea

Klingenberg, Christian Peter

296

Anthropology 493/593 Anthropology and Popular Culture  

E-print Network

Anthropology 493/593 Anthropology and Popular Culture CRN: 39334 Meets: Condon 260 Tuesdays of Cultural Studies. We will examine the intellectual foundations of cultural theory and the methodological approaches that have been taken in the analysis popular culture

297

Statistical representations from popular texts for the ordinary citizen, 18891914  

E-print Network

Statistical representations in the popular almanacs published at the end of the 19th century in the Habsburg examines an early form of visual representation of statistics from popular almanacs distributed

Spoerri, Anselm

298

Multilingual Glossary of Technical and Popular Medical Terms  

MedlinePLUS

Multilingual Glossary of technical and popular medical terms in nine European Languages This project was commissioned by The EuropeanCommission ( ... language : list of popular and technical medical terms glossary The multilingual lemma collection Speed search About this ...

299

Irreversible evolution of the terrestrial planets (geological and petrological data)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Comparative studying of tectonomagmatic evolution of the Earth and the Moon shows that cardinal irreversible change in character of tectonomagmatic processes occurred at middle stages of their evolution; very likely such changes took place on other terrestrial planets (Venus, Mars and Mercury). As a result, primordial crusts of the planets were in considerable degree replaced by secondary basaltic ones. The established succession of events on the Earth could be provided by a combination of two independent factors: (1) it was originally heterogeneous and 2) its downward heating was followed by the cooling of its outer shells. As a result the primary iron core material was long time remained untouched and was involved into global tectonomagmatic processes at ca. 2.4-2.3 Ga. We concluded about a similar scenario for the evolution of Moon and other terrestrial planets. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and Moon) was studied. What did major stages of their irreversible evolution occur before they turned into "dead" stone balls? We discuss these problems on examples of the Earth and the Moon, which evolution studied the best. According to modern views, after accretion of these bodies, magma oceans of some hundreds km deep appeared on their surface. According to Jeffries [1], solidification of large molted bodies, because of the difference between adiabatic gradient in silicate melts (0.3oC/km) and gradient of their melting points (3oC/km), could be going only upwards, from the bottom to the surface. As a result a powerful crystallizing differentiation of the oceans' magmas occurred with accumulation of the most low-melting components to the surface. Due to different deep of the magma oceans on the Earth and the Moon, the primordial crusts on these bodies were rather different: sialic on the Earth and basic (anorthosite) on the Moon.

Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

2008-09-01

300

Live Tonight: The Planets!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about viewing the planet Mars (and others) through a telescope. Learners will go outside on a clear evening to view the planets and other celestial bodies for themselves. Using sky charts and other resources, and possibly in partnership with a local astronomical society or club, children and their families view Mars with binoculars and/or telescopes. The children who have participated in the other Explore: Life on Mars? activities may serve as docents at this public, community event, sharing what they have done and learned about what life is, the requirements for life, and the possibility for life on Mars now â or in the past! It is recommended that the viewing event be paired with the hands-on experiment within the Searching for Life activity if space and time allow. It also includes specific tips for effectively engaging girls in STEM. This is activity 8 in Explore: Life on Mars? that was developed specifically for use in libraries.

301

No Pseudosynchronous Rotation for Terrestrial Planets and Moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We re-examine the popular belief that a telluric planet or a satellite on an eccentric orbit can, outside a spin-orbit resonance, be captured in a quasi-static tidal equilibrium called pseudosynchronous rotation. The existence of such configurations was deduced from oversimplified tidal models assuming either a constant tidal torque or a torque linear in the tidal frequency. A more accurate treatment requires that the torque be decomposed into the Darwin-Kaula series over the tidal modes, and that this decomposition be combined with a realistic choice of rheological properties of the mantle, which we choose to be a combination of the Andrade model at ordinary frequencies and the Maxwell model at low frequencies. This development demonstrates that there exist no stable equilibrium states for solid planets and moons, other than spin-orbit resonances.

Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael

2013-02-01

302

Magnetic field of the planet Uranus: predictions, measurements, and interpretation  

SciTech Connect

The magnitude and tilt of the eccentric dipole of Uranus are examined in the framework of a processing dynamo model. It is shown that the unique parameters of the magnetic field of Uranus are connected with the fact that, unlike the other planets, the magnetic field of Uranus is generated in two bordering regions whose highly conducting materials differ sharply in density: the density anti rho = 12 g x cm/sup -3/ in a core with an upper boundary r = 0.3R/sub U/, and anti rho = 3.1 g x cm/sup -3/ in an ocean with an upper boundary r = 0.6R/sub U/. The upper boundary of the magnetically active region in the ocean is determined by the magnetic pressure P = 1.9 Mbar, at which the ocean material is metallized.

Dolginov, S.S.

1987-09-01

303

LIGHT SCATTERING FROM EXOPLANET OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect

Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude (OL) = 180{sup 0}, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30{sup 0}. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74{sup 0}; however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90{sup 0}, but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however, polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination.

Zugger, M. E.; Kane, T. J. [Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University, P.O. Box 30, State College, PA 16804 (United States); Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Philbrick, C. R. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, 432 Riddick Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

2010-11-10

304

Geodynamics and rate of volcanism on massive Earth-like planets Edwin S.Kite* and Michael Manga -University of California,Berkeley  

E-print Network

Geodynamics and rate of volcanism on massive Earth-like planets (1) Edwin S.Kite* and Michael Manga to that of the known terrestrial planets, at least 3 modes of mantle convection are possible: a) Earth-like - Plate not explicitly model mush ocean geodynamics. Instead, we track the lithosphere's Peclet number (i.e., the ratio

Kite, Edwin

305

Beitler Jane (2011) Repatterning the world. In: Sensing Our Planet: NASA Earth Science Research Features 2011. pp 14-17, Washington,  

E-print Network

scourge is revealed. The un-ice age 22 Earth's remaining ice sheets head for the ocean. Once moreCitation: Beitler Jane (2011) Repatterning the world. In: Sensing Our Planet: NASA Earth Science://earthdata.nasa.gov/featured-stories/featured-research/repatterning- world #12;Sensing Our Planet NASA Earth Science Research Features 2011 National Aeronautics and Space

Ellis, Erle C.

306

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

307

Pluto: The Farthest Planet (Usually).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information about the planet Pluto. Includes the history of Pluto and discusses some of the common misconceptions about the planets. Addresses some of the recent discoveries about Pluto and contains a resource list of books, articles, and a videotape. (TW)

Universe in the Classroom, 1988

1988-01-01

308

Extreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct detection of photons emitted or reflected by extrasolar planets is the next major step in extrasolar planet studies. Current adaptive optics (AO) systems, with <300 subapertures and Strehl ratio 0.4-0.7, can achieve contrast levels of 106 at 2\\

B. Macintosh; J. R. Graham; A. Ghez; P. Kalas; J. Lloyd; R. Makidon; S. Olivier; J. Patience; M. Perrin; L. Poyneer; S. Severson; A. Sheinis; A. Sivaramakrishnan; M. Troy; J. Wallace; J. Wilhelmsen

2002-01-01

309

The Fate of Scattered Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As gas giant planets evolve, they may scatter other planets far from their original orbits to produce hot Jupiters or rogue planets that are not gravitationally bound to any star. Here, we consider planets cast out to large orbital distances on eccentric, bound orbits through a gaseous disk. With simple numerical models, we show that super-Earths can interact with the gas through dynamical friction to settle in the remote outer regions of a planetary system. Outcomes depend on planet mass, the initial scattered orbit, and the evolution of the time-dependent disk. Efficient orbital damping by dynamical friction requires planets at least as massive as the Earth. More massive, longer-lived disks damp eccentricities more efficiently than less massive, short-lived ones. Transition disks with an expanding inner cavity can circularize orbits at larger distances than disks that experience a global (homologous) decay in surface density. Thus, orbits of remote planets may reveal the evolutionary history of their primordial gas disks. A remote planet with an orbital distance ~100 AU from the Sun is plausible and might explain correlations in the orbital parameters of several distant trans-Neptunian objects.

Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J.

2014-12-01

310

Finding Circumbinary Planets via Microlensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each of the circumbinary planets discovered so far using Kepler have separations of about 1 AU or less from their host binary. Microlensing can detect circumbinary planets at larger separations, which would be valuable for learning more about the formation of these planets. However, it is first important to know if circumbinary planets would be detected as such via microlensing. This largely depends on the shapes of the caustics of the system, which determine the lightcurves that would be observed. Here we examine the caustic structures of circumbinary systems. We also present animations showing how these caustics are affected by the parameters of the stellar binary. By examining the caustic structures, we can see which circumbinary systems are more likely to be detected.It is also possible to estimate the fraction of circumbinary planets that would be detected. When the trajectory of the lensed star crosses a caustic, the lightcurve exhibits a noticeable spike. By comparing the number of caustic crossings in the circumbinary systems to the number of caustic crossings in similar systems that do not contain a circumbinary planet, we can estimate the percentage of detectable circumbinary planets. We find that when the binary separation is large enough, detection of both the planet and the binary would be possible up to 50 percent of the time.

Luhn, Jacob K.; Penny, Matthew; Gaudi, B. Scott

2015-01-01

311

More than Just a Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can a star swallow a planet? the extrasolar planets discovered over the past two years display an odd range of characteristics - from their moasses to the size and shape of their orbits. Andy they just may offer us clues to stellar diets.

Meal, It's. A.; Sandquist, Eric

1999-01-01

312

Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Colin Kirkwood); "Introductory Essay: Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today" (Ian Martin); "Popular Education and the Struggle for Democracy" (Jim Crowther); "Social Movements and the Politics of Educational Change" (Lindsay Paterson); "Learning from Popular Education in Latin…

Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Martin, Ian, Ed.; Shaw, Mae, Ed.

313

YouTube Around the World: Geographic Popularity of Videos  

E-print Network

YouTube Around the World: Geographic Popularity of Videos Anders Brodersen Google abrodersen@google.com ABSTRACT One of the most popular user activities on the Web is watch- ing videos. Services like YouTube, local region. In this work we study the relationship between popular- ity and locality of online YouTube

Huang, Yan

314

Media in Cultural Context: Popular Readerships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course, offered as part of MIT's OpenCourseWare initiative, starts off by asking "What is the history of popular reading in the Western world?" It continues on by asking a number of equally powerful questions, and the generally curious will enjoy exploring the materials offered here. The course was created by Professor Sarah Brouillette, and originally took place in the fall of 2007. Interested parties can read the syllabus, look over selected readings, and even check out the assignments for the course. Some of the many topics covered in the course include Oprah's Book Club, the sociology of reading, reading as resistance, and the bestseller. The assignments are a real pip, and they include writing essays on niche romance audiences and bestsellers.

Brouillette, Sarah, 1977-

2007-01-01

315

Stephen Jay Gould as Historian of Science and Scientific Historian, Popular Scientist and Scientific Popularizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science historian Ronald Numbers once remarked that the two most influential historians of science of the 20th century were Thomas Kuhn and Stephen Jay Gould. All historians are deeply familiar with Kuhn's work and influence, and most know of the remarkable impact Gould has had on evolutionary theory through both his professional and popular works. But little attention has been

Michael B. Shermer

2002-01-01

316

MAY 2013 POPULAR SCIENCE 5150 POPULAR SCIENCE MAY 2013 DATA DRIVEN Dr. Neil  

E-print Network

a gray T-shirt) tracks sharks using a new kind of marine-animal tag that he helped design. His data could AND VOLUNTEERS ARMED WITH HOMEMADE TRACKERS SAVE SHARKS FROM EXTINCTION? BY BRIAN LAM #12;MAY 2013 POPULAR for sharks. We have a research permit to do what's otherwise illegal in this country, but the boat and its

Miami, University of

317

Patterns in Popular Culture: The Use of Popular Art in the Composition Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popular arts are useful resources in college composition courses both because of their appeal for students and because they embody the fundamental patterns, or archetypes, found in myths, fairy tales, and classic literature. The nine basic archetypes examined in certain composition classes at Queens College (Flushing, New York) are the Shadow,…

Schechter, Harold; Semeiks, Jonna Gormely

318

Welding the four most popular aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect

The fact that business is good in aluminum welding is a sure sign that more manufacturers and fabricators are using GMA and GTA welding to build new products out of this lightweight nonferrous metal. Among the most widely specified weldable grades are Alloys 6061, 5083, 5052 and 5454. A rundown on these four alloys, including properties and selected applications, is provided. Any company working with aluminum for the first time needs to know something about these four alloys. Alloys of copper-magnesium-silicon combination, of which 6061 is one, are heat-treatable. The three 5XXX series alloys, on the other hand, are nonheat-treatable. According to P.B. Dickerson, consultant, Lower Burrell, Pa., 5083, because of its high magnesium content, is the easiest of the four alloys to arc weld. Dickerson put the cut-off point in weldability at 3.5% magnesium. To prevent cracking, he added, both 6061 and 5052 require much more filler metal than do the other two alloys. Alloy 6061 consists of 0.25Cu, 0.6Si, 1.0Mg, and 0.20Cr. The main applications for 6061 aluminum are structural, architectural, automotive, railway, marine and pipe. It has good formability, weldability, corrosion resistance and strength. Although the 6XXX series alloys are prone to hot cracking, this condition can be readily overcome by correct choice of joint design and electrode. The most popular temper for 6061 is T6, although the -T651, -T4, and -F temper are also popular. The -T651 temper is like a -T6 temper, only it has received some final stretch hardening. The -T4 temper has been solution heat-treated and quenched. The -F temper is in the as-fabricated condition.

Irving, B.

1994-02-01

319

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

320

The differentiation history of the terrestrial planets as recorded on the moon  

SciTech Connect

The outline for this report is: (1) Factors Leading to Lunar Magma Ocean Model for Planetary Differentiation (2) Rationale for Magma Oceans on Other Planets Means for early efficient differentiation (Works on Moon why not here?) (3) Some Inconsistencies between the Lunar Magma Ocean Model and Observations. The conclusions are: (1) Differentiation via solidification of a magma ocean is derived from geologic observations of the Moon (2) Although geologic observations on other bodies are often consistent with differentiation via magma ocean solidification, it is not generally required. (3) There are some fundamental inconsistencies between observed lunar data and the model, that will require this model to be modified (4) Nevertheless, the Moon is the only location we know of to study magma ocean process in detail.

Borg, L

2007-02-20

321

Extrasolar Planets Orbiting Active Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New discoveries of transiting extrasolar planets are reported weekly. Ground based surveys as well as space borne observatories like CoRoT and Kepler are responsible for filling the statistical voids of planets on distant stellar systems. I want to discuss the stellar activity and its impact on the discovery of extrasolar planets. Up to now the discovery of small rocky planets called "Super-Earths" like CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b are the only exceptions. The question arises, why among over 500 detected and verified planets the amount of smaller planets is strikingly low. An explanation besides that the verification of small planets is an intriguing task, is the high level of stellar activity that has been observed. Stellar activity can be observed at different time-scales from long term irradiance variations similar to the well known solar cycle, over stellar rotation in the regime of days, down to the observations of acoustic modes in the domain of minutes. But also non periodic events like flares or the activity signal of the granulation can prevent the detection of a transiting Earth sized planet. I will describe methods to detect transit-like signals in stellar photometric data, the influences introduced by the star, the observer and their impact on the success. Finally different mathematical models and approximations of transit signals will be examined on their sensibility of stellar activity. I present a statistical overview of stellar activity in the CoRoT dataset. The influence of stellar activity will be analysed on different transiting planets: CoRoT-2b, CoRoT-4b und CoRoT-6b. Stellar activity can prevent the successful detection of a transiting planet, where CoRoT-7b marks the borderline. Future missions like Plato will be required to provide long-term observations with mmag precision to overcome the limitations set by active stars in our Galactic neighbourhood.

Weingrill, Jörg

2011-09-01

322

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Precipitation and Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. Learning Outcomes:? Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.? Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.? Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

323

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Climate Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. Learning Outcomes:? Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.? Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.? Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

324

Planets and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary properties; C. The geological time scale S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; D. Astrobiological destinations on planet Earth J. Harnmeijer; E. Micro*scope web tool D. J. Patterson and M. L. Sogin; Index.

Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

2007-09-01

325

Making other Earths: Dynamical Simulations of Terrestrial Planet Formation and Water Delivery  

E-print Network

We present results from 42 simulations of late stage planetary accretion, focusing on the delivery of volatiles (primarily water) to the terrestrial planets. Our simulations include both planetary "embryos" (defined as Moon to Mars sized protoplanets) and planetesimals, assuming that the embryos formed via oligarchic growth. We investigate volatile delivery as a function of Jupiter's mass, position and eccentricity, the position of the snow line, and the density (in solids) of the solar nebula. In all simulations, we form 1-4 terrestrial planets inside 2 AU, which vary in mass and volatile content. In 42 simulations we have formed 43 planets between 0.8 and 1.5 AU, including 11 "habitable" planets between 0.9 and 1.1 AU. These planets range from dry worlds to "water worlds" with 100+ oceans of water (1 ocean = 1.5x10^24 g), and vary in mass between 0.23 and 3.85 Earth masses. There is a good deal of stochastic noise in these simulations, but the most important parameter is the planetesimal mass we choose, which reflects the surface density in solids past the snow line. A high density in this region results in the formation of a smaller number of terrestrial planets with larger masses and higher water content, as compared with planets which form in systems with lower densities. We find that an eccentric Jupiter produces drier terrestrial planets with higher eccentricities than a circular one. In cases with Jupiter at 7 AU, we form what we call "super embryos," 1-2 Earth mass protoplanets which can serve as the accretion seeds for 2+ Earth mass planets with large water contents.

Sean N. Raymond; Thomas R. Quinn; Jonathan I. Lunine

2003-08-09

326

Angry Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mystery puts the reader in control, Mission Control, as he/she helps with a simulated flight to Mars. In this simulation, four "bionauts" are sealed into identical pods containing plants, animals and water. The goal is for them to survive for six months receiving no water, food or air from outside. The reader monitors the conditions in each pod, simulating Misson Control back on Earth. This story begins on the 34th day of the simulation, when the reader notices something wrong in one of the pods. The oxygen is getting low - why? Besides the usual Science Mystery themes (literacy, inquiry-based learning, problem-solving logic, inductive and deductive reasoning), "Angry Red Planet" puts your students hands-on with facts about respiration, ecosystems and ecological cycles, chemical and biochemical reactions, carbon dioxide poisoning, and the effects of stress on human physiology and psychology. They must learn how to read graphs and evaluate data to solve the mystery.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Ken Eklund N:Eklund;Ken ORG:WriterGuy REV:2005-04-06 END:VCARD

2000-12-15

327

Exploring the Planets: Saturn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information on this site about Saturn includes mean distance from the Sun, length of a year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, diameter, and number of observed satellites. The view from Earth shows how the appearance changes depending on the relative position in orbit. Pioneer at Saturn is one of the first spacecraft views of Saturn and was taken by Pioneer 11 three days before its closest encounter, and in this photograph the moon Titan is seen to the upper left. The Voyager Encounters provide close-up views of the rings, showing their intricate structure such as gaps, a braided ring and the mysterious spokes. This site discusses the violent atmosphere and strong magnetic field of the planet and offers three sections and tabular information about the moons of Saturn. There is also information about future exploration, a large photo gallery and links to more resources.

328

Exploring the Planets: Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn that Mars, and each planet in the solar system, is unique due to the materials from which it is made and the processes that shaped it. Images and information from Mars exploration voyages, including the Viking Mission in 1975, the Pathfinder Landing in 1997, the Mars Global Surveyor project, the Mars Odyssey and Mars Express spacecrafts, the Mars Exploration Rovers, and the Reconnaissance Orbiter are presented. Students will learn about Mars mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), diameter, inclination to ecliptic, and number of observed satellites. The seasons, volcanoes, canyons and plains, craters, water, wind patterns, and two moons of Mars are also discussed.

329

Oceanic Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of large-scale ocean movements to the moderation of Global Temperature is discussed. The observational requirements of physical oceanography are discussed. Satellite-based oceanographic observing systems are seen as central to oceanography in 1990's.

Chase, R.; Mcgoldrick, L.

1984-01-01

330

Future Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

331

Planet Earth: Its Past, Our Present, A Future (?)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We who have lived through the second half of the 20th century into the 21st century have witnessed a profound transition in the biological and physical relationship between humans and the rest of the planet. In the middle of the last century, our planet still had undeveloped islands: there were frontiers that held new lands, mysteries, adventures, cultures, and resources. However, these islands have merged into a relatively seamless planet by a mobile and expanding population, science and technology, and global communication. We are subject to stealth as well as natural disasters. Natural disasters result from the ongoing geological and meteorological processes on our planet, increasingly exacerbated by human presence and behavior. Stealth disasters, on the other hand, are caused by humans, but involve the natural systems that support us. Examples of stealth disasters are climate change, loss of soils, acidification of the oceans, desertification, and loss of groundwater resources. Civilization is a complex system. It has emergent properties, and a tuning parameter--a parameter that is "tuned" until the unexpected happens. The tuning parameter for populations is the number of members relative to the capacities that support them. Because of our sheer numbers, we are driving the stealth disasters, and we will be affected more severely by natural disasters than we have been in the past on a less densely populated planet. To guide our thinking about geoethical issues, we propose a (hypothetical) world organization modeled after the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the U.S., and call it the Center for Disaster Control for Planet Earth (CDCPE). This center would have a scientific body to provide impartial facts and uncertainties, an engineering body to propose and implement technical solutions, a negotiating body to balance the realities of political, economic, religious and cultural values, and an enforcement body that is responsive to all of the inputs. How shall we start?

Kieffer, S. W.

2012-04-01

332

The Earth is a Planet Too!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When the solar system formed, the sun was 30 dimmer than today and Venus had an ocean. As the sun brightened, a runaway greenhouse effect caused the Venus ocean to boil away. At times when Earth was younger, the sun less bright, and atmospheric CO2 less, Earth froze over (snowball Earth). Earth is in the sweet spot today. Venus is closer to sun than Earth is, but cloud-covered Venus absorbs only 25 of incident sunlight, while Earth absorbs 70. Venus is warmer because it has a thick carbon dioxide atmosphere causing a greenhouse effect of several hundred degrees. Earth is Goldilocks choice among the planets, the one that is just right for life to exist. Not too hot. Not too cold. How does the Earth manage to stay in this habitable range? Is there a Gaia phenomenon keeping the climate in bounds? A nice idea, but it doesnt work. Today, greenhouse gas levels are unprecedented compared to the last 450,000 years.

Cairns, Brian

2014-01-01

333

Which Ringed Planet...!?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Don't worry - you are not the only one who thought this was a nice amateur photo of planet Saturn, Lord of the Rings in our Solar System! But then the relative brightness and positions of the moons may appear somewhat unfamiliar... and the ring system does look unusually bright when compared to the planetary disk...?? Well, it is not Saturn, but Uranus , the next giant planet further out, located at a distance of about 3,000 million km, or 20 times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. The photo shows Uranus surrounded by its rings and some of the moons, as they appear on a near-infrared image that was obtained in the K s -band (at wavelength 2.2 µm) with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile) . The exposure was made on November 19, 2002 (03:00 hrs UT) during a planetary research programme. The observing conditions were excellent (seeing 0.5 arcsec) and the exposure lasted 5 min. The angular diameter of Uranus is about 3.5 arcsec. The observers at ISAAC were Emmanuel Lellouch and Thérése Encrenaz of the Observatoire de Paris (France) and Jean-Gabriel Cuby and Andreas Jaunsen (both ESO-Chile). The rings The rings of Uranus were discovered in 1977, from observations during a stellar occultation event by astronomer teams at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) and the Perth Observatory (Australia). Just before and after the planet moved in front of the (occulted) star, the surrounding rings caused the starlight to dim for short intervals of time. Photos obtained from the Voyager-2 spacecraft in 1986 showed a multitude of very tenuous rings. These rings are almost undetectable from the Earth in visible light. However, on the present VLT near-infrared picture, the contrast between the rings and the planet is strongly enhanced. At the particular wavelength at which this observation was made, the infalling sunlight is almost completely absorbed by gaseous methane present in the planetary atmosphere and the disk of Uranus therefore appears unsually dark. At the same time, the icy material in the rings reflects the sunlight and appears comparatively bright. Uranus is unique among the planets of the solar system in having a tilted rotation axis that is close to the main solar system plane in which most planets move (the "Ecliptic"). At the time of the Voyager-2 encounter (1986), the southern pole was oriented toward the Earth. Now, sixteen years later (corresponding to about one-fifth of Uranus' 84-year period of revolution), we observe the Uranian ring system at an angle that is comparable to the one under which we see Saturn when its ring system is most "open". The moons ESO PR Photo 31b/02 ESO PR Photo 31b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 526 pix - 76k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1460 x 1919 pix - 1.1M] Caption : PR Photo 31b/02 provides identifications of the Uranian moons present in PR Photo 31a/02 . The unidentified, round object to the left is a background star. The image scale in indicated by the bar. Seven of the moons of Uranus have been identified in PR Photo 31b/02 [1]. Of these, Titania and Oberon are the brightest (visual magnitude about 14). They were first seen in 1787 by the discoverer of Uranus, William Herschel (1738-1822), working at Bath in England. Ariel and Umbriel were found in 1851 by William Lassell (1799-1880) at Liverpool in the same country. Miranda was discovered in 1948 by Gerard Kuiper (1905-1973) at the 5-m Palomar telescope in California (USA). The much smaller and fainter Puck and Portia (visual magnitude about 21 and barely visible in the photo) were first found in 1985-86 by Stephen P. Synnott of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (USA), during a study of Voyager-2 photos obtained soon before this NASA spacecraft flew by Uranus in January 1986. Other VLT images If you now want to see a fine VLT photo of Saturn, please look at PR Photo 04a/02 , obtained in late 2001. It was made with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) Adaptive Optics facility and is therefore much less influenced by atmospheric turbulence and hence correspondingly shar

2002-12-01

334

Ocean Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy reference list has 12 kid-friendly books on marine biology. A short description is given for each title, along with author name and publisher. The list includes illustrated looks at ocean habitats, marine life, and more, hands-on activities and experiments that build kids' scientific observation skills along with their marine biology knowledge and puzzle and coloring books that offer creative ways to introduce kids to ocean life.

335

Jet-like circulations occur in the `simple' geometries of gas planets and Earth's  

E-print Network

#12;Jet-like circulations occur in the `simple' geometries of gas planets and Earth's liquid The Jet Stream Conundrum Baldwin, Rhines, Huang & McIntyre, Nature 2007 #12;For Earth's oceans, density and jets Tracks of fast sea- surface drifters, Jakobsen 1994 #12;channels & atmospheres: PV stirring

336

Extrasolar Planets Orbiting Active Stars  

E-print Network

New discoveries of transiting extrasolar planets are reported weekly. Ground based surveys as well as space borne observatories like CoRoT and Kepler are responsible for filling the statistical voids of planets on distant stellar systems. I want to discuss the stellar activity and its impact on the discovery of extrasolar planets. Up to now the discovery of small rocky planets called "Super-Earths" like CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b are the only exceptions. The question arises, why among over 500 detected and verified planets the amount of smaller planets is strikingly low. An explanation besides that the verification of small planets is an intriguing task, is the high level of stellar activity that has been observed. Stellar activity can be observed at different time-scales from long term irradiance variations similar to the well known solar cycle, over stellar rotation in the regime of days, down to the observations of acoustic modes in the domain of minutes. But also non periodic events like flares or the activi...

Weingrill, Jörg

2011-01-01

337

Planet Hunters: A Status Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) citizen science project uses the power of human pattern recognition via the World Wide Web to identify transits in the Kepler public data. Planet Hunters uses the Zooniverse (http://www.zooniverse.org) platform to present visitors to the Planet Hunters website with a randomly selected 30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler's 160,000 target stars. Volunteers are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits with multiple independent classifiers reviewing each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 170,000 members of the general public have participated in Planet Hunters contributing over 12.5 million classifications searching the 1 1/2 years of publicly released Kepler observations. Planet Hunters is a novel and complementary technique to the automated transit detection algorithms, providing an independent assessment of the completeness of the Kepler exoplanet inventory. We report the latest results from Planet Hunters, highlighting in particular our latest efforts to search for circumbinary planets (planets orbiting a binary star) and single transit events in the first 1.5 years of public Kepler data. We will present a status report of our search of the first 6 Quarters of Kepler data, introducing our new planet candidates and sharing the results of our observational follow-up campaign to characterize these planetary systems. Acknowledgements: MES is supported by a NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1003258. This is research is supported in part by an American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant.

Schwamb, Megan E.; Orosz, J. A.; Carter, J. A.; Fischer, D. A.; Howard, A. W.; Crepp, J. R.; Welsh, W. F.; Kaib, N. A.; Lintott, C. J.; Terrell, D.; Jek, K. J.; Gagliano, R.; Parrish, M.; Smith, A. M.; Lynn, S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R. J.

2012-10-01

338

Solar system: A planet more, a planet less?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further observations of an object dubbed 2003 UB313, which lies beyond Neptune, show that its diameter is around 3,100 kilometres. This makes it larger than Pluto, the smallest `traditional' Solar System planet.

Scott S. Sheppard

2006-01-01

339

The Planet Venus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource covers early and modern views of Venus; the general features of Venus; its cloud layer, including high velocity winds, the absence of water vapor, and the different wavelengths used to analyze the Venusian atmosphere; properties of the Venusian atmosphere; a runaway greenhouse effect (where oceans would boil and rocks would sublimate), caused by radiation trapping by greenhouse gases; surface features of Venus, including different hemispheric views, mountains, volcanoes, lava flows, rift valleys and meteor craters; and a comparison of Venus and Earth.

2007-05-12

340

G. P. Kuiper's Early Studies of Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gerard P. Kuiper was born on December 7, 1905; this is his centennial year. While he had an early interest in Solar System bodies, writing an extensive review about Mars for the popular Dutch astronomy journal, Hemel en Dampkring in 1931, Kuiper's first important observations began in 1944, when he discovered the atmosphere of Titan. In a letter dated February 29, 1944, to Lick Observatory director Joseph H. Moore, Kuiper noted that, ``The only reason I happened to observe the planets and the 10 brightest satellites was that they were nicely lined up in a region of the sky where I had run out of program stars (stars of large proper motion and parallax)." These spectroscopic observations were obtained with the new McDonald 82-inch telescope during a break from Kuiper's war-time work at Harvard's Radio Research Laboratory. In a letter of congratulations, his friend S. Chandrasekhar wrote, ``It is only on the impact of such discoveries that one realizes afresh the permanent value of science which no war -- not even of Hitler's -- can truly undermine. And it must be of satisfaction to you that if you took a vacation from war-work, it was only to make a fundamental discovery!" Using detectors declassified at the end of World War II, Kuiper began a study of the infrared spectra of planets and stars (with the first publication in 1947) that continued to the time of his death (December 24, 1973). Early in this work, on March 2, 1948, he wrote a lengthy letter to Henry Norris Russell in which he succinctly and enthusiastically summarized his observations and discoveries. Details in this letter give a fascinating perspective on some of the earliest physical studies of Solar System bodies, such as the detection of water ice on Saturn's rings and in the polar cap of Mars, spectral and photometric measurements of Mars' surface and atmospheric haze, and the discovery of Miranda.

Cruikshank, D. P.

2005-08-01

341

Visit to an Ocean Planet - Timing the Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tide tables, commonly seen in newspapers and on television in coastal areas, show that comparable local high and low tides occur almost one hour later from one day to the next. The motion of the Moon as it revolves around the Earth largely accounts for the time lag. Students participating in this activity will investigate this time lag by using the tide time diagram and instructions which are provided. They should be able to describe how and why the times of low and high tide change from one day to the next.

342

Oceans Effect on Climate and Weather: Global Circulation Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. Learning Outcomes: ? Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents. ? Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year. ? Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns. ? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocea

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

343

Radar Images of the Earth: Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features links to seven NASA radar images of the world's oceans, including brief descriptions of the respective processes and settings. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radar illuminates Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

344

A UNIQUE SOLUTION OF PLANET AND STAR PARAMETERS FROM AN EXTRASOLAR PLANET TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE  

E-print Network

A UNIQUE SOLUTION OF PLANET AND STAR PARAMETERS FROM AN EXTRASOLAR PLANET TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE S There is a unique solution of the planet and star parameters from a planet transit light curve with two or more transits if the planet has a circular orbit and the light curve is observed in a bandpass where limb dark

Seager, Sara

345

Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

1973-01-01

346

Voyager to the Seventh Planet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents recent findings obtained by the Voyager 2 mission on Uranus. Updates information on the planet's moons, rings, atmosphere, and magnetic field. Illustrations and diagrams of selected aspects of Uranus are included. (ML)

Gold, Michael

1986-01-01

347

Ocean Currents: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide attempts to answer questions such as: What causes ocean currents? What impact do they have on Earth's environment? and How have they influenced human history? Seven innovative activities are provided in which students can gain fascinating insights into the earth as the ocean planet. Activities focus on how wind, temperature,…

Halversen, Catherine; Beals, Kevin; Strang, Craig

348

Development of a Habitable Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students investigate the origin of the elements, the process of planet formation, the evolution of life on Earth, and the conditions necessary for life as we know it. Using multimedia resources and a classroom activity, students identify and sequence the major events that caused Earth to develop into the planet we know, understand where the ingredients for Earth originated, including the conditions necessary for life, and consider the likelihood of other habitable worlds.

2005-01-01

349

Planet Hunters: Kepler by Eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org), part of the Zooniverse's (http://www.zooniverse.org) collection of online citizen science projects, uses the World Wide Web to enlist the general public to identify transits in the pubic Kepler light curves. Planet Hunters utilizes human pattern recognition to identify planet transits that may be missed by automated detection algorithms looking for periodic events. Referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’ or ‘citizen science’, the combined assessment of many non-expert human classifiers with minimal training can often equal or best that of a trained expert and in many cases outperform the best machine-learning algorithm. Visitors to the Planet Hunters' website are presented with a randomly selected ~30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler’s ~160,000 target stars and are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits in the web interface. 5-10 classifiers review each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 260,000 volunteers world wide have participated, contributing over 20 million classifications. We have demonstrated the success of a citizen science approach with the project’s more than 20 planet candidates, the discovery of PH1b, a transiting circumbinary planet in a quadruple star system, and the discovery of PH2-b, a confirmed Jupiter-sized planet in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star. I will provide an overview of Planet Hunters, highlighting several of project's most recent exoplanet and astrophysical discoveries. Acknowledgements: MES was supported in part by a NSF AAPF under award AST-1003258 and a American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant. We acknowledge support from NASA ADAP12-0172 grant to PI Fischer.

Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, C.; Fischer, D.; Smith, A. M.; Boyajian, T. S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Lynn, S.; Parrish, M.; Schawinski, K.; Schmitt, J.; Simpson, R.; Wang, J.

2014-01-01

350

Security for a Smarter Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bit by bit, our planet is getting smarter. By this, we mean the systems that run, the way we live and work as a society. Three\\u000a things have brought this about - the world is becoming instrumented, interconnected and intelligent. Given the planet is becoming\\u000a instrumented and interconnected, this opens up more risks that need to be managed. Escalating security

Nataraj Nagaratnam

2009-01-01

351

Nine Planets: Planetary Picture List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of The Nine Planets provides links to internet solar system images of the nine planets and their moons. Images include the Sun, Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Moon, Mars (Phobos, Deimos), Jupiter (Amalthea, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto), Saturn (Pan, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus, Phoebe), Uranus (Puck, Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon), Neptune (Triton, Proteus), and Pluto with Charon. Miscellanous images include asteroids, comets, meteorites, and spacecraft.

352

Planets to Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Hubble's view of transiting planets D. Charbonneau; 2. Unsolved problems in star formation C. J. Clarke; 3. Star formation in clusters S. S. Larson; 4. HST abundance studies of low metallicity stars J. W. Truran, C. Sneden, F. Primas, J. J. Cowan and T. Beers; 5. Physical environments and feedback: HST studies of intense star-forming environments J. S. Gallagher, L. J. Smith and R. W. O'Connell; 6. Quasar hosts: growing up with monstrous middles K. K. McLeod; 7. Reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei B. M. Peterson and K. Horne; 8. Feedback at high redshift A. E. Shapley; 9. The baryon content of the local intergalactic medium J. T. Stocke, J. M. Shull, and S. V. Penton; 10. Hot baryons in supercluster filaments E. D. Miller, R. A. Dupke and J. N. Bregman; 11. Galaxy assembly E. F. Bell; 12. Probing the reionization history of the Universe Z. Haiman; 13. Studying distant infrared-luminous galaxies with Spitzer and Hubble C. Papovich, E. Egami, E. Le Floc'h, P. Pérez-González, G. Rieke, J. Rigby, H. Dole and M. Reike; 14. Galaxies at z = g-i'-drop selection and the GLARE Project E. R. Stanway, K. Glazebrook, A. J. Bunker and the GLARE Consortium; 15. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field with NIMCOS R. I. Thompson, R. J. Bouwens and G. Illingworth.

Livio, Mario; Casertano, Stefano

2011-11-01

353

Outer planets satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation takes into account the published literature on outer planet satellites for 1979-1982. It is pointed out that all but three (the moon and the two Martian satellites) of the known planetary satellites are found in the outer solar system. Most of these are associated with the three regular satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. The largest satellites are Titan in the Saturn system and Ganymede and Callisto in the Jupiter system. Intermediate in size between Mercury and Mars, each has a diameter of about 5000 km. Presumably each has an internal composition about 60 percent rock and 40 ice, and each is differentiated with a dense core extending out about 75 percent of the distance to the surface, with a mantle of high-pressure ice and a crust of ordinary ice perhaps 100 km thick. Attention is also given to Io, Europa, the icy satellites of Saturn, the satellites of Uranus, the small satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, Triton and the Pluto system, and plans for future studies.

Morrison, D.

1983-01-01

354

Planet packing in circumbinary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of planets orbiting main-sequence binaries will provide crucial constraints for theories of binary and planet formation. The formation pathway for these planets is complicated by uncertainties in the formation mechanism of the host stars. In this paper, we compare the dynamical states of single- and binary-star planetary systems. Specifically, we pose two questions: (1) What does it mean for a circumbinary system to be dynamically packed? (2) How many systems are required to differentiate between a population of packed or sparse planets? We determine when circumbinary systems become dynamically unstable as a function of the separation between the host-stars and the inner planet, and the first and second planets. We show that these represent unique stability constraints compared to single-star systems. We find that although the existing Kepler data is insufficient to distinguish between a population of packed or sparse circumbinary systems, a more thorough study of circumbinary Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) combined with an order of magnitude increase in the number of systems may prove conclusive. Future space missions such as TESS provide the best opportunity for increasing the sample size.

Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

2014-02-01

355

Catastrophic Evaporation of Rocky Planets  

E-print Network

Short-period exoplanets can have dayside surface temperatures surpassing 2000 K, hot enough to vaporize rock and drive a thermal wind. Small enough planets evaporate completely. We construct a radiative-hydrodynamic model of atmospheric escape from strongly irradiated, low-mass rocky planets, accounting for dust-gas energy exchange in the wind. Rocky planets with masses 2000 K are found to disintegrate entirely in 0.1 M_Earth/Gyr --- our model yields a present-day planet mass of < 0.02 M_Earth or less than about twice the mass of the Moon. Mass loss rates depend so strongly on planet mass that bodies can reside on close-in orbits for Gyrs with initial masses comparable to or less than that of Mercury, before entering a final short-lived phase of catastrophic mass loss (which KIC 12557548b has entered). Because this catastrophic stage lasts only up to a few percent of the planet's life, we estimate that for every object like KIC 12557548b, there should be 10--100 close-in quiescent progenitors with sub-da...

Perez-Becker, Daniel

2013-01-01

356

Geometric effects of Circumbinary Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest fraction of random observers will never see a planet transit. Multiple systems contain a planet orbiting two sun-like stars that orbit and eclipse each other, creating unique effects for the planet and its transits. In the case of a perfectly coplanar binary and planet system looked upon exactly edge on, there is a transit every time the planet comes by. In between, there are a wide variety of possibilities. To understand the complicated geometry, probability of transits, and true frequency in these systems, determining bias in transits is essential. In looking at these possibilities, random observers from any location are considered for the most likely transits. We use three- body integration and we find the geometric probability depending on the number of random observations within a short interval in our model of transiting system. We will explore how these geometric effects vary as a function of binary and planetary orbital parameters, which will allow for a characterization of the unknown intrinsic properties of the circumbinary planet population.

Shahady, Anna K.; Ragozzine, Darin

2014-11-01

357

Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet  

E-print Network

When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun.We know its approximate mass, temperature, age and size. In our work with extrasolar planets database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification), for example, like the Harvard classification for stars. This new taxonomy has to be comprehensible and present the important information about extrasolar planets. The important information of extrasolar planets are their mass, radius, period, density, eccentricity, temperature, and their distance from the parent star. There are too many parameters, that is, taxonomy with six parameters would be complicated and difficult to apply. We propose following the extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with only four parameters. The first parameter is the information about the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of the units of the mass of other known planets, where M - Mercury, E - Earth, N - Neptune, and J - Jupiter. The second parameter is the distance from its pa...

Plávalová, E

2011-01-01

358

Provenance of the terrestrial planets.  

PubMed

Earlier work on the simultaneous accumulation of the asteroid belt and the terrestrial planets is extended to investigate the relative contribution to the final planets made by material from different heliocentric distances. As before, stochastic variations intrinsic to the accumulation processes lead to a variety of final planetary configurations, but include systems having a number of features similar to our solar system. Fifty-nine new simulations are presented, from which thirteen are selected as more similar to our solar system than the others. It is found that the concept of "local feeding zones" for each final terrestrial planet has no validity for this model. Instead, the final terrestrial planets receive major contributions from bodies ranging from 0.5 to at least 2.5 AU, and often to greater distances. Nevertheless, there is a correlation between the final heliocentric distance of a planet and its average provenance. Together with the effect of stochastic fluctuations, this permits variation in the composition of the terrestrial planets, such as the difference in the decompressed density of Earth and Mars. Biologically important light elements, derived from the asteroidal region, are likely to have been significant constituents of the Earth during its formation. PMID:11539576

Wetherill, G W

1994-01-01

359

A First Step Towards Understanding Popularity in YouTube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being popular in YouTube is becoming a fundamental way of promoting one's self, services or products. In this paper, we conduct an in depth study of fundamental properties of video popularity in YouTube. We collect and study arguably the largest dataset of YouTube videos, roughly 37 million, accounting for 25% of all YouTube videos. We analyze popularity in a comprehensive

Gloria Chatzopoulou; Cheng Sheng; Michalis Faloutsos

2010-01-01

360

Primordial Planets Explain Interstellar Dust, the Formation of Life; and Falsify Dark Energy  

E-print Network

Hydrogravitional-dynamics (HGD) cosmology of Gibson/Schild 1996 predicts proto-globular-star-cluster PGC clumps of Earth-mass planets fragmented from plasma at ~0.3 Myr. Protogalaxies retained the ~0.03 Myr baryonic density existing at the time of the first viscous-gravitational plasma fragmentation. Stars promptly formed from mergers of these gas planets, seeded by chemicals C, N, O, Fe etc. created by the first stars and their supernovae at ~ 0.33 Myr. Hot hydrogen gas planets reduced seeded oxides to hot water oceans over metal-rock cores at water critical temperature 647 K, at ~2 Myr. Merging planets and moons hosted the first organic chemistry and the first life, distributed to the 10^80 planets of the cosmological big bang by comets produced by the (HGD) binary-planet-merger star formation mechanism: the biological big bang. Life distributed by the Hoyle/Wickramasinghe cometary-panspermia mechanism thus evolves in a cosmological primordial soup of the merging planets throughout the universe space-time. ...

Gibson, Carl H; Schild, Rudolph E

2011-01-01

361

Ocean Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Geosciences Union has been working on a number of open access journals over the past few years, and Ocean Science is just such an endeavor. The intent of the journal is to publish research articles, review papers, and short communications of all stripes. Visitors can sign up for RSS feeds, look over the "General Information" area, and also learn about their submission guidelines. In the "Online Library OS" area, visitors can view recently revised papers, complete issues, special issues, and also search past works by title or author. Also, visitors are welcome to comment on published works and they can also sign up to receive an email subscription to Ocean Science.

362

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

Osis, Vicki

363

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are presented with a satellite image of ocean temperature, and examine the map to determine whether ocean temperature is influenced by latitude. Students graph each temperature value as a function of latitude and write a linear equation that best fits the points on their graph. A student worksheet is provided. Summary background information, data and images supporting the activity are available on the Earth Update data site. To complete the activity, students will need to access the Space Update multimedia collection, which is available for download and purchase for use in the classroom.

2012-08-03

364

What types of astronomy images are most popular?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stunning imagery helps make astronomy one of the most popular sciences -- but what types of astronomy images are most popular? To help answer this question, public response to images posted to various public venues of the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) are investigated. APOD portals queried included the main NASA website and the social media mirrors on Facebook, Google Plus, and Twitter. Popularity measures include polls, downloads, page views, likes, shares, and retweets; these measures are used to assess how image popularity varies in relation to various image attributes including topic and topicality.

Allen, Alice; Bonnell, Jerry T.; Connelly, Paul; Haring, Ralf; Lowe, Stuart R.; Nemiroff, Robert J.

2015-01-01

365

Mean Climate and Variability of the Atmosphere and Ocean on an Aquaplanet JOHN MARSHALL, DAVID FERREIRA, J.-M. CAMPIN, AND DANIEL ENDERTON  

E-print Network

Mean Climate and Variability of the Atmosphere and Ocean on an Aquaplanet JOHN MARSHALL, DAVID climate, with the ocean dominating in the Tropics and the atmosphere in the mid­high latitudes of the nature of the interaction between the atmosphere and ocean in setting the climate of the planet, we have

Marshall, John

366

The First Planets: the Critical Metallicity for Planet Formation  

E-print Network

A rapidly growing body of observational results suggests that planet formation takes place preferentially at high metallicity. In the core accretion model of planet formation this is expected because heavy elements are needed to form the dust grains which settle into the midplane of the protoplanetary disk and coagulate to form the planetesimals from which planetary cores are assembled. As well, there is observational evidence that the lifetimes of circumstellar disks are shorter at lower metallicities, likely due to greater susceptibility to photoevaporation. Here we estimate the minimum metallicity for planet formation, by comparing the timescale for dust grain growth and settling to that for disk photoevaporation. For a wide range of circumstellar disk models and dust grain properties, we find that the critical metallicity above which planets can form is a function of the distance r at which the planet orbits its host star. With the iron abundance relative to that of the Sun [Fe/H] as a proxy for the metal...

Johnson, Jarrett L

2012-01-01

367

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students choose shell fragments from different species of Molluscs and calculate percent lose after soaking in different ph solutions for different periods of time. They research ocean acidification and especially local events off the Oregon coast to apply to this activity.

Bown, Jennifer

368

Ocean bowling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coach Scott Carpenter, a biology teacher at Lexington High School in Massachusetts, says that ``some [students] want to show that they can win on a football field, and some want to show that they know science better than anyone else.''His team of four sophomores and one senior proved their mettle when they won the 1998 National Ocean Science Bowl on

Randy Showstack

1998-01-01

369

Ocean bowling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coach Scott Carpenter, a biology teacher at Lexington High School in Massachusetts, says that “some [students] want to show that they can win on a football field, and some want to show that they know science better than anyone else.”His team of four sophomores and one senior proved their mettle when they won the 1998 National Ocean Science Bowl on April 27.

Showstack, Randy

370

Ocean Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) team produces high-resolution detailed imagery of significant ocean events. OSEI products typically include sea surface temperature plots and single-channel imagery of oil spills. The images are available in several different file sizes; standard (full resolution) and preview (thumbnail).

Imagery, Operational S.; Noaa

371

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

372

Ocean Currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

IF Mr. Laughton will take the trouble, to read my previous Reports with attention, he will find that I have based no argument upon my ``trough'' experiment, which I have used merely as an illustration. The argument in favour of the vertical Oceanic Circulation which I advocate rests upon the facts of Deep Sea Temperature. In my forthcoming Report, these

William B. Carpenter

1872-01-01

373

Ocean Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage, from Hyperphysics, provides a detailed explanation of how waves form in the ocean. A series of diagrams show how the water moves as a wave passes by. The site shows how a water wave's speed depends on wavelength, and how the shape of a wave depends on its amplitude. A description of why waves break on a beach is included.

Nave, Carl R.

2010-07-13

374

Ocean World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The majority of Ocean World is devoted to a series of ten reference sections: coral reefs, currents, El Nino, Fisheries, Ice Ages, icebergs, JASON-1 (a satellite), the role of the ocean in weather, satellites and ocean exploration, and waves. Each section culminates with an interactive quiz, links to sources of related real-time data, and a list of additional related links. Also available is a set of supplementary services, including a glossary, a question and answer section called Ask Dr.Bob, an index page for all of the available real-time dataset sources, primer pages on the use of internet technology, and links to three distance learning courses in oceanography offered by Texas A&M university. An additional series of link lists are broken up into Four Star Sites, General Links, and (the site author's) Bookmarks. Finally, under a teacher's introductory section to the site, instructors can access a guide to using Ocean World in the classroom, find advice on teaching oceanography in general, locate technology lab stations, and follow links to additional teaching resources.

375

Empty Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the human population affect the population of marine species? What can citizens do to sustain seafood populations? In this lesson, students will learn how pieces of the ocean food web, fish, are being removed faster than they can be replenished. Students will also learn how they can become informed consumers to promote sustainable seafood.

376

Catastrophic evaporation of rocky planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-period exoplanets can have dayside surface temperatures surpassing 2000 K, hot enough to vaporize rock and drive a thermal wind. Small enough planets evaporate completely. We construct a radiative hydrodynamic model of atmospheric escape from strongly irradiated, low-mass rocky planets, accounting for dust-gas energy exchange in the wind. Rocky planets with masses ? 0.1 M? (less than twice the mass of Mercury) and surface temperatures ?2000 K are found to disintegrate entirely in ?10 Gyr. When our model is applied to Kepler planet candidate KIC 12557548b - which is believed to be a rocky body evaporating at a rate of dot{M} gtrsim 0.1 M_{{{oplus }}} Gyr-1 - our model yields a present-day planet mass of ? 0.02 M? or less than about twice the mass of the Moon. Mass-loss rates depend so strongly on planet mass that bodies can reside on close-in orbits for Gyr with initial masses comparable to or less than that of Mercury, before entering a final short-lived phase of catastrophic mass-loss (which KIC 12557548b has entered). Because this catastrophic stage lasts only up to a few per cent of the planet's life, we estimate that for every object like KIC 12557548b, there should be 10-100 close-in quiescent progenitors with sub-day periods whose hard-surface transits may be detectable by Kepler - if the progenitors are as large as their maximal, Mercury-like sizes (alternatively, the progenitors could be smaller and more numerous). According to our calculations, KIC 12557548b may have lost ˜70 per cent of its formation mass; today we may be observing its naked iron core.

Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

2013-08-01

377

Extreme Water Loss and Abiotic O2 Buildup On Planets Throughout the Habitable Zones of M Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs older than ~1 Gyr could have been in runaway greenhouses for several hundred Myr following their formation due to the star's extended pre-main sequence phase. Such prolonged runaway greenhouses can lead to planetary evolution divergent from that of Earth. During this early runaway phase, photolysis of water vapor and hydrogen/oxygen escape to space can lead to the loss of several Earth oceans of water from planets throughout the habitable zone. We find that the amount of water lost roughly scales with the planet mass: super-Earths, which lose water primarily via the escape of hydrogen, lose more water than Earth-mass planets, which lose water more slowly via the escape of both hydrogen and oxygen. If the surface is able to absorb most of the photolytically produced oxygen, planets around low mass M dwarfs can be completely desiccated for initial inventories of up to several tens of Earth oceans. On the other hand, planets with inefficient oxygen sinks at the surface may build up hundreds to thousands of bars of abiotically produced O2, resulting in potential false positives for life. The amount of O2 that builds up also scales with the planet mass; we find that O2 builds up at a constant rate of ~5 bars/Myr on Earth-mass planets and up to ~25 bars/Myr on super- Earths. The fate of a given planet strongly depends on the extreme ultraviolet flux, the duration of the runaway regime, the initial water content, and the rate at which oxygen is absorbed by the surface. In general, we find that the initial phase of high luminosity may compromise the habitability of many terrestrial planets orbiting low mass stars.

Luger, Rodrigo; Barnes, Rory

2015-01-01

378

Habitable zone limits for dry planets.  

PubMed

Most discussion of habitable planets has focused on Earth-like planets with globally abundant liquid water. For an "aqua planet" like Earth, the surface freezes if far from its sun, and the water vapor greenhouse effect runs away if too close. Here we show that "land planets" (desert worlds with limited surface water) have wider habitable zones than aqua planets. For planets at the inner edge of the habitable zone, a land planet has two advantages over an aqua planet: (i) the tropics can emit longwave radiation at rates above the traditional runaway limit because the air is unsaturated and (ii) the dry air creates a dry stratosphere that limits hydrogen escape. At the outer limits of the habitable zone, the land planet better resists global freezing because there is less water for clouds, snow, and ice. Here we describe a series of numerical experiments using a simple three-dimensional global climate model for Earth-sized planets. Other things (CO(2), rotation rate, surface pressure) unchanged, we found that liquid water remains stable at the poles of a low-obliquity land planet until net insolation exceeds 415 W/m(2) (170% that of modern Earth), compared to 330 W/m(2) (135%) for the aqua planet. At the outer limits, we found that a low-obliquity land planet freezes at 77%, while the aqua planet freezes at 90%. High-obliquity land and aqua planets freeze at 58% and 72%, respectively, with the poles offering the last refuge. We show that it is possible that, as the Sun brightens, an aqua planet like Earth can lose most of its hydrogen and become a land planet without first passing through a sterilizing runaway greenhouse. It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago. PMID:21707386

Abe, Yutaka; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Sleep, Norman H; Zahnle, Kevin J

2011-06-01

379

Gender and the Rhetoric of Reproduction in Popular Science Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In academia, theorists in rhetoric are interested in viewing how race, gender, and class come into play in the language of literature. The same might be done with popular science texts. A rhetorical analysis of "Sperm Wars," a popular science article published in "Discover" magazine, suggests that cultural assumptions inform the language of…

Lurkis, Elisa

380

Popular Theatre and Participatory Research. Bosele Tshwaraganang Publications No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of popular theatre to overcome community development problems in underdeveloped countries through adult education is introduced and its relationship to the concept of participatory research is explored. Material is arranged in four sections. The first of these presents an introduction to popular theatre and participatory research. Stemming…

Kraai, Ziki; And Others

381

An Evaluation of Popular Search Engines on Finding Turkish Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the information retrieval performance of popular search engines on finding Turkish documents. First of all, five popular search engines (Google, Yahoo, Msn, All the Web and Ask) and a list of Turkish queries are determined. Each query is run on each search engine one by one and first twenty documents on each retrieval output are evaluated as

Rabia Gulcin Demirci; Vildan Kismir; Yiltan Bitirim

2007-01-01

382

Freedom, Constraint, or Both? Readings on Popular Music and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how notions of freedom are linked to popular music practices in previous research literature. The author discusses how two competing discourses depict popular music practices on the one hand as "freedom," and on the other hand as "constraint," and how these ideas relate to gender. She also argues that unproblematized…

Bjorck, Cecilia

2011-01-01

383

Cognitive science in popular film: the Cognitive Science Movie Index  

E-print Network

Cognitive science in popular film: the Cognitive Science Movie Index Benjamin Motz Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences and Cognitive Science Program, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington of films depict- ing themes in cognitive science and the potential power of popular cinema for outreach

Indiana University

384

Characterizing and Modeling the Dynamics of Activity and Popularity  

PubMed Central

Social media, regarded as two-layer networks consisting of users and items, turn out to be the most important channels for access to massive information in the era of Web 2.0. The dynamics of human activity and item popularity is a crucial issue in social media networks. In this paper, by analyzing the growth of user activity and item popularity in four empirical social media networks, i.e., Amazon, Flickr, Delicious and Wikipedia, it is found that cross links between users and items are more likely to be created by active users and to be acquired by popular items, where user activity and item popularity are measured by the number of cross links associated with users and items. This indicates that users generally trace popular items, overall. However, it is found that the inactive users more severely trace popular items than the active users. Inspired by empirical analysis, we propose an evolving model for such networks, in which the evolution is driven only by two-step random walk. Numerical experiments verified that the model can qualitatively reproduce the distributions of user activity and item popularity observed in empirical networks. These results might shed light on the understandings of micro dynamics of activity and popularity in social media networks. PMID:24586586

Zhang, Peng; Li, Menghui; Gao, Liang; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

2014-01-01

385

Popular Names of U.S. Government Reports. A Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many government publications become known by popular names, they are usually indexed under institutional names. This catalog lists government reports alphabetically by popular names. Most entries have the Library of Congress record as a bibliographic description. This third edition of the catalog is the first to include citations to the…

Bernier, Bernard A., Comp.; And Others

386

Havana's popular gardens:sustainable prospects for urban agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the collapse of the Soviet Bloc and its economic support in 1989, as well as the tightening of the US economic embargo, Cuba has been forced to explore sustainable agriculture as a source of food security. This paper examines Havana's popular gardens, an important feature in Cuba's recent emphasis on self-reliant agriculture. Popular gardens are small plots of state-owned

Scott G. Chaplowe

1998-01-01

387

Strategies for a ‘Transnational’\\/French Popular Cinema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following pressure to revitalise France's film industry in an increasingly globalised market, various French directors and producers have explored strategies to renew popular cinema and conquer new markets, developing alternative production models and revisiting popular genres. While some of their films have been international successes, they have often been accused of resembling formulaic American (or Hong Kong) box-office hits, rather

Isabelle Vanderschelden

2007-01-01

388

Bridging the Gap: Popular Music and Music Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This versatile and insightful book discusses trends and issues related to popular music in the classroom. Topics covered include the definition of popular music, the "us versus them" dilemma, teacher education, effective teaching methods, and choosing quality repertoire. Fourth in the Northwestern University Music Education Leadership series.…

Rodriguez, Carlos Xavier, Ed.

2004-01-01

389

Social Influences on Paranormal Belief: Popular versus Scientific Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paranormal claims enjoy relatively widespread popular support despite by definition being rejected by the scientific community. We propose that belief in paranormal claims is influenced by how popular those claims are as well as by dominant scientific views on the claims. We additionally propose that individuals will be most likely to be…

Ridolfo, Heather; Baxter, Amy; Lucas, Jeffrey W.

2010-01-01

390

Chic or Social: Visual Popularity Analysis in Online Fashion Networks  

E-print Network

Chic or Social: Visual Popularity Analysis in Online Fashion Networks Kota Yamaguchi Tohoku in social networks. But, how important is this visual content and how does it influ- ence behavior in the network? In this paper we study the effects of visual, textual, and social factors on popularity

Berg, Tamara L.

391

Lone Geniuses in Popular Science: The Devaluation of Scientific Consensus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular accounts of scientific discoveries diverge from scholarly accounts, stripping off hedges and promoting short-term social consequences. This case study illustrates how the "horse-race" framing of popular accounts devalues the collective sharing, challenging, and extending of scientific work. In her best-selling "Longitude," Dava Sobel…

Charney, Davida

2003-01-01

392

Popular Music as a Learning Tool in the Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide reflects the belief that popular music is an effective tool for teachers to use in presenting social studies lessons to students. Titles of songs representative of popular music from 1955 to 1982 are listed by subject matter and suggest a possible lesson to be used in teaching that particular issue. Subject areas listed…

Litevich, John A., Jr.

393

Chilean English Teacher Identity and Popular Culture: Three Generations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent discussions on English as an International Language have highlighted the important role played by English language popular culture for the identities and bilingual development of diverse global citizens who learn and use English. However, there has been little attention to connections between popular culture and "teacher" identity. In this…

Menard-Warwick, Julia

2011-01-01

394

The image of place in American popular music, 1970-1990  

E-print Network

Popular music is examined from two geographical perspectives, the image of place as represented in the titles of popular songs and the changing geography of the popular music industry. Examining the trend in place reference in popular song titles...

Seiler, Leslie Carl

1997-01-01

395

THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXII. TWO NEW MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005 {+-} 427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3 M{sub Jup}. HD 142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 {+-} 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3 {+-} 1.3 days and m sin i = 0.73 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Jup}. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Salter, G. S.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Tuomi, Mikko; Zhang, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Butler, R. P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Jones, H. R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); O'Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Carter, B. D. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Jenkins, J. S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Vogt, S. S.; Rivera, Eugenio J., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-07-10

396

Extra-solar planet detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extra-solar planet detection has been a goal of astronomers for many decades. This paper describes current efforts in planet detection using interferometric techniques. At present, the Mark III long baseline interferometer has been operational for a number of years. The Mark III has achieved significant improvement in astrometric accuracy in two areas, wide angle astrometry and double star astrometry. Two new interferometers are being developed. The first is a direct combination IR interferometer, an upgrade of the UCB IR heterodyne interferometer. The second is the Keck Interferometer Array. This instrument, to be operational at the end of the decade will be a major interferometric facility, with the capability to combine coherently the light from the two 10-meter Keck telescopes as well as four 1.5-meter movable outrigger telescopes. The last project directed at planet detection is OSI, a space-based long-baseline interferometer with a planned astrometric accuracy of 1-10 microarcsec.

Shao, Michael

1991-01-01

397

Characterizing K2 Planet Discoveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an effort to confirm the first planet discovered by the two-wheeled Kepler mission. We analyzed K2 photometry, correcting for nonuniform detector response as a function of the spacecraft's pointing, and detected a transiting planet candidate. We describe our multi-telescope followup observing campaign, consisting of photometric, spectroscopic, and high resolution imaging observations, including over 40 HARPS-N radial velocity measurements. The new planet is a super-Earth orbiting a bright star amenable to followup observations. HARPS-N was funded by the Swiss Space Office, the Harvard Origin of Life Initiative, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the University of Geneva, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Italian National Astrophysical Institute, the University of St. Andrews, Queens University Belfast, and the University of Edinburgh.

Vanderburg, Andrew; Montet, Benjamin; Johnson, John; Buchhave, Lars A.; Zeng, Li; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; Harps-N Collaboration, The Robo-Ao Team

2015-01-01

398

Habitable planets with high obliquities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth's obliquity would vary chaotically from 0 degrees to 85 degrees were it not for the presence of the Moon (J. Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, 1993, Nature 361, 615-617). The Moon itself is thought to be an accident of accretion, formed by a glancing blow from a Mars-sized planetesimal. Hence, planets with similar moons and stable obliquities may be extremely rare. This has lead Laskar and colleagues to suggest that the number of Earth-like planets with high obliquities and temperate, life-supporting climates may be small. To test this proposition, we have used an energy-balance climate model to simulate Earth's climate at obliquities up to 90 degrees. We show that Earth's climate would become regionally severe in such circumstances, with large seasonal cycles and accompanying temperature extremes on middle- and high-latitude continents which might be damaging to many forms of life. The response of other, hypothetical, Earth-like planets to large obliquity fluctuations depends on their land-sea distribution and on their position within the habitable zone (HZ) around their star. Planets with several modest-sized continents or equatorial supercontinents are more climatically stable than those with polar supercontinents. Planets farther out in the HZ are less affected by high obliquities because their atmospheres should accumulate CO2 in response to the carbonate-silicate cycle. Dense, CO2-rich atmospheres transport heat very effectively and therefore limit the magnitude of both seasonal cycles and latitudinal temperature gradients. We conclude that a significant fraction of extrasolar Earth-like planets may still be habitable, even if they are subject to large obliquity fluctuations.

Williams, D. M.; Kasting, J. F.

1997-01-01

399

AN ULTRACOOL STAR'S CANDIDATE PLANET  

SciTech Connect

We report here the discovery of the first planet around an ultracool dwarf star. It is also the first extrasolar giant planet astrometrically discovered around a main-sequence star. The statistical significance of the detection is shown in two ways. First, there is a 2 x 10{sup -8} probability that the astrometric motion fits a parallax-and-proper-motion-only model. Second, periodogram analysis shows a false alarm probability of 3 x 10{sup -5} that the discovered period is randomly generated. The planetary mass is M {sub 2} = 6.4 (+2.6,-3.1) Jupiter-masses (M {sub J}), and the orbital period is P = 0.744 (+0.013,-0.008) yr in the most likely model. In less likely models, companion masses that are higher than the 13 M {sub J} planetary mass limit are ruled out by past radial velocity (RV) measurements unless the system RV is more than twice the current upper limits and the near-periastron orbital phase was never observed. This new planetary system is remarkable, in part, because its star, VB 10, is near the lower mass limit for a star. Our astrometric observations provide a dynamical mass measurement and will in time allow us to confront the theoretical models of formation and evolution of such systems and their members. We thus add to the diversity of planetary systems and to the small number of known M-dwarf planets. Planets such as VB 10b could be the most numerous type of planets because M stars comprise >70% of all stars. To date they have remained hidden since the dominant RV planet-discovery technique is relatively insensitive to these dim, red systems.

Pravdo, Steven H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 306-431, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Shaklan, Stuart B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 301-451, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: spravdo@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: stuart.shaklan@jpl.nasa.gov

2009-07-20

400

Adaptive Scheduling Algorithms for Planet Searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-precision radial velocity planet searches have surveyed over ~2000 nearby stars and detected over ~200 planets. While these same stars likely harbor many additional planets, they will become increasingly challenging to detect, as they tend to have relatively small masses and/or relatively long orbital periods. Therefore, observers are increasing the precision of their observations, continuing to monitor stars over decade timescales, and also preparing to survey thousands more stars. Given the considerable amounts of telescope time required for such observing programs, it is important to use the available resources as efficiently as possible. Previous studies have found that a wide range of predetermined scheduling algorithms results in planet searches with similar sensitivities. We have developed adaptive scheduling algorithms which have a solid basis in Bayesian inference and information theory and also are computationally feasible for modern planet searches. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations of plausible planet searches to test the power of adaptive scheduling algorithms. Our simulations demonstrate that planet searches performed with adaptive scheduling algorithms can simultaneously detect more planets, detect less massive planets, and measure orbital parameters more accurately than comparable surveys using a non-adaptive scheduling algorithm. We expect that these techniques will be particularly valuable for the N2K radial velocity planet search for short-period planets as well as future astrometric planet searches with the Space Interferometry Mission, which aim to detect terrestrial-mass planets.

Ford, Eric B.

2008-03-01

401

Searching For Planets in "Holey Debris Disks"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directly imaging planets provides a unique opportunity to study young planets in the context of their formation and evolution. It examines the underlying semi-major axis exoplanet distribution and enables the characterization of the planet itself with spectroscopic examination of its emergent flux. However, only a handful of planets have been directly imaged, and thus the stars best suited for planet imaging are still a subject of debate. The "Holey Debris Disk" project was created in order to help determine if debris disks with gaps are signposts for planets. These gaps may be dynamically caused by planets accreting the debris material as they form. We present the results from our survey with VLT/NACO and the apodized phase plate coronagraph. We demonstrate that these disks with holes are good targets for directly detecting planets with the discovery of a planet around two of our targets, HD 95086 and HD 106906, at L’-band. Our non-detection of HD 95086 b in H-band demonstrates the importance of thermal infrared observations. The detected planets shepherd the outer cool debris belt. The relatively dust-free gap in these disks implies the presence of one or more closer-in planets. We discuss our new constraints on planets around other targets in our survey as well as disk properties of these targets and describe how future instruments will find the inner planets.

Meshkat, Tiffany; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Hinz, Philip; Smith, Paul S.

2015-01-01

402

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin tuna on their oceanic migrations. The About area is a great way to learn about the research and technology involved with this complicated endeavor. Also, visitors can check out the low-tech/accessible version of the site if they are so inclined.

403

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin tuna on their oceanic migrations. The About area is a great way to learn about the research and technology involved with this complicated endeavor. Also, visitors can check out the low-tech/accessible version of the site if they are so inclined.

2013-02-08

404

Oceanic Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

Carder, K. L. (editor)

1981-01-01

405

Interactive Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collaboration of US and Canadian research institutions; it proposes an ocean observatory in the NE Pacific. A network of fiber optic cables on the Juan de Fuca plate will support sensors to monitor geological, chemical and biological events and provide shore-based researchers with real-time data. The site is intended to serve learners from K to college with web access to data, curricula and activities, as well as maps, images, videos of deep-sea environments.

2011-04-19

406

Ocean Voyagers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Voyagers is an educational outreach initiative consisting of an interdisciplinary curriculum program. It is designed to allow middle school teachers and students to gain real-world knowledge about oceanographic science, social science, maritime cultures, communication, literature, and the language arts. This site includes: integrated lesson plans on oceanographic science, maritime life and lore, technology and communications, and profiles of the Navy oceanographic survey fleet.

407

Hubble Observes the Planet Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings and bright clouds and a high altitude haze above the planet's south pole.

Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, none of these inner satellites has been further observed, and detailed observations of the rings have not been possible.

Though Uranus' rings were discovered indirectly in 1977 (through stellar occultation observations), they have never before been seen in visible light through a ground-based telescope.

Hubble resolves several of Uranus' rings, including the outermost Epsilon ring. The planet has a total of 11 concentric rings of dark dust. Uranus is tipped such that its rotation axis lies in the plane of its orbit, so the rings appear nearly face-on.

Three of Uranus' inner moons each appear as a string of three dots at the bottom of the picture. This is because the picture is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart, and then combined to show the moons' orbital motions. The satellites are, from left to right, Cressida, Juliet, and Portia. The moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon does as it moves around the Earth, so they noticeably change position over only a few minutes.

One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does resolve a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1994-01-01

408

HUBBLE OBSERVES THE PLANET URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings and bright clouds and a high altitude haze above the planet's south pole. Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, none of these inner satellites has been further observed, and detailed observations of the rings have not been possible. Though Uranus' rings were discovered indirectly in 1977 (through stellar occultation observations), they have never before been seen in visible light through a ground-based telescope. Hubble resolves several of Uranus' rings, including the outermost Epsilon ring. The planet has a total of 11 concentric rings of dark dust. Uranus is tipped such that its rotation axis lies in the plane of its orbit, so the rings appear nearly face-on. Three of Uranus' inner moons each appear as a string of three dots at the bottom of the picture. This is because the picture is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart, and then combined to show the moons' orbital motions. The satellites are, from left to right, Cressida, Juliet, and Portia. The moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon does as it moves around the Earth, so they noticeably change position over only a few minutes. One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does resolve a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt. Credit: Kenneth Seidelmann, U.S. Naval Observatory, and NASA These observations were conducted by a team led by Dr. Ken Seidelmann of the U.S. Naval Observatory as Principal Investigator. These images have been processed by Professor Douglas Currie and Mr. Dan Dowling in the Department of Physics at the University of Maryland. Other team members are Dr. Ben Zellner at Georgia Southern University, Dr. Dan Pascu and Mr. Jim Rhode at the U.S. Naval Observatory, and Dr. Ed Wells, Mr. Charles Kowal (Computer Science Corporation) and Dr. Alex Storrs of the Space Telescope Science Institute.

2002-01-01

409

Orbital Evolution of Scattered Planets  

E-print Network

A simple dynamical model is employed to study the possible orbital evolution of scattered planets and phase plane analysis is used to classify the parameter space and solutions. Our results reconfirm that there is always an increase in eccentricity when the planet was scattered to migrate outward when the initial eccentricity is zero. Applying our study on the Solar System and considering the existence of the Kuiper Belt, this conclusion implies that Neptune was dynamically coupled with the Kuiper Belt in the early phase of the Solar System, which is consistent with the simulational model in Thommes, Duncan & Levison (1999).

Li-Chin Yeh; Ing-Guey Jiang

2001-07-03

410

Oceanic Hotspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wilson-Morgan hypothesis that fixed mantle plumes rising from deep in Earth's mantle give rise to linear island and seamount chains like Hawaii has been a leading idea in planetary geodynamics for many decades. However, the notion that these ascending columns of buoyant mantle material are fixed relative to each other or to a fixed reference frame has been questioned because the mean regional flow of the mantle (the so-called mantle wind) would be expected to entrain them and waft them about. Lately, even more fundamental questions have been raised regarding the existence of deep mantle conduits. In fact, the subject of plumes has become quite controversial, with important implications for ideas of mantle convection, Earth's differentiation, and planetary magma budgets and cooling. The appearance of Oceanic Hotspots: Intraplate Submarine Magmatism and Tectonics is thus timely. The 14 chapters contained in this nicely produced volume reflect in part the successful Franco-German collaboration spanning more than 17 years (1986 to present) and 15 expeditions to largely uncharted and unexplored regions of the South Pacific Ocean. The editors intended to produce a comprehensive multidisciplinary overview of oceanic plumes in this region, and in this they have succeeded, with both review and research chapters. Most papers document new discoveries and contain new data and/or new and original thinking, whereas others provide a broad overview and synthesis of existing data.

Batiza, Rodey

2004-10-01

411

Introduction to Ocean Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans cover over 70% of the surface of the earth, yet many details of their workings are not fully understood. To better understand and forecast the state of the ocean, we rely on numerical ocean models. Ocean models combine observations and physics to predict the ocean temperature, salinity, and currents at any time and any place across the ocean basins. This module will discuss what goes into numerical ocean models, including model physics, coordinate systems, parameterization, initialization, and boundary conditions.

Comet

2007-08-06

412

Jovian Planet Systems Are jovian planets all alike?  

E-print Network

· Jupiter and Saturn ­ Mostly H and He gas ­ Rocky Core · Uranus and Neptune ­ Mostly hydrogen compounds: water (H2O), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) ­ Some H, He ­ Rocky core Density Differences · Uranus · Models suggest cores of jovian planets have similar composition · Lower pressures inside Uranus

Crenshaw, Michael

413

Transiting Planet Simulations from the All Sky Extrasolar Planets Survey  

E-print Network

Many of the planets discovered via the radial velocity technique are hot Jupiters in 3-5 day orbits with ~10$% chance of transiting their parent star. However, radial velocity surveys for extra-solar planets generally require substantial amounts of large telescope time in order to monitor a sufficient number of stars due to the single-object capabilities of the spectrograph. A multi-object Doppler survey instrument has been developed which is based on the dispersed fixed-delay interferometer design. We present simulations of the expected results from the Sloan Doppler survey based on calculated noise models and sensitivity for the instrument and the known distribution of exoplanetary system parameters. We have developed code for automatically sifting and fitting the planet candidates produced by the survey to allow for fast follow-up observations to be conducted. A transit ephemeris is automatically calculated by the code for each candidate and updated when new data becomes available. The techniques presented here may be applied to a wide range of multi-object planet surveys.

Stephen R. Kane; Jian Ge

2006-12-28

414

The maritime mystique: sustainable development, capital mobility, and nostalgia in the world ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three images of ocean space are becoming increasingly prevalent in policy and planning circles and popular culture: The image of the ocean as an empty void to be annihilated by hyper- mobile capital; as a resource-rich but fragile space requiring rational management for sustainable development; and as a source of consumable spectacles. In this paper I locate the emergence of

Philip E Steinberg

1999-01-01

415

Mercury - the hollow planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury is turning out to be a planet characterized by various kinds of endogenous hole (discounting impact craters), which are compared here. These include volcanic vents and collapse features on horizontal scales of tens of km, and smaller scale depressions ('hollows') associated with bright crater-floor deposits (BCFD). The BCFD hollows are tens of metres deep and kilometres or less across and are characteristically flat-floored, with steep, scalloped walls. Their form suggests that they most likely result from removal of surface material by some kind of mass-wasting process, probably associated with volume-loss caused by removal (via sublimation?) of a volatile component. These do not appear to be primarily a result of undermining. Determining the composition of the high-albedo bluish surface coating in BCFDs will be a key goal for BepiColombo instruments such as MIXS (Mercury Imaging Xray Spectrometer). In contrast, collapse features are non-circular rimless pits, typically on crater floors (pit-floor craters), whose morphology suggests collapse into void spaces left by magma withdrawal. This could be by drainage of either erupted lava (or impact melt) or of shallowly-intruded magma. Unlike the much smaller-scale BCFD hollows, these 'collapse pit' features tend to lack extensive flat floors and instead tend to be close to triangular in cross-section with inward slopes near to the critical angle of repose. The different scale and morphology of BCFD hollows and collapse pits argues for quite different modes of origin. However, BCFD hollows adjacent to and within the collapse pit inside Scarlatti crater suggest that the volatile material whose loss was responsible for the growth of the hollows may have been emplaced in association with the magma whose drainage caused the main collapse. Another kind of volcanic collapse can be seen within a 25 km-wide volcanic vent outside the southern rim of the Caloris basin (22.5° N, 146.1° E), on a 28 m/pixel MDIS NAC image from orbit. Although the vent itself may have been excavated partly by explosive volcanism, the most recent event is collapse of a 7 km wide zone in the south centre of the vent. The sharpness of features within this (unmuted either by regolith-forming processes or by fall of volcanic ejecta) suggests that this collapse considerably post-dates the rest of the vent interior. It could reflect a late-stage minor 'throat clearing' explosive eruption, but (in the absence of evidence of associated volcanic ejecta) more likely reflects collapse into a void within the volcanic conduit, itself a result of magma-drainage. A class of 'hole' that is so far conspicuous by its absence on Mercury is sinuous rilles (as opposed to much straighter tectonic grabens) or aligned skylights representing collapsed or partly-collapsed drained lava tubes. Tube-fed flows are to be expected during emplacement of volcanic plains, and it will be surprising if no examples are revealed on MESSENGER and BepiColombo high-resolution images.

Rothery, D. A.

2012-04-01

416

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

417

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

418

The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

Carr, M. H. (editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

1984-01-01

419

How climate evolved on the terrestrial planets.  

PubMed

Planets with temperate, earthlike climates were once thought to be rare in our galaxy. Mathematical models now suggest that if planets do exist outside the solar system, many of them might be habitable. PMID:11538470

Kasting, J F; Toon, O B; Pollack, J B

1988-02-01

420

Orbits and Interiors of Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing independent constraints for the solar system's birth environment. Next, we addressed a significant drawback of the original Nice model, namely its inability to create the physically unique, cold classical population of the Kuiper Belt. Specifically, we showed that a locally-formed cold belt can survive the transient instability, and its relatively calm dynamical structure can be reproduced. The last four chapters of this thesis address various aspects and consequences of dynamical relaxation of planetary orbits through dissipative effects as well as the formation of planets in binary stellar systems. Using octopole-order secular perturbation theory, we demonstrated that in multi-planet systems, tidal dissipation often drives orbits onto dynamical "fixed points," characterized by apsidal alignment and lack of periodic variations in eccentricities. We applied this formalism towards investigating the possibility that the large orbital eccentricity of the transiting Neptune-mass planet Gliese 436b is maintained in the face of tidal dissipation by a second planet in the system and computed a locus of possible orbits for the putative perturber. Following up along similar lines, we used various permutations of secular theory to show that when applied specifically to close-in low-mass planetary systems, various terms in the perturbation equations become separable, and the true masses of the planets can be solved for algebraically. In practice, this means that precise knowledge of the system's orbital state can resolve the sin( i) degeneracy inherent to non-transiting planets. Subsequently, we investigated the onset of chaotic motion in dissipative planetary systems. We worked in the context of classical secular perturbation theory, and showed that planetary systems approach chaos via the so-called period-doubling route. Furthermore, we demonstrated that chaotic strange attractors can exist in mildly damped systems, such as photo-evaporating nebulae that host multiple planets. Finally, we considered planetary formation in highly inclined binary systems,

Batygin, Konstantin

2012-05-01

421

A Probabilistic Analysis of Data Popularity in ATLAS Data Caching  

E-print Network

One of the most important aspects in any distribution system is efficient data replication over storage / computing centers, that guarantees high data availability and low cost of resources utilization. In this paper we propose a data distribution scheme for the production and distributed analysis system PanDA at the ATLAS experiment. Our proposed scheme is based on an investigation of data usage. Thus, the paper is focused on the main concepts of data popularity at the PanDA system and their utilization. Data popularity is represented as the set of parameters that are used to predict the future data state in terms of popularity levels.

Titov, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; De, K

2012-01-01

422

Scientific Discovery through Citizen Science via Popular Amateur Astrophotography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can popular astrophotography stimulate real astronomical discovery? Perhaps surprisingly, in some cases, the answer is yes. Several examples are given using the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) site as an example venue. One reason is angular -- popular wide and deep images sometimes complement professional images which typically span a more narrow field. Another reason is temporal -- an amateur is at the right place and time to take a unique and illuminating image. Additionally, popular venues can be informational -- alerting professionals to cutting-edge amateur astrophotography about which they might not have known previously. Methods of further encouraging this unusual brand of citizen science are considered.

Nemiroff, Robert J.; Bonnell, Jerry T.; Allen, Alice

2015-01-01

423

Gravity and Topography of Moon and Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetology serves the understanding on the one hand of the solar system and on the other hand, for investigating similarities and differences, of our own planet. While observational evidence about the outer planets is very limited, substantial datasets exist for the terrestrial planets. Radar and optical images and detailed models of gravity and topography give an impressive insight into the

R. Rummel

2004-01-01

424

Final Stages of Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address three questions regarding solar system planets: What determined their number? Why are their orbits nearly circular and coplanar? How long did they take to form? Runaway accretion in a disk of small bodies resulted in a tiny fraction of the bodies growing much larger than all the others. These big bodies dominated the viscous stirring of all bodies. Dynamical friction by small bodies cooled the random velocities of the big ones. Random velocities of small bodies were cooled by mutual collisions and/or gas drag. Runaway accretion terminated when the orbital separations of the big bodies became as wide as their feeding zones. This was followed by oligarchic growth during which the big bodies maintained similar masses and uniformly spaced semimajor axes. As the oligarchs grew, their number density decreased, but their surface mass density increased. We depart from standard treatments of planet formation by assuming that as the big bodies got bigger, the small ones got smaller as the result of undergoing a collisional fragmentation cascade. It follows that oligarchy was a brief stage in solar system evolution. When the oligarchs' surface mass density matched that of the small bodies, dynamical friction was no longer able to balance viscous stirring, so their velocity dispersion increased to the extent that their orbits crossed. This marked the end of oligarchy. What happened next differed in the inner and outer parts of the planetary system. In the inner part, where the ratios of the escape velocities from the surfaces of the planets to the escape velocities from their orbits are smaller than unity, big bodies collided and coalesced after their random velocities became comparable to their escape velocities. In the outer part, where these ratios are larger than unity, the random velocities of some of the big bodies continued to rise until they were ejected. In both parts, the number density of the big bodies eventually decreased to the extent that gravitational interactions among them no longer produced large-scale chaos. After that their orbital eccentricities and inclinations were damped by dynamical friction from the remaining small bodies. The last and longest stage in planet formation was the cleanup of small bodies. Our understanding of this stage is fraught with uncertainty. The surviving protoplanets cleared wide gaps around their orbits that inhibited their ability to accrete small bodies. Nevertheless, in the inner planet system, all of the material in the small bodies ended up inside planets. Small bodies in the outer planet system probably could not have been accreted in the age of the solar system. A second generation of planetesimals may have formed in the disk of small bodies, by either collisional coagulation or gravitational instability. In the outer planet system, bodies of kilometer size or larger would have had their random velocities excited until their orbits crossed those of neighboring protoplanets. Ultimately they would have either escaped from the Sun or become residents of the Oort Cloud. An important distinction is that growth of the inner planets continued through cleanup, whereas assembly of the outer planets was essentially complete by the end of oligarchy. These conclusions imply that the surface density of the protoplanetary disk was that of the minimum solar mass nebula in the inner planet region but a few times larger in the outer planet region. The timescale through cleanup was set by the accretion rate at the geometrical cross section in the inner planet region and by the ejection rate at the gravitationally enhanced cross section in the outer planet region. It was a few hundred million years in the former and a few billion years in the latter. However, since Uranus and Neptune acquired most of their mass by the end of oligarchy, they may have formed before Earth! A few implications of the above scenario are worth noting. Impacts among protoplanets of comparable size were common in the inner planet system but not in the outer. Ejections from the outer planet system included sever

Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em

2004-10-01

425

Planets and Axisymmetric Mass Loss  

E-print Network

Bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe), as well as extreme elliptical PNe are formed through the influence of a stellar companion. But half of all PN progenitors are not influenced by any stellar companion, and, as I show here, are expected to rotate very slowly on reaching the upper asymptotic giant branch; hence they expect to form spherical PNe, unless they are spun-up. But since most PNe are not spherical, I argue that about 50 percents of AGB stars are spun-up by planets, even planets having a mass as low as 0.01 times the mass of Jupiter, so they form elliptical PNe. The rotation by itself will not deform the AGB wind, but may trigger another process that will lead to axisymmetric mass loss, e.g., weak magnetic activity, as in the cool magnetic spots model. This model also explains the transition from spherical to axisymmetric mass loss on the upper AGB. For such low mass planets to substantially spin-up the stellar envelope, they should enter the envelope when the star reaches the upper AGB. This "fine-tuning" can be avoided if there are several planets on average around each star, as is the case in the solar system, so that one of them is engulfed when the star reaches the upper AGB.

Noam Soker

2000-10-12

426

MEMS AO for Planet Finding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul

2008-01-01

427

Finding Spring on Planet X  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

Simoson, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

428

How Common are Habitable Planets?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth is teeming with life, which, occupies a diverse array of environments; other bodies in our Solar System offer fewer, if any, niches which are habitable by life as we know it. Nonetheless, astronomical studies suggest that a large number of habitable planets-are likely to be present within our Galaxy.

Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

429

The Pull of the Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners model the gravitational fields of planets on a flexible surface. Learners place and move balls of different sizes and densities on a plastic sheet to develop a mental picture of how the mass of an object influences how much effect it has on the surrounding space. This activity is part of a sequence of activities focused on Jupiter's immense size.

2014-07-11

430

The Chemistry of the Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces knowledge of planetary chemistry for possible use in teaching. Discusses the chemical composition of the planets; the atmosphere and clouds of Venus, Jupiter and its moons, and Titan. Includes diagrams of the greenhouse effects in the solar system, elemental abundances, and the chemical composition of Jupiter. (RT)

Blake, Peter

1988-01-01

431

Jupiter: Lord of the Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a chapter from an introductory college-level astronomy textbook in which full-color photographs and numerous diagrams highlight an extensive description of the planet Jupiter. Topics include Jupiter's geology, rotation, magnetic field, atmosphere (including clouds and winds), and the Great Red Spot. (DH)

Kaufmann, William

1984-01-01

432

Observations of Planet Crossing Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant funds the investigation of the Solar System's planet crossing asteroid population, principally the near Earth and trans-Neptunian objects, but also the Centaurs. Investigations include colorimetry at both visible and near infrared wavelengths, light curve photometry, astrometry, and a pilot project to find near Earth objects with small aphelion distances, which requires observations at small solar elongations.

Tholen, David J.

1999-01-01

433

Slingshot to the Outer Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the engineering challenges involved with interplanetary space travel. In particular, they learn about the gravity assist or "slingshot" maneuver often used by engineers to send spacecraft to the outer planets. Using magnets and ball bearings to simulate a planetary flyby, students investigate what factors influence the deflection angle of a gravity assist maneuver.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

434

The International Deep Planet Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After completing the Gemini Deep Planet Survey (GDPS), an 86 young Sun-like/late-type star direct adaptive optics ADI imaging campaign, the International Deep Planet Survey was designed to complement the GDPS young late-type star sample by focusing mainly on early-type stars. The main idea behind the IDPS is that more early-type stars, being more massive, could harbor more massive and extended planetary disks, possibly forming more massive planets at wide separations -- partially compensating for their less favorable observing conditions (on average brighter, older and further away than late-type targets). I will present the overall IDPS survey (currently ongoing at Keck, Gemini North/South and VLT) and current statistics. I will also go over several software upgrades (data archive and ADI/SSDI data reduction tools) that are being implemented to prepare for the upcoming next generation order-of-magnitude larger campaigns that will be carried out with the Gemini Planet Imager.

Marois, C.

2010-10-01

435

Formation of the terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early phases of formation in the inner solar system were dominated by collisions and short-range dynamical interactions among planetesimals. But the later phases, which account for most of the differences among planets, are unsure because the dynamics are more subtle. Jupiter's influence became more important, leading to drastic clearing out of the asteroid belt and the stunting of Mars's

William M. Kaula

1994-01-01

436

The orbital evolution of planet-disk solar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extrasolar planets discovered to date possess larger eccentricities and smaller semi-major axes than similar planets in our solar system. It is not thought possible for these planets to form in situ; we propose they result from a combination of disk torques, planet-planet scattering, and magnetohydrodynamical turbulence. The torques exerted on planets during Type II migration in circumstellar disks readily

Althea Valkyrie Moorhead

2008-01-01

437

The Common History and Popular Uses of Roots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the historical uses of popular plant roots such as mandrake, ginseng, chicory, belladonna, and blood root. Besides the text, information is organized into a table presenting use, application, and constituents. (MA)

Rost, Thomas L.; Sandler, Maureen L.

1978-01-01

438

technobahn science news search home | science | multimedia | popular stories  

E-print Network

technobahn science news search home | science | multimedia | popular stories archaeology | biology | medicine | nature & earth | physics & chemistry | psychology | space & planetary | technology & engineering of flexible silicon technology for a medical application. "We believe that this technology may herald a new

Rogers, John A.

439

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama, this site seeks to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. In this unit, students investigate ocean temperature around the world, and how it varies during the year and at different locations. This helps explain what causes seasons, and allows students to make predictions about future changes in sea and air temperatures. Students use data from the National Data Buoy Center to answer a series of questions, and complete related enrichment exercises. A downloadable teacher's guide, student guide, and necessary activity sheets are provided.

440

Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama, this site seeks to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. It contains activities pertaining to ocean currents (their properties and influence on weather and sea life). Students gather data from other websites, apply the data to answer a series of questions, and participate in related enrichment exercises. A downloadable teacher's guide, student guide, and all necessary activity sheets are included.

441

Evolution of Giant Planets in Eccentric Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the interaction between a giant planet and a viscous circumstellar disk by means of high-resolution, two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We consider planetary masses that range from 1 to 3 Jupiter masses (MJ) and initial orbital eccentricities that range from 0 to 0.4. We find that a planet can cause eccentricity growth in a disk region adjacent to the planet's orbit, even if the planet's orbit is circular. Disk-planet interactions lead to growth in a planet's orbital eccentricity. The orbital eccentricities of a 2MJ and a 3MJ planet increase from 0 to 0.11 within about 3000 orbits. Over a similar time period, the orbital eccentricity of a 1MJ planet grows from 0 to 0.02. For a case of a 1MJ planet with an initial eccentricity of 0.01, the orbital eccentricity grows to 0.09 over 4000 orbits. Radial migration is directed inward but slows considerably as a planet's orbit becomes eccentric. If a planet's orbital eccentricity becomes sufficiently large, e>~0.2, migration can reverse and so be directed outward. The accretion rate toward a planet depends on both the disk and the planetary orbital eccentricity and is pulsed over the orbital period. Planetary mass growth rates increase with planetary orbital eccentricity. For e~0.2, the mass growth rate of a planet increases by ~30% above the value for e=0. For e>~0.1, most of the accretion within the planet's Roche lobe occurs when the planet is near the apocenter. Similar accretion modulation occurs for flow at the inner disk boundary, which represents accretion toward the star.

D'Angelo, Gennaro; Lubow, Stephen H.; Bate, Matthew R.

2006-12-01

442

Ocean Surface Currents Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary provides short definitions of the oceanographic jargon used to describe ocean surface currents. It is designed to accompany the website "Ocean Surface Currents", a reference that provides information on surface currents in the world's oceans.

443

The Earth: A Changing Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

text: We describe a didactic unit that rises from our own living impression about our experience on the planet. Most of us feel the Earth to be a very static place. Rocks don't easily move and most landscapes always look the same over time. Anyone would say (the same way most scientists believed until the beginning of the last century) that our planet has always remained unchanged, never transformed. But then, all of a sudden, as a misfortune for so many humans, natural hazards appear on the scene: an earthquake causing so many disasters, a tsunami carrying away everything in its path, an eruption that can destroy huge surrounding areas but also bring new geographical relief. Science cannot remain oblivious to these events, we must wonder beyond. What does an earthquake mean? Why does it happen? What about an eruption? If it comes from the inside, what can we guess from it? Researching about all of these events, scientists have been able to arrive to some important knowledge of the planet itself: It has been possible to theorize about Earth's interior. It has also been confirmed that the planet has not always been the quiet and stable place we once thought. Continents, as Wegener supposed, do move about and the Tectonic Plates Theory, thanks to the information obtained through earthquakes and eruption, can provide some interesting explanations. But how do we know about our planet's past? How can we prove that the Earth has always been moving and that its surface changes? The Earth's rocks yield the answer. Rocks have been the only witnesses throughout millions of years, since the planet first came to existence. Let's learn how to read them… Shouldn't we realize that rocks are to Geology what books are to History? This discursive process has been distributed in four learning sequences: 1. Land is not as solid nor firm as it would seem, 2. The Earth planet: a puzzle, 3. The rocks also recycle , 4. Field trip to "Sant Miquel del Fai". The subjects take about 30 hours of class time for students from 13 to 14 years of age. During the learning process, different methodological tools of teaching and learning have been used. After reading and understanding news about natural disasters such as earthquakes and eruptions, cooperative group work and an oral presentation are prepared. In addition, it has been very useful to follow-up with some web simulations to predict natural phenomena, which can then be tested in the laboratory. Finally, the students apply their new understanding on a visit to a geological formation, where applying the language learned by observing the rocks, they demonstrate that the planet Earth has changed over the course of many millions of years. Natural hazards are a small and timely demonstration of the ability to change our planet.

Ribas, Núria; Màrquez, Conxita

2013-04-01

444

URL: http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/deepearthhasoceansworthofwater10diamondreveals1.2569564 Deep Earth has oceans' worth of water,  

E-print Network

through our planet, and has implications for the way tectonic plates and volcanoes behave, Pearson notes carried down by tectonic plates that were originally at the bottom of the oceans, Pearson said -- "water

Machel, Hans

445

Formation of Giant Planets and Brown Dwarves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to the prevailing core instability model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. Ongoing theoretical modeling of accretion of giant planet atmospheres, as well as observations of protoplanetary disks, will help decide this issue. Observations of extrasolar planets around main sequence stars can only provide a lower limit on giant planet formation frequency . This is because after giant planets form, gravitational interactions with material within the protoplanetary disk may cause them to migrat inwards and be lost to the central star. The core instability model can only produce planets greater than a few jovian masses within protoplanetary disks that are more viscous than most such disks are believed to be. Thus, few brown dwarves (objects massive enough to undergo substantial deuterium fusion, estimated to occur above approximately 13 jovian masses) are likely to be formed in this manner. Most brown dwarves, as well as an unknown number of free-floating objects of planetary mass, are probably formed as are stars, by the collapse of extended gas/dust clouds into more compact objects.

Lissauer, Jack J.

2003-01-01

446

Two New Planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise Doppler measurements from the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) UCLES spectrometer reveal periodic Keplerian velocity variations in the stars HD 160691 and HD 27442. HD 160691 has a period of 743 days, a semiamplitude of 54 m s-1, and a high eccentricity, e=0.62, typical of extrasolar planets orbiting beyond 0.2 AU. The minimum (Msini) mass of the companion is 1.97 MJ,

R. Paul Butler; C. G. Tinney; Geoffrey W. Marcy; Hugh R. A. Jones; Alan J. Penny; Kevin Apps

2001-01-01

447

Trojans in Exosystems with Two Massive Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We take as dynamical model for extrasolar planetary systems a central star like our Sun and two giant planets m 1 and m 2 like Jupiter and Saturn. We change the mass ratio ?=m 2/m 1 of the two large planets for a wide range of 1/16 < ? < 16. We also change the ratio between the initial semi-major axes (?=a 2/a 1) in the range of 1.2 < ? < 3 to model the different architecture of extrasolar planetary systems hosting two giant planets. The results for possible Trojans (Trojan planets) in the equilateral equilibrium points of the inner planet m 1 and the outer planet m 2 were derived with the aid of numerical integration. It turned out that in many configurations - depending on the mass ratios ? and the semi-major axes ratio ? - giant planets may host Trojans.

Dvorak, Rudolf; Zhou, Li-Yong; Baudisch, Helmut

2014-04-01

448

The Detection and Characterization of Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have now confirmed the existence of > 1800 planets orbiting stars other than the Sun; known as extrasolar planets or exoplanets. The different methods for detecting such planets are sensitive to different regions of parameter space, and so, we are discovering a wide diversity of exoplanets and exoplanetary systems. Characterizing such planets isdifficult, but we are starting to be able to determine something of their internal composition and are beginning to be able to probe their atmospheres, the first step towards the detection of bio-signatures and, hence, determining if a planet could be habitable or not. Here, I will review how we detect exoplanets, how we characterize exoplanetary systems and the exoplanets themselves, where we stand with respect to potentially habitable planets and how we are progressing towards being able to actually determine if a planet could host life or not.

Rice, Ken

2014-09-01

449

An outrageous hypothesis' for Mars: Episodic oceans  

SciTech Connect

The Mars Observer spacecraft is due to arrive at Mars in August, and U.S. planetary scientists are already choosing sides on the question of what kind of planet the craft's instruments will see. The two sides can be described, in the playful words of one researcher, as the conservatives' of the planetary community versus the macho' types. The conservative majority opts for the conventional view of Mars: that during the past 3 billion years the atmosphere has been so thin and cold that the planet's water has remained locked up underground as ice. A risk-taking macho minority prefers the radical alternative: a Mars periodically shrouded in an Earth-like atmosphere, with a temporary ocean and massive ice sheets.

Kerr, R.A.

1993-02-12

450

A Reassessment of the Mars Ocean Hypothesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial work on the identification and mapping of potential ancient shorelines on Mars was based on Viking Orbiter image data (Parker et al., 1987, 1989, 1993). The Viking Orbiters were designed to locate landing site for the two landers and were not specifically intended to map the entire planet. Fortunately, they mapped the entire planet. Unfortunately, they did so at an average resolution of greater than 200m/pixel. Higher resolution images, even mosaics of interesting regions, are available, but relatively sparse. Mapping of shorelines on Earth requires both high-resolution aerial photos or satellite images and good topographic information. Three significant sources of additional data from missions subsequent to Viking are useful for reassessing the ocean hypothesis. These are: MGS MOC images; MGS MOLA topography; Odyssey THEMIS IR and VIS images; and MER surface geology at Meridiani and Gusev. Okay, my mistake: Four.

Parker, T. J.

2004-01-01

451

Exotic Earths: Forming Habitable Worlds with Giant Planet Migration  

E-print Network

Close-in giant planets (e.g. ``Hot Jupiters'') are thought to form far from their host stars and migrate inward, through the terrestrial planet zone, via torques with a massive gaseous disk. Here we simulate terrestrial planet growth during and after giant planet migration. Several-Earth mass planets also form interior to the migrating Jovian planet, analogous to recently-discovered ``Hot Earths''. Very water-rich, Earth-mass planets form from surviving material outside the giant planet's orbit, often in the Habitable Zone and with low orbital eccentricities. More than a third of the known systems of giant planets may harbor Earth-like planets.

Sean N. Raymond; Avi M. Mandell; Steinn Sigurdsson

2006-09-08

452

Evolution of Giant Planets on Eccentric Orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the interaction of an eccentric orbit planet with a circumstellar disk by means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We have focused on the planet's mass range from one to a few Jupiter-masses. This study aims at characterizing the mass accretion and the orbital eccentricity evolution of giant planets. We find that the accretion rate depends on the orbital eccentricity of the protoplanet and that the accretion is pulsed on the orbital period, as found in simulations of binary star systems. Most of the mass is accreted while the protoplanet is around the apocenter position. A Jupiter-mass planet with orbital eccentricity e=0.3 accretes at a rate that is 33% higher than the accretion rate of a Jupiter-mass planet on a circular orbit. A 3 Jupiter-mass planet with e=0.1 is able to accrete, during one orbital period, 40% more mass than a similar size planet on a circular orbit. Simulations also indicate that a massive planet tend to sustain eccentricity growth in the disk, even with the planet revolving on a circular orbit, as already found for binary star systems. The interaction of the massive planet with the eccentric disk can then lead to the growth of the planet's orbital eccentricity. These results are consistent with observations of extrasolar planets. In fact, the most massive planets exhibit higher eccentricities than lower mass planets do. GD is supported by the UK Astrophysical Fluids Facility (UKAFF) through a UKAFF Fellowship. SL acknowledges support from NASA grant NNG04GG50G.

D'Angelo, G.; Lubow, S. H.; Bate, M. R.

2005-12-01

453

Discover the Hall of Planet Earth at the American Museum of Natural History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity sheet for young children is designed to be completed during a visit to the Museum's Hall of Planet Earth. The printable two-page handout includes notes on the rough terrain found on the ocean floors, a hall map that directs kids to seven numbered areas with observation activities, a hall-wide writing and drawing activity for the rocks on display and a collection of fun facts.

454

Artemis: A Stratospheric Planet Finder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The near-space environment of the stratosphere is far superior to terrestrial sites for optical and infrared observations. New balloon technologies will enable flights and safe recovery of 2-ton payloads at altitudes of 35 km for 100 days and longer. The combination of long flights and superb observing conditions make it possible to undertake science programs that otherwise could only be done from orbit. We propose to fly an "Ultra-Hubble" Stratospheric Telescope (UHST) equipped with a coronagraphic camera and active optics at 35 km to search for planets around 200 of the nearest stars. This ULDB mission will establish the frequency of solar-type planetary systems, and provide targets to search for earth-like planets.

Ford, H. C.; Petro, L. D.; Burrows, C.; Ftaclas, C.; Roggemann, M. C.; Trauger, J. T.

2003-01-01

455

The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets  

E-print Network

The characteristics of irradiated solar system planetary atmospheres have been studied for decades, consequently modern planetary science benefits from an exhaustive body of ground- and space-based data. The study of extrasolar planetary atmospheres, by contrast, is still in its infancy and currently rests on a few score of datapoints, mostly of the transiting planets. This short survey aims not to review this dynamic field but rather stresses the importance of a few theoretical concepts and processes for our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres. Topics covered include atmospheric structure and dynamics, cloud processes and photochemistry of planetary atmospheres. Influences on the albedos, spectra, and colors of extrasolar planets are reviewed and caution is urged in the interpretation of exoplanet colors.

Mark S. Marley

2008-09-26

456

Security for a Smarter Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bit by bit, our planet is getting smarter. By this, we mean the systems that run, the way we live and work as a society. Three things have brought this about - the world is becoming instrumented, interconnected and intelligent. Given the planet is becoming instrumented and interconnected, this opens up more risks that need to be managed. Escalating security and privacy concerns along with a renewed focus on organizational oversight are driving governance, risk management and compliance (GRC) to the forefront of the business. Compliance regulations have increasingly played a larger role by attempting to establish processes and controls that mitigate the internal and external risks organizations have today. To effectively meet the requirements of GRC, companies must prove that they have strong and consistent controls over who has access to critical applications and data.

Nagaratnam, Nataraj

457

Frequency Analysis and Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The discovery [13] (and confirmation [14]) of the first extrasolar planetary system by Wolszczan & Frail (1991) around the pulsar B1257+12 began a new era in this\\u000a exciting field of astronomy. A few years later, in 1995, the first extrasolar planet around a normal star was found by Queloz\\u000a & Mayor [10]. This was followed by other such discoveries [9].

Maciej Konacki; Andrzej J. Maciejewski

1999-01-01

458

Toroidal Atmospheres around Extrasolar Planets  

E-print Network

Jupiter and Saturn have extended, nearly toroidal atmospheres composed of material ejected from their moons or rings. Here we suggest that similar atmospheres must exist around giant extrasolar planets and might be observable in a transit of the parent star. Observation of such an atmosphere would be a marker for the presence of orbiting debris in the form of rings or moons that might otherwise be too small to be detected.

R. E. Johnson; P. J. Huggins

2006-05-25

459

Irregular Satellites of the Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This proposal is directed towards the observational exploration of the irregular satellite systems of the planets. Primarily we use large-format CCD cameras on the world's largest telescopes, on Mauna Kea, to discover new irregular satellites and then to monitor their positions in order to ascertain their orbital characteristics. Separate observations are taken to determine the physical properties of the irregular satellites. The big picture science objective is to determine how these satellites were captures, and to use the properties of the satellites and their orbits to place constraints on early solar system (including formation) processes. Work in the first year has focussed on a major investigation of the Saturn irregular satellite system. We secured observing time on the Subaru and Gemini 8-m diameter telescopes in December 2004, January, February and March 2005 for the conduct of a deep, wide-area survey. This has resulted in the detection and orbit determination for 12 new satellites to be announced in the next week or two. Additional satellites were lost, temporarily, due to unusually poor weather conditions on Mauna Kea. These objects will be recovered and their orbits published next year. A separate survey of the Uranus irregular satellites was published (Sheppard, Jewitt and Kleyna 2005). Away from the telescope, we have discovered the amazing result that the four giant planets possess similar numbers of irregular satellites. This flies in the face of the standard gas-drag model for satellite capture, since only two of the giant planets are gas giants and the others (Uranus and Neptune) formed by a different process and in the absence of much gas. The constancy of the satellite number (each giant holds approximately 100 irregular satellites measured down to the kilometer scale) is either a coincidence, with different capture mechanisms at different planets giving by chance the same total numbers of irregular satellites, or indicates that the satellites were captured by a completely different process. We favor the latter (Jewitt and Sheppard 2005).

Jewitt, David

2005-01-01

460

Four new binary minor planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Aims. We present evidence that four minor planets of the main belt are binary systems. Methods. These discoveries are based on CCD photometric measurements,made,by many,observers coordinated in a network of observatories. Results. Orbital and physical properties are derived from a total of 134 partial light curves involving 26 stations. (854) Frostia, (1089) Tama, (1313) Berna, and (4492) Debussy show

R. Behrend; L. Bernasconi; R. Roy; A. Klotz; F. Colas; P. Antonini; R. Aoun; K. Augustesen; E. Barbotin; N. Berger; H. Berrouachdi; E. Brochard; A. Cazenave; C. Cavadore; J. Coloma; V. Cotrez; S. Deconihout; C. Demeautis; J. Dorseuil; G. Dubos; R. Durkee; E. Frappa; F. Hormuth; T. Itkonen; C. Jacques; L. Kurtze; A. Laffont; M. Lavayssière; J. Lecacheux; A. Leroy; F. Manzini; G. Masi; D. Matter; R. Michelsen; J. Nomen; A. Oksanen; P. Pääkkönen; A. Peyrot; E. Pimentel; D. Pray; C. Rinner; S. Sanchez; K. Sonnenberg; S. Sposetti; D. Starkey; R. Stoss; J. p. Teng; M. Vignand; N. Waelchli

461

Electrodynamics on Extrasolar Giant Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong ionization on close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) suggests that their atmospheres may be affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Recent models of ion drag on these planets, however, are based on thermal ionization only and do not include the upper atmosphere above the 1 mbar level. These models are also based on simplified equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics that are not always valid in extrasolar planet atmospheres. We show that photoionization dominates over thermal ionization over much of the dayside atmosphere above the 100 mbar level, creating an upper ionosphere dominated by ionization of H and He and a lower ionosphere dominated by ionization of metals such as Na, K, and Mg. The resulting dayside electron densities on close-in exoplanets are higher than those encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the conductivities are comparable to the chromosphere of the Sun. Based on these results and assumed magnetic fields, we constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in EGPs and use a generalized Ohm's law to study the basic effects of electrodynamics in their atmospheres. We find that ion drag is important above the 10 mbar level where it can also significantly alter the energy balance through resistive heating. Due to frequent collisions of the electrons and ions with the neutral atmosphere, however, ion drag is largely negligible in the lower atmosphere below the 10 mbar level for a reasonable range of planetary magnetic moments. We find that the atmospheric conductivity decreases by several orders of magnitude in the night side of tidally locked planets, leading to a potentially interesting large-scale dichotomy in electrodynamics between the day and night sides. A combined approach that relies on UV observations of the upper atmosphere, phase curve and Doppler measurements of global dynamics, and visual transit observations to probe the alkali metals can potentially be used to constrain electrodynamics in the future.

Koskinen, T. T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Y-K. Cho, J.

2014-11-01

462

Looking for a habitable planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only very favorable combination of many physical parameters may provide the necessary con-ditions for unicellular organisms to evolve into multicellular animals. The main factors of the planet, that is critical for the evolution and existence of life, form a peculiar labyrinth with many impasses. Most important are mass and temperature conditions on the planet. The planet that meets RNA/ DNA life requirements must have: •a mass about 5E27 g; •some zones with a favorable thermal conditions (273-340K); •an atmosphere that is able to absorb an external hard radiation but transparent for photons with 1-3 eV energy; •a sufficient den-sity of a stellar radiation; •presence of other sources of energy, e.g. of oxidation species in the atmosphere; •a moderate gravitation; •open water with big islands or continents; •a moderate rotation period; •a moderate eccentricity of the orbit; •a moderate inclination of equator plane to the orbit plane; •an intensive meteoritic impacts or other cosmic catastrophes that stimulate evolution of the most perfect beings; •one or more massive satellites; •an intensive volcanism and/or plate tectonics.

Ksanfomality, Leonid

463

Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres and Biosignatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for terrestrial exoplanets - rocky worlds in orbit around stars other than the Sun - is one of humanity's most exciting science goals. The discovery of super Earths, terrestrial planets more massive than Earth, has opened a new era in exoplanet science, confirming the basic idea that our solar system is not the only planetary system to harbor terrestrial planets. Terrestrial exoplanets will expand planetary diversity, with masses and compositions likely very different from those found in our solar system. Most significantly, terrestrial exoplanets have the potential to host habitable environments on or below their solid surfaces, and are the most likely places beyond our solar system to search for signs of life. In the coming decades, instrumentation will be developed to expand our census of terrestrial exoplanets and directly characterize the atmospheres and biosignatures of these worlds. In the meantime, scientific progress in this field is made via extensive photochemical, climate, and radiative transfer modeling of terrestrial planetary environments together with remote sensing studies of solar system terrestrial planets, including Earth. This chapter provides an overview of terrestrial exoplanet atmosphere modeling techniques, a review of the scientific advances to date, and a discussion of outstanding questions and future directions.

Meadows, V.; Seager, S.

464

Planets migrating into stars: Rates and Signature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New measurements of the occurrence distribution of planets (POD) make it possible to make the first determination of the rate of planet migration into stars as a function of the strength of stellar tidal dissipation. We show how the period at which there is falloff in the POD due to planets migrating into the star can be used to calculate this rate. We show that it does not take extremely weak tidal dissipation for this rate to be low enough to be supplied by a reasonable number of planets being scattered into the lowest period region. The presence of the shortest period giant planets can be better explained by the ongoing migration of giant planets into stars. The presence of giant planets in period on the order of a day and less had prompted some to conclude that tidal dissipation in stars must necessarily be much weaker for planet mass than for binary star mass companions. However, a flow of less than one planet per thousand stars per gigayear could explain their presence without requiring as much of a difference in tidal dissipation strength in stars for planetary than for stellar mass companions. We show several new analytical expressions describing the rate of evolution of the falloff in the POD, as well as the rate of planet. The question of how strong is the tidal dissipation (the quality factor “Q”) for planet-mass companions may be answered within a few years by a measurable time shift in the transit period. We show that the distribution of remaining planet lifetimes indicates a mass-dependence of the stellar tidal dissipation. The possibility of regular merger of planets with stars has led us to find several correlations of iron abundance in stars with planet parameters, starting with the iron-eccentricity correlation (Taylor 2012, Dawson & Murray-Clay 2013). These correlations change in the presence of a stellar companion. We show that the distribution of planets of iron-rich planets is significantly different from the distribution of iron poor stars in several ways which indicate that both formation and whole planet pollution play roles in producing several recently discovered planet-star correlations.

Taylor, Stuart F.

2015-01-01

465

Detection of Extrasolar Planets by Transit Photometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A knowledge of other planetary systems that includes information on the number, size, mass, and spacing of the planets around a variety of star types is needed to deepen our understanding of planetary system formation and processes that give rise to their final configurations. Recent discoveries show that many planetary systems are quite different from the solar system in that they often possess giant planets in short period orbits. The inferred evolution of these planets and their orbital characteristics imply the absence of Earth-like planets near the habitable zone. Information on the properties of the giant-inner planets is now being obtained by both the Doppler velocity and the transit photometry techniques. The combination of the two techniques provides the mass, size, and density of the planets. For the planet orbiting star HD209458, transit photometry provided the first independent confirmation and measurement of the diameter of an extrasolar planet. The observations indicate a planet 1.27 the diameter of Jupiter with 0.63 of its mass (Charbonneau et al. 1999). The results are in excellent agreement with the theory of planetary atmospheres for a planet of the indicated mass and distance from a solar-like star. The observation of the November 23, 1999 transit of that planet made by the Ames Vulcan photometer at Lick Observatory is presented. In the future, the combination of the two techniques will greatly increase the number of discoveries and the richness of the science yield. Small rocky planets at orbital distances from 0.9 to 1.2 AU are more likely to harbor life than the gas giant planets that are now being discovered. However, new technology is needed to find smaller, Earth-like planets, which are about three hundred times less massive than Jupiter-like planets. The Kepler project is a space craft mission designed to discover hundreds of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone around a wide variety of stars. To demonstrate that the technology exists to find such small planets, our group has conducted an end-to-end system test. The results of the laboratory tests are presented and show that we are ready to start the search for Earth-size planets.

Borucki, William; Koch, David; Webster, Larry; Dunham, Edward; Witteborn, Fred; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Showen, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

466

[Contribution of popular education in domiciliary physiotherapeutic attendance].  

PubMed

The extension project of Physiotherapy in the Community is developed in the neighborhood of Grotão linked to the family health units, in the city of João Pessoa. The aim of this work is to value popular knowledge and practices. The domiciliary physiotherapeutical assistance to the light of the popular education, at the same time that it promotes assistance to the unassisted population, extends our vision of health as an educational process. In each domiciliary visit we observed the social reality of the popular layers and the problems these people face, reflecting in its state of health, being evident for us the partner-economic conditionants of the process health-illness. This is observed that when carrying out domiciliary consultation on the basis of the principles of the popular education, it extents the perspective of the performance of the physiotherapist. This is so, because it is an education based on the dialogue, that proposes the exchange between scientific and popular knowledge, motivating the perspective of a commitment to the health together with the community. PMID:19851600

Torres, Cristina Katya Dantas; Estrela, Joseane de Fátima Madruga; Ribeiro, Kátia Suely Queiroz Silva

2009-01-01

467

DOMES: A distributed ocean modelling system  

SciTech Connect

With research interests shifting away from primarily military or industrial applications to more environmental applications, the area of ocean modelling has become an increasingly popular and exciting area of research. This paper presents a CIPS (Computation Field Simulation) system customized for the solution of oceanographic problems. This system deals primarily with the generation of simple, yet efficient grids for coastal areas. The two primary grid approaches are both structured in methodology. The first approach is a standard approach which is used in such popular grid generation softwares as GE-NIE++, EAGLEVIEW, and TIGER, where the user defines boundaries via points, lines, or curves, varies the distribution of points along these boundaries and then creates the interior grid. The second approach is to allow the user to interactively select points on the screen to form the boundary curves and then create the interior grid from these spline curves. The program has been designed with the needs of the ocean modeller in mind so that the modeller can obtain results in a timely yet elegant manner. The modeller performs four basic steps in using the program. First, he selects a region of interest from a popular database. Then, he creates a grid for that region. Next, he sets up boundary and input conditions and runs a circulation model. Finally, the modeller visualizes the output.

Shaunak, S.K.; Soni, B.K. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

1996-12-31

468

Modeling Website Popularity Competition in the Attention-Activity Marketplace  

E-print Network

How does a new startup drive the popularity of competing websites into oblivion like Facebook famously did to MySpace? This question is of great interest to academics, technologists, and financial investors alike. In this work we exploit the singular way in which Facebook wiped out the popularity of MySpace, Hi5, Friendster, and Multiply to guide the design of a new popularity competition model. Our model provides new insights into what Nobel Laureate Herbert A. Simon called the "marketplace of attention," which we recast as the attention-activity marketplace. Our model design is further substantiated by user-level activity of 250,000 MySpace users obtained between 2004 and 2009. The resulting model not only accurately fits the observed Daily Active Users (DAU) of Facebook and its competitors but also predicts their fate four years into the future.

Ribeiro, Bruno

2014-01-01

469

Secular Behavior of Exoplanetary Systems: Self-Consistency and Comparisons With The Planet-Planet Scattering Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planet-planet scattering has been suggested as a mechanism to explain the disproportionate number of planet-planet pairs found to lie on or near an apsidal separatrix, in which one planet's eccentricity periodically drops to near-zero. We present the results of numerical simulations of 2-planet systems having arisen from dynamically unstable 3-planet systems. We show that the distribution of near-separatrix systems arising

Miles L. Timpe; R. Kopparapu; R. Barnes; S. N. Raymond; R. Greenberg; N. Gorelick

2011-01-01

470

TARA OCEANS POLAR CIRCLE  

E-print Network

TARA OCEANS POLAR CIRCLE © C.Sardet/CNRS/Tara Oceans Arctique.dacher@cnrs-dir.fr Tara Oceans Polar Circle l Eloïse Fontaine l T 01 42 01 38 57 l eloise@taraexpeditions.org #12; Sommaire Programme Communiqué de presse Les intervenants Parcours de Tara durant Tara Oceans Polar Circle

van Tiggelen, Bart

471

Oceanic Circulation Visualizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory presents two visualizations. The first is a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has been used for studying both the ocean climate system and idealized ocean circulations; the second is animation of sea surface height and ocean eddies.

Laboratory, Geophysical F.; Noaa

472

Oceans of Energy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on the importance of ocean exploration as a way to learn how to capture, control, and distribute renewable ocean energy resources. Students begin by identifying ways the ocean can generate energy and then research one ocean energy source using the Internet. Finally, students build a Micro-Hydro Electric Generator.

NOAA Ocean Explorer

473

Indian Ocean proposed drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tentative plans for the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) are for the drilling vessel SEDCO\\/BP 471 (Eos, March 13, 1984, p. 97) to work in the Indian Ocean during all or parts of 1987 and 1988. The Indian Ocean Advisory Panel of ODP solicits letters of intent or proposals for possible scientific ocean drilling during that period. All areas within the

Joseph R. Curray

1984-01-01

474

Volatile components and continental material of planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H20, CO2, etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes.

Florenskiy, K. P.; Nikolayeva, O. V.

1986-01-01

475

The Number of Planets Around Stars  

E-print Network

Based on the large number of elliptical planetary nebulae I argue that about 55 per cent of all progenitors of planetary nebulae have planets around them. The planets spin up the stars when the later evolve along the red giant branch or along the asymptotic giant branch. The arguments, which were presented in several of my earlier works, and are summarized in the paper, suggest that the presence of four gas-giant planets in the solar system is the generality rather than the exception. I here continue and: (1) examine the possibility of detecting signatures of surviving Saturn-like planets inside planetary nebulae, and, (2) propose a model by which the second parameter of the horizontal branch, which determines the distribution of horizontal branch stars in the HR diagram, is the presence of planets. A red giant branch star that interacts with a planet will lose a large fraction of its envelope and will become a blue horizontal branch star.

Noam Soker

1997-06-24

476

The SIM PlanetQuest Science Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SIM PlanetQuest (hereafter, just SIM) is a NASA mission to measure the angular positions of stars with unprecedented accuracy. We outline the main astrophysical science programs planned for SIM, and related opportunities for community participation. We focus especially on SIM's ability to detect exoplanets as small as the Earth around nearby stars. The planned synergy between SIM and other planet-finding missions including Kepler and GAIA, and planet-characterizing missions including the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Terrestrial Planet Finder--Coronagraph (TPF-C), and Terrestrial Planet Finder--Interferometer (TPF-I), is a key element in NASA's Navigator Program to find Earth-like planets, determine their habitability, and search for signs of life in the universe. SIM's technology development is now complete and the project is proceeding towards a launch in the next decade.

Edberg, Stephen J.; Traub, Wesley A.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Marr, James C., IV

2007-01-01

477

Kepler - A Search for Habitable Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kepler Mission is part of NASA's Discovery Program, a series of lower-cost, highly focused planetary science investigations designed to enhance understanding of the solar system. This webpage describes how Kepler, scheduled for launch in 2006, will use a unique spaceborne telescope specifically designed to search for Earth-like planets around stars beyond our solar system. It will look for the "transit" signature of planets. A transit occurs each time a planet crosses the line-of-sight between the planet's parent star that it is orbiting and the observer. When this happens, the planet blocks some of the light from its star, resulting in a periodic dimming. This periodic signature is used to detect the planet and to determine its size and its orbit. The site features sections on the scientific basis for the mission, mission design, a technology demonstration, and links to relevant news articles.

478

The Transition Between Rocky and Gaseous Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler Mission, combined with ground based radial velocity follow-up and dynamical analyses of transit timing variations, has revolutionized the observational constraints on sub-Neptune-size planet compositions. In this talk, I focus on the intriguing transition between rocky exoplanets (comprised of iron and silicates) and planets with voluminous layers of volatiles (H/He and astrophysical ices). Applying a hierarchical Bayesian statistical approach to the sample of Kepler transiting sub-Neptune planets with Keck radial velocity follow-up, I constrain the fraction of close-in planets (with orbital periods less than 50 days) that are sufficiently dense to be rocky, as a function of planet radius, and find that the majority of close-in 1.6 Earth-radius planets are not rocky. I conclude by discussing future prospects for constraining the rocky-gaseous transition at longer orbital periods and for resolving compositional sub-populations in the accumulating census of observed exoplanets.

Rogers, Leslie

2015-01-01

479

POPULAR SCIENCE 37POPSCI.COM By Jennifer Abbasi  

E-print Network

Gill University in Montreal found bacteria living at subzero temperatures in a methane-rich spring on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian Arctic Ocean. Similar life-forms could also be the source of the recently

Maxwell, Bruce D.

480

MASSES, RADII, AND ORBITS OF SMALL KEPLER PLANETS: THE TRANSITION FROM GASEOUS TO ROCKY PLANETS  

E-print Network

We report on the masses, sizes, and orbits of the planets orbiting 22 Kepler stars. There are 49 planet candidates around these stars, including 42 detected through transits and 7 revealed by precise Doppler measurements ...

Seager, Sara

481

Constraints on planet formation from Kepler’s multiple planet systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent haul of hundreds of multiple planet systems discovered by Kepler provides a treasure trove of new clues for planet formation theories. The substantial amount of protoplanetary disk mass needed to form the most commonly observed multi-planet systems - small (Earth-sized to mini-Neptune-sized) planets close to their stars - argues against pure in situ formation and suggests that the planets in these systems must have undergone some form of migration. I will present results from numerical simulations of terrestrial planet formation that aim to reproduce the sizes and architecture of Kepler's multi-planet systems, and will discuss the observed resonances and giant planets (or the lack thereof) associated with these systems.

Quintana, Elisa V.

2015-01-01

482

Tidal evolution of extra-solar planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In both our solar system and extra-solar planetary systems, tides may have a variety of effects, driving complex orbital evolution and geophysical processes. For extra-solar planets with orbits that pass very close to their host stars, tides have reduced orbital eccentricities and semi-major axes, and the rates of tidal evolution may change dramatically as orbits evolve. Understanding how the orbits have evolved and, ultimately, discerning the origins of close-in extra-solar planets require accounting for all the complexity of tidal evolution. The accompanying dissipation of tidal energy within the planets has probably also affected their internal structures. In some cases, tidal dissipation may account the apparent discrepancy between predictions and observations of the radii of extra-solar planets that transit their host stars. Evolutionary models for these planets that allow determinations of their internal structures and composition must include highly variable tidal heating rates. The same tidal evolution and heating probably also affects the orbital and geophysical properties of rocky extra-solar planets and may play a key role in determining whether such a planet can harbor life. As tides reduce a planet's semi-major axis, the planet may eventually pass so close to its host star that the star's gravity completely disrupts the planet, leading to the destruction of many planets. Tidal destruction has left a discernible signature on the distribution of extra-solar planetary orbits, and so interpretations of the distribution in terms of the origins of planets must include consideration of the effects of tidal destruction.

Jackson, Brian Kendall

483

Planet Formation in the Outer Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews coagulation models for planet formation in the Kuiper belt, emphasizing links to recent observations of our and other solar systems. At heliocentric distances of 35-50 AU, single-annulus and multiannulus planetesimal accretion calculations produce several 1000 km or larger planets and many 50-500 km objects on timescales of 10-30 Myr in a minimum-mass solar nebula. Planets form more

Scott J. Kenyon

2002-01-01

484

Scientific calculations from a distant planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will act as mathematicians and scientists as they use models, observations and space science concepts to perform calculations and draw inferences regarding a fictional solar system with three planets in circular orbits around a sun. Among the calculations are estimates of the size of the home planet (using a method more than 2000 years old) and the relative distances of the planets from their sun.

2012-12-18

485

Comparison Charts of Geological Processes: Terrestrial Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chart presents information on the geological processes (volcanism, impact cratering, tectonics, and gradation) that have affected the Earth, Moon, and the terrestrial planets. Students compare the effects these processes have had on the Moon and planets. There is also a blank chart and a sheet of notes on the geological processes that may be used in conjunction with this chart. This chart is one of the activities for the Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Introduction to the Solar System.

486

Continents and Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn and explore the seven continents and five oceans. 1. Explore the 7 continents and 5 oceans Continents and Oceans! 2. Play the quiz on the continents and oceans. Start at Beginner and work your way up to Expert! Continents and Oceans! 3. Look at this map and write down all your seven continents! Continents 4. Go to this website and play the game about continents. Continue playing until ...

Kneugent

2012-11-26

487

Strengths and weaknesses of the global ocean conveyor: Inter-basin freshwater disparities as the major control  

E-print Network

to the current paradigm of modern climatology and oceanography, the global ocean thermohaline circula- tion works conveyor-type ocean thermohaline circulation. On the other hand, rel- atively small changes on the nature of most popularizations. 0079-6611/$ - see front matter Ã? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

488

MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next major step in the study of extrasolar planets will be the direct detection, resolved from their parent star, of a significant sample of Jupiter-like extrasolar giant planets. Such detection will open up new parts of the extrasolar planet distribution and allow spectroscopic characterization of the planets themselves. Detecting Jovian planets at 5-50 AU scale orbiting nearby stars requires

B A Macintosh; J R Graham; B Oppenheimer; L Poyneer; A Sivaramakrishnan; J Veran

2005-01-01

489

MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next major step in the study of extrasolar planets will be the direct detection, resolved from their parent star, of a significant sample of Jupiter-like extrasolar giant planets. Such detection will open up new parts of the extrasolar planet distribution and allow spectroscopic characterization of the planets themselves. Detecting Jovian planets at 5-50 AU scale orbiting nearby stars requires

Bruce Macintosh; James Graham; Ben Oppenheimer; Lisa Poyneer; Anand Sivaramakrishnan; Jean-Pierre Veran

2006-01-01

490

Are there planets beyond the orbit of Pluto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approaches available for the detection of planets of the solar system are considered, taking into account the discovery of a planet on the basis of the solar radiation reflected by it, the gravitational effects of a planet on the orbit of other planets, and relations between a cometary family and the orbit of a planet. The possibilities for detecting

J. Hoppe

1974-01-01

491

Planetesimals to Brown Dwarfs: What is a Planet?  

E-print Network

planets, Kuiper belt, defining planets, substellar objects, cosmogony, new planets Abstract The past 15Planetesimals to Brown Dwarfs: What is a Planet? Gibor Basri1 and Mich