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1

Ocean Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Ocean Planet_ is a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition that now has a companion on-line exhibition. It covers varied topics associated with the ocean, such as the science of the ocean, the animals, people, and communities who use the ocean, and pollution problems currently endangering ocean resources. The exhibit features all of the text and a good portion of the images from the traveling exhibit. The curator of this exhibit has put together six special interest tours including Biodiversity, Women and the Sea, and Pollution. Users can also build their own special tour from a list of key words. The current list contains only four words, but is expected to grow in the future. Visitors can also consult a comprehensive list of educational materials and ocean resources.

1995-01-01

2

Planet Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From DiscoverySchool.com, Planet Ocean is a Web site developed for students in grade 5-8 to learn about the abundant life found in the world's vast marine environments. Students are introduced to oceanography, marine biology, food chains, and ecosystems. Teachers will appreciate the tips for using this site in the classroom and related resources, and almost anyone will appreciate the Amazing Facts found under each topic.

2002-01-01

3

Ocean Planet: Rough Planet Earth without Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

4

Ocean Planet: Sea Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on ocean bottom features including continental shelf, deep ocean plain, and mid-ocean ridges. Students study the discovery and mapping of seafloor features, learn to read seafloor maps, then create a map of Atlantic seafloor features. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; maps and forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

5

Changing Planet: Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses the impact of higher amounts of carbon dioxide absorbed by the oceans on marine organisms and how they are adapting to the new environment. Changing Planet is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

2011-03-04

6

Ocean Planet Exhibition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour of the Smithsonian Institution's Ocean Planet exhibit can be navigated by clicking on the floor plan which is pictured, or it can be searched by image, subject, or topic outline. Links to educational materials and to a special curator's tour are also included.

7

Visit to An Ocean Planet: Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource uses text, images, maps and a laboratory exercise to explain how differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water cause the formation of deep-ocean currents. It is part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's "Ocean Surface Topography from Space" website. This material is also available on the "Visit to An Ocean Planet" CD-ROM.

8

Ocean Planet. Interdisciplinary Marine Science Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution designed to share with the public what recent research has revealed about the oceans and to encourage ocean conservation. This booklet of lessons and activities adapts several themes from the exhibition for use in middle and high school classrooms. Lesson plans include:…

Branca, Barbara

9

Ocean Planet. Interdisciplinary Marine Science Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution designed to share with the public what recent research has revealed about the oceans and to encourage ocean conservation. This booklet of lessons and activities adapts several themes from the exhibition for use in middle and high school classrooms. Lesson plans include:…

Branca, Barbara

10

Ocean Planet: Final Version with Credits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1995-05-26

11

Ocean Planet: Map of Flight Path  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

12

Ocean Planet: Rough Cut Galapagos Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

13

Detecting Oceans on Extrasolar Planets Using the Glint Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glint, the specular reflection of sunlight off Earth's oceans, may reveal the presence of oceans on an extrasolar planet. As an Earth-like planet nears crescent phases, the size of the ocean glint spot increases relative to the fraction of the illuminated disk, while the reflectivity of this spot increases. Both effects change the planet's visible reflectivity as a function of

Tyler D. Robinson; Victoria S. Meadows; David Crisp

2010-01-01

14

Ocean Planet - Staying on Top  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The map and narrative presented here explain how "low-tech" methods of scientific observation can be used to discern ocean current patterns. 60,000 Nike shoes lost overboard from a storm-tossed cargo ship in the northeastern Pacific in May 1990 began to wash ashore at times and places that coincided with the known surface current in the North Pacific Ocean, which moves in a large slow circle called a gyre.

15

Evolution from Ocean Planet to Land Planet by Water Loss; The Inner Edge of Habitable Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the inner edge of Habitable Zone and imaginary planetary evolution from ocean planet to land planet by focus on water loss. When such evolution occur, planets keep habitable. We demonstrate the possibility of the various type of habitable planets.

T. K. Kodama; H. G. Genda; Y. A. Abe; K. Z. Zahnle

2011-01-01

16

Detecting Oceans on Extrasolar Planets Using the Glint Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glint, the specular reflection of sunlight off Earth's oceans, may reveal the\\u000apresence of oceans on an extrasolar planet. As an Earth-like planet nears\\u000acrescent phases, the size of the ocean glint spot increases relative to the\\u000afraction of illuminated disk, while the reflectivity of this spot increases.\\u000aBoth effects change the planet's visible reflectivity as a function of phase.

Tyler D. Robinson; Victoria S. Meadows; David Crisp

2010-01-01

17

Brightness and Polarization of Extrasolar Planet Oceans and Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a model to determine if orbital variation in reflected starlight from extrasolar planets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans on Earth-like planets. We then used this model to simulate the orbital variation in brightness and polarization of light scattered by different types of exoplanets, including ocean planets. The hypothetical exoplanets we modeled are Earth-sized planets orbiting a Sun-like star at 1 AU; we assume orbits that are edge-on to our line of sight, because this geometry maximizes the water signatures we seek. The modeled planets have Earth-like atmospheres (including Rayleigh scattering, absorption, aerosols, and clouds) and surfaces that are either ocean-covered or diffusely scattering (similar to Earth deserts). We confirm earlier findings that ocean planets with thin atmospheres exhibit a brightness peak before and after transit (near orbital longitude = 30 degrees), and show a strong polarization peak near orbital longitude = 74 degrees. However, we also show that, on an exoplanet with Earth-like Rayleigh scattering, these signatures are almost completely hidden by the atmosphere when observing in the waveband 0.5 to 1.0 um. At longer wavelengths out to 2.3 um, Rayleigh scattering can be essentially eliminated, but aerosol scattering tends to obscure both the polarization signature and the brightness peak, unless aerosols are very thin by Earth standards. Clouds and wind-driven waves on an ocean surface can also mask water signatures, and atmospheric scattering on dry planets can create a polarization signature similar to that from an ocean planet. In summary, our model shows that detecting a water ocean on an Earth-like planet using polarized and unpolarized glint from the water surface may be more difficult than expected. However polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with variations in orbital brightness and polarization, to seek oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds on extrasolar planets. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine if an observed object is a planet or a background stair, and constrain the planet's orbital inclination.

Zugger, M.; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D.; Kane, T. J.; Philbrick, C. R.

2011-12-01

18

Ocean Planet: Rough Cut Ship and Submersible Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

19

Blue Planet Challenge: A Natural History of the Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Blue Planet encourages students to explore the world's oceanic environments through a series of interactive games and activities arranged according to seven themes: Blue Planet (marine ecosystems in general), Alien World (deep sea regions), Ends of the Earth (polar regions), Webs of Life (oceanic ecological communities), Four Seasons (seasonal fluctuations in ecological processes), and On the Edge (coastal marine ecosystems). Also provided are facts and figures on the major world oceans and oceanic zones; indexed descriptions of various marine life and phenomena such as bioluminescence and chemosynthesis; species fact files indexed by taxonomic group; and suggested reading lists and related websites. Teachers can access a reference page outlining the objectives for each of the site's games and activities.

20

Mission to Planet Earth. The Living Ocean: Observing Ocean Color from Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of ocean color are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, which will assess how the global environment is changing. Using the unique perspective available from space, NASA will observe, monitor, and study large-scale environmental processes,...

1994-01-01

21

Applications of Ocean Acoustic Monitoring to Understanding Our Planet  

ScienceCinema

The ocean covers two-thirds of the surface of Earth, and hides long chains of seafloor volcanoes, bizarre and magnificent life forms, and many dynamic geological processes. Shrouded in darkness, much of what happens deep in the ocean is unknown to us. But sound can tell us a great deal about what is going on in the ocean. Changes in the physical properties of seawater with depth allow relatively quiet sounds to travel great distances without loosing much energy. In this way we are able to record many noises that occur within or on the boundary of the ocean, giving us insight into geological, biological and man-made activities in the ocean. One of the most interesting noises to a geophysicist is the sound of mid-ocean ridge volcanic eruptions. These eruptions are forming new surface for our planet and helping create an extraordinary seafloor ecosystem. Examples of sounds heard and some of their implications will be presented.

22

Applications of Ocean Acoustic Monitoring to Understanding Our Planet  

SciTech Connect

The ocean covers two-thirds of the surface of Earth, and hides long chains of seafloor volcanoes, bizarre and magnificent life forms, and many dynamic geological processes. Shrouded in darkness, much of what happens deep in the ocean is unknown to us. But sound can tell us a great deal about what is going on in the ocean. Changes in the physical properties of seawater with depth allow relatively quiet sounds to travel great distances without loosing much energy. In this way we are able to record many noises that occur within or on the boundary of the ocean, giving us insight into geological, biological and man-made activities in the ocean. One of the most interesting noises to a geophysicist is the sound of mid-ocean ridge volcanic eruptions. These eruptions are forming new surface for our planet and helping create an extraordinary seafloor ecosystem. Examples of sounds heard and some of their implications will be presented.

Tolstoy, Maya (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University)

2005-10-26

23

DETECTING OCEANS ON EXTRASOLAR PLANETS USING THE GLINT EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

Glint, the specular reflection of sunlight off Earth's oceans, may reveal the presence of oceans on an extrasolar planet. As an Earth-like planet nears crescent phases, the size of the ocean glint spot increases relative to the fraction of the illuminated disk, while the reflectivity of this spot increases. Both effects change the planet's visible reflectivity as a function of phase. However, strong forward scattering of radiation by clouds can also produce increases in a planet's reflectivity as it approaches crescent phases, and surface glint can be obscured by Rayleigh scattering and atmospheric absorption. Here, we explore the detectability of glint in the presence of an atmosphere and realistic phase-dependent scattering from oceans and clouds. We use the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model to simulate Earth's broadband visible brightness and reflectivity over an orbit. Our validated simulations successfully reproduce phase-dependent Earthshine observations. We find that the glinting Earth can be as much as 100% brighter at crescent phases than simulations that do not include glint, and that the effect is dependent on both orbital inclination and wavelength, where the latter dependence is caused by Rayleigh scattering limiting sensitivity to the surface. We show that this phenomenon may be observable using the James Webb Space Telescope paired with an external occulter.

Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Crisp, David, E-mail: robinson@astro.washington.ed [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2010-09-20

24

Detecting Oceans on Extrasolar Planets Using the Glint Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glint, the specular reflection of sunlight off Earth's oceans, may reveal the presence of oceans on an extrasolar planet. As an Earth-like planet nears crescent phases, the size of the ocean glint spot increases relative to the fraction of the illuminated disk, while the reflectivity of this spot increases. Both effects change the planet's visible reflectivity as a function of phase. However, strong forward scattering of radiation by clouds can also produce increases in a planet's reflectivity as it approaches crescent phases, and surface glint can be obscured by Rayleigh scattering and atmospheric absorption. Here, we explore the detectability of glint in the presence of an atmosphere and realistic phase-dependent scattering from oceans and clouds. We use the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model to simulate Earth's broadband visible brightness and reflectivity over an orbit. Our validated simulations successfully reproduce phase-dependent Earthshine observations. We find that the glinting Earth can be as much as 100% brighter at crescent phases than simulations that do not include glint, and that the effect is dependent on both orbital inclination and wavelength, where the latter dependence is caused by Rayleigh scattering limiting sensitivity to the surface. We show that this phenomenon may be observable using the James Webb Space Telescope paired with an external occulter.

Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David

2010-09-01

25

Models of Polarized Light from Oceans and Atmospheres of Earth-like Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specularly reflected light, or glint, from an ocean surface may provide a useful observational tool for studying extrasolar terrestrial planets. Detection of sea-surface glints would differentiate ocean-bearing terrestrial planets, i.e. those similar to Earth, from other terrestrial extrasolar planets. The brightness and degree of polarization of both sea-surface glints and atmospheric Rayleigh scattering are strong functions of the phase angle

P. R. McCullough

2006-01-01

26

Europa, tidally heated oceans, and habitable zones around giant planets.  

PubMed

Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain an environment favorable to life on the satellite surface or just below a thin ice layer. In our own solar system, Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, could have a liquid ocean which may occasionally receive sunlight through cracks in the overlying ice shell. In such case, sufficient solar energy could reach liquid water that organisms similar to those found under Antarctic ice could grow. In other solar systems, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could represent environments that are stable over an order of Aeons and in which life could perhaps evolve. We define a zone around a giant planet in which such satellites could exist as a tidally-heated habitable zone. This zone can be compared to the habitable zone which results from heating due to the radiation of a central star. In our solar system, this radiatively-heated habitable zone contains the Earth. PMID:11538217

Reynolds, R T; McKay, C P; Kasting, J F

1987-01-01

27

Carbon Cycle and Long-Term Evolution of Climate for a Globally Ocean-Covered Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon cycle is important for considering the long-term stability of climate of a planet. For the Earth, as the surface temperature rises, continental weathering is enhanced, which causes consumption of atmospheric CO2 and then results in decrease of the surface temperature. This negative feedback called Walker feedback works on a planet with plate techtonics and continents, and stabilizes its climate over the long term. There may be wide variety of the amount of the ocean on extrasolar terrestrial planets. If the amount of water on the Earth increased by five times, the Earth’s surface would be completely covered by the ocean. Since the mass of the ocean on the present Earth is tiny (0.023wt%) compared to the Earth’s mass, a lot of exoplanets with globally covered ocean will be found. According to the preliminary carbon cycle model, the surface temperature of the planet with very small fraction of continental area (1%) is maintained to be much higher (about 80 degrees Celsius) than that of the Earth, because surface weathering is suppressed and effective burial of carbonate does not work. In order to consider a globally ocean-covered planet, we further develop a carbon cycle model with weathering of oceanic crust in the hydrothermal system and thermal evolution of the planet. We discuss the long-term stability and habitability of the globally ocean-covered planet with various sizes from mini Earths to super Earths.

Genda, Hidenori; Kimura, R.; Abe, Y.; Tajika, E.

2011-09-01

28

Dynamic ocean tides on moons of the outer planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organizing thesis of this presentation is the assertion that a better understanding of ocean tides and ocean tidal dissipation shall be central in improving our understanding of the present state and evolution of several of the icy satellites. In most studies so far, these satellite oceans have been treated, at least implicitly, as simply a heat-conducting lubricant. But for

R. H. Tyler

2009-01-01

29

Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What planets are in our solar system? Today, we are going to learn about the eight planets in our solar system. While learning, we're going to try to answer the question: What planets are in our solar system? Use this Planet Organizer to fill in information about the solar system that you learn on your journey! First, we're going to find ...

Anderson, Ms.

2011-04-07

30

Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast discusses developments in the search for extraterrestrial planets. Topics include what causes a planet to form, and how they are detected. There is also speculation on the liklihood of an Earth-like planet being found and the basic requirements for extraterrestrial life. The broadcast is 42 minutes in length.

31

The Blue Planet: Seas & Oceans. Young Discovery Library Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, facinate them and educate them, this volume explores the physical and environmental characteristics of the world's oceans. Topics are: (1) human exploration; (2) the food chain; (3) coral reefs; (4) currents and tides; (5) waves; (6)…

de Beauregard, Diane Costa

32

It's Only a Little Planet: A Primer for Ocean Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed as part of the Day on the Bay Cruise Program, funded by the National Sea Grant Program, this learner's manual outlines ocean studies conducted on a seven-hour cruise of the Galveston Bay area. A description of the geology and human use of Galveston Bay follows a general introduction to coastal and estuarine ecology. Line drawings…

Meyland, Sarah J.

33

Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this project is to gather information and learn interesting facts about the planets in our solar sytem to complete a research project for Mrs. Hutchinson\\'s class. Begin by taking a quiz to measure your knowledge. Click this link for information and quiz. Quiz Next, you will choose two of the following sites and search for information on the planets in our solar system. Fill in the questions on your work sheet as you go to each site. Factmonster Planets Kids Astronomy 9 planets for kids Windows to the Universe Just for ...

Bhanks

2006-11-02

34

Strong ocean tidal flow and heating on moons of the outer planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from recent space missions have added strong support for the idea that there are liquid oceans on several moons of the outer planets, with Jupiter's moon Europa having received the most attention. But given the extremely cold surface temperatures and meagre radiogenic heat sources of these moons, it is still unclear how these oceans remain liquid. The prevailing conjecture is that these oceans are heated by tidal forces that flex the solid moon (rock plus ice) during its eccentric orbit, and that this heat entering the ocean does not rapidly escape because of the insulating layer of ice over the ocean surface. Here, however, I describe strong tidal dissipation (and heating) in the liquid oceans; I show that a subdominant and previously unconsidered tidal force due to obliquity (axial tilt of the moon with respect to its orbital plane) has the right form and frequency to resonantly excite large-amplitude Rossby waves in these oceans. In the specific case of Europa, the minimum kinetic energy of the flow associated with this resonance (7.3×1018J) is two thousand times larger than that of the flow excited by the dominant tidal forces, and dissipation of this energy seems large enough to be a primary ocean heat source.

Tyler, Robert H.

2008-12-01

35

Models of Polarized Light from Oceans and Atmospheres of Earth-like Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specularly reflected light, or glint, from an ocean surface may provide a\\u000auseful observational tool for studying extrasolar terrestrial planets.\\u000aDetection of sea-surface glints would differentiate ocean-bearing terrestrial\\u000aplanets, i.e. those similar to Earth, from other terrestrial extrasolar\\u000aplanets. The brightness and degree of polarization of both sea-surface glints\\u000aand atmospheric Rayleigh scattering are strong functions of the phase angle

P. R. McCullough

2006-01-01

36

An observational signature of evolved oceans on extra-solar terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in luminosity with time of a main sequence star eventually can\\u000alead to substantial evaporation of the oceans on an orbiting terrestrial\\u000aplanet. Subsequently, the gas phase water in the planet's upper atmosphere can\\u000abe photodissociated by stellar ultraviolet and the resulting atomic hydrogen\\u000athen may be lost in a wind. This gaseous envelope may pass in front

M. Jura

2004-01-01

37

Possible lava flows on the red planet: the key for the mathematical approach in computing how deep Martian oceans were during each period of the planet history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Covering certain area of the planet long enough and accumulating the impacts of meteors, ocean prevents appearance of craters on the surface. Even if ocean dries up once, associated territory will still contain relatively smaller number of craters. Mathematically, this influence can be described as correlation between topology profile of the planet and distribution of craters. However, large lava flows can also erase craters from the surface, so we can not directly determine from the correlation whether the oceans existed and how large they were. If the possible lava flows could be determined, then it would also be possible to compute whether the remained territory - not flooded with the lava - had been covered by the ocean, because nothing else can influence the correlation in such large amount (a meteor large enough to erase almost all other craters from the Martian northern hemisphere would certainly leave clearly visible trace, while atmosphere would pass trough only large meteors and would erase all small craters in lowlands by winds and sand-storms). Using precise topographic globes obtained by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, all possible lava sources can be marked, and then, through the simulation, all territory that could have been flooded by the lava can also be excluded from computations. However, we do not know exactly how much the planet topography was changing. To solve the problem, simulations were made assuming different changes of the planet topography resulting in different areas that could have been flooded by the lava. In all cases, from the most optimistic one where insignificantly low percentage of the planet territory is excluded, to the most pessimistic one where most of the planet territory is excluded, results were always the same with only slight differences in precision. This leads to the conclusion that the lava could not have influenced the correlation in required amount, leaving the oceans as the only possible explanation. Once this was confirmed, the lava-flow simulation that most closely matches the lava-flows visible on images obtained by the Mars Orbiter Camera was chosen, resulting in as precise input for mathematical analysis as possible. The obtained pairs (ocean depth in meters, time in millions of years) are: (9688, -4750), (9688, -4500), (9621, -4250), (9554, -4000), (9489, -3750), (9422, -3500), (9351, -3250), (9276, -3000), (9141, -2750), (6867, -2500), (6569, -2250), (6328, -2000), (6157, -1750), (5928, -1500), (5660, -1250), (5276, -1000), (4742, -750), (4425, -500), (3901, -250), (3728, -200), (3501, -150), (3107, -100), (0, -50).

Salamuniccar, G.

38

Oceanic Communities in a Changing Planet - The Tara Oceans Project (GSC8 Meeting)  

SciTech Connect

The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Jeroen Raes of the University of Brussels discusses the Tara-Oceans expedition at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

Raes, Jeroen [University of Brussels

2009-09-09

39

The Orbital Phases and Secondary Transits of Kepler-10b. A Physical Interpretation Based on the Lava-ocean Planet Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler mission has made an important observation: the first detection of photons from a terrestrial planet by observing its phase curve (Kepler-10b). This opens a new field in exoplanet science: the possibility of obtaining information about the atmosphere and surface of rocky planets, objects of prime interest. In this Letter, we apply the Lava-ocean model to interpret the observed phase curve. The model, a planet without atmosphere and a surface partially made of molten rocks, has been proposed for planets of the class of CoRoT-7b, i.e., rocky planets very close to their star (at a few stellar radii). Kepler-10b is a typical member of this family. It predicts that the light from the planet has an important emission component in addition to the reflected one, even in the Kepler spectral band. Assuming an isotropical reflection of light by the planetary surface (Lambertian-like approximation), we find that a Bond albedo of ~50% can account for the observed amplitude of the phase curve, as opposed to a first attempt where an unusually high value was found. We propose a physical process to explain this still large value of the albedo. The overall interpretation can be tested in the future with instruments such as the James Webb Space Telescope or the Exoplanet Characterization Observatory. Our model predicts a spectral dependence that is clearly distinguishable from that of purely reflected light and from that of a planet at a uniform temperature.

Rouan, D.; Deeg, H. J.; Demangeon, O.; Samuel, B.; Cavarroc, C.; Fegley, B.; Léger, A.

2011-11-01

40

Oceans Alive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

Rosentrater, Lynn

41

Serpentinization-driven Hydrothermal Systems on Ocean Planets and Icy Moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ferromagnesian silicate minerals olivine and clinopyroxene are dominant in planetary mantles, and similar assemblages likely also typify the subsurface lithologies of icy moons endowed with rocky interiors, such as Jupiter's Europa. Water is also common in the Solar System. Liquid water may persist to the present day on Mars, Europa, Callisto, Enceladus and Titan. Within the P-T window applicable to ocean/seafloor interaction (10-200 MPa, 273-700 K), the presence of water causes olivine and clinopyroxene to be unstable with respect to the serpentine minerals (antigorite, lizardite and chrysotile). The ensuing hydration reaction, termed 'serpentinization', essentially acts to re-equilibrate the nascent water-deficient high-temperature state that attended planetary formation to the water-saturated low- temperature state that characterizes the planetary seafloor environment. Importantly, thermodynamic considerations require that this process is accompanied by the release of both (i) heat energy resulting from the exothermic nature of the reaction; and (ii) H2 gas resulting from unlike FeMg-1 partitioning in the reactants and products of the reaction. Because of their potential to provide heat energy, nutrients and electron- donors for extraterrestrial metabolism in the absense of sunlight, and act as crucibles for Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT-) synthesis of hydrocarbons, serpentinization-driven hydrothermal systems are of considerable interest to astrobiology. By assuming a bulk peridotitic composition and applying new insights on cracking depth, we constrain the potential heat- and H2 flux of extraterrestrial serpentinization over time. We further examine how different kinetic considerations affect the longevity of such systems. In the absence of crustal rejuvenation and under our assumed ideal conditions, serpentinization through progressive cracking persists on planetary timescales and generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day terrestrial radiogenic heating, whilst producing hydrogen at rates of 109-1010 molecules cm-2s-1. These values lie at the limiting extreme capable of sustaining life on Earth. We argue that the absence of macronutrient delivery, specifically phosphorus and electron acceptors (CO2, NO3-, etc.), may further be inhibitive of biology under these conditions. Serpentinization accompanying the initial onset of ocean/seafloor interaction, on the other hand, enjoys much shorter lifetimes on the order of 106 - 108 years, depending mostly on temperature and fluid accessibility. Although concomitant heat and hydrogen production is on the order of that encountered in hydrothermal systems on Earth today, such systems may be prohibitively short-lived to evolve and sustain biology.

Harnmeijer, J.; Vance, S.

2007-05-01

42

Ocean Planet or Thick Atmosphere: On the Mass-Radius Relationship for Solid Exoplanets with Massive Atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk composition of an exoplanet is commonly inferred from its average density. For small planets, however, the average density is not unique within the range of compositions. Variations of a number of important planetary parameters-which are difficult or impossible to constrain from measurements alone-produce planets with the same average densities but widely varying bulk compositions. We find that adding

E. R. Adams; S. Seager; L. Elkins-Tanton

2008-01-01

43

Popular Topics  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Popular Topics. This section provides links to information on popular topics like fruit juice, raw milk, seafood, trans fat, and energy drinks. ... Trans Fat. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/populartopics

44

Solubility, Partitioning, and Speciation of Carbon in Shallow Magma Oceans of Terrestrial Planets Constrained by High P-T Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep planetary volatile cycles have a critical influence on planetary geodynamics, atmospheres, climate, and habitability. However, the initial conditions that prevailed in the early, largely molten Earth and other terrestrial planets, in terms of distribution of volatiles between various reservoirs - metals, silicates, and atmosphere - remains poorly constrained. Here we investigate the solubility, partitioning, and speciation of carbon-rich volatile species in a shallow magma ocean environment, i.e., in equilibrium with metallic and silicate melts. A series of high pressure-temperature experiments using a piston cylinder apparatus were performed at 1-3 GPa, 1500-1800 °C on synthetic basaltic mixtures + Fe-Ni metal powders contained in graphite capsules. All the experiments produced glassy silicate melt pool in equilibrium with quenched metal melt composed of dendrites of cohenite and kamacite. Major element compositions of the resulting phases and the carbon content of metallic melts were analyzed by EPMA at NASA-JSC. Carbon and hydrogen concentrations of basaltic glasses were determined using Cameca IMS 1280 SIMS at WHOI and speciation of dissolved volatiles was constrained using FTIR and Raman spectroscopy at Rice University. Based on the equilibria - FeO (silicate melt) = Fe (metal alloy melt) + 1/2O2, we estimate the oxygen fugacity of our experiments in the range of ?IW of -1 to -2. FTIR analysis on doubly polished basaltic glass chips suggests that the concentrations of dissolved CO32- or molecular CO2 are negligible in graphite and metal saturated reduced conditions, whereas the presence of dissolved OH- is evident from the asymmetric peak at 3500 cm-1. Collected Raman spectra of basaltic glasses in the frequency range of 200-4200 cm-1 suggest that hydrogen is present both as dissolved OH- species (band at 3600 cm-1) and as molecular H2 (band near 4150 cm-1) for all of our experiments. Faint peaks near 2915 cm-1 and consistent peaks near 740 cm-1 suggest that possible carbon species in our reduced glasses are likely minor CH4 and Si-C, respectively and are consistent with the recent solubility studies at reduced conditions [1,2]. Carbon solubility (calibrated using 12C/30Si) at graphite saturation in our reduced basaltic glasses is only in the range 20-100 ppm C, with H2O contents in the range of 0.2-0.7 wt.%. In contrast to the low dissolved carbon concentration in the basaltic silicate melts, carbon solubility in quenched metallic melts vary in the range of 5-7 wt.%. Our preliminary work indicates that the solubility of carbon in reduced basaltic melts relevant for early magma conditions may be several orders of magnitude lower compared to the solubility of carbon in modern terrestrial basalts. This coupled with significant solubility of carbon in Fe-Ni metallic melt suggests that most of magma ocean carbon was likely partitioned into deep metallic melts. Further metal-silicate experiments with more depolymerized basaltic melts of variable compositions are underway and will be presented. [1] Kadik et al. JPetrol 45, 1297-1310, 2004; [2] Kadik et al. Geochem Int 44, 33-47, 2006.

Chi, H.; Dasgupta, R.; Shimizu, N.

2011-12-01

45

Popular Groups, Popular Culture, and Popular Religion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Much of the concern,about,changes,in the character,and status of popular religious groups,in Latin America stems from their potential role in creating a popular subject: a set of confident, articulate and capable men and women from hitherto silent, unorganized, and dispirited populations. In practice, not all groups fit this model. Instead, they range in emphasis from highly pietistic and devotional to

Daniel H. Levine

1990-01-01

46

The orbital phases and secondary transit of Kepler-10b - A physical interpretation based on the Lava-ocean planet model -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we apply the Lava-ocean model that has been proposed for planets of the class of CoRoT-7b, i.e. rocky planets at a few stellar radii from their star, since Kepler-10b is a typical member of this family. The model predicts that the light from the planet has an important emission component in addition to the reflected one, even in the Kepler spectral band. Assuming an isotropical reflection of light by the planetary surface (Lambertian-like approximation), we find that a plausible Bond albedo of ˜ 50% can account for the observed phase amplitude, as opposed to a first attempt where an unusually high value was found. We propose a test of this interpretation: future observations of the planetary phases, in the near-IR, with instruments as JWST or Echo. The predicted spectral dependence of the secondary transit is clearly distinguishable from that of purely reflected light. The measurements would permit the determination of the temperature distribution at the planetary surface, which could be compared to the predictions of the Lavaocean model, with significant details.

Leger, A.; Deeg, H. J.; Demangeon, O.; Samuel, B.; Cavaroc, C.; Fegley, B.; Rouan, D.

2011-10-01

47

The Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will learn about the planets and about their attributes. What do they need to support human life? What are the names of the planets in the solar system? The Nine Planets What are the physical properties of each planet? The Solar System - Pictures of the planets Now you can make your own planet! Make Your Own Planet ...

Rindlisbacher, Ms.

2006-10-04

48

Popular Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popular culture studies have until recently been treated as more or less un- worthy of serious scholarly attention. But developments in anthropology, history, communication, American studies, and literary criticism have given the study of popular culture new analytic tools and legitimacy. This article reviews some of the more noteworthy contributions to this body of scholarship. Interpretive anthropology by Clifford Geertz,

Chandra Mukerji; Michael Schudson

1986-01-01

49

Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridge: Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center. Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center, is a growing collection of on-line marine education resources. It provides educators with ...

50

Popular Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. The System of the World Historically Developed: Introduction; 1. The ancient astronomy, or the apparent motions of the heavenly bodies; 2. The Copernican system, or the true motions of the heavenly bodies; 3. Universal gravitation; Part II. Practical Astronomy: Introductory remarks; 1. The telescope; 2. Application of the telescope to celestial measurements; 3. Measuring distances in the heavens; 4. The motion of light; 5. The spectroscope; Part III. The Solar System: 1. General structure of the solar system; 2. The sun; 3. The inner group of planets; 4. The outer group of planets; 5. Comets and meteors; Part IV. The Stellar Universe: 1. The stars as they are seen; 2. The structure of the universe; 3. The cosmogony; Addendum to Part III chapter 2; Appendix; Index; Addendum II, the satellites of Mars; Explanation of the star maps.

Newcomb, Simon

2011-10-01

51

Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Ocean habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can find out about Deep Ocean or Open Ocean! Ocean Life is a great website that tells about different parts of the ocean and about animals that live there. Ugie! You can start your mission to find out about Killer Whales by going to Orca or Killer Whales. Jakhia! You can start your mission to find ...

Ryan, Ms.

2013-02-12

52

Take a Planet Walk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create…

Schuster, Dwight

2008-01-01

53

Ocean's Alive!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the Museum of Science, Boston, the Ocean's Alive Web site takes a look into the fascinating world of oceans. The Water Planet link has information about the physical features of oceans, how they've been created, the water cycle, and ocean profiles. Other links explain ocean currents, winds and waves, tides, life in the sea, and scientists who study the oceans. The site contains good and easy-to-read descriptions, along with unique and interesting illustrations that make it fun to explore and a must-visit for users interested in the subject.

1998-01-01

54

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

55

Planet migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A planetary system may undergo significant radial rearrangement during the early part of its lifetime. Planet migration can come about through interaction with the surrounding planetesimal disk and the gas disk--while the latter is still present--as well as through planet-planet interactions. We review the major proposed migration mechanisms in the context of the planet formation process, in our Solar System

Edward W. Thommes; Jack J. Lissauer

2002-01-01

56

Planet Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern theories for the origin of the planets are based on observations of the solar system and star-forming regions elsewhere in the galaxy, together with the results of numerical models. Some key observations are: - The solar system contains eight large planets with roughly circular, coplanar orbits lying 0.4-30 AU from the Sun. There are few locations between the planets

J. E. Chambers

2003-01-01

57

Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

2007-12-01

58

Extrasolar planets  

PubMed Central

The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems.

Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Ida, Shigeru

2000-01-01

59

Extrasolar planets.  

PubMed

The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems. PMID:11035782

Lissauer, J J; Marcy, G W; Ida, S

2000-11-01

60

Planet X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A name given to a hypothetical tenth major planet once believed to exist in the outer solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune. The `X', which stood for `unknown', was also appropriate as the roman numeral for `ten'. The label `Planet X' was originated by Percival Lowell. From the late nineteenth century, he and others, including William H Pickering, worked out orbits for a large tenth planet wh...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

61

The Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool allows users to find when planets are visible in a given year. The years covered by this site are 1900 to 2100. The positions given are for the 1st of the month, at 9 pm, and generally hold true for the entire month. Positions are noted by which constellation the planet is located in. The planets given are Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, and Pluto. Additional comments for Venus and Mars note their location and viewing times.

62

Planet formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of planetary formation are developed using the present single example of a planetary system, supplemented by limited astrophysical observations of star-forming regions and circumstellar disks. The solar nebula theory and the planetesimal hypothesis are discussed. The latter is found to provide a viable theory of the growth of the terrestrial planets, the cores of the giant planets, and the

Jack J. Lissauer

1993-01-01

63

Planet Business  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The directory Planet Business aims to provide a "great gateway between Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania." Business metasites from around the world are listed in an A-Z index and by region, and the new Marketplace of Planet Business connects potential business partners among importers, exporters, traders, and distributors.

1996-01-01

64

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in a global view of the weather, Planet Earth is a "real-time 3-D model of the Earth with continuously updating night shadows and clouds." Cloud images are provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Planet Earth is shareware with a fee of $29.95.

65

Popular Culture and English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the origins and elements of popular culture--noting that English instruction and popular culture need not be mutually exclusive, and that selected materials from popular culture may serve goals of the English curriculum without compromising them. (NKA)|

Holbrook, Hilary Taylor

1987-01-01

66

Plate tectonics on the terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Plate tectonics is largely controlled by the buoyancy distribution in oceanic lithosphere, which correlates well with the lithospheric age. Buoyancy,also depends,on compositional,layering resulting from pressure release partial melting under mid-ocean ridges, and this process is sensitive to pressure and temperature conditions which vary strongly between the terrestrial planets and also during the secular cooling histories of the planets. In

P. Van Thienen; N. j. Vlaar; A. p. Van Den Berg

67

Planet Pals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by designer, illustrator, and educator Judith Ann Gorgone, the Planet Pals Web site provides good material for young kids related to the health of the planet. The colorful pages contain basic information about the earth, energy, recycling, water conservation, pollution, and more. The fun and interactive Meet the Planet Pals area is especially interesting, where kids can listen to animated cartoons talk about various aspects of conservation. Even though the site is geared towards young children, they may have difficulty finding the educational specific pages by themselves; so, a parent's or teacher's assistance would most likely be helpful.

Gorgone, Judith.

1991-01-01

68

Planet Slayer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Broadcasting Company offers a fun, interactive way to learn about environmentally responsible consumption. Visitors are invited to follow Greena, eco-chic Warrior Princess, as she navigates the world of green living. The Web site contains loads of engaging animated features, such as the Adventures of Greena, a cartoon in which Greena battles some environmental ill in each chapter. In the Planet Slayer Game, players choose to play earnestly as Greena and save the planet or ironically as a pink-swathed Barbie-like character to slay the planet. With the Greenhouse Calculator, users can figure out their toll on the planet in terms of carbon dioxide emissions -- a service you could find easily enough on the Web, but this one features exploding pigs. Lots of other great features are available, as is a set of well-selected links for more information on ethical investing, Kyoto Protocol, the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development, and more.

69

Planet Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivating the study of planet formation is not difficult for any curious audience. One of the fundamental human questions\\u000a is that of origins: “where did I come from?„. Breaking this down into constituents produces a series of questions. How did\\u000a the Universe begin? How did stars form? How did planets form? How did life begin? How did intelligent life develop?

Thomas Quinn

2005-01-01

70

Puzzling Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn the order of the planets, research their main characteristics, and explore the basic structure of our solar system. Students will also be able to explain why we could not live on other planets without special equipment. They will demonstrate their knowledge, using an online learning tool. This site provides an overview of the lesson, detailed procedures for the teacher, including a list of research sites, and an organizational path for the students.

71

Popular Culture and Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

72

Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Historical notes on planet formation Bodenheimer; 2. The formation and evolution of planetary systems Bouwman et al.; 3. Destruction of protoplanetary disks by photoevaporation Richling, Hollenbach and Yorke; 4. Turbulence in protoplanetary accretion disks Klahr, Rozyczka, Dziourkevitch, Wunsch and Johansen; 5. The origin of solids in the early solar system Trieloff and Palme; 6. Experiments on planetesimal formation Wurm and Blum; 7. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks Henning, Dullemond, Wolf and Dominik; 8. The accretion of giant planet cores Thommes and Duncan; 9. Planetary transits: direct vision of extrasolar planets Lecavelier des Etangs and Vidal-Madjar; 10. The core accretion - gas capture model Hubickyj; 11. Properties of exoplanets Marcy, Fischer, Butler and Vogt; 12. Giant planet formation: theories meet observations Boss; 13. From hot Jupiters to hot Neptures … and below Lovis, Mayor and Udry; 14. Disk-planet interaction and migration Masset and Kley; 15. The Brown Dwarf - planet relation Bate; 16. From astronomy to astrobiology Brandner; 17. Overview and prospective Lin.

Klahr, Hubert; Brandner, Wolfgang

2011-02-01

73

Defining popular iconic metaphor.  

PubMed

Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings. PMID:12061600

Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A

2002-04-01

74

Earthshine and Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for life on extrasolar planets requires first that we find terrestrial-mass planets around nearby stars, and second that we determine habitability and search for signs of life. The Terrestrial Planet Finder missions, a Coronagraph (TPF-C) and an Interferometer (TPF-I in the US, also Darwin in Europe) are designed to carry out these tasks. This talk will focus on how we could determine habitability and search for signs of life with these missions. In the visible and near-infrared, TPF-C could measure O2, H2O, O3, Rayleigh scattering, and the red-edge reflection of land planet leaves; on an early-Earth twin it also could measure CO2 and CH4. In the mid-infrared, TPF-I/Darwin could measure CO2, O3, H2O, and temperature. To validate some of these expectations, we observed Earthshine spectra in the visible and near-infrared, and modeled these spectra with our line-by-line radiative transfer code. We find that the major gas and reflection components are present in the data, and that a simple model of the Earth is adequate to represent the data, within the observational uncertainties. We determined that the Earth appears to be habitable, and also shows signs of life. However to validate the time variable features, including the continent-ocean differences, the presence of weather patterns, the large-scale variability of cloud types and altitude, and the rotation period of the planet, we need to obtain a continuous time-series of observations covering multiple rotations; these observations could be carried out in the coming years, using, for example, a site at the South Pole.

Traub, W. A.; Kaltenegger, L.; Turnbull, M. C.; Jucks, K. W.

2006-05-01

75

Pulse of the Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Akin to a living creature, Earths land, air, oceans, ice, and life fit together into a complex, interlocking system. Space affords a unique vantage point from which to observe the daily, seasonal, and annual changes in Earths systems. Using data from advanced satellites, NASA visualizations portray a majestic, and sometimes violent, natural world and also capture the influences humans have on the planet. Over 80 NASA-related earth science animations created over the past 8 years implementing realtime and non-realtime techniques have been used on this visual journey. Tools used included IDL, Lightwave3D, Final Cut Pro, Performer, Vis5D, and custom software.

Kekesi, Alex; Snodgrass, Stuart; Shirah, Greg; Bridgman, Tom; Thomson, Joycelyn; Perkins, Lori

2002-03-05

76

Earth: The Water Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"We all live on this water planet which we have mistakenly chosen to call Earth" (Anon.) When viewed from outer space, the dominant feature of the earth's surface is the abundance of liquid water. Liquid water has been present at and near the earth's surface for most of its history, and has made it possible for life to develop, evolve and survive on the third rock from the Sun. In recent years it has also become clear that the earth's interior represents an important storehouse for water and that water in the deep earth exerts a major influence on the geochemical and geodynamic evolution of the planet. The largest near-surface water reservoir is the oceans, containing 13,400 x 1017 kg of H2O, or about 97.3% of all water at and near the earth's surface. The major geological reservoirs for water can be divided into the oceanic and continental crust, the upper and lower mantle, the transition zone and the core. The core has been estimated to contain up to 100 times the amount of water in the earth's oceans, in the form of hydrogen in high-pressure iron alloy (Williams and Hemley, 2001, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., v. 29: 365-418). In the upper and lower mantle and the transition zone water is present mainly as trace and minor amounts (101 -" 104 ppm) in nominally anhydrous phases. Even though the concentrations are low, the absolute amount of water in these mantle reservoirs may be very large given their relative contributions to the total mass of the earth. Thus, the upper mantle is estimated to contain between 1,230 and 3,693 x 1017 kg of H2O, the transition zone between 4,481 -" 89,613 x 1017 kg of H2O, and the lower mantle between 34,200 and 68,500 x 1017 kg of H2O. Assuming even the most conservative estimates for the amount of water in these geologic reservoirs, the amount of water in the oceans and other near-surface reservoirs is dwarfed by that contained in the geologic reservoirs. The conventional hydrologic cycle describes the movement of water between the various near-surface reservoirs. Similarly, water moves between the geologic reservoirs to define a geohydrologic cycle, although the fluxes between reservoirs are poorly constrained. Perhaps the most important environment in which water moves from one geo-reservoir to another is in subduction zones, where water from the subducting oceanic slab (composed of oceanic crust and upper mantle material) is transferred to several reservoirs, including the oceans, continental crust, oceanic crust, upper and (possibly) lower mantle, and the transition zone. Approximately 1.01 x 1012 kg of H2O is subducted per year. Of this amount, 9 x 111 kg is returned to the oceans by updip flow. The remainder is transported to greater depths and incorporated into the various mantle reservoirs. The major environments in which water from geo-reservoirs is returned to near-surface reservoirs are arc volcanoes and the mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Approximately 0.35 to 1.05 x 1011 kg of H2O is transferred from the deep crust and upper mantle and returned to the atmosphere per annum from arc volcanoes, while 1.2 x 1011 kg of magmatic (mantle) H2O is returned to the oceans as a result of submarine volcanism. Fluxes between the other deep-earth reservoirs are model dependent and at present are poorly constrained.

Bodnar, R. J.; Azbej, T.; Becker, S.; Cannatelli, C.; Fall, A.; Severs, M.

2006-05-01

77

Plate tectonics on the terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plate tectonics is largely controlled by the buoyancy distribution in oceanic lithosphere, which correlates well with the lithospheric age. Buoyancy also depends on compositional layering resulting from pressure release partial melting under mid-ocean ridges, and this process is sensitive to pressure and temperature conditions which vary strongly between the terrestrial planets and also during the secular cooling histories of the

P van Thienen; N. J Vlaar; A. P van den Berg

2004-01-01

78

Mission to planet earth  

SciTech Connect

Plans for environmental monitoring using remote-sensing satellites in the era of the International Space Station are reviewed. The role of international cooperation is stressed, considering the present Landsat, SPOT, and Marine Observation Satellite programs; ERS-1 and Topex/Poseidon; and plans for the Italian Lageos-2, the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, and the Japanese Advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The NASA Mission to Planet Earth proposal calls for four polar-orbit and five GEO platforms (five NASA, two ESA, and two NASDA), to be in place by the year 2000, as well as dedicated spacecraft of the Earth System Explorer series in the 1990s. Payloads will monitor the geomagnetic field, atmospheric temperature and water vapor, O3 and aerosols, outgoing radiation, precipitation, sea-surface temperature, sea ice, ocean chlorophyll, surface winds, wave height, ocean circulation, snow cover, land use, vegetation, crops, volcanic activity, and the hydrologic cycle.

Baker, D.J.

1988-07-01

79

A Planet Detection Tutorial and Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of extra-solar planets has been a very popular topic with the general public for years. Considerable media coverage of recent detections (currently at about 50) has only heightened the interest in the topic. School children are particularly interested in learning about recent astronomical discoveries. Scientists have the knowledge and responsibility to present this information in both an understandable and interesting format. Most classrooms and homes are now connected to the internet, which can be utilized to provide more than a traditional "flat" presentation. An interactive software package on planet detection has been developed. The major topics include: "1996 - The Break Through Year In Planet Detection"; "What Determines If A Planet Is Habitable?"; "How Can We Find Other Planets (Search Methods)"; "All About the Kepler Mission: How To Find Terrestrial Planets"; and "A Planet Detection Simulator". Using the simulator, the student records simulated observations and then analyzes and interprets the data within the program. One can determine the orbit and planet size, the planet's temperature and surface gravity, and finally determine if the planet is habitable. Originally developed for the Macintosh, a web based browser version is being developed.

Koch, D.

2000-12-01

80

Planet Surfing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this astronomy activity (page 6 of the PDF), learners will compare and contrast two planets in the solar system using data obtained from the internet. They will convert distances from light years to miles and vice versa. Although this activity was created as a post visit for a workshop about astronomy, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity.

Cosi

2009-01-01

81

Lonely Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Don't worry about whether your trip will work out. Just go!" This is the travel philosophy of Lonely Planet, one of the most respected publishers of off-the-beaten-path travel guidebooks worldwide. Whether you already know where you're going, or are looking for suggestions for your next trip, Lonely Planet's site is packed with information that you can actually use to plan your trip. Search or browse the section "DestiNATIONS" to find maps, facts and figures, and information on local history, culture, and transportation for 8 world regions, over 80 countries, and 20 different cities. Much of the health information found in LP's print guides is also now available here. In addition, there are links to destination-related newsgroups, tips on travel photography, and "Postcards," a forum in which travelers share experiences and give advice.

1997-01-01

82

STEM Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

STEM Planet is a well designed website that is aimed at students of all levels and ages. The site is comprised of "employees of the National Network of Digital Schools (NNDS), a non-profit developer of the Lincoln Interactive online curriculum." These employees believe that students "succeed when their educational program offers a wide variety of learning opportunities." Visitors to the site will find that the learning opportunities consist of DIY experiments, discussion topics, polls, quizzes and activities. Some examples include making a homemade battery, origami engineering, taking a quiz on space phenomena, and exploring quantum mechanics. Visitors can join and comment on the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math "discussions" by simply registering on the site. Those only interested in reading the comments made in the forums under the discussion tab need not register. The "Experts" tab allows visitors to see all the great minds behind STEM Planet, including an extremely bright 14 year old.

2012-02-07

83

Kid's Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Web sitedesigned just for kids by Defenders of Wildlife, Kid's Planet has much to offer for teachers and students. Teacher's Table contains downloadable .pdf lesson plans and activities. Designed primarily for middle school students, these lesson plans and essay contests cover topics like wolves and sea otters. With electronic fact sheets on over 50 species, the section titled Get the Facts may prove useful. This editor particularly enjoyed weaving through the Web of Life with the garden spider.

2002-01-01

84

What makes a planet habitable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reviews factors which are important for the evolution of habitable Earth-like planets such as the effects of the host star dependent radiation and particle fluxes on the evolution of atmospheres and initial water inventories. We discuss the geodynamical and geophysical environments which are necessary for planets where plate tectonics remain active over geological time scales and for planets which evolve to one-plate planets. The discoveries of methane-ethane surface lakes on Saturn’s large moon Titan, subsurface water oceans or reservoirs inside the moons of Solar System gas giants such as Europa, Ganymede, Titan and Enceladus and more than 335 exoplanets, indicate that the classical definition of the habitable zone concept neglects more exotic habitats and may fail to be adequate for stars which are different from our Sun. A classification of four habitat types is proposed. Class I habitats represent bodies on which stellar and geophysical conditions allow Earth-analog planets to evolve so that complex multi-cellular life forms may originate. Class II habitats includes bodies on which life may evolve but due to stellar and geophysical conditions that are different from the class I habitats, the planets rather evolve toward Venus- or Mars-type worlds where complex life-forms may not develop. Class III habitats are planetary bodies where subsurface water oceans exist which interact directly with a silicate-rich core, while class IV habitats have liquid water layers between two ice layers, or liquids above ice. Furthermore, we discuss from the present viewpoint how life may have originated on early Earth, the possibilities that life may evolve on such Earth-like bodies and how future space missions may discover manifestations of extraterrestrial life.

Lammer, H.; Bredehöft, J. H.; Coustenis, A.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Kaltenegger, L.; Grasset, O.; Prieur, D.; Raulin, F.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Yamauchi, M.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Stangl, G.; Cockell, C. S.; Kulikov, Yu. N.; Grenfell, J. L.; Rauer, H.

2009-06-01

85

Groundwater Activity: How Wet Is Our Planet?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help students describe the amount and distribution of water in the Earth's oceans, rivers, lakes, groundwater, ice caps, and atmosphere. Students will recall that the Earth is also known as the water planet, as approximately 70 percent of its surface is water. They will discover that all of these forms of water are part of a dynamic and interrelated flow called the hydrologic cycle, each part of which shares a portion of the total amount of water on the planet.

86

Popular Communication After Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of popular communication is carried out in many disciplines and many sites. It is often haunted by anxieties over high culture versus low culture and authenticity versus commercialization. Rejecting those binaries in favor of the domi- nance of the latter term in each, this article initially defines popular communica- tion as objects widely circulated by mass media, texts

Joshua Gunn; Barry Brummett

2004-01-01

87

Popularity Contagion among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to support the theory of popularity contagion, which posits that popularity spreads among friends spontaneously and regardless of behavioral changes. Peer nominations of status and behavior were collected annually between 6th and 12th grades from a total of 1062 adolescents. Longitudinal hypotheses were mostly supported using path…

Marks, Peter E. L.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Crick, Nicki R.

2012-01-01

88

Extrasolar Carbon Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest that some extrasolar planets <~ 60 Earth masses will form substantially from silicon carbide and other carbon compounds. Pulsar planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local

Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

2005-01-01

89

Make a Planet!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Make your own planet on this website! You can change the color of your planet and add land, water, trees, and weather. You can then name your planet and write a short story about it. For even more fun, compare the planets in our solar system with your planet!

2010-01-01

90

Extreme Planet Makeover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A multimedia, web-based interactive game from NASA and CalTech scientists lets you create your own planet by varying parameters such as star type, distance from star, planet size, and planet age. You get a descripion of how each parameter might affect habitability on your planet, you can then download the planet you create.

Technology, California I.

91

Changing Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NBC Learn, in partnership with the National Science Foundation, explores the impact of climate change on Earth. Each video uses interviews, maps, simulations and real-world film footage to illustrate how climate change influences the environments around us from lakes, oceans, glaciers to permafrost, ice and crops. Each video has a free, related lesson plan from the National Earth Science Teachers Association.

2011-03-29

92

The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A full list of currently known Extrasolar Planets with frequently updated information on detection methods, current searches, and the Extrasolar Planets themselves. The site also includes information on reports and meetings concerning Extrasolar Planets.

Schneider, Jean

2005-06-07

93

Exploring the Living Planet with David Attenborough.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this interview David Attenborough, the celebrated natural history film maker and writer, talks about his highly successful television series, "The Living Planet." Devoted to the exposition of the world's ecosystems, the film represents a significant example of popular geographic education. (RM)|

Burgess, Jacquelin; Unwin, David

1984-01-01

94

Light Scattering from Exoplanet Oceans and Atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude = 180deg, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30deg. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet

Michael Zugger; J. F. Kasting; D. M. Williams; T. J. Kane; C. R. Philbrick

2011-01-01

95

Disposable Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BBC Online presents this six-part special on sustainable development. Created in anticipation of the now concluded Johannesburg Summit, this Web site provides a valuable resource for viewers wishing to learn more about sustainable development and related issues. The Web site consists of an overview and six sections: Population, Food, Cities, Waste, Tourism, and Energy. The sections offer an in-depth look at each topic and include audio clips of related interviews and news stories. The discussion forums are now closed, but visitors may read the occasionally insightful and often times heated comments that have already been posted. View the slide show to get a quick, visceral sense of human impact on the planet -- past, present, and future. Visitors may also take a quiz to calculate their ecological footprint, or how much of the earth's resources they individually consume each year.

2002-01-01

96

PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS  

SciTech Connect

We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

Raymond, Sean N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Armitage, Philip J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)], E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu

2009-07-10

97

Dance of the Planets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As students continue their monthly plotting of the planets along the ecliptic they should start to notice differences between inner and outer planet orbital motions, and their relative position or separation from the Sun. Both inner and outer planets have direct eastward motion, as well as retrograde motion. Inner planets Mercury and Venus,…

Riddle, Bob

2005-01-01

98

The Nine Planets: Mercury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Nine Planets highlights details about the planet Mercury. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, and the results of exploration spacecraft. The site provides links to images, movies, and more Mercury facts. Unanswered questions about the planet are also discussed.

Arnett, Bill

99

Planet Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity explores the potential impact of climate variability and change on one of Earth's increasingly vulnerable resources, forests. Although this activity is designed to tap specific skills and knowledge through scientific inquiry, its broader intent is to stimulate thought about the long-term impacts of a warmer planet. The activity focuses on a specific aspect of the climate variability and change issue - the impact of climate variability and change on New England forests. Its scenario invites students to examine higher level issues of climate variability and change by creating a practical, scientifically sound model to address specific points of a localized socioeconomic situation. Students will explore contemporary thought about the issue of climate variability and change, examine the issues as they relate to a specific, socially relevant situation, investigate claims supporting opposing viewpoints, determine whether the issues constitute a realistic problem, analyze scientific evidence about the situation, and present and defend their recommendations for action. This module is one of twelve of an overall series entitled The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.

Hornyak, John

100

The Nine Planets: Jupiter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Nine Planets contains details about the gas giant planet Jupiter. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, results from exploration spacecraft, and temperature on the planet. Jupiters' moons are also covered in detail, including Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, and others. The site provides links to more images and facts, and discusses unanswered questions about Jupiter and its moons.

Arnett, Bill

101

Television: Polysemy and popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues that the television audience is composed of a wide variety of groups or subcultures, and that in order to be popular a television program must be polysemic so that different subcultures can find in it different meanings that correspond to their differing social relations. The dominant ideology is structured into the text as into the social system,

John Fiske

1986-01-01

102

Television: Polysemy and Popularity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that television programs must be polysemic to achieve popularity because of the wide variety of subcultures represented in the television audience. Analyzes two scenes from "Hart to Hart" to demonstrate the textual devices that bear the dominant ideology and those that resist it. (JD)|

Fiske, John

1986-01-01

103

Popular Science: Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Popular Science website, posts a range of articles on Science, Technology, History, Philosophy, Arts, and News & Ideas. Links to related books available through Amazon.com are provided at the end of each of the (fairly short) articles. The website also includes information on the Nobel Prize, including a list of all the Nobel Prize winners through 2001.

104

Random popular matchings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider matching markets where a centralized authority must find a matching between the agents on one side of the market, and the items on the other side. Such settings occur, for example, in mail-based DVD rental services such as NetFlix or in some job markets. The objective is to find a popular matching, or a matching that is preferred

Mohammad Mahdian

2006-01-01

105

The Steppenwolf: A proposal for a habitable planet in interstellar space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rogue planets have been ejected from their planetary system. We investigate\\u000athe possibility that a rogue planet could maintain a liquid ocean under layers\\u000aof thermally-insulating water ice and frozen atmosphere as a result of\\u000ageothermal heat flux. We find that a rogue planet of Earth-like composition and\\u000aage could maintain a subglacial liquid ocean if it were ~3.5 times

Dorian S. Abbot; Eric R. Switzer

2011-01-01

106

Exploring the Planets: Comparing the Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comparative planetology is a scientific discipline in which researchers seek to understand the planets by comparing their similarities and examining their differences. Some planets have similarities because the materials of which they are made and the processes that have shaped them are similar. However, each planet has a unique character, due to the intensity and length of time the processes have operated. At this site, selected planets are compared on the basis of their atmospheres, volcanoes, impact craters, wind, water and ice. In each instance, photographs are displayed side by side for direct comparison.

107

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

2012-05-03

108

Geochemistry of oceanic anoxic events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) record profound changes in the climatic and paleoceanographic state of the planet and represent major disturbances in the global carbon cycle. OAEs that manifestly caused major chemical change in the Mesozoic Ocean include those of the early Toarcian (Posidonienschiefer event, T-OAE, ?183 Ma), early Aptian (Selli event, OAE 1a, ?120 Ma), early Albian (Paquier event, OAE

Hugh C. Jenkyns

2010-01-01

109

Geochemistry of oceanic anoxic events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) record profound changes in the climatic and paleoceanographic state of the planet and represent major disturbances in the global carbon cycle. OAEs that manifestly caused major chemical change in the Mesozoic Ocean include those of the early Toarcian (Posidonienschiefer event, T-OAE, ˜183 Ma), early Aptian (Selli event, OAE 1a, ˜120 Ma), early Albian (Paquier event, OAE

Hugh C. Jenkyns

2010-01-01

110

Ocean Health and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceans cover 70% of the Earth's surface, and they profoundly influence many biological and physical processes of the planet. Moreover, 60% of the human population lives on or near the coast. Thus, it almost goes without saying that ocean health and human health are inextricably linked. Recently, however, these linkages have become more conspicuous to scientists (e.g., Knap et al.

Nancy Knowlton

2004-01-01

111

The Oceans and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

For millennia, the oceans have been perceived by mankind as a pro- ducer of essential protein, a vital transportation artery, a source of great danger (from storms, hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis, and ven- omous and predatory animals) and the greatest mystery on the planet, inspiring untold realms of poetry and prose. The oceans are the world's most important sources of biological

Paul A. Sandifer; A. Frederick Holland; Teri K. Rowles; Geoffrey I. Scott

2004-01-01

112

Elites and popular nationalism.  

PubMed

Much current theory concerning nationalism holds that elites commonly create or cause popular nationalism. In part, that thesis may be due to an overwhelming emphasis in research on nationalism on positive cases: cases where nationalism has appeared, ignoring cases where it has not. In this article, I challenge the thesis by showing numerous historical cases in which elites have promoted nationalisms that ordinary people have not adopted, or in which ordinary people have adopted a nationalism before it was taken up by elites. Even if elites do not create popular nationalism, however, they can and do shape its expression in a variety of ways, such as organizing it, providing relevant information, or providing opportunity or incentive for it. I show this through historical examples. PMID:12227838

Whitmeyer, Joseph M

2002-09-01

113

Mining API Popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When designing a piece of software, one frequently must choose between multiple external libraries that provide similar services.\\u000a Which library is the best one to use? We mined hundreds of open source projects and their external dependencies in order to\\u000a observe the popularity of their APIs and to give recommendations of the kind: “Projects are moving away from this API

Yana Momchilova Mileva; Valentin Dallmeier; Andreas Zeller

2010-01-01

114

Magma Oceans in the Inner Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory and observations point to the occurrence of magma ponds or oceans in the early evolution of terrestrial planets and in many early-accreting planetesimals. The apparent ubiquity of melting during giant accretionary impacts suggests that silicate and metallic material may be processed through multiple magma oceans before reaching solidity in a planet. The processes of magma ocean formation and solidification, therefore, strongly influence the earliest compositional differentiation and volatile content of the terrestrial planets, and they form the starting point for cooling to clement, habitable conditions and for the onset of thermally driven mantle convection and plate tectonics. This review focuses on evidence for magma oceans on planetesimals and planets and on research concerning the processes of compositional differentiation in the silicate magma ocean, distribution and degassing of volatiles, and cooling.

Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

2012-05-01

115

EDITORIAL: Ocean Optics VI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the world's oceans, seas and freshwater lakes play a dominant role in the planet's ecosystem, they are possibly the least understood of our natural habitats. The challenges facing scientists and engineers in the study of this environment are immense and unique. Not only is there a need for the creation of new techniques and for advances in classical techniques,

John Watson

2002-01-01

116

Habitable Planets for Man.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Habitable Planets for Man examines and estimates the probabilities of finding planets habitable to human beings, where they might be found, and the number there may be in our own galaxy. The author presents in detail the characteristics of a planet that c...

S. H. Dole

2007-01-01

117

Peeking at the Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides information about each of the planets in our solar system. Focuses on information related to the space missions that have visited or flown near each planet, and includes a summary of what is known about some of the features of each planet. (DDR)|

Riddle, Bob

2002-01-01

118

Evaporation of extrasolar planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review on the observations and theoretical modeling of the evaporation of extrasolar planets. The observations and the resulting constraints on the upper atmosphere (thermosphere and exosphere) of the ``hot-Jupiters'' are described. The early observations of the first discovered transiting extrasolar planet, HD209458b, allowed the discovery that this planet has an extended atmosphere of escaping hydrogen. Subsequent

A. Lecavelier Des Etangs

2010-01-01

119

Map-a-Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore global imagery of the planets and satellites from a variety of missions in an easy to use web interface. Customize and download your own image maps of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and other planets and moons. The user can select a planet or a moon and then examine different data sets of that object.

2008-12-15

120

All Planet Sizes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image, from the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, illustrates the approximate relative sizes of the Sun and planets and their relative locations. Although distance is not to scale, viewers can see that the small rocky planets are located close to the Sun and large gaseous planets are further away.

121

Snowball Planets: A Possible Type of Water-Rich Terrestrial Planet in Extrasolar Planetary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existence of liquid water on the planetary surface is essential for life. However, terrestrial planets with abundant water have multiple climate modes, including an ice-free, a partially ice-covered, and a globally ice- covered state, even when the incident flux from the central star and the abundance of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere are the same. This multiplicity of climate mode is derived from large difference in the albedo of ice and water. Recent geological studies have revealed that the Earth experienced global glaciations ("snowball Earth" events) in its history. In the snowball glaciations, liquid water is thought to have existed under the ice shell because of geothermal heat flow from the Earth"fs interior. By analogy with the snowball glaciations, I discuss the conditions for an extrasolar terrestrial planet which is covered with ice but has an internal ocean for the timescale of planetary evolution owing to geothermal heat flow from the planetary interior. I show that liquid water can exist if the planetary mass and the water abundance are comparable to the Earth, although a planet with a mass of <0.4 Me (Me is the Earth's mass) would not be able to maintain the internal ocean. Liquid water would be absolutely stable for a planet with a mass of >4 Me (i.e., super- Earth), irrespective of planetary orbit and luminosity of the central star. It is therefore implied that super-Earth inevitably have liquid water either on its surface (for the ice-freee or partially ice-covered modes) or beneath the ice (for the globally ice-covered mode). Searches for terrestrial planets in extrasolar planetary systems should consider such a "snowball planet", which is a possible type of water-rich terrestrial planet other than an Earth-like "ocean planet". Because a snowball planet is much brighter than (more than twice) an ocean planet with the same size, it would be a good target for the astronomical observation in the future.

Tajika, E.

2008-12-01

122

DETECTING VOLCANISM ON EXTRASOLAR PLANETS  

SciTech Connect

The search for extrasolar rocky planets has already found the first transiting rocky super-Earth, Corot 7b, with a surface temperature that allows for magma oceans. Here, we investigate whether we could distinguish rocky planets with recent major volcanism by remote observation. We develop a model for volcanic eruptions on an Earth-like exoplanet based on the present-day Earth and derive the observable features in emergent and transmission spectra for multiple scenarios of gas distribution and cloud cover. We calculate the observation time needed to detect explosive volcanism on exoplanets in primary as well as secondary eclipse and discuss the likelihood of observing volcanism on transiting Earth-sized to super-Earth-sized exoplanets. We find that sulfur dioxide from large explosive eruptions does present a spectral signal that is remotely detectable especially for secondary eclipse measurements around the closest stars and ground-based telescopes, and report the frequency and magnitude of the expected signatures. The transit probability of a planet in the habitable zone decreases with distance from the host star, making small, nearby host stars the best targets.

Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D. D. [Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Henning, W. G., E-mail: lkaltene@cfa.harvard.ed [Harvard University, EPS, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2010-11-15

123

Popular perceptions of Galileo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the most persistent popular misperceptions of Galileo is the image of an irreligious scientist who opposed the Catholic Church and was therefore convicted of heresy-was even excommunicated, according to some accounts, and denied Christian burial. In fact, Galileo considered himself a good Catholic. He accepted the Bible as the true word of God on matters pertaining to salvation, but insisted Scripture did not teach astronomy. Emboldened by his discovery of the Medicean Moons, he took a stand on Biblical exegesis that has since become the official Church position.

Sobel, Dava

2010-01-01

124

One World Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about ocean currents and the difference between salt and fresh water. They use colored ice cubes to see how cold and warm water mix and how this mixing causes currents. Also, students learn how surface currents occur due to wind streams. Lastly, they learn how fresh water floats on top of salt water, the difference between water in the ocean and fresh water throughout the planet, and how engineers are involved in the design of ocean water systems for human use.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

125

A Strange New Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists have been looking for extra-solar planets for decades, but only recently, with better equipment and improved techniques, have they finally unveiled new and unusual planets. Since 1995, over 155 planets have been discovered orbiting stars other than our Sun. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, gives an account of the discovery of the first confirmed extra-solar planet, a Jupiter-sized giant orbiting the star 51 Pegasi, and discusses the search for other extra-solar planets. The segment is three minutes nine seconds in length.

2011-05-05

126

The Trojan minor planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are (March, 1988) 3774 minor planets which have received a permanent number. Of these, there are some whose mean distance to the sun is very nearly equal to that of Jupiter, and whose heliocentric longitudes from that planet are about 60°, so that the three bodies concerned (sun, Jupiter, minor planet) make an approximate equilateral triangle. These minor planets, which occur in two distinct groups, one preceding Jupiter and one following, have received the names of the heroes of the Trojan war. This paper concerns the 49 numbered minor planets of this group.

Spratt, Christopher E.

1988-08-01

127

A Strange New Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists have been looking for extra-solar planets for decades, but only recently, with better equipment and improved techniques, have they finally unveiled new and unusual planets. Since 1995, over 155 planets have been discovered orbiting stars other than our Sun. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, gives an account of the discovery of the first confirmed extra-solar planet, a Jupiter-sized giant orbiting the star 51 Pegasi, and discusses the search for other extra-solar planets. The segment is three minutes nine seconds in length.

128

Popular Education: Building from Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two popular education projects--El Refugio de Los Angeles for Latino immigrants and native popular education in Buenos Aires--demonstrate how, while developing literacy skills, participants engaged in political and social analysis of their living conditions. (SK)

Torres, Carlos Alberto; Fischman, Gustavo

1994-01-01

129

Nebulous networks: Virginia Woolf and popular astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates Virginia Woolf's fascination with advances in astronomy and telescopic technologies of the 1920s and 30s. Grounded in the cultural studies of science, and the work of theorists such as Donna Haraway and Bruno Latour, the dissertation reconstructs the complex interconnections between Woolf's fiction and prose writing and an explosive popular interest in astronomy and cosmology. Woolf's aesthetic and political practices were shaped by emerging visualization technologies ranging from astronomical telescopes to the hand-held camera. While her writing provides a focus for this investigation, the dissertation offers close readings of fiction and essays by multiple British authors and science writers in the context of these converging phenomena. As a result of glimpsing tiny worlds through her own telescope, Virginia Woolf formulated a global aesthetic and a global politics. Gazing at the moon and stars reminded her that earth is a planet in space, and that earth's inhabitants must rely on this small, fragile globe for their future survival. The opening chapter establishes the cultural context for the study. In 1923, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble determined that the Andromeda galaxy was located far beyond the limits of the Milky Way, then believed to comprise the entire universe. Hubble's radical reconfiguration of the universe contributed to a pervasive sense, in the modern period, of a decentering and re-scaling of humans in the universe. In the chapters that follow, the dissertation offers readings of Woolf's novels and short fiction in relation to her fascination with astronomy and explores how the wildly popular British cosmologist and science writer, Sir James jeans, had a shaping effect on popular culture and on Woolf's narrative practices and pacifist politics. Despite his oblique connections to what became Bloomsbury, jeans and his popular science texts were to play a considerable role in Woolf's formulation of a global aesthetic.

Henry, Holly Grace

130

ConcepTest: Relative Planet Ages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How old are other planets in the Universe in comparison to the planets in our Solar System? a. Other planets are older than the planets in our Solar System. b. Other planets are younger than the planets in our ...

131

Formation of Giant Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution, and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our solar system contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium; these gases could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. The transiting extrasolar planet HD149026b, which is slightly more massive than Saturn, appears to have comparable amounts of light gases and heavy elements. The other observed transiting exoplanets are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our solar system, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of these planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the giant planet cores grow massive enough to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary question regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions can planets develop cores sufficiently massive to accrete gas envelopes within the lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary disks.

Lissauer, J. J.; Stevenson, D. J.

132

The Amazing Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the planet Mars. This lesson will begin by discussing the location and size of Mars relative to Earth, as well as introduce many interesting facts about this red planet. Next, the history of Martian exploration is reviewed and students discover why scientists are so interested in studying this mysterious planet. The lesson concludes with students learning about future plans to visit Mars.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

133

Planet Exploration Mission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners design a scientific exploration mission to a planet or moon of their choice. Learners must consider questions such as which planet or moon to explore, distance of mission space travel, manned or unmanned mission, atmosphere and possible lifeforms on the destination moon or planet, and technology needed to explore the destination planet. This activity can be coordinated with the Habitable Worlds and Extreme Lifestyles activities found in the same astrobiology guide. This activity can be found on pages 52-53 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

134

Terrestrial planet formation  

PubMed Central

Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (?106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

Righter, K.; O'Brien, D. P.

2011-01-01

135

solar system/planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In approximately 21 days, 4 hours, 38 minuets and 6 seconds, you will take off on an exploration into space to the planet of your choice. Be ready to explore, raid and escape the space creatures on your planet. The Task: Students are to research a planet of their choice using the resources provided below. Once they feel they have decided on a plant of their choice, they will construct a power point on what they would encounter and see on their visit to this planet. They will also ...

Williams, Mr.

2010-11-18

136

Searching for extra-terrestrial intelligence and the discovering of extrasolar planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the significance, instrumentality, and the status in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence, and, in addition, the SETI program and its development, are introduced. Especial emphasis is on the discovery of extrasolar planets, its purpose, ways and means, achievement, and future.Finding extrasolar planets is one of the most popular issues at present. It will be one of the

Guang-Jie Wu; Dao-Han Chen

2002-01-01

137

Possibilities for the Detection of Microbial Life on Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider possibilities for the remote detection of microbial life on extrasolar planets. The Darwin/Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) telescope concepts for observations of terrestrial planets focus on indirect searches for life through the detection of atmospheric gases related to life processes. Direct detection of extraterrestrial life may also be possible through well-designed searches for microbial life forms. Satellites in Earth orbit routinely monitor colonies of terrestrial algae in oceans and lakes by analysis of reflected ocean light in the visible region of the spectrum. These remote sensing techniques suggest strategies for extrasolar searches for signatures of chlorophylls and related photosynthetic compounds associated with life. However, identification of such life-related compounds on extrasolar planets would require observations through strong, interfering absorptions and scattering radiances from the remote atmospheres and landmasses. Techniques for removal of interfering radiances have been extensively developed for remote sensing from Earth orbit. Comparable techniques would have to be developed for extrasolar planet observations also, but doing so would be challenging for a remote planet. Darwin/TPF coronagraph concepts operating in the visible seem to be best suited for searches for extrasolar microbial life forms with instruments that can be projected for the 2010-2020 decades, although resolution and signal-to-noise ratio constraints severely limit detection possibilities on terrestrial-type planets. The generation of telescopes with large apertures and extremely high spatial resolutions that will follow Darwin/TPF could offer striking possibilities for the direct detection of extrasolar microbial life.

Knacke, Roger F.

2003-11-01

138

The Oceans  

SciTech Connect

Table of Contents: The Physical Ocean. The Chemical Ocean. The Biological Ocean. The Geoglogical Ocean. The Metorological Ocean. The Engineer's Ocean. The Global Ocean - Past, Present, and Future. Table 1: Distances, Areas, Volumes, and Weights. Table 2: Some Facts About the Earth and the Ocean. Table 3: Some Properties of Ocean Water. Table 4: Elements Present in Solution in Oceanic Seawater. Table 5: Animal Forms in the Ocean. Glossary. Bibliography. Index.

Groves

1989-01-01

139

Juggling Popularity and Quality: Literary Excellence vs. Popular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three librarians--Barbara A. Genco from Brooklyn, New York; Eleanor K. MacDonald from Beverly Hills, California; and Betsy Hearne from Chicago, Illinois--share their perspectives on where popular literature should fit into library material selection and children's reading diets. Popular literature is defined as primarily that which has first…

Genco, Barbara A.; And Others

1991-01-01

140

March of the Planets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The motion of the planets in their orbits can be demonstrated to students by using planetarium software programs. These allow time to be sped up so that the relative motions are readily observed. However, it is also valuable to have the students understand the real speed of the planets in their orbits. This paper describes an exercise that gives…

Thompson, Bruce

2007-01-01

141

Kepler Circumbinary Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past 16 months Kepler has detected six transiting circumbinary planets, and several more candidate systems are under investigation. I will present a summary of these discoveries and the latest results on the search for more systems, including non-transiting planets.

Welsh, William F.; Kepler Team

2013-01-01

142

PLANet: An Active Internetwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present PLANet: an active network architecture and im- plementation. In addition to a standard suite of Internet-like services, PLANet has two key programmability features: 1. all packets contain programs 2. router functionality may be extended dynamically Packet programs are written in our special purpose programming language PLAN, the Packet Language for Active Networks, while dynamic router extensions are written

Michael W. Hicks; Jonathan T. Moore; D. Scott Alexander; Carl A. Gunter; Scott M. Nettles

1999-01-01

143

What is a Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using 3D animation, this video was created to better illustrate the history behind the discussion defining "What is a Planet?" and to outline some of the traits that may be associated with the definition of a planet. (Length: 7:54 minutes)

Nasa

2010-01-01

144

More About “Planet Earth”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven programs, each 1 hour in length, form the centerpiece of Planet Earth: The Living Machine, The Blue Planet, The Climate Puzzle, Tales from Other Worlds, Gifts from the Earth, The Solar Sea, Fate of the EarthMost public television stations will broadcast the series on Wednesday evenings; check local listings for the correct time and station.

145

Characterizing extrasolar planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transiting extrasolar planets provide the best current opportunities for characterizing the physical properties of extrasolar planets. In this review, I first describe the geometry of planetary transits, and methods for detecting and refining the observations of such transits. I derive the methods by which transit light curves and radial velocity data can be analyzed to yield estimates of the planetary

Timothy M. Brown

2008-01-01

146

Name That Planet!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity in which students in groups explore one planet in the solar system and present their findings to the whole class. Focuses on the planet's location in the solar system, geological features, rate of revolutions, and calendar year. (YDS)|

Beck, Judy; Rust, Cindy

2002-01-01

147

Planets in Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|All the planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun in the same direction, clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole. This is referred to as direct motion. From the perspective on the Earth's surface, the planets travel east across the sky in relation to the background of stars. The Sun also moves eastward daily, but this is an…

Riddle, Bob

2005-01-01

148

Outer Planet Flagship Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on

James Cutts; C. Niebur; L. Dudzinski; M. Coradini; J. Lebreton

2008-01-01

149

Outer Planet Flagship Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEM and LaPlace, which focused on

C. Niebur; L. Dudzinski; M. Coradini; J. Lebreton; J. A. Cutts

2008-01-01

150

Outer planet satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon.

Paul M. Schenk

1991-01-01

151

Are Exoplanets Really Planets?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newsbrief, from Science magazine's electronic news source, Science now, airs the skepticism of three astronomers, who state that most of the 50 recently discovered "planets" orbiting stars other than our sun may not really be planets, but rather brown dwarfs. So, what are they? Read up, and form your own opinion.

2000-01-01

152

Pluto: Planet or  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 2006 during the XXVI General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), taken place in Prague, Czech Republic, new parameters to define a planet were established. According to this new definition Pluto will be no more the ninth planet of the Solar System but it will be changed to be a \\

M. R. Voelzke; M. S. T. de Araújo

2010-01-01

153

Extreme Planet Makeover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You may have heard of elaborate makeover television shows where some individual wishes to have various body enhancements performed or a new house is built in seven days. This fascinating extreme makeover website, from NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, is much more edifying. Here, visitors will have the opportunity to make their own planet via a series of customizable bells and whistles. Visitors can use the controls on the site to adjust key planetary attributes such as distance from a star, planet size, and planet age. After making these adjustments, visitors can learn about the planet they have created, and also compare it with other existing planets and outer-space bodies.

154

Rethinking Popular Culture and Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

2011-01-01

155

Educational Values of Popular Musicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the musical demographics and educational values of popular musicians and music education majors. Participants (N=60) were musicians performing popular music (n=30) and undergraduate and graduate music education majors (n=30) at a large southeastern university. All participants responded to the same questionnaire, which included personal and musical demographics, such as age, gender, musical

Melissa Zacharias

2011-01-01

156

Rethinking Popular Culture and Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

2011-01-01

157

Deconstructing the Turkish Military's Popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is the military so popular in Turkish society? By using World Values Survey data, this study explores the impact of several political, social, and personal factors on societal confidence in the military. Empirical results indicate that there is a significant variance in confidence in the military across certain political groups. Although the military's popularity is high among nationalists, it

Zeki Sarigil

2009-01-01

158

New Dimensions in Popular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains fifteen essays which study some of the didactic, moralistic literature which was popular in nineteenth century America, and speculate about the culture from which the literature evolved. The essays include "Millions of Moral Little Books: Sunday School Books in Their Popular Context"; "Nineteenth Century Gift Books: A…

Nye, Russel B., Ed.

159

Conditions for the onset of plate tectonics on terrestrial planets and moons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plate tectonics on Earth is driven by the subduction and stirring of dense oceanic lithosphere into the underlying mantle. For such a regime to exist on any planet, stresses associated with mantle convection must exceed the strength of the lithosphere. This condition is sufficiently restrictive that plate tectonics currently operates only on Earth, and mantle convection in most terrestrial planets

C. O'Neill; A. M. Jellinek; A. Lenardic

2007-01-01

160

Magma Ocean Lifetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early evolution of a terrestrial planet may play an important role in its subsequent thermal evolution. Terrestrial super-Earths are expected to evolve similarly to terrestrial planets: quickly cooling from a magma ocean state, in which they experience high surface heat fluxes and temperatures. We study the solidification of magma oceans in terrestrial super-Earths and determine how long this phase lasts in the presence and absence of an atmosphere (grey and water-vapor). In the blackbody approximation the timescales are of order 105 years, while in a grey approximation the timescales can be extended to a few million years for an optically thick atmosphere (? =100). We find that a 10 earth-mass planet takes about twice as long to cool as a one earth-mass planet. This early epoch is the most amenable to direct observation due to the high planetary heat flux; depending on how long it lasts it might be possible to directly detect super-Earths in this hot state. Development of more sophisticated atmospheric models may allow the inference of outgassing products from spectral signatures.

Valencia, D.; O'Connell, R. J.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.

2008-12-01

161

From meteorites to evolution and habitability of planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of planets is driven by the composition, structure, and thermal state of their internal core, mantle, lithosphere, and crust, and by interactions with a possible ocean and/or atmosphere. A planet's history is a long chronology of events with possibly a sequence of apocalyptic events in which asteroids, comets and their meteorite offspring play an important role. Large meteorite impacts on the young Earth could have contributed to the conditions for life to appear, and similarly large meteorite impacts could also create the conditions to erase life or drastically decrease biodiversity on the surface of the planet. Meteorites also contain valuable information to understand the evolution of a planet through their gas inclusion, their composition, and their cosmogenic isotopes. This paper addresses the evolution of the terrestrial bodies of our Solar System, in particular through all phenomena related to meteorites and what we can learn from them. This includes our present understanding of planet formation, their interior, their atmosphere, and the effects and relations of meteorites with respect to these reservoirs. It brings further insight into the origin and sustainability of life on planets, including Earth. Particular attention is devoted to Earth and Mars, as well as to planets and satellites possessing an atmosphere (Earth, Mars, Venus, and Titan) or a subsurface ocean (e.g., Europa), because those are the best candidates for hosting life. Though the conditions on the planets Earth, Mars, and Venus were probably similar soon after their formation, their histories have diverged about 4 billion years ago. The search for traces of life on early Earth serves as a case study to refine techniques/environments allowing the detection of potential habitats and possible life on other planets. A strong emphasis is placed on impact processes, an obvious shaper of planetary evolution, and on meteorites that document early Solar System evolution and witness the geological processes taking place on other planetary bodies.

Véronique, Dehant; Doris, Breuer; Philippe, Claeys; Vinciane, Debaille; Johan, De Keyser; Emmanuelle, Javaux; Steven, Goderis; Özgur, Karatekin; Tilman, Spohn; Ann Carine, Vandaele; Frank, Vanhaecke; Tim, Van Hoolst; Valérie, Wilquet

2012-11-01

162

The SARG Planet Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the radial velocity planet search in moderately wide binaries with similar components (twins) ongoing at Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) using the Galileo High Resolution Spectrograph (Spettrografo Alta Risoluzione Galileo, SARG). We discuss the sample selection, the observing and analysis procedures, the main results of the radial velocity monitoring and the implications in terms of planet frequency in binary systems. We also briefly discuss the second major science goal of the SARG survey, the search for abundance anomalies caused by the ingestion of planetary material by the central star. Finally, we present some preliminary conclusions regarding the frequency of planets in binary systems.

Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A.; Endl, M.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Scuderi, S.; Bonavita, M.; Barbieri, M.; Bonanno, G.; Cecconi, M.; Lucatello, S.; Marzari, F.

2010-04-01

163

Exploring the Planets: Mercury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Mercury. Facts about the planet include: mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), and diameter. The site explains why earth-based views of Mercury are so poor and describes the surface of the planet on the basis of probe photographs. The photographs do not prove whether the material on the surface is impact ejecta or volcanic. However, a colored digital mosaic of Mercury taken by Mariner 10 suggests that at least some of the mercurian smooth plains are the products of volcanism.

164

Pulse of the Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains the archive for Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a two-minute sound portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. Pulse of the Planet is broadcast over 320 public and commercial stations around the world and on the Voice of America and the Armed Forces Radio Network. In addition to the sound clips there are associated feature stories on everything from particle physics to the birds of the Pantanal and seasonal stories describing the ways that people interact with their environment.

2008-04-14

165

Share Your Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this cooperative game, learners devise strategies about sharing a small space with each other. Similar to musical chairs, this game has players sharing a smaller and smaller number of "planets" (circles on the floor) until they find a way to share just one remaining planet. After the game, learners discuss how they managed to fit everyone in one planet, what "rules" of sharing they made up as they went along, and whether there were disagreements. This game can be a great activity for indoor recess. This activity can be found on pages 12-13 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

166

Light Scattering from Exoplanet Oceans and Atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude (OL) = 180°, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30°. Application of Fresnel theory to a

M. E. Zugger; J. F. Kasting; D. M. Williams; T. J. Kane; C. R. Philbrick

2010-01-01

167

The Structure of Surface H2O Layers of Ice-covered Planets with High-pressure Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many extrasolar (bound) terrestrial planets and free-floating (unbound) planets have been discovered. While the existence of bound and unbound terrestrial planets with liquid water is an important question, of particular importance is the question of these planets' habitability. Even for a globally ice-covered planet, geothermal heat from the planetary interior may melt the interior ice, creating an internal ocean covered by an ice shell. In this paper, we discuss the conditions that terrestrial planets must satisfy for such an internal ocean to exist on the timescale of planetary evolution. The question is addressed in terms of planetary mass, distance from a central star, water abundance, and abundance of radiogenic heat sources. In addition, we investigate the structure of the surface H2O layers of ice-covered planets by considering the effects of ice under high pressure (high-pressure ice). As a fiducial case, a 1 M ? planet at 1 AU from its central star and with 0.6-25 times the H2O mass of the Earth could have an internal ocean. We find that high-pressure ice layers may appear between the internal ocean and the rock portion on a planet with an H2O mass over 25 times that of the Earth. The planetary mass and abundance of surface water strongly restrict the conditions under which an extrasolar terrestrial planet may have an internal ocean with no high-pressure ice under the ocean. Such high-pressure ice layers underlying the internal ocean are likely to affect the habitability of the planet.

Ueta, S.; Sasaki, T.

2013-10-01

168

Trojan planets in HD108874?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today there are about 190 extrasolar planets in 156 extrasolar systems confirmed. We have only observational evidence for planets from 7 (Gliese 876 d) earth masses up to several Jupiter masses; and up to now no planet with a mass comparable to the Earth was found. To ensure that an orbit of such a planet is stable in the so-called

R. Schwarz; R. Dvorak; E. Pilat-Lohinger; B. Erdi

2006-01-01

169

Students Discover Unique Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public, they were a good test case for the students' algorithm, who showed that for one of stars observed, OGLE-TR-L9, the variations could be due to a transit -- the passage of a planet in front of its star. The team then used the GROND instrument on the 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory to follow up the observations and find out more about the star and the planet. "But to make sure it was a planet and not a brown dwarf or a small star that was causing the brightness variations, we needed to resort to spectroscopy, and for this, we were glad we could use ESO's Very Large Telescope," says Snellen. The planet, which is about five times as massive as Jupiter, circles its host star in about 2.5 days. It lies at only three percent of the Earth-Sun distance from its star, making it very hot and much larger than normal planets. The spectroscopy also showed that the star is pretty hot -- almost 7000 degrees, or 1200 degrees hotter than the Sun. It is the hottest star with a planet ever discovered, and it is rotating very fast. The radial velocity method -- that was used to discover most extrasolar planets known -- is less efficient on stars with these characteristics. "This makes this discovery even more interesting," concludes Snellen.

2008-12-01

170

The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jean Schneider, of the Observatoire de Paris, put together this no-nonsense site featuring current information on the "detection and study of extrasolar planets, including exobiology." Schneider's commitment to the subject is clear with the inclusion of detailed scientific and technical articles, a tutorial (by Arizona State University) on the detection of extrasolar planets, and a hyperlinked bibliography of some 200 scientific journal articles, books, and reports. A catalog of extrasolar planets (with links to the scientific articles describing them) features dozens of confirmed planets (or brown dwarfs) around main sequence stars or pulsars, in addition to disks and unconfirmed objects. Whether you are a dedicated amateur or pro (and read English or French), these pages are clearly designed and well worth the orbit.

171

Welcome to the Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of over 200 of the best images from NASA's planetary exploration program. There are captioned images from the major planets, small bodies, and the space craft used for the images.

1995-01-01

172

Dwarf Planet Pluto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses Pluto's orbit, moon, surface, density, and explorations. There are creative videos and animations. There are also several photos of the far off dwarf planet accompanied by descriptions of each.

Hamilton, Calvin

2007-01-24

173

Temperatures of Hot Young Accreting Planets and Timescales for Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early in terrestrial planet evolution energetic impact, radiodecay, and core formation may have created one or more whole or partial silicate mantle magma oceans. In young extrasolar systems, such hot objects could be visible despite their small size. Here I describe the expected solidification process of rocky planets, and model the time to cool surface conditions for whole and partial magma oceans. Included in my calculations are partitioning of water and carbon dioxide between solidifying mantle cumulate mineral assemblages, evolving liquid compositions, and a growing atmosphere. I find that for Earth-sized planets small initial volatile contents (0.05 wt% H2O, 0.01 wt% CO2) can produce atmospheres in excess of 100 bars, and that mantle solidification is 98% complete in less than 5 Myr years for all magma oceans investigated on both Earth and Mars, and less than 100,000 years for low-volatile magma oceans. Subsequent cooling to surface temperatures below 600C occurs in five to tens of Ma, underscoring the likelihood of observing young planets.

Elkins-Tanton, Linda

2008-09-01

174

NIAC Support to Innovation in Outer Planet Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagine: A magnetized plasma bubble is riding the solar wind, delivering payloads to the outer planets in months instead of years. Swarms of thousands of thumbnail sized 'mesocopters' are measuring the outgassing of an awakening volcano on Titan. A long-duration, nuclear ramjet-powered unmanned aircraft is navigating the winds of Jupiter. A colony of robotic swimmers are exploring remote oceanic vents

R. E. Turner

2001-01-01

175

Learning Planet Sizes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the Center for Educational Resources (CERES), a series of web-based astronomy lessons created by a team of master teachers, university faculty, and NASA researchers. In this activity, students use general size concepts to classify student height, object size, and planet size. They then build scale planet models based on their discoveries. This lesson contains expected outcomes for students, materials, background information, follow-up questions, extension activities, and assessment procedures.

Tuthill, George; Obbink, Kim

176

Planets' magnetic environments  

SciTech Connect

The magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and comets and the heliomagnetosphere are examined. The orientations of the planetary spin and magnetic axes, the size of the magnetospheres, and the magnetic properties and the radio emissions of the planets are compared. Results from spacecraft studies of the planets are included. Plans for the Voyager 2 mission and its expected study of the Neptune magnetosphere are considered.

Lanzerotti, L.J.; Uberoi, C.

1989-02-01

177

Exploring the Planets: Pluto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information on this site about the planet Pluto includes mean distance from the Sun, length of a year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, temperature, diameter, and number of observed satellites. The unusual inclination from the plane of the ecliptic and eccentricity of the orbit of Pluto is discussed and diagramed. The composition of Pluto and Charon are discussed, as is their unusual relationship as a double planet. Hubble images of Pluto and Charon reveal surface features never before seen.

178

Outer planet satellites  

SciTech Connect

Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

Schenk, P.M. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

179

Mountains, highlands, lowlands and large plains on Venus - The first map of the surface of the cloud-covered planet by the Pioneer Venus Probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A map of the surface of Venus is available, which includes 83 per cent of the planet surface in the region from 75 degrees North to 63 degrees South. A hilly plain covers 60 per cent of the surface. The lowlands, similar to the ocean floor of the earth, cover 16 per cent of the planet. The moderately hilly planet

W. Buedeler

1980-01-01

180

Evaporation of extrasolar planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a review on the observations and theoretical modeling of the evaporation of extrasolar planets. The observations and the resulting constraints on the upper atmosphere (thermosphere and exosphere) of the ``hot-Jupiters'' are described. The early observations of the first discovered transiting extrasolar planet, HD209458b, allowed the discovery that this planet has an extended atmosphere of escaping hydrogen. Subsequent observations showed the presence of oxygen and carbon at very high altitude. These observations give unique constraints on the escape rate and mechanism in the atmosphere of hot-Jupiters. The most recent Lyman-alpha HST observations of HD189733b and MgII observations of Wasp-12b allow for the first time a comparison of the evaporation from different planets in different environments. Models to quantify the escape rate from the measured occultation depths, and an energy diagram to describe the evaporation state of hot-Jupiters are presented. Using this diagram, it is shown that few already known planets like GJ876d or CoRot-7b could be remnants of formerly giant planets.

Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.

2010-12-01

181

Popularizing Space Education in Indian Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indians have many mythological stories about many constellations and stars. Hindu months are based on MOON and 27 stars on Zodiac. They are very important for many Indians in ritual, religious functions. By prompting them to identify their birth star, really makes them elevated. Similarly conveying them the importance of star gazing with respect to their day today life makes them to take interest and active participation in Space Activities. Space activities should be driven by public; their requirements; their dreams and imaginations. Their active participation definitely gives valuable inputs to space scientists. Hence, there is a need of involving common man or public mass by appropriate motivation by organising sky gazing sessions, exhibitions, workshops, etc. In this connection, even if the some organisation are able to attract a small percent of qualified engineers/scientists,, enthusiastic students, it would result in the creation of a sizable pool of talent in space sciences,which may well determine the future mankind on this planet. Some simple motivation acts have made the people to take interest in space. we have been using certain methodologies to popularize space science - 1] Conducting theory sessions on basics of star gazing and conveying importance of sky gazing with respect to day-today life. 2] Organising seminars, workshops, lectures and other academic/popular science activities with special reference to space science 3] Projects - a] Cubsat Missions b] Automatic Weather Station Facility c] Model making d] Creating and simulating space models and rover making competitions. The 50 year's of Exploration has left tremendous impact on many society's working towards space education and exploration.

Yalagi, Amrut

182

Classifying Planets: Nature vs. Nurture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of a planet was so simple when we learned about the solar system in elementary school. Now students and professional s alike are faced with confusing array of definitions --- from "Brown Dwarfs” to "Super Jupiters", from "Super Earths” to "Terrestrial Planets", and from "Planets” to "Small, Sort-of Round Things That Aren't Really Planets". I will discuss how planets might be defined by how they formed, where they are found, or by the life they might support.

Beichman, Charles A.

2009-05-01

183

Popular culture as an ideological mask  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the ability of modern forms of popular culture to capture and remake images of crime. This examination contrasts the role of the production and consumption of popular culture in two broad periods in the “long history” of popular culture: popular culture produced by the masses and mass-produced popular culture. This distinction is used to examine: (1) the

Michael J Lynch; Lenny A Krzycki

1998-01-01

184

Popular Culture and the Teaching of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of the "Arizona English Bulletin" contains 38 articles related to popular culture and the teaching of English. The articles discuss such topics as language in the popular arts, establishing a popular culture library, defining sexism in popular culture, detective literature and its uses in the traditional classroom, popular literature…

Donelson, Ken, Ed.

1975-01-01

185

The Steppenwolf: A Proposal for a Habitable Planet in Interstellar Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rogue planets have been ejected from their planetary system. We investigate the possibility that a rogue planet could maintain a liquid ocean under layers of thermally insulating water ice and frozen gas as a result of geothermal heat flux. We find that a rogue planet of Earth-like composition and age could maintain a subglacial liquid ocean if it were ?3.5 times more massive than Earth, corresponding to ?8 km of ice. Suppression of the melting point by contaminants, a layer of frozen gas, or a larger complement of water could significantly reduce the planetary mass that is required to maintain a liquid ocean. Such a planet could be detected from reflected solar radiation, and its thermal emission could be characterized in the far-IR if it were to pass within \\cal {O}(1000) AU of Earth.

Abbot, D. S.; Switzer, E. R.

2011-07-01

186

Chemistry of planet formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores how the chemical environment in which planets develop influences planet formation. The total solid mass, gas/solid ratio, and specific ice inventory of protoplanetary disks can dramatically alter the planet's formation timescale, core/atmosphere mass ratio, and atmosphere composition. We present the results of three projects that probe the links between solar nebula composition and giant planet formation. The first project offers evidence that stars with planets exhibit statistically significant silicon and nickel enrichment over the general metal-rich population. To test whether this prediction is compatible with the core accretion theory of planet formation, we construct new numerical simulations of planet formation by core accretion that establish the timescale on which a planet forming at 5 AU reaches rapid gas accretion, t rga , as a function of solid surface density s solid : ( t rga /1 Myr) = (s solid /25.0 g cm -2 ) - 1.44 . This relation enables us to construct Monte Carlo simulations that predict the fraction of star-disk systems that form planets as a function of [Fe/H], [Si/Fe], disk mass, outer disk radius and disk lifetime. Our simulations reproduce both the known planet-metallicity correlation and the planet-silicon correlation reported in this paper. The simulations predict that 15% of Solar-type stars form Jupiter-mass planets, in agreement with 12% predicted from extrapolation of the observed planet frequency-semimajor axis distribution. Despite the success of our Monte Carlo simulation of the planet-silicon correlation at predicting the properties of extrasolar Jovian planets, there is still no in situ core accretion simulation that can successfully account for the formation of Saturn, Uranus or Neptune within the observed 2-3 Myr lifetimes of protoplanetary disks. Since solid accretion rate is directly proportional to the available planetesimal surface density, one way to speed up planet formation is to take a full inventory of all the solids present in the solar nebula. In Project 2 (Chapter 3) we combine a viscously evolving protostellar disk with a kinetic model of ice formation, which includes not just water but methane, ammonia, CO and 54 minor ices. We use this combined dynamical+chemical simulation to calculate the planetesimal composition and solid surface density in the solar nebula as a function of heliocentric distance and time. We find three effects that strongly favor giant planet formation: (1) a decretion flow that brings mass from the inner solar nebula to the giant planet-forming region, (2) recent lab results (Collings et al. 2004) showing that the ammonia and water ice lines should coincide, and (3) the presence of a substantial amount of methane ice in the trans-Saturnian region. Our results show higher solid surface densities than assumed in the core accretion models of Pollack et al. (1996) by a factor of 3-4 throughout the trans-Saturnian region. We also discuss the location of ice lines and their movement through the solar nebula, and provide new constraints on the possible initial disk configurations from gravitational stability arguments. Finally, we present a core accretion simulation of Saturn with a planet formation timescale of 3.37 Myr, consistent with observed protostellar disk lifetimes. The protostellar disk model underlying this simulation is also capable of forming Jupiter within 2.5 Myr. We observe a new manifestation of the core accretion theory, in which Saturn's solid core does not reach isolation mass, and argue that this paradigm should apply to Uranus and Neptune as well. The planet formation timescale is then governed primarily by the solid accretion rate instead of the gas contraction efficiency. Our model predicts a core mass of 44 M (+) for Saturn, heavier than inferred from observations by a factor of at least 2. We discuss possible mechanisms for reducing the core size without slowing down formation and comment on the similarity between our core- heavy Saturn model and the exoplanet HD 149026 b .

Robinson, Sarah Elaine

2008-02-01

187

Planet Formation and Migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of over 160 extrasolar planets, many with very unusual properties, has driven a renaissance in the study of planet formation. It is likely that Jovian and supra-Jovian planets formed at large distances, migrated towards their central stars, and yet somehow managed to stop short of plunging in. The growing theoretical and observational study of protostellar disks is allowing us to better probe the mechanism(s) of planet formation and migration through disk-gas interactions. In this talk, we explore new insights in mechanisms for determing planetary masses that arise from the presence of turbulence-free, so called dead-zones in protostellar disks. Such regions should be present on scales of up to 15 AU in most disks and should have profound effects on the migration of both terrestrial and Jovian planets - in effect - saving planetary systems. We also explore some obervational consequences of such ideas for observing programmes that can be implemented at the planned new large-scale ground-based facilities; TMT and SKA.

Pudritz, Ralph E.; Matsumura, S.

2006-06-01

188

Formation of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early phases of formation in the inner solar system were dominated by collisions and short-range dynamical interactions among planetesimals. But the later phases, which account for most of the differences among planets, are unsure because the dynamics are more subtle. Jupiter's influence became more important, leading to drastic clearing out of the asteroid belt and the stunting of Mars's growth. Further in, the effect of Jupiter-- both directly and indirectly, through ejection of mass in the outer solar system-- was probably to speed up the process without greatly affecting the outcome. The great variety in bulk properties of the terrestrial bodies indicate a terminal phase of great collisions, so that the outcome is the result of small-N statistics. Mercury, 65 percent iron, appears to be a residual core from a high-velocity collision. All planets appear to require a late phase of high energy impacts to erode their atmospheres: including the Earth, to remove CO2 so that its ocean could form by condensation of water. Consistent with this model is that the largest collision, about 0.2 Earth masses, was into the proto-Earth, although the only property that appears to require it is the great lack of iron in the Moon. The other large differences between the Earth and Venus, angular momentum (spin plus satellite) and inert gas abundances, must arise from origin circumstances, but neither require nor forbid the giant impact. Venus's higher ratio of light to heavy inert gases argues for it receiving a large icy impactor, about 10-6 Earth masses from far out, requiring some improbable dynamics to get a low enough approach velocity. Core formation in both planets probably started rather early during accretion. Some geochemical evidences argue for the Moon coming from the Earth's mantle, but are inconclusive. Large scale melting of the mantle by the giant impact would plausibly have led to stratification. But the "lock-up" at the end of turbulent mantle convection is a trade-off between rates: crystallization of constituents of small density difference versus overall freezing. Also, factors such as differences in melting temperatures and densities, melt compressibilities, and phase transitions may have had homogenizing effects in the subsequent mantle convection.

Kaula, William M.

1994-01-01

189

California and Carnegie Planet Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California and Carnegie Planet Research website presents the University of California Berkeley and the Carnegie Institution of Washington's investigations of planets around other stars. In the Public link, users can find easily understandable details on the diversity of exoplanets and on planet detection techniques. Researchers can find more technical details in the Scientific Research Site including a detailed almanac of planets and data on extrasolar planets. The website features publications, employment information, and team members' résumés. The materials are riddled with outside links to help users find other great planet-related educational and research websites.

190

Living Planet Report 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The second edition of the World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) Living Planet Report (last discussed in the October 9, 1998 Scout Report) has been placed online. The report attempts to quantify the speed at which nature is disappearing from Earth and trace human pressures on the natural environment. The first part of the report, the Living Planet Index (LPI), measures natural wealth and how it has changed between 1970 and 1995. According to the WWF, the LPI declined by 30 percent in this period, indicating that the world has lost "30 per cent of its natural wealth in the space of one generation." The second part of the Living Planet Report examines six causes of global environmental change related to human consumption of renewable and non-renewable resources.Users may view an executive summary and highlights of the report or download the full text in .pdf.

1999-01-01

191

Characterizing extrasolar planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transiting extrasolar planets provide the best current opportunities for characterizing the physical properties of extrasolar planets. In this review, I first describe the geometry of planetary transits, and methods for detecting and refining the observations of such transits. I derive the methods by which transit light curves and radial velocity data can be analyzed to yield estimates of the planetary radius, mass, and orbital parameters. I also show how visible-light and infrared spectroscopy can be valuable tools for understanding the composition, temperature, and dynamics of the atmospheres of transiting planets. Finally, I relate the outcome of a participatory lecture-hall exercise relating to one term in the Drake equation, namely the lifetime of technical civilizations.

Brown, Timothy M.

192

Commission 53: Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commission 53 was created at the 2006 Prague General Assembly (GA) of the IAU, in recognition of the outburst of astronomical progress in the field of extrasolar planet discovery, characterization, and theoretical work that has occurred since the discovery of the first planet in orbit around a solar-type star in 1995. Commission 53 is the logical successor to the IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (WGESP), which ended its six years of existence in August 2006. The founding President of Commission 53 was Michael Mayor, in honor of his seminal contributions to this new field of astronomy. The current President is Alan Boss, the former chair of the WGESP. The current members of the Commission 53 (C53) Organizing Committee (OC) began their service in August 2009 at the conclusion of the Rio de Janeiro IAU GA.

Boss, Alan; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Mayor, Michel; Bodenheimer, Peter; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Mardling, Rosemary; Minniti, Dante; Queloz, Didier

2012-04-01

193

Trojan planets in HD108874?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today there are about 190 extrasolar planets in 156 extrasolar systems confirmed. We have only observational evidence for planets from 7 (Gliese 876 d) earth masses up to several Jupiter masses; and up to now no planet with a mass comparable to the Earth was found. To ensure that an orbit of such a planet is stable in the so-called habitable zone around a host star in planetary systems with Jupiter-like planets we can have different confugurations: either a hot Jupiter (very close to the central star) or (and) a planet far enough not to perturb the motions of a planetary body in the habitable zone (which depends on the astrophysical parameters of the star). Besides the two former mentioned possibilites there may exist also stable orbits around a 'Jupiter' in this habitable zone: a planet as satelliteor - we cannot exclude it - a Trojan planet. For the first time in a multiplanetary system, namely in HD108872 (a sunlike star), we found that Trojan planets may exist in the 1:1 resonance with the inner Jupiter-like planet (with a semimajor axis of approximately 1AU). We investigate the region around the Lagrange points for a wide range of the orbital parameters of the two planets. It turned out that with the actually determined orbital elements of both planets (for HD108874c a=2.7AU) a small region around the Lagrange points may host earth-like planets in the habitable zone of this star.

Schwarz, R.; Dvorak, R.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Erdi, B.

194

Location of Planet X  

SciTech Connect

Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

Harrington, R.S.

1988-10-01

195

How giant planets cool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how giant planets cool is key to the study of their interior structure, composition and hence formation. I will review how the observed luminosities of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune may be accounted for, mostly by convective transport of heat limited by the atmospheric lip, but with several complications (sedimentation of helium droplets, gradients of composition...). Conversely, I will show that the the cooling of strongly irradiated giant planets ("Pegasids") is limited by heat transport in a thick external radiative zone with a possibility of a significant dissipation of heat due to tides. In all cases, both radiative transport and atmospheric/interior dynamics play crucial roles and require further studies.

Guillot, T.

2006-12-01

196

Five New Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report multiple Doppler measurements of five nearby FGK main-sequence stars and subgiants obtained during the past 4-6 yr at the Keck Observatory. These stars, namely, HD 183263, HD 117207, HD 188015, HD 45350, and HD 99492, all exhibit coherent variations in their Doppler shifts consistent with a planet in Keplerian motion. The five new planets occupy known realms of planetary parameter space, including a wide range of orbital eccentricities, e=0-0.78, and semimajor axes, 0.1-3.8 AU, that provide further statistical information about the true distributions of various properties of planetary systems. One of the planets, HD 99492b, has a low minimum mass of 0.112MJup=36MEarth. Four of the five planets orbit beyond 1 AU. We describe two quantitative tests of the false alarm probability for Keplerian interpretations of measured velocities. The more robust of these involves Monte Carlo realizations of scrambled velocities as a proxy for noise. Keplerian orbital fits to that ``noise'' yield the distribution of ?2? to compare with ?2? from the original (unscrambled) velocities. We establish a 1% false alarm probability as the criterion for candidate planets. All five of these planet-bearing stars are metal-rich, with [Fe/H]>+0.27, reinforcing the strong correlation between planet occurrence and metallicity. From the full sample of 1330 stars monitored at Keck, Lick, and the Anglo-Australian Telescope, the shortest orbital period for any planet is 2.64 days, showing that shorter periods occur less frequently than 0.1% in the solar neighborhood. Photometric observations were acquired for four of the five host stars with an automatic telescope at Fairborn Observatory. The lack of brightness variations in phase with the radial velocities supports planetary-reflex motion as the cause of the velocity variations. No transits were observed, but their occurrence is not ruled out by our observations. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by both NASA and the University of California.

Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Fischer, Debra A.; Henry, Gregory W.; Laughlin, Greg; Wright, Jason T.; Johnson, John A.

2005-01-01

197

GEOLogic: Terrestrial and Jovian Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-part example, students are given clues about properties about the terrestrial and Jovian planets respectively and asked to match up the planet with the correct equatorial radius, mean orbital velocity, and period of rotation.

Guertin, Laura

198

NASA Reveals Most Unusual Planet  

NASA Video Gallery

In exploring the universe, NASA has uncovered one planet more unusual than all others. This 30 second video shows you which planet that is, and explains that NASA science helps us better understand this world without equal.

gsfcvideo

2010-07-01

199

Popular Sovereignty and Civic Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses some of the problems inherent in attempts to understand citizenship education through the concept of popular sovereignty and the formation of self-governing citizens. It does so via a historical investigation of the processes responsible for the separa tion of sovereignty and government and sovereignty and moral truth in the early modern state. It is argued that in

Ian Hunter; Denise Meredyth

2000-01-01

200

Teaching the French Popular Front.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the French Popular Front of 1936 as a vehicle to investigate the turbulent decade of the 1930s. Reviews current historiography and discusses various facets of Leon Blum's government, examining the interrelationship of major economic and political forces. Concludes that the French Left still faces Blum's dilemma of implementing socialism…

Wall, Irwin M.

1987-01-01

201

Can prevention survive its popularity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At times I wish prevention were less popular than it is today, more a silent movement than a revolution as Albee (1980) has described it. Revolutions are by nature unpredictable. Some succeed while others do not. Most fail not from a want of initial suppor~ but from a want of continued support. For example, consider the open education movement. My

Thomas P. Gullotta

1981-01-01

202

Implications for Popular Streaming Formats  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of mobile streaming multimedia, available bat- tery capacity constrains the end-user experience. Since streaming applications tend to be long running, wireless network interface card's (WNIC) energy consumption is particularly an acute problem. In this work, we explore various mechanisms to conserve client WNIC energy consumption for popular streaming formats such as Microsoft Windows media, Real and Apple

Surendar Chandra

203

Arab Stereotypes in Popular Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most popular fictional plots involving the Middle East--adventure stories, espionage, and themes of Western dependency on Arab oil--portray the Israelies as the good guys and the Arabs as the villians. People must be made aware that fictional literature is prejudiced and racially biased against Arabs. (RM)|

Terry, Janice J.

1983-01-01

204

Body Modification and Popular Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is safe to say that contemporary North America is obsessed with the body. Popular culture abounds with references to the body: from products for the body (hair care, skin care, teeth whitening products, fashion, etc.) to representations of the body (the white body, the gay body, the beautiful body, etc.). All of these references create a discourse around the

Tarah Hogue

205

Popular Music in Early Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines young adolescents' involvement with popular music and the health implications of that involvement. Initial discussion explores three central concepts: music media, adolescence, and mass media effects. A summary of research on music media in adolescence is offereed in two sections discussing exposure to, and gratifications and…

Christenson, Peter G.; Roberts, Donald F.

206

Popular Media and Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few months ago, at an international communication conference in Nairobi, Kenya, a delegate asked me about the purpose of my studies in popular entertainment media. She was of the opinion that mindless and escapist media programming was, as she put it, \\

Arvind Singhal

2007-01-01

207

In Defense of Popular Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his book "The Closing of the American Mind," Allan Bloom criticizes popular music for the "emptiness of its values." It has only one appeal, says Bloom, "a barbaric appeal, to sexual desire--not love, not eros, but sexual desire, undeveloped and untutored." However, to say "rock music is this or that" is a proposition that quickly crumbles…

Luebke, Steven R.

208

Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching for lexical neighbors in the LSA space. The results indicated that there

Peter Dixon; Marisa Bortolussi

2009-01-01

209

Planet formation: Protoplanetary disk removal and rotational stability of planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many unsolved problems in the physics of planet formation and the evolution of their parent disk is expected to play an important role in resolving them. In part I of this thesis, I discuss the evolution of protoplanetary disks under the influence of viscous evolution, photoevaporation from the central source, and photo evaporation by external stars; and explore the consequences for planet formation. The discovery of hot jupiters orbiting at a few AU from their stars compliments earlier detections of massive planets on very small orbits. The short period orbits strongly suggest that planet migration has occurred, with the likely mechanism being tidal interactions between the planets and the gas disks out of which they formed. The newly discovered long period planets, together with the gas giant planets in our solar system, show that migration is either absent or rapidly halted in at least some systems. I propose a mechanism for halting type-II migration at several AU in a gas disk: the formation of a photoevaporation gap prevents planets outside the gap from migrating down to the star. The final planet location relative to the habitable zone is often used to discuss the planet habitability. But a planet in the habitable zone may experience large amplitude motion of its rotation axis, which may cause severe climate variations and have major consequences for the development of life. In part II of this thesis, I investigate the true polar wander (TPW) rotational stability of planets. I revisit the classic problem of the long-term rotational stability of planets in response to loading using a new, generalized theoretical development based on the fluid limit of viscoelastic Love number theory. Finally, I explore the time dependent (rather than the equilibrium fluid limit) rotational stability of planets by considering the example of an ice age Earth. I present a new treatment of the linearized Euler equations that govern rotation perturbations on a viscoelastic planet driven by surface loading.

Matsuyama, Isamu Manuel

2005-11-01

210

Accumulation of the Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project is to increase understanding of planet forming processes that are likely to have occurred in the Solar System during its early evolution. This was accomplished by development of computer models that are compatible with the present state of the Solar System as well as with observational and theoretical data attained from astrophysical observations and theory.

Wetherill, George W.

2002-09-01

211

Planets for Man.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Planets for Man was written at the height of the space race, a few years before the first moon landing, when it was assumed that in the not-too- distant future human beings 'will be able to travel the vast distances to other stars.' The authors propose to...

I. Asimov S. Dole

2007-01-01

212

The Centers of Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because it is impossible to penetrate to the centers of planets, scientists must probe with experiments and simulations. Three techniques have provided insights: diamond-anvil cells, shock-wave experiments and molecular simulations. Each tries to create tiny worlds in which matter is compressed to high pressures where extreme transformations take place. To date, these methods have shown that Neptune must be filled

Sandro Scandolo; Raymond Jeanloz

2003-01-01

213

Extrasolar Planets in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The field of extrasolar planets is still, in comparison with other astrophysical topics, in its infancy. There have been about 300 or so extrasolar planets detected and their detection has been accomplished by various different techniques. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment to show how planets are detected using the transit technique.…

George, Samuel J.

2011-01-01

214

Dynamics of disks with planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review several theories of origin and evolution of the recently discovered extrasolar planetary systems. The properties of these systems were unexpected. This motivated theorists to extend and revise many preexisting the- ories. Important extensions include migration of bodies and planetary eccentric- ity pumping by planet-planet interaction, and primordial disk-planet interaction. Progress in observational techniques might allow us to nd

Pawel Artymowicz

215

Looking for a habitable planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only very favorable combination of many physical parameters may provide the necessary con-ditions for unicellular organisms to evolve into multicellular animals. The main factors of the planet, that is critical for the evolution and existence of life, form a peculiar labyrinth with many impasses. Most important are mass and temperature conditions on the planet. The planet that meets RNA\\/ DNA

Leonid Ksanfomality

2010-01-01

216

On popularity quality: Growth and decay phases of publication popularities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within publication digital collections, citation analysis and publication score assignment are commonly used (i) to evaluate the impact of publications (and scientific collections, e.g., journals and conferences), and (ii) to order digital collection search outputs, e.g., Google Scholar. The popular citation-based web page (and, thus, publication) score measure PageRank is criticized for (a) computing only the current (and, thus, time-independent)

Sulieman Bani-Ahmad; Gultekin Ozsoyoglu

2009-01-01

217

Almost All of Kepler's Multiple-planet Candidates Are Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a statistical analysis that demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) indeed represent true, physically associated transiting planets. Binary stars provide the primary source of false positives among Kepler planet candidates, implying that false positives should be nearly randomly distributed among Kepler targets. In contrast, true transiting planets would appear clustered around a smaller number of Kepler targets if detectable planets tend to come in systems and/or if the orbital planes of planets encircling the same star are correlated. There are more than one hundred times as many Kepler planet candidates in multi-candidate systems as would be predicted from a random distribution of candidates, implying that the vast majority are true planets. Most of these multis are multiple-planet systems orbiting the Kepler target star, but there are likely cases where (1) the planetary system orbits a fainter star, and the planets are thus significantly larger than has been estimated, or (2) the planets orbit different stars within a binary/multiple star system. We use the low overall false-positive rate among Kepler multis, together with analysis of Kepler spacecraft and ground-based data, to validate the closely packed Kepler-33 planetary system, which orbits a star that has evolved somewhat off of the main sequence. Kepler-33 hosts five transiting planets, with periods ranging from 5.67 to 41 days.

Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Adams, Elisabeth; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Cochran, William D.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Holman, Matthew J.; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G.; Morehead, Robert C.; Ragozzine, Darin; Seader, Shawn E.; Tanenbaum, Peter G.; Torres, Guillermo; Twicken, Joseph D.

2012-05-01

218

Ocean Currents: Sinking Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute sound segment discusses the nutrients produced by phytoplankton, one-celled plants which live on the surface of the ocean and which form the basis of what scientists call biological productivity. A professor explains that the organic matter that comes sinking out of the surface actually sinks very far down into the water column before bacteria are actually able to break it back down into dissolved nutrients and it is difficult for the water that those nutrients are in to come back up to the surface. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

219

THE INTERIOR DYNAMICS OF WATER PLANETS  

SciTech Connect

The ever-expanding catalog of detected super-Earths calls for theoretical studies of their properties in the case of a substantial water layer. This work considers such water planets with a range of masses and water mass fractions (2-5 M{sub Earth}, 0.02%-50% H{sub 2}O). First, we model the thermal and dynamical structure of the near-surface for icy and oceanic surfaces, finding separate regimes where the planet is expected to maintain a subsurface liquid ocean and where it is expected to exhibit ice tectonics. Newly discovered exoplanets may be placed into one of these regimes given estimates of surface temperature, heat flux, and gravity. Second, we construct a parameterized convection model for the underlying ice mantle of higher ice phases, finding that materials released from the silicate-iron core should traverse the ice mantle on the timescale of 0.1 to 100 megayears. We present the dependence of the overturn times of the ice mantle and the planetary radius on total mass and water mass fraction. Finally, we discuss the implications of these internal processes on atmospheric observables.

Fu, Roger; O'Connell, Richard J. [Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sasselov, Dimitar D., E-mail: rogerfu12@gmail.co, E-mail: richard_oconnell@harvard.ed, E-mail: sasselov@cfa.harvard.ed [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2010-01-10

220

Popular democracy and waste management  

SciTech Connect

The US has moved from representative democracy to popular democracy and public scrutiny is unrelenting. Any hope of success on their part in resolving the nuclear waste question hinges on their ability to condition themselves to operate in a popular democracy environment. Those opposed to the siting of high- and low-level waste repositories have already developed a set of recurring themes: (1) the siting criteria are fatally flawed; (2) the criteria are not adequate; (3) the process is driven by politics not science; (4) unrealistic deadlines lead to dangerous shortcuts; (5) transportation experience is lacking; (6) the scientific community does not really know how to dispose of the wastes. They must continue to tell the public that if science has brought us problems, then the answer can be only more knowledge - not less. Failure by their profession to recognize that popular democracy is a fact and that nuclear issues need to be addressed in humanistic terms raises the question of whether America is philosophically suited for the expanded use of nuclear power in the future - or for that matter for leadership in the world of tomorrow.

Wallis, L.R.

1986-01-01

221

Bringing Ocean Science News To the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the goals of COSEE-Ocean Systems and its partners is to work toward bridging the gap between "school science" and "scientist science," in the context of using ocean examples to guide science inquiry. This article addresses popular media as a valuable source of science information, keeping current science research (or "scientist science"), and its outcomes and implications in front of students.

222

Radar Imaging of Ocean Surface Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar imagery of ocean surface patterns is presented and discussed. The imaging radar detects changes in ocean surface backscatter and yields imagery of deepwater gravity waves, oil slicks, island shadows, internal waves, coastal waves, and other features. The results of several observations suggest that the surface irregularities behave as iostropic scatterers for a radar wavelength of 25 cm. The popular

W. E. Brown; C. Elachi; T. W. Thompson

1976-01-01

223

PREDICTING PLANETS IN KEPLER MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate whether any multi-planet systems among Kepler candidates (2011 February release) can harbor additional terrestrial-mass planets or smaller bodies. We apply the packed planetary systems hypothesis that suggests all planetary systems are filled to capacity, and use a Hill stability criterion to identify eight two-planet systems with significant gaps between the innermost and outermost planets. For each of these systems, we perform long-term numerical integrations of 10{sup 7} years to investigate the stability of 4000-8000 test particles injected into the gaps. We map out stability regions in orbital parameter space, and therefore quantify the ranges of semimajor axes and eccentricities of stable particles. Strong mean-motion resonances can add additional regions of stability in otherwise unstable parameter space. We derive simple expressions for the extent of the stability regions, which is related to quantities such as the dynamical spacing {Delta}, the separation between two planets in units of their mutual Hill radii. Our results suggest that planets with separation {Delta} < 10 are unlikely to host extensive stability regions, and that about 95 out of a total of 115 two-planet systems in the Kepler sample may have sizeable stability regions. We predict that Kepler candidate systems including KOI 433, KOI 72/Kepler-10, KOI 555, KOI 1596, KOI 904, KOI 223, KOI 1590, and KOI 139 can harbor additional planets or low-mass bodies between the inner and outer detected planets. These predicted planets may be detected by future observations.

Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-05-20

224

Planet Under Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Planet Under Pressure is a six-part British Broadcasting Company (BBC) News Online series looking at some of the most pressing environmental issues facing the human race today. The series takes a detailed look at six areas where most experts agree that a crisis is brewing. They include food, water, energy, climate change, biodiversity, and pollution. In addition there are special features including: an animated guide that shows how the greenhouse effect might shape our climate; before and after images of the effects of climate change; the European Union (EU) emissions trading scheme and the carbon revolution; opinions about the Kyoto Protocol; graphic climate evidence of a warming world, rising sea, and melting ice; teenagers' opinions on how they would tackle environmental damage; the results of an eco-friendly garden competition; pictures of environmental change around the world; and a link to a BBC website exploring the UN's goals for the planet in 2015.

225

Exploring the Planets: Venus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Venus, including mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), and diameter. Many discoveries about Venus have been made using Earth-based radio telescopes, however the images of Venus in this exhibit were collected by the Magellan spacecraft. Magellan used radar to produce the first high-resolution global map of Venus. Since Venus has no water erosion and little wind, volcanic eruptions are a major force reshaping the landscape. Geologic forces at work beneath the crust create mountains, rifts, and patterns of fractures, while the sluggish winds sculpt the surface in subtler ways but many mysteries remain. This site includes numerous images of the planet.

226

Exploring the Planets: Discovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes what early civilizations knew about our solar system and how astronomy developed over the centuries. The early theories describing the movements of the planets, development of the first telescopes, and discoveries of the planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are some of the topics addressed in Discovery. Here you will find the Pluto discovery plate, the photographic plate taken the day Pluto's position was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh. Other topics covered at this site include: the Renaissance with the ideas of Copernicus and Kepler; the age of the telescope, which traces its development; Galileo, who is credited with discovering the moons of Jupiter, phases of Venus, and the craters on the Moon; and planetary satellites.

227

Exploring the Planets: Jupiter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Jupiter, including mean distance from the Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, spacecraft encounters, diameter, and number of observed satellites. The Galilean satellites Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, and Io are shown here in their correct positions relative to the planet and the odd moon Amalthea is discussed. There is tabular data on several of the other major moons. There are many thumbnail photographs that can be enlarged, including a grand view of the red spot. The radiation and radio noise of Jupiter is discussed, along with its atmosphere as compared to Saturn. The Galileo mission is discussed and links are provided for more information.

228

From Pebbles to Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planets form in protoplanetary discs around young stars as dust and ice particles collide to form ever larger bodies. Particle concentration in the turbulent gas flow may be necessary to form the planetesimals which are the building blocks of both the terrestrial planets and the cores of the gas giants and the ice giants. The streaming instability, which feeds off the relative motion of gas and particles, is a powerful mechanism to create overdense particle filaments. These filaments contract under their own gravity to form planetesimals with a wide range of sizes. I will also discuss how the pebbles left over from the planetesimal formation stage can lead to rapid formation of the cores of gas giants, well within the protoplanetary disc life-time, even in wide orbits.

Johansen, Anders

2013-10-01

229

Changing Planet: Thawing Permafrost  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains the current status of permafrost - the frozen ground that covers the top of the world. Because of a warming atmosphere, permafrost has been thawing rapidly and impacting other Earth systems over the last three decades. There is additional cause for concern beyond the far north, because the carbon released from thawing permafrost could raise global temperatures even higher. Changing Planet is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

2011-03-25

230

Terrestrial Planet Geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence of a few diehards, we may eventually have a seismic and heat flow network on Mars.

Phillips, R. J.

2008-12-01

231

Sprites on other planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning discharges have been observed or inferred in several planets in the solar system, and so it seems reasonable to expect that like on Earth, some form of accompanying transient luminous events (TLEs, e.g. sprites, halos, elves) will occur in the atmospheres of these planets. We present simple calculations of the necessary lightning induced charge-moment changes and possible atmospheric heights for the occurrence of sprites on Venus, Mars, Titan and the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. The types of thunderstorms and the postulated locations of charge centers are based on published spacecraft data and cloud models. We calculated the values of the conventional breakdown field over a wide range of pressures and temperatures in each planet's atmosphere, based on the parameters for each composition given by Sentman (2004). Assuming that sprites occur below the base of the ionosphere and above the upper-most planetary cloud layer, we show that for reasonable amounts of charge, sprites can be formed in Venus, Jupiter and Saturn, but not in Mars or Titan. For Venus, an intracloud flash with a charge-moment change of 500 C km occurring between the two lower cloud layers (presumably separated by 5 km), a sprite can be triggered approximately at an altitude 90 km above ground, ~20 km above the tops of the upper most cloud layer. For Jupiter, the results suggest that for a charge of 1000C located 30 km below the 1-bar pressure level, a sprite can be ignited at an altitude approximately 100 km above the top visible ammonia cloud layer. The observation methodology for sprites on other planets by orbiting spacecraft is limb observations above the nocturnal hemisphere (Venus, Jupiter) or even nadir view when the lightning light is obscured in the deep atmosphere (Venus, Saturn). The emission lines for planetary sprites were studied in laboratory experiments with appropriate gas mixtures, and are presented in a separate talk.

Yair, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Ebert, U.; Price, C. G.; Yaniv, R.; Dubrovin, D.; Nijdam, S.; van Veldhuizen, E.

2009-12-01

232

Plant for the Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video describes the foundation Plant for the Planet, a foundation created by a 9-year-old German boy, Felix. This foundation has planted more than 500,000 trees in Germany, which he says help sequester carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The student rallies, first his community and then other children, to plant millions of trees to offset our energy-use emissions.

Change, Young V.

233

Light Scattering from Exoplanet Oceans and Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude (OL) = 180°, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30°. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74° however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90°, but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however, polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination.

Zugger, M. E.; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M.; Kane, T. J.; Philbrick, C. R.

2010-11-01

234

Map-a-Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the explosion of online maps and related technologies onto the Internet, it has been relatively easy to find maps of any part of the Earth. Finding detailed maps of the various planets and moons that share the universe with us can be a bit more tricky. Stepping in to fill that gap in online material is the Map-A-Planet site, created and maintained by the United States Geological Survey's Astrogeology Research Program. Visitors to the site will be able create (and download) customizable maps of planets such as Mars and Venus, along with prominent moons such as Callisto (the second largest moon of Jupiter) and Ganymede, which is Jupiter's largest moon. Visitors can also create various levels of maps, ranging from those that are quite basic all the way to those that incorporate more detailed datasets. While the site is certain to be of general interest to most individuals, it may be of particular value to science educators who wish to offer students a rather rich-textured view of these marvelous bodies.

235

Spectropolarimetric signatures of Earth--like extrasolar planets.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerically calculated scattering matrix elements a1 and b1 of 11 different types of Earth-like extrasolar planets are presented. Matrix element a1 is proportional to the total flux that is reflected by the exoplanet, matrix element b1 is proportional to the linearly polarized flux. Also given is the ratio -b1/a1, which is the degree of linear polarization of the light that is reflected by the exoplanet. Each directory contains 91 ASCII files: one file for each planetary phase angle. The phase angles range from 0 degrees ("a full planet") to 180 degrees ("a new planet"), in steps of 2 degrees. Files are labelled DDDAAN.txt, where DDD is the phase angle and AAN the model code (000fo0.txt for 0 degrees in forest0 model, 000oc0.txt for 0 degrees in ocean_0 model, 000000.txt for 0 degrees in lambert000 model). (11 data files).

Stam, D. M.

236

Astronomers Report Discovery of New Extra-solar Planets: Four Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are feeling alone in the universe, this news from 2000 of the search for new planets might inspire you. This account is from the popular space science Website, Space.com. It chronicles the latest detection of at least nine possible planetary bodies orbiting stars outside of our solar system. The text includes a discussion of how detection of wobble behavior is used in the search for extra-solar planets and plans for future planet hunts. This site also features links to Websites of the observatories involved in extra-solar planet detection, related Space.com stories, a diagram of Doppler shift due to stellar wobble and a table of the nine planet candidates's size and distance from Earth.

Weinstock, Maia.

2000-01-01

237

Do terrestrial planets evolve according to the same scenario? Geological and petrological evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of terrestrial planets (the Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury, and Moon) was proved to have proceeded according to\\u000a similar scenarios. The primordial crusts of the Earth, Moon, and, perhaps, other terrestrial planets started to develop during\\u000a the solidification of their global magmatic “oceans”, a process that propagated from below upward due to the difference in\\u000a the adiabatic gradient and

E. V. Sharkov; O. A. Bogatikov

2009-01-01

238

Ocean Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Talk provides a glimpse of oceanography and an awareness of the importance of the sea to our environment and our own well-being. There are scientific explanations of ocean bottom features, the properties of seawater, underwater sound, sea ice, ocean currents, tides, waves, and tsunamis. A history of marine exploration and descriptions of the Earth's oceans are also provided.

239

The geochemistry of Oceanic Anoxic Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) record profound changes in the climatic and palaeoceanographic state of the planet and represent major disturbances in the global carbon cycle. OAEs that manifestly caused major chemical change in the Mesozoic Ocean include those of the early Toarcian (Posidonienschiefer Event, T-OAE, ~183Ma), early Aptian (Selli Event, OAE 1a, ~120Ma), early Albian (Paquier Event, OAE 1b, ~111Ma)

Hugh C. Jenkyns

2010-01-01

240

Light scattering from exoplanet oceans and atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be\\u000aused to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by\\u000aatmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase,\\u000aorbital longitude = 180 deg, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres\\u000ashould reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30 deg. Application of\\u000aFresnel theory to

Michael E. Zugger; James F. Kasting; Darren M. Williams; Timothy J. Kane; C. Russell Philbrick

2010-01-01

241

Canada's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview of Canadanain oceans outlines the characteristics of the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic marine ecosystems. After a brief look at Canada's ocean environments from a global perspective, additional chapters provide an overview of the physical properties, fauna and human impacts associated with Canada's oceans. For each ocean there is information on water properties, currents, tides, and the ocean floor. Ocean floor information includes descriptions of ocean basins, submarine ridges, continental shelves and sedimentation while current information includes the causes, effects, and names of the currents. There is an explanation of the cause of tides and how they affect each shoreline.

242

Planet X - ract or fiction  

SciTech Connect

The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

Anderson, J.

1988-08-01

243

Formation of Gas Giant Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed physical properties and orbits of giant planets, models of their internal structure and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium; these gasses could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger percentages of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of elements heavier than helium. The transiting extrasolar planet HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable amounts of light gases and heavy elements. The other observed transiting exoplanets are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of these planets. Extrasolar planets orbiting very close to their stars almost certainly formed at larger distances and migrated inwards as a consequence of gravitational interactions with their protoplanetary disks. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the giant planet cores grow massive enough to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary question regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions can planets develop cores sufficiently massive to accrete gas envelopes within the lifetimes of typical gaseous protoplanetary disks.

Lissauer, Jack J.; D'Angelo, Gennaro

2006-09-01

244

Starting a Planet Protectors Club  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If your mission is to teach children how to reduce, reuse, and recycle waste and create the next generation of Planet Protectors, perhaps leading a Planet Protectors Club is part of your future challenges. You don't have to be an expert in waste reduction and recycling to lead a a Planet Protectors Club. You don't even have to be a teacher. You…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

2007-01-01

245

Who cares about Mid-Ocean Ridge Earthquakes? And Why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every day the surface of our planet is being slowly ripped apart by the forces of plate tectonics. Much of this activity occurs underwater and goes unnoticed except for by a few marine seismologists who avidly follow the creaks and groans of the ocean floor in an attempt to understand the spreading and formation of oceanic crust. Are marine seismologists

M. Tolstoy

2004-01-01

246

The atmospheric evolution of Venus the habitable planet. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern theories of planetary accumulation do not build Venus dry and Earth wet save by unlucky chance. If Venus and Earth were built of the same stuff, Venus’s descent into ruin must have been caused by its proximity to the Sun: too much sunlight brought a runaway greenhouse effect, the oceans and seas evaporated, and the hydrogen in the water was irrevocably lost to space. If the story has a moral, Venus would be the earth that lost its water. A complication to the story is that early Venus occupies an ambiguous position with respect to the runaway greenhouse effect. If Venus began as an ocean planet like Earth, both runaway and non-runaway states are plausible at first. In the 50 Myr before the Sun reached the main sequence, the Sun was both bright and faint, with Venus moving in and out of the conventional habitable zone. Once the Sun reached the main sequence it settled to a luminosity 70% of today’s. At this point the critical albedo triggering the runaway greenhouse on Venus was ~0.32, slightly higher than Earth’s today. This means that Earth’s albedo would put an ocean-covered Venus in the runaway greenhouse state, but only just barely, while an albedo of a slightly cloudier planet would have let Venus’s ancient oceans condenses. Early Venus’s indecisive state makes the recovery of liquid water oceans from giant impacts such as Earth’s moon-forming impact questionable. Another interesting plot twist is that dry planets (desert worlds with limited surface water) are expected to have some immunity with respect to the runaway greenhouse effect, because the limited water can be cold trapped at high latitudes. On a hot dry planet the dearth of tropical water vapor has two effects: it stabilizes the greenhouse effect (the tropics can radiate at rates well above the traditional runaway limit because the tropical atmosphere is not saturated) and it creates a dry stratosphere that severely limits hydrogen escape. Young Venus, if dry, would have been well within the dry-planet habitable zone. Here we consider the possibility that an ocean planet can evolve into a dry but habitable planet as the Sun brightens without first passing through an uninhabitable runaway greenhouse phase. This can happen because hydrogen escape in the diffusion limit depends on the wetness of the stratosphere: a warm planet can have a wet stratosphere and fast hydrogen escape while maintaining liquid water at the surface, provided that the atmosphere is not too thick. This requires in particular that most of the CO2 now in Venus’s atmosphere was sequestered as carbonate rock. If these conditions were all met, it is possible that Venus may have been a habitable planet as recently as 1 billion years ago.

Zahnle, K. J.; Abe, Y.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Sleep, N. H.

2010-12-01

247

Superstardom in Popular Music: Empirical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers empirical evidence which counters two opposing but frequently expressed views concerning the market for popular music. The first view is that the consumers of popular music have no recognition of or appreciation for \\

William A Hamlen Jr

1991-01-01

248

The Nitrogen Constraint on Habitability of Planets around Low Mass M-stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional habitable zones around stars are defined based on the stability of liquid water over geological timescales. Being too far away from the stars, the planet would be incapable of maintaining a warm surface and thus no liquid water. Being too close to the star, the planet would experience a 'runaway' greenhouse phase, during which its oceans could be lost quickly, and end up similar to our sister planet, Venus. The definition of tranditional habitable zones does not consider the availability of other elements important for life. All life as we know it needs nitrogen. Our calculations of upper planetary atmospheres show that nitrogen could be lost rapidly from planetary atmospheres with CO2 concentrations lower than certain threshold. This suggests that life on planets around low mass M-stars may be selflimiting, and planets of low mass M-stars are less favorable places to search for life than G- or K-type stars.

Tian, F.

2011-10-01

249

The Nitrogen Constraint on Habitability of Planets of Low Mass M-stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional habitable zones around stars are defined based on the stability of liquid water over geological timescales. Being too far away from the stars, the planet would be incapable of maintaining a warm surface and thus no liquid water. Being too close to the star, the planet would experience a 'runaway' greenhouse phase, during which its oceans could be lost quickly, and end up similar to our sister planet, Venus. The definition of tranditional habitable zones does not consider the availability of other elements important for life. All life as we know it needs nitrogen. Our calculations of upper planetary atmospheres show that nitrogen could be lost rapidly from planetary atmospheres with CO2 concentrations lower than certain threshold. This suggests that life on planets around low mass M-stars may be selflimiting, and planets of low mass M-stars are less favorable places to search for life than G- or K-type stars.

Tian, F.

2011-12-01

250

The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems.  

PubMed

Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

Lunine, J

2001-01-30

251

Exploring the Planets: Uranus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Facts on this site about Uranus include mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), diameter, and number of observed satellites. Uranus' axis of rotation is tilted nearly 98 degrees, almost perpendicular to its orbit. Consequently, the seasons and days on Uranus are strange. At times, the north pole points toward the Sun. At other times the south pole does. This site offers information about and many photographs of the rings, satellites, and of the planet itself. There is also tabular data on the fifteen moons and links to more information.

252

Minor Planet Mariotti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Named in memory of Jean-Marie Mariotti (1955-1998), French astronomer, most recently in Garching at the European Southern Observatory. He led the pioneering project to establish optical interferometry with the new Very Large Telescope as a breakthrough new astronomical instrument for the next century. His interest was in the area of high angular resolution, and he was involved in interferometric projects both on the ground (e.g., FLUOR and VLTI) and in space (DARWIN). He hoped with these techniques to find low-mass companions, and ultimately planets outside our solar system. He had an extraordinarily effective mix of technical expertise and scientific eagerness."

1999-03-01

253

Polarimetry of Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarimetry is a powerful technique for detecting directly the starlight that is scattered in a planetary atmosphere and, thus, possesses information on its geometry, chemistry, and thermodynamics. Recently, we have started a polarimetric survey of nearby planetary systems with hot Jupiters closely orbiting their host stars using the DiPol polarimeter at the KVA telescope and the TurPol polarimeter at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma. Here we present our first results and discuss orbital parameters of the HD 189733 system and scattering properties of its planet.

Berdyugin, A.; Berdyugina, S.; Fluri, D.; Piirola, V.

2011-11-01

254

Popular music pedagogy: peer learning in practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusion of popular music as a content area in music education is not uncommon. The musicological study of popular music is well established in higher education, and even the practice of popular music is becoming more common in both secondary education and the post-compulsory sector. However, when this occurs, it is likely to be taught in more or less

Don Lebler

2008-01-01

255

Popular Rogues: Citizen Opinion about Political Corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trust in the honesty of public officials is a crucial condition for stable democratic systems. Yet despite the presumed centrality of honesty in government, there has been a long tradition of “popular rogues” who are considered dishonest and corrupt, but retain popularity for their strong and effective leadership. In this paper, we look at the phenomenon of popular rogues using

Darrell M. West; Katherine Stewart

2003-01-01

256

The Popularity of Middle School Bullies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the peer popularity of middle school students involved in bullying. Bullying was assessed by peer report using the School Climate Bullying Survey (SCBS) and popularity was assessed through peer nominations from a student roster. In a sample of 379 middle school students, bullies were among the most popular students in the…

Thunfors, Peter; Cornell, Dewey

2008-01-01

257

NASA'S TERRESTRIAL PLANET FINDER MISSION: THE SEARCH FOR HABITABLE PLANETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is one of the major missions in the NASA Office of Space Science Origins Theme. The primary science objective of the TPF mission is to search for, detect, and characterize planetary systems beyond our own Solar System, including specifically Earth-like planets. This paper describes the current status of TPF as well as outlines the plans

Daniel R. Coulter

258

Law in Popular Culture Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marlyn Robinson, reference librarian of the Tarlton Law Library at the University of Texas at Austin provides this site, which contains information about the library's collection of books and films related to how popular culture affects peoples' notions of the American legal system. The bibliography, a collection of information about nearly two hundred articles and books related to the subject, highlights this site. Visitors can find information about the library's collection of over 500 films featuring lawyers, as well as descriptive information about the library's collection of hundreds of books of "fiction in all genres, as well as legal humor, plays, comics, and pulp magazines" that either feature a lawyer in a central role or are authored by lawyers. Rounding out the site is a gallery of related movie stills and posters. Note that while the books are available via interlibrary loan, the films are not available outside the UT community.

1998-01-01

259

The Planet Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is not so much for the space scientist looking for background material for research as it is for one interested in the history of planetary exploration. The first half (˜100 pps) is devoted to studies of Venus before the space age, starting at several hundred years BC. It is obvious from the multitude of detailed descriptions of observers' accounts that considerable library research went into this section. While sometimes tedious, this chronology of Venus research is punctuated with amusing facts. While many may know about the Velikovsky theory of the cometary origin of the planet, few may know that Lowell drew pictures of Cytherian canals similar to the canals of Mars or that Frederick the Great of Prussia proposed to name the (once suspected) satellite of Venus D'Alembert, after the mathematician. An equally amusing appendix shows the ups and downs of the rotation period of this planet with the invisible surface. Much attention is focused on early telescope observations, the ashen light, and transits of Venus. At the end of this half, one appreciates that Venus has played a fairly important role in history in the areas of religion, science, and technology.

Luhmann, Janet

260

Planets and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology involves the study of the origin and history of life on Earth, planets and moons where life may have arisen, and the search for extraterrestrial life. It combines the sciences of biology, chemistry, palaeontology, geology, planetary physics and astronomy. This textbook brings together world experts in each of these disciplines to provide the most comprehensive coverage of the field currently available. Topics cover the origin and evolution of life on Earth, the geological, physical and chemical conditions in which life might arise and the detection of extraterrestrial life on other planets and moons. The book also covers the history of our ideas on extraterrestrial life and the origin of life, as well as the ethical, philosophical and educational issues raised by astrobiology. Written to be accessible to students from diverse backgrounds, this text will be welcomed by advanced undergraduates and graduates who are taking astrobiology courses.• Compiled by world experts in their disciplines to create a truly comprehensive book • Accessible to students from a wide range of backgrounds • A welcome addition to this rapidly-growing field

Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

2001-12-01

261

PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PLANET TOPERS (Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS) group is an Inter-university attraction pole (IAP) addressing the question of habitability in our Solar System. Habitability is commonly understood as "the potential of an environment (past or present) to support life of any kind" (Steele et al., 2005, http://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/archive.html). Based on the only known example of Earth, the concept refers to whether environmental conditions are available that could eventually support life, even if life does not currently exist (Javaux and Dehant, 2010, Astron. Astrophys. Rev., 18, 383-416, DOI: 10.1007/s00159-010-0030-4). Life includes properties such as consuming nutrients and producing waste, the ability to reproduce and grow, pass on genetic information, evolve, and adapt to the varying conditions on a planet (Sagan, 1970, Encyclopedia Britannica, 22, 964-981). Terrestrial life requires liquid water. The stability of liquid water at the surface of a planet defines a habitable zone (HZ) around a star. In the Solar System, it stretches between Venus and Mars, but excludes these two planets. If the greenhouse effect is taken into account, the habitable zone may have included early Mars while the case for Venus is still debated. Important geodynamic processes affect the habitability conditions of a planet. As envisaged by the group, this IAP develops and closely integrates the geophysical, geological, and biological aspects of habitability with a particular focus on Earth neighboring planets, Mars and Venus. It works in an interdisciplinary approach to understand habitability and in close collaboration with another group, the Helmholtz Alliance "Life and Planet Evolution", which has similar objectives. The dynamic processes, e.g. internal dynamo, magnetic field, atmosphere, plate tectonics, mantle convection, volcanism, thermo-tectonic evolution, meteorite impacts, and erosion, modify the planetary surface, the possibility to have liquid water, the thermal state, the energy budget and the availability of nutrients. Shortly after formation (Hadean 4.4-4.0 Ga (billion years)), evidence supports the presence of a liquid ocean and continental crust on Earth (Wilde et al., 2001, Nature, 409, 175-178), Earth may thus have been habitable very early on. The origin of life is not understood yet but the oldest putative traces of life occur in the early Archaean (~3.5 Ga). Studies of early Earth habitats documented in rock containing traces of fossil life provide information about environmental conditions suitable for life beyond Earth, as well as methodologies for their identification and analyses. The extreme values of environmental conditions in which life thrives today can also be used to characterize the "envelope" of the existence of life and the range of potential extraterrestrial habitats. The requirement of nutrients for biosynthesis, growth, and reproduction suggest that a tectonically active planet, with liquid water is required to replenish nutrients and sustain life (as currently known). These dynamic processes play a key role in the apparition and persistence of life. This contribution will focus on the highlights of the work of the IAP Planet TOPERS.

Dehant, Veronique; Breuer, Doris; Claeys, Philippe; Debaille, Vinciane; De Keyser, Johan; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Goderis, Steven; Karatekin, Ozgur; Mattielli, Nadine; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Vanhaecke, Frank; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wilquet, Valerie

2013-04-01

262

Educational and Public Outreach Software On Planet Detection For The Macintosh (TM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of extra-solar planets has been a very popular topic with the general public for years. Considerable media coverage of recent detections has only heightened the interest in the topic. School children are particularly interested in learning about space. Astronomers have the knowledge and responsibility to present this information in both an understandable and interesting format. Since most classrooms and homes are now equipped with computers this media can be utilized to provide more than a traditional "flat" presentation. An interactive "stack" has been developed using Hyperstudio (TM). The major topics include: "1996 - The Break Through Year In Planet Detection"; "What Determines If A Planet Is Habitable?"; "How Can We Find Other Planets (Search Methods)"; "All About the Kepler Mission: How To Find Earth-Sized Planets"; and "A Mission Simulator". Using the simulator, the student records simulated observations and then analyzes and interprets the data within the program stacks to determine the orbit and planet size, the planet's temperature and surface gravity, and finally determines if the planet is habitable. Additional related sections are also included. Many of the figures are animated to assist in comprehension of the material. A set of a dozen lesson plans for the middle school has also been drafted.

Koch, David; Brady, Victoria; Cannara, Rachel

1996-09-01

263

Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

264

Geologic mapping of tectonic planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological analysis of planets typically begins with the construction of a geologic map of the planets’ surfaces using remote data sets. Geologic maps provide the basis for interpretations of geologic histories, which in turn provide critical relations for understanding the range of processes that contributed to the evolution. Because geologic mapping should ultimately lead to the discovery of the types

Vicki L. Hansen

2000-01-01

265

Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and observations relating to the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Venus, the earth and Mars are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on comparing the basic differences and similarities between the planetary ionospheres. The review covers the plasma and electric-magnetic field environments that surround the planets, the theory leading to the creation and transport of ionization in the ionspheres, the

R. W. Schunk; A. F. Nagy

1980-01-01

266

Toward Earth-Like Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Kepler mission has the goal of detecting transiting planets as small as the Earth, even some that might be habitable. Kepler was launched 2009. After transiting planet candidates are detected, the challenge will be to sort out the real planets from the stellar imposters masquerading as planets. The ultimate test is a spectroscopic orbit that confirms the planet’s mass. A key facility for this follow-up work will be HARPS-NEF, a collaboration between the Geneva Observatory and Harvard University to build a version of HARPS for a telescope in the North. Kepler stares at a single field of view in Cygnus and Lyra for the entire four-year mission, to allow the detection of planets with orbital periods as long as a year. As a result the systems discovered by Kepler will be relatively far away, faint, and difficult for follow-up observations. To complement Kepler we need an all-sky survey that can identify the nearest and brightest transiting systems. For the photometry to be good enough to push to smaller planets we need to get above the Earth’s atmosphere. TESS is a proposal for such a mission.

Latham, D. W.

2009-12-01

267

Get Me Off This Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to teach students how a spacecraft gets from the surface of the Earth to Mars. Students first investigate rockets and how they are able to get us into space. Finally, the nature of an orbit is discussed as well as how orbits enable us to get from planet to planet â specifically from Earth to Mars.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

268

Planet Migration in Planetesimal Disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planets embedded in a planetesimal disk will migrate as a result of angular momentum and energy conservation as the planets scatter the planetesimals that they encounter. A surprising variety of interesting and complex dynamics can arise from this apparently simple process. In this chapter, we review the basic characteristics of planetesimal-driven migration. We discuss how the structure of a planetary

H. F. Levison; A. Morbidelli; R. Gomes; D. Backman

2007-01-01

269

Glaciopanspermia: Seeding the terrestrial planets with life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question whether life originated on Earth or elsewhere in the solar system has no obvious answer, since Earth was sterilized by the Moon-forming impact and possibly also during the LHB, about 700 Ma after the formation of the solar system. Seeding by lithopanspermia has to be considered. Possible sources of life include Earth itself, Mars, Venus (if it had a more benign climate than today) and icy bodies of the solar system. The first step of lithopanspermia is the ejection of fragments of the surface into space, which requires achieving at least escape velocity. As the velocity distribution of impact ejecta falls off steeply, attention is drawn to bodies with lower escape velocities. Ceres has had, or still has, an ocean more than 100 km deep, with hydrothermal activity at its rocky core. The possible presence of life, its relative closeness to the terrestrial planets and Ceres' low escape velocity of 510 m/s suggest that Ceres could well be a parent body for life in the solar system.Icy impact ejecta - hence glaciopanspermia - from Ceres will be subject to evaporation of volatiles. Spores may be loosened by evaporation and enter the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets as micrometeorites.The seeding of the terrestrial planets from Ceres would result in (1) detection of life in the crustal layers of Ceres; (2) a commonality of Cerean life with Terran and possible Martian and Venusian life and (3) biomarkers of Cerean life, which might be found in the ice at the Moon's poles and on the surface of other main belt asteroids.

Houtkooper, Joop M.

2011-08-01

270

Fear of a Lonely Planet: author anxieties and the mainstreaming of a guidebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lonely Planet (LP) guidebooks are one of the most popular guidebook brands in tourism, but few studies have examined the guidebooks in detail or their relationship with tourism and tourists. Utilising an inductive research approach, this exploratory study aims to make a contribution to the theory and knowledge of guidebooks. Interviews with guidebook writers reveal a sense of frustration created

Benjamin Lucca Iaquinto

2011-01-01

271

Imaginative geographies of Mars: The science and significance of the red planet, 1877--1910  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over several decades spanning the turn of the twentieth century, Western astronomers' claims about the landscape and climate of Mars spurred widespread scientific and popular interest in the possibility that the red planet might be inhabited by intelligent beings far more advanced than humans. This dissertation challenges traditional interpretations of this episode---as an amusing example of science gone awry---with a

2006-01-01

272

Formation of Planets around Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulse arrival-time delays PSR 1257+ 12 suggest the existence of at least two planets in nearly circular orbits around it. In this paper we discuss different scenarios for the formation of planets in circular orbits around pulsars. Among other topics, we look in some detail at wind emission mechanisms that are particularly relevant to the process of evaporation of planets around pulsars and discuss their possible role in orbit circularization. We conclude that the formation of such planets may occur in a very late phase of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) or binary millisecond pulsar (BMP) evolution. Evaporation of the companion star in these phases supplies matter to a circumbinary "excretion" disk in which the physical conditions, similar to those appropriate for the BMP 1957+20 system, may allow the formation of planets like those observed in PSR 1257+12.

Banit, M.; Ruderman, M. A.; Shaham, J.; Applegate, J. H.

1993-10-01

273

Planets and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary properties; C. The geological time scale S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; D. Astrobiological destinations on planet Earth J. Harnmeijer; E. Micro*scope web tool D. J. Patterson and M. L. Sogin; Index.

Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

2007-09-01

274

Planet Classification: A Historical Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As philosopher George Santayana famously said, "those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." The professional astronomy community, as embodied in the IAU, now suffers from Santayana's malady. Ceres was expelled from the community of planets because it apparently was not a planet; yet, no working, scientifically reasonable definition of the word planet existed in the early nineteenth century and so no rational basis existed for excluding or including Ceres or, for that matter, Uranus or the soon-to-be-discovered Neptune from the family of planets. Instead, William Herschel disparaged Ceres as only an "asteroid," a term he invented specifically to separate Ceres and Pallas and Vesta from the true planets. Clearly, in Herschel's view, Ceres was not big enough, and apparently, to Herschel, size mattered. So how big is big enough and by what method was size put in place as the critical scientific metric for assessing planethood? Certainly, as members of the newly discovered asteroid belt, the newly identified asteroids were members of a previously unknown family of objects in the solar system. But why did that make these non-classically known objects asteroids but not planets rather than asteroids and planets? Uranus and Neptune were also members of a newly identified and previously unknown family of solar system objects that we now call "ice giants." On what basis were these two objects embraced as planets and why have these two non-classical objects become known as ice giants and planets rather than ice giants but not planets? Perhaps our scientific predecessors were too quick to render judgment, as they lacked the scientific context in which to understand the many new objects discovered during the years 1781 to 1846. Is that a lesson from the past that we might remember today?

Weintraub, David A.

2009-05-01

275

Irreversible evolution of the terrestrial planets (geological and petrological data)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Comparative studying of tectonomagmatic evolution of the Earth and the Moon shows that cardinal irreversible change in character of tectonomagmatic processes occurred at middle stages of their evolution; very likely such changes took place on other terrestrial planets (Venus, Mars and Mercury). As a result, primordial crusts of the planets were in considerable degree replaced by secondary basaltic ones. The established succession of events on the Earth could be provided by a combination of two independent factors: (1) it was originally heterogeneous and 2) its downward heating was followed by the cooling of its outer shells. As a result the primary iron core material was long time remained untouched and was involved into global tectonomagmatic processes at ca. 2.4-2.3 Ga. We concluded about a similar scenario for the evolution of Moon and other terrestrial planets. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and Moon) was studied. What did major stages of their irreversible evolution occur before they turned into "dead" stone balls? We discuss these problems on examples of the Earth and the Moon, which evolution studied the best. According to modern views, after accretion of these bodies, magma oceans of some hundreds km deep appeared on their surface. According to Jeffries [1], solidification of large molted bodies, because of the difference between adiabatic gradient in silicate melts (0.3oC/km) and gradient of their melting points (3oC/km), could be going only upwards, from the bottom to the surface. As a result a powerful crystallizing differentiation of the oceans' magmas occurred with accumulation of the most low-melting components to the surface. Due to different deep of the magma oceans on the Earth and the Moon, the primordial crusts on these bodies were rather different: sialic on the Earth and basic (anorthosite) on the Moon.

Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

2008-09-01

276

[Seguro popular: achievements and perspectives].  

PubMed

Healthcare systems are organized following one of two basic models: social security systems, which link access to health services to labor status, and national health systems, which grant access to health as a citizen's right. Mexico adopted, since the institutionalization of social security and healthcare services in 1943, a mixed system. Social security institutions covered the salaried workers and public assistance was granted to the remaining of the population. At the beginning of the XXI century the Mexican health system entered a crisis as the conditions to expand health coverage through social security were not met and public assistance services were insufficient. In order to address these developments, the Healthcare Social Protection System was founded (2004) as a mechanism to effectively guarantee every person's right to health as established after the constitutional amendment of article fourth in 1983. Seguro Popular is the mechanism that through federal and states' contributions seeks to financially protect the population without access to social security's health services, and thus prevent impoverishment due to out of pocket and catastrophic health expenditures. PMID:22116179

Chertorivski-Woldenberg, Salomón

277

Monopole planets and galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spherical clusters of SU(2) Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield monopoles are investigated here. A large class of monopole solutions is found using an Abelian approximation, where the clusters are spherically symmetric, although exact solutions cannot have this symmetry precisely. Monopole clusters generalize the Bolognesi magnetic bag solution of the same charge, but they are always larger. Selected density profiles give structures analogous to planets of uniform density, and galaxies with a density decaying as the inverse square of the distance from the center. The Bolognesi bag itself has features analogous to a black hole, and this analogy between monopole clusters and astrophysical objects with or without black holes in their central region is developed further. It is also shown that certain exact, platonic monopoles of small charge have sizes and other features consistent with what is expected for magnetic bags.

Manton, N. S.

2012-02-01

278

Exploring the Planets: Saturn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information on this site about Saturn includes mean distance from the Sun, length of a year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, diameter, and number of observed satellites. The view from Earth shows how the appearance changes depending on the relative position in orbit. Pioneer at Saturn is one of the first spacecraft views of Saturn and was taken by Pioneer 11 three days before its closest encounter, and in this photograph the moon Titan is seen to the upper left. The Voyager Encounters provide close-up views of the rings, showing their intricate structure such as gaps, a braided ring and the mysterious spokes. This site discusses the violent atmosphere and strong magnetic field of the planet and offers three sections and tabular information about the moons of Saturn. There is also information about future exploration, a large photo gallery and links to more resources.

279

Angry Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mystery puts the reader in control, Mission Control, as he/she helps with a simulated flight to Mars. In this simulation, four "bionauts" are sealed into identical pods containing plants, animals and water. The goal is for them to survive for six months receiving no water, food or air from outside. The reader monitors the conditions in each pod, simulating Misson Control back on Earth. This story begins on the 34th day of the simulation, when the reader notices something wrong in one of the pods. The oxygen is getting low - why? Besides the usual Science Mystery themes (literacy, inquiry-based learning, problem-solving logic, inductive and deductive reasoning), "Angry Red Planet" puts your students hands-on with facts about respiration, ecosystems and ecological cycles, chemical and biochemical reactions, carbon dioxide poisoning, and the effects of stress on human physiology and psychology. They must learn how to read graphs and evaluate data to solve the mystery.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Ken Eklund N:Eklund;Ken ORG:WriterGuy REV:2005-04-06 END:VCARD

2000-12-15

280

Exploring the Planets: Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn that Mars, and each planet in the solar system, is unique due to the materials from which it is made and the processes that shaped it. Images and information from Mars exploration voyages, including the Viking Mission in 1975, the Pathfinder Landing in 1997, the Mars Global Surveyor project, the Mars Odyssey and Mars Express spacecrafts, the Mars Exploration Rovers, and the Reconnaissance Orbiter are presented. Students will learn about Mars mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), diameter, inclination to ecliptic, and number of observed satellites. The seasons, volcanoes, canyons and plains, craters, water, wind patterns, and two moons of Mars are also discussed.

281

In-situ Planet Formation: Implications for Planets near Resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a very simple model of planet formation in which planets grow in-situ, without migration or any dissipative process. Quite remarkably, this model exhibits an asymmetric distribution of orbital periods around mean motion resonances, with a gap around the nominal resonance location and a pile-up wide of the resonance, qualitatively similar to that observed in the Kepler sample of multiple planet systems. This suggests that dissipation and migration may not be necessary to account for the resonant features seen in Kepler data.

Malhotra, Renu; Petrovich, C.; Tremaine, S.

2013-10-01

282

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

283

Magnetic field of the planet Uranus: predictions, measurements, and interpretation  

SciTech Connect

The magnitude and tilt of the eccentric dipole of Uranus are examined in the framework of a processing dynamo model. It is shown that the unique parameters of the magnetic field of Uranus are connected with the fact that, unlike the other planets, the magnetic field of Uranus is generated in two bordering regions whose highly conducting materials differ sharply in density: the density anti rho = 12 g x cm/sup -3/ in a core with an upper boundary r = 0.3R/sub U/, and anti rho = 3.1 g x cm/sup -3/ in an ocean with an upper boundary r = 0.6R/sub U/. The upper boundary of the magnetically active region in the ocean is determined by the magnetic pressure P = 1.9 Mbar, at which the ocean material is metallized.

Dolginov, S.S.

1987-09-01

284

Ocean Terracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean

Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

2007-01-01

285

Coral bleaching threatens oceans, life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People around the world depend on the resources provided by the ocean to support life. But global-scale damage to the coral reefs, a large and integral part of the ocean environment that supports a variety of sea life, is a frightening prospect that may unfold in the coming years. Recently, a phenomenon called coral bleaching has raised concerns about the deteriorating conditions in the world's oceans and the implications for life on our planet.Coral bleaching occurs as coral tissue expels zooxanthellae, a symbiotic algae that resides in the structure of the coral and is essential to its survival. The widespread nature of the bleaching threatens the state of the environment.

Montgomery, R. S.; Strong, A. E.

286

Heat Content and Temperature of the Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global ocean is a vast body of water covering approximately two thirds of Earth's surface and having an average depth around 4,000 m. Temperatures in the ocean can range from a balmy 30°C in the surface layers of the tropics to an icy cold -2°C in polar regions and at abyssal depths. Apart from the strong spatial variability, water temperatures at a place also change on all time scales, from hours to decades. Variability in surface water temperatures affects air-sea heat exchange and is an important factor determining the nature and strength of ocean-atmosphere coupling. Changes in ocean temperatures imply expansion or contraction of the water column and can thus have a major impact on sea level. And given the large heat capacity of seawater compared to that of air and the large mass of the oceans compared to that of the atmosphere, relatively small fluctuations in oceanic temperatures imply substantial changes in heat content, which are essential for properly accounting for the planet's energy balance. As such, taking the temperature of the oceans and determining changes in its heat content is an essential diagnostic of the state of Earth's climate and the overall health of our planet.

Ponte, Rui M.

287

Habitable Zone of Land Planets; 1-D EBM with t Transportation of Surface Liquid Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abe et al. (2011) investigated climates on planets with a very small amount of water on their surface (called ‘land planets’). The notable feature of land planets is local balance between precipitation and evaporation. They, using GCM (General Circulation Model), have shown that liquid water is localized on high latitudes, while low latitudes are dried up. As a result, the value for incoming radiation by which liquid water on a land planet is completely evaporated (called the ‘complete evaporation limit’) corresponds to 170% of the incident solar flux that the present earth receives, which is substantially larger than that of a planet that is globally covered with ocean (122%, Nakajima et al. (1992)). The key for land planets to have large value for complete evaporation limit is the localization of liquid water on high latitudes. Their GCM, however, does not include transportation of liquid water on surface, which may disturb water localization. In order to investigate the influence of transportation of surface water on the complete evaporation limit for land planets, we develop the 1-D EBM (Energy Balance Model) including transportation of surface liquid water, which is given in forms of diffusion. As a result, we find that the complete evaporation limit is 122% of the incident solar flux when liquid water on planetary surface is transported very efficiently (one tenth as efficient as water vapor transportation in the atmosphere). This value is the same one as the complete evaporation limit for planets globally covered with ocean. On the other hand, when liquid water on the surface is not transported so efficiently (one five hundreds as efficient as water vapor transportation), water localization takes place and the complete evaporation limit of our model is about 140-150% of the incident solar flux, depending on the water content of the planet.

Takao, Yuya; Genda, H.; Kodama, T.; Abe, Y.

2011-09-01

288

Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research\\u000a aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using\\u000a messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of\\u000a “likes” voted by fans, and examined

Bei Yu; Miao Chen; Linchi Kwok

2011-01-01

289

Planet Earth: Its Past, Our Present, A Future (?)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We who have lived through the second half of the 20th century into the 21st century have witnessed a profound transition in the biological and physical relationship between humans and the rest of the planet. In the middle of the last century, our planet still had undeveloped islands: there were frontiers that held new lands, mysteries, adventures, cultures, and resources. However, these islands have merged into a relatively seamless planet by a mobile and expanding population, science and technology, and global communication. We are subject to stealth as well as natural disasters. Natural disasters result from the ongoing geological and meteorological processes on our planet, increasingly exacerbated by human presence and behavior. Stealth disasters, on the other hand, are caused by humans, but involve the natural systems that support us. Examples of stealth disasters are climate change, loss of soils, acidification of the oceans, desertification, and loss of groundwater resources. Civilization is a complex system. It has emergent properties, and a tuning parameter--a parameter that is "tuned" until the unexpected happens. The tuning parameter for populations is the number of members relative to the capacities that support them. Because of our sheer numbers, we are driving the stealth disasters, and we will be affected more severely by natural disasters than we have been in the past on a less densely populated planet. To guide our thinking about geoethical issues, we propose a (hypothetical) world organization modeled after the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the U.S., and call it the Center for Disaster Control for Planet Earth (CDCPE). This center would have a scientific body to provide impartial facts and uncertainties, an engineering body to propose and implement technical solutions, a negotiating body to balance the realities of political, economic, religious and cultural values, and an enforcement body that is responsive to all of the inputs. How shall we start?

Kieffer, S. W.

2012-04-01

290

Extrasolar planets in the classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of extrasolar planets is still, in comparison with other astrophysical topics, in its infancy. There have been about 300 or so extrasolar planets detected and their detection has been accomplished by various different techniques. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment to show how planets are detected using the transit technique. Following the simple analysis procedure describe we are able to determine the planetary radius to be 1.27 ± 0.20RJ which, within errors, agrees with the established value of 1.32 ± 0.25RJ.

George, Samuel J.

2011-07-01

291

Oceans, Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-01-01

292

Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of aragonite is 8.18 and 3.5). As a result of ocean fertilization, 10 years from now, the depth of saturation horizon (the depth below which ocean water is undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate) for aragonite in the Southern Ocean shoals from its present average value of about 700 m to 100 m. In contrast, no significant change in the depth of aragonite saturation horizontal is seen in the scenario without fertilization for the corresponding period. By year 2100, global mean calcite saturation horizon shoals from its present value of 3150 m to 2965 and 2534 m in the case without fertilization and with it. In contrast, if the sale of carbon credits from ocean fertilization leads to greater CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (e.g., if carbon credits from ocean fertilization are used to offset CO2 emissions from a coal plant), then there is the potential that ocean fertilization would further acidify the deep ocean without conferring any chemical benefit to surface ocean waters.

Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

2008-12-01

293

Multiple Planets Problems and Solutions in Astrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 2008, NASA asked the SIM project to conduct a double blind study to determine how well astrometry at the microarcsec level can detect Earth-like planets in the habitable zone in the environment of a multiple planet system. Astrometric planet detection looks for a periodic signature and confusion can result if two or more planets have orbital frequencies that

Michael Shao; C. Zhai; J. Catanzarite; T. Loredo; B. McArthur; F. Benedict

2009-01-01

294

How to Find a Habitable Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 400 extrasolar planets have now been discovered by ground-based methods, especially the radial velocity (RV) method. Most of these planets are much bigger than Earth, and only a handful of them are rocky planets that could conceivably harbor life. Within the next few years, we may be able to identify Earth-sized planets within the habitable zones around M stars

J. F. Kasting

2010-01-01

295

Chapter 24. Families of Minor Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how the families of minor planets were discovered and how minor planets are classified into families and shows several evidences that at least some families were originated by collisions of minor planets. In fact for major families there are much more fainter minor planets than in other regions and when the families were discovered by Hirayama in

Yoshihide Kozai

1988-01-01

296

Voyager to the Seventh Planet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents recent findings obtained by the Voyager 2 mission on Uranus. Updates information on the planet's moons, rings, atmosphere, and magnetic field. Illustrations and diagrams of selected aspects of Uranus are included. (ML)

Gold, Michael

1986-01-01

297

Voyager to the Seventh Planet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents recent findings obtained by the Voyager 2 mission on Uranus. Updates information on the planet's moons, rings, atmosphere, and magnetic field. Illustrations and diagrams of selected aspects of Uranus are included. (ML)|

Gold, Michael

1986-01-01

298

Updates from the California Planet Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the latest results from the California Planet Survey. The CPS a Doppler-based planet search at Lick and Keck Observatories that encompasses a wide variety of expolanetary science goals, and operates with a well-defined, publicly available star list and Exoplanet Database. Specific detections from this past year include 4 and 9 Earth-mass (msini) planets from the Eta-Earth program, three giant planets orbiting M dwarfs, updated multi-planet systems, five confirmed transiting planets from the Kepler mission, and 20 planets orbiting "retired" A-type stars. These discoveries have shed light onto the mass function of exoplanets over 3 orders of magnitude, increased our knowledge of planets beyond the ice line, revealed strong correlation between planet occurrence and stellar properties (metallicity and mass), and pointed the way to finding planets with the next generation of search methods such as direct imaging and astrometry.

Johnson, John; Wright, Jason; Howard, Andrew; Marcy, Geoff; Fischer, Debra; Anderson, Jay; Valenti, Jeff; Isaacson, Howard; Spronck, Julien

2010-05-01

299

Dictionary of Minor Planet Names  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure. IAU Commission 20 in 1988 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names. Under the chairmanship of the author, some 20 scientists took part in the preparation of the names database. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, minor planet names also provide a most interesting historical insight into the work of astronomers.

Schmadel, Lutz D.

300

The Planet-Metallicity Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently carried out spectral synthesis modeling to determine Teff, logg, vsini, and [Fe\\/H] for 1040 FGK-type stars on the Keck, Lick, and Anglo-Australian Telescope planet search programs. This is the first time that a single, uniform spectroscopic analysis has been made for every star on a large Doppler planet search survey. We identify a subset of 850 stars

Debra A. Fischer; Jeff Valenti

2005-01-01

301

Habitability of Planets in Binaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of currently known extrasolar planets indicates that close to 20% of\\u000atheir hosting stars are members of binary systems. While the majority of these\\u000abinaries are wide (i.e., with separations between 250 and 6500 AU), the\\u000adetection of Jovian-type planets in the three binaries of Gamma Cephei\\u000a(separation of 18.5 AU), GL 86 (separation of 21 AU), and

Nader Haghighipour

2007-01-01

302

White dwarf planets from GAIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the potential of high-precision astrometry with GAIA for detection of giant planetary companions to nearby white dwarfs. If one considers that, to date, no confirmed planets around single white dwarfs are known, the results from GAIA will be crucial to study the late-stage evolution of planetary systems and to verify the possibility that 2nd-generation planets are formed.

Silvotti, Roberto; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Mario

2010-11-01

303

Nine Planets: Planetary Picture List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of The Nine Planets provides links to internet solar system images of the nine planets and their moons. Images include the Sun, Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Moon, Mars (Phobos, Deimos), Jupiter (Amalthea, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto), Saturn (Pan, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus, Phoebe), Uranus (Puck, Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon), Neptune (Triton, Proteus), and Pluto with Charon. Miscellanous images include asteroids, comets, meteorites, and spacecraft.

304

The carbonate-silicate cycle and CO2/climate feedbacks on tidally locked terrestrial planets.  

PubMed

Atmospheric gaseous constituents play an important role in determining the surface temperatures and habitability of a planet. Using a global climate model and a parameterization of the carbonate-silicate cycle, we explored the effect of the location of the substellar point on the atmospheric CO(2) concentration and temperatures of a tidally locked terrestrial planet, using the present Earth continental distribution as an example. We found that the substellar point's location relative to the continents is an important factor in determining weathering and the equilibrium atmospheric CO(2) level. Placing the substellar point over the Atlantic Ocean results in an atmospheric CO(2) concentration of 7 ppmv and a global mean surface air temperature of 247 K, making ?30% of the planet's surface habitable, whereas placing it over the Pacific Ocean results in a CO(2) concentration of 60,311 ppmv and a global temperature of 282 K, making ?55% of the surface habitable. PMID:22775488

Edson, Adam R; Kasting, James F; Pollard, David; Lee, Sukyoung; Bannon, Peter R

2012-07-09

305

Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

Hillyard, Cinnamon

2007-01-01

306

Love and money in Kinois popular music  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay looks at the lyrical and performative conventions of popular music from Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, concentrating particularly on how these conventions interact with ideas of emotion and exchange in the region. Setting the romantic texts of popular songs in the context of wider patronage relationships, the essay argues that love and money are not

Joseph Trapido

2010-01-01

307

Popular Magazines Discuss Online Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines 55 articles from 25 popular magazines such as "Better Homes and Gardens,""Business Week,""Popular Mechanics," and "Working Woman" and discusses purpose of the articles, consumer oriented online services, libraries and information centers, databases, and publishers and intermediaries. A list of the articles is appended. (EJS)|

Diodato, Virgil

1984-01-01

308

Is political popularity a random walk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tets for nonstationarity in the political popularity of UK parties and governments within the context of an economic model which predicts that party support is an ARIMA (0, 1, 1) process. The hypothesis is rejected for the government's popularity but the results for individual party support are less clear out.

J. D. Byers

1991-01-01

309

LO POPULAR NO-RATING SOBERANÍA DE LA COMUNICACIÓN POPULAR EN AMÉRICA LATINA POPULAR NO RATING SOVEREIGNTY OF THE POPULAR COMMUNICATION IN LATIN AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a popular approach in construction, this essay focuses on the original concept of human communication. Similarly, approaches to the debate on the popular cultures in Latin America, built from the subjects, characterized by two apparently conflicting elements, which are intermingled. On the one hand, subjects are consumers of supply and cost-effective global mass media, which responds to the

Víctor Adrián; Díaz Esteves

310

Feminine and Feminist Transformation in Popular Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most communication research concerning women's magazines addresses the negative implications these popular culture artifacts have on women's identities in terms of constructing specific notions of femininity and appropriating feminist ideals. However, there has been little research on popular culture artifacts that explicitly contradict the messages of most contemporary women's magazines. This study applies and extends radical feminist Mary Daly's philosophical

Suzy DEnbeau

2009-01-01

311

Popular Culture Studies and Library Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course which investigates the nature and social functions of the contemporary popular culture as disseminated by the mass media and the relationship between the popular culture and the library is described. Forty-six references are given. (Author/PF)

Stevenson, Gordon

1975-01-01

312

Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

Hillyard, Cinnamon

2007-01-01

313

Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

314

Women in Popular Culture: A Reference Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book explores how women have been portrayed in various forms of American popular culture over the years. In an introductory section, it is suggested that popular culture has generally used women to represent a social mythology that is built around women's subordinate status, a position that current feminists reject. Chapter 1 reviews books…

Fishburn, Katherine

315

Popular Magazines Discuss Online Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines 55 articles from 25 popular magazines such as "Better Homes and Gardens,""Business Week,""Popular Mechanics," and "Working Woman" and discusses purpose of the articles, consumer oriented online services, libraries and information centers, databases, and publishers and intermediaries. A list of the articles is appended. (EJS)

Diodato, Virgil

1984-01-01

316

Investigating the Worldwide Popularity of Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of forensic science has increased dramatically over the past decade throughout the United States. However, has this popularity spread to other countries around the world and to what extent? In the United States, there are numerous television shows focusing on the law and crime scene analysis, including “CSI,” “Law and Order,” “24,” “Crossing Jordan,” and “Forensic Files,” just

Heather Stankiewicz

2007-01-01

317

Tusker Project Fame: Ethnic States, Popular Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnicity has come to be the dominant currency of Kenya's politics over recent years. This article explores the social meaning of ethnicity through an examination of ethnic stereotyping, as this is revealed in a variety of popular discourses. Stereotypes are forged and circulated within popular sites of cultural encounter, and they are one of the principal means through which the

Mbugua Wa-Mungai

2007-01-01

318

Investigations on Privacy in Popular Online Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the topic of privacy in popular online systems. First the problem is adduced that many people using online systems are unaware of which information about their personalities is collected. Then the denition of online privacy follows. Therefore some important criterias to compare popular online systems in a proper way are given. After the determinations of these

Sabine Weiss; Christof Hoell

319

Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

Estes, Jack

320

A new view on planet formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard picture of planet formation posits that giant gas planets are over-grown rocky planets massive enough to attract enormous gas atmospheres. It has been shown recently that the opposite point of view is physically plausible: the rocky terrestrial planets are former giant planet embryos dried of their gas ``to the bone'' by the influences of the parent star. Here we provide a brief overview of this ``Tidal Downsizing'' hypothesis in the context of the Solar System structure.

Nayakshin, Sergei

2011-11-01

321

The evolution of ocean color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analog examples of what primeval oceans might have looked in the Precambrian are probably extant in various regions and at various size scales in present day oceans albeit they have not been sufficiently recognized and/or studied. The Eastern Boundary Current Ecosystems (EBCEs), with their characteristic high productivity-inducing coastal upwelling events, their extensive and intensive anoxic/hypoxic water column and methane and sulfide-rich benthic environment, appear to represent such analogs. Moreover, recent studies have shown that they possess diverse anaerobic prokaryotic communities of mat-forming large multi-cellular filamentous bacteria similar to fossils found in Archean and Proterozoic rocks. Observations in the Bay of Concepcion, central Chile (~36°S), inserted in the second most productive EBCE of the world, suggests that given similar oceanographic dynamics, past oceans may have presented different predominant colorations after the first probable "red" color of the reduced iron-rich Archean ocean and prior to the present day "blue" color. In this coastal ecosystem a "black" coloration has been observed to form as the result of the floating to the surface layer of sulfide-blackened benthic detritus together with chunks of microbial mats, and a "milky to turquoise" coloration resulting from different concentrations of colloidal, nano-sized particles which may include elemental sulfur and/or microorganisms. If the present is the key to the past we posit that "black" color oceans could have existed during the Proterozoic "Canfield sulfidic ocean" followed by "milky to turquoise" colored oceans during later stages of the Proterozoic. Meso-scale examples of "milky" and "turquoise" portions of oceans, caused by elemental sulfur from oxidized hydrogen sulfide eruptions, have been described from off Namibia and there appear to also exist elsewhere. Examples of "black" oceans have apparently not been reported but the name of the Black Sea, the largest permanent anoxic basin on Earth, suggests that at some point in time it may have been black, at least locally and/or for short periods, prompting the name. We conclude suggesting that analogous to the present "Blue Planet" denomination, in the past our Earth could possibly have deserved the successive names of "Red", "Black" and "Milky-Turquoise" Planet.

Gallardo, Victor A.; Espinoza, Carola

2008-08-01

322

Slime Worlds: Possibilities for Detection of Microbial Life on Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest that on extrasolar planets on which life has not made the transition to mult-cellular organisms, land surfaces may be covered by bacterial mats, algae, or slimes. If photosynthetic, such land-based, large-scale microbial colonies would show the well-known "red edge" of chlorophylls in their spectra. They would give much stronger spectral signatures for detection of life on extrasolar planets than microbes/algae in oceans or lakes, and their spectra would resemble the chlorophyll signatures of land vegetation. Therefore, life may be detectable on extrasolar planets early in their history, before the relatively late (if similar to Earth) advent of land plants, or if the transition to multicellular life does not occur at all. We show synthetic spectra of land microorganisms on Earth-like extrasolar planets.

Knacke, R. F.

2004-12-01

323

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data â both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Lightle, Kimberly; Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-10-01

324

Is Commercial Culture Popular Culture?: A Question for Popular Communication Scholars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay compares commercial culture with popular culture, reviewing different conceptualizations of the terms. It posits that there are significant differences, but that commercial culture increasingly intrudes on other forms of culture. The essay ar- gues that popular communication scholars are well positioned to develop new per- spectives and techniques to understand hybrid versions of popular-commercial cul- ture. Watts and

Matthew P. McAllister

2003-01-01

325

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Cole, Ms.

2011-04-07

326

PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING LEADS TO TIGHTLY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The known extrasolar multiple-planet systems share a surprising dynamical attribute: they cluster just beyond the Hill stability boundary. Here we show that the planet-planet scattering model, which naturally explains the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution, can reproduce the observed distribution of dynamical configurations. We calculated how each of our scattered systems would appear over an appropriate range of viewing geometries; as Hill stability is weakly dependent on the masses, the mass-inclination degeneracy does not significantly affect our results. We consider a wide range of initial planetary mass distributions and find that some are poor fits to the observed systems. In fact, many of our scattering experiments overproduce systems very close to the stability boundary. The distribution of dynamical configurations of two-planet systems may provide better discrimination between scattering models than the distribution of eccentricity. Our results imply that, at least in their inner regions which are weakly affected by gas or planetesimal disks, planetary systems should be 'packed', with no large gaps between planets.

Raymond, Sean N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Barnes, Rory [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Veras, Dimitri [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Armitage, Philip J. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu

2009-05-01

327

Modeled flux and polarization signals of horizontally inhomogeneous exoplanets applied to Earth-like planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present modeled flux and linear polarization signals of starlight that is reflected by spatially unresolved, horizontally inhomogeneous planets and discuss the effects of including horizontal inhomogeneities on the flux and polarization signals of Earth-like exoplanets. Methods: Our code is based on an efficient adding-doubling algorithm, which fully includes multiple scattering by gases and aerosol/cloud particles. We divide a model planet into pixels that are small enough for the local properties of the atmosphere and surface (if present) to be horizontally homogeneous. Given a planetary phase angle, we sum up the reflected total and linearly polarized fluxes across the illuminated and visible part of the planetary disk, taking care to properly rotate the polarized flux vectors towards the same reference plane. Results: We compared flux and polarization signals of simple horizontally inhomogeneous model planets against results of the weighted sum approximation, in which signals of horizontally homogeneous planets are combined. Apart from cases in which the planet has only a minor inhomogeneity, the signals differ significantly. In particular, the shape of the polarization phase function appears to be sensitive to the horizontal inhomogeneities. The same holds true for Earth-like model planets with patchy clouds above an ocean and a sandy continent. Our simulations clearly show that horizontal inhomogeneities leave different traces in flux and polarization signals. Combining flux with polarization measurements would help retrieving the atmospheric and surface patterns on a planet.

Karalidi, T.; Stam, D. M.

2012-10-01

328

Diamond, Carbide and Carbonate Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than five hundred planets have been discovered outside of our solar system to date, yet very little is known of their internal compositions and subsequent mineralogy. The principal factors in determining planetary mineralogy are nebula composition, pressure, temperature and oxygen fugacity. While work has been done on determining the stable minerals with respect to pressure and temperature in these planets, very little has been done in determining the oxygen fugacity and the resulting geology. Planetary formation models propose a new kind of planet: carbon super-Earths. The planets have very high C/Fe ratios and are unlike any in our solar system. The interplay between carbon, oxygen and iron in these planets provide an end-member test of the effects of oxygen fugacity on carbon mineralogy as well as the potential for carbon entering Earth's core as iron-carbide. We combine experimental diamond anvil cell x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy with thermochemical modeling to determine the oxidation state and relative oxidation potential of the siderite-diamond-wüstite (SDW) buffer relative to the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer over a range of pressures spanning those of Earth's lower mantle to that of a carbon super-Earth. We find that over all pressures along a mantle adiabat, the SDW buffer is above the IW buffer, suggesting that both the Earth and carbon super-Earth mantles contain reduced species of carbon. Experiments to 65 GPa and 2400 K on siderite, iron, and wüstite mixtures show reduction of carbon to diamond via x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and STEM-EDX. The reduced carbon present in these planets will therefore be present as iron carbide with excess diamond. In a carbon super-Earth, differentiation processes will sequester iron carbide into a core, leaving a significant inventory of diamond in the mantle. We present mass-radius relationships for such planets and implications for the dynamical evolution of diamond-rich mantles.

Unterborn, C. T.; Panero, W. R.; Kabbes, J. E.

2011-12-01

329

Photochemistry of the Giant Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photochemistry in the hydrogen-dominated atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune is interesting and complex despite the large heliocentric distances involved. Methane photochemistry dominates in the stratospheres of the giant planets; other "parent" molecules like H2O, NH3, and H2S are trapped in condensed phases and are confined to the troposphere. Methane photolysis initiates the production of complex hydrocarbons like C2H6, C2H2, C2H4, CH3C2H, C4H2, C6H6, and CH3 -- all of which have been detected on Jupiter and Saturn, and some of which have been detected on Uranus and Neptune. The photochemistry of ammonia and phosphine are coupled in the tropospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Predicted products of this interaction include N2, N2H4, P4, P2H4, NH2PH2, with much lesser amounts of HCP, HCN, other nitriles like HC3N, CH3CN, and C2H3CN, and complex organo-nitrogen compounds like acetaldazine. None of these species have been definitively detected on the giant planets (except for HCN on Neptune and Jupiter). Water resides too deep in the tropospheres of the giant planets to interact with ultraviolet photons; however, oxygen is introduced to the upper atmospheres of the giant planets through external interaction with comets, interplanetary dust particles, and ring/satellite debris. The endproducts of the stratospheric oxygen photochemistry are CO, H2O, and CO2, with lesser amounts of H2CO, CH3OH, and CH3CHO. The possible tropospheric photochemistry of H2S on the giant planets is poorly understood due to a dearth of appropriate rate-coefficient information. Recent advances in our understanding of atmospheric photochemistry of giant planets, including that of extrasolar giant planets, will be reviewed.

Moses, J. I.

2003-12-01

330

Light Scattering from Exoplanet Oceans and Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude = 180deg, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30deg. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74deg; however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column, dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90deg, but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination. This research was funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, the University of Washington Virtual Planetary Laboratory, and the Penn State Astrobiology Institute. Authors M. Zugger, J. Kasting, and D. Williams are members of the Penn State Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds.

Zugger, Michael; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M.; Kane, T. J.; Philbrick, C. R.

2011-01-01

331

LIGHT SCATTERING FROM EXOPLANET OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect

Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude (OL) = 180{sup 0}, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30{sup 0}. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74{sup 0}; however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90{sup 0}, but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however, polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination.

Zugger, M. E.; Kane, T. J. [Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University, P.O. Box 30, State College, PA 16804 (United States); Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Philbrick, C. R. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, 432 Riddick Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

2010-11-10

332

Finding Materials on American Popular Culture in the MSU Libraries: Popular Music, Television, Comics, Popular Fiction, Movies. How to Find Series No. 9.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An introduction to popular culture materials in the Michigan State University Libraries, this combination library guide and bibliography presents finding tools for popular fiction, comic materials, popular music, movies, and television programming. It pro...

R. W. Scott

1980-01-01

333

NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

2003-03-01

334

When, and from where, do habitable planets acquire their carbon?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like water, carbon is considered an essential ingredient for life. Questions regarding (1) the timing of delivery and (2) the sources of the water in the Earth's oceans have been welladdressed. However, the same questions regarding carbon still remain largely unanswered. Like water, carbon must have arrived in some kind of condensible form; PAHs would have been the most abundant candidate. We are using models for planet formation, for protoplanetary disks, and for nebular chemistry to provide constraints on how and when Earth acquired carbon. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a refractory and stable family of carbon compounds, are abundant in the interstellar medium. Carbon in meteorites is mostly bound in large PAH- like structures. Models for the chemistry of sooting flames show that typical inner nebula conditions destroy, rather than form, PAHs. Isotopic studies of PAHs in chondritic meteorites agree that these compounds have a presolar heritage. Ordinary chondrites, thought to come from the asteroids located at ˜2.2 AU, contain very little carbon or water. By contrast, the carbonaceous chondrites (which are thought to come from the outer-belt asteroids, ˜3.3 AU) contain ˜10% by weight water of hydration and as much as 5% carbon, much of it in the form of aromatically-bound PAH-like structures. Simulations of the formation of Earth-like planets demonstrate that large amounts of solid material may be transferred from >3 AU to the habitable zone (˜1AU) throughout the planetforming process. The composition of the inner planets is highly dependent not only on the presence of giant planets, but also on their orbital properties. These simulations also show that much of the Earth's water came from what is now the outer asteroid belt (and the source region of carbonaceous chondrites). Stochastic and systematic variations in the accretion of carbonaceous material can alter the carbon and water budgets of terrestrial planets by up to several orders of magnitude, suggesting the possibility of particularly carbon-rich or carbonpoor worlds.

Kress, Monika; Meadows, Victoria; Raymond, Sean; Tielens, Alexander

335

Planet Finder: Discovering Extra-solar Planets Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates the technique for detecting extrasolar planets through measurements of the Doppler shift of spectral lines of the star due to the star's reflex motion. The applet generates randomized data of the Doppler velocity representing observations of a planetary system. The object of the game is to adjust the parameters of the orbit so that the Doppler curve will fit the specified data. The user can control the semi-major axis, eccentricity, inclination, node angle, planet mass and the phase. This is part of a larger collection of applets by STEM Colorado focused mostly on topics in astronomy.

Mccray, Richard; Koelemay, Andrew

2008-11-04

336

and Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of electromagnetic induction within a hemispherical conducting sheet over a nonconductor and underlain by a concentric sphere of uniform conductivity is de- scribed. The theory is applied to the induction by Sq in a vast ocean. It is concluded that the electric currents induced in the ocean are considerably smaller than those estimated for a single hemispherical sheet,

TSUNEJI IIKITAKE

1961-01-01

337

Ocean eddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and empirical data for three classes of ocean eddies are summarized: 1) gigantic anticyclonic gyres; 2) meanders, rings, and synoptic eddies in the open ocean; and, 3) mesoscale eddies (lenses of foreign waters and rotating cells of forced convection). A number of new results obtained in the last few years are reported: linear and nonlinear instability of gigantic

A S Monin; G M Zhikharev

1990-01-01

338

Ocean Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast reports on ways to put ocean water to work doing everything from running steam engines and providing electricity to providing air conditioning and growing marine life and vegetables. After harnessing the power of the sea, the water is still clean and can be returned to the ocean. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

339

Ocean Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

Nasa

340

Planet-Star Interactions in Eccentric Sytems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrasolar planets orbiting on short orbital distances have violent planet-star interactions that determine their survival and evolution. We propose to utilize the unique geometry of giant planets in elliptical orbits to study planet-star interactions with XMM. Statistical surveys suggest an exponential relation between X-ray flux and the orbital distance, and we propose to measure X-ray variability along the orbits of various planetary systems. Our XMM observations will determine whether or not the planets have magnetospheres, sample the stellar wind and quantitatively assess planet-star interaction models. Even more so, these observations might evoke a new way of discovering exoplanets with XMM.

Bodewits, Dennis

2009-10-01

341

Popularity versus similarity in growing networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preferential attachment is a powerful mechanism explaining the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are established preferentially to more popular nodes in a network, then the network is scale-free. Here we show that not only popularity but also similarity is a strong force shaping the network structure and dynamics. We develop a framework where new connections, instead of preferring popular nodes, optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity. The framework admits a geometric interpretation, in which preferential attachment emerges from local optimization processes. As opposed to preferential attachment, the optimization framework accurately describes large-scale evolution of technological (Internet), social (web of trust), and biological (E.coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links in them with a remarkable precision. The developed framework can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon.

Krioukov, Dmitri; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, Mariangeles; Boguna, Marian

2012-02-01

342

THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXII. TWO NEW MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005 {+-} 427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3 M{sub Jup}. HD 142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 {+-} 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3 {+-} 1.3 days and m sin i = 0.73 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Jup}. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Salter, G. S.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Tuomi, Mikko; Zhang, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Butler, R. P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Jones, H. R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); O'Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Carter, B. D. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Jenkins, J. S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Vogt, S. S.; Rivera, Eugenio J., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-07-10

343

Hall of Meteorites: Building Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses how meteorites reveal the processes at work deep inside planets. Under the topics crust, mantle, and core, students can watch an animation showing differentiation. Some meteorites come from pre-planetary bodies that melted, causing the rock and metals to separate into distinct parts. This is the same process that caused the separation of planets into layers. In regard to iron crystals, students learn that in the metal cores of partially molten asteroids, iron-nickel alloys crystallized in a distinctive pattern and that iron never crystallizes this way on Earth's surface, so any piece of metal showing this pattern on Earth is definitely from a meteorite. The final two topics offer evidence that meteorites have come both from the asteroid Vesta and the planet Mars.

344

The Capacity of the Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students "demonstrate the ability to represent numbers in scientific notation and use geometry to solve problems about planets in the solar system." This is the third in a series of activities called Math Space Odyssey from PBS's Mathline, and it asks students to calculate the capacity and area of the planets in the Milky Way. In addition, students convert numbers to scientific notation, calculate the distance between planets, and are asked to create and solve their own problem dealing with distance or capacity in the solar system. All relevant data needed is provided on a chart on this site, and the activity and answers can be downloaded as PDFs and printed, ready for classroom use.

2009-01-01

345

Popularity versus similarity in growing networks.  

PubMed

The principle that 'popularity is attractive' underlies preferential attachment, which is a common explanation for the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are made preferentially to more popular nodes, then the resulting distribution of the number of connections possessed by nodes follows power laws, as observed in many real networks. Preferential attachment has been directly validated for some real networks (including the Internet), and can be a consequence of different underlying processes based on node fitness, ranking, optimization, random walks or duplication. Here we show that popularity is just one dimension of attractiveness; another dimension is similarity. We develop a framework in which new connections optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity, instead of simply preferring popular nodes. The framework has a geometric interpretation in which popularity preference emerges from local optimization. As opposed to preferential attachment, our optimization framework accurately describes the large-scale evolution of technological (the Internet), social (trust relationships between people) and biological (Escherichia coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links with high precision. The framework that we have developed can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon. PMID:22972194

Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián; Krioukov, Dmitri

2012-09-12

346

AN ULTRACOOL STAR'S CANDIDATE PLANET  

SciTech Connect

We report here the discovery of the first planet around an ultracool dwarf star. It is also the first extrasolar giant planet astrometrically discovered around a main-sequence star. The statistical significance of the detection is shown in two ways. First, there is a 2 x 10{sup -8} probability that the astrometric motion fits a parallax-and-proper-motion-only model. Second, periodogram analysis shows a false alarm probability of 3 x 10{sup -5} that the discovered period is randomly generated. The planetary mass is M {sub 2} = 6.4 (+2.6,-3.1) Jupiter-masses (M {sub J}), and the orbital period is P = 0.744 (+0.013,-0.008) yr in the most likely model. In less likely models, companion masses that are higher than the 13 M {sub J} planetary mass limit are ruled out by past radial velocity (RV) measurements unless the system RV is more than twice the current upper limits and the near-periastron orbital phase was never observed. This new planetary system is remarkable, in part, because its star, VB 10, is near the lower mass limit for a star. Our astrometric observations provide a dynamical mass measurement and will in time allow us to confront the theoretical models of formation and evolution of such systems and their members. We thus add to the diversity of planetary systems and to the small number of known M-dwarf planets. Planets such as VB 10b could be the most numerous type of planets because M stars comprise >70% of all stars. To date they have remained hidden since the dominant RV planet-discovery technique is relatively insensitive to these dim, red systems.

Pravdo, Steven H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 306-431, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Shaklan, Stuart B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 301-451, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: spravdo@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: stuart.shaklan@jpl.nasa.gov

2009-07-20

347

The Sun, stars and planets (Christiaan Huygens Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using stellar occultations as a tool to probe the planetary atmospheres has resulted in significant contributions to the exploration of our solar system. The technique of solar occultation has been well known for decades, but because of stars being so faint objects with respect to the Sun this technique was not very popular in the 70's. While fostering the idea of stellar occultations, I tried to avoid the unfortunate fate of Giordano Bruno, who was burned to death on February 17, 1600: he had dared to declare that the stars were objects like the sun, only much more remote. This talk will illustrate some results obtained by the star occultation technique by one scientific example on each of the three planets which are equipped with a stellar occultation instrument: GOMOS on ENVISAT (ozone monitoring), SPICAM on board Mars Express (temperature profiles), and SPICAV on Venus Express (SO2). I will also talk about Cristiaan Huygens, the first to discuss (according to the historical review of Pierre Connes) the problem of extra-solar planets in modern scientific terms which are still valid to day. Finally, I will address the threat to the planet Earth posed by Mankind, with some discussions about demography and geo-engineering.

Bertaux, Jean-Loup

2010-05-01

348

Modeling Hot and Cold Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the student pages for a three part lesson plan in which students investigate a physical model representing a cold and a hot planet. In the second part, the students interact with a computer model that simulates extreme conditions on some planets, and in the third part they will utilize a data source from the internet to determine the average temperature of the earth and specify the characteristics of a sampling necessary to achieve an accurate average. The lesson plan includes an overview, learning objectives, a list of materials, procedure, data analysis, and worksheets. Teachers' notes are also included.

349

Lectures on the planets - The terrestrial planets and life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of life on earth and the question of life on Mars and Venus are considered. The orbital and atmospheric characteristics of the planets are presented in tables, and it is inferred from the contrast between actual and equilibrium concentrations of gases in the earth's atmosphere that biological activity has created and maintained the atmosphere as we know it.

J. Blamont

1983-01-01

350

A Search for Potential Habitable Planets in Multiple Planet Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the detection of habitable terrestrial planets around nearby stars is currently beyond our observational capabilities, carrying out dynamical studies of known extrasolar planetary systems allows us to search for potential candidates. Following from the work of Menou & Tabachnik (2003), we use a symplectic integrator to search for potential stable terrestrial planetary orbits in the habitable zones of known

S. T. Maddison; M. C. Gino; A. Munro; P. Hinds

2004-01-01

351

Orbits and Interiors of Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing independent constraints for the solar system's birth environment. Next, we addressed a significant drawback of the original Nice model, namely its inability to create the physically unique, cold classical population of the Kuiper Belt. Specifically, we showed that a locally-formed cold belt can survive the transient instability, and its relatively calm dynamical structure can be reproduced. The last four chapters of this thesis address various aspects and consequences of dynamical relaxation of planetary orbits through dissipative effects as well as the formation of planets in binary stellar systems. Using octopole-order secular perturbation theory, we demonstrated that in multi-planet systems, tidal dissipation often drives orbits onto dynamical "fixed points," characterized by apsidal alignment and lack of periodic variations in eccentricities. We applied this formalism towards investigating the possibility that the large orbital eccentricity of the transiting Neptune-mass planet Gliese 436b is maintained in the face of tidal dissipation by a second planet in the system and computed a locus of possible orbits for the putative perturber. Following up along similar lines, we used various permutations of secular theory to show that when applied specifically to close-in low-mass planetary systems, various terms in the perturbation equations become separable, and the true masses of the planets can be solved for algebraically. In practice, this means that precise knowledge of the system's orbital state can resolve the sin( i) degeneracy inherent to non-transiting planets. Subsequently, we investigated the onset of chaotic motion in dissipative planetary systems. We worked in the context of classical secular perturbation theory, and showed that planetary systems approach chaos via the so-called period-doubling route. Furthermore, we demonstrated that chaotic strange attractors can exist in mildly damped systems, such as photo-evaporating nebulae that host multiple planets. Finally, we considered planetary formation in highly inclined binary systems,

Batygin, Konstantin

2012-05-01

352

ConcepTest: Jovian Planet Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The characteristics of four planets are listed below. Which planet is most likely to be classified as Jovian? a. Mainly rocky, volcanism, low gravity. b. Mainly rocky, no volcanism, high gravity. c. Mainly gaseous, ...

353

Wavefront Control for the Gemini Planet Imager.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wavefront control strategy for the proposed Gemini Planet Imager, an extreme adaptive optics coronagraph for planet detection, is presented. Two key parts of this strategy are experimentally verified in a testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics,...

B. Macintosh D. Dillon J. P. Veran L. A. Poyneer S. Severson

2006-01-01

354

Oceanic Tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomena of tides are a matter of common experience: ocean tides under the influence of the Moon and the Sun, differences of the surface level of the oceans reaching several meters, following well-established cycles. In the present chapter we propose a first step in the general and classical mathematical formulations of the tidal potential and tidal force. Then we apply this formulation to the concrete case of the lunisolar ocean tides at a given point of the surface of the sea. At the end we give a review of various tidal manifestations all around the world.

Simon, Bernard; Lemaitre, Anne; Souchay, Jean

355

Earth's Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides a good introduction to the structure of the ocean. Included are excellent graphics and text about patterns of ocean salinity and temperature with depth, as well as surface currents, deep ocean circulation and even the water cycle. Extensive in-text links provide the means for users to explore the content in an open-ended fashion, although some might find the lack of any obvious top-level navigation to be disorienting.

2008-01-01

356

Habitable Planet Formation in Binary Planetary Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent radial velocity observations have indicated that Jovian-type planets can exist in moderately close binary star systems. Numerical simulations of the dynamical stability of terrestrial-class planets in such environments have shown that, in addition to their giant planets, these systems can also harbor Earth-like objects. In this paper we study the late stage of terrestrial planet formation in such binary

Nader Haghighipour; Sean N. Raymond

2007-01-01

357

Astronomers Find Planet with Similarities to Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomers have found a new planet that is more like Earth than the other extrasolar planets found before, which were large and gaseous. This radio broadcast reports on this newly discovered planet, which appears to be small and rocky. The new terrestrial planet is extremely hot as it orbits very close to its star, Gliese 876. The clip is 1 minute and 58 seconds in length.

358

A Unique Solution of Planet and Star Parameters from an Extrasolar Planet Transit Light Curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a unique solution of the planet and star parameters from a planet transit light curve with two or more transits if the planet has a circular orbit and the light curve is observed in a bandpass where limb darkening is negligible. The existence of this unique solution is very useful for current planet transit surveys for several reasons.

Sara Seager; G. Mallén-Ornelas

2003-01-01

359

Habitable planet formation in extreme planetary systems: systems with multiple stars and\\/or multiple planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of habitable planets in extrasolar planetary systems is a challenging task. In this respect, systems with multiple giant planets and\\/or multiple stars present special complications. The formation of habitable planets in these environments is strongly affected by the dynamics of their giant planets and\\/or their stellar companions. These objects have profound effects on the

Nader Haghighipour

2008-01-01

360

Radar Images of the Earth: Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features links to seven NASA radar images of the world's oceans, including brief descriptions of the respective processes and settings. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radar illuminates Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

361

The Nine Planets: The Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of the Nine Planets gives detailed data about the Sun, including diameter, mass, temperature, how energy is made, mythology, composition, and recent data collected from spacecraft. Layers of the Sun are discussed, including the corona, chromosphere, and photosphere. Images and links to additional images and movies are provided, as well as questions still unanswered about the sun.

Arnett, Bill

362

Finding Spring on Planet X  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

Simoson, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

363

Jovian Planet Finder optical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jovian Planet Finder (JPF) is a proposed NASA MIDEX mission to place a highly optimized coronagraphic telescope on the International Space Station (ISS) to image Jupiter-like planets around nearby stars. The optical system is an off-axis, unobscured telescope with a 1.5 m primary mirror. A classical Lyot coronagraph with apodized occulting spots is used to reduce diffracted light from the central star. In order to provide the necessary contrast for detection of a planet, scattered light from mid-spatial-frequency errors is reduced by using super-smooth optics. Recent advances in polishing optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography have shown that a factor of >30 reduction in midfrequency errors relative to those in the Hubble Space Telescope is possible (corresponding to a reduction in scattered light of nearly 1000x). The low level of scattered and diffracted light, together with a novel utilization of field rotation introduced by the alt-azimuth ISS telescope mounting, will provide a relatively low-cost facility for not only imaging extrasolar planets, but also circumstellar disks, host galaxies of quasars, and low-mass substellar companions such as brown dwarfs.

Krist, John E.; Clampin, Mark; Petro, Larry; Woodruff, Robert A.; Ford, Holland C.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Ftaclas, Christ

2003-02-01

364

Scientific Ballooning at the Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap published in May 2003 calls for an investment in aerial mobility in planetary atmospheres to enable key scientific observations at Titan, Venus and Mars. In the case of Venus, the only planet so far explored by balloon, future mission prospects range from extended reconnaissance missions in the high atmosphere to the use of balloons in

J. Cutts; P. Beauchamp; A. Elfes; J. Hall; T. Johnson; J. Jones; V. Kerzhanovich; A. Yavrouian; W. Zimmerman

2004-01-01

365

Formation of the Giant Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of a gaseous envelope surrounding a protoplanet has been investigated in connection with the formation of the giant planets. Under the assumptions of spherical symmetry and hydrostatic equilibrium, the structure has been calculated for the regions of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Energy transfer in the envelope has been taken into account precisely. When the core mass increases

Hiroshi Mizuno

1980-01-01

366

Final Stages of Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address three questions regarding solar system planets: What determined their number? Why are their orbits nearly circular and coplanar? How long did they take to form? Runaway accretion in a disk of small bodies resulted in a tiny fraction of the bodies growing much larger than all the others. These big bodies dominated the viscous stirring of all bodies. Dynamical friction by small bodies cooled the random velocities of the big ones. Random velocities of small bodies were cooled by mutual collisions and/or gas drag. Runaway accretion terminated when the orbital separations of the big bodies became as wide as their feeding zones. This was followed by oligarchic growth during which the big bodies maintained similar masses and uniformly spaced semimajor axes. As the oligarchs grew, their number density decreased, but their surface mass density increased. We depart from standard treatments of planet formation by assuming that as the big bodies got bigger, the small ones got smaller as the result of undergoing a collisional fragmentation cascade. It follows that oligarchy was a brief stage in solar system evolution. When the oligarchs' surface mass density matched that of the small bodies, dynamical friction was no longer able to balance viscous stirring, so their velocity dispersion increased to the extent that their orbits crossed. This marked the end of oligarchy. What happened next differed in the inner and outer parts of the planetary system. In the inner part, where the ratios of the escape velocities from the surfaces of the planets to the escape velocities from their orbits are smaller than unity, big bodies collided and coalesced after their random velocities became comparable to their escape velocities. In the outer part, where these ratios are larger than unity, the random velocities of some of the big bodies continued to rise until they were ejected. In both parts, the number density of the big bodies eventually decreased to the extent that gravitational interactions among them no longer produced large-scale chaos. After that their orbital eccentricities and inclinations were damped by dynamical friction from the remaining small bodies. The last and longest stage in planet formation was the cleanup of small bodies. Our understanding of this stage is fraught with uncertainty. The surviving protoplanets cleared wide gaps around their orbits that inhibited their ability to accrete small bodies. Nevertheless, in the inner planet system, all of the material in the small bodies ended up inside planets. Small bodies in the outer planet system probably could not have been accreted in the age of the solar system. A second generation of planetesimals may have formed in the disk of small bodies, by either collisional coagulation or gravitational instability. In the outer planet system, bodies of kilometer size or larger would have had their random velocities excited until their orbits crossed those of neighboring protoplanets. Ultimately they would have either escaped from the Sun or become residents of the Oort Cloud. An important distinction is that growth of the inner planets continued through cleanup, whereas assembly of the outer planets was essentially complete by the end of oligarchy. These conclusions imply that the surface density of the protoplanetary disk was that of the minimum solar mass nebula in the inner planet region but a few times larger in the outer planet region. The timescale through cleanup was set by the accretion rate at the geometrical cross section in the inner planet region and by the ejection rate at the gravitationally enhanced cross section in the outer planet region. It was a few hundred million years in the former and a few billion years in the latter. However, since Uranus and Neptune acquired most of their mass by the end of oligarchy, they may have formed before Earth! A few implications of the above scenario are worth noting. Impacts among protoplanets of comparable size were common in the inner planet system but not in the outer. Ejections from the outer planet system included sever

Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em

2004-10-01

367

Habitable Planets with High Obliquities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth's obliquity would vary chaotically from 0 deg to 85 deg were it not for the presence of the Moon (J. Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, 1993, Nature 361, 615-617). The Moon itself is thought to be an accident of accretion, formed by a glancing blow from a Mars-sized planetesimal. Hence, planets with similar moons and stable obliquities may

Darren M. Williams; James F. Kasting

1997-01-01

368

Angular Momenta of the Planets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The angular momentum densities of planet-satellite systems (including the asteroids but excepting Venus, Mercury, Mars, and Neptune), viewed as a rest in their solar orbits, exhibit a regularity expressed by A=k(M to the 2/3 power, where A is the angular ...

F. F. Fish

1967-01-01

369

Diamonds in the outer planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of space exploration over the last 2 years have provoked considerable and widespread interest, among geoscientists, in the interiors of the outer planets. Even new data on remote Uranus and Neptune are becoming available, and so it is not unusual to expect a round of new speculation on their interior compositions and properties. In a very recent article

Peter M. Bell

1981-01-01

370

The Chemistry of the Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces knowledge of planetary chemistry for possible use in teaching. Discusses the chemical composition of the planets; the atmosphere and clouds of Venus, Jupiter and its moons, and Titan. Includes diagrams of the greenhouse effects in the solar system, elemental abundances, and the chemical composition of Jupiter. (RT)

Blake, Peter

1988-01-01

371

The Realm of Extrasolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 1995, an article published in Nature [1] put planetary sciences not only as a new hot field in both observational and theoretical astrophysics but also as a topic with a large impact toward the layman. This article was reporting the first discovery of a planet orbiting a star beyond our Sun, namely the solar-type star 51 Pegasi. Nearly

Roger Ferlet

2010-01-01

372

Jupiter: Lord of the Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a chapter from an introductory college-level astronomy textbook in which full-color photographs and numerous diagrams highlight an extensive description of the planet Jupiter. Topics include Jupiter's geology, rotation, magnetic field, atmosphere (including clouds and winds), and the Great Red Spot. (DH)|

Kaufmann, William

1984-01-01

373

The Chemistry of the Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces knowledge of planetary chemistry for possible use in teaching. Discusses the chemical composition of the planets; the atmosphere and clouds of Venus, Jupiter and its moons, and Titan. Includes diagrams of the greenhouse effects in the solar system, elemental abundances, and the chemical composition of Jupiter. (RT)|

Blake, Peter

1988-01-01

374

Tracking Planets around the Sun  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

Riddle, Bob

2008-01-01

375

Do Other Planets Have Summer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It's important to keep two things in mind when thinking about the cause of the seasons: (1) Earth and all the other planets except Pluto and Mercury move around the Sun in almost perfect circles, getting neither closer nor farther away from the Sun during the year; and (2) Earth's rotation axis is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit…

Nelson, George

2005-01-01

376

Exploring Mercury. The iron planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

How did Mercury get such an enormous iron core? Why is its tectonic framework so different from any other planet or satellite? What is its crystal composition? Why is the crust so depleted in iron when the interior is so rich in that element? What are the polar deposits? Where do the elements in the exosphere come from? Mercury is

Robert G. Strom; Ann L. Sprague

2003-01-01

377

Do Other Planets Have Summer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's important to keep two things in mind when thinking about the cause of the seasons: (1) Earth and all the other planets except Pluto and Mercury move around the Sun in almost perfect circles, getting neither closer nor farther away from the Sun during the year; and (2) Earth's rotation axis is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit…

Nelson, George

2005-01-01

378

Formation of (exo-)planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this small review I will address three recent topics in the field of theoretical planet formation studies. This review is not meant to be complete in any way. It is meant to give an idea where some of the recent developments are.

Dullemond, C. P.

2013-06-01

379

Mantle Convection in the Earth and Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mantle Convection in the Earth and Planets is a comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of mantle convection within the Earth, the terrestrial planets, the Moon, and the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. The authors include up-to-date discussions of the latest research developments that have revolutionized our understanding of the Earth and the planets. The book features a comprehensive index, an extensive

Gerald Schubert; Donald L. Turcotte; Peter Olson

2001-01-01

380

Mars — a planet in magnetic transition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planet Mars is currently an object of increasing scientific and public interest. Several spacecraft are on their way or planned to be sent to our neighbour planet to unravel its secrets. One of the most unknown properties of planet Mars is whether it possesses a planetary magnetic field of dynamo origin. Observed weak surface magnetic fields seem to argue against

Karl-Heinz Glassmeier; Günter Musmann; Christian Vocks; Michel Menvielle

2000-01-01

381

Habitable planets around the star Gliese 581?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Thanks to remarkable progress, radial velocity surveys are now able to detect terrestrial planets at habitable distance from low-mass stars. Recently, two planets with minimum masses below 10 M? have been reported in a triple system around the M-type star Gliese 581. These planets are found at orbital distances comparable to the location of the boundaries of the habitable

F. Selsis; J. F. Kasting; B. Levrard; J. Paillet; I. Ribas; X. Delfosse

2007-01-01

382

Geophysical and Atmospheric Evolution of Habitable Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's

Helmut Lammer; Frank Selsis; Eric Chassefière; Doris Breuer; Jean-Mathias Grießmeier; Yuri N. Kulikov; Nikolai V. Erkaev; Maxim L. Khodachenko; Helfried K. Biernat; Francois Leblanc; Esa Kallio; Richard Lundin; Frances Westall; Siegfried J. Bauer; Charles Beichman; William Danchi; Carlos Eiroa; Malcolm Fridlund; Hannes Gröller; Arnold Hanslmeier; Walter Hausleitner; Thomas Henning; Tom Herbst; Lisa Kaltenegger; Alain Léger; Martin Leitzinger; Herbert I. M. Lichtenegger; René Liseau; Jonathan Lunine; Uwe Motschmann; Petra Odert; Francesco Paresce; John Parnell; Alan Penny; Andreas Quirrenbach; Heike Rauer; Huub Röttgering; Jean Schneider; Tilman Spohn; Anja Stadelmann; Güter Stangl; Daphne Stam; Giovanna Tinetti; Glenn J. White

2010-01-01

383

Planetary science: Evolutionary dichotomy for rocky planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model shows that a rocky planet close to its star may solidify so slowly that its water is lost to space and the planet becomes desiccated, whereas a planet farther out may solidify quickly and retain its water. See Letter p.607

Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

2013-05-01

384

Extrasolar Trojan planets close to habitable zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the stability regions of hypothetical terrestrial planets around the Lagrangian equilibrium points L4 and L5 in some specific extrasolar planetary systems. The problem of their stability can be treated in the framework of the restricted three body problem where the host star and a massive Jupiter-like planet are the primary bodies and the terrestrial planet is regarded as

R. Dvorak; E. Pilat-Lohinger; R. Schwarz; F. Freistetter

2004-01-01

385

The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Metagenomic Characterization of Viruses within Aquatic Microbial Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on our planet. Interactions between viruses and their hosts impact several important biological processes in the world's oceans such as horizontal gene transfer, microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling. Interrogation of microbial metagenomic sequence data collected as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Expedition (GOS) revealed a high abundance of viral sequences, representing

Shannon J. Williamson; Douglas B. Rusch; Shibu Yooseph; Aaron L. Halpern; Karla B. Heidelberg; John I. Glass; Cynthia Andrews-Pfannkoch; Douglas Fadrosh; Christopher S. Miller; Granger Sutton; Marvin Frazier; J. Craig Venter; Neil Hall

2008-01-01

386

Ocean Currents: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide attempts to answer questions such as: What causes ocean currents? What impact do they have on Earth's environment? and How have they influenced human history? Seven innovative activities are provided in which students can gain fascinating insights into the earth as the ocean planet. Activities focus on how wind, temperature,…

Halversen, Catherine; Beals, Kevin; Strang, Craig

387

Ocean Currents: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide attempts to answer questions such as: What causes ocean currents? What impact do they have on Earth's environment? and How have they influenced human history? Seven innovative activities are provided in which students can gain fascinating insights into the earth as the ocean planet. Activities focus on how wind, temperature,…

Halversen, Catherine; Beals, Kevin; Strang, Craig

388

Lunar Magma Ocean Bedrock Anorthosites Detected at Orientale Basin by M3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lunar crust is thought to have formed as a result of global melting of the outer parts of the Moon in its earliest history, a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Crystallization of this magma ocean set the stage for the ensuing history of the planet. Models for the formation of the lunar crust and the evolution of the LMO were

C. M. Pieters; J. W. Boardman; B. Burratti; L. Cheek; R. N. Clark; J. Combe; R. O. Green; J. W. Head; M. Hicks; P. Isaacson; R. Klima; G. Y. Kramer; S. Lundeen; E. Malaret; T. B. McCord; J. F. Mustard; J. W. Nettles; N. E. Petro; C. J. Runyon; M. Staid; J. M. Sunshine; L. A. Taylor; S. Tompkins; P. Varanasi

2009-01-01

389

Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the `albedo flip' property of water substance, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that `flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Ice sheet and ocean inertia provides only moderate delay to ice sheet disintegration and a burst of added global warming. Recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions place the Earth perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures. CO2 is the largest human-made climate forcing, but CH4, O3, N2O and black carbon (BC) are important. Only intense simultaneous efforts to slow CO2 emissions and reduce non-CO2 forcings can keep climate within or near the range of the past million years. Some forcings are especially effective at high latitudes, so concerted efforts to reduce their emissions could still ``save the Arctic,'' while also having major benefits for human health, agricultural productivity, and the global environment.

Hansen, James

2007-04-01

390

Future Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

391

Flow of Planets, Not Weak Tidal Evolution, Produces the Short-Period Planet Distribution with More Planets than Expected  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most unexpected planet finding is arguably the number of those with shorter periods than theorists had expected, because most such close planets had been expected to migrate into the star in shorter timescales than the ages of the stars. Subsequent effort has been made to show how tidal dissipation in stars due to planets could be weaker than expected, but we show how the occurrence distribution of differently-sized planets is more consistent with the explanation that these planets have more recently arrived as a flow of inwardly migrating planets, with giant planets more likely to be found while gradually going through a short period stage. This continual ``flow'' of new planets arriving from further out is presumably supplied by the flow likely responsible for the short period pileup of giant planets (Socrates+ 2011). We have previously shown that the shortest period region of the exoplanet occurrence distribution has a fall-off shaped by inward tidal migration due to stellar tides, that is, tides on the star caused by the planets (Taylor 2011, 2012). The power index of the fall-off of giant and intermediate radius planet candidates found from Kepler data (Howard+ 2011) is close to the index of 13/3 which is expected for planets in circular orbits undergoing tidal migration. However, there is a discrepancy of the strength of the tidal migration determined using fits to the giant and medium planets distributions. This discrepancy is best resolved by the explanation that more giant than medium radii planets migrate through these short period orbits. We also present a correlation between higher eccentricity of planetary orbits with higher Fe/H of host stars, which could be explained by high eccentricity planets being associated with recent episodes of other planets into stars. By the time these planets migrate to become hot Jupiters, the pollution may be mixed into the star. The clearing of other planets by migrating hot giant planets may result in hot Jupiters being anti-correlated with additional planets. We present results from our study of inward migration.

Taylor, Stuart F.

2013-01-01

392

Ocean Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy reference list has 12 kid-friendly books on marine biology. A short description is given for each title, along with author name and publisher. The list includes illustrated looks at ocean habitats, marine life, and more, hands-on activities and experiments that build kids' scientific observation skills along with their marine biology knowledge and puzzle and coloring books that offer creative ways to introduce kids to ocean life.

393

Journal of Religion and Popular Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Professor Mary Ann Beavis of the University of Saskatchewan, the Journal of Religion and Popular Culture is a Âweb-based, peer-reviewed journal committed to academic exploration, analysis and interpretation, from a range of disciplinary perspectives, of the interrelations between religion and religious expression and popular culture, broadly defined as the products of contemporary mass culture. It is quite a broad area to cover, and they do so admirably, and members of the public and those in the world of higher education will want to look over their site closely. Published three times a year, visitors can browse through the online archive offered here, or take a look at their most recent issue. Some of the articles that have appeared in recent issues include ÂThe Apocalyptic Imagination and Popular CultureÂ, ÂSeeking the Roots of Terrorism: An Islamic Traditional ExperienceÂ, and ÂUnder the Influence? The Bible, Culture and Nick CaveÂ.

394

ORBITAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS AND DISTANT PLANETS FORMED BY SCATTERING AND DYNAMICAL TIDES  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the formation of close-in planets (hot Jupiters) by a combination of mutual scattering, Kozai effect, and tidal circularization, through N-body simulations of three gas giant planets, and compared the results with discovered close-in planets. We found that in about 350 cases out of 1200 runs ({approx}30%), the eccentricity of one of the planets is excited highly enough for tidal circularization by mutual close scatterings followed by secular effects due to outer planets, such as the Kozai mechanism, and the planet becomes a close-in planet through the damping of eccentricity and semimajor axis. The formation probability of close-in planets by such scattering is not affected significantly by the effect of the general relativity and inclusion of inertial modes in addition to fundamental modes in the tides. Detailed orbital distributions of the formed close-in planets and their counterpart distant planets in our simulations were compared with observational data. We focused on the possibility for close-in planets to retain non-negligible eccentricities ({approx}> 0.1) on timescales of {approx}10{sup 9} yr and have high inclinations, because close-in planets in eccentric or highly inclined orbits have recently been discovered. In our simulations we found that as many as 29% of the close-in planets have retrograde orbits, and the retrograde planets tend to have small eccentricities. On the other hand, eccentric close-in planets tend to have orbits of small inclinations.

Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S., E-mail: nagasawa.m.ad@m.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2011-12-01

395

Darwin and the popularization of evolution.  

PubMed

Evolution was popularized from 1860 to 1900 in the USA and Britain in a wide variety of media. Here I investigate traditional texts associated with the intellectual elite, including philosophical or scientific monographs, sermons, and published lectures. Evolution was rarely popularized in ways that reflected Darwin's major contribution to biology, his theory of natural selection. This meant that the reading audience more often encountered an alternative to Darwin's naturalistic, non-directional and non-progressive evolutionary perspective. There were at least four different versions of evolution circulating in the period from 1860 to 1900, and only one conformed to Darwin's vision. PMID:20503821

Lightman, Bernard

2010-03-20

396

Planet X : The Search for an Illusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for Planet X began soon after the discovery of Uranus in 1781. The scientific search, over the next 200 years, resulted in the discovery of many new "Objects" (Planets and Minor Planets) but not the elusive Planet X. The data now indicate there never was a Planet X to find and the scientific search ended in the early 1990's. In the last 10 years the search has begun anew, not by scientists, interested in adding to our knowledge, but by groups advocating apocalyptic ideas. They have a wide following and are interested in promoting their pseudoscientific beliefs. This talk will discuss this history.

McGaha, J.

2006-10-01

397

The extrasolar planet GL 581 d: A potentially habitable planet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The planetary system around the M star Gliese 581 contains at least three close-in potentially low-mass planets, Gl 581c, d, and e. In order to address the question of the habitability of Gl 581d, we performed detailed atmospheric modeling studies for several planetary scenarios. Methods: A 1D radiative-convective model was used to calculate temperature and pressure profiles of model

P. von Paris; A. B. C. Patzer; M. Godolt; J. L. Grenfell; P. Hedelt; D. Kitzmann; B. Stracke

2010-01-01

398

Popular journalism with Chinese characteristicsFrom revolutionary modernity to popular modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an interpretative attempt to explore the rise of what the author calls 'popular journalism with Chinese characteristics'. Inspired by the concept of 'popular journalism' discussed in numerous European works, the author uses this term for a new kind of market-driven, readership-oriented journalism that has emerged in the People's Republic of China along with the country's shift from

Zhurun Li

1998-01-01

399

Hot Jupiters from secular planet-planet interactions.  

PubMed

About 25 per cent of 'hot Jupiters' (extrasolar Jovian-mass planets with close-in orbits) are actually orbiting counter to the spin direction of the star. Perturbations from a distant binary star companion can produce high inclinations, but cannot explain orbits that are retrograde with respect to the total angular momentum of the system. Such orbits in a stellar context can be produced through secular (that is, long term) perturbations in hierarchical triple-star systems. Here we report a similar analysis of planetary bodies, including both octupole-order effects and tidal friction, and find that we can produce hot Jupiters in orbits that are retrograde with respect to the total angular momentum. With distant stellar mass perturbers, such an outcome is not possible. With planetary perturbers, the inner orbit's angular momentum component parallel to the total angular momentum need not be constant. In fact, as we show here, it can even change sign, leading to a retrograde orbit. A brief excursion to very high eccentricity during the chaotic evolution of the inner orbit allows planet-star tidal interactions to rapidly circularize that orbit, decoupling the planets and forming a retrograde hot Jupiter. PMID:21562558

Naoz, Smadar; Farr, Will M; Lithwick, Yoram; Rasio, Frederic A; Teyssandier, Jean

2011-05-12

400

Planet Formation: Terrestrial and Extra Solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Conference on Planet Formation: Terrestrial and Extra Solar was held near the end of a three month workshop of the same name. The purpose of the conference was to discuss topics in planet formation, evolution, and detection. The recent discoveries of extrasolar planets(now numbering around 100), combined with recently obtained observational upper limits on the lifetimes of protoplanetary disks, make this an ideal time to rethink how planets form. This program will examine the formation process from dust grains to planetesimals, from planetesimals to Earth mass bodies or multiple-Earth mass cores, and from cores to gas giant planets. It will also consider post-formation evolution, e.g., planet-disk interactions, in an attempt to understand both the very short orbital periods of many of the extrasolar planets, and their often large eccentricities.

Lin, Douglas N. C.; Lunine, Jonathan; Murray, Norman

2004-03-01

401

Habitability of Terrestrial Planets in the Early Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Protoearth, Mars, Venus, and the Moon-forming impactor were potentially habitable in the early solar system. The interiors of larger asteroids had habitable circulating water. To see when the inner solar system became continuously habitable, one needs to consider the most dangerous events and the safest refugia from them. Early geochemical and accretionary processes set the subsequent silicate planet reservoirs and hence hydrospheric and atmospheric masses. The moon-forming impact made the Moon and the Earth sterile bodies. Following the impact, the Earth passed through a rock-vapor atmosphere on the scale of 1000s of years and an internally heated steam greenhouse on the scale of 2 m.y. Minerals bearing the principle volatiles (water, Cl, and CO2) were stable at the Earth's surface by the time it cooled to 800K. The mass of reactable shallow material was insufficient to contain the available water and CO2. Habitable conditions were established after CO2 could be deeply subducted into the mantle. Vast quantities of H2 were vented during accretion and after the moon-forming impact and eventually lost to space. It is unknown whether significant amounts of this gas were present when the Earth's surface cooled into the habitable range. The moon remained sterile because its interior is essentially devoid of water. The mantle of the Earth, in contrast, cannot hold the available water, leaving the excess to form oceans. Nitrogen may behave similarly with the excess going into the air. Impacts of large asteroids (and comets) were an ever-present danger on otherwise habitable planets. The safest niche on planets was kilometer or deeper crustal rocks habitable by thermophiles. It is inevitable that several objects, which would have left only thermophile survivors, struck the Earth. Such events were so infrequent that the conditions of such a bottleneck should not be confused with conditions for the origin of life. An alternative refugium involves ejection of life within rock fragments and return of such fragments to the surface of the home planet or transfer to another habitable planet. Mars and the larger asteroids were habitable first and provide likely sources of seed and also testable places to look for preserved evidence. Extant terrestrial life appears to have passed through thermophile bottlenecks. There are subtle hints of space transfer. The need of extant life for Ni may be a vestige of life on a young planet covered with ultramafic rocks.

SLEEP, N. H.

2001-12-01

402

Gender and Cultural Consecration in Popular Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examines the gendered nature of cultural legitimacy and consecration in popular music. We explore two related questions. First, which factors affect the likelihood that female performers achieve consecrated status? Second, how are those decisions discursively legitimated? Using a mixed-methods research design, we find that in both…

Schmutz, Vaughn; Faupel, Alison

2010-01-01

403

Popular Media and the Teenage Sexual Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A qualitative study examined how teenagers react to and interpret certain popular media messages. In addition it explored the relationship between content containing various sexual messages and teenagers' responses to those messages, with particular attention to the critical abilities this audience exhibits. Fifty male and female teenagers aged…

Strover, Sharon

404

Popular Searches in Google and Yahoo!: A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors analyze the popular search queries used in Google and Yahoo! over a 24-month period, January 2004–December 2005. They develop and employ a new methodology and metrics to examine and assess the digital divide in information uses, looking at the extent of political searches and their accuracy and variety. The findings indicate that some countries, particularly

Elad Segev; Niv Ahituv

2010-01-01

405

Double meaning in the popular negro blues  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a long acquaintance with negroes and negro songs, the author feels that there is no doubt as to the existence of double meanings, chiefly of a sex nature, in the popular blues songs, and bases his contention upon research into negro vulgar expressions, and the origin and development of the blues. The double meanings found pertain either to the

G. B. Johnson

1927-01-01

406

Does television violence enhance program popularity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies explored the effects of fictional TV violence on adventure show popularity. In Study 1, with 30 college students, the amount of violence occurring within 62 episodes of 11 programs was correlated with the national Nielsen viewer index. A very low, nonsignificant relationship emerged. In addition, student raters' perceptions of the programs were factor analyzed. A violence factor emerged,

Ed Diener; Darlene DeFour

1978-01-01

407

Factors Affecting Hits in Japanese Popular Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the hit chart period of Japanese popular music between January and March in 1990 and in 2004, using the survival model, and examines the factors involved in producing a hit. First, the results showed that fame of the artist, ties with other media, and compilation albums featuring several artists prolonged the hits chart period. Second, the music's

Sumiko Asai

2008-01-01

408

The representation of epilepsy in popular music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much can be learned about the contemporary stereotypes associated with epilepsy by studying the representation of the disorder in paintings, literature, and movies. Popular music is arguably the most accessible and ubiquitous of the creative art forms, touching most of us on a daily basis. Reviewed here are the ways in which epilepsy and seizures are used in the lyrics

Sallie Baxendale

2008-01-01

409

Using Popular Media to Build Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When an adult student from China says he learned English from listening to the radio or a literacy teacher mentions that she is reading a book recommended on "Oprah", they are illustrating how popular media are used for informal adult learning. This chapter examines some of the issues and implications surrounding how a sector of adult learners,…

Heuer, Barbara P.

2007-01-01

410

Gender and Cultural Consecration in Popular Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the gendered nature of cultural legitimacy and consecration in popular music. We explore two related questions. First, which factors affect the likelihood that female performers achieve consecrated status? Second, how are those decisions discursively legitimated? Using a mixed-methods research design, we find that in both…

Schmutz, Vaughn; Faupel, Alison

2010-01-01

411

American Popular Music 1950-2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and discusses some of the chief resources in the study of post-World War II mainstream popular music. In addition to indicating major areas of research, it can serve as a guide to collection development in the discipline.

Lonergan, David

2011-01-01

412

Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take…

Newkirk, Thomas

413

Bolivian Currents: Popular Participation and Indigenous Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the effects on indigenous communities of Bolivia's recent Popular Participation Laws, which relocated political and financial decision making to the municipal level; community efforts toward cultural maintenance and nonformal agricultural education; the activism of indigenous university students; and the dual discrimination suffered by…

Dudley, Mary Jo

1997-01-01

414

Student voice and the perils of popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we suggest that the current popularity of student voice can lead to surface compliance—to a quick response that focuses on ‘how to do it’ rather than a reflective review of ‘why we might want to do it’. We look at the links between student consultation and participation and the legacy of the progressive democratic tradition in our

Jean Rudduck; Michael Fielding

2006-01-01

415

Lyrical Commentaries: Learning from Popular Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depicts ways popular song lyrics can stimulate discussion either in music, social studies, humanities, or language arts classes. Considers lyrics' ability to explain social, cultural, and political phenomena. Provides a chronological outline from 1962 correlating political events, personalities, songs, and the artists. songs. Identifies uses of…

Cooper, B. Lee

1991-01-01

416

Is Being Popular a Risky Proposition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Longitudinal associations between social preference, perceived popularity, and risk behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and sexual activity) were examined in a sample of high school students. Social preference did not predict any of the risk behaviors assessed, although the interaction between gender and social preference was predictive of sexual…

Mayeux, Lara; Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

2008-01-01

417

Popular Education and the Logics of Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, I compare two distinct uses of "Popular Education" that emerged in Tlaxcala in the wake of the Mexican Revolution. I examine archival and oral evidence to reconstruct the situated meanings and political rationales that led to the use of the term in each case, beyond their contrasting pedagogical content. In 1917, a revolutionary…

Rockwell, Elsie

2011-01-01

418

Popular Theatre and the Red Bull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governing the Pen to the Capacity of the Stage: Reading the Red Bull and Clerkenwell by Lucy Munro: This essay introduces the Issues in Review section ‘Popular Theatre and the Red Bull’, which highlights new work on the Red Bull theatre and its Clerkenwell locality. It suggests ways in which this group of essays relate to current ideas about repertory

Lucy Munro; Anne Lancashire; John H. Astington; Marta Straznicky

2006-01-01

419

On the Popularity of Organizational Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article starts with the observation that dunng the 1980s organizational culture has become a very popular topic within organization theory. The rapid expansion of this perspective, which received almost no attention until the end of the 1970s, is explained It is argued that although there are good theoretical, i e intra-scientific, reasons for the mterest in organizational cultures, these

Mats Alvesson

1990-01-01

420

Impact of search engines on page popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies show that a majority of Web page accesses are referred by search engines. In this paper we study the widespread use of Web search engines and its impact on the ecology of the Web. In particular, we study how much impact search engines have on the popularity evolution of Web pages. For example, given that search engines return

Junghoo Cho; Sourashis Roy

2004-01-01

421

Looking Into Current Popular Online Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, online communities have become an important part in daily life, as the development of web service. Be- cause sociality is influenced significantly by online commu- nities, it makes sense to study the behavior of online com- munities, especially those popular online communities. To find out how online communities of different categories per- form, this paper tries to compare some

Lei Shuang

422

PROGRAMMING DECISION MAKING IN POPULAR MUSIC RADIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popular music as heard on the radio is seen as the product of social organization. The question asked is: Which social organization—the local community or the national industry? The decision making of an album-oriented rock radio station was studied for approximately nine months. Both qualitative observational data and statistical analyses of the processes and criteria of programming decision making support

ERIC W. ROTHENBUHLER

1985-01-01

423

Summarizing popular music via structural similarity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for summarizing digital media based on structural analysis. Though these methods are applicable to general media, we concentrate here on characterizing the repetitive structure in popular music. In the first step, a similarity matrix is calculated from interframe spectral similarity. Segment boundaries, such as verse-chorus transitions, are found by correlating a kernel along the diagonal of

Matthew Cooper; Jonathan Foote

2003-01-01

424

Automatic Structure Detection for Popular Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music structure is very important for semantic music understanding. We propose a novel approach for popular music structure detection. The proposed approach applies beat space segmentation, chord detection, singing voice boundary detection, melody and content based similarity region detection to music structure detection. A frequency scaling \\

Namunu Chinthaka Maddage

2006-01-01

425

Automatic lyrics alignment for Cantonese popular music  

Microsoft Academic Search

From lyrics-display on electronic music play- ers and Karaoke videos to surtitles for live Chinese opera performance, one feature is common to all these everyday functionalities: temporal synchronization of the written text and its corresponding musical phrase. Our goal is to automate the process of lyrics alignment, a procedure which, to date, is still handled manually in the Cantonese popular

Chi Hang Wong; Wai Man Szeto; Kin Hong Wong

2007-01-01

426

Substance Use in Popular Music Videos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the third in a series of studies funded by the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy exploring the portrayal of substance use in media popular among adolescents. The specific purpose of these studies has been to determine the e...

D. F. Roberts P. G. Christenson L. Henriksen E. Bandy H. D. Jessup J. Abdul-Wahid S. Carbone A. B. Wilson B. Johnson

2002-01-01

427

Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they…

Newkirk, Thomas

428

Musical News: Popular Music in Political Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a survey of activists, popular musicians perform a journalistic role in political movements. By serving as an alternative headline service, these musicians continue and update an ancient musical news tradition. From the lyrical poets of ancient Greece to Mexican corridistas, music allowed storytellers to effectively compose, retain, and present news. Although print news replaced lyrical reporting as the

Mark Pedelty

429

Popular Music, Television, and Generational Identity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although previous generations have by no means been disloyal to the popular music of their youth, the tenacious attachment of the Baby Boomers to the music of the 1960s seems unprecedented. Three main reasons account for this constantly widening musical reclamation project. First, the Baby Boomers have a clearer sense of generational identity…

Burns, Gary

430

Childhood and Parenting in Popular Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The texts, imagery and commodities of popular culture encode constructs of childhood and parenthood which act as powerful public pedagogies in the production of social identities of the 'child', 'family', 'gender', and 'race'. This paper focuses on (i) the corporate construction of childhood in the toy and media industries and, (ii) the textual and market construction of childhood and parenthood

Carmen Luke

1994-01-01

431

A Feminist Analysis of Popular Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative content analysis was conducted on lyrics to identify predominant themes in popular music. The songs for analysis were determined by “The Hot 100” list generated by Billboard Chart Research Services. Feminist and cognitive social learning theories provided a foundation to identify themes. Power over, objectification of, and violence against women was the overall framework that emerged from the

Brook Bretthauer; Toni Schindler Zimmerman; James H. Banning

2007-01-01

432

Facebook Psychology: Popular Questions Answered by Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its launch in February 2004, Facebook has become one of the most popular websites in the world, as well as a widely discussed media phenomenon. Unsurprisingly, the Facebook revolution has inspired a wealth of psychological study, which is growing exponentially. In this article, we review the recent empirical research into some of the key psychological themes concerning Facebook use.

Beth Anderson; Patrick Fagan; Tom Woodnutt; Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic

2012-01-01

433

Measuring Website popularity and raising designers' effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we attempt to use three indices, visitors, expected events and different users, to measure the Website's popularity. Because one of these indices is to count how many visitors have browsed this Website, we need a counter that can prevent the counter value from being added by programs automatically. Hence, we develop a new counter called as the

Ko-kang Chu; Tsai-chen Shen; Yen-teh Hsia

2004-01-01

434

[Lawyers and Litigation in the Popular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of Focus on Law Studies contains the following articles: "T.V. Law: Image versus Reality" (Suzanne Frentz); "Teaching about Civil Rights in the 1990's" (Cynthia Hamilton); "A Social History of Black Lawyers in Popular Culture" (Ric Sheffield); "Will the Real Lawyers Please Stand Up!" (Susan Adair Dwyer-Shick); "Equality, 'Political…

Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

1991-01-01

435

Human urinary parasites in Nalout popularity, Libya.  

PubMed

A total of 2000 fresh urine samples were collected from a central private laboratory in Tigi Conference which served all the popularity. The examination showed motile Trichomonas vaginalis in seven patients (0.35%); five females and two males, and Enterobius vermicularis in two female children (0.1%). None had urinary schistosomiasis. The data were discussed. PMID:18853614

Al Kilani, M K; Dahesh, S M; El Taweel, H A

2008-08-01

436

Towards a digital library of popular music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital libraries of music have the potential to capture popu- lar imagination in ways that more scholarly libraries cannot. We are working towards a comprehensive digital library of musical material, including popular music. We have devel- oped new ways of collecting musical material, accessing it through searching and browsing, and presenting the results to the user. We work with different

David Bainbridge; Craig G. Nevill-Manning; Ian H. Witten; Lloyd A. Smith; Rodger J. McNab

1999-01-01

437

Global warming: Popular vision vs. scientific fact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the popular vision, environmental apocalypse looms over the land. It's a vision of catastrophic global warming that ultimately leads to crop failures, rapid and inundating surges in sea level, enormous hurricanes, and burning forests incapable of renewing themselves. It's become warmer, yes, and perhaps will be warmer still, but to the degree of catastrophe The available data on climate

Michaels

2009-01-01

438

Understanding and Developing Black Popular Music Collections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Enumerates types of black popular music (work songs, spirituals, gospel music, blues, race records, rock and roll, soul, funk, disco, Caribbean, and African) and discusses collection development (current, retrospective, monographs, periodicals, sheet music, motion picture film, photographs, oral history), cataloging, and preservation. A 229-item…

Murray, James Briggs

1983-01-01

439

The Guide to Teaching with Popular Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Popular music is often characterized as a short work with a prominent melody and simple chordal accompaniment. Yet, teaching with pop music in the era of standards-based curriculum can present challenges. These standards offer teachers a blueprint for teaching music performance, composition, improvisation, and the relationship of music to other…

Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA.

440

Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

2012-01-01

441

Habitable Planets with High Obliquities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth's obliquity would vary chaotically from 0° to 85° were it not for the presence of the Moon (J. Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, 1993,Nature361,615–617). The Moon itself is thought to be an accident of accretion, formed by a glancing blow from a Mars-sized planetesimal. Hence, planets with similar moons and stable obliquities may be extremely rare. This has

Darren M. Williams; James F. Kasting

1997-01-01

442

Celestial mechanics of planet shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motion of a planet consisting of an external shell (mantle) and a core (rigid body), which are connected by a visco-elastic layer and mutually gravitationally interact with each other and with an external celestial body (considered as a material point), is studied (Barkin, 1999, 2002a,b; Vilke, 2004). Relative motions of the core and mantle are studied on the assumption

Yu V. Barkin; V. G. Vilke

2004-01-01

443

Isotopic ratios in giant planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of spectrometric measurements of isotopic ratios in giant planets, and implications on the formation of giant planets are discussed. Derivations of D/H in Jupiter and Saturn form CH3D conflict with derivations from HD. Uncertainties in the interpretation come from the difficulty in estimating the fractionation factor between CH3D and CH4, and from scattering effects in the radiative transfer within HD and H2 absorption lines. However, deuterium abundance in the primordial solar nebula 4.6 billion yr ago can be estimated. Data suggest that D/H is enhanced in Uranus compared to Jupiter and Saturn, in agreement with a scenario of inhomogeneous formation of giant planets. The C12/C13 value in Jupiter from Voyager measurements suggests a value significantly higher than the terrestrial value, but conflicts with the value derived from ground based measurements, which agrees with the terrestrial value. The N14/N15 value is compatible with the terrestrial value.

Gautier, D.

444

Looking for a habitable planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only very favorable combination of many physical parameters may provide the necessary con-ditions for unicellular organisms to evolve into multicellular animals. The main factors of the planet, that is critical for the evolution and existence of life, form a peculiar labyrinth with many impasses. Most important are mass and temperature conditions on the planet. The planet that meets RNA/ DNA life requirements must have: •a mass about 5E27 g; •some zones with a favorable thermal conditions (273-340K); •an atmosphere that is able to absorb an external hard radiation but transparent for photons with 1-3 eV energy; •a sufficient den-sity of a stellar radiation; •presence of other sources of energy, e.g. of oxidation species in the atmosphere; •a moderate gravitation; •open water with big islands or continents; •a moderate rotation period; •a moderate eccentricity of the orbit; •a moderate inclination of equator plane to the orbit plane; •an intensive meteoritic impacts or other cosmic catastrophes that stimulate evolution of the most perfect beings; •one or more massive satellites; •an intensive volcanism and/or plate tectonics.

Ksanfomality, Leonid

445

Atmospheric Dynamics of Irradiated Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close-in gas giant planets are now familiar members of the growing family of extra-solar planets. Their short period orbits and proclivity for transiting has made them the target of numerous observational campaigns, and our knowledge of their structure and composition has increased dramatically over the past few years. However, despite their prevalence and important role in constraining a wide range of planetary models, fundamental questions about the dynamical behavior of their atmospheres remain, crucial for interpreting observations. I will discuss three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamical simulations of atmospheric flows on a wide variety of such objects, ranging from the well-known HD209458b to the more exotic rapidly rotating or highly eccentric objects. Such objects exhibit a range of unusual behavior including supersonic winds, shocks and instabilities, and time dependent behavior. I will review the results from models we have developed to study these processes with the goal of both explaining individual objects and the observed diversity among this class of planets.

Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

2009-09-01

446

Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres and Biosignatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for terrestrial exoplanets - rocky worlds in orbit around stars other than the Sun - is one of humanity's most exciting science goals. The discovery of super Earths, terrestrial planets more massive than Earth, has opened a new era in exoplanet science, confirming the basic idea that our solar system is not the only planetary system to harbor terrestrial planets. Terrestrial exoplanets will expand planetary diversity, with masses and compositions likely very different from those found in our solar system. Most significantly, terrestrial exoplanets have the potential to host habitable environments on or below their solid surfaces, and are the most likely places beyond our solar system to search for signs of life. In the coming decades, instrumentation will be developed to expand our census of terrestrial exoplanets and directly characterize the atmospheres and biosignatures of these worlds. In the meantime, scientific progress in this field is made via extensive photochemical, climate, and radiative transfer modeling of terrestrial planetary environments together with remote sensing studies of solar system terrestrial planets, including Earth. This chapter provides an overview of terrestrial exoplanet atmosphere modeling techniques, a review of the scientific advances to date, and a discussion of outstanding questions and future directions.

Meadows, V.; Seager, S.

447

Ocean data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is keeping pace with the emerging information society by offering a host of oceanographic information and charts via a new automated fax service. Scientists, fishermen, students, sailors, and mariners will now be able to dial a 24-hour service—900-28-CHART—to obtain 15 different analysis charts that detail sea surface temperatures and surface current speed and direction, for example. The analyses will be available at both high and low resolution for various regions of the coastal United States, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The charge will be $1.50 per minute, with charts taking 2-4 min to transmit. NOAA's Ocean Products Center will also offer technical assistance to interpret the fax charts. A staff oceanographer may be reached by calling 900-288-HELP between 2:30 and 4:30 p.m. EST, Monday through Friday. The charge is $3.00 a minute.

448

Understanding Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on oceans currents and their effects. Students do a lab activity to show that temperature is what causes ocean currents. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

Cahill, Mary

449

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

Osis, Vicki

450

Lights, Camera, Action: Integrating Popular Film in the Health Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the benefits as well as the important considerations that should be taken into account in integrating popular films in health education classes. Use of popular films in the classroom, termed "cinema education," is becoming increasingly popular in teaching health education. As a matter of convenience, popular films are easy…

Diez, Keri S.; Pleban, Francis T.; Wood, Ralph J.

2005-01-01

451

Focus: Popular Culture, Censorship, Religion in the Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Kansas English" contains four articles related to popular culture, censorship, and religion. "Popular Culture Studies: A Complement to the Humanities" by Michael Marsden, focuses on the relationship between popular culture studies and the humanities, including English. "Popular Couture: La Vie En Blue" by Richard Martin, examines…

Stewart, Donald, Ed.

1976-01-01

452

Bullying, Social Power and Heteronormativity: Girls' Constructions of Popularity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were…

Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry

2011-01-01

453

Focus: Popular Culture, Censorship, Religion in the Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of "Kansas English" contains four articles related to popular culture, censorship, and religion. "Popular Culture Studies: A Complement to the Humanities" by Michael Marsden, focuses on the relationship between popular culture studies and the humanities, including English. "Popular Couture: La Vie En Blue" by Richard Martin, examines…

Stewart, Donald, Ed.

1976-01-01

454

PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS. II. PREDICTIONS FOR OUTER EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

We develop an idealized dynamical model to predict the typical properties of outer extrasolar planetary systems, at radii comparable to the Jupiter-to-Neptune region of the solar system. The model is based upon the hypothesis that dynamical evolution in outer planetary systems is controlled by a combination of planet-planet scattering and planetary interactions with an exterior disk of small bodies ('planetesimals'). Our results are based on 5000 long duration N-body simulations that follow the evolution of three planets from a few to 10 AU, together with a planetesimal disk containing 50 M{sub +} from 10 to 20 AU. For large planet masses (M {approx}> M{sub Sat}), the model recovers the observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. For lower-mass planets, the range of outcomes in models with disks is far greater than that which is seen in isolated planet-planet scattering. Common outcomes include strong scattering among massive planets, sudden jumps in eccentricity due to resonance crossings driven by divergent migration, and re-circularization of scattered low-mass planets in the outer disk. We present the distributions of the eccentricity and inclination that result, and discuss how they vary with planet mass and initial system architecture. In agreement with other studies, we find that the currently observed eccentricity distribution (derived primarily from planets at a {approx}< 3 AU) is consistent with isolated planet-planet scattering. We explain the observed mass dependence-which is in the opposite sense from that predicted by the simplest scattering models-as a consequence of strong correlations between planet masses in the same system. At somewhat larger radii, initial planetary mass correlations and disk effects can yield similar modest changes to the eccentricity distribution. Nonetheless, strong damping of eccentricity for low-mass planets at large radii appears to be a secure signature of the dynamical influence of disks. Radial velocity measurements capable of detecting planets with K {approx} 5 m s{sup -1} and periods in excess of 10 years will provide constraints on this regime. Finally, we present an analysis of the predicted separation of planets in two-planet systems, and of the population of planets in mean-motion resonances (MMRs). We show that, if there are systems with {approx} Jupiter-mass planets that avoid close encounters, the planetesimal disk acts as a damping mechanism and populates MMRs at a very high rate (50%-80%). In many cases, resonant chains (in particular the 4:2:1 Laplace resonance) are set up among all three planets. We expect such resonant chains to be common among massive planets in outer planetary systems.

Raymond, Sean N. [Universite de Bordeaux, Observatoire Aquitain des Sciences de l'Univers, 2 rue de l'Observatoire, BP 89, F-33271 Floirac Cedex (France); Armitage, Philip J. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel, E-mail: pja@jilau1.colorado.ed [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

2010-03-10

455

Ocean Acoustics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main element of this final report is a discussion of the development of the trace method for determining the acoustic properties of the ocean bottom sediments and basement. In addition a method is reported for the uniform determination of the continuo...

D. Stickler

1984-01-01

456

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

457

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)|

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

458

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students choose shell fragments from different species of Molluscs and calculate percent lose after soaking in different ph solutions for different periods of time. They research ocean acidification and especially local events off the Oregon coast to apply to this activity.

Bown, Jennifer

459

Ocean Circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH no mathematician, and only an amateur in physics, it appears to me that the difficulties and objections of Mr. Croll on this subject may be obviated, and the whole question elucidated by a reference to the admitted facts, and a common sense interpretation of them. And first, as to the fact that the surface water of the Atlantic Ocean,

Alfred R. Wallace

1872-01-01

460

Moon and Terrestrial Planets: Unresolved Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human exploration during Apollo began the documentation of the evolution of the Moon and of its importance in understanding the origin and evolution of the terrestrial planets. This revolution in planetary geology continues as a vigorous and vibrant arena for discovery and debate for new generations of geoscientists. Although much has been learned and, indeed, resolved in lunar science, we are left with major questions unresolved. One fundamental question is that of the origin of the Moon. A large consensus has developed in the planetary science community that the Moon was created by the "giant impact" of a Mars-sized asteroid on the Earth after the accretion of the Earth was largely complete and differentiation had begun. A minority, however, questions this consensus hypothesis because of increasing indications that the lower mantle of the Moon may be largely undifferentiated. If the issue of the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system can be resolved through new modeling studies, then capture of a co-orbiting planetesimal may be an important alternative to a "giant impact". Another important question, particularly in consideration of the terrestrial and Martian surface environments during the first 0.8 billion years of Earth history, is the impact record of that period as recorded on the Moon. Again, a large consensus has developed that the 50 or so large and very large impact basins identified on the Moon were created over a very short "cataclysm" between about 3.9 and 3.8 billion years ago. Here also, a minority suggests that this period of large basin formation, although distinct in lunar history, took place over several hundred million years and that the apparent cataclysm is an artifact of sampling the effects of the last few basin-forming impacts. Either way, a previously unavailable source of impactors appeared somewhere in the solar system and greatly affected terrestrial environments at the time the precursors to life were appearing on Earth. Additional unresolved questions raised by lunar exploration and study include 1) the effect of chondritic proto-cores on the timing of core formation in the terrestrial planets, 2) the number of extremely large basin-forming events (lunar diameters >2000 km) and the potential for proto-continents being formed by the differentiation of their melt sheets on water-rich planets, 3) effect of clays produced by the weathering of the debris and glass produced by pervasive asteroid and cometary impacts, 4) the many details of the differentiation of magma oceans, and 5) the processes governing the evolution of the lunar regolith. Finally, there is the question of when humans shall return to the Moon. On the one hand, the use of this unique and accessible planetary body as a scientific resource has barely begun. On the other hand, the Helium-3 fusion energy resources and deep space travel consumables that remain untapped in the lunar regolith hardly can be ignored in the face of human and environmental challenges on Earth and the species' desire to go to Mars. On both hands, it is time we took another walk on the Moon. 30 years going on 40 is long enough to think about what once was possible.

Schmitt, H. H.

2002-12-01

461

Convective models in young terrestrial planets with semi permeable surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most terrestrial planets may have experienced a magma ocean period in their infancy where most of their mantle was molten. Upon cooling to space, their surface must have crystallized, keeping a largely molten interior for some more time. The dynamics and evolution of planets at this stage is controlled by the surface heat flow, which is dominated by volcanism. This is in sharp contrast with the current situation on these planets (with the notable exception of Io) where heat is carried through the top surface of the mantle by diffusion. We developed a new set of semi permeable boundary conditions in order to take into account heat advection and diffusion through the top surface. We incorporated them in 2- and 3-D cartesian models of infinite Prandtl number thermal convection in the Boussinesq approximation. We imposed a no shear stress boundary condition on the top surface. In contrast to standard mantle convection models, the vertical velocity is not set to zero but generates a topography that obeys a diffusion equation in order to model processes such as magma spreading or erosion. We impose a zero temperature for down-welling currents, and a zero vertical temperature gradients for upwelling currents. Melting and freezing processes are modeled using a viscosity that varies sharply by a few orders of magnitude at the melting temperature and by using an enthalpy equation to take account of latent heat effects. We have run experiments with either internal heating or bottom heating. The variation of the diffusivity coefficient for the topography allows the models to go continuously from thermal convection with permeable surface boundary to thermal convection with impermeable one. The pattern of convection and heat transfer characteristics are strongly affected by the choice of boundary conditions. We obviously find a more efficient heat transfer with permeable boundary conditions than with impermeable ones. The scaling laws we get can be used to compute the thermal evolution of young planets at the end of the magma ocean stage and the results compare well with full dynamical calculation with evolving conditions. Temperature maps for three cases with Ra=106 with different boundary conditions

Dubuffet, F.; Ricard, Y. R.; Labrosse, S.; Ulvrova, M.

2010-12-01

462

The Popularity of P&P  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The classes are often…

Ruffins, Paul

2006-01-01

463

Variety and Superstardom in Popular Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recording industry for popular singers, 1955-87, consisted of a lower-end market for singles and a higher-end market for albums. The singles market acted as an entry-level quality filter for the album market. While this two-tier market system might have led to the 'superstar phenomenon' in the Marshall-Rosen sense, other nonquality factors, such as the singer's race or musical style,

William A Hamlen Jr

1994-01-01

464

Popular Protest and Political Reform in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the late 1980s, Africans joined the international clamor for democracy already ringing through eastern Europe, Latin America, and parts of Asia. While popular unrest had long been an intermittent feature of African politics, the collapse of the Berlin wall-and along with it Leninist one-party rule and the bipolar world order-inspired mass protesters and challenged incumbent leaders as never before.

Michael Bratton; Nicolas van de Walle

465

The Effect of Host Star Spectral Energy Distribution and Ice-Albedo Feedback on the Climate of Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary climate can be affected by the interaction of the host star spectral energy distribution with the wavelength-dependent reflectivity of ice and snow. A one dimensional (1-D), line-by-line, radiative-transfer model is used to calculate broadband planetary albedos as input to a seasonally varying, 1-D energy-balance climate model. We simulated planets covered by ocean, land, and water ice of varying grain size, with incident radiation from stars of different spectral types. Our results show that terrestrial planets orbiting stars with higher near-UV radiation exhibit a stronger ice-albedo feedback. Using a general circulation model we demonstrate that an ocean-covered planet orbiting in the habitable zone of an M-dwarf star has a higher global mean surface temperature than a planet orbiting the Sun (a G-dwarf star) at an equivalent stellar flux distance. The effect is even more pronounced when the albedos of snow and ice are lowered, indicating the importance of the spectral dependence of surface ice and snow on climate for these planets. We find that the sensitivity of climate to changes in stellar insolation for M-dwarf planets is weaker than for planets orbiting stars with greater visible and near-UV radiation. While a planet orbiting the Sun becomes ice-covered with an 8% reduction in stellar insolation, a similar planet orbiting an M dwarf requires a 27% reduction to become ice-covered. A 2% reduction in stellar insolation is all that is required for global ice cover on a planet orbiting an F-dwarf star. Consequently the habitable zone for surface liquid water on planets with Earth-like greenhouse gas concentrations may be ~12% wider for M-dwarf stars than for G-dwarf stars, and ~3% narrower for F-dwarf stars. Higher obliquities expand the outer habitable zone boundary for surface liquid water. Raising atmospheric CO2 can reduce the ice-albedo effect on M-dwarf planets, but ~3-10 bars are required to entirely mask the climatic effect of ice and snow.

Shields, Aomawa; Meadows, V.; Bitz, C. M.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.; Joshi, M. M.; Robinson, T. D.

2013-01-01

466

Explanatory Framework for Popular Physics Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Popular physics lectures provide a `translation' that bridges the gap between the specialized knowledge that formal scientific content is based on, and the audience's informal prior knowledge. This paper presents an overview of a grounded theory explanatory framework for Translated Scientific Explanations (TSE) in such lectures, focusing on one of its aspects, the conceptual blending cluster. The framework is derived from a comparative study of three exemplary popular physics lectures from two perspectives: the explanations in the lecture (as artifacts), and the design of the explanation from the lecturer's point of view. The framework consists of four clusters of categories: 1. Conceptual blending (e.g. metaphor). 2. Story (e.g. narrative). 3. Content (e.g. selection of level). 4. Knowledge organization (e.g. structure). The framework shows how the lecturers customized the content of the presentation to the audience's knowledge. Lecture profiles based upon this framework can serve as guides for utilizing popular physics lectures when teaching contemporary physics to learners lacking the necessary science background. These features are demonstrated through the conceptual blending cluster.

Kapon, Shulamit; Ganiel, Uri; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

2009-07-06

467

Studying planet populations by gravitational microlensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘most curious’ effect of the bending of light by the gravity of stars has evolved into a successful technique unlike any\\u000a other for studying planets within the Milky Way and even other galaxies. With a sensitivity to cool planets around low-mass\\u000a stars even below the mass of Earth, gravitational microlensing fits in between other planet search techniques to form

Martin Dominik

2010-01-01

468

Infrared radiation from an extrasolar planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of extrasolar giant planets-the so-called `hot Jupiters' (ref. 1)-orbit within 0.05AU of their primary stars (1AU is the Sun-Earth distance). These planets should be hot and so emit detectable infrared radiation. The planet HD209458b (refs 3, 4) is an ideal candidate for the detection and characterization of this infrared light because it is eclipsed by the star. This

Drake Deming; Sara Seager; L. Jeremy Richardson; Joseph Harrington

2005-01-01

469

Habitable planets around the star Gl 581?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radial velocity surveys are now able to detect terrestrial planets at\\u000ahabitable distance from M-type stars. Recently, two planets with minimum masses\\u000abelow 10 Earth masses were reported in a triple system around the M-type star\\u000aGliese 581. Using results from atmospheric models and constraints from the\\u000aevolution of Venus and Mars, we assess the habitability of planets Gl 581c

Franck Selsis; J. F. Kasting; B. Levrard; J. Paillet; I. Ribas; X. Delfosse

2007-01-01

470

Tidal evolution of extra-solar planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In both our solar system and extra-solar planetary systems, tides may have a variety of effects, driving complex orbital evolution and geophysical processes. For extra-solar planets with orbits that pass very close to their host stars, tides have reduced orbital eccentricities and semi-major axes, and the rates of tidal evolution may change dramatically as orbits evolve. Understanding how the orbits have evolved and, ultimately, discerning the origins of close-in extra-solar planets require accounting for all the complexity of tidal evolution. The accompanying dissipation of tidal energy within the planets has probably also affected their internal structures. In some cases, tidal dissipation may account the apparent discrepancy between predictions and observations of the radii of extra-solar planets that transit their host stars. Evolutionary models for these planets that allow determinations of their internal structures and composition must include highly variable tidal heating rates. The same tidal evolution and heating probably also affects the orbital and geophysical properties of rocky extra-solar planets and may play a key role in determining whether such a planet can harbor life. As tides reduce a planet's semi-major axis, the planet may eventually pass so close to its host star that the star's gravity completely disrupts the planet, leading to the destruction of many planets. Tidal destruction has left a discernible signature on the distribution of extra-solar planetary orbits, and so interpretations of the distribution in terms of the origins of planets must include consideration of the effects of tidal destruction.

Jackson, Brian Kendall

471

Diagnostics of Deep Structure in Giant Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution, high-precision maps of surface shape and gravity are available for most of the terrestrial planets, but such data are still lacking for the giant planets because of the difficulty of executing low-periapse orbiter missions. With the approval of the Juno mission to Jupiter, a highly capable geodetic mission to a giant planet is now in prospect, and a Juno-like

W. B. Hubbard

2005-01-01

472

Comparison Charts of Geological Processes: Terrestrial Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chart presents information on the geological processes (volcanism, impact cratering, tectonics, and gradation) that have affected the Earth, Moon, and the terrestrial planets. Students compare the effects these processes have had on the Moon and planets. There is also a blank chart and a sheet of notes on the geological processes that may be used in conjunction with this chart. This chart is one of the activities for the Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Introduction to the Solar System.

473

The Compositional Diversity of Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The details of the formation of the terrestrial planets are long-standing questions in the geological, planetary and astronomical sciences, with the discovery of extrasolar planetary systems placing even greater emphasis on these questions. Here we present simulations of the bulk compositions of simulated terrestrial planets in extrasolar planetary systems. These simulations incorporate both giant planet migration into the dynamical simulations and a variety of ices, clathrates and hydrates into the chemical modeling, providing us with a more inclusive view of extrasolar terrestrial planet formation. We find that a diverse range of extrasolar terrestrial planets are produced, ranging from bulk elemental compositions similar to that of Earth to those that are enriched in elements such as C and Si, producing planets with compositions unlike anything we have previously observed. Giant planet migration significantly alters the composition of the final terrestrial planet by redistributing material throughout the system. Simulated terrestrial planets produced within the migration simulations are found to contain larger amounts of Mg-silicate species and hydrous material. These variations in composition will greatly influence planetary processes such as plate tectonics, planetary interior structure and the primary atmospheric composition.

Carter-Bond, J. C.; O'Brien, D. P.

2011-12-01

474

The PRIMA Astrometric Planet Search project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PRIMA facility will implement dual-star astrometry at the VLTI. We have formed a consortium that will build the PRIMA differential delay lines, develop an astrometric operation and calibration plan, and deliver astrometric data reduction software. This will enable astrometric planet surveys with a target precision of 10?as. Our scientific goals include determining orbital inclinations and masses for planets already known from radial-velocity surveys, searches for planets around stars that are not amenable to high-precision radial-velocity observations, and a search for large rocky planets around nearby low-mass stars.

Quirrenbach, Andreas; Henning, Thomas; Queloz, Didier; Albrecht, Simon; Bakker, Eric J.; Baumeister, Harald; Bizenberger, Peter; Bleuler, Hannes; Dandliker, Rene; de Jong, Jeroen A.; Fleury, Michel; Frink, Sabine; Gillet, Denis; Jaffe, Walter J.; Hiddo Hanenburg, S.; Hekker, Saskia; Launhardt, Ralf; Le Poole, Rudolf S.; Maire, Charles; Mathar, Richard; Mullhaupt, Philippe; Murakawa, Koji; Pepe, Francesco; Pragt, Johan H.; Sache, Laurent; Scherler, Olivier; Segransan, Damien; Setiawan, Johny; Sosnowska, Danuta; Tubbs, Robert N.; Venema, Lars B.; Wagner, Karl; Weber, Luc; Wuethrich, Rolf

2004-10-01

475

Do Massive Stars Have Planets?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently conducted a near- and mid-infrared survey of a sample of 117 DA white dwarfs from the Palomar-Green (PG) survey. The white dwarfs in this sample are decedent from 1-7 solar mass stars; this survey constrained the frequency of planetary systems in the elusive intermediate-mass regime. We found that at least 4.3% of 1-7 Msol stars host planetary systems. However, the mass distribution of our sample is strongly biased toward lower mass white dwarfs, descendants of M < 3 Msol main-sequence stars. To constrain the frequency of dusty disks around massive white dwarfs, and in turn the frequency of planets around their massive progenitor main-sequence stars, we propose to observe 100 massive white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the IRAC 4.5 micron band. We restrict our sample to M > 0.8 Msol white dwarfs (> 3 Msol progenitor stars) and Teff = 9500 - 22,500 K. All but one of the known dusty white dwarfs have temperatures in this range, where dust orbiting within the tidal radius of the star will remain solid. However, no previous Spitzer survey has targeted massive WDs in this temperature range, and this unique discovery space remains unexplored. Assuming a similar disk frequency for normal and massive WDs, we are 99.5% confident that our proposed survey of 100 stars will find at least one dusty WD and it will provide stringent constraints on the frequency of planets around massive stars for the first time. This result will provide an important test for the planet formation models around sun-like and higher mass stars.

Barber, Sara; Kilic, Mukremin; Leggett, Sandy

2012-12-01

476

Spectropolarimetry of the planet Earth and other objects of the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical polarimetric techniques are routinely used to characterize the surface structure of the atmosphere-less bodies of our solar system. Efforts are also dedicated to the study of the features of the atmospheres of Venus and of the giant planets. One of the most exciting subjects of Astronomy is the search and study of exo-solar planets, and in particular the search for extra-terrestrial life. In this kind of research, polarimetric techniques will play a fundamental role, and current polarimetric studies of our solar system represent the obvious reference point for future exo-solar observations. Of special interest are polarimetric observations of the planet Earth, its atmosphere and its surface characteristics (e.g., vegetation, oceans) through astronomical instrumentation. These "home-made" observations will ultimately represent a benchmark for future observations of Earth-like planets of other solar systems. In this talk we will review the polarimetric observations of our solar system, and we will present some of our new spectro-polarimetric observations of terrestrial material, organic and inorganic, obtained with the same astronomical instrumentation used to study the objects of our solar system. We will compare our observational results to models of polarized spectra expected from Earth-like extrasolar planets, and demonstrate the advantages of spectrapolarimetry to probe their atmospheric composition and surface properties.

Bagnulo, S.; Sterzik, M.

2011-12-01

477

Magnetospheres of the outer planets  

SciTech Connect

The magnetospheres of the outer planets have been shown by Voyager explorations to strongly interact with the surfaces and atmospheres of their planetary satellites and rings. In the cases of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus, the processes of charged particle sputtering, neutral gas cloud formation, and rapid plasma injection from the ionization of the neutral clouds, have important implications both for the magnetospheres as a whole and for the surfaces and atmospheres of their satellites. The general methodology employed in these researches has involved comparisons of the planetary magnetospheres in order to identify common physical processes. 16 references.

Cheng, A.F.

1986-12-01

478

Three planets comparison interactive lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, explores atmospheric properties of Mars, Venus, and Earth. Students investigate five factors that affect the atmospheric properties of the planets: pressure, temperature, carbon dioxide amount, ozone level, and cloud cover. Interactive questions are provided for each factor. A sidebar provides information about the lack of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere. Five multiple-choice and five short-answer essay questions allow students an opportunity to review concepts. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

479

Lesson Planet: Poetry Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one teach poetry in any subject or quantity? The folks at Lesson Planet have assembled a fine range of helpful lesson plans that include discussions of haiku, poetic analysis, and utilizing poems to understand history and other subjects. Visitors will be glad to learn that there are over 6,400 lesson plans searchable by Resource Type, Grade, and User Rating among other categories. A highlight of the site is "Poetry Beyond Words" which asks young writers to compose a "popcorn poem" using sensing verbs and adverbs. There is a tremendous amount of information for those who love poetry as well as educating others using it as a tool.

2012-01-01

480

PBS: Journey to Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS offers this companion Web site to Journey to Planet Earth, a recently broadcast documentary series that explores "the fragile relationship between people and the world they inhabit." In addition to the video clips and other online features provided for each episode, the Web site contains quality educational material geared primarily toward middle school students. For example, Environmental Lesson Plans (based on a Johns Hopkins University graduate course) helps students explore the causes, effects, and health implications of global environmental change. Look for additional Environmental Lesson Plans in summer 2003.

481

The formation and habitability of terrestrial planets in the presence of close-in giant planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Hot jupiters,’ giant planets with orbits very close to their parent stars, are thought to form farther away and migrate inward via interactions with a massive gas disk. If a giant planet forms and migrates quickly, the planetesimal population has time to re-generate in the lifetime of the disk and terrestrial planets may form [P.J. Armitage, A reduced efficiency of

Sean N. Raymond; Thomas Quinn; Jonathan I. Lunine

2005-01-01

482

New approaches for the search for binary planets and moons of extrasolar planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perspective that life may develop on Europa-like moons of extrasolar planets encourages to try to detect them. The direct imaging, aiming at their angular separation from their parent planet, will have to wait for very large interferometers. In the meantime, it is possible the detect them by transit of the planet-satellite system in front of the parent star (Sartoretti

J. Schneider; L. Arnold; V. Borkowski

2003-01-01

483

Mission Moho: Formation and Evolution of Oceanic Lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and evolution of the oceanic lithosphere is the dominant process in the chemical differentiation and physical evolution of our planet. Plate tectonic processes completely repave the ocean basins every 100-200 million years. Lithosphere formation encompasses the transfer and transformation of material and energy from Earth's mantle to the crust and from the crust to the ocean and atmosphere. Independent of sunlight, the evolving ocean crust supports life in unique seafloor and subseafloor habitats that may resemble Earth's earliest ecosystems. From its formation until its return to the mantle by subduction, the evolving oceanic lithosphere interacts with seawater, sequesters water and other materials, and ultimately recycles them back into the mantle.

Christie, David M.; Ildefonse, Benoit; Abe, Natsue; Arai, Shoji; Bach, Wolfgang; Blackman, Donna K.; Duncan, Robert; Hooft, Emilie; Humphris, Susan E.; Miller, D. Jay

2006-11-01

484

Ocean models and the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Ocean, because of its size and remoteness, has proved to be one of the most difficult oceans for the experimentalists to study and understand. Partly as a result of this, it has also been the ocean where large-scale ocean models have made some of the most interesting and useful contributions. In this review talk I aim to review

D. J. Webb

2003-01-01

485

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin t