Sample records for ocean planet popular

  1. Ocean Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    _Ocean Planet_ is a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition that now has a companion on-line exhibition. It covers varied topics associated with the ocean, such as the science of the ocean, the animals, people, and communities who use the ocean, and pollution problems currently endangering ocean resources. The exhibit features all of the text and a good portion of the images from the traveling exhibit. The curator of this exhibit has put together six special interest tours including Biodiversity, Women and the Sea, and Pollution. Users can also build their own special tour from a list of key words. The current list contains only four words, but is expected to grow in the future. Visitors can also consult a comprehensive list of educational materials and ocean resources.

  2. Ocean Planet: Ocean Market

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on foods, materials and medicines that comes form marine life, how these resources are harvested and processed and the impacts of fisheries. Students identify and classify consumer goods from the ocean and calculate their cost. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

  3. Planet Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will be taken into consideration, for instance, the value of the pH, using universal indicator paper, color, through visual evaluation and the temperature with the help of a thermometer. There will be also registered some existent chemical parameters as chloride, alkalinity, total hardness (Ca2+ and Mg2+), nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate. Two methods will be used for analysis, the titration and the kit of semi-quantitative chemical analyses. This kit is composed by biocompatible substances, which means they are not harmful for the environment and can be disposed of by domestic sewage systems. The results will be subsequently analyzed bearing in mind the maximum and recommended standards values for each one of the parameters. After this, the results achieved will be discussed. I believe this project contains characteristics that will be of interest to our students, thus enabling them to participate actively and effectively develop their knowledge and enhance their scientific curiosity.

  4. Ocean Planet: Rough Planet Earth without Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  5. Ocean Planet: Sea Secrets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-03

    This website features a unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. The lesson plan focuses on ocean bottom features including continental shelf, deep ocean plain, and mid-ocean ridges. Students study the discovery and mapping of seafloor features, learn to read seafloor maps, then create a map of Atlantic seafloor features. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; maps and forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

  6. Ocean Planet: Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ocean Planet is now an archival version of the 1995 Smithsonian Institution traveling exhibition which is no longer on display. This website spotlights 32 organisms to demonstrate the incredible diversity found in the oceans, images included. Over 99 percent of living space on earth is in the ocean, but we still know only a little about it.

  7. Ocean Planet: Final Version

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  8. Ocean Planet: Pollution Solution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Focuses on sources of oil pollution and effects on ocean, marine life and humans. Students predict impacts of an oil spill and plan actions needed to protect and restore habitat and wildlife. Lab activities demonstrate properties of oil. Unit includes: background, instructions for the teacher, forms for student activities, discussion questions; all available online in PDF format. Resources include online version of the Ocean Planet exhibition.

  9. Ocean Planet Exhibition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This virtual tour of the Smithsonian Institution's Ocean Planet exhibit can be navigated by clicking on the floor plan which is pictured, or it can be searched by image, subject, or topic outline. Links to educational materials and to a special curator's tour are also included.

  10. Visit to an Ocean Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Visit to an Ocean Planet is an innovative CD-ROM that has been transferred to the web. Visit to an Ocean Planet is for grades 5-12 that makes science, ocean, climate and life education fun and interactive. There are three sections, expedition, mission and guide. The expedition section engages students in exploring the 1997 El Nino, a look at oceanographers and their work, and an ocean science research cruise planning exercise. In the mission section, students discover many details about the TOPEX/Poseidon mission and learn about previous and future missions. They also learn how to measure ocean topography. The guide section contains lessons and classroom activities in climate, oceanography, and life in our oceans. The climate activities cover properties of fresh water and sea water, Earth's hydrologic cycle, coastal versus inland temperatures ocean currents and coastal temperatures, metric measurements, solar energy and distance, salinity, deep ocean circulations and greenhouse gases. The oceanography activities cover density of water, evaporation, mixing, sound in water, wind-driven currents, tides, upwelling and the Cartesian diver. The life in our oceans activities cover plankton, bioluminescence, oil spils and plastics in the ocean. Classroom activities can be downloaded directly from the website as .pdf files. The guide section also contains movies, images, and background materials. If you are an educator or home schooler, you can obtain a copy of the "Visit to an Ocean Planet" CD-ROM free of charge from the JPL Physical Oceanography DAAC: http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/edu.

  11. Changing Planet: Ocean Acidification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC News

    This video addresses acidification of the ocean and the ecological and economic implications of the resulting pH change on marine life. It includes information about how ocean acidification resulting from increased absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere is affecting ocean species such as sea urchins and oysters. Scientists from the University of California at Santa Barbara discuss their experiments with sea creatures in acidic sea water. There is an associated lesson plan and classroom activity that has students test the effects of CO2 on water pH.

  12. 121OUR CHANGING PLANET Ocean Bathymetry and

    E-print Network

    Sandwell, David T.

    is critical for maintaining life on the Earth. Since one cannot directly map the topography of the ocean121OUR CHANGING PLANET Ocean Bathymetry and Plate Tectonics DAVID T. SANDWELL More than two-thirds of our planet is covered by deep oceans. What would the Earth look like if we could drain the oceans? You

  13. Visit to an Ocean Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    "Visit to an Ocean Planet" is an interactive, educational CD-ROM that reveals the importance of our oceans to global climate and life. It is designed to complement middle and high school science curricula, as well as to be enjoyed by the general public. The CD-ROM allows users to explore the Gulf of Mexico with satellite data, investigate the 1997-1998 El Nino, discover "what's up" with Earth-orbiting satellites, and learn about the real life oceanographers. The curriculum background material are arranged in the context of widely accepted teaching themes. The CD-ROM also highlights results from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite launched by NASA and the Centre National Etudes Spatiales (CNES). It has been measuring our oceans since 1992. This product is a result of NASA's commitment to involve the educational community in endeavors to inspire America's students, create learning opportunities, and enlighten inquisitive minds.

  14. Visit to An Ocean Planet: Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource uses text, images, maps and a laboratory exercise to explain how differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water cause the formation of deep-ocean currents. It is part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's "Ocean Surface Topography from Space" website. This material is also available on the "Visit to An Ocean Planet" CD-ROM.

  15. Ocean Planet: Interdisciplinary Marine Science Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Set of six interdisciplinary lesson plans from the Smithsonian, complementing their online "Ocean Planet" exhibit. Topics include: ocean bottom features and seafloor mapping; marine habitats and biodiversity; consumer goods from the ocean; oil spills impacts and solutions; causes of marine strandings; ocean-inspired vocabulary. Units contain: background; instructions for the teacher; maps, data and forms for students; discussion questions; all available online in PDF format. Student activities stress science, math, language arts and social studies.

  16. Ocean Planet: Rough Cut Hawaii Flyby

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  17. Ocean Planet: Map of Flight Path

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  18. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land & Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Arthur F.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to South Africa, Cape Town and Johannesburg using NASA Terra MODIS data, Landsat data and 1m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Zoom in to any place South Africa using Earth Viewer 3D from Keyhole Inc. and Landsat data at 30 m resolution. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we present science to the public. See dust storms and flooding in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the north and south polar ice packs and with icebergs on the coasts of Greenland and off the coast of Antarctica. Spectacular new visualizations of the global land, atmosphere & oceans are shown. Listen to the pulse of our planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and biomass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite. The presentation will be made using the latest HDTV and video projection technology that is now done from a laptop computer through an entirely digital path.

  19. Ocean Planet: Stranded Along the Coast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on how dynamic coastlines, oceanographic conditions and human activities affect marine animals such as cetaceans, pinnipeds and sea turtles. Students study sea turtle migrations, use math skills to plot sea turtle strandings on the Atlantic Coast. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; maps for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

  20. Ocean Planet - Staying on Top

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The map and narrative presented here explain how "low-tech" methods of scientific observation can be used to discern ocean current patterns. 60,000 Nike shoes lost overboard from a storm-tossed cargo ship in the northeastern Pacific in May 1990 began to wash ashore at times and places that coincided with the known surface current in the North Pacific Ocean, which moves in a large slow circle called a gyre.

  1. Hydrothermal systems in small ocean planets.

    PubMed

    Vance, Steve; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Kimura, Jun; Hussmann, Hauke; Demartin, Brian; Brown, J Michael

    2007-12-01

    We examine means for driving hydrothermal activity in extraterrestrial oceans on planets and satellites of less than one Earth mass, with implications for sustaining a low level of biological activity over geological timescales. Assuming ocean planets have olivine-dominated lithospheres, a model for cooling-induced thermal cracking shows how variation in planet size and internal thermal energy may drive variation in the dominant type of hydrothermal system-for example, high or low temperature system or chemically driven system. As radiogenic heating diminishes over time, progressive exposure of new rock continues to the current epoch. Where fluid-rock interactions propagate slowly into a deep brittle layer, thermal energy from serpentinization may be the primary cause of hydrothermal activity in small ocean planets. We show that the time-varying hydrostatic head of a tidally forced ice shell may drive hydrothermal fluid flow through the seafloor, which can generate moderate but potentially important heat through viscous interaction with the matrix of porous seafloor rock. Considering all presently known potential ocean planets-Mars, a number of icy satellites, Pluto, and other trans-neptunian objects-and applying Earth-like material properties and cooling rates, we find depths of circulation are more than an order of magnitude greater than in Earth. In Europa and Enceladus, tidal flexing may drive hydrothermal circulation and, in Europa, may generate heat on the same order as present-day radiogenic heat flux at Earth's surface. In all objects, progressive serpentinization generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day radiogenic heating and hydrogen is produced at rates between 10(9) and 10(10) molecules cm(2) s(1). PMID:18163874

  2. Earth, the blue planet, is shaped and defined by oceanic

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    Earth, the blue planet, is shaped and defined by oceanic processes--above and below the water. Oceans cover two- thirds of our planet's surface; Yet much about them remains a mystery. We invite you to meet distin- guished scientists and explorers, and to learn more about our blue planet--in a series

  3. Persistence of oceans on Earth-like planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Laura; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2015-01-01

    The habitable zone is an orbital region around a star in which an Earth-like planet can maintain liquid water on its surface given a variety of atmospheric compositions. However, the abundance of water on the Earth's surface is not controlled by the atmosphere, but rather by the deep water/silicate cycle. On the Earth, volcanic outgassing of water from the mantle is balanced by loss of water to the mantle through subduction of water-rich oceanic seafloor. Much of this water is released immediately back to the surface through shallow, water-induced volcanism. However, a small but significant fraction of the water can be transported to deeper levels of the mantle. Mantle convection has therefore played an important role in controlling the size of Earth's surface oceans over the planet's lifetime.The deep water cycle of Earth has been studied with parameterized convection models incorporating a water-dependent viscosity. The abundance of water in the mantle, which lowers the convective viscosity, evolves along with the mantle temperature. Here we present results from a parameterized convection model extended to high pressures to study the deep water cycles of super-Earths. Assuming compositions similar to the Earth, our models indicate that ocean formation will be delayed on 5 MEarth planets by ~1 Gyr after planet formation. Although ocean mass on these planets increases with time, the oceans remain much shallower than for smaller planets, consistent with previous studies. Intermediate mass planets (2-4 MEarth) have immediate, but gradual outgassing and persistent oceans. Small terrestrial planets (? 1 MEarth) have rapid initial outgassing, but will gradually lose a significant fraction of their surface oceans due to mantle sequestration over their lifetimes.

  4. Ocean Planet: Rotation of an AVHRR Data Set

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  5. Ocean Planet: Rough Cut Ship and Submersible Flyby

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  6. Ocean Planet: Partial Tour with Map Route Inset

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  7. Visit to an Ocean Planet - Classroom Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    2007-12-12

    This collection of classroom activities covers ocean study topics such as climate and the degree to which the ocean controls climate, physical properties of the ocean (density, salinity, currents, and others), and the scale of ocean life and life support structures. Each activity features an overview, concepts, a materials list, and instructions. Highlighted terms are linked to a glossary.

  8. Applications of Ocean Acoustic Monitoring to Understanding Our Planet

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstoy, Maya (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University) [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University

    2005-10-26

    The ocean covers two-thirds of the surface of Earth, and hides long chains of seafloor volcanoes, bizarre and magnificent life forms, and many dynamic geological processes. Shrouded in darkness, much of what happens deep in the ocean is unknown to us. But sound can tell us a great deal about what is going on in the ocean. Changes in the physical properties of seawater with depth allow relatively quiet sounds to travel great distances without loosing much energy. In this way we are able to record many noises that occur within or on the boundary of the ocean, giving us insight into geological, biological and man-made activities in the ocean. One of the most interesting noises to a geophysicist is the sound of mid-ocean ridge volcanic eruptions. These eruptions are forming new surface for our planet and helping create an extraordinary seafloor ecosystem. Examples of sounds heard and some of their implications will be presented.

  9. DETECTING OCEANS ON EXTRASOLAR PLANETS USING THE GLINT EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Crisp, David, E-mail: robinson@astro.washington.ed [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2010-09-20

    Glint, the specular reflection of sunlight off Earth's oceans, may reveal the presence of oceans on an extrasolar planet. As an Earth-like planet nears crescent phases, the size of the ocean glint spot increases relative to the fraction of the illuminated disk, while the reflectivity of this spot increases. Both effects change the planet's visible reflectivity as a function of phase. However, strong forward scattering of radiation by clouds can also produce increases in a planet's reflectivity as it approaches crescent phases, and surface glint can be obscured by Rayleigh scattering and atmospheric absorption. Here, we explore the detectability of glint in the presence of an atmosphere and realistic phase-dependent scattering from oceans and clouds. We use the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model to simulate Earth's broadband visible brightness and reflectivity over an orbit. Our validated simulations successfully reproduce phase-dependent Earthshine observations. We find that the glinting Earth can be as much as 100% brighter at crescent phases than simulations that do not include glint, and that the effect is dependent on both orbital inclination and wavelength, where the latter dependence is caused by Rayleigh scattering limiting sensitivity to the surface. We show that this phenomenon may be observable using the James Webb Space Telescope paired with an external occulter.

  10. Europa, tidally heated oceans, and habitable zones around giant planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Reynolds; C. P. McKay; J. F. Kasting

    1987-01-01

    Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain an environment favorable to life on the satellite surface or just below a thin ice layer. Europa could have a liquid ocean which may occasionally receive sunlight through cracks in the overlying ice shell. In such a case, sufficient solar energy could reach liquid water

  11. Mission to Planet Earth. The living ocean: Observing ocean color from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of ocean color are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, which will assess how the global environment is changing. Using the unique perspective available from space, NASA will observe, monitor, and study large-scale environmental processes, focusing on quantifying climate change. NASA will distribute the results of these studies to researchers worldwide to furnish a basis for informed decisions on environmental protection and economic policy. This information packet includes discussion on the reasons for measuring ocean color, the carbon cycle and ocean color, priorities for global climate research, and SeWiFS (sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor) global ocean color measurements.

  12. Europa, tidally heated oceans, and habitable zones around giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Ray T.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Kasting, James F.

    1987-01-01

    Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain an environment favorable to life on the satellite surface or just below a thin ice layer. Europa could have a liquid ocean which may occasionally receive sunlight through cracks in the overlying ice shell. In such a case, sufficient solar energy could reach liquid water that organisms similar to those found under Antarctic ice could grow. In other solar systems, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could represent environments that are stable over an order of eons and in which life could perhaps evolve. A zone around a giant planet is defined in which such satellites could exist as a tidally-heated habitable zone. This zone can be compared to the habitable zone which results from heating due to the radiation of a central star. In this solar system, this radiatively-heated habitable zone contains the earth.

  13. Europa, tidally heated oceans, and habitable zones around giant planets.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R T; McKay, C P; Kasting, J F

    1987-01-01

    Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain an environment favorable to life on the satellite surface or just below a thin ice layer. In our own solar system, Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, could have a liquid ocean which may occasionally receive sunlight through cracks in the overlying ice shell. In such case, sufficient solar energy could reach liquid water that organisms similar to those found under Antarctic ice could grow. In other solar systems, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could represent environments that are stable over an order of Aeons and in which life could perhaps evolve. We define a zone around a giant planet in which such satellites could exist as a tidally-heated habitable zone. This zone can be compared to the habitable zone which results from heating due to the radiation of a central star. In our solar system, this radiatively-heated habitable zone contains the Earth. PMID:11538217

  14. Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land & Oceans - ETheater Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, F.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Florida and the KSC Visitor's Center. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s see them contrasted with the latest International global satellite weather movies including killer hurricanes & tornadic thunderstorms. See the latest spectacular images from NASA and NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, NOAA, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat7, & new Terra which will be visualized with state-of-the art tools. Shown in High Definition TV resolution (2048 x 768 pixels) are visualizations of hurricanes Lenny, Floyd, Georges, Mitch, Fran and Linda. See visualizations featured on covers of ma'gazines like Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science and on National & International Network TV. New Digital Earth visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images including a Landsat tour of the US, with drill-downs into major cities using 1 m resolution spy-satellite technology from the Space Imaging IKONOS satellite. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Octane Graphics Supercomputer with dual CPUS, 5 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte disk using two projectors across the super sized Universe Theater panoramic screen.

  15. Models of Polarized Light from Oceans and Atmospheres of Earth-like Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    P. R. McCullough

    2006-10-17

    Specularly reflected light, or glint, from an ocean surface may provide a useful observational tool for studying extrasolar terrestrial planets. Detection of sea-surface glints would differentiate ocean-bearing terrestrial planets, i.e. those similar to Earth, from other terrestrial extrasolar planets. The brightness and degree of polarization of both sea-surface glints and atmospheric Rayleigh scattering are strong functions of the phase angle of the extrasolar planet. We modify analytic expressions for the bi-directional reflectances previously validated by satellite imagery of the Earth to account for the fractional linear polarization of sea-surface reflections and of Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere. We compare our models with Earth's total visual light and degree of linear polarization as observed in the ashen light of the Moon, or Earthshine. We predict the spatially-integrated reflected light and its degree of polarization as functions of the diurnal cycle and orbital phase of Earth and Earth-like planets of various imagined types. The difference in polarized reflectances of Earth-like planets may increase greatly the detectability of such planets in the glare of their host star. Finally, sea-surface glints potentially may provide a practical means to map the boundaries between oceans and continents on extrasolar planets.

  16. Emergence of two types of terrestrial planet on solidification of magma ocean.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Keiko; Abe, Yutaka; Genda, Hidenori

    2013-05-30

    Understanding the origins of the diversity in terrestrial planets is a fundamental goal in Earth and planetary sciences. In the Solar System, Venus has a similar size and bulk composition to those of Earth, but it lacks water. Because a richer variety of exoplanets is expected to be discovered, prediction of their atmospheres and surface environments requires a general framework for planetary evolution. Here we show that terrestrial planets can be divided into two distinct types on the basis of their evolutionary history during solidification from the initially hot molten state expected from the standard formation model. Even if, apart from their orbits, they were identical just after formation, the solidified planets can have different characteristics. A type?I planet, which is formed beyond a certain critical distance from the host star, solidifies within several million years. If the planet acquires water during formation, most of this water is retained and forms the earliest oceans. In contrast, on a type?II planet, which is formed inside the critical distance, a magma ocean can be sustained for longer, even with a larger initial amount of water. Its duration could be as long as 100 million years if the planet is formed together with a mass of water comparable to the total inventory of the modern Earth. Hydrodynamic escape desiccates type?II planets during the slow solidification process. Although Earth is categorized as type?I, it is not clear which type Venus is because its orbital distance is close to the critical distance. However, because the dryness of the surface and mantle predicted for type?II planets is consistent with the characteristics of Venus, it may be representative of type?II planets. Also, future observations may have a chance to detect not only terrestrial exoplanets covered with water ocean but also those covered with magma ocean around a young star. PMID:23719462

  17. Mass–radius curve for extrasolar Earth-like planets and ocean planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sotin; O. Grasset; A. Mocquet

    2007-01-01

    By comparison with the Earth-like planets and the large icy satellites of the Solar System, one can model the internal structure of extrasolar planets. The input parameters are the composition of the star (Fe\\/Si and Mg\\/Si), the Mg content of the mantle (Mg#=Mg\\/[Mg+Fe]), the amount of H2O and the total mass of the planet. Equation of State (EoS) of the

  18. Dynamic ocean tides on moons of the outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, R. H.

    2009-12-01

    The organizing thesis of this presentation is the assertion that a better understanding of ocean tides and ocean tidal dissipation shall be central in improving our understanding of the present state and evolution of several of the icy satellites. In most studies so far, these satellite oceans have been treated, at least implicitly, as simply a heat-conducting lubricant. But for many applications this approach does not approximate realism and ocean models affording dynamical behavior are required. Specifically, we present and discuss the importance of including dynamical freedom in modeling the ocean tides. We review recent claims that ocean tidal flow velocities on Europa and other satellite oceans are much larger than previous assumed; and that the higher velocities arrive from dynamical resonance between obliquity tidal forcing and Rossby-Haurwitz waves. We shall then discuss the more general importance of ocean tides, including tides forced by eccentricity. Far from the equilibrium-tide ocean previously assumed, the dynamic ocean shows tides that can be resonantly excited, and this feature seems to be of inescapable importance in understanding the evolution of these satellites when the trajectories for such evolution are expected to cross resonant excitation peeks in ocean tidal energy. The dynamical tides show not only increased amplitudes, but also behavior that is much different than what is assumed. For example, the dominant tidal flow expected is non-divergent and will therefore not appear in altimetry records (contrary to what is being assumed). Perhaps most importantly, in models of flow dissipation, the amount of heat generated typically increases with the square or cube of the flow speed. So estimates of the amount of ocean tidal heat generated and the overall dissipation priority of the ocean (i.e. is tidal dissipation primarily oceanic---as is the case on earth?) depend sensitively on the description of the ocean flow.

  19. Models of Polarized Light from Oceans and Atmospheres of Earth-like Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    McCullough, P R

    2006-01-01

    Specularly reflected light, or glint, from an ocean surface may provide a useful observational tool for studying extrasolar terrestrial planets. Detection of sea-surface glints would differentiate ocean-bearing terrestrial planets, i.e. those similar to Earth, from other terrestrial extrasolar planets. The brightness and degree of polarization of both sea-surface glints and atmospheric Rayleigh scattering are strong functions of the phase angle of the extrasolar planet. We modify analytic expressions for the bi-directional reflectances previously validated by satellite imagery of the Earth to account for the fractional linear polarization of sea-surface reflections and of Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere. We compare our models with Earth's total visual light and degree of linear polarization as observed in the ashen light of the Moon, or Earthshine. We predict the spatially-integrated reflected light and its degree of polarization as functions of the diurnal cycle and orbital phase of Earth and Earth-lik...

  20. An observational signature of evolved oceans on extra-solar terrestrial planets

    E-print Network

    M. Jura

    2004-02-25

    The increase in luminosity with time of a main sequence star eventually can lead to substantial evaporation of the oceans on an orbiting terrestrial planet. Subsequently, the gas phase water in the planet's upper atmosphere can be photodissociated by stellar ultraviolet and the resulting atomic hydrogen then may be lost in a wind. This gaseous envelope may pass in front of the host star and produce tansient, detectable ultraviolet absorption in the Lyman lines in systems older than 1 Gyr.

  1. Visit to an Ocean Planet - Fathometer in a Box

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This classroom activity gives students an introduction to depth sounding and mapping ocean topography. The materials include an overview, concepts, a materials list, and instructions. Terms are linked to a glossary and a list of related sites is included.

  2. Magma ocean fractional crystallization and cumulate overturn in terrestrial planets: Implications for Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Elkins-Tanton; E. M. Parmentier; P. C. Hess

    2003-01-01

    Crystallization of a magma ocean on a large terrestrial planet that is significantly melted by the energy of accretion may lead to an unstable cumulate density stratification, which may overturn to a stable configuration. Overturn of the initially unstable stratification may produce an early basaltic crust and differentiated mantle reservoirs. Such a stable compositional stratification can have important implications for

  3. The persistence of oceans on Earth-like planets: insights from the deep-water cycle

    E-print Network

    Schaefer, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a series of models for the deep water cycle on super-Earths experiencing plate tectonics. The deep water cycle can be modeled through parameterized convection models coupled with a volatile recycling model. The convection of the silicate mantle is linked to the volatile cycle through the water-dependent viscosity. Important differences in surface water content are found for different parameterizations of convection. Surface oceans are smaller and more persistent for single layer convection, rather than convection by boundary layer instability. Smaller planets have initially larger oceans but also return that water to the mantle more rapidly than larger planets. Super-Earths may therefore be less habitable in their early years than smaller planets, but their habitability (assuming stable surface conditions), will persist much longer.

  4. The Persistence of Oceans On Earth-Like Planets: Insights from the Deep-Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Laura; Sasselov, Dimitar

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present a series of models for the deep-water cycle on super-Earths experiencing plate tectonics. The deep-water cycle can be modeled through parameterized convection models coupled with a volatile recycling model. The convection of the silicate mantle is linked to the volatile cycle through the water-dependent viscosity. Important differences in surface water content are found for different parameterizations of convection. Surface oceans are smaller and more persistent for single layer convection, rather than convection by boundary layer instability. Smaller planets have initially larger oceans but also return that water to the mantle more rapidly than larger planets. Super-Earths may therefore be less habitable in their early years than smaller planets, but their habitability (assuming stable surface conditions) will persist much longer.

  5. The Blue Planet: Seas & Oceans. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beauregard, Diane Costa

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, facinate them and educate them, this volume explores the physical and environmental characteristics of the world's oceans. Topics are: (1) human exploration; (2) the food chain; (3) coral reefs; (4) currents and tides; (5) waves; (6)…

  6. A vision for the ocean planet in 2020

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Spinrad

    2004-01-01

    In 1989, the underwater visionary Henry Stommel dared to dream of a future world with unprecedented research technology and oceanographic capabilities. In Stommel's version of the 21st century, a large fleet of small, cheap robots glide over the ocean floor. Stommel believed the right kind of technology would set oceanographers free to explore, discover, and even unlock the secrets of

  7. It's Only a Little Planet: A Primer for Ocean Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyland, Sarah J.

    Developed as part of the Day on the Bay Cruise Program, funded by the National Sea Grant Program, this learner's manual outlines ocean studies conducted on a seven-hour cruise of the Galveston Bay area. A description of the geology and human use of Galveston Bay follows a general introduction to coastal and estuarine ecology. Line drawings…

  8. First life in primordial-planet oceans: the biological big bang

    E-print Network

    Gibson, Carl H; Schild, Rudolph E

    2010-01-01

    A scenario is presented for the formation of first life in the universe based on hydro-gravitational-dynamics (HGD) cosmology. From HGD, the dark matter of galaxies is H-He gas dominated planets (primordial-fog-particle PFPs) in million solar mass clumps (protoglobularstarcluster PGCs), which formed at the plasma to gas transition temperature 3000 K. Stars result from mergers of the hot-gas-planets. Over-accretion causes stars to explode as supernovae that scatter life-chemicals (C, N, O, P, S, Ca, Fe etc.) to other planets in PGC clumps and beyond. These chemicals were first collected gravitationally by merging PFPs to form H-saturated, high-pressure, dense oceans of critical-temperature 647 K water over iron-nickel cores at ~ 2 Myr. Stardust fertilizes the formation of first life in a cosmic hot-ocean soup kitchen comprised of all planets and their moons in meteoric communication, > 10^100 kg in total. Ocean freezing slows this biological big bang at ~ 8 Myr. HGD cosmology confirms that the evolving seeds o...

  9. Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Anderson

    2011-04-07

    What planets are in our solar system? Today, we are going to learn about the eight planets in our solar system. While learning, we're going to try to answer the question: What planets are in our solar system? Use this Planet Organizer to fill in information about the solar system that you learn on your journey! First, we're going to find ...

  10. Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast discusses developments in the search for extraterrestrial planets. Topics include what causes a planet to form, and how they are detected. There is also speculation on the liklihood of an Earth-like planet being found and the basic requirements for extraterrestrial life. The broadcast is 42 minutes in length.

  11. Oceanic Communities in a Changing Planet - The Tara Oceans Project (GSC8 Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Raes, Jeroen [University of Brussels] [University of Brussels

    2009-09-09

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Jeroen Raes of the University of Brussels discusses the Tara-Oceans expedition at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

  12. Oceanic Communities in a Changing Planet - The Tara Oceans Project (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Raes, Jeroen [University of Brussels

    2011-04-28

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Jeroen Raes of the University of Brussels discusses the Tara-Oceans expedition at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

  13. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA E-Theater 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations from space in a spectacular way. Fly in from outer space to the conference location as well as the site of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games using data from NASA satellites and the IKONOS 'Spy Satellite". See HDTV movie Destination Earth 2002 incorporating the Olympic Zooms, NBC footage of the 2002 Olympics, the shuttle, & the best NASA/NOAA Earth science visualizations. See the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes, typhoons & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations from NASA/NOAA and International remote sensing missions like Terra, Aqua, GOES, GMS, SeaWiFS, & Landsat. Feel the pulse of OUT planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP satellite. The presentation will be made using the latest HDTV and video projection technology by: Dr. Fritz Hasler NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  14. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA E-Theater 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations from space in a spectacular way. Fly in from outer space to the conference location as well as the site of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games using data from NASA satellites and the IKONOS "Spy Satellite". See HDTV movie Destination Earth 2002 incorporating the Olympic Zooms, NBC footage of the 2002 Olympics, the shuttle, & the best NASA/NOAA Earth science visualizations. See the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes, typhoons & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations from NASA/NOAA and International remote sensing missions like Terra, Aqua, GOES, GMS , SeaWiFS, & Landsat. Feel the pulse of our planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the the "night-vision" DMSP satellite. The presentation will be made using the latest HDTV and video projection technology by: Dr. Fritz Hasler NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  15. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA E-Theater 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations from space in a spectacular way. Fly in from outer space to the conference location as well as the site of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games using data from NASA satellites and the IKONOS "Spy Satellite". See HDTV movie Destination Earth 2002 incorporating the Olympic Zooms, NBC footage of the 2002 Olympics, the shuttle, & the best NASA/NOAA Earth science visualizations. See the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes, typhoons & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations from NASA/NOAA and International remote sensing missions like Terra, Aqua, GOES, GMS, SeaWiFS, & Landsat. Feel the pulse of our planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP satellite. The presentation will be made using the latest HDTV and video projection technology by: Dr. Fritz Hasler NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  16. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haser, Fritz; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the 2002 Winter Olympic Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes and "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science and on National and International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam and zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds. data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite.

  17. Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans Electronic-Theater 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Fredericton New Brunswick. Drop in on the Kennedy Space Center and Park City Utah, site of the 2002 Olympics using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and International global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & tornadoes. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA and Canadian remote sensing missions like Terra GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, and Radarsat that are visualized & explained. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science in cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC. See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images eg Landsat tours of the US, Africa, & New Zealand showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Onyx II Graphics Supercomputer with four CPUs, 8 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte of disk. With multiple projectors on a giant screen. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite.

  18. A Presentation of Spectacular Visualizations. Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: ETheater Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz; Pierce, Hal; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Florida and the KSC Visitor's Center. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s see them contrasted with the latest International global satellite weather movies including killer hurricanes & tornadic thunderstorms. See the latest spectacular images from NASA and NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, NOAA, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat7, & new Terra which will be visualized with state-of-the art tools. Shown in High Definition TV resolution (2048 x 768 pixels) are visualizations of hurricanes Lenny, Floyd, Georges, Mitch, Fran and Linda. See visualizations featured on covers of magazines like Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science and on National & International Network TV. New Digital Earth visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images including a Landsat tour of the US, with drill-downs into major cities using 1 m resolution spy-satellite technology from the Space Imaging IKONOS satellite. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See ocean vortices and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisherman. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Octane Graphics Supercomputer with dual CPUs, 5 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte disk using two projectors across the super sized Universe Theater panoramic screen.

  19. Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: Electronic-Theater 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the Delaware Bay and Philadelphia area. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s see them contrasted with the latest International global satellite weather movies including killer tropical cyclones & tornadic thunderstorms. See the latest spectacular images from NASA, NOAA & UMETSAT remote sensing missions like GOES, Meteosat, NOAA, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat7, & new Terra which will be visualized with state-of-the art tools. Shown in High Definition TV resolution (2048 x 768 pixels) are visualizations of hurricanes Lenny, Floyd, Georges, Mitch, Fran and Linda. see visualizations featured on covers of magazines like Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science and on National & International Network TV. New Digital Earth visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images including Landsat tours of the US, and Africa with drill downs of major global cities using 1 m resolution commercialized spy-satellite technology from the Space Imaging IKONOS satellite. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. see ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Octane Graphics Supercomputer with dual CPUs, 5 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte disk using two projectors across a super sized panoramic screen.

  20. NDSEG Essay 1 (transit)/ Ryan Yamada / Advisor: James P. Lloyd The search for extrasolar planets has been popular, prolific, and a driver of

    E-print Network

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    NDSEG Essay 1 (transit)/ Ryan Yamada / Advisor: James P. Lloyd The search for extrasolar planets extrasolar planets were found with optical radial velocity (RV) surveys; however, these surveys select goal of observing in infrared wavelengths to detect Earth-like extrasolar planets around the untouched

  1. Ocean Planet or Thick Atmosphere: On the Mass-Radius Relationship for Solid Exoplanets with Massive Atmospheres

    E-print Network

    E. R. Adams; S. Seager; L. Elkins-Tanton

    2007-10-25

    The bulk composition of an exoplanet is commonly inferred from its average density. For small planets, however, the average density is not unique within the range of compositions. Variations of a number of important planetary parameters--which are difficult or impossible to constrain from measurements alone--produce planets with the same average densities but widely varying bulk compositions. We find that adding a gas envelope equivalent to 0.1%-10% of the mass of a solid planet causes the radius to increase 5-60% above its gas-free value. A planet with a given mass and radius might have substantial water ice content (a so-called ocean planet) or alternatively a large rocky-iron core and some H and/or He. For example, a wide variety of compositions can explain the observed radius of GJ 436b, although all models require some H/He. We conclude that the identification of water worlds based on the mass-radius relationship alone is impossible unless a significant gas layer can be ruled out by other means.

  2. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the Olympic Medals Plaza, the new Gateway Center, and the University of Utah Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through the Park City, and Snow Basin sites of the 2002 Winter Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. See the four seasons of the Wasatch Front as observed by Landsat 7 at 15m resolution and watch the trees turn color in the Fall, snow come and go in the mountains and the reservoirs freeze and melt. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies Including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers Of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software. tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vertexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tin) algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and biomass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Octane Graphics Supercomputer with two CPUs, 4 Gigabytes of RAM and 0.5 Terabyte of disk using two projectors across a super sized panoramic 48 foot screen. In addition new HDTV technology will be demonstrated from a portable computer server.

  3. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the Olympic Medals Plaza, the new Gateway Center, and the University of Utah Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through the Park City, and Snow Basin sites of the 2002 Winter Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. See the four seasons of the Wasatch Front as observed by Landsat 7 at 15m resolution and watch the trees turn color in the Fall, snow come and go in the mountains and the reservoirs freeze and melt. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Octane Graphics Supercomputer with two CPUs, 4 Gigabytes of RAM and 0.5 Terabyte of disk using two projectors across a super sized panoramic 48 foot screen. In addition new HDTV technology will be demonstrated from a portable computer server.

  4. Electronic-Theater 2001: Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Authur; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Wisconsin, Madison and the Monona Terrace Center. Drop in on the Kennedy Space Center and Park City Utah, site of the 2002 Olympics using I m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s pioneered by UW. Scientists and see them contrasted with the latest US and International global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & tornadoes. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 that are visualized & explained. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science in cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC. See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images eg Landsat tours of the US, Africa, & New Zealand showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See vortices and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nina/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Onyx 11 Graphics Supercomputer with four CPUs, 8 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte of disk. With five projectors on a giant IMAX sized 18 x 72 ft screen. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "nightvision" DMSP military satellite.

  5. ARTICLE IN PRESS YICAR:8261 Please cite this article in press as: F. Selsis et al., Could we identify hot ocean-planets with CoRoT, Kepler and Doppler velocimetry?, Icarus (2007),

    E-print Network

    Bordé, Pascal J.

    2007-01-01

    : Can life originate on such body, in the absence of continent and ocean­silicate interfaces? What would identify hot ocean-planets with CoRoT, Kepler and Doppler velocimetry?, Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j ··· (····) ···­··· www.elsevier.com/locate/icarus Could we identify hot ocean-planets with CoRoT, Kepler and Doppler

  6. The biological big bang: the first oceans of primordial planets at 2-8 million years explain Hoyle/Wickramasinghe cometary panspermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2011-10-01

    Hydrogravitional-dynamics (HGD) cosmology of Gibson/Schild 1996 predicts that the primordial H-He4 gas of big bang nucleosynthesis became proto-globular-star-cluster clumps of Earth-mass planets at 300 Kyr. The first stars formed from mergers of these 3000 K gas planets. Chemicals C, N, O, Fe etc. created by stars and supernovae then seeded many of the reducing hydrogen gas planets with oxides to give them hot water oceans with metallic iron-nickel cores. Water oceans at critical temperature 647 K then hosted the first organic chemistry and the first life, distributed to the 1080 planets of the cosmological big bang by comets produced by the new (HGD) planet-merger star formation mechanism. The biological big bang scenario occurs between 2 Myr when liquid oceans condensed and 8 Myr when they froze. HGD cosmology explains, very naturally, the Hoyle/Wickramasinghe concept of cometary panspermia by giving a vast, hot, nourishing, cosmological primordial soup for abiogenesis, and the means for transmitting the resulting life forms and their evolving chemical mechanisms widely throughout the universe. A primordial astrophysical basis is provided for astrobiology by HGD cosmology. Concordance ?CDMHC cosmology is rendered obsolete by the observation of complex life on Earth.

  7. Earth is a dynamic, living oasis in the desolation of space. The land, oceans, and air interact in complex ways to give our planet a unique set

    E-print Network

    Earth is a dynamic, living oasis in the desolation of space. The land, oceans, and air interact in this process. In the mid 1980s, NASA developed a systems-based approach to studying the Earth and called it "Earth System Science" to advance the knowledge of Earth as a planet. Space-based observations

  8. Oceans Alive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lynn Rosentrater

    Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

  9. THE ORBITAL PHASES AND SECONDARY TRANSITS OF KEPLER-10b. A PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION BASED ON THE LAVA-OCEAN PLANET MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Rouan, D. [LESIA, UMR 8109 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, UVSQ, Universite Paris-Diderot, 5 pl. J. Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Deeg, H. J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Demangeon, O.; Samuel, B.; Cavarroc, C.; Leger, A. [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris-Sud, bat 121, F-91405 Orsay (France); Fegley, B., E-mail: daniel.rouan@obspm.fr [Planetary Chemistry Laboratory, McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2011-11-10

    The Kepler mission has made an important observation: the first detection of photons from a terrestrial planet by observing its phase curve (Kepler-10b). This opens a new field in exoplanet science: the possibility of obtaining information about the atmosphere and surface of rocky planets, objects of prime interest. In this Letter, we apply the Lava-ocean model to interpret the observed phase curve. The model, a planet without atmosphere and a surface partially made of molten rocks, has been proposed for planets of the class of CoRoT-7b, i.e., rocky planets very close to their star (at a few stellar radii). Kepler-10b is a typical member of this family. It predicts that the light from the planet has an important emission component in addition to the reflected one, even in the Kepler spectral band. Assuming an isotropical reflection of light by the planetary surface (Lambertian-like approximation), we find that a Bond albedo of {approx}50% can account for the observed amplitude of the phase curve, as opposed to a first attempt where an unusually high value was found. We propose a physical process to explain this still large value of the albedo. The overall interpretation can be tested in the future with instruments such as the James Webb Space Telescope or the Exoplanet Characterization Observatory. Our model predicts a spectral dependence that is clearly distinguishable from that of purely reflected light and from that of a planet at a uniform temperature.

  10. A Perspective of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land, and Oceans: A View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Graham, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in true high definition (HD) format. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, TRMM, Landsat 7, QuikScat, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. Marvel at visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning, and global cloud properties. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over South America over 17 years, and its contrast to the North American and Africa continents. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans will be shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  11. A Perspective of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land, and Oceans: A View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Tucker, Compton

    2002-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to South America with its Andes Mountains and the glaciers of Patagonia, ending up close and personal in Buenos Aires. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, TRMM, Landsat 7, QuikScat, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in South America and Africa, and global cloud properties. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over South America over 17 years, and its contrast to the North American and Africa continents. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images from the Himalayas to the dynamics of the Pacific Ocean that affect the climate of South and North America. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of South America and Africa showing land use and land cover change from Patagonia to the Amazon Basin, including the Andes Mountains, the Pantanal, and the Bolivian highlands. Landsat flyins to Rio Di Janeiro and Buenos Aires will be shows to emphasize the capabilities of new satellite technology to visualize our natural environment. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisherman. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  12. More than two-thirds of the Earth's surface is covered with water, so it is not surprising that the planet's oceans, lakes, rivers, streams and wetlands are considered valuable natural

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Paul N.

    that the planet's oceans, lakes, rivers, streams and wetlands are considered valuable natural resources and/stream ecology, wetland science, aquatic- conservation biology and Great Lakes ecosystems. Because of the breadth

  13. The effects of cloud radiative forcing on an ocean-covered planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Cumulus anvil clouds, whose importance has been emphasized by observationalists in recent years, exert a very powerful influence on deep tropical convection by tending to radiatively destabilize the troposphere. In addition, they radiatively warm the column in which they reside. Their strong influence on the simulated climate argues for a much more refined parameterization in the General Circulation Model (GCM). For Seaworld, the atmospheric cloud radiative forcing (ACRF) has a powerful influence on such basic climate parameters as the strength of the Hadley circulation, the existence of a single narrow InterTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the precipitable water content of the atmosphere. It seems likely, however, that in the real world the surface CRF feeds back negatively to suppress moist convection and the associated cloudiness, and so tends to counteract the effects of the ACRF. Many current climate models have fixed sea surface temperatures but variable land-surface temperatures. The tropical circulations of such models may experience a position feedback due to ACRF over the oceans, and a negative or weak feedback due to surface CRF over the land. The overall effects of the CRF on the climate system can only be firmly established through much further analysis, which can benefit greatly from the use of a coupled ocean-atmospheric model.

  14. The Polar Ocean in a Warming Planet: Understanding for managing a unique resource of the Humankind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzolini, R.; Campus, P.; Weber, J.

    2012-04-01

    There is no doubt that changes in the Polar Regions are of great significance at the global level, such as having far-reaching effects on atmospheric and ocean circulation. Changes in ocean currents, temperature conditions, ice cover and reduction of permafrost regions are having impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic Regions of Europe and Northern Hemisphere. Human activity is putting pressure on the environment in these regions; maritime transport between Europe and Asia through the northern sea route and accessibility conditions to hidden Arctic resources as well as new technologies of exploitation will have a significant impact on the marine environment, on the living resources and on the regional social organization and needs. There are still unresolved issues related to national claims on continental shelf and sea areas that involve international law; in these respects science can provide crucial elements for supporting political agreements. Such scenarios will present new opportunities for economic activities, but also risks which will result in new demands for marine management, monitoring systems, emergency response systems, search and rescue services as well as closer international cooperation. It will also require the development of an international regime based on the improvement of the present regulations on exploration, accessibility, exploitation and liability. Dialogue and international agreements based on scientific evidences and foresight are key elements for finding solutions. On the opposite hemisphere, the ocean surrounding Antarctica plays a primary role in all global climatic processes, through the annual sea ice evolution, the circum-Antarctic circulation driving the exchange of heat between low and high latitudes and the atmospheric circulation, through the density bottom currents that affect the global Thermohaline circulation (THC), and the biogeochemical cycles that have peculiar characteristics in the icy Antarctic waters. Besides this, the marine living resources and the reservoirs of energy and bio-chemical resources (e.g. gas hydrates, bio-prospecting) have a growing strategic importance in the global economy. The Antarctic Ocean, due to its isolation and extreme climatic conditions, has always been an area of international cooperation and technological challenges in support of scientific progress. In this scenario, the rapid environmental changes and the need of humankind for new and alternative reservoirs of food and energy to be exploited play a crucial role in understanding and managing the Polar oceans. The newly emerging opportunities and associated emerging threats for Arctic people increase the number of policy areas in which EU involvement is relevant and necessary. In order to gain insight into the this complex scenario and into the needs in terms of research programmes and infrastructures, policy and education to manage it, the European Polar Board launched an initiative in Polar marine science. The ESF/EPB marine initiative is intended to focus on various aspect of the Polar marine environment and to indicate a strategy focused on innovative scientific and technological topics, capable of combining together different research capacities as well as political, economic and strategic objectives, toward goals of economic and social interest. Therefore, it is based on a wide and multidisciplinary participation.

  15. Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bridge: Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center. Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center, is a growing collection of on-line marine education resources. It provides educators with ...

  16. Solubility, Partitioning, and Speciation of Carbon in Shallow Magma Oceans of Terrestrial Planets Constrained by High P-T Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H.; Dasgupta, R.; Shimizu, N.

    2011-12-01

    Deep planetary volatile cycles have a critical influence on planetary geodynamics, atmospheres, climate, and habitability. However, the initial conditions that prevailed in the early, largely molten Earth and other terrestrial planets, in terms of distribution of volatiles between various reservoirs - metals, silicates, and atmosphere - remains poorly constrained. Here we investigate the solubility, partitioning, and speciation of carbon-rich volatile species in a shallow magma ocean environment, i.e., in equilibrium with metallic and silicate melts. A series of high pressure-temperature experiments using a piston cylinder apparatus were performed at 1-3 GPa, 1500-1800 °C on synthetic basaltic mixtures + Fe-Ni metal powders contained in graphite capsules. All the experiments produced glassy silicate melt pool in equilibrium with quenched metal melt composed of dendrites of cohenite and kamacite. Major element compositions of the resulting phases and the carbon content of metallic melts were analyzed by EPMA at NASA-JSC. Carbon and hydrogen concentrations of basaltic glasses were determined using Cameca IMS 1280 SIMS at WHOI and speciation of dissolved volatiles was constrained using FTIR and Raman spectroscopy at Rice University. Based on the equilibria - FeO (silicate melt) = Fe (metal alloy melt) + 1/2O2, we estimate the oxygen fugacity of our experiments in the range of ?IW of -1 to -2. FTIR analysis on doubly polished basaltic glass chips suggests that the concentrations of dissolved CO32- or molecular CO2 are negligible in graphite and metal saturated reduced conditions, whereas the presence of dissolved OH- is evident from the asymmetric peak at 3500 cm-1. Collected Raman spectra of basaltic glasses in the frequency range of 200-4200 cm-1 suggest that hydrogen is present both as dissolved OH- species (band at 3600 cm-1) and as molecular H2 (band near 4150 cm-1) for all of our experiments. Faint peaks near 2915 cm-1 and consistent peaks near 740 cm-1 suggest that possible carbon species in our reduced glasses are likely minor CH4 and Si-C, respectively and are consistent with the recent solubility studies at reduced conditions [1,2]. Carbon solubility (calibrated using 12C/30Si) at graphite saturation in our reduced basaltic glasses is only in the range 20-100 ppm C, with H2O contents in the range of 0.2-0.7 wt.%. In contrast to the low dissolved carbon concentration in the basaltic silicate melts, carbon solubility in quenched metallic melts vary in the range of 5-7 wt.%. Our preliminary work indicates that the solubility of carbon in reduced basaltic melts relevant for early magma conditions may be several orders of magnitude lower compared to the solubility of carbon in modern terrestrial basalts. This coupled with significant solubility of carbon in Fe-Ni metallic melt suggests that most of magma ocean carbon was likely partitioned into deep metallic melts. Further metal-silicate experiments with more depolymerized basaltic melts of variable compositions are underway and will be presented. [1] Kadik et al. JPetrol 45, 1297-1310, 2004; [2] Kadik et al. Geochem Int 44, 33-47, 2006.

  17. Ocean Planet: Sea Connections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of a set of multidisciplinary lesson plans from the Smithsonian, this lesson plan examines the marine environment and how human activities can upset the delicate balance. Includes downloadable student activities, and tips on engaging students. Background material and most of the materials are provided. The "Resources" link provides an abundance of additional information, in the form of links and books, for each lesson.

  18. Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Ryan

    2013-02-12

    Become an expert on the Ocean habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can find out about Deep Ocean or Open Ocean! Ocean Life is a great website that tells about different parts of the ocean and about animals that live there. Ugie! You can start your mission to find out about Killer Whales by going to Orca or Killer Whales. Jakhia! You can start your mission to find ...

  19. Conditions for Oceans on Earth-like Planets Orbiting within the Habitable Zone: Importance of Volcanic CO2 Degassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadoya, S.; Tajika, E.

    2014-08-01

    Earth-like planets in the habitable zone (HZ) have been considered to have warm climates and liquid water on their surfaces if the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working as on Earth. However, it is known that even the present Earth may be globally ice-covered when the rate of CO2 degassing via volcanism becomes low. Here we discuss the climates of Earth-like planets in which the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working, with focusing particularly on insolation and the CO2 degassing rate. The climate of Earth-like planets within the HZ can be classified into three climate modes (hot, warm, and snowball climate modes). We found that the conditions for the existence of liquid water should be largely restricted even when the planet is orbiting within the HZ and the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working. We show that these conditions should depend strongly on the rate of CO2 degassing via volcanism. It is, therefore, suggested that thermal evolution of the planetary interiors will be a controlling factor for Earth-like planets to have liquid water on their surface.

  20. Blue Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site is a companion to the Discovery Channel/ BBC television series Blue Planet: Seas of Life. The Web site includes images, games, and expeditions all related to oceanography and marine biology. One feature that is particularly interesting is Ocean Alert, an interactive, current events feature where users can identify the topics that most interest them. News headlines, with links to more complete stories, are organized into twelve topics; users select the topics and area of the world of interest from a rotating map. This site is fun to use and informative, and users may appreciate the options to explore only as in-depth as they choose.

  1. Ocean Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  2. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  3. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic-Theater 2002. Spectacular Visualizations of our Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spectacular Visualizations of our Blue Marble The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the 2002 Winter Olympic Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC). See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vertexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nicola Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and biomass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite.

  4. Take a Planet Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Dwight

    2008-01-01

    Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create an…

  5. Ocean Outpost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Seedhouse

    \\u000a Humans have learned to adapt to life on almost all parts of the Earth’s surface and have pushed the limits of technology to\\u000a allow the exploration of space. In contrast, the oceans covering over 70% of the planet’s surface are relatively unexplored,\\u000a except for some comparatively shallow excursions made by saturation divers and manned submersibles. However, the prospect\\u000a of living

  6. Happiness, Unselfishness, and Popularity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Feingold

    1983-01-01

    The interrelations among happiness, unselfishness, and popularity were investigated in a sample of 175 men and women undergraduates and college-aged volunteers. Happiness and popularity were assessed directly by self-rating scales and unselfishness was measured covertly by reported interest in “helping people.” Happiness was found to be related to self-reported popularity with the opposite sex for men and women (rs =

  7. Building Planet Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Cattermole

    2000-01-01

    Continental plates, moving as fast as human hair grows, collide, mountains buckle, the ocean abyss sucks in the Earth's crust, and volcanos explode. Here is a story that Hollywood wished it could option: the dynamic cycle of geological destruction and renewal that has stretched across billions of years and shaped our planet in its current image. Scene by scene, this

  8. Popularity Contagion among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Peter E. L.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to support the theory of popularity contagion, which posits that popularity spreads among friends spontaneously and regardless of behavioral changes. Peer nominations of status and behavior were collected annually between 6th and 12th grades from a total of 1062 adolescents. Longitudinal hypotheses were mostly supported using path…

  9. From planetesimals to planets: volatile molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marboeuf, Ulysse; Thiabaud, Amaury; Alibert, Yann; Cabral, Nahuel; Benz, Willy

    2014-10-01

    Context. Solar and extrasolar planets are the subject of numerous studies aiming to determine their chemical composition and internal structure. In the case of extrasolar planets, the composition is important as it partly governs their potential habitability. Moreover, observational determination of chemical composition of planetary atmospheres are becoming available, especially for transiting planets. Aims: The present works aims at determining the chemical composition of planets formed in stellar systems of solar chemical composition. The main objective of this work is to provide valuable theoretical data for models of planet formation and evolution, and future interpretation of chemical composition of solar and extrasolar planets. Methods: We have developed a model that computes the composition of ices in planets in different stellar systems with the use of models of ice and planetary formation. Results: We provide the chemical composition, ice/rock mass ratio and C:O molar ratio for planets in stellar systems of solar chemical composition. From an initial homogeneous composition of the nebula, we produce a wide variety of planetary chemical compositions as a function of the mass of the disk and distance to the star. The volatile species incorporated in planets are mainly composed of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, and NH3. Icy or ocean planets have systematically higher values of molecular abundances compared to giant and rocky planets. Gas giant planets are depleted in highly volatile molecules such as CH4, CO, and N2 compared to icy or ocean planets. The ice/rock mass ratio in icy or ocean and gas giant planets is, respectively, equal at maximum to 1.01 ± 0.33 and 0.8 ± 0.5, and is different from the usual assumptions made in planet formation models, which suggested this ratio to be 2-3. The C:O molar ratio in the atmosphere of gas giant planets is depleted by at least 30% compared to solar value.

  10. Extrasolar planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. C. Perryman

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of the first extra-solar planet surrounding a main-sequence star was announced in 1995, based on very precise radial velocity (Doppler) measurements. A total of 34 such planets were known by the end of March 2000, and their numbers are growing steadily. The newly discovered systems confirm some of the features predicted by standard theories of star and planet

  11. Determinants of Meme Popularity

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, James P; Baños, Raquel A; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-01-01

    Online social media have greatly affected the way in which we communicate with each other. However, little is known about what are the fundamental mechanisms driving dynamical information flow in online social systems. Here, we introduce a generative model for online sharing behavior and analytically show, using techniques from mathematical population genetics, that competition between memes for the limited resource of user attention leads to a type of self-organized criticality, with heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity: a few memes "go viral" but the majority become only moderately popular. The time-dependent solutions of the model are shown to fit empirical micro-blogging data on hashtag usage, and to predict novel scaling features of the data. The presented framework, in contrast to purely empirical studies or simulation-based models, clearly distinguishes the roles of two distinct factors affecting meme popularity: the memory time of users and the connectivity structure of the social network.

  12. Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    Beyond the inner solar system's terrestrial planets, with their compact orbits and rock -metal compositions, lies the realm of the outer solar system and the giant planets. Here the distance between planets jumps by an order of magnitude relative to the spacing of the terrestrial planets, and the masses of the giants are one to two orders of magnitude greater than Venus and Earth - the largest terrestrial bodies. Composition changes as well, since the giant planets are largely gaseous, with inferred admixtures of ice, rock, and metal, while the terrestrial planets are essentially pure rock and metal. The giant planets have many more moons than do the terrestrial planets, and the range of magnetic field strengths is larger in the outer solar system. It is the giant planets that sport rings, ranging from the magnificent ones around Saturn to the variable ring arcs of Neptune. Were it not for the fact that only Earth supports abundant life (with life possibly existing, but not proved to exist, in the martian crust and liquid water regions underneath the ice of Jupiter's moon Europa), the terrestrial planets would pale in interest next to the giant planets for any extraterrestrial visitor.

  13. Characterizing Earth-like Planets with Terrestrial Planet Finder

    E-print Network

    S. Seager; E. B. Ford; E. L. Turner

    2002-12-27

    For the first time in human history the possibility of detecting and studying Earth-like planets is on the horizon. Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), with a launch date in the 2015 timeframe, is being planned by NASA to find and characterize planets in the habitable zones of nearby stars. The mission Darwin from ESA has similar goals. The motivation for both of these space missions is the detection and spectroscopic characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planet atmospheres. Of special interest are atmospheric biomarkers--such as O2, O3, H2O, CO and CH4--which are either indicative of life as we know it, essential to life, or can provide clues to a planet's habitability. A mission capable of measuring these spectral features would also obtain sufficient signal-to-noise to characterize other terrestrial planet properties. For example, physical characteristics such as temperature and planetary radius can be constrained from low- resolution spectra. In addition, planet characteristics such as weather, rotation rate, presence of large oceans or surface ice, and existence of seasons could be derived from photometric measurements of the planet's variability. We will review the potential to characterize terrestrial planets beyond their spectral signatures. We will also discuss the possibility to detect strong surface biomarkers--such as Earth's vegetation red edge near 700 nm--that are different from any known atomic, molecular, or mineralogical signature.

  14. Popularity in Wonderland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, J.S.

    Specialists in the field of children's literature, who publish research and decide on awards for individual books, should give serious study to what children themselves choose to read. Among the children's books that were not originally awarded top honors by critics but that have proved extremely popular with children are the Oz books by L. Frank…

  15. Popular Music in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Georgette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the recent concern over the imbalanced international flow of cultural products into Taiwan--such as films, television programs, and news from developed to developing nations--as it has fed the apprehension that imported popular music may have socialized Taiwanese audiences with alien values and ethics. (JD)

  16. Popular Science: Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Popular Science website, posts a range of articles on Science, Technology, History, Philosophy, Arts, and News & Ideas. Links to related books available through Amazon.com are provided at the end of each of the (fairly short) articles. The website also includes information on the Nobel Prize, including a list of all the Nobel Prize winners through 2001.

  17. Microlensing Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets, B. Scott Gaudi, IAS Scientific Frontiers in Research on Extrasolar Planets, June 19, 2002 #12;Microlensing and PlanetsMicrolensing and Planets Microlensing Searches

  18. CompletePlanet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CompletePlanet concerns itself with the "deep" Web, "content that resides in searchable databases, the results from which can only be discovered by a direct query," and thus cannot be indexed or queried by traditional search engines. The site offers a number of resources related to the "deep" Web, including a listing of approximately 13,000 "deep" Websites (out of an estimated 100,000 total) organized in 20 subject categories. Each category breaks down into numerous topical headings, and listings for the individual sites include a description and rankings for relevance, popularity, and links. CompletePlanet's database is also keyword searchable. The site notes both new additions and the most popular sites and offers a detailed search tutorial. Users who would like to learn more about the "deep" Web are invited to read CompletePlanet's 41-page white paper, "The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value," offered in HTML, .pdf, and .zip formats. Users can also download a free 30-day trial version of a new utility (Lexibot) that can search the "deep" Web. The registered version costs $89.95.

  19. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: PLANETS, VOL. 118, 11551176, doi:10.1002/jgre.20068, 2013 Thermal evolution of an early magma ocean in interaction with

    E-print Network

    Brandeis, Geneviève

    suggest that a steam atmosphere delays the end of the magma ocean phase by typically 1 Myr. Water vapor condenses to an ocean after 0.1, 1.5, and 10 Myr for, respectively, Mars, Earth, and Venus. This time would accurate calculation of opacities, we show that Venus is much closer to this threshold distance than

  20. Extrasolar planets

    PubMed Central

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Ida, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems. PMID:11035782

  1. The Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tool allows users to find when planets are visible in a given year. The years covered by this site are 1900 to 2100. The positions given are for the 1st of the month, at 9 pm, and generally hold true for the entire month. Positions are noted by which constellation the planet is located in. The planets given are Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, and Pluto. Additional comments for Venus and Mars note their location and viewing times.

  2. Mystery Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is about the study of planetary samples. Learners will use samples of crustal material to sort, classify, and make observations about an unknown planet. From their observations, students will interpret the geologic history of their mystery planet and make inferences about past life or the potential for life on the "Mystery" planet. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

  3. Planet X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A name given to a hypothetical tenth major planet once believed to exist in the outer solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune. The `X', which stood for `unknown', was also appropriate as the roman numeral for `ten'. The label `Planet X' was originated by Percival Lowell. From the late nineteenth century, he and others, including William H Pickering, worked out orbits for a large tenth planet wh...

  4. Planet Business

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The directory Planet Business aims to provide a "great gateway between Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania." Business metasites from around the world are listed in an A-Z index and by region, and the new Marketplace of Planet Business connects potential business partners among importers, exporters, traders, and distributors.

  5. Extreme Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the pulsar planet system discovered by Aleksander Wolszczan in 1992. Wolszczan used the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico to find three planets - the first of any kind ever found outside our solar system - circling a pulsar called PSR B1257+12. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars, which are the collapsed cores of exploded massive stars. They spin and pulse with radiation, much like a lighthouse beacon. Here, the pulsar's twisted magnetic fields are highlighted by the blue glow.

    All three pulsar planets are shown in this picture; the farthest two from the pulsar (closest in this view) are about the size of Earth. Radiation from charged pulsar particles would probably rain down on the planets, causing their night skies to light up with auroras similar to our Northern Lights. One such aurora is illustrated on the planet at the bottom of the picture.

    Since this landmark discovery, more than 160 extrasolar planets have been observed around stars that are burning nuclear fuel. The planets spotted by Wolszczan are still the only ones around a dead star. They also might be part of a second generation of planets, the first having been destroyed when their star blew up. The Spitzer Space Telescope's discovery of a dusty disk around a pulsar might represent the beginnings of a similarly 'reborn' planetary system.

  6. Planet Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those interested in a global view of the weather, Planet Earth is a "real-time 3-D model of the Earth with continuously updating night shadows and clouds." Cloud images are provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Planet Earth is shareware with a fee of $29.95.

  7. The Terrestrial Planets Large Bodies

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    : Greenhouse Effect: Solar heating & atmospheric cooling balance Helps determine if H2O is liquid, ice atmosphere. May have had early oceans that evaporated resulting in a Runaway Greenhouse Effect. Gravity elements. #12;The evolution of Terrestrial Planet atmospheres is driven by three primary effects

  8. LIVING ON AN ALIEN PLANET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Cairns

    2007-01-01

    Alien—unlike one's own; strange; repugnant in nature Living on an alien planet will be difficult. Humankind has produced excessive amounts of greenhouse gases, discharged many thousands of hazardous chemicals into the environment, displaced huge numbers of species from their habitat, and depleted brood stock from oceanic fisheries. In addition, the period following peak oil will mean less energy for heating\\/cooling,

  9. Tomorrow's Forecast: Oceans and Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigielski, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on weather and climate and is tied to the traveling exhibition Ocean Planet from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The lessons encourage students to think about the profound influence the oceans have on planetary climate and life on earth. Sections of the lesson plan include: (1) "Ocean…

  10. Planet Pals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gorgone, Judith.

    Created by designer, illustrator, and educator Judith Ann Gorgone, the Planet Pals Web site provides good material for young kids related to the health of the planet. The colorful pages contain basic information about the earth, energy, recycling, water conservation, pollution, and more. The fun and interactive Meet the Planet Pals area is especially interesting, where kids can listen to animated cartoons talk about various aspects of conservation. Even though the site is geared towards young children, they may have difficulty finding the educational specific pages by themselves; so, a parent's or teacher's assistance would most likely be helpful.

  11. Planet Slayer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Australian Broadcasting Company offers a fun, interactive way to learn about environmentally responsible consumption. Visitors are invited to follow Greena, eco-chic Warrior Princess, as she navigates the world of green living. The Web site contains loads of engaging animated features, such as the Adventures of Greena, a cartoon in which Greena battles some environmental ill in each chapter. In the Planet Slayer Game, players choose to play earnestly as Greena and save the planet or ironically as a pink-swathed Barbie-like character to slay the planet. With the Greenhouse Calculator, users can figure out their toll on the planet in terms of carbon dioxide emissions -- a service you could find easily enough on the Web, but this one features exploding pigs. Lots of other great features are available, as is a set of well-selected links for more information on ethical investing, Kyoto Protocol, the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development, and more.

  12. Planet Party

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-26

    Learners and their families are encouraged to go outside on a clear evening and view the sky to see the planets for themselves. Using sky charts and other resources, and possibly in partnership with a local astronomical society, children navigate the night sky and view planets with the naked eye and binoculars or telescopes. This activity is part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

  13. Pulse of the Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alex Kekesi

    2002-03-05

    Akin to a living creature, Earths land, air, oceans, ice, and life fit together into a complex, interlocking system. Space affords a unique vantage point from which to observe the daily, seasonal, and annual changes in Earths systems. Using data from advanced satellites, NASA visualizations portray a majestic, and sometimes violent, natural world and also capture the influences humans have on the planet. Over 80 NASA-related earth science animations created over the past 8 years implementing realtime and non-realtime techniques have been used on this visual journey. Tools used included IDL, Lightwave3D, Final Cut Pro, Performer, Vis5D, and custom software.

  14. Nebulous networks: Virginia Woolf and popular astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Holly Grace

    This study investigates Virginia Woolf's fascination with advances in astronomy and telescopic technologies of the 1920s and 30s. Grounded in the cultural studies of science, and the work of theorists such as Donna Haraway and Bruno Latour, the dissertation reconstructs the complex interconnections between Woolf's fiction and prose writing and an explosive popular interest in astronomy and cosmology. Woolf's aesthetic and political practices were shaped by emerging visualization technologies ranging from astronomical telescopes to the hand-held camera. While her writing provides a focus for this investigation, the dissertation offers close readings of fiction and essays by multiple British authors and science writers in the context of these converging phenomena. As a result of glimpsing tiny worlds through her own telescope, Virginia Woolf formulated a global aesthetic and a global politics. Gazing at the moon and stars reminded her that earth is a planet in space, and that earth's inhabitants must rely on this small, fragile globe for their future survival. The opening chapter establishes the cultural context for the study. In 1923, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble determined that the Andromeda galaxy was located far beyond the limits of the Milky Way, then believed to comprise the entire universe. Hubble's radical reconfiguration of the universe contributed to a pervasive sense, in the modern period, of a decentering and re-scaling of humans in the universe. In the chapters that follow, the dissertation offers readings of Woolf's novels and short fiction in relation to her fascination with astronomy and explores how the wildly popular British cosmologist and science writer, Sir James jeans, had a shaping effect on popular culture and on Woolf's narrative practices and pacifist politics. Despite his oblique connections to what became Bloomsbury, jeans and his popular science texts were to play a considerable role in Woolf's formulation of a global aesthetic.

  15. A Planet Detection Tutorial and Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, David; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detection of extra-solar planets has been a very popular topic with the general public for years. Considerable media coverage of recent detections (currently at about 50) has only heightened the interest in the topic. School children are particularly interested in learning about recent astronomical discoveries. Scientists have the knowledge and responsibility to present this information in both an understandable and interesting format. Most classrooms and homes are now connected to the internet, which can be utilized to provide more than a traditional 'flat' presentation. An interactive software package on planet detection has been developed. The major topics include: "1996 - The Break Through Year In Planet Detection"; "What Determines If A Planet Is Habitable?"; "How Can We Find Other Planets (Search Methods)"; "All About the Kepler Mission: How To Find Terrestrial Planets"; and "A Planet Detection Simulator". Using the simulator, the student records simulated observations and then analyzes and interprets the data within the program. One can determine the orbit and planet size, the planet's temperature and surface gravity, and finally determine if the planet is habitable. Originally developed for the Macintosh, a web based browser version is being developed.

  16. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

  17. Hot Planet - Cold Comfort

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page features videos from the "Hot Planet- Cold Comfort" television episode, related website articles and a student activity. The videos explore how the Gulf Stream conveyor belt may shut down; how Arctic river runoff and Alaskan glacial melt are freshening the oceans; and how ocean sediments and ice cores are being studied to understand the Little Ice Age. The videos total approximately one hour in length. The website articles explore the Little Ice Age; how the Arctic functions as a global thermostat, affecting global weather patterns; and great moments in climate change. The student activity is about light absorbtion. The site also contains a challenge activity to find details in a painting that depict Little Ice Age living conditions.

  18. Planet Jargon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Moeai

    2007-05-07

    Planet Jargon is a fun way to learn about computer jargon. Students will do research on vocabulary, parts of a computer, history of a computer, as well as interpreting the words through illustrations. Students will create a PowerPoint to show their findings. INTRODUCTION! You have landed on the Planet Jargon. The inhabitants use very strange words to communicate with each other. Some of the words are familiar computer terms to you, but others are completely alien. You will need to discover the meanings of the computer jargon in order to ...

  19. Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, J. E.

    The origin of the Sun's planetary system is a long-standing problem but one whose solution may be in sight. Recent progress has been rapid and much has changed since the first edition of this book. This article will describe a reasonably coherent story for the formation of the planets, based on what people know today, with the obvious caveat that future discoveries are bound to change some of the details. This article outlines the various aspects of planet formation according to the current paradigm, with a particular emphasis on the origin of the Sun's planetary system.

  20. Technology, Sound and Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Steve

    The ability to record sound is power over sound. Musicians, producers, recording engineers, and the popular music audience often refer to the sound of a recording as something distinct from the music it contains. Popular music is primarily mediated via electronics, via sound, and not by means of written notes. The ability to preserve or modify…

  1. Rethinking Popular Culture and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

  2. Planet Applet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juergen Giesen

    This Java applet calculates three views of the bright planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) and the Moon. It displays a diagram showing rise and set times over the year, a view at local horizon, and a view of the ecliptic plane.

  3. Kids' Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kids Planet provides wildlife games, a story about the web of life, a map based on wolf populations, a report on the status of wolves worldwide, and a wildlife defense section with endangered species fact sheets. Teacher resources include a wolf discovery curriculum, sea otter unit, and a Florida Black Bear curriculum, as well as a wildlife bibliography.

  4. Planet Surfing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COSI

    2009-01-01

    In this astronomy activity (page 6 of the PDF), learners will compare and contrast two planets in the solar system using data obtained from the internet. They will convert distances from light years to miles and vice versa. Although this activity was created as a post visit for a workshop about astronomy, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity.

  5. Binary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  6. Earth and Terrestrial Planet Formation

    E-print Network

    Jacobson, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    The growth and composition of Earth is a direct consequence of planet formation throughout the Solar System. We discuss the known history of the Solar System, the proposed stages of growth and how the early stages of planet formation may be dominated by pebble growth processes. Pebbles are small bodies whose strong interactions with the nebula gas lead to remarkable new accretion mechanisms for the formation of planetesimals and the growth of planetary embryos. Many of the popular models for the later stages of planet formation are presented. The classical models with the giant planets on fixed orbits are not consistent with the known history of the Solar System, fail to create a high Earth/Mars mass ratio, and, in many cases, are also internally inconsistent. The successful Grand Tack model creates a small Mars, a wet Earth, a realistic asteroid belt and the mass-orbit structure of the terrestrial planets. In the Grand Tack scenario, growth curves for Earth most closely match a Weibull model. The feeding zon...

  7. Barnard’s Star: Planets or Pretense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Ianna, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Barnard’s Star remains popular with planet hunters because it is not only an extremely near, high proper motion star, but also the object of early planet-detection claims. In 1963, van de Kamp explained perturbations in its proper motion by the presence of a planet. In 1969, he produced another single-planet solution and a two-planet solution to the astrometric wobbles detected. At least 19 studies have failed to confirm his results using a range of techniques, including radial velocity, direct imaging, and speckle interferometry. However, most of them lacked the sensitivity to detect the planets he described, including astrometric studies at the McCormick and Naval Observatories. However, radial-velocity monitoring of Barnard’s Star at Lick and Keck Observatories from 1987 through 2012 appears to have ruled out such planets. Based upon observations made at the Sproul Observatory between 1916 and 1962, van de Kamp claimed that Barnard’s Star had a planet with about 1.6 times the mass of Jupiter and an orbital period of 24 years. After accounting for instrumentation effects that might have been partially responsible for his initial results, he continued to assert that this red dwarf had two planets. In his 1982 analysis of ~20,000 exposures collected between 1938 and 1981, he calculated that two planets with 0.7- and 0.5-Jupiter masses in 12- and 20-year orbits, respectively, orbited the second-closest stellar system to our own. Starting in 1995, the dramatic successes of radial velocity searches for extrasolar planets drove van de Kamp’s unsubstantiated claims from popular consciousness. Although many low-mass stellar companions were discovered through astrometry, the technique has been less successful for planets: “The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia” identifies one such discovery out of the 997 planets listed on 2013 September 23. Although Barnard’s Star has lost its pretensions to hosting the first extrasolar planets known, its intrinsic properties will keep it under observation. NSF grant AST 98-20711, Litton Marine Systems, Levinson Fund, University of Virginia, Hampden-Sydney College, and US Naval Observatory supported this research.

  8. Priority Science Questions How are ocean ecosystems and the biodiversity they support

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    , and in sustaining life on Earth. Recent views of nearby planets lacking an ocean expose a stark contrast to our cases, putting life, health, and property at risk from hazards inherent to the ocean. Despite that sustain life on our ocean planet, as only NASA can. Sincerely, Paula Bontempi #12;4 Chair, Ocean Biology

  9. The Ocean Conservancy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

  10. Planet Math

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about the different characteristics of the planets in our Solar System. Learners will use the Solar System Update program to complete a worksheet. The worksheet asks learners to identify multiple characteristics for each planetary body, and consider the relationships between certain characteristics. Required materials include the Solar System Update software and a computer with Internet access. This activity is Solar System Activity 3 in a larger resource, Space Update.

  11. Planet Oobleck

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Learners imagine a world covered in a mysterious substance called Oobleck. Learners make this substance and investigate its properties. Using an online program, they then design a spacecraft that can land on the planet, collect a sample, and return to Earth. A chart shows how their design compares to others' designs. Additionally, learners can build their spacecraft and test it. This activity presents a great engineering extension to other Oobleck-related activities posted elsewhere.

  12. Kid's Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A Web sitedesigned just for kids by Defenders of Wildlife, Kid's Planet has much to offer for teachers and students. Teacher's Table contains downloadable .pdf lesson plans and activities. Designed primarily for middle school students, these lesson plans and essay contests cover topics like wolves and sea otters. With electronic fact sheets on over 50 species, the section titled Get the Facts may prove useful. This editor particularly enjoyed weaving through the Web of Life with the garden spider.

  13. The Oceans and Human Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Sandifer; A. Frederick Holland; Teri K. Rowles; Geoffrey I. Scott

    2004-01-01

    For millennia, the oceans have been perceived by mankind as a pro- ducer of essential protein, a vital transportation artery, a source of great danger (from storms, hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis, and ven- omous and predatory animals) and the greatest mystery on the planet, inspiring untold realms of poetry and prose. The oceans are the world's most important sources of biological

  14. Make a Planet!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Make your own planet on this website! You can change the color of your planet and add land, water, trees, and weather. You can then name your planet and write a short story about it. For even more fun, compare the planets in our solar system with your planet!

  15. Magma Oceans in the Inner Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2012-05-01

    Theory and observations point to the occurrence of magma ponds or oceans in the early evolution of terrestrial planets and in many early-accreting planetesimals. The apparent ubiquity of melting during giant accretionary impacts suggests that silicate and metallic material may be processed through multiple magma oceans before reaching solidity in a planet. The processes of magma ocean formation and solidification, therefore, strongly influence the earliest compositional differentiation and volatile content of the terrestrial planets, and they form the starting point for cooling to clement, habitable conditions and for the onset of thermally driven mantle convection and plate tectonics. This review focuses on evidence for magma oceans on planetesimals and planets and on research concerning the processes of compositional differentiation in the silicate magma ocean, distribution and degassing of volatiles, and cooling.

  16. Milstein Hall of Ocean Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, created to complement the Hall of Ocean Life, looks at the cradle of life for our planet, along with its key to our future. It includes an in-depth look at the Hall of Ocean Life's dioramas, an exploration of the ocean's diverse communities and examines some of the ways in which life in water is different from life on land.

  17. Changing Planet: Fresh Water in the Arctic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    This Changing Planet video documents scientists' concerns regarding how melting Arctic sea ice will increase the amount of fresh water in the Beaufort Gyre, which could spill out into the Atlantic and cause major climate shifts in North America and Western Europe. The video includes interviews with scientists and a look at the basics of how scientists measure salinity in the ocean and how ocean circulation works in the Arctic.

  18. One World Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, students learn about ocean currents and the difference between salt and fresh water. They use colored ice cubes to see how cold and warm water mix and how this mixing causes currents. Also, students learn how surface currents occur due to wind streams. Lastly, they learn how fresh water floats on top of salt water, the difference between water in the ocean and fresh water throughout the planet, and how engineers are involved in the design of ocean water systems for human use.

  19. Giant Planets Tristan Guillot

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.2 Uranus and Neptune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4 the interior structure and evolution of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and extrasolar giant planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, planet formation 1 Introduction In our Solar System, four planets stand

  20. Dynamical Outcomes of Planet-Planet Scattering

    E-print Network

    Sourav Chatterjee; Eric B. Ford; Soko Matsumura; Frederic A. Rasio

    2008-05-15

    Observations in the past decade have revealed extrasolar planets with a wide range of orbital semimajor axes and eccentricities. Based on the present understanding of planet formation via core accretion and oligarchic growth, we expect that giant planets often form in closely packed configurations. While the protoplanets are embedded in a protoplanetary gas disk, dissipation can prevent eccentricity growth and suppress instabilities from becoming manifest. However, once the disk dissipates, eccentricities can grow rapidly, leading to close encounters between planets. Strong planet--planet gravitational scattering could produce both high eccentricities and, after tidal circularization, very short-period planets, as observed in the exoplanet population. We present new results for this scenario based on extensive dynamical integrations of systems containing three giant planets, both with and without residual gas disks. We assign the initial planetary masses and orbits in a realistic manner following the core accretion model of planet formation. We show that, with realistic initial conditions, planet--planet scattering can reproduce quite well the observed eccentricity distribution. Our results also make testable predictions for the orbital inclinations of short-period giant planets formed via strong planet scattering followed by tidal circularization.

  1. The Nine Planets: Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This Nine Planets page contains details about the planet Mars. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on the planet, and results from exploration spacecraft. Phobos and Deimos (Mars satellites) are also covered in depth. The site provides links to more images, movies, and facts about Mars and its moons, and discusses unanswered questions about the planet.

  2. Conditions for the onset of plate tectonics on terrestrial planets and moons

    E-print Network

    Jellinek, Mark

    Conditions for the onset of plate tectonics on terrestrial planets and moons C. O'Neill a,, A to the terrestrial planets. Whereas Earth is expected to be in a plate-tectonic regime over its full thermal oceanic lithosphere into the underlying mantle. For such a regime to exist on any planet, stresses

  3. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Armitage, Philip J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)], E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu

    2009-07-10

    We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

  4. Observations of Extrasolar Planets Enabled by a Return to the Moon

    E-print Network

    P. R. McCullough

    2007-03-13

    Ambitious studies of Earth-like extrasolar planets are outlined in the context of an exploration initiative for a return to the Earth's Moon. Two mechanism for linearly polarizing light reflected from Earth-like planets are discussed: 1) Rayleigh-scattering from a planet's clear atmosphere, and 2) specular reflection from a planet's ocean. Both have physically simple and predictable polarized phase functions. The exoplanetary diurnal variation of the polarized light reflected from a ocean but not from a land surface has the potential to enable reconstruction of the continental boundaries on an Earth-like extrasolar planet. Digressions on the lunar exploration initiative also are presented.

  5. Observations of Extrasolar Planets Enabled by a Return to the Moon

    E-print Network

    McCullough, P R

    2007-01-01

    Ambitious studies of Earth-like extrasolar planets are outlined in the context of an exploration initiative for a return to the Earth's Moon. Two mechanism for linearly polarizing light reflected from Earth-like planets are discussed: 1) Rayleigh-scattering from a planet's clear atmosphere, and 2) specular reflection from a planet's ocean. Both have physically simple and predictable polarized phase functions. The exoplanetary diurnal variation of the polarized light reflected from a ocean but not from a land surface has the potential to enable reconstruction of the continental boundaries on an Earth-like extrasolar planet. Digressions on the lunar exploration initiative also are presented.

  6. Popular Media and Social Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvind Singhal

    2007-01-01

    A few months ago, at an international communication conference in Nairobi, Kenya, a delegate asked me about the purpose of my studies in popular entertainment media. She was of the opinion that mindless and escapist media programming was, as she put it, \\

  7. by popular demand: Addiction II

    E-print Network

    Niv, Yael

    by popular demand: Addiction II PSY/NEU338:Animal learning and decision making: Psychological, computational and neural perspectives drug addiction · huge and diverse field of research (many different drugs) · addiction = continued compulsive making of maladaptive choices despite adverse consequences to the user

  8. Body Modification and Popular Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarah Hogue

    It is safe to say that contemporary North America is obsessed with the body. Popular culture abounds with references to the body: from products for the body (hair care, skin care, teeth whitening products, fashion, etc.) to representations of the body (the white body, the gay body, the beautiful body, etc.). All of these references create a discourse around the

  9. Arab Stereotypes in Popular Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Janice J.

    1983-01-01

    Most popular fictional plots involving the Middle East--adventure stories, espionage, and themes of Western dependency on Arab oil--portray the Israelies as the good guys and the Arabs as the villians. People must be made aware that fictional literature is prejudiced and racially biased against Arabs. (RM)

  10. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  11. Disposable Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    BBC Online presents this six-part special on sustainable development. Created in anticipation of the now concluded Johannesburg Summit, this Web site provides a valuable resource for viewers wishing to learn more about sustainable development and related issues. The Web site consists of an overview and six sections: Population, Food, Cities, Waste, Tourism, and Energy. The sections offer an in-depth look at each topic and include audio clips of related interviews and news stories. The discussion forums are now closed, but visitors may read the occasionally insightful and often times heated comments that have already been posted. View the slide show to get a quick, visceral sense of human impact on the planet -- past, present, and future. Visitors may also take a quiz to calculate their ecological footprint, or how much of the earth's resources they individually consume each year.

  12. Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich

    E-print Network

    Heinrich, Mark

    Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich School of EECS University of Central Florida Orlando Ithaca, NY 14853 Email: mainak@csl.cornell.edu Abstract-- Ocean is a popular program from the SPLASH-2 parallel benchmark suite. A complete application, as opposed to a computational kernel, Ocean is often used

  13. The Nine Planets: Venus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page contains details about the planet Venus. Information includes planet mass, distance from the Sun, diameter, orbit, and mythology. Also covered is planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on the planet, and results of exploration spacecraft. Includes links to images, movies, and additional facts. Discusses unanswered questions about Venus as well.

  14. The Nine Planets: Mercury

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page of Nine Planets highlights details about the planet Mercury. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, and the results of exploration spacecraft. The site provides links to images, movies, and more Mercury facts. Unanswered questions about the planet are also discussed.

  15. Dance of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    As students continue their monthly plotting of the planets along the ecliptic they should start to notice differences between inner and outer planet orbital motions, and their relative position or separation from the Sun. Both inner and outer planets have direct eastward motion, as well as retrograde motion. Inner planets Mercury and Venus,…

  16. The Nine Planets: Jupiter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page of Nine Planets contains details about the gas giant planet Jupiter. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, results from exploration spacecraft, and temperature on the planet. Jupiters' moons are also covered in detail, including Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, and others. The site provides links to more images and facts, and discusses unanswered questions about Jupiter and its moons.

  17. The Nine Planets: Uranus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page of Nine Planets highlights details about the gas giant planet Uranus and its moons. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and results of spacecraft exploration. Uranus' moons and rings are detailed, including Titania, Oberon, Umbriel, Ariel, Miranda, and more. Discussion of unanswered questions about the planet and links to more images, movies, and facts are also provided.

  18. The Nine Planets: Neptune

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This Nine Planets page contains details about the gas giant planet Neptune and its moons. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and results of spacecraft exploration. Neptune's moons and rings are also detailed, including Nereid, Triton, Proteus, and many others. Unanswered questions about the planet and its moons are covered, and links to more images, movies, and facts are given.

  19. Popular democracy and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The US has moved from representative democracy to popular democracy and public scrutiny is unrelenting. Any hope of success on their part in resolving the nuclear waste question hinges on their ability to condition themselves to operate in a popular democracy environment. Those opposed to the siting of high- and low-level waste repositories have already developed a set of recurring themes: (1) the siting criteria are fatally flawed; (2) the criteria are not adequate; (3) the process is driven by politics not science; (4) unrealistic deadlines lead to dangerous shortcuts; (5) transportation experience is lacking; (6) the scientific community does not really know how to dispose of the wastes. They must continue to tell the public that if science has brought us problems, then the answer can be only more knowledge - not less. Failure by their profession to recognize that popular democracy is a fact and that nuclear issues need to be addressed in humanistic terms raises the question of whether America is philosophically suited for the expanded use of nuclear power in the future - or for that matter for leadership in the world of tomorrow.

  20. Disk-Planet Interactions During Planet Formation

    E-print Network

    J. C. B. Papaloizou; R. P. Nelson; W. Kley; F. S. Masset; P. Artymowicz

    2006-03-08

    The discovery of close orbiting extrasolar giant planets led to extensive studies of disk planet interactions and the forms of migration that can result as a means of accounting for their location. Early work established the type I and type II migration regimes for low mass embedded planets and high mass gap forming planets respectively. While providing an attractive means of accounting for close orbiting planets intially formed at several AU, inward migration times for objects in the earth mass range were found to be disturbingly short, making the survival of giant planet cores an issue. Recent progress in this area has come from the application of modern numerical techniques which make use of up to date supercomputer resources. These have enabled higher resolution studies of the regions close to the planet and the initiation of studies of planets interacting with disks undergoing MHD turbulence. This work has led to indications of how the inward migration of low to intermediate mass planets could be slowed down or reversed. In addition, the possibility of a new very fast type III migration regime, that can be directed inwards or outwards, that is relevant to partial gap forming planets in massive disks has been investigated.

  1. Water contents of Earth-mass planets around M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Feng; Ida, Shigeru

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to identify habitable extrasolar planets have focused on systems around M dwarfs, faint stars with less than half the solar mass. Habitable planets around M dwarfs are thought to be more plentiful and easier to detect than those orbiting Sun-like G dwarfs. However, unlike G dwarfs, M dwarfs experience a prolonged decline in luminosity early in their history, leading to an inward migration of the habitable zone to where planets may have lost their water through dissociation and hydrodynamic escape. Water-poor planets, such as Venus, are considered uninhabitable. In contrast, planets with too much water (>1 wt%) would lack continents, leading to climate instability and nutrient limitation problems. Here we combine a numerical planet population synthesis model with a model for water loss to show that the evolution of stellar luminosity leads to two types of planets of Earth-like mass (0.1 to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zones around M dwarfs: ocean planets without continents, and desert planets, on which there are orders of magnitude less surface water than on Earth. According to our simulations, Earth-mass planets with Earth-like water contents are rare around M dwarfs and occur 10-100 times less frequently than around G dwarfs. We suggest that stars close to the size of the Sun should be the primary targets for detecting Earth-like planets.

  2. Create Your Own Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Larsen

    2008-11-25

    In this project you will be the creator of a new planet in our solar system. You will be free to decide all of the characteristics of your planet. Look at the different websites below to find out more about the planets in our solar system and then decide what characteristics your planet will have. PLANET PICTURES AND FACTS I I I I I V Mercury Facts Venus Facts Earth Facts Mars Facts Jupiter Facts Saturn Facts Uranus Facts Neptune Facts PROJECT REQUIREMENTS: Your planet must have one moon or more. You must decide how long it takes your planet to rotate (length of a day on your planet). You must decide how long it takes your planet to ...

  3. Extrasolar Carbon Planets

    E-print Network

    Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

    2005-05-02

    We suggest that some extrasolar planets planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk's C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptune-mass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures.

  4. Archaeoastronomical Concepts in Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Broad public embrace of archaic astronomy probably began in the eighteenth century with awareness of the summer solstice sunrise's affiliation with Stonehenge. Since that time, Stonehenge has retained an astronomical mystique that attracts crowds mobilized by the monument's supposed cosmic purpose. They are committed to witness prehistoric heritage operating in real time and with enduring function. More recently, mass media have intermittently thrown a spotlight on new archaeoastronomical discoveries. While the details, ambiguities, and nuances of disciplined study of astronomy in antiquity do not usually infiltrate popular culture, some astronomical alignments, celestial events, sky-tempered symbols, and astral narratives have become well known and referenced in popular culture. Places and relics that command public interest with astronomical connotations are transformed into cultural icons and capture visitors on a quest for the authenticity the past is believed to possess. Monuments and ideas that successfully forge a romantic bond with the past and inspire an imagined sense of sharing the experience, perspective, and wisdom of antiquity persist in the cultural landscape.

  5. Yoga Gaining in Popularity Among Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Yoga Gaining in Popularity Among Americans More children, adults ... Alternative Medicine TUESDAY, Feb. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Yoga is increasingly popular among U.S. adults and children, ...

  6. DETECTING VOLCANISM ON EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D. D. [Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Henning, W. G., E-mail: lkaltene@cfa.harvard.ed [Harvard University, EPS, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The search for extrasolar rocky planets has already found the first transiting rocky super-Earth, Corot 7b, with a surface temperature that allows for magma oceans. Here, we investigate whether we could distinguish rocky planets with recent major volcanism by remote observation. We develop a model for volcanic eruptions on an Earth-like exoplanet based on the present-day Earth and derive the observable features in emergent and transmission spectra for multiple scenarios of gas distribution and cloud cover. We calculate the observation time needed to detect explosive volcanism on exoplanets in primary as well as secondary eclipse and discuss the likelihood of observing volcanism on transiting Earth-sized to super-Earth-sized exoplanets. We find that sulfur dioxide from large explosive eruptions does present a spectral signal that is remotely detectable especially for secondary eclipse measurements around the closest stars and ground-based telescopes, and report the frequency and magnitude of the expected signatures. The transit probability of a planet in the habitable zone decreases with distance from the host star, making small, nearby host stars the best targets.

  7. Create Your Own Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wendy Duroseau

    2012-04-30

    This activity can be used to evaluate students understanding of the characteristics of inner and outer planets. This activity allows the students to create their own planet with the appropriate characteristics. A rubric is attached.

  8. Popular Rogues: Citizen Opinion about Political Corruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darrell M. West; Katherine Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Trust in the honesty of public officials is a crucial condition for stable democratic systems. Yet despite the presumed centrality of honesty in government, there has been a long tradition of “popular rogues” who are considered dishonest and corrupt, but retain popularity for their strong and effective leadership. In this paper, we look at the phenomenon of popular rogues using

  9. The Popularity of Middle School Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thunfors, Peter; Cornell, Dewey

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the peer popularity of middle school students involved in bullying. Bullying was assessed by peer report using the School Climate Bullying Survey (SCBS) and popularity was assessed through peer nominations from a student roster. In a sample of 379 middle school students, bullies were among the most popular students in the…

  10. Popular Music Pedagogy: Peer Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebler, Don

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion of popular music as a content area in music education is not uncommon. The musicological study of popular music is well established in higher education, and even the practice of popular music is becoming more common in both secondary education and the post-compulsory sector. However, when this occurs, it is likely to be taught in…

  11. Spanish Federation of Popular Universities (FEUP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Isabel Garcia-Longoria

    2006-01-01

    This article features the Spanish Popular Universities, which are defined as "a project of cultural development that acts in the municipality, whose objective is to promote social participation, education, training, and culture in order to improve life quality" (Federation of Popular Education Universities, 2000). A century of history of Popular…

  12. Popular Route XU HAN & LI YIMIN

    E-print Network

    Papadias, Dimitris

    Popular Route Discovery XU HAN & LI YIMIN 20143573, 20086127 2/04/2014 COMP 5311 1 #12;Outline 2/04/2014 COMP 5311 2 What is trajectory? Trajectory characteristics Popular Route Discovery Evaluation & Analysis #12;Outline 2/04/2014 COMP 5311 3 What is trajectory? Trajectory characteristics Popular Route

  13. Dunking the Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-07-11

    In this demonstration, learners compare the relative sizes and masses of scale models of the planets as represented by fruits and other foods. Learners dunk the "planets" in water to highlight the fact that even a large, massive planet — such as Saturn — can have low density. They discuss how a planet's density is related to whether it is mainly made up of rock or gas. This activity is part of a sequence of activities focused on Jupiter's immense size.

  14. Planet Designer: Kelvin Climb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about the way distance, albedo, and atmosphere affect the temperature of a planet. Learners will create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet's temperature. They will then discuss their results in terms of greenhouse strength and the presence of liquid water. This lesson is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering education program focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

  15. Magma Oceans on Exoplanets and Early Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Elkins-Tanton

    2009-01-01

    Late, giant accretionary impacts likely form multiple magma oceans of some depth in young rocky planets. Models of magma ocean solidification that incorporate water, carbon, and other incompatible volatile elements in small amounts predict a range of first-order outcomes important to planetary evolution. First, initial planetary bulk composition and size determine the composition of the earliest degassed atmosphere. This early

  16. Law in Popular Culture Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Marlyn Robinson, reference librarian of the Tarlton Law Library at the University of Texas at Austin provides this site, which contains information about the library's collection of books and films related to how popular culture affects peoples' notions of the American legal system. The bibliography, a collection of information about nearly two hundred articles and books related to the subject, highlights this site. Visitors can find information about the library's collection of over 500 films featuring lawyers, as well as descriptive information about the library's collection of hundreds of books of "fiction in all genres, as well as legal humor, plays, comics, and pulp magazines" that either feature a lawyer in a central role or are authored by lawyers. Rounding out the site is a gallery of related movie stills and posters. Note that while the books are available via interlibrary loan, the films are not available outside the UT community.

  17. Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

  18. The Dwarf Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brown, Mike

    This website, by California Institute of Technology astronomer Mike Brown, describes dwarf planets and the issues in their classification. A diagram show the "new" solar system, including the approximately 50 dwarf planets in the Kuiper Belt. A table shows the size and distance of each dwarf planet.

  19. Are extrasolar oceans common throughout the Galaxy?

    E-print Network

    David Ehrenreich; Arnaud Cassan

    2007-04-23

    Light and cold extrasolar planets such as OGLE 2005-BLG-390Lb, a 5.5 Earth-mass planet detected via microlensing, could be frequent in the Galaxy according to some preliminary results from microlensing experiments. These planets can be frozen rocky- or ocean-planets, situated beyond the snow line and, therefore, beyond the habitable zone of their system. They can nonetheless host a layer of liquid water, heated by radiogenic energy, underneath an ice shell surface for billions of years, before freezing completely. These results suggest that oceans under ice, like those suspected to be present on icy moons in the Solar system, could be a common feature of cold low-mass extrasolar planets.

  20. Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets I for Extrasolar Planets, B. Scott Gaudi, IAS #12;The Search for Extrasolar PlanetsThe Search for Extrasolar Planets Why Search for Extrasolar Planets ? Frequency of Life Clues to Star Formation Low End

  1. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  2. A Strange New Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scientists have been looking for extra-solar planets for decades, but only recently, with better equipment and improved techniques, have they finally unveiled new and unusual planets. Since 1995, over 155 planets have been discovered orbiting stars other than our Sun. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, gives an account of the discovery of the first confirmed extra-solar planet, a Jupiter-sized giant orbiting the star 51 Pegasi, and discusses the search for other extra-solar planets. The segment is three minutes nine seconds in length.

  3. Identifying Obstacles to Incorporating Ocean Content into California Secondary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The ocean is the dominant feature on this planet that makes all life on Earth possible. Marine educators and scientists across the country have identified essential principles and concepts that define what an "ocean literate" person should know, but there is a lack of comprehensive ocean content coverage in secondary classrooms across the United…

  4. Planets Around Massive Subgiants

    E-print Network

    John A. Johnson

    2007-10-16

    Compared to planets around Sun-like stars, relatively little is known about the occurrence rate and orbital properties of planets around stars more massive than 1.3 Msun. The apparent deficit of planets around massive stars is due to a strong selection bias against early-type dwarfs in Doppler-based planet searches. One method to circumvent the difficulties inherent to massive main-sequence stars is to instead observe them after they have evolved onto the subgiant branch. We show how the cooler atmospheres and slower rotation velocities of subgiants make them ideal proxies for F- and A-type stars. We present the early results from our planet search that reveal a paucity of planets orbiting within 1 AU of stars more massive than 1.5 Msun, and evidence of a rising trend in giant planet occurrence with stellar mass.

  5. The Role of Popularity Goal in Early Adolescents' Behaviors and Popularity Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    The effect of popularity goal on the use of 3 popularity-related behaviors and later popularity status was examined in a diverse sample of 314 6th-grade students (176 girls and 138 boys) in both fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters. Popularity goal and the use of popularity-driven behaviors (e.g., "I change the way I dress in order to…

  6. [Seguro popular: achievements and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Chertorivski-Woldenberg, Salomón

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare systems are organized following one of two basic models: social security systems, which link access to health services to labor status, and national health systems, which grant access to health as a citizen's right. Mexico adopted, since the institutionalization of social security and healthcare services in 1943, a mixed system. Social security institutions covered the salaried workers and public assistance was granted to the remaining of the population. At the beginning of the XXI century the Mexican health system entered a crisis as the conditions to expand health coverage through social security were not met and public assistance services were insufficient. In order to address these developments, the Healthcare Social Protection System was founded (2004) as a mechanism to effectively guarantee every person's right to health as established after the constitutional amendment of article fourth in 1983. Seguro Popular is the mechanism that through federal and states' contributions seeks to financially protect the population without access to social security's health services, and thus prevent impoverishment due to out of pocket and catastrophic health expenditures. PMID:22116179

  7. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats (e.g., seagrasses, kelps), eutrophication processes, oil spills, and a variety of hazards in the coastal zone.

  8. Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability

    E-print Network

    E. B. Ford; S. Seager; E. L. Turner

    2001-09-04

    The detection of massive planets orbiting nearby stars has become almost routine, but current techniques are as yet unable to detect terrestrial planets with masses comparable to the Earth's. Future space-based observatories to detect Earth-like planets are being planned. Terrestrial planets orbiting in the habitable zones of stars-where planetary surface conditions are compatible with the presence of liquid water-are of enormous interest because they might have global environments similar to Earth's and even harbor life. The light scattered by such a planet will vary in intensity and colour as the planet rotates; the resulting light curve will contain information about the planet's properties. Here we report a model that predicts features that should be discernible in light curves obtained by low-precision photometry. For extrasolar planets similar to Earth we expect daily flux variations up to hundreds of percent, depending sensitively on ice and cloud cover. Qualitative changes in surface or climate generate significant changes in the predicted light curves. This work suggests that the meteorological variability and the rotation period of an Earth-like planet could be derived from photometric observations. Other properties such as the composition of the surface (e.g., ocean versus land fraction), climate indicators (for example ice and cloud cover), and perhaps even signatures of Earth-like plant life could be constrained or possibly, with further study, even uniquely determined.

  9. Bringing Ocean Science News To the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    One of the goals of COSEE-Ocean Systems and its partners is to work toward bridging the gap between "school science" and "scientist science," in the context of using ocean examples to guide science inquiry. This article addresses popular media as a valuable source of science information, keeping current science research (or "scientist science"), and its outcomes and implications in front of students.

  10. Radar Imaging of Ocean Surface Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Brown; C. Elachi; T. W. Thompson

    1976-01-01

    Radar imagery of ocean surface patterns is presented and discussed. The imaging radar detects changes in ocean surface backscatter and yields imagery of deepwater gravity waves, oil slicks, island shadows, internal waves, coastal waves, and other features. The results of several observations suggest that the surface irregularities behave as iostropic scatterers for a radar wavelength of 25 cm. The popular

  11. Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways?

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways? N = N* fs fGHZ fp nH #12;What is a star? A star · burn their D quickly, then slowly cool. · form like stars. #12;#12;Planets ·Do not support Deuterium Questions: · Do planets form in isolation (like stars?) · What is the minimum planetary mass #12;Planet

  12. Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways?

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways? N = N* fs fp AST 248 #12;What is a star? A star · burn their D quickly, then slowly cool. · form like stars. #12;#12;Planets ·Do not support Deuterium Questions: · Do planets form in isolation (like stars?) · What is the minimum planetary mass #12;Planet

  13. Cases of good and bad popularizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkola, Marko

    2010-05-01

    Scientific articles in average are read by few people and the impact of individual paper in the society may remain small. A typical press release might not help much. Simultaneously popular science magazines are seeking for news, but by reading the same channels it is easy to end up printing yesterdaýs digital news in predictable format. Yet an author who knows how and what to popularize, may win thousands of readers and simultaneously help the popular science magazine to win the news competition.

  14. Popularizing dissent: A civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Motion, Judy; Leitch, Shirley; Weaver, C Kay

    2015-05-01

    This article theorizes civil society groups' attempts to popularize opposition to genetic modification in New Zealand as deliberative interventions that seek to open up public participation in science-society governance. In this case, the popularization strategies were designed to intensify concerns about social justice and democratic incursions, mobilize dissent and offer meaningful mechanisms for navigating and participating in public protest. Such civic popularization efforts, we argue, are more likely to succeed when popularity and politicization strategies are judiciously integrated to escalate controversy, re-negotiate power relations and provoke agency and action. PMID:25394361

  15. The SARG Planet Search

    E-print Network

    S. Desidera; R. Gratton; M. Endl; A. F. Martinez Fiorenzano; M. Barbieri; R. Claudi; R. Cosentino; S. Scuderi; M. Bonavita

    2007-05-22

    In this chapter of the book "Planets in binaries" we summarize our recent work on the statistical properties of planets in binaries and the differences with respect to planets orbiting single stars. We then present the radial velocity planet search on moderately wide binaries with similar components (twins) ongoing at TNG using the high resolution spectrograph SARG. We discuss the sample selection, the observing and analysis procedures, and the preliminary results of the radial velocity monitoring. We also discuss the second major science goal of the SARG survey, the search for abundance anomalies caused by the ingestion of planetary material by the central star, considering the two samples of twins and the planet hosts in binaries with similar components. Finally, we present some preliminary conclusions on the frequency of planets in binary systems.

  16. The SARG Planet Search

    E-print Network

    Desidera, S; Endl, M; Fiorenzano, A F Martinez; Barbieri, M; Claudi, R; Cosentino, R; Scuderi, S; Bonavita, M

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter of the book "Planets in binaries" we summarize our recent work on the statistical properties of planets in binaries and the differences with respect to planets orbiting single stars. We then present the radial velocity planet search on moderately wide binaries with similar components (twins) ongoing at TNG using the high resolution spectrograph SARG. We discuss the sample selection, the observing and analysis procedures, and the preliminary results of the radial velocity monitoring. We also discuss the second major science goal of the SARG survey, the search for abundance anomalies caused by the ingestion of planetary material by the central star, considering the two samples of twins and the planet hosts in binaries with similar components. Finally, we present some preliminary conclusions on the frequency of planets in binary systems.

  17. Seismology of Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    Gaulme, Patrick; Schmider, Francois-Xavier; Guillot, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Seismology applied to giant planets could drastically change our understanding of their deep interiors, as it has happened with the Earth, the Sun, and many main-sequence and evolved stars. The study of giant planets' composition is important for understanding both the mechanisms enabling their formation and the origins of planetary systems, in particular our own. Unfortunately, its determination is complicated by the fact that their interior is thought not to be homogeneous, so that spectroscopic determinations of atmospheric abundances are probably not representative of the planet as a whole. Instead, the determination of their composition and structure must rely on indirect measurements and interior models. Giant planets are mostly fluid and convective, which makes their seismology much closer to that of solar-like stars than that of terrestrial planets. Hence, helioseismology techniques naturally transfer to giant planets. In addition, two alternative methods can be used: photometry of the solar light ref...

  18. New Planets / SETI

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Planets / SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) is a 48 minute radio broadcast that discusses three new planets discovered orbiting distant stars; how best to communicate with ET intelligence; and the progress of the radio-based search for ET intelligence. The new planet finds are smaller than previous extrasolar planet discoveries, on par with the planet Neptune in our solar system. There is discussion of the odds of finding life elsewhere in the universe, and if it is possible to find Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. The show also discusses: a paper published in the journal, Nature, that argues that for sending lots of data over long distances, it is hard to beat sending a physical artifact engraved with data; ways to communicate lots of information over long distances; and what SETI is listening for, and what they have heard.

  19. Effect of Planet Size and Initial Water Content on the Formation of Anorthosite Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, R.; Nagahara, H.; Ozawa, K.

    2013-10-01

    Anorthosite crust formation in magma ocean in small planets were quantitatively investigated. Anorthosite crust is hardly formed in planetesimals smaller than ~several hundreds km and water content more than ~0.2 wt%.

  20. The Amazing Red Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the planet Mars. This lesson will begin by discussing the location and size of Mars relative to Earth, as well as introduce many interesting facts about this red planet. Next, the history of Martian exploration is reviewed and students discover why scientists are so interested in studying this mysterious planet. The lesson concludes with students learning about future plans to visit Mars.

  1. Smart Planet Based on Geomatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Lin; Li De-ren; Yang Bo-xiong; Li Wan-wu

    2010-01-01

    The technological background of smart planet generating is discussed in informationized surveying and mapping stage. The concept of smart planet and differences between smart planet and Digital Earth is generalizes. Architecture and a solution of smart planet based on wireless networks are constructed, and figures of physical frame and logic frame of Smart Planet are presented. Technological component of smart

  2. Planet - Disk Symbiosis

    E-print Network

    Re'em Sari; Peter Goldreich

    2003-07-05

    Planets form in disks around young stars. Interactions with these disks cause them to migrate and thus affect their final orbital periods. We suggest that the connection between planets and disks may be deeper and involve a symbiotic evolution. By contributing to the outward transport of angular momentum, planets promote disk accretion. Here we demonstrate that planets sufficiently massive to open gaps could be the primary agents driving disk accretion. Those having masses below the gap opening threshold drift inward more rapidly than the disk material and can only play a minor role in its accretion. Eccentricity growth during gap formation may involve an even more intimate symbiosis. Given a small initial eccentricity, just a fraction of a percent, the orbital eccentricity of a massive planet may grow rapidly once a mass in excess of the planet's mass has been repelled to form a gap around the planet's orbit. Then, as the planet's radial excursions approach the gap's width, subsequent eccentricity growth slows so that the planet's orbit continues to be confined within the gap.

  3. Terrestrial planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (?106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  4. solar system/planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Williams

    2010-11-18

    In approximately 21 days, 4 hours, 38 minuets and 6 seconds, you will take off on an exploration into space to the planet of your choice. Be ready to explore, raid and escape the space creatures on your planet. The Task: Students are to research a planet of their choice using the resources provided below. Once they feel they have decided on a plant of their choice, they will construct a power point on what they would encounter and see on their visit to this planet. They will also ...

  5. Ocean Circulation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    2011-08-09

    This video discusses ocean circulation. First it explains what ocean currents are and what causes them. Then it explains other aspects of the global conveyor belt such as gyres and ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  6. Global stratigraphy. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Scott, David H.; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to recent major advances in the definition and documentation of Martian stratigraphy and geology. Mariner 9 provided the images for the first global geologic mapping program, resulting in the recognition of the major geologic processes that have operated on the planet, and in the definition of the three major chronostratigraphic divisions: the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian Systems. Viking Orbiter images permitted the recognition of additional geologic units and the formal naming of many formations. Epochs are assigned absolute ages based on the densities of superposed craters and crater-flux models. Recommendations are made with regard to future areas of study, namely, crustal stratigraphy and structure, the highland-lowland boundary, the Tharsis Rise, Valles Marineris, channels and valley networks, and possible Martian oceans, lakes, and ponds.

  7. Ocean Mammals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Teschner

    2011-04-06

    What are the different types of mammals that live in the ocean? First, you will need to use the Ocean Mammals Table 1. This website is here for you to learn about ocean mammals. Mammals 2. This website will help you learn about the different mammals that live in the ocean. Ocean Mammals 3. Here is some information about how oil spills effect animal skin in the ocean. Oil Spills 4. This link ...

  8. Conditions for the onset of plate tectonics on terrestrial planets and moons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O'Neill; A. M. Jellinek; A. Lenardic

    2007-01-01

    Plate tectonics on Earth is driven by the subduction and stirring of dense oceanic lithosphere into the underlying mantle. For such a regime to exist on any planet, stresses associated with mantle convection must exceed the strength of the lithosphere. This condition is sufficiently restrictive that plate tectonics currently operates only on Earth, and mantle convection in most terrestrial planets

  9. Living-History Villages as Popular Entertainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Christopher D.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the furor created when Walt Disney Studios announced plans to develop a "historic amusement park" near the Manassas (Virginia) National Battlefield Park. Maintains that the public debate over the popular understanding of history reflects an ongoing tension between academic historians and the purveyors of popular history. (CFR)

  10. Popular Media and the Teaching of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giblin, Thomas R., Ed.

    This work is a collection of ideas on the why and the how of popular media study in the secondary English classroom. Chapters are divided into eight sections: "Developing a Rationale for Popular Media Study,""An English Teacher's Challange,""Understanding McLuhan,""An Expanding View of Literature,""Paperbacks,""News, Newspapers, and…

  11. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  12. Women in Popular Culture: A Reference Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishburn, Katherine

    This book explores how women have been portrayed in various forms of American popular culture over the years. In an introductory section, it is suggested that popular culture has generally used women to represent a social mythology that is built around women's subordinate status, a position that current feminists reject. Chapter 1 reviews books…

  13. Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillyard, Cinnamon

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

  14. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  15. Love and money in Kinois popular music

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Trapido

    2010-01-01

    This essay looks at the lyrical and performative conventions of popular music from Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, concentrating particularly on how these conventions interact with ideas of emotion and exchange in the region. Setting the romantic texts of popular songs in the context of wider patronage relationships, the essay argues that love and money are not

  16. Is Being Popular a Risky Proposition?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lara Mayeux; Marlene J. Sandstrom; Antonius H. N. Cillessen

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal associations between social preference, perceived popularity, and risk behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and sexual activity) were examined in a sample of high school students. Social preference did not predict any of the risk behaviors assessed, although the interaction between gender and social preference was predictive of sexual behavior. Perceived popularity in Grade 10 was predictive of increased alcohol use

  17. Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Ana Maria P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

  18. Origins of Eccentric Extrasolar Planets: Testing the Planet-Planet Scattering Model

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Ford; Frederic A. Rasio

    2008-06-06

    (Abridged) In planetary systems with two or more giant planets, dynamical instabilities can lead to collisions or ejections through strong planet--planet scattering. Previous studies for simple initial configurations with two equal-mass planets revealed some discrepancies between the results of numerical simulations and the observed orbital elements of extrasolar planets. Here, we show that simulations with two unequal mass planets starting on nearly circular orbits predict a reduced frequency of collisions and a broader range of final eccentricities. The two-planet scattering model can easily reproduce the observed eccentricities with a plausible distribution of planet mass ratios. Further, the two-planet scattering model predicts a maximum eccentricity of about 0.8, independent of the distribution of planet mass ratios, provided that both planets are initially place on nearly circular orbits. This compares favorably with current observations and will be tested by future planet discoveries. The combination of planet--planet scattering and tidal circularization may be able to explain the existence of some giant planets with very short period orbits. Orbital migration due to planet scattering could play an important role in explaining the increased rate of giant planets with very short period orbits. We also re-examine and discuss various possible correlations between eccentricities and other properties of observed extrasolar planets. We demonstrate that the observed distribution of planet masses, orbital periods, and eccentricities can provide constraints for models of planet formation and evolution.

  19. The Frozen Ocean of Snowball Earth Stephen Warren, University of Washington

    E-print Network

    variations that are responsible for the ice ages. The tilt of Mars varies from 15 to 40 degrees because) (reflected sunlight) Albedo = Fup / Fdown Ocean 0.07 Snow 0.80 Planet 0.30 #12;#12;2. Theory Positive cold thick sea ice 50 Ocean water 7 #12;A high-albedo (snow-covered) planet is an alternative stable

  20. From Spaceship Earth to Google Ocean: Planetary Icons, Indexes, and Infrastructures

    E-print Network

    Helmreich, Stefan

    What sort of image does the planet Earth possess at the opening of the 21st century? If in the 1960s, the Whole Earth, the planet as seen from space, became a cold war, proto-environmentalist icon for a fragile ocean planet, ...

  1. Ocean Currents: Sinking Nutrients

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This two-minute sound segment discusses the nutrients produced by phytoplankton, one-celled plants which live on the surface of the ocean and which form the basis of what scientists call biological productivity. A professor explains that the organic matter that comes sinking out of the surface actually sinks very far down into the water column before bacteria are actually able to break it back down into dissolved nutrients and it is difficult for the water that those nutrients are in to come back up to the surface. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

  2. THE STRUCTURE OF SURFACE H{sub 2}O LAYERS OF ICE-COVERED PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE ICE

    SciTech Connect

    Ueta, S.; Sasaki, T., E-mail: ueta@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: takanori@geo.titech.ac.jp [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Many extrasolar (bound) terrestrial planets and free-floating (unbound) planets have been discovered. While the existence of bound and unbound terrestrial planets with liquid water is an important question, of particular importance is the question of these planets' habitability. Even for a globally ice-covered planet, geothermal heat from the planetary interior may melt the interior ice, creating an internal ocean covered by an ice shell. In this paper, we discuss the conditions that terrestrial planets must satisfy for such an internal ocean to exist on the timescale of planetary evolution. The question is addressed in terms of planetary mass, distance from a central star, water abundance, and abundance of radiogenic heat sources. In addition, we investigate the structure of the surface H{sub 2}O layers of ice-covered planets by considering the effects of ice under high pressure (high-pressure ice). As a fiducial case, a 1 M{sub ?} planet at 1 AU from its central star and with 0.6-25 times the H{sub 2}O mass of the Earth could have an internal ocean. We find that high-pressure ice layers may appear between the internal ocean and the rock portion on a planet with an H{sub 2}O mass over 25 times that of the Earth. The planetary mass and abundance of surface water strongly restrict the conditions under which an extrasolar terrestrial planet may have an internal ocean with no high-pressure ice under the ocean. Such high-pressure ice layers underlying the internal ocean are likely to affect the habitability of the planet.

  3. A lopsided planet Photolibrary

    E-print Network

    Nimmo, Francis

    >> A lopsided planet Photolibrary Where was the biggest impact in the Solar System? Rick Lovett finds one candidate not too far from home. M ore than four billion years ago, Mars was hit by an asteroid. Nothing surprising in that: one look at the Red Planet's crater- pocked surface is enough

  4. Planets in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    All the planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun in the same direction, clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole. This is referred to as direct motion. From the perspective on the Earth's surface, the planets travel east across the sky in relation to the background of stars. The Sun also moves eastward daily, but this is an…

  5. Five New Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey W. Marcy; R. Paul Butler; Steven S. Vogt; Debra A. Fischer; Gregory W. Henry; Greg Laughlin; Jason T. Wright; John A. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    We report multiple Doppler measurements of five nearby FGK main sequence stars and subgiants obtained during the past 4-6 years at the Keck observa- tory. These stars, namely, HD 183263, HD 117207, HD 188015, HD 45350, and HD 99492 all exhibit coherent variations in their Doppler shifts consistent with a planet in Keplerian motion. The five new planets occupy known

  6. Name That Planet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Judy; Rust, Cindy

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students in groups explore one planet in the solar system and present their findings to the whole class. Focuses on the planet's location in the solar system, geological features, rate of revolutions, and calendar year. (YDS)

  7. StatPlanet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Frank van Cappelle

    StatPlanet is a free application used for creating detailed, interactive maps and graphs on data acquired from the World Health Organization and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. As an intuitive resource to Social Studies and Geography teachers and students, StatPlanet makes high quality data on demographic, health, environment, socioeconomic and education variables accessible to users of the application.

  8. The Eight Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, by Caltech astronomer Mike Brown, is an article that recounts the reclassification of Pluto as a dwarf planet. The article explains the issues, tells how they were resolved, and answers related questions. At the bottom of the page is a link to a similar website about the dwarf planet Xena.

  9. What is a Planet?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about the characteristics of planets, comets, asteroids, and trans-Neptunian objects. Learners will classify objects and then apply what they have learned by participating in a formal debate about a solar system object discovered by the New Horizons spacecraft and by defining the term planet.

  10. Asteroids Sun's Planets

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Asteroids #12;Sun's Planets · Earth · Historical planets: (, or wanderer) ­ Mercury ­ Venus often be approximated as a geometric series #12;Asteroids · means star-like · 1 Ceres: ­Over 1 million known ­Over 600,000 with orbits #12;Asteroid ProperFes · Largest

  11. Do popular students smoke? The association between popularity and smoking among middle school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Valente; Jennifer B. Unger; C. Anderson Johnson

    2005-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown an association between popularity and behavior, indi- cating that popular people tend to reflect the norms of their group. Among adolescents, it has been hypothesized that popular students are more likely to smoke, especially in schools with high smoking prevalence. Methods: Data were collected on friendship patterns and smoking from 1,486 sixth and seventh graders

  12. Do popular students smoke? The association between popularity and smoking among middle school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Valente; Jennifer B. Unger; C. Anderson Johnson

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundSeveral studies have shown an association between popularity and behavior, indicating that popular people tend to reflect the norms of their group. Among adolescents, it has been hypothesized that popular students are more likely to smoke, especially in schools with high smoking prevalence.

  13. Optimal Planet Properties For Plate Tectonics Through Time And Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenkovic, Vlada; Seager, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Both the time and the location of planet formation shape a rocky planet’s mass, interior composition and structure, and hence also its tectonic mode. The tectonic mode of a planet can vary between two end-member solutions, plate tectonics and stagnant lid convection, and does significantly impact outgassing and biogeochemical cycles on any rocky planet. Therefore, estimating how the tectonic mode of a planet is affected by a planet’s age, mass, structure, and composition is a major step towards understanding habitability of exoplanets and geophysical false positives to biosignature gases. We connect geophysics to astronomy in order to understand how we could identify and where we could find planet candidates with optimal conditions for plate tectonics. To achieve this goal, we use thermal evolution models, account for the current wide range of uncertainties, and simulate various alien planets. Based on our best model estimates, we predict that the ideal targets for plate tectonics are oxygen-dominated (C/O<1) (solar system like) rocky planets of ~1 Earth mass with surface oceans, large metallic cores super-Mercury, rocky body densities of ~7000kgm-3), and with small mantle concentrations of iron 0%), water 0%), and radiogenic isotopes 10 times less than Earth). Super-Earths, undifferentiated planets, and especially hypothetical carbon planets, speculated to consist of SiC and C, are not optimal for the occurrence of plate tectonics. These results put Earth close to an ideal compositional and structural configuration for plate tectonics. Moreover, the results indicate that plate tectonics might have never existed on planets formed soon after the Big Bang—but instead is favored on planets formed from an evolved interstellar medium enriched in iron but depleted in silicon, oxygen, and especially in Th, K, and U relative to iron. This possibly sets a belated Galactic start for complex Earth-like surface life if plate tectonics significantly impacts the build up and regulation of gases relevant for life. This allows for the first time to discuss the tectonic mode of a rocky planet from a practical astrophysical perspective.

  14. Exploring the Planets Gallery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based upon the Exploring the Planets gallery at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC, this site provides information about our solar system and its exploration. The gallery begins with a Discovery Section, which explores the development of astronomical thought, beginning with the Greeks, the Renaissance, and Galileo, and ending with satellites and the discovery of new planets. A section on Exploration Tools investigates the past, present and future of earth-based exploration, telescopes, spacecraft, landers, orbiters and rovers. The Planetary Comparisons section discusses similarities and differences between planets such as their atmospheres and geography. An entire section is devoted to the planets themselves with data sets showing statistics on size, mass, orbits, satellites and more. Each planet and the asteroids have their own page with images, exploration facts and other data. There is also a section about comets discussing their discovery, history, observations, anatomy and images.

  15. Extreme Planet Makeover

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    You may have heard of elaborate makeover television shows where some individual wishes to have various body enhancements performed or a new house is built in seven days. This fascinating extreme makeover website, from NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, is much more edifying. Here, visitors will have the opportunity to make their own planet via a series of customizable bells and whistles. Visitors can use the controls on the site to adjust key planetary attributes such as distance from a star, planet size, and planet age. After making these adjustments, visitors can learn about the planet they have created, and also compare it with other existing planets and outer-space bodies.

  16. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell removed, pressure began to build in the compressed rocky kernel of Earth and eventually the rigid crust began to crack. The major energy source for planetary decompression and for heat emplacement at the base of the crust is the stored energy of protoplanetary compression. In response to decompression-driven volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and fold-mountain ranges form to accommodate changes in curvature. One of the most profound mysteries of modern planetary science is this: As the terrestrial planets are more-or-less of common chondritic composition, how does one account for the marked differences in their surface dynamics? Differences among the inner planets are principally due to the degree of compression experienced. Planetocentric georeactor nuclear fission, responsible for magnetic field generation and concomitant heat production, is applicable to compressed and non-compressed planets and large moons. The internal composition of Mercury is calculated based upon an analogy with the deep-Earth mass ratio relationships. The origin and implication of Mercurian hydrogen geysers is described. Besides Earth, only Venus appears to have sustained protoplanetary compression; the degree of which might eventually be estimated from understanding Venetian surface geology. A basis is provided for understanding that Mars essentially lacks a 'geothermal gradient' which implies potentially greater subsurface water reservoir capacity than previously expected. Resources at NuclearPlanet.com .

  17. Planet Formation by Coagulation: A Focus on Uranus and Neptune

    E-print Network

    Peter Goldreich; Yoram Lithwick; Re'em Sari

    2004-05-11

    Planets form in the circumstellar disks of young stars. We review the basic physical processes by which solid bodies accrete each other and alter each others' random velocities, and we provide order-of-magnitude derivations for the rates of these processes. We discuss and exercise the two-groups approximation, a simple yet powerful technique for solving the evolution equations for protoplanet growth. We describe orderly, runaway, neutral, and oligarchic growth. We also delineate the conditions under which each occurs. We refute a popular misconception by showing that the outer planets formed quickly by accreting small bodies. Then we address the final stages of planet formation. Oligarchy ends when the surface density of the oligarchs becomes comparable to that of the small bodies. Dynamical friction is no longer able to balance viscous stirring and the oligarchs' random velocities increase. In the inner-planet system, oligarchs collide and coalesce. In the outer-planet system, some of the oligarchs are ejected. In both the inner- and outer-planet systems, this stage ends once the number of big bodies has been reduced to the point that their mutual interactions no longer produce large-scale chaos. Subsequently, dynamical friction by the residual small bodies circularizes and flattens their orbits. The final stage of planet formation involves the clean up of the residual small bodies. Clean up has been poorly explored.

  18. Planet Formation by Coagulation: A Focus on Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em

    2004-09-01

    Planets form in the circumstellar disks of young stars. We review the basic physical processes by which solid bodies accrete each other and alter each others' random velocities, and we provide order-of-magnitude derivations for the rates of these processes. We discuss and exercise the two-groups approximation, a simple yet powerful technique for solving the evolution equations for protoplanet growth. We describe orderly, runaway, neutral, and oligarchic growth. We also delineate the conditions under which each occurs. We refute a popular misconception by showing that the outer planets formed quickly by accreting small bodies. Then we address the final stages of planet formation. Oligarchy ends when the surface density of the oligarchs becomes comparable to that of the small bodies. Dynamical friction is no longer able to balance viscous stirring and the oligarchs' random velocities increase. In the inner-planet system, oligarchs collide and coalesce. In the outer-planet system, some of the oligarchs are ejected. In both the inner- and outer-planet systems, this stage ends once the number of big bodies has been reduced to the point that their mutual interactions no longer produce large-scale chaos. Subsequently, dynamical friction by the residual small bodies circularizes and flattens their orbits. The final stage of planet formation involves the clean up of the residual small bodies. Clean up has been poorly explored.

  19. Tidal Heating of Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets and Implications for their Habitability

    E-print Network

    Brian Jackson; Rory Barnes; Richard Greenberg

    2008-08-20

    The tidal heating of hypothetical rocky (or terrestrial) extra-solar planets spans a wide range of values depending on stellar masses and initial orbits. Tidal heating may be sufficiently large (in many cases, in excess of radiogenic heating) and long-lived to drive plate tectonics, similar to the Earth's, which may enhance the planet's habitability. In other cases, excessive tidal heating may result in Io-like planets with violent volcanism, probably rendering them unsuitable for life. On water-rich planets, tidal heating may generate sub-surface oceans analogous to Europa's with similar prospects for habitability. Tidal heating may enhance the outgassing of volatiles, contributing to the formation and replenishment of a planet's atmosphere. To address these issues, we model the tidal heating and evolution of hypothetical extra-solar terrestrial planets. The results presented here constrain the orbital and physical properties required for planets to be habitable.

  20. Tidal Heating of Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets and Implications for their Habitability

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The tidal heating of hypothetical rocky (or terrestrial) extra-solar planets spans a wide range of values depending on stellar masses and initial orbits. Tidal heating may be sufficiently large (in many cases, in excess of radiogenic heating) and long-lived to drive plate tectonics, similar to the Earth's, which may enhance the planet's habitability. In other cases, excessive tidal heating may result in Io-like planets with violent volcanism, probably rendering them unsuitable for life. On water-rich planets, tidal heating may generate sub-surface oceans analogous to Europa's with similar prospects for habitability. Tidal heating may enhance the outgassing of volatiles, contributing to the formation and replenishment of a planet's atmosphere. To address these issues, we model the tidal heating and evolution of hypothetical extra-solar terrestrial planets. The results presented here constrain the orbital and physical properties required for planets to be habitable.

  1. Evolution of the mode of convection within terrestrial planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman H. Sleep

    2000-01-01

    Magma oceans, plate tectonics, and stagnant-lid convection have transferred heat out of the terrestrial planets at various times in their histories. The implications of the existence of multiple branches are graphically illustrated by approximating the globally averaged mantle heat flow as a function of the interior potential temperature. For this assumption to be valid, the mantle heat flow needs to

  2. Revitalizing Ernst Mach's Popular Scientific Lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euler, Manfred

    2007-06-01

    Compared to Ernst Mach's influence on the conceptual development of physics, his efforts to popularize science and his reflections on science literacy are known to a much lesser degree. The approach and the impact of Mach's popular scientific lectures are discussed in view of today's problems of understanding science. The key issues of Mach's popular scientific lectures, reconsidered in the light of contemporary science, still hold a high potential in fascinating a general audience. Moreover, Mach's grand theme, the relation of the physical to the psychical, is suited to contribute to a dialogue between different knowledge cultures, e.g. science and humanities.

  3. Canada's Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This overview of Canadanain oceans outlines the characteristics of the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic marine ecosystems. After a brief look at Canada's ocean environments from a global perspective, additional chapters provide an overview of the physical properties, fauna and human impacts associated with Canada's oceans. For each ocean there is information on water properties, currents, tides, and the ocean floor. Ocean floor information includes descriptions of ocean basins, submarine ridges, continental shelves and sedimentation while current information includes the causes, effects, and names of the currents. There is an explanation of the cause of tides and how they affect each shoreline.

  4. Extrasolar Planet Science with the Antarctic Planet Interferometer

    E-print Network

    Lloyd, James P.

    Extrasolar Planet Science with the Antarctic Planet Interferometer James P. Lloyda, Ben F. Lanea. The unique properties of the polar atmosphere can be exploited for Extrasolar Planet studies on the properties of the atmosphere at the South Pole and other Antarctic plateau sites for Extrasolar Planet

  5. PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH Tristan Guillot

    E-print Network

    Guillot, Tristan

    1 PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH DARWIN/TPF Tristan Guillot/TPF. Extrasolar giant planets are milestones on the quest for our origins: they hold crucial information con for those objects with little or no atmosphere). On the other hand, extrasolar giant planets represent a new

  6. Orbital Evolution and Migration of Giant Planets: Modeling Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Trilling; W. Benz; T. Guillot; J. I. Lunine; W. B. Hubbard; A. Burrows

    1998-01-01

    Giant planets in circumstellar disks can migrate inward from their initial (formation) positions. Radial migration is caused by inward torques between the planet and the disk, by outward torques between the planet and the spinning star, and by outward torques due to Roche lobe overflow and consequent mass loss from the planet. We present self-consistent numerical considerations of the problem

  7. ExtraSolar Planets Finding Extrasolar Planets. I

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ExtraSolar Planets #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. I Direct Searches Direct searches are difficult #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. II Transits #12;Transits Transits requires an edge-on orbit. ·Jupiter;How Transits Work #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. III Astrometric Wobble #12;Finding Extrasolar

  8. Wobbling Toward Planet Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcy, G. W.

    1995-12-01

    Several techniques have matured during the past year which enable indirect detection of planets orbiting main sequence stars. These methods include: RADIAL VELOCITIES, LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY (astrometric, not imaging), LARGE TELESCOPE ASTROMETRY, TRANSITS BY TERRESTRIAL PLANETS, and GRAVITATIONAL LENSING. Current velocity precision is better than 10 m/s (at several observatories) which enables detection of jupiter-like planets within 5AU. Ground-based astrometry by Gatewood achieves a precision of 0.001arcsec, sufficient to detect jupiter-like planets orbiting >5AU from nearby stars. The above two techniques will soon benefit from larger aperture (Keck, HET, VLT) and superior seeing. Future ground-based interferometric astrometry should be able to detect planets like Uranus and Neptune. Detection of terrestrial planets are possible, in principle, with techniques of transits or lensing. I will review each of the above techniques with regard to instrumentation status and ultimate usefulness. I will report the results to date of on-going projects to detect planetary systems, especially from velocities and single-aperture astrometry. The status of the companion to 51 Pegasus and other reported planets will be described.

  9. All for the Planet, the Planet for everyone!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndarski, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The Eco-Musketeers are unique voluntary group of students. They have been established in Belgrade, in Primary school 'Drinka Pavlovi?'. Since the founding in year 2000, Eco-Musketeers have been involved in peer and citizens education guided by motto: All for the planet, the planet for all! Main goals of this group are spreading and popularization of environmental approach as well as gaining knowledge through collaborative projects and research. A great number of students from other schools in Serbia have joined Eco-Musketeers in observations aiming to better understand the problem of global climate change. In the past several years Eco-Musketeers have also participated in many national and international projects related to the active citizenship and rising the awareness of the importance of biodiversity and environment for sustainable development of society. In this presentation we will show some of the main activities, eco-performances and actions of our organization related to the environment, biodiversity, conservation and recycling, such as: spring cleaning the streets of Belgrade, cleaning the Sava and the Danube river banks, removing insect moth pupae in the area of Lipovica forest near Belgrade. Also, Eco-Musketeers worked on education of employees of Coca-Cola HBC Serbia about energy efficiency. All the time, we have working on raising public awareness of the harmful effects of plastic bags on the environment, too. In order to draw attention on rare and endangered species in Serbia and around the globe, there were several performing street-plays about biodiversity and also the plays about the water ecological footprint. Eco-Musketeers also participated in international projects Greenwave-signs of spring (Fibonacci project), European Schools For A Living Planet (WWF Austria and Erste stiftung) and Eco Schools. The eco dream of Eco-Musketeers is to influence the Government of the Republic of Serbia to determine and declare a 'green habits week'. This should be a one week in a year during which all the citizens will act with a minimum negative impact on the environment. All previous activities of the Eco-Musketeers are the only a small step in a persevering process of conservation of the living world, but we strongly believe that though the activities of small group as we are, we can change the way of thinking of our fellows and citizens, so that they learn to love and protect nature for future generations.

  10. Classical mythology in the Victorian popular theatre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith Hall

    1999-01-01

    This article argues that our picture of the uses of Greek and Roman authors in nineteenth-century Britain will remain incomplete\\u000a unless the popular and culturally subversive genre of classical burlesque, a staple of the mid-Victorian popular theatre,\\u000a is taken seriously by scholars. Dozens of burlesques of ancient epic and tragedy were performed between James Robinson Planch?’sOlympic Revels of 1831 and

  11. Pulse of the Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains the archive for Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a two-minute sound portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. Pulse of the Planet is broadcast over 320 public and commercial stations around the world and on the Voice of America and the Armed Forces Radio Network. In addition to the sound clips there are associated feature stories on everything from particle physics to the birds of the Pantanal and seasonal stories describing the ways that people interact with their environment.

  12. From Disks to Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thommes, Edward; Matsumura, S.; Rasio, F. A.

    2007-12-01

    Using a new hybrid code, we are able to perform detailed numerical simulations which span nearly the entire sequence of planet formation---from the appearance of the first protoplanets in a young gas disk, to long after the disk's dispersal. I will present some early results, which are already giving us a number of new insights into the planet formation process. Among other things, these simulations are providing clues as to how our own Solar System fits into the ensemble of planets discovered to date. This work is supported by the NSF (AST-0507727) and by the Spitzer Theoretical Research Program (Cycle-4, pid#40380).

  13. Exploring the Planets: Mercury

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Mercury. Facts about the planet include: mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), and diameter. The site explains why earth-based views of Mercury are so poor and describes the surface of the planet on the basis of probe photographs. The photographs do not prove whether the material on the surface is impact ejecta or volcanic. However, a colored digital mosaic of Mercury taken by Mariner 10 suggests that at least some of the mercurian smooth plains are the products of volcanism.

  14. Minor Planet Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Brian G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the activities of the Minor Planet Center for the year of 1998. The main product of this center is the Minor Planet Circulars, augmented by the Minor Planet Circulars Supplement which is a new series introduced in 1997 to include the actual observations, which are now only summarized MPC. The introduction of the Daily Orbit Update (DOU) lists all the orbits computed and identification found since the previous issue. There has been a fivefold increase in the reported Near Earth Objects, which includes the addition of 55 potentially hazardous asteroids.

  15. Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy of mass-radius relationships for silicate-rich and ice-rich planets up to 100 Earth masses. The Astrophysical Journal 693, 722-733. Wagner, F.W., Sohl, F., Hussmann, H., Grott, M., and Rauer, H. (2011). Interior structure models of solid exoplanets using material laws in the infinite pressure limit. Icarus 214, 366-376. Lammer, H., Bredehöft, J.H., Coustenis, A., Khodachenko, M.L., Kaltenegger, L., Grasset, O., Prieur, D., Raulin, F., Ehrenfreund, P., Yamauchi, M., Wahlund, J.-E., Grießmeier, J.-M., Stangl, G., Cockell, C.S., Kulikov, Yu.N., Grenfell, J.L., and Rauer, H. (2009). What makes a planet habitable? Astron Astrophys Rev 17, 181-249.

  16. THE STEPPENWOLF: A PROPOSAL FOR A HABITABLE PLANET IN INTERSTELLAR SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    Abbot, D. S. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Switzer, E. R., E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu, E-mail: switzer@kicp.uchicago.edu [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2011-07-10

    Rogue planets have been ejected from their planetary system. We investigate the possibility that a rogue planet could maintain a liquid ocean under layers of thermally insulating water ice and frozen gas as a result of geothermal heat flux. We find that a rogue planet of Earth-like composition and age could maintain a subglacial liquid ocean if it were {approx}3.5 times more massive than Earth, corresponding to {approx}8 km of ice. Suppression of the melting point by contaminants, a layer of frozen gas, or a larger complement of water could significantly reduce the planetary mass that is required to maintain a liquid ocean. Such a planet could be detected from reflected solar radiation, and its thermal emission could be characterized in the far-IR if it were to pass within O(1000) AU of Earth.

  17. The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, L. J.; Seager, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we examine what can be learned about extrasolar planet atmospheres by concentrating on a class of planets that transit their parent stars. As discussed in the previous chapter, one way of detecting an extrasolar planet is by observing the drop in stellar intensity as the planet passes in front of the star. A transit represents a special case in which the geometry of the planetary system is such that the planet s orbit is nearly edge-on as seen from Earth. As we will explore, the transiting planets provide opportunities for detailed follow-up observations that allow physical characterization of extrasolar planets, probing their bulk compositions and atmospheres.

  18. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This presentation highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines around "mystery planets" using orbiting "spacecraft" (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle/high school age audiences. However, we also show a scaled-down version that has been used with elementary school age audiences.

  19. Welcome to the Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a collection of over 200 of the best images from NASA's planetary exploration program. There are captioned images from the major planets, small bodies, and the space craft used for the images.

  20. The Antarctic Planet Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, Mark R.; Walker, Christopher K.; Traub, Wesley A.; Storey, John W.; CoudeduForesto, Vincent; Fossat, Eric; Vakili, Farrok; Stark, Anthony A.; Lloyd, James P.; Lawson, Peter R.; Burrows, Adam S.; Ireland, Michael; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; vanBelle, Gerard T.; Lane, Benjamin; Vasisht, Gautam; Travouillon, Tony

    2004-01-01

    The Antarctic Planet Interferometer is an instrument concept designed to detect and characterize extrasolar planets by exploiting the unique potential of the best accessible site on earth for thermal infrared interferometry. High-precision interferometric techniques under development for extrasolar planet detection and characterization (differential phase, nulling and astrometry) all benefit substantially from the slow, low-altitude turbulence, low water vapor content, and low temperature found on the Antarctic plateau. At the best of these locations, such as the Concordia base being developed at Dome C, an interferometer with two-meter diameter class apertures has the potential to deliver unique science for a variety of topics, including extrasolar planets, active galactic nuclei, young stellar objects, and protoplanetary disks.

  1. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

  2. The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jean Schneider, of the Observatoire de Paris, put together this no-nonsense site featuring current information on the "detection and study of extrasolar planets, including exobiology." Schneider's commitment to the subject is clear with the inclusion of detailed scientific and technical articles, a tutorial (by Arizona State University) on the detection of extrasolar planets, and a hyperlinked bibliography of some 200 scientific journal articles, books, and reports. A catalog of extrasolar planets (with links to the scientific articles describing them) features dozens of confirmed planets (or brown dwarfs) around main sequence stars or pulsars, in addition to disks and unconfirmed objects. Whether you are a dedicated amateur or pro (and read English or French), these pages are clearly designed and well worth the orbit.

  3. Planets Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolszczan, Alexander; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Anderson, Stuart B.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this proposal was to continue investigations of neutron star planetary systems in an effort to describe and understand their origin, orbital dynamics, basic physical properties and their relationship to planets around normal stars. This research represents an important element of the process of constraining the physics of planet formation around various types of stars. The research goals of this project included long-term timing measurements of the planets pulsar, PSR B1257+12, to search for more planets around it and to study the dynamics of the whole system, and sensitive searches for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of old, rapidly spinning neutron stars with planetary systems. The instrumentation used in our project included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the 100-m Green Bank Telescope with the Berkeley- Caltech Pulsar Machine (BCPM), and the 100-m Effelsberg and 64-m Parkes telescopes equipped with the observatory supplied backend hardware.

  4. Terrestrial Planet Finder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Integrating and testing the proposed Terrestrial Planet Finder imposes constraints on the design. Some of these will be discussed including the dimensions of existing test facilities, the effects of gravity, ambient vibrations and the size of GSE optics.

  5. Students Discover Unique Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public, they were a good test case for the students' algorithm, who showed that for one of stars observed, OGLE-TR-L9, the variations could be due to a transit -- the passage of a planet in front of its star. The team then used the GROND instrument on the 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory to follow up the observations and find out more about the star and the planet. "But to make sure it was a planet and not a brown dwarf or a small star that was causing the brightness variations, we needed to resort to spectroscopy, and for this, we were glad we could use ESO's Very Large Telescope," says Snellen. The planet, which is about five times as massive as Jupiter, circles its host star in about 2.5 days. It lies at only three percent of the Earth-Sun distance from its star, making it very hot and much larger than normal planets. The spectroscopy also showed that the star is pretty hot -- almost 7000 degrees, or 1200 degrees hotter than the Sun. It is the hottest star with a planet ever discovered, and it is rotating very fast. The radial velocity method -- that was used to discover most extrasolar planets known -- is less efficient on stars with these characteristics. "This makes this discovery even more interesting," concludes Snellen.

  6. Planet/Moon Trivia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about defining characteristics or features of the planets and their moons. Learners will use the Solar System Update software to complete a worksheet asking them to find the planet and/or moon that matches each listed description. This activity requires the use of a computer with Internet access, and is Solar System Activity 1 in a larger resource, Space Update.

  7. Transit of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

  8. The planet Saturn (1970)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The present-day knowledge on Saturn and its environment are described for designers of spacecraft which are to encounter and investigate the planet. The discussion includes physical properties of the planet, gravitational field, magnetic and electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, satellites and meteoroids, the ring system, charged particles, atmospheric composition and structure, and clouds and atmospheric motions. The environmental factors which have pertinence to spacecraft design criteria are also discussed.

  9. The Planet Pluto

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This series of webpages is part of a course called Astronomy 161: The Solar System, offered by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. This section covers the general features of Pluto, including information on whether it is the eighth or ninth planet from the Sun, and whether there are additional planets beyond Pluto. There are also subsections on the surface of Pluto and its moon, Charon, including Hubble Space Telescope images.

  10. The planet Mercury (1971)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  11. Mathematics of Planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, C.

    2013-12-01

    Mathematics of Planet Earth 2013 (MPE2013) is an international year of scientific and outreach activities. Mathematics provides tools to discover the history of the Earth, explore its interior, understand its biodiversity and ecosystems, and study its climate. The lecture will brielfy present MPE2013 and highlight with examples the role of mathematics in discovering, understanding our planet, and the challenges to help protecting it.

  12. Planets' magnetic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzerotti, L.J.; Uberoi, C.

    1989-02-01

    The magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and comets and the heliomagnetosphere are examined. The orientations of the planetary spin and magnetic axes, the size of the magnetospheres, and the magnetic properties and the radio emissions of the planets are compared. Results from spacecraft studies of the planets are included. Plans for the Voyager 2 mission and its expected study of the Neptune magnetosphere are considered.

  13. Spectropolarimetric signatures of Earth-like extrasolar planets

    E-print Network

    D. M. Stam

    2007-07-26

    We present results of numerical simulations of the flux (irradiance), F, and the degree of polarization (i.e. the ratio of polarized to total flux), P, of light that is reflected by Earth-like extrasolar planets orbiting solar-type stars, as functions of the wavelength (from 0.3 to 1.0 micron, with 0.001 micron spectral resolution) and as functions of the planetary phase angle. We use different surface coverages for our model planets, including vegetation and a Fresnel reflecting ocean, and clear and cloudy atmospheres. Our adding-doubling radiative transfer algorithm, which fully includes multiple scattering and polarization, handles horizontally homogeneous planets only; we simulate fluxes and polarization of horizontally inhomogeneous planets by weighting results for homogeneous planets. Like the flux, F, the degree of polarization, P, of the reflected starlight is shown to depend strongly on the phase angle, on the composition and structure of the planetary atmosphere, on the reflective properties of the underlying surface, and on the wavelength, in particular in wavelength regions with gaseous absorption bands. The sensitivity of P to a planet's physical properties appears to be different than that of F. Combining flux with polarization observations thus makes for a strong tool for characterizing extrasolar planets. The calculated total and polarized fluxes will be made available through the CDS.

  14. Classifying Planets: Nature vs. Nurture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, Charles A.

    2009-05-01

    The idea of a planet was so simple when we learned about the solar system in elementary school. Now students and professional s alike are faced with confusing array of definitions --- from "Brown Dwarfs” to "Super Jupiters", from "Super Earths” to "Terrestrial Planets", and from "Planets” to "Small, Sort-of Round Things That Aren't Really Planets". I will discuss how planets might be defined by how they formed, where they are found, or by the life they might support.

  15. Extrasolar Binary Planets. I. Formation by Tidal Capture during Planet-Planet Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, H.; Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S.

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated (1) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call "binary planets") from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and (2) the subsequent long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star quasi-static tides. For the initial evolution in phase 1, we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three Jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing, and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semimajor axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semimajor axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by long-term quasi-static tide. We analytically calculated the quasi-static tidal evolution in phase 2. The binary planets first enter the spin-orbit synchronous state by the planet-planet tide. The planet-star tide removes angular momentum of the binary motion, eventually resulting in a collision between the planets. However, we found that the binary planets survive the tidal decay for the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars (~10 Gyr), if the binary planets are beyond ~0.3 AU from the central stars. These results suggest that the binary planets can be detected by transit observations at >~ 0.3 AU.

  16. Mapping the Red Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Smith, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Since September 1997 the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has been orbiting the planet Mars and acquiring new data about the red planet that is changing our view of its present state and past history. Except for a few weeks in October 1997 and a few months in the Spring/Summer of 1998 when special science operations were conducted the spacecraft spent the first 18 months if its time at Mars getting to the right orbital geometry for the mapping mission. But on March 1, 1999 the MGS spacecraft trained its instruments onto the planet to begin a full Mars year (684 Earth days) of continuous systematic mapping and observation of the planet. The camera began wide angle and high resolution mapping, the thermal emission spectrometer began sensing the atmosphere and the material properties of the surface, the magnetometer searched out regions of abnormally high magnetism, the altimeter began determining the precise shape of the planet, and the radio science experiment began determining atmospheric pressures, temperatures and mapping the planet's gravity field. In a matter of a month more data was acquired about

  17. Atmospheric models for post- giant impact planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, R.; Zahnle, K. J.; Marley, M. S.; Schaefer, L. K.; Fegley, B.; Morley, C.; Cahoy, K.; Freedman, R. S.; Fortney, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    The final assembly of terrestrial planets is now universally thought to have occurred through a series of giant impacts, such as Earth's own Moon-forming impact. These collisions take place over a time interval of about 100 million years, during which time it takes at least 10 collisions between planets to make a Venus or an Earth. In the aftermath of one of these collisions the surviving planet is hot, and can remain hot for millions of years. During this phase of accretion, the proto-terrestrial planet may have a dense steam atmosphere, that will affect both the cooling of the planet and our ability to detect it. Here we explore the atmospheric chemistry, photochemistry, and spectral signatures of post-giant-impact terrestrial planets enveloped by thick atmospheres consisting of vaporized rock material. The atmospheric chemistry is computed self-consistently for atmospheres in equilibrium with hot surfaces, with compositions reflecting either the bulk silicate Earth (BSE, which includes the crust, mantle, atmosphere and oceans) or Earth's continental crust (CC). These two cases allow us to examine differences in atmospheres formed by outgassing of silica-rich (felsic) rocks - like the Earth's continental crust - and MgO- and FeO-rich (mafic) rocks - like the BSE. Studies of detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Australia, show that the continental crust existed 164 million years after the formation of the solar system, in which case the material vaporized in a giant impact should likely reflect the CC composition. However, if at the time of impact the surface of the planet does not yet exhibit the formation of continents, then the BSE case becomes relevant. We compute atmospheric profiles for surface temperatures ranging from 1000 to 2200 K, surface pressures of 10 and 100 bar, and surface gravities of 10 and 30 m/s^2. We account for all major molecular and atomic opacity sources, including collision-induced absorption, to derive the atmospheric structure and compute the reflected and emergent flux. We find that these atmospheres are dominated by H2O and CO2, while the formation of CH4, and NH3 is quenched due to short dynamical timescales. Other important constituents are HF, HCl, NaCl, and SO2. These are apparent in the emerging spectra, and can be indicative that an impact has occurred. Estimates including photochemistry and vertical mixing show that these atmospheres are enhanced in sulfur-bearing species, particularly SO2, one of the most important absorbers. At this stage we do not address cloud formation and aerosol opacity. Estimated luminosities for post-impact planets, although lower than predicted by previous models, show that the hottest post-giant-impact planets will be detectable with the planned 30 m-class telescopes. Finally, we use the models to describe the cooling of a post-impact terrestrial planet and briefly investigate its time evolution, which ends as the planet transitions into a more conventional steam atmosphere runaway greenhouse. This calculation brings a significant improvement over previous runaway greenhouse models, by including additional opacity sources and comprehensive line lists for H2O and CO2. We find that the cooling timescale for post-giant impact Earths ranges between about 10^5 and 10^6 years, where the slower cooling is associated with the planet going through a runaway greenhouse stage.

  18. Who cares about Mid-Ocean Ridge Earthquakes? And Why?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tolstoy

    2004-01-01

    Every day the surface of our planet is being slowly ripped apart by the forces of plate tectonics. Much of this activity occurs underwater and goes unnoticed except for by a few marine seismologists who avidly follow the creaks and groans of the ocean floor in an attempt to understand the spreading and formation of oceanic crust. Are marine seismologists

  19. Acid Test: The Global Challenge of Ocean Acidification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-09-17

    "Acid Test", a film produced by NRDC, was made to raise awareness about the largely unknown problem of ocean acidification, which poses a fundamental challenge to life in the seas and the health of the entire planet. Like global warming, ocean acidification stems from the increase of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere since the start of the Industrial Revolution.

  20. Fourier spectra from exoplanets with polar caps and ocean glint

    E-print Network

    Visser, P M

    2015-01-01

    The weak orbital-phase dependent reflection signal of an exoplanet contains information on the planet surface, such as the distribution of continents and oceans on terrestrial planets. This light curve is usually studied in the time domain, but because the signal from a stationary surface is (quasi)periodic, analysis of the Fourier series may provide an alternative, complementary approach. We study Fourier spectra from reflected light curves for geometrically simple configurations. Depending on its atmospheric properties, a rotating planet in the habitable zone could have circular polar ice caps. Tidally locked planets, on the other hand, may have symmetric circular oceans facing the star. These cases are interesting because the high-albedo contrast at the sharp edges of the ice-sheets and the glint from the host star in the ocean may produce recognizable light curves with orbital periodicity, which could also be interpreted in the Fourier domain. We derive a simple general expression for the Fourier coeffici...

  1. Ocean Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-12-05

    There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

  2. Thermal evolution of an early magma ocean in interaction with the atmosphere: conditions for the condensation of a

    E-print Network

    Brandeis, Geneviève

    -planet distance. Our results suggest that a steam atmosphere delays the end of the magma ocean phase by typically, Earth and Venus. This time would be virtually infinite for an Earth-sized planet located at less than 0.66 AU from the Sun. So there are conditions such as no water ocean is formed on Venus. Moreover

  3. Journal of Religion and Popular Culture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edited by Professor Mary Ann Beavis of the University of Saskatchewan, the Journal of Religion and Popular Culture is a â??web-based, peer-reviewed journal committed to academic exploration, analysis and interpretation, from a range of disciplinary perspectives, of the interrelations between religion and religious expression and popular culture, broadly defined as the products of contemporary mass culture.â? It is quite a broad area to cover, and they do so admirably, and members of the public and those in the world of higher education will want to look over their site closely. Published three times a year, visitors can browse through the online archive offered here, or take a look at their most recent issue. Some of the articles that have appeared in recent issues include â??The Apocalyptic Imagination and Popular Cultureâ?, â??Seeking the Roots of Terrorism: An Islamic Traditional Experienceâ?, and â??Under the Influence? The Bible, Culture and Nick Caveâ?.

  4. Ocean Terracing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

    2007-01-01

    Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean

  5. Ocean Portal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IOC/IODE Marine Data Training Team

    Ocean Portal is a high-level directory of Ocean Data and Information related web sites. The object of the site is to help scientists and other ocean experts in locating data and information. Sites are listed in a directory with headings that include information, data, scientific topics, agencies and societies, among others.

  6. Popular Science Writing:Why? Who? How?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Baeyer, Hans Christian

    1998-04-01

    Why? Under the threats of anti-science, pseudo-science, and indifference to science, popularization of physics is changing from a genteel art to a necessity for survival. Science writing is one element in a campaign that includes TV, museums, lectures, school visits, etc. Who? Five percent of the total effort of every physics department should be devoted to popularization. The academic reward system should reflect this obligation. How? Hints and suggestions for effective science writing, based on extensive experience, will be presented.

  7. Books and the popularization of science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, R.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses best-selling science books, the characteristics of the audience for popular science books, and the role of books within science popularization and science education. Best-selling science books have been rare, but generally readable. Regional books, also important sources of scientific information, aim at much smaller, far more price-sensitive audiences. Many successful regional, nontechnical science books are readable, heavily illustrated, and in some cases, cross-disciplinary. To increase the attentive audience for scientific information, improvement in science education is necessary, and the most efficacious role for scientific institutions may be the production of materials that can be easily incorporated into school curricula. ?? 1991 Springer.

  8. Pragmatism and Popular Culture: Shusterman, Popular Art, and the Challenge of Visuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snaevarr, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Richard Shusterman's defense of popular culture and intends to show that the entertainment industry has a dark side which Shusterman tends to ignore. Richard Shusterman is a pragmatist aesthetician who promotes art as an integral part of the ever-changing stream of life, believing that popular culture provides…

  9. Ocean Terracing

    E-print Network

    Richard Cathcart; Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-09

    Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean Art is the technically possible 21-st Century terracing of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Art is applicable worldwide to places that might be practically improved by its judicious employment. Such Ocean Art may constitute an entirely unique category of solutions to coastal disaster prevention planning.

  10. California and Carnegie Planet Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The California and Carnegie Planet Research website presents the University of California Berkeley and the Carnegie Institution of Washington's investigations of planets around other stars. In the Public link, users can find easily understandable details on the diversity of exoplanets and on planet detection techniques. Researchers can find more technical details in the Scientific Research Site including a detailed almanac of planets and data on extrasolar planets. The website features publications, employment information, and team members' résumés. The materials are riddled with outside links to help users find other great planet-related educational and research websites.

  11. HARNESSING OCEAN WAVE ENERGY TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technical challenge to sustainability is finding an energy source that is abundant enough to meet global demands without producing greenhouse gases or radioactive waste. Energy from ocean surface waves can provide the people of this planet a clean, endless power source to me...

  12. The Effect of Star-Planet Interactions on Planetary Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Aomawa; Meadows, Victoria; Bitz, Cecilia; Pierrehumbert, Raymond; Joshi, Manoj; Robinson, Tyler; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Charnay, Benjamin; Virtual Planetary Laboratory

    2015-01-01

    In this work I explored the effect on planetary climate and habitability of interactions between a host star, an orbiting planet and additional planets in a stellar system. I developed and tested models that include both radiative and gravitational effects, and simulated planets covered by ocean, land and water ice, with incident stellar radiation from stars of different spectral types. These simulations showed that ice-covered conditions occurred on an F-dwarf planet with a much smaller decrease in stellar flux than planets orbiting stars with less near-UV radiation, due to ice reflecting strongly in the visible and near-UV. The surface ice-albedo feedback effect is less important at the outer edge of the habitable zone, where ?3-10 bars of CO2 could entirely mask the climatic effect of ice and snow, leaving the traditional outer limit of the habitable zone unaffected by the spectral dependence of water ice and snow albedo. The exit out of global ice cover was also sensitive to host star spectral energy distribution. A planet orbiting an M-dwarf star exhibited a smaller resistance to melting out of a frozen state, requiring a smaller stellar flux to initiate deglaciation than planets orbiting hotter, brighter stars. Given their greater climate stability, planets orbiting cooler, lower-mass stars may be the best candidates for long-term habitability and life beyond the Solar System. A specific case was explored—that of Kepler-62f, a potentially habitable planet in a five-planet system orbiting a K-dwarf star. Simulations using a 3-D Global Climate Model indicated that Kepler-62f would have areas of the planet with surface temperatures above the freezing point of water with 1 bar or more of CO2 in its atmosphere. In a low-CO2 case, increases in planetary obliquity and orbital eccentricity coupled with an orbital configuration that places the summer solstice at or near pericenter generated regions of the planet with above-freezing surface temperatures, which may cause surface melting of an ice sheet formed during an annual cycle. The methods presented here can be used to assess the possible climates of newly discovered potentially habitable planets in systems with a wide range of orbital architectures.

  13. Water Cycling Between Ocean and Mantle: Super-Earths Need Not be Waterworlds

    E-print Network

    Cowan, Nicolas B

    2014-01-01

    Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying that most super-Earths should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. In other words, the continuously habitable zone for waterworlds is much narrower than for Earth-like planets. A planet's water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust depend negatively and positively on seafloor pressure, respectively, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water pa...

  14. Planet formation; orbital evolution and planet-star tidal interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bryden; J. C. B. Papaloizou; C. Terquem; S. Ida

    1998-01-01

    We consider several processes operating during the late stages of planet formation that can affect observed orbital elements. Disk-planet interactions, tidal interactions with the central star, long term orbital instability and the Kozai mechanism are discussed.

  15. What do Multiple Planet Systems Teach us about Planet Formation?

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Ford

    2005-12-29

    For centuries, our knowledge of planetary systems and ideas about planet formation were based on a single example, our solar system. During the last thirteen years, the discovery of ~170 planetary systems has ushered in a new era for astronomy. I review the surprising properties of extrasolar planetary systems and discuss how they are reshaping theories of planet formation. I focus on how multiple planet systems constrain the mechanisms proposed to explain the large eccentricities typical of extrasolar planets. I suggest that strong planet-planet scattering is common and most planetary systems underwent a phase of large eccentricities. I propose that a planetary system's final eccentricities may be strongly influenced by how much mass remains in a planetesimal disk after the last strong planet-planet scattering event.

  16. Protostars and Planets VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    The Protostars and Planets book and conference series has been a long-standing tradition that commenced with the first meeting led by Tom Gehrels and held in Tucson, Arizona, in 1978. The goal then, as it still is today, was to bridge the gap between the fields of star and planet formation as well as the investigation of planetary systems and planets. As Tom Gehrels stated in the preface to the first Protostars and Planets book, "Cross-fertilization of information and understanding is bound to occur when investigators who are familiar with the stellar and interstellar phases meet with those who study the early phases of solar system formation." The central goal remained the same for the subsequent editions of the books and conferences Protostars and Planets II in 1984, Protostars and Planets III in 1990, Protostars and Planets IV in 1998, and Protostars and Planets V in 2005, but has now been greatly expanded by the flood of new discoveries in the field of exoplanet science. The original concept of the Protostars and Planets series also formed the basis for the sixth conference in the series, which took place on July 15-20, 2013. It was held for the first time outside of the United States in the bustling university town of Heidelberg, Germany. The meeting attracted 852 participants from 32 countries, and was centered around 38 review talks and more than 600 posters. The review talks were expanded to form the 38 chapters of this book, written by a total of 250 contributing authors. This Protostars and Planets volume reflects the current state-of-the-art in star and planet formation, and tightly connects the fields with each other. It is structured into four sections covering key aspects of molecular cloud and star formation, disk formation and evolution, planetary systems, and astrophysical conditions for life. All poster presentations from the conference can be found at www.ppvi.org. In the eight years that have passed since the fifth conference and book in the Protostars and Planets series, the field of star and planet formation has progressed enormously. The advent of new space observatories like Spitzer and more recently Herschel have opened entirely new windows to study the interstellar medium, the birthplaces of new stars, and the properties of protoplanetary disks. Millimeter and radio observatories, in particular interferometers, allow us to investigate even the most deeply embedded and youngest protostars. Complementary to these observational achievements, novel multi-scale and multi-physics theoretical and numerical models have provided new insights into the physical and chemical processes that govern the birth of stars and their planetary systems. Sophisticated radiative transfer modeling is critical in order to better connect theories with observations. Since the last Protostars and Planets volume, more than 1000 new extrasolar planets have been identified and there are thousands more waiting to be verified. Such a large database allows for the first time a statistical assessment of the planetary properties as well as their evolution pathways. These investigations show the enormous diversity of the architecture of planetary systems and the properties of planets. High-contrast imaging at short and long wavelengths has resolved protoplanetary disks and associated planets, and transit spectroscopy is a new tool that allows us to study even the physical properties of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. The understanding of our own solar system has also progressed enormously since 2005. For instance, the sample-return Stardust mission has provided direct insight into the composition of comets and asteroids, and has demonstrated the importance of mixing processes in the early solar system. And much more is now known about the origin and role of short-lived nuclides at these stages of the solar system. For generations of astronomers, the Protostars and Planets volumes have served as an essential resource for our understanding of star and planet formation. They are used by students to dive into new topics, and

  17. Changing Planet: Fading Corals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn/Windows to the Universe

    This video provides a comprehensive introduction to the role of coral reefs, the physiology of corals, and the impacts of both ocean warming and acidification on coral survival. It highlights experts from the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences and the University of Miami.

  18. Living Planet Report 1999

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    The second edition of the World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) Living Planet Report (last discussed in the October 9, 1998 Scout Report) has been placed online. The report attempts to quantify the speed at which nature is disappearing from Earth and trace human pressures on the natural environment. The first part of the report, the Living Planet Index (LPI), measures natural wealth and how it has changed between 1970 and 1995. According to the WWF, the LPI declined by 30 percent in this period, indicating that the world has lost "30 per cent of its natural wealth in the space of one generation." The second part of the Living Planet Report examines six causes of global environmental change related to human consumption of renewable and non-renewable resources.Users may view an executive summary and highlights of the report or download the full text in .pdf.

  19. A Comparison of "Popular Music Pedagogy" Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interrogate discourses of "popular music pedagogy" in order to better understand music education practices generally and specifically those in the United States. Employing a conceptual framework based on the work of Jan Blommaert (2005), a content analysis was conducted on a sample of 81 articles related…

  20. Pentecostalism, prosperity and popular cinema in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Meyer

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the liberalisation and commercialisation of the media in the wake of Ghana's return to a democratic constitution in 1992, there has emerged a new public sphere which has been successfully and effectively colonised by Pentecostal?charismatic churches and led to the rise of a Pentecostalite public culture geared towards Christian entertainment. This paper focuses on the popular

  1. Popular Culture in Mainland Chinese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2006-01-01

    The policy and practice of school education in mainland China have changed in response to the political and economic reformations and opening-up of the late 1970s. This paper argues that, despite the introduction and emphasis on popular culture in some areas of school education, traditional Chinese culture and values continue to consolidate the…

  2. Popular Music, Television, and Generational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    Although previous generations have by no means been disloyal to the popular music of their youth, the tenacious attachment of the Baby Boomers to the music of the 1960s seems unprecedented. Three main reasons account for this constantly widening musical reclamation project. First, the Baby Boomers have a clearer sense of generational identity that…

  3. Practical Fishkeeping Popular shark myth dispelled

    E-print Network

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Practical Fishkeeping Popular shark myth dispelled The notion that sharks have the ability to smell studying the olfactory capabilities of five species of elasmobranchs (the group that includes sharks, skates and rays) and concluded that sharks had a sense of smell no better than that of a typical fish

  4. Impact of search engines on page popularity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junghoo Cho; Sourashis Roy

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies show that a majority of Web page accesses are referred by search engines. In this paper we study the widespread use of Web search engines and its impact on the ecology of the Web. In particular, we study how much impact search engines have on the popularity evolution of Web pages. For example, given that search engines return

  5. Forecasting Popularity of Videos Using Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; van der Schaar, Mihaela; Liu, Jiangchuan; Li, Haitao

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic online prediction method (Social-Forecast) that is capable to accurately forecast the popularity of videos promoted by social media. Social-Forecast explicitly considers the dynamically changing and evolving propagation patterns of videos in social media when making popularity forecasts, thereby being situation and context aware. Social-Forecast aims to maximize the forecast reward, which is defined as a tradeoff between the popularity prediction accuracy and the timeliness with which a prediction is issued. The forecasting is performed online and requires no training phase or a priori knowledge. We analytically bound the prediction performance loss of Social-Forecast as compared to that obtained by an omniscient oracle and prove that the bound is sublinear in the number of video arrivals, thereby guaranteeing its short-term performance as well as its asymptotic convergence to the optimal performance. In addition, we conduct extensive experiments using real-world data traces collected from the videos shared in RenRen, one of the largest online social networks in China. These experiments show that our proposed method outperforms existing view-based approaches for popularity prediction (which are not context-aware) by more than 30% in terms of prediction rewards.

  6. Using Popular Children's Films in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Elle; Croker, Stev; Harrison, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Watching films is a common activity for children outside of school, and incorporating popular films that contain scientific references has the potential to spark interest in the classroom. Clips rather than entire films can be used, as the children will maintain focus on the lesson objectives while being excited by the appeal of the film. The use…

  7. Lyrical Commentaries: Learning from Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee

    1991-01-01

    Depicts ways popular song lyrics can stimulate discussion either in music, social studies, humanities, or language arts classes. Considers lyrics' ability to explain social, cultural, and political phenomena. Provides a chronological outline from 1962 correlating political events, personalities, songs, and the artists. songs. Identifies uses of…

  8. Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take…

  9. The internet and the popularization of mathematics

    E-print Network

    Ghys, Étienne

    The internet and the popularization of mathematics ´Etienne Ghys Abstract. In this paper activity with the general public. I would like to focus on the internet as a powerful tool to achieve of mathematics, Internet. 1. Introduction Even though the International Congress of Mathematicians has been

  10. Global warming: Popular vision vs. scientific fact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaels

    2009-01-01

    In the popular vision, environmental apocalypse looms over the land. It's a vision of catastrophic global warming that ultimately leads to crop failures, rapid and inundating surges in sea level, enormous hurricanes, and burning forests incapable of renewing themselves. It's become warmer, yes, and perhaps will be warmer still, but to the degree of catastrophe The available data on climate

  11. Is Being Popular a Risky Proposition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeux, Lara; Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal associations between social preference, perceived popularity, and risk behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and sexual activity) were examined in a sample of high school students. Social preference did not predict any of the risk behaviors assessed, although the interaction between gender and social preference was predictive of sexual…

  12. Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

  13. Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,

    E-print Network

    van Harmelen, Frank

    Semantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I of the day, of temporary interest" #12;Which Semantic Web are we talking about? Semantic Web research anno

  14. American Popular Music 1950-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and discusses some of the chief resources in the study of post-World War II mainstream popular music. In addition to indicating major areas of research, it can serve as a guide to collection development in the discipline.

  15. Boosting Video Popularity Through Recommendation Systems

    E-print Network

    Gao, Lixin

    on online content providers and e-commerce sites, their capability is limited since textual descriptions used in online content providers and e-commerce sites and play an important role in discovering content Popularity 1. INTRODUCTION Online content providers and e-commerce sites typically provide search engines

  16. Caveat Lector: Reviewing Popular Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Vivian Scott

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems with reviews and criticisms of popular social science books: the quality and background of reviewers, the difficulty of distinguishing between fact and opinion, and the scarcity of competent reviewers. Analyzes reviews of Robert Ardrey's "African Genesis" and "The Territorial Imperative," Konrad Lorenz's "On Aggression," and…

  17. Popular Literature: Its Compatibility with the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This special journal issue contains nine articles on the subject of using popular literature in the classroom. Subjects covered in the articles include (1) using vernacular supernatural literature to teach the skills of literary analysis, (2) teaching Agatha Christie's "Curtain," (3) pairing the classics with detective fiction, (4) using fantasy…

  18. Bing & Bong's Tiny Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Bing & Bong's Tiny Planet website, a supplement to the educational television series, offers excellent science activities, games, and online books for small children. Users can sail around the planet to learn about wind, read an online story to discover space, take an adventure through the water cycle, and much more. Visitors can also learn the essentials of colors, shapes, and light through short videos and interactive modules. The colorful website offers a great way for children to begin learning about the fascinating world.

  19. Five New Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Fischer, Debra A.; Henry, Gregory W.; Laughlin, Greg; Wright, Jason T.; Johnson, John A.

    2005-01-01

    We report multiple Doppler measurements of five nearby FGK main-sequence stars and subgiants obtained during the past 4-6 yr at the Keck Observatory. These stars, namely, HD 183263, HD 117207, HD 188015, HD 45350, and HD 99492, all exhibit coherent variations in their Doppler shifts consistent with a planet in Keplerian motion. The five new planets occupy known realms of planetary parameter space, including a wide range of orbital eccentricities, e=0-0.78, and semimajor axes, 0.1-3.8 AU, that provide further statistical information about the true distributions of various properties of planetary systems. One of the planets, HD 99492b, has a low minimum mass of 0.112MJup=36MEarth. Four of the five planets orbit beyond 1 AU. We describe two quantitative tests of the false alarm probability for Keplerian interpretations of measured velocities. The more robust of these involves Monte Carlo realizations of scrambled velocities as a proxy for noise. Keplerian orbital fits to that ``noise'' yield the distribution of ?2? to compare with ?2? from the original (unscrambled) velocities. We establish a 1% false alarm probability as the criterion for candidate planets. All five of these planet-bearing stars are metal-rich, with [Fe/H]>+0.27, reinforcing the strong correlation between planet occurrence and metallicity. From the full sample of 1330 stars monitored at Keck, Lick, and the Anglo-Australian Telescope, the shortest orbital period for any planet is 2.64 days, showing that shorter periods occur less frequently than 0.1% in the solar neighborhood. Photometric observations were acquired for four of the five host stars with an automatic telescope at Fairborn Observatory. The lack of brightness variations in phase with the radial velocities supports planetary-reflex motion as the cause of the velocity variations. No transits were observed, but their occurrence is not ruled out by our observations. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by both NASA and the University of California.

  20. Strange Planets Planetarium Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-06

    This planetarium show is designed to engage visitors directly in activities and demonstrations, and is optimized for group sizes of 25 to 70 people. Show content includes general planet-finding techniques (Doppler, astrometric, etc.), an audience activity about the transit method of extrasolar planet discovery, NASA Kepler mission, and Johannes Kepler's work. It is 50-minutes long, but modular, so that it can be adjusted for shorter lengths (suggestions for 30-minute and 40-minute versions are provided in the script). The script, images, movies and music are available for free download at the website provided.

  1. Play Dough Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about planet sizes. Learners will demonstrate the size (volume) differences between Earth, Earth’s Moon, and Mars. An extension to estimate the distance between the Earth and the Moon, and the Earth and Mars, using the scale of the play dough planets' sizes is provided. Advance preparation of the play dough (recipie provided) is required. This is lesson 3 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module. It was adapted from 3-D Model of the Earth and Moon, an activity in The Universe at Your Fingertips.

  2. Location of Planet X

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  3. Informative Features of Planets Characteristics of individual planets and moons

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    1 Informative Features of Planets · Characteristics of individual planets and moons ·Interior ·larger for inner planets ·Mantle, composed primarily of oxides ·silicate minerals with Fe and Mg, like crater History of Mars · Accretion, bombardment heating · Rapid cooling of interior · Period of volcanism

  4. Planet Formation and the Characteristics of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary growth, emphasizing the formation of extrasolar planets, is presented. Models of planet formation are based upon observations of the Solar System, extrasolar planets, and young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but if they become massive enough before the protoplanetary disk dissipates, then they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  5. ExtraSolar Planets Finding Extrasolar Planets. I

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    systems have been found. No terrestrial planets are yet known (smallest: 7.5M) The COROT and KEPLER missions are designed to find terrestrial planets using transits Hot Jupiters predominate around young in the Galaxy Hot Jupiters may indicate very different systems We can't say much about terrestrial planets yet

  6. 82From Asteroids to Planets Planets are built in several

    E-print Network

    82From Asteroids to Planets Planets are built in several stages. Dust grains grow to large rocks in a million years, then rocks accumulate to form asteroids in a few years or so. The third stage combines kilometer-wide asteroids to make rocky planets. A simple model of this process can tell us about how long

  7. Migration of Comets to the Terrestrial Planets

    E-print Network

    S. I. Ipatov; J. C. Mather

    2006-09-26

    We studied the orbital evolution of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), Halley-type comets (HTCs), and long-period comets, and probabilities of their collisions with planets. In our runs the probability of a collision of one object with the Earth could be greater than the sum of probabilities for thousands of other objects. Even without a contribution of such a few bodies, the probability of a collision of a former JFC with the Earth was greater than 4$\\cdot10^{-6}$. This probability is enough for delivery of all the water to Earth's oceans during formation of the giant planets. The ratios of probabilities of collisions of JFCs and HTCs with Venus and Mars to the mass of a planet usually were not smaller than that for Earth. Among 30,000 considered objects with initial orbits close to those of JFCs, a few objects got Earth-crossing orbits with semi-major axes $a$$comets among near-Earth objects can exceed several tens of percent, but, probably, many extinct comets disintegrated into mini-comets and dust during a smaller part of their dynamical lifetimes if these lifetimes were large.

  8. USGS Map-a-Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS Astrogeology

    Explore global imagery of the planets and satellites from a variety of missions in an easy to use web interface. Customize and download your own image maps of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and other planets and moons.

  9. Which Planet Shall We Visit?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learners will compare images of planets and select one planet to visit and tell the tale of their visit through a comic strip. This is activity 9 of 9 in Mars and Earth: Science Learning Activities for After School.

  10. GEOLogic: Terrestrial and Jovian Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laura Guertin

    In this two-part example, students are given clues about properties about the terrestrial and Jovian planets respectively and asked to match up the planet with the correct equatorial radius, mean orbital velocity, and period of rotation.

  11. Astronomers Report Discovery of New Extra-solar Planets: Four Reports

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weinstock, Maia.

    2000-01-01

    If you are feeling alone in the universe, this news from 2000 of the search for new planets might inspire you. This account is from the popular space science Website, Space.com. It chronicles the latest detection of at least nine possible planetary bodies orbiting stars outside of our solar system. The text includes a discussion of how detection of wobble behavior is used in the search for extra-solar planets and plans for future planet hunts. This site also features links to Websites of the observatories involved in extra-solar planet detection, related Space.com stories, a diagram of Doppler shift due to stellar wobble and a table of the nine planet candidates's size and distance from Earth.

  12. Oceans, Climate, and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Lightle

    This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

  13. Oceans, Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Lightle

    2006-01-01

    What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

  14. Extrasolar Binary Planets I: Formation by tidal capture during planet-planet scattering

    E-print Network

    Ochiai, H; Ida, S

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated i) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call "binary planets") from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and ii) the following long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star {\\it quasi-static} tides. For the initial evolution in phase i), we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semi-major axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semi-major axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by ...

  15. What Should Children Know about the Arctic Ocean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockard, James W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Lists essential information about the Arctic Ocean which should be taught in elementary social studies courses, and which teacher training programs should cover. Discusses popular misconceptions regarding the Arctic Ocean and factors, such as the coloration on maps and globes, which lead to these misconceptions. (LS)

  16. Extrasolar Planets in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Samuel J.

    2011-01-01

    The field of extrasolar planets is still, in comparison with other astrophysical topics, in its infancy. There have been about 300 or so extrasolar planets detected and their detection has been accomplished by various different techniques. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment to show how planets are detected using the transit technique.…

  17. What is a Planet? Video

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a video about the IAU definition of a planet. Learners will watch 3D animation designed to illustrate the history behind the discussion defining the question, what is a planet?, and to outline some of the traits that may be associated with the definition of a planet.

  18. Can Planets Survive Stellar Evolution?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Villaver; Mario Livio

    2007-01-01

    We study the survival of gas planets around stars with masses in the range 1-5 Msolar, as these stars evolve off the main sequence. We show that planets with masses smaller than one Jupiter mass do not survive the planetary nebula phase if located initially at orbital distances smaller than 3-5 AU. Planets more massive than two Jupiter masses around

  19. Astrometric Detection of Earthlike Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Shao; Geoff Marcy; Joseph H. Catanzarite; Stephen J. Edberg; Alain Léger; Fabien Malbet; Didier Queloz; Matthew W. Muterspaugh; Charles Beichman; Debra Fischer; Eric Ford; Robert Olling; Shrinivas Kulkarni; Stephen C. Unwin; Wesley Traub

    2009-01-01

    Astrometry can detect rocky planets in a broad range of masses and orbital distances and measure their masses and three-dimensional orbital parameters, including eccentricity and inclination, to provide the properties of terrestrial planets. The masses of both the new planets and the known gas giants can be measured unambiguously, allowing a direct calculation of the gravitational interactions, both past and

  20. Radio Detection of Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    Radio Detection of Extrasolar Planets: Present and Future Prospects T. Joseph W. Lazio1 & W. M.23 (Fisher et al. 2003) In last decade, exciting discovery of extrasolar planets n ~ 100 planetary systems n of extrasolar planets n ~ 100 planetary systems n Indirect detection via optical signature from host star

  1. Lights, Camera, Action: Integrating Popular Film in the Health Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez, Keri S.; Pleban, Francis T.; Wood, Ralph J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits as well as the important considerations that should be taken into account in integrating popular films in health education classes. Use of popular films in the classroom, termed "cinema education," is becoming increasingly popular in teaching health education. As a matter of convenience, popular films are easy…

  2. The tube over time: characterizing popularity growth of youtube videos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flavio Figueiredo; Fabrício Benevenuto; Jussara M. Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Understanding content popularity growth is of great importance to Internet service providers, content creators and online marketers. In this work, we characterize the growth patterns of video popularity on the currently most popular video sharing application, namely YouTube. Using newly provided data by the application, we analyze how the popularity of individual videos evolves since the video's upload time. Moreover,

  3. Popular Music http://journals.cambridge.org/PMU

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    Popular Music http://journals.cambridge.org/PMU Additional services for Popular Music: Email alerts Bizta Sochal Klu: underground, alternative and commercial in Havana hip hop Geoff Baker Popular Music hop. Popular Music,31, pp 124 doi:10.1017/S0261143011000432 Request Permissions : Click here

  4. Bullying, Social Power and Heteronormativity: Girls' Constructions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were derived…

  5. Heterogeneity of Girls' Consensual Popularity: Academic and Interpersonal Behavioral Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored the heterogeneous nature of popularity by investigating subgroups of popular girls (N = 365) in their first year of secondary school (mean age = 13.05). Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups based upon sociometric popularity (i.e., those considered "likeable" by peers) and consensual popularity (i.e.,…

  6. Focus: Popular Culture, Censorship, Religion in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Donald, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Kansas English" contains four articles related to popular culture, censorship, and religion. "Popular Culture Studies: A Complement to the Humanities" by Michael Marsden, focuses on the relationship between popular culture studies and the humanities, including English. "Popular Couture: La Vie En Blue" by Richard Martin, examines…

  7. Neato-Magneto Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-07-11

    In this activity, teams of learners study magnetic fields at four separate stations: examining magnetic fields generated by everyday items, mapping out a magnetic field using a compass, creating models of Earth's and Jupiter's magnetic fields, and observing aurora produced by magnetic fields on both planets. This activity allows learners to do their own planetary investigations, similar to the research of the Juno mission.

  8. Planet Quest Observing Cards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The PlanetQuest Observing Cards are designed to give telescope operators and other interpreters a new way of explaining the night sky. Relating common observing objects to our search for exoplanets makes these spectacular sights more understandable. These cards are a great resource for use at observing night events, providing new stories to tell about commonly viewed celestial objects.

  9. Planets and Pucks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brueningsen, Christopher; Krawiec, Wesley

    1993-01-01

    Presents a simple activity designed to allow students to experimentally verify Kepler's second law, sometimes called the law of equal areas. It states that areas swept out by a planet as it orbits the Sun are equal for equal time intervals. (PR)

  10. The Planet Formation Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, S.; Buscher, D. F.; Monnier, J. D.; PFI Science, the; Technical Working Group

    2014-04-01

    Among the most fascinating and hotly-debated areas in contemporary astrophysics are the means by which planetary systems are assembled from the large rotating disks of gas and dust which attend a stellar birth. Although important work is being done both in theory and observation, a full understanding of the physics of planet formation can only be achieved by opening observational windows able to directly witness the process in action. The key requirement is then to probe planet-forming systems at the natural spatial scales over which material is being assembled. By definition, this is the so-called Hill Sphere which delineates the region of influence of a gravitating body within its surrounding environment. The Planet Formation Imager project has crystallized around this challenging goal: to deliver resolved images of Hill-Sphere-sized structures within candidate planet-hosting disks in the nearest star-forming regions. In this contribution we outline the primary science case of PFI and discuss how PFI could significantly advance our understanding of the architecture and potential habitability of planetary systems. We present radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from which we derive preliminary specifications that guide the design of the facility. Finally, we give an overview about the interferometric and non-interferometric technologies that we are investigating in order to meet the specifications.

  11. Planet Eart Interactive

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Animals Dinosaurs Egypt Global Warming History Planet Earth Sharks Space Survival Zone Technology Sign Up way are testing other potential applications, including a thin, pliable monitor to detect electrical is "much better suited for use as retinal implants," Rogers said in a statement. Animal eyes are naturally

  12. The Artificial Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, D. R.

    An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

  13. Discovering Planet "X"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-03-29

    This activity and demonstration teaches the concept of parallax (the apparent movement of an object caused by a change in the viewer's position) and relates the concept to a real-world astronomical event, ­the discovery of Pluto. It employs the Blink Comparator, an online simulation illustrating the technique used by Clyde Tombaugh to discover the ninth planet on February 18, 1930.

  14. A Planet for Goldilocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, N.

    2014-07-01

    The search for life beyond Earth has inspired Solar System exploration and SETI surveys. Today, the search for life also leads to exoplanet discovery and characterization. Launched in March 2009, NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of exoplanets with diverse properties. Though each new world is interesting in its own right, Kepler aims to understand the population as a whole. Its primary objective is to determine the frequency of exoplanets of different sizes and orbital periods. Of special interest are the Earth-size planets in the “Goldilocks” (or habitable) Zone where the flux of incoming starlight is conducive to the existence of surface liquid water. Once Kepler establishes the prevalence of such planets in the Solar neighborhood, future missions can be designed to find not just a planet in the Goldilocks Zone but a planet for Goldilocks—a truly habitable environment for life as we know it. Kepler discoveries and progress will be described as well as the resources available to bring Kepler science to the public and into the classroom. The possibility of finding evidence of life beyond Earth is working its way into the public consciousness and has the potential to inspire generations. Scientific literacy is a natural consequence of awakening the spirit of exploration and discovery that led Goldilocks into the forest and leads humans into space.

  15. The Outer Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students explore the outermost planets of our solar system: Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. They also learn about characteristics of Pluto and its interactions with Neptune. Students learn a little about the history of space travel as well as the different technologies that engineers develop to make space travel and scientific discovery possible.

  16. Terrestrials Dwarf Planets

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    Terrestrials Gas Giants Ice Giants Dwarf Planets The Solar System #12;Neptune Uranus Saturn Jupiter Density: 3900 ­ 5500 kg m-3 #12;Jupiter 318 ME 5.2 AU Uranus 15 ME 19.6 AUSaturn 95 ME 9.5 AU Neptune 17 3.88 RE Uranus Neptune Uranus and Neptune are Ice Giants made mostly of ices with thin Hydrogen

  17. Single planet, divided world

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Unlike other forms of life on planet earth, humans have contrived to flourish—or at least multiply—by splitting themselves horizontally into incommensurable units and vertically into a species above, or privileged within, the realm of nature. The human proclivity for division, exclusion, and alienation is not absolute; it is endlessly challenged and often diluted by integrating tendencies. Historically, phenomena such as

  18. The Terrestrial Planet Finder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Lawson

    2001-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is a space-based astronomical telescope that will combine high sensitivity and spatial resolution to detect and characterize ~150 planetary systems within 15 pc of our Sun. In a five-year mission, currently expected to commence in 2012, TPF will look for the atmospheric signatures of life using the methods of planetary spectroscopy. This is only possible

  19. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Albarede; J. Blichert-Toft

    2007-01-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing

  20. External Resource: Clay Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    In this activity, learners/students use given amounts of clay to create models of the solar system. Learners/students use clay to represent different planets and other objects in the solar system (asteroids, moons, etc.). The learners/students can use as

  1. Earth's Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Lightle

    This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data – both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

  2. Ocean Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Cole

    2011-04-07

    What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

  3. ALMOST ALL OF KEPLER'S MULTIPLE-PLANET CANDIDATES ARE PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Elisabeth; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Holman, Matthew J.; Ragozzine, Darin [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buchhave, Lars A. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ciardi, David R. [Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cochran, William D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Morehead, Robert C. [University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L., E-mail: Jack.Lissauer@nasa.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2012-05-10

    We present a statistical analysis that demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) indeed represent true, physically associated transiting planets. Binary stars provide the primary source of false positives among Kepler planet candidates, implying that false positives should be nearly randomly distributed among Kepler targets. In contrast, true transiting planets would appear clustered around a smaller number of Kepler targets if detectable planets tend to come in systems and/or if the orbital planes of planets encircling the same star are correlated. There are more than one hundred times as many Kepler planet candidates in multi-candidate systems as would be predicted from a random distribution of candidates, implying that the vast majority are true planets. Most of these multis are multiple-planet systems orbiting the Kepler target star, but there are likely cases where (1) the planetary system orbits a fainter star, and the planets are thus significantly larger than has been estimated, or (2) the planets orbit different stars within a binary/multiple star system. We use the low overall false-positive rate among Kepler multis, together with analysis of Kepler spacecraft and ground-based data, to validate the closely packed Kepler-33 planetary system, which orbits a star that has evolved somewhat off of the main sequence. Kepler-33 hosts five transiting planets, with periods ranging from 5.67 to 41 days.

  4. Tarlton Law Library in Popular Culture Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Tarlton Law Library at the University of Texas School of Law hosts this collection, which focuses on law in popular culture. The goal of the collection is "to provide as broad a picture as possible of the image of the lawyer in the United States and British Commonwealth." The collection consists of works of fiction in all genres as well as legal humor, plays, and feature films. If you can't make it to Austin to check out these materials in person the site provides quite a bit for the virtual visitor. There are a number of E-texts available including "Collins to Grisham: A brief history of the legal thriller" as well as an entire bibliography of e-texts which tell "the lawyer's story." Visitors may also want to check out the fun section entitled "Lawyerly Quotations from Popular Culture". In addition, the site provides a number of movie posters, movie stills, and lobby cards to peruse.

  5. Ocean FEST

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Bruno

    Ocean FEST family science nights feature hands-on, standards-based, ocean-themed science activities for students in grades 3-6 and their families. Our goals are to: (1) educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their communities; and (2) inspire students - especially those from underrepresented groups - to pursue careers in the ocean and earth sciences. The teacher guide provides all information (including supply lists) necessary to perform these activities in a classroom. Some supply funding is available--see Teacher Resources section for more information.

  6. Book Review of a Popular Science Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heather Macdonald

    Each student selects a popular science book on a geoscience topic of interest to them, finds two book reviews of that book, and writes a book review that includes some description of the book as well as some commentary and review. Each student also gives a short (three-four minute) oral presentation of their review to their classmates (either stand-alone or with one Powerpoint slide).

  7. The Popularity of P&P

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The classes are often…

  8. Efficient schemes for broadcasting popular videos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lixin Gao; James F. Kurose; Donald F. Towsley

    2002-01-01

    .   We provide a formal framework for studying broadcasting schemes and design a family of schemes for broadcasting popular videos,\\u000a the greedy disk-conserving broadcasting (GDB) family. We analyze the resource requirements for GDB, i.e., the number of server\\u000a broadcast channels, the client storage space, and the client I\\/O bandwidth required by GDB. Our analysis shows that all of\\u000a our proposed

  9. Heterogeneity of Girls’ Consensual Popularity: Academic and Interpersonal Behavioral Profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eddy H. de Bruyn; Antonius H. N. Cillessen

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored the heterogeneous nature of popularity by investigating subgroups of popular girls (N?=?365) in their first year of secondary school (mean age ?=? 13.05). Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups based upon sociometric popularity (i.e., those considered likeable by peers) and consensual popularity (i.e., those considered popular by peers), and academic behavioral indices. Two of

  10. Mean motion resonances from planet-planet scattering

    E-print Network

    Sean N. Raymond; Rory Barnes; Philip J. Armitage; Noel Gorelick

    2008-09-19

    Planet-planet scattering is the leading mechanism to explain the large eccentricities of the observed exoplanet population. However, scattering has not been considered important to the production of pairs of planets in mean motion resonances (MMRs). We present results from a large number of numerical simulations of dynamical instabilities in 3-planet systems. We show that MMRs arise naturally in about five percent of cases. The most common resonances we populate are the 2:1 and 3:1 MMRs, although a wide variety of MMRs can occur, including high-order MMRs (up to eleventh order). MMRs are generated preferentially in systems with uneven mass distributions: the smallest planet is typically ejected after a series of close encounters, leaving the remaining, more massive planets in resonance. The distribution of resonant planets is consistent with the phase-space density of resonant orbits, meaning that planets are randomly thrown into MMRs rather than being slowly pulled into them. It may be possible to distinguish between MMRs created by scattering vs. convergent migration in a gaseous disk by considering planetary mass ratios: resonant pairs of planets beyond ~1 AU with more massive outer planets are likely to have formed by scattering. In addition, scattering may be responsible for pairs of planets in high-order MMRs (3:1 and higher) that are not easily populated by migration. The frequency of MMRs from scattering is comparable to the expected survival rate of MMRs in turbulent disks. Thus, planet-planet scattering is likely to be a major contributor to the population of resonant planets.

  11. Cooperation and popularity in spatial games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Selection of the competition opponent is crucial for the evolution of cooperation in evolutionary games. In this work, we introduce a simple rule, incorporating individual popularity via the single parameter ?, to study how the selection of the potential strategy sources influences individual behavior traits. For positive ? players with high popularity will be considered more likely, while for negative ? the opposite holds. Setting ? equal to zero returns the frequently adopted random selection of the opponent. We find that positive ? (namely, adopting the strategy from a more popular player) promotes the emergence of cooperation, which is robust against different interaction networks and game classes. The essence of this boosting effect can be attributed to the fact: increasing ? accelerates the microscopic organization of cooperator clusters to resist the exploitation of defectors. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the introduction of a new mechanism alters the impact of uncertainty by strategy adoption on the evolution of cooperation. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  12. Planet frequency from microlensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassan, A.; Ranc, C.

    2014-12-01

    Galactic gravitational microlensing is a very efficient technique to detect brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets at large orbital distances from their stars, and down to Earth-mass planets. More than 50 planets have been discovered so far, with 31 already published. Recent statistical results on the frequency of exoplanets based on several years of microlensing observations find that planets should be the rule rather than the exception, and confirm that super-Earth are much more frequent that giant planets in the Galaxy.

  13. The naked planet Earth : Most essential pre-requisite for the origin and evolution of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, S.; Ikoma, M.; Genda, H.; Hirose, K.; Yokoyama, T.; Santosh, M.

    2013-12-01

    Our blue planet Earth has long been regarded as a standard to host evolving life with full of nutrients since the birth of the planet. Here, we synthesize the processes that led to the birth of early life on Earth and its aftermath, finally leading to the evolution of metazoans, based on an evaluation of: (1) source of nutrients, (2) chemistry of primordial ocean, (3) initial mass of ocean, and (4) size of rocky planet. Among the life-building nutrients, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) play a key role. Only three types of rocks can serve as adequate source of nutrients. (a) Continent-forming TTG (granite), enabling the evolution of life to metazoans. (b) Primordial continents carrying anorthosite with KREEP (Potassium, Rare Earth Elements, and Phosphorus) basalts, which is a key to bear life. (c) Carbonatite magma, enriched in radiogenic elements such as U and Th, that can cause mutation to speed up evolution, and promote the birth of new species in continental rift settings. Second important factor is ocean chemistry. The primordial ocean was extremely acidic (pH=1-2) and enriched in halogens (Cl, F and others), S and N and metallic elements (Cd, Cu, Zn, and others), inhibiting the birth of life. Plate tectonics cleaned up these elements which interfered with RNA. Blue ocean finally appeared in the Phanerozoic with pH=7 through extensive interaction with surface continental crust by weathering, erosion and transportation into ocean. The initial ocean mass was also important. The birth of life and aftermath of evolution was possible in the habitable zone under a tight initial condition of 3-5 km thick ocean which enabled supply of sufficient nutrients. Without a huge landmass, sufficient amount of nutrients cannot be supplied into ocean. Finally, the size of the planet determines the fate of a planet. Due to suitable planet size, the dawn of Phanerozoic witnessed the initiation of return-flow of seawater into mantle, leading to the emergence of huge landmass above sea-level, and the distribution of nutrients on a global scale. It is necessary to meet above 4 conditions to enable the Earth as a habitable planet with evolved life forms. The tight constraints that we evaluate for birth and evolution of life on Earth would provide important guidelines for hunting for life in the exo-solar planets.

  14. Observed properties of extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrew W

    2013-05-01

    Observational surveys for extrasolar planets probe the diverse outcomes of planet formation and evolution. These surveys measure the frequency of planets with different masses, sizes, orbital characteristics, and host star properties. Small planets between the sizes of Earth and Neptune substantially outnumber Jupiter-sized planets. The survey measurements support the core accretion model, in which planets form by the accumulation of solids and then gas in protoplanetary disks. The diversity of exoplanetary characteristics demonstrates that most of the gross features of the solar system are one outcome in a continuum of possibilities. The most common class of planetary system detectable today consists of one or more planets approximately one to three times Earth's size orbiting within a fraction of the Earth-Sun distance. PMID:23641110

  15. Astrometric Detection of Earthlike Planets

    E-print Network

    Shao, Michael; Catanzarite, Joseph H; Edberg, Stephen J; Leger, Alain; Malbet, Fabien; Queloz, Didier; Muterspaugh, Matthew W; Beichman, Charles; Fischer, Debra A; Ford, Eric; Olling, Robert; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Unwin, Stephen C; Traub, Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Astrometry can detect rocky planets in a broad range of masses and orbital distances and measure their masses and three-dimensional orbital parameters, including eccentricity and inclination, to provide the properties of terrestrial planets. The masses of both the new planets and the known gas giants can be measured unambiguously, allowing a direct calculation of the gravitational interactions, both past and future. Such dynamical interactions inform theories of the formation and evolution of planetary systems, including Earth-like planets. Astrometry is the only technique technologically ready to detect planets of Earth mass in the habitable zone (HZ) around solar-type stars within 20 pc. These Earth analogs are close enough for follow-up observations to characterize the planets by infrared imaging and spectroscopy with planned future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Terrestrial Planet Finder/Darwin. Employing a demonstrated astrometric precision of 1 microarcsecond and a noise ...

  16. Can Planets survive Stellar Evolution?

    E-print Network

    Eva Villaver; Mario Livio

    2007-02-27

    We study the survival of gas planets around stars with masses in the range 1-5 Msun, as these stars evolve off the Main Sequence. We show that planets with masses smaller than one Jupiter mass do not survive the Planetary Nebula phase if located initially at orbital distances smaller than (3-5) AU. Planets more massive than two Jupiter masses around low mass (1 Msun on the Main Sequence) stars survive the Planetary Nebula stage down to orbital distances of 3 AU. As the star evolves through the Planetary Nebula phase, an evaporation outflow will be established at the planet's surface. Evaporating planets may be detected using spectroscopic observations. Planets around white dwarfs with masses M_WD > 0.7 Msun are generally expected to be found at orbital radii r > 15 AU. If planets are found at smaller orbital radii around massive white dwarfs, they had to form as the result of the merger of two white dwarfs.

  17. The evolution of ocean color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Victor A.; Espinoza, Carola

    2008-08-01

    Analog examples of what primeval oceans might have looked in the Precambrian are probably extant in various regions and at various size scales in present day oceans albeit they have not been sufficiently recognized and/or studied. The Eastern Boundary Current Ecosystems (EBCEs), with their characteristic high productivity-inducing coastal upwelling events, their extensive and intensive anoxic/hypoxic water column and methane and sulfide-rich benthic environment, appear to represent such analogs. Moreover, recent studies have shown that they possess diverse anaerobic prokaryotic communities of mat-forming large multi-cellular filamentous bacteria similar to fossils found in Archean and Proterozoic rocks. Observations in the Bay of Concepcion, central Chile (~36°S), inserted in the second most productive EBCE of the world, suggests that given similar oceanographic dynamics, past oceans may have presented different predominant colorations after the first probable "red" color of the reduced iron-rich Archean ocean and prior to the present day "blue" color. In this coastal ecosystem a "black" coloration has been observed to form as the result of the floating to the surface layer of sulfide-blackened benthic detritus together with chunks of microbial mats, and a "milky to turquoise" coloration resulting from different concentrations of colloidal, nano-sized particles which may include elemental sulfur and/or microorganisms. If the present is the key to the past we posit that "black" color oceans could have existed during the Proterozoic "Canfield sulfidic ocean" followed by "milky to turquoise" colored oceans during later stages of the Proterozoic. Meso-scale examples of "milky" and "turquoise" portions of oceans, caused by elemental sulfur from oxidized hydrogen sulfide eruptions, have been described from off Namibia and there appear to also exist elsewhere. Examples of "black" oceans have apparently not been reported but the name of the Black Sea, the largest permanent anoxic basin on Earth, suggests that at some point in time it may have been black, at least locally and/or for short periods, prompting the name. We conclude suggesting that analogous to the present "Blue Planet" denomination, in the past our Earth could possibly have deserved the successive names of "Red", "Black" and "Milky-Turquoise" Planet.

  18. Infrared sensors in spacecraft that monitor planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, P.

    2008-06-01

    Infrared sensors provide a backbone for many of the instruments flown by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that monitor conditions on planet Earth. This paper gives an overview of some of those missions and infrared sensors used in the spacecraft instruments. Basic properties of the sensors are described and the evolution of sensor complexity is presented by example. Future trends pointing towards more sophisticated sensors in the future are discussed.

  19. Water Trapping on Tidally Locked Terrestrial Planets Requires Special Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Yonggang; Hu, Yongyun; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2014-12-01

    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld, we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, nightside sea ice remains {O}(10 m) thick and nightside water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets {O}(1000 m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's would therefore experience a large decrease in sea level when plate tectonics drives their continents onto the night side, but would not experience complete dayside dessiccation. Only planets with a geothermal heat flux lower than Earth's, much of their surface covered by continents, and a surface water reservoir {O}(10%) of Earth's would be susceptible to complete water trapping.

  20. Ocean Optics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

  1. PREDICTING PLANETS IN KEPLER MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We investigate whether any multi-planet systems among Kepler candidates (2011 February release) can harbor additional terrestrial-mass planets or smaller bodies. We apply the packed planetary systems hypothesis that suggests all planetary systems are filled to capacity, and use a Hill stability criterion to identify eight two-planet systems with significant gaps between the innermost and outermost planets. For each of these systems, we perform long-term numerical integrations of 10{sup 7} years to investigate the stability of 4000-8000 test particles injected into the gaps. We map out stability regions in orbital parameter space, and therefore quantify the ranges of semimajor axes and eccentricities of stable particles. Strong mean-motion resonances can add additional regions of stability in otherwise unstable parameter space. We derive simple expressions for the extent of the stability regions, which is related to quantities such as the dynamical spacing {Delta}, the separation between two planets in units of their mutual Hill radii. Our results suggest that planets with separation {Delta} < 10 are unlikely to host extensive stability regions, and that about 95 out of a total of 115 two-planet systems in the Kepler sample may have sizeable stability regions. We predict that Kepler candidate systems including KOI 433, KOI 72/Kepler-10, KOI 555, KOI 1596, KOI 904, KOI 223, KOI 1590, and KOI 139 can harbor additional planets or low-mass bodies between the inner and outer detected planets. These predicted planets may be detected by future observations.

  2. Influence of massive planet scattering on nascent terrestrial planets

    E-print Network

    Dimitri Veras; Philip J. Armitage

    2005-01-17

    In most extrasolar planetary systems, the present orbits of known giant planets admit the existence of stable terrestrial planets. Those same giant planets, however, have typically eccentric orbits that hint at violent early dynamics less benign for low mass planet formation. Under the assumption that massive planet eccentricities are the end point of gravitational scattering in multiple planet systems, we study the evolution of the building blocks of terrestrial planets during the scattering process. We find that typically, evolutionary sequences that result in a moderately eccentric giant planet orbiting at a ~ 2.5 AU eject over 95% of the material initially present within the habitable zone. Crossing orbits largely trigger the ejection, and leave the surviving material with a wide dispersion in semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination. Based on these results, we predict that radial velocity follow-up of terrestrial planet systems found by Kepler will find that these are anti-correlated with the presence of eccentric giant planets orbiting at a few AU.

  3. Planet Within a Planet: Implications of Principal Component Analysis of Global Tomographic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziewonski, A. M.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dziewonski et al. (2010) identified five layers in the mantle with different spectral characteristics of lateral heterogeneity: three layers in the upper mantle and two in the lower mantle. Subsequent principal component analysis (PCA) of recent 3-D shear velocity models shows there are three distinct zones, or layers, expressed by the radial eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues. Each radial eigenvector is associated with a pattern of lateral velocity variations. The near surface layer (Moho - 300 km; Heterosphere or 'Plate Tectonics Planet') and the lower mantle (650 - CMB; 'Superplume Planet') have nearly no overlap in terms of the corresponding eigenvector distribution as a function of depth: it is as if they represented heterogeneity within two different planets. These two 'planets' are connected by an 'Inter-Planetary Interaction Zone' (IPIZ; 300 - 650 km depth) where the eigenvectors show some overlap suggesting a degree of a convective and/or conductive flux between the zones. The largest principal component is associated with the 'Plate Tectonics Planet'; it represents ~50% of variance in the entire model and it is virtually confined to the top 250-300 km. As might be expected, the horizontal pattern of velocity variations corresponding to this eigenvector looks very much like a map of shear velocity anomalies between 100 and 150 km. It shows mid-ocean ridges, age-dependent oceanic lithosphere, cratons, and tectonically active regions. The power of heterogeneity falls by an order of magnitude between 200 and 300 km depth, although slight differences between continents and oceans may persist. Such a rapid change, considering that radial resolution is about 75 km at this depth, is consistent with a partial decoupling between the lid and the underlying mantle. The second largest PC (~20% of variance) is largely confined to the lower mantle, where it contains much of the degree 2 signal, with the largest amplitudes near the CMB. We call the lower mantle a 'Superplume Planet' because its structure is very much dominated by the degree 2 and 3 signal, which decreases at shallower depths but retains its characteristic signal of the African and Pacific Superplumes separated by a ring of faster than average velocities (Lekic et al., 2012). The next four eigenvalues contribute ~20% of the model variance, such that after their contributions to the model are added, >90-95% of the variance is explained by the first 6 PC's and, except for the middle mantle, the 'synthetic' model contains all important features of the input model. In addition to the surface and bottom boundary layers, the top and the bottom of IPIZ are essential in determining the flow in the mantle. It is important that their existence and significance be appreciated, or at least acknowledged, by the community. We use the "different planets" hyperbole in the context of search for 'Super-Earths' among exoplanets and speculations on whether their dynamics could be similar to plate tectonics on the Earth. Our ability to predict whether plate tectonics is likely on exoplanets may well depend on our understanding of the relationship between our own Superplume and Plate Tectonics planets.

  4. Mass-Radius Relationships for Low-Mass Planets: From Iron Planets to Water Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Transit observations, and radial velocity measurements, have begun to populate the mass radius diagram for extrasolar planets; fubture astrometric measurements and direct images promise more mass and radius information. Clearly, the bulk density of a planet indicates something about a planet s composition--but what? I will attempt to answer this question in general for low-mass planets (planets obey a kind of universal mass-radius relationship: an expansion whose first term is M approx. R(sup 3).

  5. Ocean Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students discover that measurements from space can tell us the temperature of the ocean, both on an annual average and as measured on any given date. For the annual average the highest ocean temperatures are near the equator, and drop as one moves either northward or southward from the equator. Students will graph each temperature value as a function of latitude and write a linear equation that best fits the points on their graph. They can choose as data points any point at that approximate latitude because the temperature is not uniform for a certain latitude - some areas are hotter and some are cooler. They can also look at today's ocean temperatures via the link provided to see how the seasons affect whether the northern or southern oceans are warmer. Students will take ocean temperature data from a map and plot temperature versus angle from the equator.

  6. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  7. Ecological Impacts: Oceans Under-studied Oceans

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    (more predators) Effects of Fish Capture & Handling #12;Chemistry of Ocean Acidification #12;High certainty: ocean acidification #12;Carbonate Life Forms in the Ocean #12;Ocean Acidification and Corals

  8. Tenth Planet Discovered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    These time-lapse images of a newfound planet in our solar system, called 2003UB313, were taken on Oct. 21, 2003, using the Samuel Oschin Telescope at the Palomar Observatory near San Diego, Calif. The planet, circled in white, is seen moving across a field of stars. The three images were taken about 90 minutes apart.

    A joint effort between JPL and the California Institute of Technology, the Palomar Observatory near San Diego houses a collection of famous telescopes, including the Hale 200-inch and Samuel Oschin 48-inch telescopes. The Palomar Adaptive Optics System, built by JPL and Caltech, corrects for the atmospheric blur of astronomical targets caused by turbulence in Earth's atmosphere. This system's camera was built by Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.

  9. From Pebbles to Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Anders

    2013-10-01

    Planets form in protoplanetary discs around young stars as dust and ice particles collide to form ever larger bodies. Particle concentration in the turbulent gas flow may be necessary to form the planetesimals which are the building blocks of both the terrestrial planets and the cores of the gas giants and the ice giants. The streaming instability, which feeds off the relative motion of gas and particles, is a powerful mechanism to create overdense particle filaments. These filaments contract under their own gravity to form planetesimals with a wide range of sizes. I will also discuss how the pebbles left over from the planetesimal formation stage can lead to rapid formation of the cores of gas giants, well within the protoplanetary disc life-time, even in wide orbits.

  10. Exploring the Planets: Voyager

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes the Voyager exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum and gives additional information about the Voyagers that were launched into space and the one remaining in the museum. The Voyager spacecraft displayed in the Exploring the Planets gallery is similar to the two Voyagers sent to explore Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. This portion of the exhibit details the Voyager missions, the spacecraft, and its instruments. Sixteen of the Voyager components and instrumentation are discussed in detail along with its unique power supply. The Museum's spacecraft is a full-scale replica of Voyager, parts of which were used for pre-launch engineering tests. Voyager is suspended above the Outer Planets display, which highlights some of the discoveries made through data and imagery returned by Voyagers 1 and 2.

  11. Exploring the Planets: Discovery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes what early civilizations knew about our solar system and how astronomy developed over the centuries. The early theories describing the movements of the planets, development of the first telescopes, and discoveries of the planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are some of the topics addressed in Discovery. Here you will find the Pluto discovery plate, the photographic plate taken the day Pluto's position was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh. Other topics covered at this site include: the Renaissance with the ideas of Copernicus and Kepler; the age of the telescope, which traces its development; Galileo, who is credited with discovering the moons of Jupiter, phases of Venus, and the craters on the Moon; and planetary satellites.

  12. Live Tonight: The Planets!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-09-03

    This activity is about viewing the planet Mars (and others) through a telescope. Learners will go outside on a clear evening to view the planets and other celestial bodies for themselves. Using sky charts and other resources, and possibly in partnership with a local astronomical society or club, children and their families view Mars with binoculars and/or telescopes. The children who have participated in the other Explore: Life on Mars? activities may serve as docents at this public, community event, sharing what they have done and learned about what life is, the requirements for life, and the possibility for life on Mars now — or in the past! It is recommended that the viewing event be paired with the hands-on experiment within the Searching for Life activity if space and time allow. It also includes specific tips for effectively engaging girls in STEM. This is activity 8 in Explore: Life on Mars? that was developed specifically for use in libraries.

  13. Exploring the Planets: Jupiter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Jupiter, including mean distance from the Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, spacecraft encounters, diameter, and number of observed satellites. The Galilean satellites Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, and Io are shown here in their correct positions relative to the planet and the odd moon Amalthea is discussed. There is tabular data on several of the other major moons. There are many thumbnail photographs that can be enlarged, including a grand view of the red spot. The radiation and radio noise of Jupiter is discussed, along with its atmosphere as compared to Saturn. The Galileo mission is discussed and links are provided for more information.

  14. Exploring the Planets: Venus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Venus, including mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), and diameter. Many discoveries about Venus have been made using Earth-based radio telescopes, however the images of Venus in this exhibit were collected by the Magellan spacecraft. Magellan used radar to produce the first high-resolution global map of Venus. Since Venus has no water erosion and little wind, volcanic eruptions are a major force reshaping the landscape. Geologic forces at work beneath the crust create mountains, rifts, and patterns of fractures, while the sluggish winds sculpt the surface in subtler ways but many mysteries remain. This site includes numerous images of the planet.

  15. Planet Under Pressure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Planet Under Pressure is a six-part British Broadcasting Company (BBC) News Online series looking at some of the most pressing environmental issues facing the human race today. The series takes a detailed look at six areas where most experts agree that a crisis is brewing. They include food, water, energy, climate change, biodiversity, and pollution. In addition there are special features including: an animated guide that shows how the greenhouse effect might shape our climate; before and after images of the effects of climate change; the European Union (EU) emissions trading scheme and the carbon revolution; opinions about the Kyoto Protocol; graphic climate evidence of a warming world, rising sea, and melting ice; teenagers' opinions on how they would tackle environmental damage; the results of an eco-friendly garden competition; pictures of environmental change around the world; and a link to a BBC website exploring the UN's goals for the planet in 2015.

  16. Terrestrial Planet Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence of a few diehards, we may eventually have a seismic and heat flow network on Mars.

  17. Changing Planet: Thawing Permafrost

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-03-25

    This video explains the current status of permafrost - the frozen ground that covers the top of the world. Because of a warming atmosphere, permafrost has been thawing rapidly and impacting other Earth systems over the last three decades. There is additional cause for concern beyond the far north, because the carbon released from thawing permafrost could raise global temperatures even higher. Changing Planet is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  18. Planets and dark energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl H. Gibson; Rudolph E. Schild

    2008-01-01

    Self gravitational fluid mechanical methods termed hydro-gravitational-dynamics (HGD) predict plasma fragmentation 0.03 Myr after the turbulent big bang to form protosuperclustervoids, turbulent protosuperclusters, and protogalaxies at the 0.3 Myr transition from plasma to gas. Linear protogalaxyclusters fragment at 0.003 Mpc viscous-inertial scales along turbulent vortex lines or in spirals, as observed. The plasma protogalaxies fragment on transition into white-hot planet-mass

  19. Plant for the Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Young Voices on Climate Change

    This video describes the foundation Plant for the Planet, a foundation created by a 9-year-old German boy, Felix. This foundation has planted more than 500,000 trees in Germany, which he says help sequester carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The student rallies, first his community and then other children, to plant millions of trees to offset our energy-use emissions.

  20. Making More Terrestrial Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Chambers

    2001-01-01

    The results of 16 new 3D N-body simulations of the final stage of the formation of the terrestrial planets are presented. These N-body integrations begin with 150–160 lunar-to-Mars size planetary embryos, with semi-major axes 0.3

  1. The atmospheric evolution of Venus the habitable planet. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K. J.; Abe, Y.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Sleep, N. H.

    2010-12-01

    Modern theories of planetary accumulation do not build Venus dry and Earth wet save by unlucky chance. If Venus and Earth were built of the same stuff, Venus’s descent into ruin must have been caused by its proximity to the Sun: too much sunlight brought a runaway greenhouse effect, the oceans and seas evaporated, and the hydrogen in the water was irrevocably lost to space. If the story has a moral, Venus would be the earth that lost its water. A complication to the story is that early Venus occupies an ambiguous position with respect to the runaway greenhouse effect. If Venus began as an ocean planet like Earth, both runaway and non-runaway states are plausible at first. In the 50 Myr before the Sun reached the main sequence, the Sun was both bright and faint, with Venus moving in and out of the conventional habitable zone. Once the Sun reached the main sequence it settled to a luminosity 70% of today’s. At this point the critical albedo triggering the runaway greenhouse on Venus was ~0.32, slightly higher than Earth’s today. This means that Earth’s albedo would put an ocean-covered Venus in the runaway greenhouse state, but only just barely, while an albedo of a slightly cloudier planet would have let Venus’s ancient oceans condenses. Early Venus’s indecisive state makes the recovery of liquid water oceans from giant impacts such as Earth’s moon-forming impact questionable. Another interesting plot twist is that dry planets (desert worlds with limited surface water) are expected to have some immunity with respect to the runaway greenhouse effect, because the limited water can be cold trapped at high latitudes. On a hot dry planet the dearth of tropical water vapor has two effects: it stabilizes the greenhouse effect (the tropics can radiate at rates well above the traditional runaway limit because the tropical atmosphere is not saturated) and it creates a dry stratosphere that severely limits hydrogen escape. Young Venus, if dry, would have been well within the dry-planet habitable zone. Here we consider the possibility that an ocean planet can evolve into a dry but habitable planet as the Sun brightens without first passing through an uninhabitable runaway greenhouse phase. This can happen because hydrogen escape in the diffusion limit depends on the wetness of the stratosphere: a warm planet can have a wet stratosphere and fast hydrogen escape while maintaining liquid water at the surface, provided that the atmosphere is not too thick. This requires in particular that most of the CO2 now in Venus’s atmosphere was sequestered as carbonate rock. If these conditions were all met, it is possible that Venus may have been a habitable planet as recently as 1 billion years ago.

  2. Exploring the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Initial, current and planned United States projects for the spacecraft exploration of the outer planets of the solar system are presented. Initial plans were developed in the mid-1960's for the exploration of the outer planets by utilizing the gravity-assist technique during a fortuitous alignment of the outer planets in the Grand Tour Project, however although state-of-the-art space technology could have supported the project, it was considered too expensive, therefore politically infeasible. Subsequently, the Pioneer Project was undertaken to explore the asteroid belt and the environment around Jupiter and the Voyager Project was undertaken to send two spacecraft to fly by Jupiter and utilize its gravity assist to reach Saturn. The successful Pioneer 10 and 11 missions have provided important information on the effects of the asteroid belt and the severe radiation environment around Jupiter, and Voyager 1 has collected information about Jupiter, its magnetic fields and radiation zones, and its satellites. Project Galileo is intended to be launched in January 1982 to conduct an intensive investigation of Jupiter, its satellites and immediate environment and a Saturn Orbiter dual probe mission and a Uranus orbiter are also under consideration.

  3. Extrasolar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korechoff, R. P.; Diner, D. J.; Tubbs, E. F.; Gaiser, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of extrasolar planet detection using a large-aperture infared imaging telescope. Coronagraphic stellar apodization techniques are less efficient at infrared wavelengths compared to the visible, as a result of practical limitations on aperture dimensions, thus necessitating additional starlight suppression to make planet detection feasible in this spectral domain. We have been investigating the use of rotational shearing interferometry to provide up to three orders of magnitude of starlight suppression over broad spectral bandwidths. We present a theoretical analysis of the system performance requirements needed to make this a viable instrument for planet detection, including specifications on the interferometer design and telescope aperture characteristics. The concept of using rotational shearing interferometry as a wavefront error detector, thus providing a signal that can be used to adaptively correct the wavefront, will be discussed. We also present the status of laboratory studies of on-axis source suppression using a recently constructed rotational shearing interferometer that currently operates in the visible.

  4. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marois, Christian; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam Seth; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert John J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Kathleen M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Norton, Andew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemeyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew W.; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schulyer; Gpi/Gpies Team

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of GPI has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. GPI has undergone a year of commissioning, verification, and calibration work. We have achieved an estimated H-band contrast (5-sigma) of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds in spectral mode, and suppression of unpolarized starlight by a factor of 800 in imaging polarimetry mode. Early science observations include study of the spectra of ? Pic b and HR 8799, orbital investigations of ? Pic b and PZ Tel, and observations of the debris disk systems associated with ? Pic, AU Mic, and HR 4796A. An 890-hour exoplanet survey with GPI is scheduled to begin in late 2014. A status report for the campaign will be presented.

  5. On detecting terrestrial planets with timing of giant planet transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agol, Eric; Steffen, Jason; Sari, Re'em; Clarkson, Will

    2005-05-01

    The transits of a distant star by a planet on a Keplerian orbit occur at time intervals exactly equal to the orbital period. If a second planet orbits the same star, the orbits are not Keplerian and the transits are no longer exactly periodic. We compute the magnitude of the variation in the timing of the transits, ?t. We investigate analytically several limiting cases: (i) interior perturbing planets with much smaller periods; (ii) exterior perturbing planets on eccentric orbits with much larger periods; (iii) both planets on circular orbits with arbitrary period ratio but not in resonance; (iv) planets on initially circular orbits locked in resonance. Using subscripts `out' and `in' for the exterior and interior planets, ? for planet-to-star mass ratio and the standard notation for orbital elements, our findings in these cases are as follows. (i) Planet-planet perturbations are negligible. The main effect is the wobble of the star due to the inner planet, and therefore ?t~?in(ain/aout)Pout. (ii) The exterior planet changes the period of the interior planet by ?out(ain/rout)3Pin. As the distance of the exterior planet changes due to its eccentricity, the inner planet's period changes. Deviations in its transit timing accumulate over the period of the outer planet, and therefore ?t~?outeout(ain/aout)3Pout. (iii) Halfway between resonances the perturbations are small, of the order of ?outa2in/(ain-aout)2Pin for the inner planet (switch `out' and `in' for the outer planet). This increases as one gets closer to a resonance. (iv) This is perhaps the most interesting case because some systems are known to be in resonances and the perturbations are the largest. As long as the perturber is more massive than the transiting planet, the timing variations would be of the order of the period regardless of the perturber mass. For lighter perturbers, we show that the timing variations are smaller than the period by the perturber-to-transiting-planet mass ratio. An earth-mass planet in 2:1 resonance with a three-dimensional period transiting planet (e.g. HD 209458b) would cause timing variations of the order of 3 min, which would be accumulated over a year. This signal of a terrestrial planet is easily detectable with current ground-based measurements. For the case in which both planets are on eccentric orbits, we compute numerically the transit timing variations for several known multiplanet systems, assuming they are edge-on. Transit timing measurements may be used to constrain the masses, radii and orbital elements of planetary systems, and, when combined with radial velocity measurements, provide a new means of measuring the mass and radius of the host star.

  6. Astrometric Planet Searches with SIM PlanetQuest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; March, Geoffrey W.

    2007-01-01

    SIM will search for planets with masses as small as the Earth's orbiting in the habitable zones' around more than 100 of the stars and could discover many dozen if Earth-like planets are common. With a planned 'Deep Survey' of 100-450 stars (depending on desired mass sensitivity) SIM will search for terrestrial planets around all of the candidate target stars for future direct detection missions such as Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin, SIM's 'Broad Survey' of 2010 stars will characterize single and multiple-planet systems around a wide variety of stellar types, including many now inaccessible with the radial velocity technique. In particular, SIM will search for planets around young stars providing insights into how planetary systems are born and evolve with time.

  7. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Lunine, J

    2001-01-30

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

  8. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems

    PubMed Central

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2001-01-01

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

  9. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1. PMID:22506608

  10. Educational And Public Outreach Software On Planet Detection For The Macintosh (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Brady, Victoria; Cannara, Rachel; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of extra-solar planets has been a very popular topic with the general public for years. Considerable media coverage of recent detections has only heightened the interest in the topic. School children are particularly interested in learning about space. Astronomers have the knowledge and responsibility to present this information in both an understandable and interesting format. Since most classrooms and homes are now equipped with computers this media can be utilized to provide more than a traditional "flat" presentation. An interactive "stack" has been developed using Hyperstudio (TM). The major topics include: "1996 - The Break Through Year In Planet Detection"; "What Determines If A Planet Is Habitable?"; "How Can We Find Other Planets (Search Methods)"; "All About the Kepler Mission: How To Find Earth-Sized Planets"; and "A Mission Simulator". Using the simulator, the student records simulated observations and then analyzes and interprets the data within the program stacks to determine the orbit and planet size, the planet's temperature and surface gravity, and finally determines if the planet is habitable. Additional related sections are also included. Many of the figures are animated to assist in comprehension of the material. A set of a dozen lesson plans for the middle school has also been drafted.

  11. Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    While the most common photographs of Earth taken from space show the planet covered in blue water, NASA has managed to produce detailed color images, using satellite imagery, that show the remarkable variation of colors that actually make up the oceanic surface. An ocean s color is determined by the interaction of surface waters with sunlight, and surface waters can contain any number of different particles and dissolved substances, which could then change the color. Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet? The particles are mostly phytoplankton, the microscopic, single-celled ocean plants that are the primary food source for much marine life. Remote detection of phytoplankton provides information about the uptake and cycling of carbon by the ocean through photosynthesis, as well as the overall health of the water. Inorganic particles and substances dissolved in the water also affect its color, particularly in coastal regions. Satellite images can be used to calculate the concentrations of these materials in surface waters, as well as the levels of biological activity. The satellites allow a global view that is not available from ship or shore. NASA s orbiting satellites offer a unique vantage point for studying the oceans. By resolving the biological, chemical, and physical conditions in surface waters, they have allowed the oceanographic community to make huge leaps in its understanding of oceanographic processes on regional and global fronts. The study of ocean color, in particular, has been integral in helping researchers understand the natural and human-induced changes in the global environment and establishing the role of the oceans in the biochemical cycles of elements that influence the climate and the distribution of life on Earth.

  12. LIGHT SCATTERING FROM EXOPLANET OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Zugger, M. E.; Kane, T. J. [Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University, P.O. Box 30, State College, PA 16804 (United States); Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Philbrick, C. R. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, 432 Riddick Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

    2010-11-10

    Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude (OL) = 180{sup 0}, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30{sup 0}. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74{sup 0}; however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90{sup 0}, but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however, polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination.

  13. Acid Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

  14. The Popularization of Astronomy in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudel, J.-L.

    1996-12-01

    In Canada, astronomy has a longer history than most other sciences. The European settlers had to master the rudiments of astronomical practice, while the natural setting promoted geophysical observations of all kinds. In the nineteenth century, astronomy was part of natural theology and a resource for timekeepers and cartographers, but was increasingly pursued for its own sake by laymen. The creation of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada marks a turning point. Though it appeared to unite professionals and amateurs, it became early on a conduit for the knowledge of the former to flow to the latter, supplementing the purely academic stream. It followed upon the success of new publications meant to acquaint readers with the facts of astronomy, for the hitherto unsuspected pleasures they might bring. In fact, some Canadian works of this kind reached a wide audience, in Canada and abroad, and the post-WWII period saw an almost complete disjunction between the formerly utilitarian aspects of popularization a nd the catering to interested laypeople, distinct from the professionals. By 1976, the transformation was complete. The science mastered by explorers and appealed to by believers had become both a field for professional investigations and a widely popularized corpus of star lore

  15. Habitable Planets: Interior Dynamics and Long-Term Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, Paul J.; Ammann, Michael M.; Brodholt, John P.; Dobson, David P.; Valencia, Diana

    2014-04-01

    Here, the state of our knowledge regarding the interior dynamics and evolution of habitable terrestrial planets including Earth and super-Earths is reviewed, and illustrated using state-of-the-art numerical models. Convection of the rocky mantle is the key process that drives the evolution of the interior: it causes plate tectonics, controls heat loss from the metallic core (which generates the magnetic field) and drives long-term volatile cycling between the atmosphere/ocean and interior. Geoscientists have been studying the dynamics and evolution of Earth's interior since the discovery of plate tectonics in the late 1960s and on many topics our understanding is very good, yet many first-order questions remain. It is commonly thought that plate tectonics is necessary for planetary habitability because of its role in long-term volatile cycles that regulate the surface environment. Plate tectonics is the surface manifestation of convection in the 2900-km deep rocky mantle, yet exactly how plate tectonics arises is still quite uncertain; other terrestrial planets like Venus and Mars instead have a stagnant lithosphere- essentially a single plate covering the entire planet. Nevertheless, simple scalings as well as more complex models indicate that plate tectonics should be easier on larger planets (super-Earths), other things being equal. The dynamics of terrestrial planets, both their surface tectonics and deep mantle dynamics, change over billions of years as a planet cools. Partial melting is a key process influencing solid planet evolution. Due to the very high pressure inside super-Earths' mantles the viscosity would normally be expected to be very high, as is also indicated by our density function theory (DFT) calculations. Feedback between internal heating, temperature and viscosity leads to a superadiabatic temperature profile and self-regulation of the mantle viscosity such that sluggish convection still occurs.

  16. Microlensing Search for Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassan, A.; Kubas, D.

    2007-07-01

    Microlensing has recently proven to be a valuable tool to search for extrasolar planets of Neptune- to super-Earth-mass planets at orbits of few AU. Since planetary signals are of very short duration, an intense and continuous monitoring is required, which is achieved PLANET : ``Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork''. Up to now the detection number amounts to four, one of them being OGLE~2005-BLG-390Lb, an extrasolar planet of only ˜5.5 M_? orbiting its M-dwarf host star at ˜2.6 AU. For non-planetary microlensing events observed from 1995 to 2006, we compute detection efficiency diagrams which can then be used to derive an estimate of the limit on the Galactic abundance of sub-Jupiter-mass planets, as well as relative abundance of Neptune-like planets.

  17. Microlensing search for extrasolar planets

    E-print Network

    A. Cassan; D. Kubas

    2006-12-01

    Microlensing has recently proven to be a valuable tool to search for extrasolar planets of Neptune- to super-Earth-mass planets at orbits of few AU. Since planetary signals are of very short duration, an intense and continuous monitoring is required, which is achieved by PLANET : ``Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork''. Up to now the detection number amounts to four, one of them being OGLE 2005-BLG-390Lb, an extrasolar planet of only ~5.5 M_earth orbiting its M-dwarf host star at ~2.6 AU. For non-planetary microlensing events observed from 1995 to 2006, we compute detection efficiency diagrams which can then be used to derive an estimate of the limit on the Galactic abundance of sub-Jupiter-mass planets, as well as relative abundance of Neptune-like planets.

  18. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    Mark S. Marley; Jonathan Fortney; Sara Seager; Travis Barman

    2006-02-21

    The key to understanding an extrasolar giant planet's spectrum--and hence its detectability and evolution--lies with its atmosphere. Now that direct observations of thermal emission from extrasolar giant planets are in hand, atmosphere models can be used to constrain atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and ultimately the formation and evolution of detected planets. We review the important physical processes that influence the atmospheric structure and evolution of extrasolar giant planets and consider what has already been learned from the first generation of observations and modeling. We pay particular attention to the roles of cloud structure, metallicity, and atmospheric chemistry in affecting detectable properties through Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting giant planets. Our review stresses the uncertainties that ultimately limit our ability to interpret EGP observations. Finally we will conclude with a look to the future as characterization of multiple individual planets in a single stellar system leads to the study of comparative planetary architectures.

  19. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The next decade will almost certainly see the direct imaging of extrasolar giant planets around nearby stars. Unlike purely radial velocity detections, direct imaging will open the door to characterizing the atmosphere and interiors of extrasola planets and ultimately provide clues on their formation and evolution through time. This process has already begun for the transiting planets, placing new constraints on their atmospheric structure, composition, and evolution. Indeed the key to understanding giant planet detectability, interpreting spectra, and constraining effective temperature and hence evolution-is the atmosphere. I will review the universe of extrasolar giant planet models, focusing on what we have already learned from modeling and what we will likely be able to learn from the first generation of direct detection data. In addition to these theoretical considerations, I will review the observations and interpretation of the - transiting hot Jupiters. These objects provide a test of our ability to model exotic atmospheres and challenge our current understanding of giant planet evolution.

  20. Planet X - Fact or fiction?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John

    1988-01-01

    The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

  1. Starting a Planet Protectors Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    If your mission is to teach children how to reduce, reuse, and recycle waste and create the next generation of Planet Protectors, perhaps leading a Planet Protectors Club is part of your future challenges. You don't have to be an expert in waste reduction and recycling to lead a a Planet Protectors Club. You don't even have to be a teacher. You do…

  2. Planet X - ract or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1988-08-01

    The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

  3. NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has decided to move forward with two complementary Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) missions, a visible coronagraph and an infrared formation flying interferometer. These missions are major missions in the NASA Office of Space Science Origins Theme. The primary science objectives of the TPF missions are to search for, detect, and characterize planets and planetary systems beyond our own Solar System, including specifically Earth-like planets.

  4. Formation of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions planets with small cores/total heavy element abundances can accrete gaseous envelopes within the lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary disks.

  5. ASTR 110L Name: Motion of Planets

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    ASTR 110L Name: Fall 2011 Motion of Planets in conjunction with "Stellarium Activity #4 -- Phases of Planets" Plotting Orbits: 1. (5 pts.) For Venus, Earth & Mars, plot each planet's ecliptic longitude of the two endpoints for each planet. Analysis: 3. Complete "Stellarium Activity #4 -- Phases of Planets

  6. Extrasolar Planets Lecture 4: Discoveries & Results

    E-print Network

    Parker, Quentin A.

    Extrasolar Planets Lecture 4: Discoveries & Results Prof. Quentin A Parker ASTR178 - other worlds; More than 400 extrasolar planets! Over 25 systems with more than one planet Systems similar to our: planets and planetary systems 1 #12;ASTR178 - other worlds: planets and planetary systems 2 #12;ASTR178

  7. Future Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

  8. Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Climate Patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-28

    This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. Learning Outcomes:? Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.? Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.? Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.

  9. Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Precipitation and Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-28

    This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. Learning Outcomes:? Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.? Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.? Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.

  10. Water Cycling Between Ocean and Mantle: Super-Earths Need Not be Waterworlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Abbot, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying they should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. Quantitatively, a planet ten times the mass of Earth is not expected to have exposed continents unless it has a water mass fraction less than 3×10-5, roughly ten times drier than Earth. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. Water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust are mediated by sea-floor pressure, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water-partitioning on terrestrial planets. Since hydrostatic pressure is proportional to gravity, super-Earths with a deep water cycle will tend to store most of their water in the mantle. We conclude that tectonically active terrestrial planets with H2O mass fractions less than 3×10-3 will have both oceans and exposed continents. The circumstellar habitable zone is therefore equally wide for any tectonically active planet.

  11. Comparing Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A variety of classroom activities and lessons that compare the world's oceans. Activities included: The Gulf of Maine, Satellite Comparisons, Design a Fish, What Migrations, Incredible Feasting of Whales, Paddle to the Sea, and Ocean Soundings. Discover why weather at identical latitudes is not always the same, learn the different ways whales eat, and find out the temperature difference between the Gulf Stream and surrounding water. Links to other Aquarium modules.

  12. Watching How Planets Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Anatomy of a Planet-Forming Disc around a Star More Massive than the Sun With the VISIR instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have mapped the disc around a star more massive than the Sun. The very extended and flared disc most likely contains enough gas and dust to spawn planets. It appears as a precursor of debris discs such as the one around Vega-like stars and thus provides the rare opportunity to witness the conditions prevailing prior to or during planet formation. "Planets form in massive, gaseous and dusty proto-planetary discs that surround nascent stars. This process must be rather ubiquitous as more than 200 planets have now been found around stars other than the Sun," said Pierre-Olivier Lagage, from CEA Saclay (France) and leader of the team that carried out the observations. "However, very little is known about these discs, especially those around stars more massive than the Sun. Such stars are much more luminous and could have a large influence on their disc, possibly quickly destroying the inner part." The astronomers used the VISIR instrument [1] on ESO's Very Large Telescope to map in the infrared the disc surrounding the young star HD 97048. With an age of a few million years [2], HD 97048 belongs to the Chameleon I dark cloud, a stellar nursery 600 light-years away. The star is 40 times more luminous than our Sun and is 2.5 times as massive. The astronomers could only have achieved such a detailed view due to the high angular resolution offered by an 8-metre size telescope in the infrared, reaching a resolution of 0.33 arcsecond. They discovered a very large disc, at least 12 times more extended than the orbit of the farthest planet in the Solar System, Neptune. The observations suggest the disc to be flared. "This is the first time such a structure, predicted by some theoretical models, is imaged around a massive star," said Lagage. ESO PR Photo 36/06 ESO PR Photo 36/06 A Flared Proto-Planetary Disc Such a geometry can only be explained if the disc contains a large amount of gas, in this case, at least as much as 10 times the mass of Jupiter. It should also contain more than 50 Earth masses in dust. The dust mass derived here is more than thousand times larger than what is observed in debris discs and Kuiper belt-like structures found around older, 'Vega-like' stars, such as Beta Pictoris, Vega, Fomalhaut and HR 4796. The dust around these stars is thought to be produced by collisions of larger bodies. The dust mass observed around HD 97048 is similar to the mass invoked for the (undetected) parent bodies in the more evolved systems. HD 97048's disc is thus most likely a precursor of debris discs observed around older stars. "From the structure of the disc, we infer that planetary embryos may be present in the inner part of the disc," said Lagage. "We are planning follow-up observations at higher angular resolution with ESO's VLT interferometer in order to probe these regions." A video, made by the CEA, is also available. More Information The scientists report their discovery in the 28 September issue of Science Express, the rapid online publication service of the journal Science: "Anatomy of a flaring proto-planetary disc around a young intermediate-mass star", by P.-O. Lagage et al. The team is composed of Pierre-Olivier Lagage, Coralie Doucet, and Eric Pantin, (CEA Saclay, France), Sébastien Charnoz (Paris 7 Denis Diderot University), Emilie Habart (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, France), Gaspard Duchêne, François Ménard, and Christophe Pinte (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, France), and Jan-Willem Pel (Groningen University, The Netherlands).

  13. Why Is Earth Called the "Water Planet?"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Comparing the amounts of land and water on Earth's surface leads students to discover why it is called the water planet. Students examine photos of Earth taken from space, analyze the results of a globe toss game and compare ocean sizes using pieces of clay to gain a perspective on the amount of surface area that is covered by water. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. The teacher's guide will begin with a two-page module overview and a list of all standards addressed. This is Investigation 1 of four found in the Grades K-4 Module 2 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 2, while related, can be done independently.

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LYRICS AND MELODY IN POPULAR MUSIC

    E-print Network

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LYRICS AND MELODY IN POPULAR MUSIC Eric Nichols1 , Dan Morris2 , Sumit Basu2 Research Redmond, WA, USA {dan,sumitb}@microsoft.com ABSTRACT Composers of popular music weave lyrics database of popular music; our results identify several patterns in the relationship between lyrics

  15. Democratic Governability: National Imaginations, Popular Movements and Governing the Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the view of the powerful popular movements as the hallmark of Swedish democracy, critically analysing ideas about Swedish popular movements as bearers of both democracy and the national project. The focus of the article is, firstly, how these ideas have been addressed by central figures in the discussion about Swedish popular…

  16. Participatory action research and popular education in Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Alberto Torres

    1992-01-01

    One of the signal developments in educational reform over the past two decades in Latin America has been the ascendancy of popular educational participatory action research. Popular education and participatory action research are two central traditions of nonformal education in Latin America. Popular education is highly critical of mainstream education, seeking to empower the marginalized, the disenfranchised, and the poor.

  17. Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Martin, Ian, Ed.; Shaw, Mae, Ed.

    The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Colin Kirkwood); "Introductory Essay: Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today" (Ian Martin); "Popular Education and the Struggle for Democracy" (Jim Crowther); "Social Movements and the Politics of Educational Change" (Lindsay Paterson); "Learning from Popular Education in Latin…

  18. Academic Self-Presentation Strategies and Popularity in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Joan M.; Russotti, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined early adolescents' beliefs about which academic self-presentation strategies hypothetical hard-working, high-achieving students should use with popular peers, adolescents' own use of self-presentation strategies, and links between popularity and self-presentation strategies. In response to scenarios in which popular…

  19. YouTube Around the World: Geographic Popularity of Videos

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yan

    by Cha et al. [5] that video popularity on YouTube exhibits a "long-tail" behavior: some videos are ableYouTube Around the World: Geographic Popularity of Videos Anders Brodersen Google abrodersen@google.com ABSTRACT One of the most popular user activities on the Web is watch- ing videos. Services like You

  20. Exploring social network effects on popularity biases in recommender systems

    E-print Network

    - ty and different configurations of social behavior. Keywords Popularity, social networks, evaluationExploring social network effects on popularity biases in recommender systems Rocío Cañamares Informática {rocio.canamares,pablo.castells}@uam.es ABSTRACT Recommending items ranked by popularity has been

  1. The Attributes Adolescents Associate with Peer Popularity and Teacher Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Kim, Janna; Schimmelbusch, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Investigates perceived popularity and teacher preference in a sample of 351 10th-graders. Analyses revealed that different behaviors were associated with perceived popularity and teacher preference. Low GPA, low submissiveness, and high rates of absenteeism were associated with high perceived popularity and a low perceived teacher preference.…

  2. Children's Perceptions of Popular and Unpopular Peers: A Multimethod Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFontana, Kathryn M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined children's perceptions of popular and unpopular peers. Findings indicated that fourth- through eighth-graders viewed "liked others" as prosocial and "disliked others" as antisocial, but associated perceived popularity with both prosocial and antisocial behavior. Children described popular peers as attractive and having…

  3. The Role of Attractiveness and Aggression in High School Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch, Casey; Hyde, Allen; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of physical attractiveness and aggression on popularity among high school students. Previous work has found positive relationships between aggression and popularity and physical attractiveness and popularity. The current study goes beyond this work by examining the interactive effects of physical attractiveness and…

  4. PlanetDiary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PlanetDiary records the events and phenomena that affect Earth and its residents. Every week this site presents 'Current Phenomena', which is news from around the globe on geology, astronomy, meteorology, biology, and environmental science issues. The site accompanies specific chapters in Pearson Education texts. These are: Science Explorer - Life Science, Earth Science, Physical Science; Science Insights - Living Things, Matter and Energy, Exploring Earth and Space; and Environmental Science. Students can check back each week and follow a story as it unfolds. Teachers can use these articles as the basis for classroom discussion, to introduce topics, or to pose a research question. Every story is linked to a 'Phenomena Backgrounder' relating to the events so students can explore the topic in more depth. These pages also provide links to additional hands-on and online activities. A review of each activity is given with the objective of the exercise, the concepts covered, and the preparation teachers and students should have before starting an activity. An archive contains prior PlanetDiary reports dating back to 1998. A page is devoted to universal measurements that links to outside sources which calculate conversions for time, numerous dimension units, and also link to map sources and earth statistics. Dates for eclipses, environmental-awareness days, the beginning of hurricane season, and many other events are found in the PlanetDiary calendar. An informative guide aids in site navigation. Also, a link is provided to Prentice Hall School with information on textbooks, accompanying multimedia, and online support for grades 6 through 12.

  5. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique; Breuer, Doris; Claeys, Philippe; Debaille, Vinciane; De Keyser, Johan; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Goderis, Steven; Karatekin, Ozgur; Mattielli, Nadine; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Vanhaecke, Frank; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wilquet, Valerie

    2013-04-01

    The PLANET TOPERS (Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS) group is an Inter-university attraction pole (IAP) addressing the question of habitability in our Solar System. Habitability is commonly understood as "the potential of an environment (past or present) to support life of any kind" (Steele et al., 2005, http://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/archive.html). Based on the only known example of Earth, the concept refers to whether environmental conditions are available that could eventually support life, even if life does not currently exist (Javaux and Dehant, 2010, Astron. Astrophys. Rev., 18, 383-416, DOI: 10.1007/s00159-010-0030-4). Life includes properties such as consuming nutrients and producing waste, the ability to reproduce and grow, pass on genetic information, evolve, and adapt to the varying conditions on a planet (Sagan, 1970, Encyclopedia Britannica, 22, 964-981). Terrestrial life requires liquid water. The stability of liquid water at the surface of a planet defines a habitable zone (HZ) around a star. In the Solar System, it stretches between Venus and Mars, but excludes these two planets. If the greenhouse effect is taken into account, the habitable zone may have included early Mars while the case for Venus is still debated. Important geodynamic processes affect the habitability conditions of a planet. As envisaged by the group, this IAP develops and closely integrates the geophysical, geological, and biological aspects of habitability with a particular focus on Earth neighboring planets, Mars and Venus. It works in an interdisciplinary approach to understand habitability and in close collaboration with another group, the Helmholtz Alliance "Life and Planet Evolution", which has similar objectives. The dynamic processes, e.g. internal dynamo, magnetic field, atmosphere, plate tectonics, mantle convection, volcanism, thermo-tectonic evolution, meteorite impacts, and erosion, modify the planetary surface, the possibility to have liquid water, the thermal state, the energy budget and the availability of nutrients. Shortly after formation (Hadean 4.4-4.0 Ga (billion years)), evidence supports the presence of a liquid ocean and continental crust on Earth (Wilde et al., 2001, Nature, 409, 175-178), Earth may thus have been habitable very early on. The origin of life is not understood yet but the oldest putative traces of life occur in the early Archaean (~3.5 Ga). Studies of early Earth habitats documented in rock containing traces of fossil life provide information about environmental conditions suitable for life beyond Earth, as well as methodologies for their identification and analyses. The extreme values of environmental conditions in which life thrives today can also be used to characterize the "envelope" of the existence of life and the range of potential extraterrestrial habitats. The requirement of nutrients for biosynthesis, growth, and reproduction suggest that a tectonically active planet, with liquid water is required to replenish nutrients and sustain life (as currently known). These dynamic processes play a key role in the apparition and persistence of life. This contribution will focus on the highlights of the work of the IAP Planet TOPERS.

  6. Terrestrial planets in high-mass disks without gas giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Elía, G. C.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that planetary systems consisting only of rocky planets are probably the most common in the Universe. Aims: We study the potential habitability of planets formed in high-mass disks without gas giants around solar-type stars. These systems are interesting because they are likely to harbor super-Earths or Neptune-mass planets on wide orbits, which one should be able to detect with the microlensing technique. Methods: First, a semi-analytical model was used to define the mass of the protoplanetary disks that produce Earth-like planets, super-Earths, or mini-Neptunes, but not gas giants. Using mean values for the parameters that describe a disk and its evolution, we infer that disks with masses lower than 0.15 M? are unable to form gas giants. Then, that semi-analytical model was used to describe the evolution of embryos and planetesimals during the gaseous phase for a given disk. Thus, initial conditions were obtained to perform N-body simulations of planetary accretion. We studied disks of 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15 M?. Results: All our simulations form massive planets on wide orbits. For a 0.1 M? disk, 2-3 super-Earths of 2.8 to 5.9 M? are formed between 2 and 5 AU. For disks of 0.125 and 0.15 M?, our simulations produce a 10-17.1 M? planet between 1.6 and 2.7 AU, and other super-Earths are formed in outer regions. Moreover, six planets survive in the habitable zone (HZ). These planets have masses from 1.9 to 4.7 M? and significant water contents ranging from 560 to 7482 Earth oceans, where one Earth ocean represents the amount of water on Earth's surface, which equals 2.8 × 10-4M?. Of the six planets formed in the HZ, three are water worlds with 39%-44% water by mass. These planets start the simulations beyond the snow line, which explains their high water abundances. In general terms, the smaller the mass of the planets observed on wide orbits, the higher the possibility to find water worlds in the HZ. In fact, massive planets can act as a dynamical barrier that prevents the inward diffusion of water-rich embryos located beyond the snow line. Conclusions: Systems without gas giants that harbor super-Earths or Neptune-mass planets on wide orbits around solar-type stars are of astrobiological interest. These systems are likely to harbor super-Earths in the HZ with significant water contents, which missions such as Kepler and Darwin should be able to find.

  7. Comparing the Planets: Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set of images summarizes what scientists currently know about the occurrence of water ice and water vapor on the terrestrial planets and satellites in our Solar System. Accompanied by a brief description, the Jpeg images show the ice cap at Mars' south pole, ice rafting on Europa, liquid water covering the surface of Earth (the famous 'Blue Marble' photo), and an impact crater on the Moon that may contain water ice. There is also a diagram showing the possible distribution of ice on Mars, as it varies with latitude.

  8. Exploring the Planets: Uranus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Facts on this site about Uranus include mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), diameter, and number of observed satellites. Uranus' axis of rotation is tilted nearly 98 degrees, almost perpendicular to its orbit. Consequently, the seasons and days on Uranus are strange. At times, the north pole points toward the Sun. At other times the south pole does. This site offers information about and many photographs of the rings, satellites, and of the planet itself. There is also tabular data on the fifteen moons and links to more information.

  9. 44How to Build a Planet from the Inside Out! The planet Osiris orbits 7 million

    E-print Network

    to rocky planets like Venus, Earth and Mars? Problem 1 - A hypothetical planet is modeled as a sphere44How to Build a Planet from the Inside Out! The planet Osiris orbits 7 million kilometers from has recently detected water, methane and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of this planet. The planet

  10. PREDICTING PLANETS IN KNOWN EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS. II. TESTING FOR SATURN MASS PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Rory

    PREDICTING PLANETS IN KNOWN EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS. II. TESTING FOR SATURN MASS PLANETS Sean known extrasolar planets, including 10 systems containing two or more planets. These planets are known we test for the presence of unseen massive planets in four known extrasolar planetary systems: HD

  11. PREDICTING PLANETS IN KNOWN EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS. III. FORMING TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Rory

    PREDICTING PLANETS IN KNOWN EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS. III. FORMING TERRESTRIAL PLANETS Sean N that are stable for both Earth-mass and Saturn-mass planets. Here we simulate the formation of terrestrial planets planets formed and migrated quickly, terrestrial planets may form from a second generation

  12. Effects of Oceans on Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2005-05-01

    The oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface and play a major role in regulating the weather and climate of the planet. Earth's oceans absorb heat from sunlight, hold on to that heat, and transport it around the globe through the movement of ocean currents. The motion of the atmosphere, or winds, above it, also affects the oceans currents. The energy in the wind gets transferred to the ocean at the ocean surface affecting the motion of the water there. With the use of sensitive instruments we are able to get a better view of the functioning of our oceans and atmosphere. This science guide will point teachers and students to resources to help develop a better understanding of some of the factors that impact Earth's weather and climate. Sites with recent research and satellite data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other organizations help students understand how changes in temperature or air circulation are part of complex, longer-term cycles. They'll also learn about the interconnections between air, sea, and land and that any change could have multiple causes--and multiple effects.

  13. Europa - The prospects for an ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. T.; Mckay, C. P.; Kasting, J. F.; Squires, S. W.

    1988-01-01

    Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain a liquid water ocean below a thin ice layer. In the solar system, Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, may have such an ocean. Both theoretical calculations and certain observations support its existence, although proof is lacking. The putative ocean would probably have temperatures, pressures, and chemistry conducive to biologic activity. However, the environment would be severely energy limited. Possible energy sources include transient transmission of sunlight through fractures in the ice and hydrothermal activity on the ocean floor. While temporary conditions could exist that are within the range of adaptation of certain terrestrial organisms, origin of life under such conditions seems unlikely. In other solar systems, however, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could provide environments that are stable over an order of aeons and in which life could perhaps evolve.

  14. Race and Popular Culture: Teaching African American Leadership Styles through Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Theresa A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of popular music to illustrate key concepts and topics in a course on ethnic minorities in the United States. Demonstrates that the lyrics of contemporary music can be used to illustrate concepts, theories, and general topics in sociology. Includes analysis of students' responses to the use of music. (DSK)

  15. MAY 2013 POPULAR SCIENCE 5150 POPULAR SCIENCE MAY 2013 DATA DRIVEN Dr. Neil

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    a gray T-shirt) tracks sharks using a new kind of marine-animal tag that he helped design. His data could AND VOLUNTEERS ARMED WITH HOMEMADE TRACKERS SAVE SHARKS FROM EXTINCTION? BY BRIAN LAM #12;MAY 2013 POPULAR for sharks. We have a research permit to do what's otherwise illegal in this country, but the boat and its

  16. On detecting terrestrial planets with timing of giant planet transits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Agol; Jason Steffen; Re'em Sari; Will Clarkson

    2005-01-01

    The transits of a distant star by a planet on a Keplerian orbit occur at time intervals exactly equal to the orbital period. If a second planet orbits the same star, the orbits are not Keplerian and the transits are no longer exactly periodic. We compute the magnitude of the variation in the timing of the transits, deltat. We investigate

  17. The Sun, eight planets and three dwarf planets

    E-print Network

    Jarrett, Thomas H.

    of our solar system. The planets all revolve around this extremely hot, giant ball of burning gas- beesthoek near Johannesburg. Some people believe that humans will be ]able to live on Mars some time. JUPITER Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system, made mostly of gas and liquid. The giant red

  18. Magnetic field of the planet Uranus: predictions, measurements, and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Dolginov, S.S.

    1987-09-01

    The magnitude and tilt of the eccentric dipole of Uranus are examined in the framework of a processing dynamo model. It is shown that the unique parameters of the magnetic field of Uranus are connected with the fact that, unlike the other planets, the magnetic field of Uranus is generated in two bordering regions whose highly conducting materials differ sharply in density: the density anti rho = 12 g x cm/sup -3/ in a core with an upper boundary r = 0.3R/sub U/, and anti rho = 3.1 g x cm/sup -3/ in an ocean with an upper boundary r = 0.6R/sub U/. The upper boundary of the magnetically active region in the ocean is determined by the magnetic pressure P = 1.9 Mbar, at which the ocean material is metallized.

  19. Irreversible evolution of the terrestrial planets (geological and petrological data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Comparative studying of tectonomagmatic evolution of the Earth and the Moon shows that cardinal irreversible change in character of tectonomagmatic processes occurred at middle stages of their evolution; very likely such changes took place on other terrestrial planets (Venus, Mars and Mercury). As a result, primordial crusts of the planets were in considerable degree replaced by secondary basaltic ones. The established succession of events on the Earth could be provided by a combination of two independent factors: (1) it was originally heterogeneous and 2) its downward heating was followed by the cooling of its outer shells. As a result the primary iron core material was long time remained untouched and was involved into global tectonomagmatic processes at ca. 2.4-2.3 Ga. We concluded about a similar scenario for the evolution of Moon and other terrestrial planets. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and Moon) was studied. What did major stages of their irreversible evolution occur before they turned into "dead" stone balls? We discuss these problems on examples of the Earth and the Moon, which evolution studied the best. According to modern views, after accretion of these bodies, magma oceans of some hundreds km deep appeared on their surface. According to Jeffries [1], solidification of large molted bodies, because of the difference between adiabatic gradient in silicate melts (0.3oC/km) and gradient of their melting points (3oC/km), could be going only upwards, from the bottom to the surface. As a result a powerful crystallizing differentiation of the oceans' magmas occurred with accumulation of the most low-melting components to the surface. Due to different deep of the magma oceans on the Earth and the Moon, the primordial crusts on these bodies were rather different: sialic on the Earth and basic (anorthosite) on the Moon.

  20. Media in Cultural Context: Popular Readerships

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brouillette, Sarah, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    This course, offered as part of MIT's OpenCourseWare initiative, starts off by asking "What is the history of popular reading in the Western world?" It continues on by asking a number of equally powerful questions, and the generally curious will enjoy exploring the materials offered here. The course was created by Professor Sarah Brouillette, and originally took place in the fall of 2007. Interested parties can read the syllabus, look over selected readings, and even check out the assignments for the course. Some of the many topics covered in the course include Oprah's Book Club, the sociology of reading, reading as resistance, and the bestseller. The assignments are a real pip, and they include writing essays on niche romance audiences and bestsellers.

  1. Contribution to the popularization of the astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markishki, Pencho

    The purpose of this report is the representation of a WEB-book, related to astronomy, astro-photography, optics and some additional areas that have direct practice for the amateur astronomers. The popularization of astronomy worldwide is the purpose of many amateur astronomers. It is interesting and maybe fascinated, requires often innovative solutions from the hobby star observers. Today it is possible to share the science information by different methods, using the modern information technologies - a possibility used by the amateur astronomers too. In Internet existing currently thousands of WEB- sites, related to astronomy, completed training programs developed by amateur astronomers are included. They are addressed often to the schools, to the hobby beginners or to the wide audience.

  2. NO PSEUDOSYNCHRONOUS ROTATION FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANETS AND MOONS

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael, E-mail: vvm@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: michael.efroimsky@usno.navy.mil [US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States)] [US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We re-examine the popular belief that a telluric planet or a satellite on an eccentric orbit can, outside a spin-orbit resonance, be captured in a quasi-static tidal equilibrium called pseudosynchronous rotation. The existence of such configurations was deduced from oversimplified tidal models assuming either a constant tidal torque or a torque linear in the tidal frequency. A more accurate treatment requires that the torque be decomposed into the Darwin-Kaula series over the tidal modes, and that this decomposition be combined with a realistic choice of rheological properties of the mantle, which we choose to be a combination of the Andrade model at ordinary frequencies and the Maxwell model at low frequencies. This development demonstrates that there exist no stable equilibrium states for solid planets and moons, other than spin-orbit resonances.

  3. No Pseudosynchronous Rotation for Terrestrial Planets and Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael

    2013-02-01

    We re-examine the popular belief that a telluric planet or a satellite on an eccentric orbit can, outside a spin-orbit resonance, be captured in a quasi-static tidal equilibrium called pseudosynchronous rotation. The existence of such configurations was deduced from oversimplified tidal models assuming either a constant tidal torque or a torque linear in the tidal frequency. A more accurate treatment requires that the torque be decomposed into the Darwin-Kaula series over the tidal modes, and that this decomposition be combined with a realistic choice of rheological properties of the mantle, which we choose to be a combination of the Andrade model at ordinary frequencies and the Maxwell model at low frequencies. This development demonstrates that there exist no stable equilibrium states for solid planets and moons, other than spin-orbit resonances.

  4. MATHEMATICS OF PLANET EARTH PRESS RELEASE

    E-print Network

    MATHEMATICS OF PLANET EARTH PRESS RELEASE MARCH 5 2013 MATHEMATICS OF PLANET EARTH DAY AT UNESCO Paris (France) ­ March 5 2013 in a major world-wide initiative: Mathematics of Planet Earth 2013 (MPE2013). This year

  5. Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres. The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    for a Planet · Equator heated more than poles · Hadley cell transport heat poleward of greenhouse gases--warms planet · Water vapor carried to high alFtude condenses ­ Large? ­ Smaller planet mass? ­ Lightweight gases? #12;Venus and the Runaway Greenhouse

  6. Stars and Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    'Estrelas e Planetas' (Stars and Planets) project was developed during the academic year 2009/2010 and was tested on three 3rd grade classes of one school in Quarteira, Portugal. The aim was to encourage the learning of science and the natural and physical phenomena through the construction and manipulation of materials that promote these themes - in this case astronomy. Throughout the project the students built a small book containing three themes of astronomy: differences between stars and planets, the solar system and the phases of the Moon. To each topic was devoted two sessions of about an hour each: the first to teach the theoretical aspects of the theme and the second session to assembly two pages of the book. All materials used (for theoretical sessions and for the construction of the book) and videos of the finished book are available for free use in www.miguelneta.pt/estrelaseplanetas. So far there is only a Portuguese version but soon will be published in English as well. This project won the Excellency Prize 2011 of Casa das Ciências, a portuguese site for teachers supported by the Calouste Gulbenkian Fundation (www.casadasciencias.org).

  7. The differentiation history of the terrestrial planets as recorded on the moon

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, L

    2007-02-20

    The outline for this report is: (1) Factors Leading to Lunar Magma Ocean Model for Planetary Differentiation (2) Rationale for Magma Oceans on Other Planets Means for early efficient differentiation (Works on Moon why not here?) (3) Some Inconsistencies between the Lunar Magma Ocean Model and Observations. The conclusions are: (1) Differentiation via solidification of a magma ocean is derived from geologic observations of the Moon (2) Although geologic observations on other bodies are often consistent with differentiation via magma ocean solidification, it is not generally required. (3) There are some fundamental inconsistencies between observed lunar data and the model, that will require this model to be modified (4) Nevertheless, the Moon is the only location we know of to study magma ocean process in detail.

  8. A Model of the Temporal Variability of Optical Light from Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Ford; Sara Seager; Edwin L. Turner

    2002-10-12

    The light scattered by an extrasolar Earth-like planet's surface and atmosphere will vary in intensity and color as the planet rotates; the resulting light curve will contain information about the planet's properties. Since most of the light comes from a small fraction of the planet's surface, the temporal flux variability can be quite significant, $\\sim$ 10-100%. In addition, for cloudless Earth-like extrasolar planet models, qualitative changes to the surface (such as ocean fraction, ice cover) significantly affect the light curve. Clouds dominate the temporal variability of the Earth but can be coherent over several days. In contrast to Earth's temporal variability, a uniformly, heavily clouded planet (e.g. Venus), would show almost no flux variability. We present light curves for an unresolved Earth and for Earth-like model planets calculated by changing the surface features. This work suggests that meteorological variability and the rotation period of an Earth-like planet could be derived from photometric observations. The inverse problem of deriving surface properties from a given light curve is complex and will require much more investigation.

  9. Accumulation of the terrestrial planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Wetherill

    1978-01-01

    A review is conducted of the current status of theoretical and numerical research on the accumulation of the terrestrial planets. The growth of planets is considered, taking into account the road to rapid accretion and giant protoplanets and the slow road to planetary formation by continual sweeping up of small bodies by larger ones. It is found possible to gain

  10. What makes a planet habitable ?

    E-print Network

    Guyon, Olivier

    edge of the habitable zone, probably with a Venus-like greenhouse effect. 581 d is a super-Earth (~10 decades, we will finally be able to probe for life on exoplanets not too different from Earth #12;What makes a planet habitable ? #12;#12;How to detect planets ? #12;Radial velocity #12;Transits

  11. What Makes a Habitable Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, L.

    2013-04-01

    Space missions help answer one of humanity's most profound questions: Are we alone in the universe? To begin to understand what makes a planet habitable, and thus where to look for life both within and outside of Earth's solar system, scientists need to understand what in planetary formation and what in its subsequent evolution combine to produce a habitable planet.

  12. Finding Circumbinary Planets via Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhn, Jacob K.; Penny, Matthew; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Each of the circumbinary planets discovered so far using Kepler have separations of about 1 AU or less from their host binary. Microlensing can detect circumbinary planets at larger separations, which would be valuable for learning more about the formation of these planets. However, it is first important to know if circumbinary planets would be detected as such via microlensing. This largely depends on the shapes of the caustics of the system, which determine the lightcurves that would be observed. Here we examine the caustic structures of circumbinary systems. We also present animations showing how these caustics are affected by the parameters of the stellar binary. By examining the caustic structures, we can see which circumbinary systems are more likely to be detected.It is also possible to estimate the fraction of circumbinary planets that would be detected. When the trajectory of the lensed star crosses a caustic, the lightcurve exhibits a noticeable spike. By comparing the number of caustic crossings in the circumbinary systems to the number of caustic crossings in similar systems that do not contain a circumbinary planet, we can estimate the percentage of detectable circumbinary planets. We find that when the binary separation is large enough, detection of both the planet and the binary would be possible up to 50 percent of the time.

  13. Get Me Off This Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    The purpose of this lesson is to teach students how a spacecraft gets from the surface of the Earth to Mars. Students first investigate rockets and how they are able to get us into space. Finally, the nature of an orbit is discussed as well as how orbits enable us to get from planet to planet — specifically from Earth to Mars.

  14. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Schunk; A. F. Nagy

    1980-01-01

    The theory and observations relating to the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Venus, the earth and Mars are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on comparing the basic differences and similarities between the planetary ionospheres. The review covers the plasma and electric-magnetic field environments that surround the planets, the theory leading to the creation and transport of ionization in the ionspheres, the

  15. Ocean Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, Michel K.

    2005-07-01

    Waves observed in the ocean are extremely irregular and, from a physics standpoint, it seems impossible to describe this chaotic situation. Scientists can describe the situation by means of a stochastic approach. This book describes the stochastic method for ocean wave analysis. This method provides a route to predicting the characteristics of random ocean waves--information vital for the design and safe operation of ships and ocean structures. Assuming a basic knowledge of probability theory, the book begins with a chapter describing the essential elements of wind-generated random seas from the stochastic point of view. The following three chapters introduce spectral analysis techniques, probabilistic predictions of wave amplitudes, wave height and periodicity. A further four chapters discuss sea severity, extreme sea state, the directional wave energy spreading in random seas and special wave events such as wave breaking and group phenomena. Finally the stochastic properties of non-Gaussian waves are presented. Useful appendices and an extensive reference list are included. Examples of practical applications of the theories presented can be found throughout the text. This book will be suitable as a text for graduate students of naval, ocean and coastal engineering. It will also serve as a useful reference for research scientists and engineers working in this field.

  16. Ocean Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, Michel K.

    1998-03-01

    Waves observed in the ocean are extremely irregular and, from a physics standpoint, it seems impossible to describe this chaotic situation. Scientists can describe the situation by means of a stochastic approach. This book describes the stochastic method for ocean wave analysis. This method provides a route to predicting the characteristics of random ocean waves--information vital for the design and safe operation of ships and ocean structures. Assuming a basic knowledge of probability theory, the book begins with a chapter describing the essential elements of wind-generated random seas from the stochastic point of view. The following three chapters introduce spectral analysis techniques, probabilistic predictions of wave amplitudes, wave height and periodicity. A further four chapters discuss sea severity, extreme sea state, the directional wave energy spreading in random seas and special wave events such as wave breaking and group phenomena. Finally the stochastic properties of non-Gaussian waves are presented. Useful appendices and an extensive reference list are included. Examples of practical applications of the theories presented can be found throughout the text. This book will be suitable as a text for graduate students of naval, ocean and coastal engineering. It will also serve as a useful reference for research scientists and engineers working in this field.

  17. The role of the oceans in climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, G. R.; Jickells, T. D.; Liss, P. S.; Osborn, T. J.

    2003-08-01

    The ocean is increasingly seen as a vital component of the climate system. It exchanges with the atmosphere large quantities of heat, water, gases, particles and momentum. It is an important part of the global redistribution of heat from tropics to polar regions keeping our planet habitable, particularly equatorward of about 30°. In this article we review recent work examining the role of the oceans in climate, focusing on research in the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC and later. We discuss the general nature of oceanic climate variability and the large role played by stochastic variability in the interaction of the atmosphere and ocean. We consider the growing evidence for biogeochemical interaction of climatic significance between ocean and atmosphere. Air-sea exchange of several radiatively important gases, in particular CO2, is a major mechanism for altering their atmospheric concentrations. Some more reactive gases, such as dimethyl sulphide, can alter cloud formation and hence albedo. Particulates containing iron and originating over land can alter ocean primary productivity and hence feedbacks to other biogeochemical exchanges. We show that not only the tropical Pacific Ocean basin can exhibit coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction, but also the tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Longer lived interactions in the North Pacific and Southern Ocean (the circumpolar wave) are also reviewed. The role of the thermohaline circulation in long-term and abrupt climatic change is examined, with the freshwater budget of the ocean being a key factor for the degree, and longevity, of change. The potential for the Mediterranean outflow to contribute to abrupt change is raised. We end by examining the probability of thermohaline changes in a future of global warming.

  18. The formation of terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, A.; O'Brien, D.

    Previous numerical simulations of the process of formation of the terrestrial planets led to results which typically have two problems: (i) the final orbits of the planets are too eccentric and inclined relative to the real orbits of the terrestrial planet system and (ii) the planets form too slowly with respect to the time indicated by the Hf-W chronometer for the Earth-Moon system. It is usually thought that these problems are due to the fact that the simulations do not account for a population of small planetesimals carrying cumulatively a mass comparable to the mass of the planetary embryos. We have done new simulations, starting with a system of 25 Mars-mass embryos initially distributed from 0.5 to 4 AU, embedded in a disk of 2.5 Earth masses of planetesimals, modeled with 1,000 individual equal-mass particles. We have performed 8 simulations. 4 simulations assumed Jupiter and Saturn initially on their current orbits, while the remaining 4 simulations assumed that the two giant planets had circular orbits, consistent with the `Nice model' on the origin of the late heavy bombardment (Gomes et al., 2005) and on the giant planets' orbital architecture (Tsiganis et al., 2005). The simulations starting with Jupiter on an eccentric orbit lead to the formation of a system of terrestrial planets whose angular momentum deficit is 7 times smaller than that obtained in previous simulations (Chambers, 2001), whereas the formation timescale is three times shorter. This confirms that the dynamical friction exerted by planetesimals onto the forming planets is an essential ingredient in terrestrial planet formation. Interestingly, the final terrestrial planets achieved in these simulations are dynamically colder than the real terrestrial planets. The simulations starting with Jupiter on a circular orbit still produce planets which are slightly too dynamically excited (by about 50%) and which form too slowly (by a factor of 2). These problems are expected to disappear in future simulations modeling the planetesimal disk with a larger number of particles, or accounting for the regeneration of planetesimals during giant collisions among embryos. A main difference between the planets formed in the eccentric Jupiter case with respect to the circular Jupiter case is that the former do not acquire a significant amount of mass from beyond 2.5 AU. These planets are therefore expected to be more deficient in water, possibly too dry with respect to the Earth.

  19. Making other Earths: Dynamical Simulations of Terrestrial Planet Formation and Water Delivery

    E-print Network

    Sean N. Raymond; Thomas R. Quinn; Jonathan I. Lunine

    2003-08-09

    We present results from 42 simulations of late stage planetary accretion, focusing on the delivery of volatiles (primarily water) to the terrestrial planets. Our simulations include both planetary "embryos" (defined as Moon to Mars sized protoplanets) and planetesimals, assuming that the embryos formed via oligarchic growth. We investigate volatile delivery as a function of Jupiter's mass, position and eccentricity, the position of the snow line, and the density (in solids) of the solar nebula. In all simulations, we form 1-4 terrestrial planets inside 2 AU, which vary in mass and volatile content. In 42 simulations we have formed 43 planets between 0.8 and 1.5 AU, including 11 "habitable" planets between 0.9 and 1.1 AU. These planets range from dry worlds to "water worlds" with 100+ oceans of water (1 ocean = 1.5x10^24 g), and vary in mass between 0.23 and 3.85 Earth masses. There is a good deal of stochastic noise in these simulations, but the most important parameter is the planetesimal mass we choose, which reflects the surface density in solids past the snow line. A high density in this region results in the formation of a smaller number of terrestrial planets with larger masses and higher water content, as compared with planets which form in systems with lower densities. We find that an eccentric Jupiter produces drier terrestrial planets with higher eccentricities than a circular one. In cases with Jupiter at 7 AU, we form what we call "super embryos," 1-2 Earth mass protoplanets which can serve as the accretion seeds for 2+ Earth mass planets with large water contents.

  20. Oceans Effect on Climate and Weather: Global Circulation Patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-28

    This Science Object explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. Learning Outcomes: ? Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents. ? Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year. ? Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns. ? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocea

  1. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, M. S.; Fortney, J.; Seager, S.; Barman, T.

    The key to understanding an extrasolar giant planet's spectrum - and hence its detectability and evolution - lies with its atmosphere. Now that direct observations of thermal emission from extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) are in hand, atmosphere models can be used to constrain atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and ultimately the formation and evolution of detected planets. We review the important physical processes that influence the atmospheric structure and evolution of EGPs and consider what has already been learned from the first generation of observations and modeling. We pay particular attention to the roles of cloud structure, metallicity, and atmospheric chemistry in affecting detectable properties through Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting giant planets. Our review stresses the uncertainties that ultimately limit our ability to interpret EGP observations. Finally we will conclude with a look to the future as characterization of multiple individual planets in a single stellar system leads to the study of comparative planetary architectures.

  2. Radar Images of the Earth: Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features links to seven NASA radar images of the world's oceans, including brief descriptions of the respective processes and settings. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radar illuminates Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

  3. On the Possible Properties of Small and Cold Extrasolar Planets: Is OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb Entirely Frozen?

    E-print Network

    David Ehrenreich; Alain Lecavelier Des Etangs; Jean-Philippe Beaulieu; Olivier Grasset

    2006-07-11

    Extrasolar planets as light as a few Earths are now being detected. Such planets are likely not gas or ice giants. Here, we present a study on the possible properties of the small and cold extrasolar planets, applied to the case of the recently discovered planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb (Beaulieu et al. 2006). This planet (5.5[+5.5/-2.7] Earth masses) orbits 2.6[+1.5/-0.6]-astronomical units away from an old M-type star of the Galactic Bulge. The planet should be entirely frozen given the low surface temperature (35 to 47 K). However, depending on the rock-to-ice mass ratio in the planet, the radiogenic heating could be sufficient to make the existence of liquid water within an icy crust possible. This possibility is estimated as a function of the planetary mass and the illumination received from the parent star, both being strongly related by the observational constraints. The results are presented for water-poor and water-rich planets. We find that no oceans can be present in any cases at 9-10 Gyr, a typical age for a star of the Bulge. However, we find that, in the past when the planet was planet is now likely to be entirely frozen.

  4. Extrasolar Planets Orbiting Active Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingrill, Jörg

    2011-09-01

    New discoveries of transiting extrasolar planets are reported weekly. Ground based surveys as well as space borne observatories like CoRoT and Kepler are responsible for filling the statistical voids of planets on distant stellar systems. I want to discuss the stellar activity and its impact on the discovery of extrasolar planets. Up to now the discovery of small rocky planets called "Super-Earths" like CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b are the only exceptions. The question arises, why among over 500 detected and verified planets the amount of smaller planets is strikingly low. An explanation besides that the verification of small planets is an intriguing task, is the high level of stellar activity that has been observed. Stellar activity can be observed at different time-scales from long term irradiance variations similar to the well known solar cycle, over stellar rotation in the regime of days, down to the observations of acoustic modes in the domain of minutes. But also non periodic events like flares or the activity signal of the granulation can prevent the detection of a transiting Earth sized planet. I will describe methods to detect transit-like signals in stellar photometric data, the influences introduced by the star, the observer and their impact on the success. Finally different mathematical models and approximations of transit signals will be examined on their sensibility of stellar activity. I present a statistical overview of stellar activity in the CoRoT dataset. The influence of stellar activity will be analysed on different transiting planets: CoRoT-2b, CoRoT-4b und CoRoT-6b. Stellar activity can prevent the successful detection of a transiting planet, where CoRoT-7b marks the borderline. Future missions like Plato will be required to provide long-term observations with mmag precision to overcome the limitations set by active stars in our Galactic neighbourhood.

  5. Ocean Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Ocean spray consists of small water droplets ejected from the ocean surface following surface breaking wave events. These drops get transported in the marine atmospheric boundary layer, in which they exchange momentum and heat with the atmosphere. Small spray droplets are transported over large distances and can remain in the atmosphere for several days, where they will scatter radiation; evaporate entirely, leaving behind sea salt; participate in the aerosol chemical cycle; and act as cloud condensation nuclei. Large droplets remain close to the ocean surface and affect the air-sea fluxes of momentum and enthalpy, thereby enhancing the intensity of tropical cyclones. This review summarizes recent progress and the emerging consensus about the number flux and implications of small sea spray droplets. I also summarize shortcomings in our understanding of the impact of large spray droplets on the meteorology of storm systems.

  6. Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

  7. Ocean Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    This Web site offers a review of the surface circulation of Earth's ocean and classroom investigations appropriate for various disciplines at the high school level. Articles and video interviews about ocean current research, interactive data visualizes, news articles, simplified models, teacher and student guides are included. This site highlights use on-line satellite data of Earth for understanding patterns of ocean surface currents and how they relate to human exploration, commerce, science, weather/climate, and pollution. The interdisciplinary investigations included are classroom-ready, aiming to help high school students practice science, mathematics and writing skills in accordance to national standards. The topics covered also align with the traditional high school curriculum. Each investigation is keyed to the stages of the 5 E's teacher/learning model.

  8. Water Trapping on Tidally Locked Terrestrial Planets Requires Special Conditions

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jun; Hu, Yongyun; Abbot, Dorian S

    2014-01-01

    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea-ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, night-side sea ice remains O(10 m) thick and night-side water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000 m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's w...

  9. The Role of Giant Planets in Terrestrial Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, H. F.; Duncan, M. J.; Agnor, C. B.

    2000-05-01

    The dynamical structure of the outer planetary system has played a critical role in determining the sizes, numbers, and habitability of the terrestrial planets. In 1996, Wetherill showed that the presence of Jupiter affects the masses of planets in the Habitable Zone of the Sun. In addition, in our solar system the giant planets control the dynamics of most of Earth's impactors, which consist of objects from the asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt, the scattered comet disk, and the Oort cloud. At early times, these impactors may have been responsible for supplying the Earth with a significant fraction of its water, organics, and atmospheric volatiles. At later times, they are responsible for causing at least some mass extinctions. Recent observations have demonstrated that giant planet configurations can show startling variations from system to system. (Although the searches for extra-solar planets have yet to reveal anything about what `typical systems' are like due to strong observational biases.) The question therefore naturally arises: What kind of outer planetary systems can support habitable terrestrial planets? The Exobiology Program is funding us to undertake the first comprehensive study of the coupling between outer solar system architectures and inner solar system habitability. The first stage of this program was to construct a wide range of outer planetary systems. The results of this work can be found at www.boulder.swri.edu/ hal/diversity.html. Here we present a preliminary report on simulations of the formation of terrestrial planets in two of these synthetic outer planetary systems. The first contains 5 planets; three of which lie between 3.7 and 11AU and have a combined mass of 2600 Earth-masses ( 8 Jupiter-masses). The second system contains 7 planets between 4 and 35AU; the largest of which is only 26 Earth-masses ( 1.5 Neptune masses).

  10. The Earth is a Planet Too!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Brian

    2014-01-01

    When the solar system formed, the sun was 30 dimmer than today and Venus had an ocean. As the sun brightened, a runaway greenhouse effect caused the Venus ocean to boil away. At times when Earth was younger, the sun less bright, and atmospheric CO2 less, Earth froze over (snowball Earth). Earth is in the sweet spot today. Venus is closer to sun than Earth is, but cloud-covered Venus absorbs only 25 of incident sunlight, while Earth absorbs 70. Venus is warmer because it has a thick carbon dioxide atmosphere causing a greenhouse effect of several hundred degrees. Earth is Goldilocks choice among the planets, the one that is just right for life to exist. Not too hot. Not too cold. How does the Earth manage to stay in this habitable range? Is there a Gaia phenomenon keeping the climate in bounds? A nice idea, but it doesnt work. Today, greenhouse gas levels are unprecedented compared to the last 450,000 years.

  11. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to South Africa, Cape Town and Johannesburg using NASA Terra/MODIS data, Landsat data and 1 m IKONOS 'Spy Satellite' data. Zoom in to any place South Africa using Earth Viewer 3D from Keyhole Inc. and Landsat data at 30 m resolution Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & 'tornadoes'. See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASANOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained.

  12. Ocean Planet: There Are Algae in Your House!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of this activity, students look in their own homes for foods that contain ingredients derived from seaweed . The activity points out that seaweeds are not really weeds but large forms of marine algae, and that seaweed derivatives are used in a large variety of foods and household products. Objectives, a list of materials, instructions, and a take-home worksheet are included.

  13. Visit to an Ocean Planet - Timing the Tides

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tide tables, commonly seen in newspapers and on television in coastal areas, show that comparable local high and low tides occur almost one hour later from one day to the next. The motion of the Moon as it revolves around the Earth largely accounts for the time lag. Students participating in this activity will investigate this time lag by using the tide time diagram and instructions which are provided. They should be able to describe how and why the times of low and high tide change from one day to the next.

  14. Understanding Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Cahill

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on oceans currents and their effects. Students do a lab activity to show that temperature is what causes ocean currents. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  15. Ocean Acidification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vicki Osis

    The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

  16. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in Lunar Metal Grains: Solar, Lunar or Terrestrial Origin? 22) Isotopic Zoning in the Inner Solar System; 23) Redox Conditions on Small Bodies; 24) Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update; 25) Mantle Redox Evolution and the Rise of Atmospheric O2; 26) Variation of Kd for Fe-Mg Exchange Between Olivine and Melt for Compositions Ranging from Alkaline Basalt to Rhyolite; 27) Determining the Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO,) in Solutions on Mars; 28) The Influence of Oxygen Environment on Kinetic Properties of Silicate Rocks and Minerals; 29) Redox Evolution of Magmatic Systems; 30) The Constancy of Upper Mantlefo, Through Time Inferred from V/Sc Ratios in Basalts: Implications for the Rise in Atmospheric 0 2; 31) Nitrogen Solubility in Basaltic Melt. Effects of Oxygen Fugacity, Melt Composition and Gas Speciation; 32) Oxygen Isotope Anomalies in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars; 33) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Interdiffusion of Iron and Magnesium in Magnesiowiistite 34) The Calibration of the Pyroxene Eu-Oxybarometer for the Martian Meteorites; 35) The Europium Oxybarometer: Power and Pitfalls; 36) Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from PigeoniteMelt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium; 37) Oxidation-Reduction Processes on the Moon: Experimental Verification of Graphite Oxidation in the Apollo 17 Orange Glasses; 38) Oxygen and Core Formation in the Earth; 39) Geologic Record of the Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry Before the Oxygenation of the Early Earth s Atmosphere; 40) Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(CrCAl) Systematics in Chromite as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity; 41) How Well do Sulfur Isotopes Constrain Oxygen Abundance in the Ancient Atmospheres? 42) Experimental Constraints on the Oxygen Isotope (O-18/ O-16) Fractionation in the Ice vapor and Adsorbant vapor Systems of CO2 at Conditions Relevant to the Surface of Mars; 43) Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels andhe Oxidation State of Vanadium in Spinel-Melt Pairs; 44) Testing the Magma Ocean Hypothesis Using

  17. Angry Red Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Ken Eklund N:Eklund; Ken ORG:WriterGuy REV:2005-04-06 END:VCARD

    2000-12-15

    This mystery puts the reader in control, Mission Control, as he/she helps with a simulated flight to Mars. In this simulation, four "bionauts" are sealed into identical pods containing plants, animals and water. The goal is for them to survive for six months receiving no water, food or air from outside. The reader monitors the conditions in each pod, simulating Misson Control back on Earth. This story begins on the 34th day of the simulation, when the reader notices something wrong in one of the pods. The oxygen is getting low - why? Besides the usual Science Mystery themes (literacy, inquiry-based learning, problem-solving logic, inductive and deductive reasoning), "Angry Red Planet" puts your students hands-on with facts about respiration, ecosystems and ecological cycles, chemical and biochemical reactions, carbon dioxide poisoning, and the effects of stress on human physiology and psychology. They must learn how to read graphs and evaluate data to solve the mystery.

  18. PlanetDiary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brought to the Web by global educational publisher Addison Wesley Longman, the PlanetDiary site provides weekly coverage of "the events and phenomena that affect Earth and its residents." Each week, PlantDiary presents astronomical, biological, environmental, geological, and meteorological news from around the globe. An especially useful highlight of the Website is the Phenomena Backgrounders section. The pages within this section explain the science surrounding each event, provide links to local and up-to-the-minute information, and suggest online (and hands-on) activities. In addition, the Phenomena Backgrounders section is an excellent resource for research projects or for tracking weekly weather and geological activity. Other sections at the site include Current Phenomena (for the latest geological, environmental, and meteorological news), Calendar (for upcoming events), and Universal Measurements (for tips on converting times and distances).

  19. Constitution of terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanke, H.

    1981-12-01

    It is noted that the earth's mantle and the moon are slightly enriched in refractory lithophile elements and in magnesium. It is considered possible that this enrichment is fictitious and due only to the normalization to Si and that both the earth's mantle and the moon are depleted in Si, which partly entered the earth's core in metallic form. The striking depletion of the elements V, Cr, and Mn in the earth's mantle can also be explained by their partial removal into the core. The similar abundances of V, Cr, and Mn in the moon and the earth's mantle suggest a strong genetic relationship between the earth and the moon. Apart from their contents of metallic iron, siderophile elements, and moderately volatile and volatile elements, the earth and moon are chemically very similar. It is considered possible that, with these exceptions and that of a varying degree of oxidation, all the inner planets have a similar chemistry.

  20. Superflares and Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    Eric P Rubenstein

    2001-01-31

    Stellar flares 100-10^7 times more energetic than the most powerful solar flares have been detected from 9 normal F and G main sequence stars (Schaefer, King & Deliyannis 2000). Although these stars are not in close binary systems, their superflares show a remarkable similarity to the large stellar flares observed on RS Canum Venaticorum binary systems. Such flares are caused by magnetic reconnection events associated with the tangling of magnetic fields between the two stars. The superflare stars are certainly not of this class, although the mechanism may be similar. The superflares may be caused by magnetic reconnection between fields of the primary star and a close-in Jovian planet. This scenario explains the energies, durations, and spectra of superflares, as well as explain why our Sun does not have such events. Only known planetary properties and reconnection scenarios are required by this mechanism.