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Sample records for ocean planet popular

  1. Planet Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  2. Ocean Planet. Interdisciplinary Marine Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Barbara

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution designed to share with the public what recent research has revealed about the oceans and to encourage ocean conservation. This booklet of lessons and activities adapts several themes from the exhibition for use in middle and high school classrooms. Lesson plans include:…

  3. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land & Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Arthur F.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to South Africa, Cape Town and Johannesburg using NASA Terra MODIS data, Landsat data and 1m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Zoom in to any place South Africa using Earth Viewer 3D from Keyhole Inc. and Landsat data at 30 m resolution. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we present science to the public. See dust storms and flooding in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the north and south polar ice packs and with icebergs on the coasts of Greenland and off the coast of Antarctica. Spectacular new visualizations of the global land, atmosphere & oceans are shown. Listen to the pulse of our planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and biomass burning of the Earth

  4. Hydrothermal systems in small ocean planets.

    PubMed

    Vance, Steve; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Kimura, Jun; Hussmann, Hauke; Demartin, Brian; Brown, J Michael

    2007-12-01

    We examine means for driving hydrothermal activity in extraterrestrial oceans on planets and satellites of less than one Earth mass, with implications for sustaining a low level of biological activity over geological timescales. Assuming ocean planets have olivine-dominated lithospheres, a model for cooling-induced thermal cracking shows how variation in planet size and internal thermal energy may drive variation in the dominant type of hydrothermal system-for example, high or low temperature system or chemically driven system. As radiogenic heating diminishes over time, progressive exposure of new rock continues to the current epoch. Where fluid-rock interactions propagate slowly into a deep brittle layer, thermal energy from serpentinization may be the primary cause of hydrothermal activity in small ocean planets. We show that the time-varying hydrostatic head of a tidally forced ice shell may drive hydrothermal fluid flow through the seafloor, which can generate moderate but potentially important heat through viscous interaction with the matrix of porous seafloor rock. Considering all presently known potential ocean planets-Mars, a number of icy satellites, Pluto, and other trans-neptunian objects-and applying Earth-like material properties and cooling rates, we find depths of circulation are more than an order of magnitude greater than in Earth. In Europa and Enceladus, tidal flexing may drive hydrothermal circulation and, in Europa, may generate heat on the same order as present-day radiogenic heat flux at Earth's surface. In all objects, progressive serpentinization generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day radiogenic heating and hydrogen is produced at rates between 10(9) and 10(10) molecules cm(2) s(1). PMID:18163874

  5. The unstable CO2 feedback cycle on ocean planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitzmann, Daniel; Alibert, Yann; Godolt, Mareike; Grenfell, John Lee; Heng, Kevin; Patzer, Beate; Rauer, Heike; Stracke, Barbara; von Paris, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Ocean planets are volatile rich planets, not present in our Solar System, which are dominated by deep, global oceans. Theoretical considerations and planet formation modeling studies suggest that extrasolar ocean planets should be a very common type of planet. One might therefore expect that low-mass ocean planets would be ideal candidates when searching for habitable exoplanets, since water is considered to be an essential requirement for life. However, a very large global ocean can also strongly influence the climate.The high pressure at the oceans bottom results in the formation of high-pressure water ice, separating the planetary crust from the liquid ocean and, thus, also from the atmosphere. In our study we, therefore, focus on the CO2 cycle between the atmosphere and the ocean which determines the atmospheric CO2 content. The atmospheric amount of CO2 is a fundamental quantity for assessing the potential habitability of the planet's surface because of its strong greenhouse effect, which determines the planetary surface temperature to a large degree.In contrast to the stabilising carbonate-silicate cycle regulating the long-term CO2 inventory of the Earth atmosphere, we find that the CO2 cycle on ocean planets is positive and has strong destabilising effects on the planetary climate. By using a chemistry model for oceanic CO2 dissolution and an atmospheric model for exoplanets, we show that the CO2 feedback cycle is severely limiting the potential habitability of ocean planets.

  6. The unstable CO2 feedback cycle on ocean planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitzmann, D.; Alibert, Y.; Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; Heng, K.; Patzer, A. B. C.; Rauer, H.; Stracke, B.; von Paris, P.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean planets are volatile-rich planets, not present in our Solar system, which are thought to be dominated by deep, global oceans. This results in the formation of high-pressure water ice, separating the planetary crust from the liquid ocean and, thus, also from the atmosphere. Therefore, instead of a carbonate-silicate cycle like on the Earth, the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is governed by the capability of the ocean to dissolve carbon dioxide (CO2). In our study, we focus on the CO2 cycle between the atmosphere and the ocean which determines the atmospheric CO2 content. The atmospheric amount of CO2 is a fundamental quantity for assessing the potential habitability of the planet's surface because of its strong greenhouse effect, which determines the planetary surface temperature to a large degree. In contrast to the stabilizing carbonate-silicate cycle regulating the long-term CO2 inventory of the Earth atmosphere, we find that the CO2 cycle feedback on ocean planets is negative and has strong destabilizing effects on the planetary climate. By using a chemistry model for oceanic CO2 dissolution and an atmospheric model for exoplanets, we show that the CO2 feedback cycle can severely limit the extension of the habitable zone for ocean planets.

  7. DETECTING OCEANS ON EXTRASOLAR PLANETS USING THE GLINT EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David

    2010-09-20

    Glint, the specular reflection of sunlight off Earth's oceans, may reveal the presence of oceans on an extrasolar planet. As an Earth-like planet nears crescent phases, the size of the ocean glint spot increases relative to the fraction of the illuminated disk, while the reflectivity of this spot increases. Both effects change the planet's visible reflectivity as a function of phase. However, strong forward scattering of radiation by clouds can also produce increases in a planet's reflectivity as it approaches crescent phases, and surface glint can be obscured by Rayleigh scattering and atmospheric absorption. Here, we explore the detectability of glint in the presence of an atmosphere and realistic phase-dependent scattering from oceans and clouds. We use the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model to simulate Earth's broadband visible brightness and reflectivity over an orbit. Our validated simulations successfully reproduce phase-dependent Earthshine observations. We find that the glinting Earth can be as much as 100% brighter at crescent phases than simulations that do not include glint, and that the effect is dependent on both orbital inclination and wavelength, where the latter dependence is caused by Rayleigh scattering limiting sensitivity to the surface. We show that this phenomenon may be observable using the James Webb Space Telescope paired with an external occulter.

  8. Applications of Ocean Acoustic Monitoring to Understanding Our Planet

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstoy, Maya

    2005-10-26

    The ocean covers two-thirds of the surface of Earth, and hides long chains of seafloor volcanoes, bizarre and magnificent life forms, and many dynamic geological processes. Shrouded in darkness, much of what happens deep in the ocean is unknown to us. But sound can tell us a great deal about what is going on in the ocean. Changes in the physical properties of seawater with depth allow relatively quiet sounds to travel great distances without loosing much energy. In this way we are able to record many noises that occur within or on the boundary of the ocean, giving us insight into geological, biological and man-made activities in the ocean. One of the most interesting noises to a geophysicist is the sound of mid-ocean ridge volcanic eruptions. These eruptions are forming new surface for our planet and helping create an extraordinary seafloor ecosystem. Examples of sounds heard and some of their implications will be presented.

  9. Mission to Planet Earth. The living ocean: Observing ocean color from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of ocean color are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, which will assess how the global environment is changing. Using the unique perspective available from space, NASA will observe, monitor, and study large-scale environmental processes, focusing on quantifying climate change. NASA will distribute the results of these studies to researchers worldwide to furnish a basis for informed decisions on environmental protection and economic policy. This information packet includes discussion on the reasons for measuring ocean color, the carbon cycle and ocean color, priorities for global climate research, and SeWiFS (sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor) global ocean color measurements.

  10. Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land & Oceans - ETheater Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, F.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Florida and the KSC Visitor's Center. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s see them contrasted with the latest International global satellite weather movies including killer hurricanes & tornadic thunderstorms. See the latest spectacular images from NASA and NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, NOAA, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat7, & new Terra which will be visualized with state-of-the art tools. Shown in High Definition TV resolution (2048 x 768 pixels) are visualizations of hurricanes Lenny, Floyd, Georges, Mitch, Fran and Linda. See visualizations featured on covers of ma'gazines like Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science and on National & International Network TV. New Digital Earth visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images including a Landsat tour of the US, with drill-downs into major cities using 1 m resolution spy-satellite technology from the Space Imaging IKONOS satellite. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Octane Graphics Supercomputer with dual CPUS, 5 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte disk using two projectors across the super sized Universe Theater panoramic screen.

  11. Emergence of two types of terrestrial planet on solidification of magma ocean.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Keiko; Abe, Yutaka; Genda, Hidenori

    2013-05-30

    Understanding the origins of the diversity in terrestrial planets is a fundamental goal in Earth and planetary sciences. In the Solar System, Venus has a similar size and bulk composition to those of Earth, but it lacks water. Because a richer variety of exoplanets is expected to be discovered, prediction of their atmospheres and surface environments requires a general framework for planetary evolution. Here we show that terrestrial planets can be divided into two distinct types on the basis of their evolutionary history during solidification from the initially hot molten state expected from the standard formation model. Even if, apart from their orbits, they were identical just after formation, the solidified planets can have different characteristics. A type I planet, which is formed beyond a certain critical distance from the host star, solidifies within several million years. If the planet acquires water during formation, most of this water is retained and forms the earliest oceans. In contrast, on a type II planet, which is formed inside the critical distance, a magma ocean can be sustained for longer, even with a larger initial amount of water. Its duration could be as long as 100 million years if the planet is formed together with a mass of water comparable to the total inventory of the modern Earth. Hydrodynamic escape desiccates type II planets during the slow solidification process. Although Earth is categorized as type I, it is not clear which type Venus is because its orbital distance is close to the critical distance. However, because the dryness of the surface and mantle predicted for type II planets is consistent with the characteristics of Venus, it may be representative of type II planets. Also, future observations may have a chance to detect not only terrestrial exoplanets covered with water ocean but also those covered with magma ocean around a young star. PMID:23719462

  12. A Preliminary Study on the Circulation of an ocean covering a Synchronously Rotating Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, H.; Ishiwatari, M.; Takehiro, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Nakajima, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, nearly 800 extrasolar planets have been detected. It seems that some of them present into habitable zone, in which planets can have ocean, and such planets rotate synchronously with their central stars. Ocean is necessary for life, and the circulation makes climate mild by heat transport on the earth. The earth is the only planet that has ocean in the solar system so that it has not been understood what oceanic circulation is like in another planets. The purpose of this study is prediction of oceanic circulation on extrasolar planets by using numerical simulation. As a first step, elementary consideration is made. The planet is almost entirely covered with ocean and whose rotation period corresponds with its orbital period. On synchronously rotating planets, the thermal contrast between day-hemisphere and night-hemisphere would be extreme. However, it may be lessend if there is significant zonal heat transport. The circulation in such conditions has not been known well. We performed a numerical experiment based on the linear shallow water equation, assuming that both the evaporation and the precipitation occur only on day-hemisphere (Noda et al., 2011). With these distributions of the evaporation and the precipitation, one may anticipate the circulation occurs in only day-hemisphere. However, the resulting calculation is characterized with zonally uniform zonal flow, which also covers night hemisphere. In addition, the intensity of the flow increases with time. That behavior can be understood by constructing asymptotic solution which is first degree in time. The importance of Coriolis force, which bends meridional flow to zonal flow, is identified. It is implied that, even when only day-hemisphere has the evaporation and precipitation, there may be significant amount of heat can be transported from the day-hemisphere to the night-hemisphere by the strong zonal flow. The growth of zonal flow would be stopped when the evaporation and the precipitation are

  13. Moments of probable seas: statistical dynamics of Planet Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Greg

    The ocean is too big. From the scale of planetary radius to scales of turbulent microstructure, the range of length scales is 109. Likewise for time scales. Classical geophysical fluid dynamics does not have an apparatus for dealing with such complexity, while `brute force' computing on the most powerful supercomputers, extant or presently foreseen, barely scratches this complexity. Yet the everywhere-swirling-churning ocean interacts unpredictably in climate history and climate future - against which we attempt to devise planetary stewardship. Can we better take into account the unpredictability of oceans to improve upon present ocean/climate forecasting? What to do? First, recognize that our goal is to comprehend probabilities of possible oceans. Questions we would ask are posed as moments (expectations). Then the dynamical goal is clear: we seek equations of motion of moments of probable oceans. Classical fluid mechanics offers part of the answer but fails to recognize statistical dynamical aspects (missing the arrow of time as past==>future). At probabilities of oceans, the missing physics emerges: moments are forced by gradients of entropy with respect to moments. Time regains its arrow, and first (simplest) approximations to entropy-gradient forces enhance the fidelity of ocean theories and practical models.

  14. Hypothetical Inverted Critical Zones for Subsurface Biospheres on Desert Planets and Icy Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Earth as a model for cave habitable real-estate does not encompass other possibilities including desert planets like Mars, or icy ocean worlds viewed as planetary-scale water-filled caves in water ice bedrock which will have inverted Critical Zones.

  15. It's Only a Little Planet: A Primer for Ocean Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyland, Sarah J.

    Developed as part of the Day on the Bay Cruise Program, funded by the National Sea Grant Program, this learner's manual outlines ocean studies conducted on a seven-hour cruise of the Galveston Bay area. A description of the geology and human use of Galveston Bay follows a general introduction to coastal and estuarine ecology. Line drawings…

  16. The Blue Planet: Seas & Oceans. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beauregard, Diane Costa

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, facinate them and educate them, this volume explores the physical and environmental characteristics of the world's oceans. Topics are: (1) human exploration; (2) the food chain; (3) coral reefs; (4) currents and tides; (5) waves; (6)…

  17. CO2-dominated Atmosphere in Equilibrium with NH3-H2O Ocean: Application to Early Titan and Ocean Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marounina, N.; Grasset, O.; Tobie, G.; Carpy, S.

    2015-12-01

    During the accretion of Titan, impact heating may have been sufficient to allow the global melting of water ice (Monteux et al. 2014) and the release of volatile compounds, with CO2 and NH3 as main constituents (Tobie et al. 2012). Thus, on primitive Titan, it is thought that a massive atmosphere was in contact with a global water ocean. Similar configurations may occur on temperate water-rich planets called ocean planets (Léger et al. 2004, Kitzmann et al. 2015).Due to its rather low solubility in liquid water, carbon dioxide is expected to be one of the major components in the atmosphere. The atmospheric amount of CO2 is a key parameter for assessing the thermal evolution of the planetary surface because of its strong greenhouse effect. However, ammonia significantly affects the solubility of CO2 in water and hence the atmosphere-ocean thermo-chemical equilibrium. For primitive Titan, estimating the mass, temperature and composition of the primitive atmosphere is important to determine mechanisms that led to the present-day N2-CH4 dominated atmosphere. Similarly, for ocean planets, the influence of ammonia on the atmospheric abundance in CO2 has consequences for the definition of the habitable zone.To investigate the atmospheric composition of the water-rich worlds for a wide range of initial compositions, we have developed a vapor-liquid equilibrium model of the NH3-CO2-H2O system, where we account for the non-ideal comportment of both vapor and liquid phases and the ion speciation of volatiles dissolved in the aqueous phase. We show that adding NH3 to the CO2-H2O binary system induces an efficient absorption of the CO2 in the liquid phase and thus a lower CO2 partial pressure in the vapor phase. Indeed, the CO2 partial pressure remains low for the CO2/NH3 ratio of liquid concentrations lower than 0.5.Assuming various initial compositions of Titan's global water ocean, we explore the thermal and compositional evolution of a massive primitive atmosphere using

  18. Layered double diffusive convection: From Earth oceans to giant planet interiors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, J.; Chabrier, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many unknowns remain concerning the internal structure and composition of giant gaseous planets. The existence and the properties of an hypothetical central core, in particular, are still debated. Contrary to conventional interior models for giant (exo)planets, we consider an inhomogeneous mixing of heavy elements in the gaseous H/He envelope of these objects. As in the oceans, such compositional gradients can give rise to layered convection which impedes large scale convection, yielding a hotter, super adiabatic interior. As a result, the metal enrichment predicted by this model is up to 30 to 60% larger than previously thought for Jupiter and Saturn. However, metals are preferentially redistributed in the gaseous envelope and coreless models can be found for Jupiter. This inefficient, layered convection, yielding a slower cooling, can help to explain anomalously inflated Hot Jupiters, but also opens a new window on our understanding of giant planet formation and history inside our Solar System.

  19. Strong ocean tidal flow and heating on moons of the outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Robert H.

    2008-12-01

    Data from recent space missions have added strong support for the idea that there are liquid oceans on several moons of the outer planets, with Jupiter's moon Europa having received the most attention. But given the extremely cold surface temperatures and meagre radiogenic heat sources of these moons, it is still unclear how these oceans remain liquid. The prevailing conjecture is that these oceans are heated by tidal forces that flex the solid moon (rock plus ice) during its eccentric orbit, and that this heat entering the ocean does not rapidly escape because of the insulating layer of ice over the ocean surface. Here, however, I describe strong tidal dissipation (and heating) in the liquid oceans; I show that a subdominant and previously unconsidered tidal force due to obliquity (axial tilt of the moon with respect to its orbital plane) has the right form and frequency to resonantly excite large-amplitude Rossby waves in these oceans. In the specific case of Europa, the minimum kinetic energy of the flow associated with this resonance (7.3×1018J) is two thousand times larger than that of the flow excited by the dominant tidal forces, and dissipation of this energy seems large enough to be a primary ocean heat source.

  20. Oceanic Communities in a Changing Planet - The Tara Oceans Project (GSC8 Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Raes, Jeroen

    2009-09-09

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Jeroen Raes of the University of Brussels discusses the Tara-Oceans expedition at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

  1. Oceanic Communities in a Changing Planet - The Tara Oceans Project (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Raes, Jeroen [University of Brussels

    2011-04-28

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Jeroen Raes of the University of Brussels discusses the Tara-Oceans expedition at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

  2. Climate of Earth-Like Planets With and Without Ocean Heat Transport Orbiting a Range of M and K Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Jablonski, Emma R.; Way, Michael J.; Del Genio, Anthony; Roberge, Aki

    2015-01-01

    The mean surface temperature of a planet is now acknowledged as insufficient to surmise its full potential habitability. Advancing our understanding requires exploration with 3D general circulation models (GCMs), which can take into account how gradients and fluxes across a planet's surface influence the distribution of heat, clouds, and the potential for heterogeneous distribution of liquid water. Here we present 3D GCM simulations of the effects of alternative stellar spectra, instellation, model resolution, and ocean heat transport, on the simulated distribution of heat and moisture of an Earth-like planet (ELP).

  3. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA E-Theater 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations from space in a spectacular way. Fly in from outer space to the conference location as well as the site of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games using data from NASA satellites and the IKONOS "Spy Satellite". See HDTV movie Destination Earth 2002 incorporating the Olympic Zooms, NBC footage of the 2002 Olympics, the shuttle, & the best NASA/NOAA Earth science visualizations. See the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes, typhoons & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations from NASA/NOAA and International remote sensing missions like Terra, Aqua, GOES, GMS , SeaWiFS, & Landsat. Feel the pulse of our planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the the "night-vision" DMSP satellite. The presentation will be made using the latest HDTV and video projection technology by: Dr. Fritz Hasler NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  4. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA E-Theater 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations from space in a spectacular way. Fly in from outer space to the conference location as well as the site of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games using data from NASA satellites and the IKONOS 'Spy Satellite". See HDTV movie Destination Earth 2002 incorporating the Olympic Zooms, NBC footage of the 2002 Olympics, the shuttle, & the best NASA/NOAA Earth science visualizations. See the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes, typhoons & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations from NASA/NOAA and International remote sensing missions like Terra, Aqua, GOES, GMS, SeaWiFS, & Landsat. Feel the pulse of OUT planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP satellite. The presentation will be made using the latest HDTV and video projection technology by: Dr. Fritz Hasler NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  5. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA E-Theater 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations from space in a spectacular way. Fly in from outer space to the conference location as well as the site of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games using data from NASA satellites and the IKONOS "Spy Satellite". See HDTV movie Destination Earth 2002 incorporating the Olympic Zooms, NBC footage of the 2002 Olympics, the shuttle, & the best NASA/NOAA Earth science visualizations. See the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes, typhoons & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations from NASA/NOAA and International remote sensing missions like Terra, Aqua, GOES, GMS, SeaWiFS, & Landsat. Feel the pulse of our planet. See how land vegetation, ocean plankton, clouds and temperatures respond to the sun & seasons. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP satellite. The presentation will be made using the latest HDTV and video projection technology by: Dr. Fritz Hasler NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  6. Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: Electronic-Theater 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the Delaware Bay and Philadelphia area. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s see them contrasted with the latest International global satellite weather movies including killer tropical cyclones & tornadic thunderstorms. See the latest spectacular images from NASA, NOAA & UMETSAT remote sensing missions like GOES, Meteosat, NOAA, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat7, & new Terra which will be visualized with state-of-the art tools. Shown in High Definition TV resolution (2048 x 768 pixels) are visualizations of hurricanes Lenny, Floyd, Georges, Mitch, Fran and Linda. see visualizations featured on covers of magazines like Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science and on National & International Network TV. New Digital Earth visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images including Landsat tours of the US, and Africa with drill downs of major global cities using 1 m resolution commercialized spy-satellite technology from the Space Imaging IKONOS satellite. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. see ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Octane Graphics Supercomputer with dual CPUs, 5 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte disk using two projectors across a super sized panoramic screen.

  7. A Presentation of Spectacular Visualizations. Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: ETheater Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz; Pierce, Hal; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Florida and the KSC Visitor's Center. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s see them contrasted with the latest International global satellite weather movies including killer hurricanes & tornadic thunderstorms. See the latest spectacular images from NASA and NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, NOAA, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat7, & new Terra which will be visualized with state-of-the art tools. Shown in High Definition TV resolution (2048 x 768 pixels) are visualizations of hurricanes Lenny, Floyd, Georges, Mitch, Fran and Linda. See visualizations featured on covers of magazines like Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science and on National & International Network TV. New Digital Earth visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images including a Landsat tour of the US, with drill-downs into major cities using 1 m resolution spy-satellite technology from the Space Imaging IKONOS satellite. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See ocean vortices and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisherman. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Octane Graphics Supercomputer with dual CPUs, 5 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte disk using two projectors across the super sized Universe Theater panoramic screen.

  8. Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans Electronic-Theater 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Fredericton New Brunswick. Drop in on the Kennedy Space Center and Park City Utah, site of the 2002 Olympics using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and International global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & tornadoes. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA and Canadian remote sensing missions like Terra GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, and Radarsat that are visualized & explained. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science in cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC. See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images eg Landsat tours of the US, Africa, & New Zealand showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Onyx II Graphics Supercomputer with four CPUs, 8 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte of disk. With multiple projectors on a giant screen. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP

  9. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haser, Fritz; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the 2002 Winter Olympic Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes and "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science and on National and International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam and zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds. data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite.

  10. Giant Impacts on Terrestrial Planets: A High-Resolution 3D Study of Magma Ocean Formation and Atmospheric Blowoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart-Mukhopadhyay, Sarah

    The end stages of terrestrial planet formation are dominated by giant impact events, which may significantly affect the final composition of a planet. The physical changes from giant impacts include formation of magma oceans and atmospheric blowoff. We propose to conduct unique numerical experiments to investigate the physics of giant impacts in order to determine their effect on the thermal state and volatile budget of terrestrial planets (0.1 to 10 Earth masses). Proposed work: High-resolution 3D giant impacts between differentiated silicate-iron and ice-silicate planets will be modeled with both the widely-used CTH shock physics code and a new second-order Godunov finite-volume hydrocode called AREPO. AREPO's powerful arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian grid and computational efficiency allows for unprecedented resolution of planetary structure (e.g., crust and ocean). Expected results: (1) We will calculate the amount of melt generated and fraction of atmosphere lost during different classes of giant impacts (merging, graze and merge, hit and run, and erosion/disruption). (2) We will derive general scaling laws to describe these complicated phenomena. (3) We will consider the effect of re-accretion of ejected material at late times on the total thermal input of giant impact events. (4) And we will test the giant impact hypothesis for the high bulk density of Mercury by conducting orbital integrations of ejected debris to determine the amount of re-accreted mantle material for different impact orientations. The science team has an established collaborative body of work in giant impact simulations and hydrocode development. As in previous studies, the simulation results will be generalized into sets of simple equations describing collision outcomes that are suitable for N-body planet formation models. The proposed work supports the goals of the Origins of Solar Systems program by conducting a fundamental theoretical investigation of a key stage of planet formation

  11. Electronic-Theater 2001: Visions of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Authur; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Wisconsin, Madison and the Monona Terrace Center. Drop in on the Kennedy Space Center and Park City Utah, site of the 2002 Olympics using I m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s pioneered by UW. Scientists and see them contrasted with the latest US and International global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & tornadoes. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 that are visualized & explained. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science in cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC. See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images eg Landsat tours of the US, Africa, & New Zealand showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See vortices and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nina/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Onyx 11 Graphics Supercomputer with four CPUs, 8 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte of disk. With five projectors on a giant IMAX sized 18 x 72 ft screen. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night

  12. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the Olympic Medals Plaza, the new Gateway Center, and the University of Utah Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through the Park City, and Snow Basin sites of the 2002 Winter Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. See the four seasons of the Wasatch Front as observed by Landsat 7 at 15m resolution and watch the trees turn color in the Fall, snow come and go in the mountains and the reservoirs freeze and melt. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in

  13. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the Olympic Medals Plaza, the new Gateway Center, and the University of Utah Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through the Park City, and Snow Basin sites of the 2002 Winter Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. See the four seasons of the Wasatch Front as observed by Landsat 7 at 15m resolution and watch the trees turn color in the Fall, snow come and go in the mountains and the reservoirs freeze and melt. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies Including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers Of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software. tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vertexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tin) algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in

  14. The Torque of the Planet: NASA Researcher Uses NCCS Computers to Probe Atmosphere-Land-Ocean Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The study of Earth science is like a giant puzzle, says Braulio Sanchez. "The more you know about the individual pieces, the easier it is to fit them together." A researcher with Goddard's Space Geodesy Branch, Sanchez has been using NCCS supercomputer and mass storage resources to show how the angular momenta of the atmosphere, the oceans, and the solid Earth are dynamically coupled. Sanchez has calculated the magnitude of atmospheric torque on the planet and has determined some of the possible effects that torque has on Earth's rotation.

  15. Atmospheres and Oceans of Rocky Planets In and Beyond the Habitable Zones of M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Feng

    2015-12-01

    he evolution of M dwarfs during their pre-main-sequence phase causes rocky planets in and beyond the habitable zones these stars to be in the runaway and moist greenhouse states. This scenario has been studied by three groups of researchers recently (Ramirez and Kaltenegger 2014, Tian and Ida 2015, Luger and Barnes 2015), and their consensus is that massive amount of water could have been lost during this time -- early evolution of M dwarfs could have changed the water contents of rocky planets around them, which could strongly influence the habitability of rocky planets around low mass stars. It has been proposed that dense oxygen dominant atmospheres (up to 2000 bars, Luger and Barnes 2015) because of rapid water loss. Is this true? If so, what's the condition for such atmospheres to exist and can they be maintained? On the other hand, what's the likelihood for sub-Neptunes to shrink into habitable planets under such environment? In general how is the habitability of planets around M dwarfs different from those around Sun-type stars? These are the questions we will attempt to address in this work.

  16. The Biological Big Bang: The First Oceans of Primordial Planets at 2-8 Myr Explains Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Cometary Panspermia and a Primordial LUCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Schild, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    Hydrogravitional-dynamics (HGD) cosmology of Gibson/Schild 1996 predicts that the primordial H-He4 gas of big bang nucleosynthesis became proto-globular-star-cluster clumps of Earth-mass planets at 300 Kyr. The first stars formed from mergers of these 3000 K gas planets. Chemicals C, N, O, Fe etc. created by stars and supernovae then seeded many of the reducing hydrogen gas planets with oxides to give them hot water oceans with metallic iron-nickel cores. Water oceans at critical temperature 647 K then hosted the first organic chemistry and the first life, distributed to the 1080 planets of the cosmological big bang by comets produced by the new (HGD) planet-merger star formation mechanism. The biological big bang scenario occurs between 2 Myr when liquid oceans condensed and 8 Myr when they froze. HGD cosmology explains, very naturally, the Hoyle/Wickramasinghe concept of cometary panspermia by giving a vast, hot, nourishing, cosmological primordial soup for abiogenesis, and the means for transmitting the resulting life forms and their evolving chemical mechanisms widely throughout the universe from the resulting RNA last-universal-common-ancestor LUCA. A primordial astrophysical basis is provided for astrobiology by HGD cosmology. Concordance ΛCDMHC cosmology is rendered obsolete by the observation of complex life on Earth.

  17. The biological big bang: the first oceans of primordial planets at 2-8 million years explain Hoyle/Wickramasinghe cometary panspermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2011-10-01

    Hydrogravitional-dynamics (HGD) cosmology of Gibson/Schild 1996 predicts that the primordial H-He4 gas of big bang nucleosynthesis became proto-globular-star-cluster clumps of Earth-mass planets at 300 Kyr. The first stars formed from mergers of these 3000 K gas planets. Chemicals C, N, O, Fe etc. created by stars and supernovae then seeded many of the reducing hydrogen gas planets with oxides to give them hot water oceans with metallic iron-nickel cores. Water oceans at critical temperature 647 K then hosted the first organic chemistry and the first life, distributed to the 1080 planets of the cosmological big bang by comets produced by the new (HGD) planet-merger star formation mechanism. The biological big bang scenario occurs between 2 Myr when liquid oceans condensed and 8 Myr when they froze. HGD cosmology explains, very naturally, the Hoyle/Wickramasinghe concept of cometary panspermia by giving a vast, hot, nourishing, cosmological primordial soup for abiogenesis, and the means for transmitting the resulting life forms and their evolving chemical mechanisms widely throughout the universe. A primordial astrophysical basis is provided for astrobiology by HGD cosmology. Concordance ΛCDMHC cosmology is rendered obsolete by the observation of complex life on Earth.

  18. THE ORBITAL PHASES AND SECONDARY TRANSITS OF KEPLER-10b. A PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION BASED ON THE LAVA-OCEAN PLANET MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Rouan, D.; Deeg, H. J.; Demangeon, O.; Samuel, B.; Cavarroc, C.; Leger, A.; Fegley, B.

    2011-11-10

    The Kepler mission has made an important observation: the first detection of photons from a terrestrial planet by observing its phase curve (Kepler-10b). This opens a new field in exoplanet science: the possibility of obtaining information about the atmosphere and surface of rocky planets, objects of prime interest. In this Letter, we apply the Lava-ocean model to interpret the observed phase curve. The model, a planet without atmosphere and a surface partially made of molten rocks, has been proposed for planets of the class of CoRoT-7b, i.e., rocky planets very close to their star (at a few stellar radii). Kepler-10b is a typical member of this family. It predicts that the light from the planet has an important emission component in addition to the reflected one, even in the Kepler spectral band. Assuming an isotropical reflection of light by the planetary surface (Lambertian-like approximation), we find that a Bond albedo of {approx}50% can account for the observed amplitude of the phase curve, as opposed to a first attempt where an unusually high value was found. We propose a physical process to explain this still large value of the albedo. The overall interpretation can be tested in the future with instruments such as the James Webb Space Telescope or the Exoplanet Characterization Observatory. Our model predicts a spectral dependence that is clearly distinguishable from that of purely reflected light and from that of a planet at a uniform temperature.

  19. A Perspective of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land, and Oceans: A View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Graham, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in true high definition (HD) format. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, TRMM, Landsat 7, QuikScat, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. Marvel at visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning, and global cloud properties. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over South America over 17 years, and its contrast to the North American and Africa continents. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans will be shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  20. A Perspective of Our Planet's Atmosphere, Land, and Oceans: A View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Tucker, Compton

    2002-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to South America with its Andes Mountains and the glaciers of Patagonia, ending up close and personal in Buenos Aires. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, TRMM, Landsat 7, QuikScat, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in South America and Africa, and global cloud properties. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over South America over 17 years, and its contrast to the North American and Africa continents. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images from the Himalayas to the dynamics of the Pacific Ocean that affect the climate of South and North America. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of South America and Africa showing land use and land cover change from Patagonia to the Amazon Basin, including the Andes Mountains, the Pantanal, and the Bolivian highlands. Landsat flyins to Rio Di Janeiro and Buenos Aires will be shows to emphasize the capabilities of new satellite technology to visualize our natural environment. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisherman. See how the ocean blooms in response

  1. The effects of cloud radiative forcing on an ocean-covered planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Cumulus anvil clouds, whose importance has been emphasized by observationalists in recent years, exert a very powerful influence on deep tropical convection by tending to radiatively destabilize the troposphere. In addition, they radiatively warm the column in which they reside. Their strong influence on the simulated climate argues for a much more refined parameterization in the General Circulation Model (GCM). For Seaworld, the atmospheric cloud radiative forcing (ACRF) has a powerful influence on such basic climate parameters as the strength of the Hadley circulation, the existence of a single narrow InterTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the precipitable water content of the atmosphere. It seems likely, however, that in the real world the surface CRF feeds back negatively to suppress moist convection and the associated cloudiness, and so tends to counteract the effects of the ACRF. Many current climate models have fixed sea surface temperatures but variable land-surface temperatures. The tropical circulations of such models may experience a position feedback due to ACRF over the oceans, and a negative or weak feedback due to surface CRF over the land. The overall effects of the CRF on the climate system can only be firmly established through much further analysis, which can benefit greatly from the use of a coupled ocean-atmospheric model.

  2. The Polar Ocean in a Warming Planet: Understanding for managing a unique resource of the Humankind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzolini, R.; Campus, P.; Weber, J.

    2012-04-01

    There is no doubt that changes in the Polar Regions are of great significance at the global level, such as having far-reaching effects on atmospheric and ocean circulation. Changes in ocean currents, temperature conditions, ice cover and reduction of permafrost regions are having impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic Regions of Europe and Northern Hemisphere. Human activity is putting pressure on the environment in these regions; maritime transport between Europe and Asia through the northern sea route and accessibility conditions to hidden Arctic resources as well as new technologies of exploitation will have a significant impact on the marine environment, on the living resources and on the regional social organization and needs. There are still unresolved issues related to national claims on continental shelf and sea areas that involve international law; in these respects science can provide crucial elements for supporting political agreements. Such scenarios will present new opportunities for economic activities, but also risks which will result in new demands for marine management, monitoring systems, emergency response systems, search and rescue services as well as closer international cooperation. It will also require the development of an international regime based on the improvement of the present regulations on exploration, accessibility, exploitation and liability. Dialogue and international agreements based on scientific evidences and foresight are key elements for finding solutions. On the opposite hemisphere, the ocean surrounding Antarctica plays a primary role in all global climatic processes, through the annual sea ice evolution, the circum-Antarctic circulation driving the exchange of heat between low and high latitudes and the atmospheric circulation, through the density bottom currents that affect the global Thermohaline circulation (THC), and the biogeochemical cycles that have peculiar characteristics in the icy Antarctic

  3. Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Sasselov, Dimitar

    2013-04-01

    The existence of Earth-size planets covered completely by a water envelope (water planets) has long fascinated scientists and the general public alike (Kuchner 2003; Leger et al. 2004). Sometimes referred to as "ocean planets", stemming from the implicit assumption of Habitable Zone (HZ) temperatures and a liquid water surface, water planets are a much broader class. Here we present a general approach to computing surface and atmospheric conditions on water planets in the HZ.

  4. Take a Planet Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Dwight

    2008-01-01

    Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create an…

  5. A simple 1-D radiative-convective atmospheric model designed for integration into coupled models of magma ocean planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcq, E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the early history of telluric interiors and atmospheres during the ocean magma stage, a coupled interior-atmosphere-escape model is being developed. This paper describes the atmospheric part and its first preliminary results. A unidimensional, radiative-convective, H2O-CO2 atmosphere is modeled following a vertical T(z) profile similar to Kasting (1988) and Abe and Matsui (1988). Opacities in the thermal IR are then computed using a k-correlated code (KSPECTRUM), tabulated continuum opacities for H2O-H2O and CO2-CO2 absorption, and water or sulphuric acid clouds in the moist convective zone (whenever present). The first results show the existence of two regimes depending on the relative value of the surface temperature Ts compared to a threshold temperature Tc depending on the total gaseous inventory. For Ts < Tc, efficient blanketing results in a cool upper atmosphere, a cloud cover, and a long lifetime for the underneath magma ocean with a net thermal IR flux between 160 and 200 Wm-2. For Ts > Tc, the blanketing is not efficient enough to prevent large radiative heat loss to space through a hot, cloudless atmosphere. Our current calculations may underestimate the thermal flux in the case of hot surfaces with little gaseous content in the atmosphere.

  6. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic-Theater 2002. Spectacular Visualizations of our Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spectacular Visualizations of our Blue Marble The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the 2002 Winter Olympic Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC). See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vertexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nicola Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and biomass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite.

  7. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  8. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  9. Hazards to Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Orion Nebula provides a remarkable window on the first few million years in the lives of typical young stars and planetary systems. HST has demonstrated that most young stars in the Nebula are surrounded by circumstellar disks (the so-called `proplyds'). While these observations show that planet forming environments may be common, they also demonstrate that Orion's disks are being destroyed by intense UV radiation fields. `Gravel' sufficiently large to resist photo-erosion (meter scale solids or ices) may lock-up sufficient material to eventually build rocky planets. Indeed, there is evidence for large solids in some proplyds. But, the hydrogen and helium needed for the formation of giant planets will be removed. To form in Orion-like environments, giant planets must be assembled promptly prior to UV exposure. Even rocky planets may not form if the photoionized disk corona causes surviving large particles in the disk to spiral into the central star. Thus, nearby massive stars pose severe hazards to planet formation. Star counts indicate that most stars form in Orion-like environments. Only about 10% of young stars are born in shielded environments such as the Taurus or L1641 clouds where disks may escape photo-erosion. In dark clouds, the majority of stars (> 80%) form in non-hierarchal multiple star systems where close encounters with sibling stars can destroy disks and eject young planets. Thus, most stars may never develop planetary systems. These considerations indicate that extra-Solar planets may be rare, contrary to the popular view. These conclusions are consistent with the recent discoveries of extra-Solar planets around a few percent of single stars.

  10. Popular Culture and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Hilary Taylor

    1987-01-01

    Explores the origins and elements of popular culture--noting that English instruction and popular culture need not be mutually exclusive, and that selected materials from popular culture may serve goals of the English curriculum without compromising them. (NKA)

  11. Extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, J J; Marcy, G W; Ida, S

    2000-11-01

    The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems. PMID:11035782

  12. Extrasolar planets

    PubMed Central

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Ida, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems. PMID:11035782

  13. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  14. Defining popular iconic metaphor.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings. PMID:12061600

  15. Extreme Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the pulsar planet system discovered by Aleksander Wolszczan in 1992. Wolszczan used the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico to find three planets - the first of any kind ever found outside our solar system - circling a pulsar called PSR B1257+12. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars, which are the collapsed cores of exploded massive stars. They spin and pulse with radiation, much like a lighthouse beacon. Here, the pulsar's twisted magnetic fields are highlighted by the blue glow.

    All three pulsar planets are shown in this picture; the farthest two from the pulsar (closest in this view) are about the size of Earth. Radiation from charged pulsar particles would probably rain down on the planets, causing their night skies to light up with auroras similar to our Northern Lights. One such aurora is illustrated on the planet at the bottom of the picture.

    Since this landmark discovery, more than 160 extrasolar planets have been observed around stars that are burning nuclear fuel. The planets spotted by Wolszczan are still the only ones around a dead star. They also might be part of a second generation of planets, the first having been destroyed when their star blew up. The Spitzer Space Telescope's discovery of a dusty disk around a pulsar might represent the beginnings of a similarly 'reborn' planetary system.

  16. Conditions for oceans on Earth-like planets orbiting within the habitable zone: importance of volcanic CO{sub 2} degassing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadoya, S.; Tajika, E. E-mail: tajika@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-08-01

    Earth-like planets in the habitable zone (HZ) have been considered to have warm climates and liquid water on their surfaces if the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working as on Earth. However, it is known that even the present Earth may be globally ice-covered when the rate of CO{sub 2} degassing via volcanism becomes low. Here we discuss the climates of Earth-like planets in which the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working, with focusing particularly on insolation and the CO{sub 2} degassing rate. The climate of Earth-like planets within the HZ can be classified into three climate modes (hot, warm, and snowball climate modes). We found that the conditions for the existence of liquid water should be largely restricted even when the planet is orbiting within the HZ and the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working. We show that these conditions should depend strongly on the rate of CO{sub 2} degassing via volcanism. It is, therefore, suggested that thermal evolution of the planetary interiors will be a controlling factor for Earth-like planets to have liquid water on their surface.

  17. Outer Planets

    NASA Video Gallery

    Did you know that through NASA’s various satellite missions we have learned more about these planetary bodies in recent years than we knew collectively since we started to study our planets? Throu...

  18. Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klahr, Hubert; Brandner, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    1. Historical notes on planet formation Bodenheimer; 2. The formation and evolution of planetary systems Bouwman et al.; 3. Destruction of protoplanetary disks by photoevaporation Richling, Hollenbach and Yorke; 4. Turbulence in protoplanetary accretion disks Klahr, Rozyczka, Dziourkevitch, Wunsch and Johansen; 5. The origin of solids in the early solar system Trieloff and Palme; 6. Experiments on planetesimal formation Wurm and Blum; 7. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks Henning, Dullemond, Wolf and Dominik; 8. The accretion of giant planet cores Thommes and Duncan; 9. Planetary transits: direct vision of extrasolar planets Lecavelier des Etangs and Vidal-Madjar; 10. The core accretion - gas capture model Hubickyj; 11. Properties of exoplanets Marcy, Fischer, Butler and Vogt; 12. Giant planet formation: theories meet observations Boss; 13. From hot Jupiters to hot Neptures … and below Lovis, Mayor and Udry; 14. Disk-planet interaction and migration Masset and Kley; 15. The Brown Dwarf - planet relation Bate; 16. From astronomy to astrobiology Brandner; 17. Overview and prospective Lin.

  19. [Extrasolar terrestrial planets and possibility of extraterrestrial life].

    PubMed

    Ida, Shigeru

    2003-12-01

    Recent development of research on extrasolar planets are reviewed. About 120 extrasolar Jupiter-mass planets have been discovered through the observation of Doppler shift in the light of their host stars that is caused by acceleration due to planet orbital motions. Although the extrasolar planets so far observed may be limited to gas giant planets and their orbits differ from those of giant planets in our Solar system (Jupiter and Saturn), the theoretically predicted probability of existence of extrasolar terrestrial planets that can have liquid water ocean on their surface is comparable to that of detectable gas giant planets. Based on the number of extrasolar gas giants detected so far, about 100 life-sustainable planets may exist within a range of 200 light years. Indirect observation of extrasolar terrestrial planets would be done with space telescopes within several years and direct one may be done within 20 years. The latter can detect biomarkers on these planets as well. PMID:15136756

  20. Microlensing Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    The theory and practice of microlensing planet searches is developed in a systematic way, from an elementary treatment of the deflection of light by a massive body to a thorough discussion of the most recent results. The main concepts of planetary microlensing, including microlensing events, finite-source effects, and microlens parallax, are first introduced within the simpler context of point-lens events. These ideas are then applied to binary (and hence planetary) lenses and are integrated with concepts specific to binaries, including caustic topologies, orbital motion, and degeneracies, with an emphasis on analytic understanding. The most important results from microlensing planet searches are then reviewed, with emphasis both on understanding the historical process of discovery and the means by which scientific conclusions were drawn from light-curve analysis. Finally, the future prospects of microlensing planets searches are critically evaluated. Citations to original works provide the reader with multiple entry points into the literature.

  1. Pluto: Planet or "Dwarf Planet"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; de Araújo, M. S. T.

    2010-09-01

    In August 2006 during the XXVI General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), taken place in Prague, Czech Republic, new parameters to define a planet were established. According to this new definition Pluto will be no more the ninth planet of the Solar System but it will be changed to be a "dwarf planet". This reclassification of Pluto by the academic community clearly illustrates how dynamic science is and how knowledge of different areas can be changed and evolves through the time, allowing to perceive Science as a human construction in a constant transformation, subject to political, social and historical contexts. These epistemological characteristics of Science and, in this case, of Astronomy, constitute important elements to be discussed in the lessons, so that this work contributes to enable Science and Physics teachers who perform a basic education to be always up to date on this important astronomical fact and, thereby, carry useful information to their teaching.

  2. Binary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  3. Popularity Contagion among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Peter E. L.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to support the theory of popularity contagion, which posits that popularity spreads among friends spontaneously and regardless of behavioral changes. Peer nominations of status and behavior were collected annually between 6th and 12th grades from a total of 1062 adolescents. Longitudinal hypotheses were mostly supported using path…

  4. The Popular Culture Explosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B.; Madden, David

    Popular culture is defined here as anything produced by and/or dissembled by the mass media or mass production or transportation, either directly or indirectly, and that reaches the majority of the people. This sampler from mass magazines, intended for use in the study of popular culture, includes fiction from "Playboy"; articles on cars, Johnny…

  5. Popular Music Performance Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginocchio, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the creation and content of a high school course on popular music performance. Describes how the teacher decided on aspects of the course, such as student background, transcription exercises, the student report on a popular music artist, and opportunities for performance. Reflects on what the teacher learned from the experience. (CMK)

  6. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Print Read students’ most popular questions ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  7. The Role of Magma Ocean Material in the Formation and Evolution of Liquid-Metal Diapirs with Trailing Conduits During Differentiation of Planets and Large Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rains, C. L.; Weeraratne, D. S.

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the role of metal-silicate plumes with trailing conduits of entrained magma ocean material from large impacts in the differentiation of early bodies using a tri-fluid physical model with liquid gallium and glucose/salt solutions.

  8. A Planet Detection Tutorial and Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, David; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detection of extra-solar planets has been a very popular topic with the general public for years. Considerable media coverage of recent detections (currently at about 50) has only heightened the interest in the topic. School children are particularly interested in learning about recent astronomical discoveries. Scientists have the knowledge and responsibility to present this information in both an understandable and interesting format. Most classrooms and homes are now connected to the internet, which can be utilized to provide more than a traditional 'flat' presentation. An interactive software package on planet detection has been developed. The major topics include: "1996 - The Break Through Year In Planet Detection"; "What Determines If A Planet Is Habitable?"; "How Can We Find Other Planets (Search Methods)"; "All About the Kepler Mission: How To Find Terrestrial Planets"; and "A Planet Detection Simulator". Using the simulator, the student records simulated observations and then analyzes and interprets the data within the program. One can determine the orbit and planet size, the planet's temperature and surface gravity, and finally determine if the planet is habitable. Originally developed for the Macintosh, a web based browser version is being developed.

  9. Extrasolar Planets and Prospects for Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Fischer, Debra A.

    2004-06-01

    Examination of ˜2000 sun--like stars has revealed 97 planets (as of 2002 Nov), all residing within our Milky Way Galaxy and within ˜200 light years of our Solar System. They have masses between 0.1 and 10 times that of Jupiter, and orbital sizes of 0.05--5 AU. Thus planets occupy the entire detectable domain of mass and orbits. News &summaries about extrasolar planets are provided at: http://exoplanets.org. These planets were all discovered by the wobble of the host stars, induced gravitationally by the planets, causing a periodicity in the measured Doppler effect of the starlight. Earth--mass planets remain undetectable, but space--based missions such as Kepler, COROT and SIM may provide detections of terrestrial planets within the next decade. The number of planets increases with decreasing planet mass, indicating that nature makes more small planets than jupiter--mass planets. Extrapolation, though speculative, bodes well for an even larger number of earth--mass planets. These observations and the theory of planet formation suggests that single sun--like stars commonly harbor earth--sized rocky planets, as yet undetectable. The number of planets increases with increasing orbital distance from the host star, and most known planets reside in non--circular orbits. Many known planets reside in the habitable zone (albeit being gas giants) and most newly discovered planets orbit beyond 1 AU from their star. A population of Jupiter--like planets may reside at 5--10 AU from stars, not easily detectable at present. The sun--like star 55 Cancri harbors a planet of 4--10 Jupiter masses orbiting at 5.5 AU in a low eccentricity orbit, the first analog of our Jupiter, albeit with two large planets orbiting inward. To date, 10 multiple--planet systems have been discovered, with four revealing gravitational interactions between the planets in the form of resonances. GJ 876 has two planets with periods of 1 and 2 months. Other planetary systems are ``hierarchical'', consisting

  10. Barnard’s Star: Planets or Pretense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Ianna, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Barnard’s Star remains popular with planet hunters because it is not only an extremely near, high proper motion star, but also the object of early planet-detection claims. In 1963, van de Kamp explained perturbations in its proper motion by the presence of a planet. In 1969, he produced another single-planet solution and a two-planet solution to the astrometric wobbles detected. At least 19 studies have failed to confirm his results using a range of techniques, including radial velocity, direct imaging, and speckle interferometry. However, most of them lacked the sensitivity to detect the planets he described, including astrometric studies at the McCormick and Naval Observatories. However, radial-velocity monitoring of Barnard’s Star at Lick and Keck Observatories from 1987 through 2012 appears to have ruled out such planets. Based upon observations made at the Sproul Observatory between 1916 and 1962, van de Kamp claimed that Barnard’s Star had a planet with about 1.6 times the mass of Jupiter and an orbital period of 24 years. After accounting for instrumentation effects that might have been partially responsible for his initial results, he continued to assert that this red dwarf had two planets. In his 1982 analysis of ~20,000 exposures collected between 1938 and 1981, he calculated that two planets with 0.7- and 0.5-Jupiter masses in 12- and 20-year orbits, respectively, orbited the second-closest stellar system to our own. Starting in 1995, the dramatic successes of radial velocity searches for extrasolar planets drove van de Kamp’s unsubstantiated claims from popular consciousness. Although many low-mass stellar companions were discovered through astrometry, the technique has been less successful for planets: “The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia” identifies one such discovery out of the 997 planets listed on 2013 September 23. Although Barnard’s Star has lost its pretensions to hosting the first extrasolar planets known, its intrinsic

  11. Popularity in Wonderland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, J.S.

    Specialists in the field of children's literature, who publish research and decide on awards for individual books, should give serious study to what children themselves choose to read. Among the children's books that were not originally awarded top honors by critics but that have proved extremely popular with children are the Oz books by L. Frank…

  12. Popular Music in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Georgette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the recent concern over the imbalanced international flow of cultural products into Taiwan--such as films, television programs, and news from developed to developing nations--as it has fed the apprehension that imported popular music may have socialized Taiwanese audiences with alien values and ethics. (JD)

  13. Exploring Planet Sizes

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson combines a series of activities to compare models of the size of Earth to other planets and the distances to other planets. Activities highlight space missions to other planets in our s...

  14. Exploring the Living Planet with David Attenborough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Jacquelin; Unwin, David

    1984-01-01

    In this interview David Attenborough, the celebrated natural history film maker and writer, talks about his highly successful television series, "The Living Planet." Devoted to the exposition of the world's ecosystems, the film represents a significant example of popular geographic education. (RM)

  15. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2009-07-10

    We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

  16. Dance of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    As students continue their monthly plotting of the planets along the ecliptic they should start to notice differences between inner and outer planet orbital motions, and their relative position or separation from the Sun. Both inner and outer planets have direct eastward motion, as well as retrograde motion. Inner planets Mercury and Venus,…

  17. Ocean Robotic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, Oscar

    2012-05-23

    We live on an ocean planet which is central to regulating the Earth’s climate and human society. Despite the importance of understanding the processes operating in the ocean, it remains chronically undersampled due to the harsh operating conditions. This is problematic given the limited long term information available about how the ocean is changing. The changes include rising sea level, declining sea ice, ocean acidification, and the decline of mega fauna. While the changes are daunting, oceanography is in the midst of a technical revolution with the expansion of numerical modeling techniques, combined with ocean robotics. Operating together, these systems represent a new generation of ocean observatories. I will review the evolution of these ocean observatories and provide a few case examples of the science that they enable, spanning from the waters offshore New Jersey to the remote waters of the Southern Ocean.

  18. Popular perceptions of Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, Dava

    2010-01-01

    Among the most persistent popular misperceptions of Galileo is the image of an irreligious scientist who opposed the Catholic Church and was therefore convicted of heresy-was even excommunicated, according to some accounts, and denied Christian burial. In fact, Galileo considered himself a good Catholic. He accepted the Bible as the true word of God on matters pertaining to salvation, but insisted Scripture did not teach astronomy. Emboldened by his discovery of the Medicean Moons, he took a stand on Biblical exegesis that has since become the official Church position.

  19. Our Changing Planet: The View From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, Venkat

    2008-10-01

    Through the use of satellite and aircraft-acquired images, color photographs, and scientific analysis, Our Changing Planet: The View From Space takes a look at the four components of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the land surface, the oceans, and the cryosphere. The book also highlights signatures of global climate change and human intervention on Earth system variables and processes.

  20. The origin of life from primordial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.; Schild, Rudolph E.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-04-01

    The origin of life and the origin of the Universe are among the most important problems of science and they might be inextricably linked. Hydro-gravitational-dynamics cosmology predicts hydrogen-helium gas planets in clumps as the dark matter of galaxies, with millions of planets per star. This unexpected prediction is supported by quasar microlensing of a galaxy and a flood of new data from space telescopes. Supernovae from stellar over-accretion of planets produce the chemicals (C, N, O, P, etc.) and abundant liquid-water domains required for first life and the means for wide scattering of life prototypes. Life originated following the plasma-to-gas transition between 2 and 20 Myr after the big bang, while planetary core oceans were between critical and freezing temperatures, and interchanges of material between planets constituted essentially a cosmological primordial soup. Images from optical, radio and infrared space telescopes suggest life on Earth was neither first nor inevitable.

  1. Comparative phylogeography of the ocean planet

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Brian W.; Gaither, Michelle R.; DiBattista, Joseph D.; Iacchei, Matthew; Andrews, Kimberly R.; Grant, W. Stewart; Toonen, Robert J.; Briggs, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how geography, oceanography, and climate have ultimately shaped marine biodiversity requires aligning the distributions of genetic diversity across multiple taxa. Here, we examine phylogeographic partitions in the sea against a backdrop of biogeographic provinces defined by taxonomy, endemism, and species composition. The taxonomic identities used to define biogeographic provinces are routinely accompanied by diagnostic genetic differences between sister species, indicating interspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. In cases where individual species are distributed across two or more biogeographic provinces, shifts in genotype frequencies often align with biogeographic boundaries, providing intraspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. Here, we provide examples of comparative phylogeography from (i) tropical seas that host the highest marine biodiversity, (ii) temperate seas with high productivity but volatile coastlines, (iii) migratory marine fauna, and (iv) plankton that are the most abundant eukaryotes on earth. Tropical and temperate zones both show impacts of glacial cycles, the former primarily through changing sea levels, and the latter through coastal habitat disruption. The general concordance between biogeography and phylogeography indicates that the population-level genetic divergences observed between provinces are a starting point for macroevolutionary divergences between species. However, isolation between provinces does not account for all marine biodiversity; the remainder arises through alternative pathways, such as ecological speciation and parapatric (semiisolated) divergences within provinces and biodiversity hotspots. PMID:27432963

  2. Comparative phylogeography of the ocean planet.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Brian W; Gaither, Michelle R; DiBattista, Joseph D; Iacchei, Matthew; Andrews, Kimberly R; Grant, W Stewart; Toonen, Robert J; Briggs, John C

    2016-07-19

    Understanding how geography, oceanography, and climate have ultimately shaped marine biodiversity requires aligning the distributions of genetic diversity across multiple taxa. Here, we examine phylogeographic partitions in the sea against a backdrop of biogeographic provinces defined by taxonomy, endemism, and species composition. The taxonomic identities used to define biogeographic provinces are routinely accompanied by diagnostic genetic differences between sister species, indicating interspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. In cases where individual species are distributed across two or more biogeographic provinces, shifts in genotype frequencies often align with biogeographic boundaries, providing intraspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. Here, we provide examples of comparative phylogeography from (i) tropical seas that host the highest marine biodiversity, (ii) temperate seas with high productivity but volatile coastlines, (iii) migratory marine fauna, and (iv) plankton that are the most abundant eukaryotes on earth. Tropical and temperate zones both show impacts of glacial cycles, the former primarily through changing sea levels, and the latter through coastal habitat disruption. The general concordance between biogeography and phylogeography indicates that the population-level genetic divergences observed between provinces are a starting point for macroevolutionary divergences between species. However, isolation between provinces does not account for all marine biodiversity; the remainder arises through alternative pathways, such as ecological speciation and parapatric (semiisolated) divergences within provinces and biodiversity hotspots. PMID:27432963

  3. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

  4. Peeking at the Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Provides information about each of the planets in our solar system. Focuses on information related to the space missions that have visited or flown near each planet, and includes a summary of what is known about some of the features of each planet. (DDR)

  5. Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

  6. Kepler Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler has vastly increased our knowledge of planets and planetary systems located close to stars. The new data shows surprising results for planetary abundances, planetary spacings and the distribution of planets on a mass-radius diagram. The implications of these results for theories of planet formation will be discussed.

  7. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Koczor, Ron; Lee, Jonathan; Grady, Kevin J.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Njoku, Eni G.

    1990-01-01

    To preserve the earth, it is necessary to understand the tremendously complex interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land, and man's activities deeply enough to construct models that can predict the consequences of our actions and help us make sound environmental, energy, agriculture, and economic decisions. Mission to Planet Earth is NASA's suggested share and the centerpiece of the U.S. contribution to understanding the environment, the Global Change Research Program. The first major element of the mission would be the Earth Observing System, which would give the simultaneous, comprehensive, long-term earth coverage lacking previously. NASA's Geosynchronous Earth Observatory with two additional similar spacecraft would be orbited by the U.S., plus one each by Japan and the European Space Agency. These would be the first geostationary satellites to span all the disciplines of the earth sciences. A number of diverse data gathering payloads are also planned to be carried aboard the Polar Orbiting Platform. Making possible the long, continuous observations planned and coping with the torrent of data acquired will require technical gains across a wide front. Finally, how all this data is consolidated and disseminated by the EOS Data and Information System is discussed.

  8. Tomorrow's Forecast: Oceans and Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigielski, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on weather and climate and is tied to the traveling exhibition Ocean Planet from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The lessons encourage students to think about the profound influence the oceans have on planetary climate and life on earth. Sections of the lesson plan include: (1) "Ocean…

  9. Planet Demographics from Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    From the demographics of planets detected by the Kepler mission, we have learned that there exists approximately one planet per star for planets larger than Earth orbiting inside of 1 AU. We have also learned the relative occurrence of these planets as a function of their orbital periods, sizes, and host star masses and metallicities. In this talk I will review the key statistical findings that the planet size distribution peaks in the range 1-3 times Earth-size, the orbital period distribution is characterized by a power-law cut off at short periods, small planets are more prevalent around small stars, and that approximately 20% of Sun-like stars hosts a planet 1-2 times Earth-size in a habitable zone. Looking forward, I will describe analysis of photometry from the K2 mission that is yielding initial planet discoveries and offering the opportunity to measure planet occurrence in widely separated regions of the galaxy. Finally, I will also discuss recent techniques to discover transiting planets in space-based photometry and to infer planet population properties from the ensemble of detected and non-detected transit signals.

  10. Kepler's missing planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the distributions of the orbital period ratios of adjacent planets in high-multiplicity Kepler systems (four or more planets) and low-multiplicity systems (two planets). Modelling the low-multiplicity sample as essentially equivalent to the high-multiplicity sample, but with unobserved intermediate planets, we find some evidence for an excess of planet pairs between the 2:1 and 3:1 mean-motion resonances in the low-multiplicity sample. This possible excess may be the result of strong dynamical interactions near these or other resonances or it may be a byproduct of other evolutionary events or processes such as planetary collisions. Three-planet systems show a significant excess of planets near the 2:1 mean-motion resonance that is not as prominent in either of the other samples. This observation may imply a correlation between strong dynamical interactions and observed planet number - perhaps a relationship between resonance pairs and the inclinations or orbital periods of additional planets. The period ratio distributions can also be used to identify targets to search for missing planets in the each of the samples, the presence or absence of which would have strong implications for planet formation and dynamical evolution models.

  11. DETECTING VOLCANISM ON EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D. D.; Henning, W. G.

    2010-11-15

    The search for extrasolar rocky planets has already found the first transiting rocky super-Earth, Corot 7b, with a surface temperature that allows for magma oceans. Here, we investigate whether we could distinguish rocky planets with recent major volcanism by remote observation. We develop a model for volcanic eruptions on an Earth-like exoplanet based on the present-day Earth and derive the observable features in emergent and transmission spectra for multiple scenarios of gas distribution and cloud cover. We calculate the observation time needed to detect explosive volcanism on exoplanets in primary as well as secondary eclipse and discuss the likelihood of observing volcanism on transiting Earth-sized to super-Earth-sized exoplanets. We find that sulfur dioxide from large explosive eruptions does present a spectral signal that is remotely detectable especially for secondary eclipse measurements around the closest stars and ground-based telescopes, and report the frequency and magnitude of the expected signatures. The transit probability of a planet in the habitable zone decreases with distance from the host star, making small, nearby host stars the best targets.

  12. The SARG Planet Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Endl, M.; Fiorenzano, A. F. Martinez; Barbieri, M.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Scuderi, S.; Bonavita, M.

    The search for planets in multiple systems allows to improve our knowledge of planet formation and evolution. On one hand, the frequency of planets in binary systems has a strong effect on the global frequency of planets, as more than half of solar-type stars are in binary or multiple systems (Duquennoy and Mayor 1991). On the other hand, the properties of planets in binaries, and their differences with the properties of the planets orbiting single stars, would shed light on the effects caused by the presence of the companion stars. Indeed, the first analysis of the properties of planets in binaries showed the occurrence of some differences with respect to those orbiting single stars (Zucker and Mazeh 2002; Eggenberger et al. 2004).

  13. Satisfaction Analysis of Experiential Learning-Based Popular Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzan, Wei-Yuan; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2015-01-01

    This study employed Kolb's experiential learning model-specific experiences, observations of reflections, abstract conceptualization, and experiment-action in activities to serve as the theoretical basis for popular science education planning. It designed the six activity themes of "Knowledge of the Ocean, Easy to Know, See the Large from the…

  14. American Civilization--Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol F.

    This syllabus introduces the purposes and organization of a course on Popular Culture as evidence of American civilization offered at Meramec Community College. The guide first presents a rationale for the study of popular culture and then lists course requirements; discusses techniques such as comparative analysis and psychoanalytic investigation…

  15. Popular Music: An Ongoing Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutietta, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses tendencies to force popular music into existing school music program formats, rather than include it as a form with its own musical integrity and authenticity. Urges music teachers not to dismiss popular music or turn it into elevator music. (CH)

  16. New Dimensions in Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Russel B., Ed.

    This document contains fifteen essays which study some of the didactic, moralistic literature which was popular in nineteenth century America, and speculate about the culture from which the literature evolved. The essays include "Millions of Moral Little Books: Sunday School Books in Their Popular Context"; "Nineteenth Century Gift Books: A…

  17. Rethinking Popular Culture and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

  18. Terrestrial planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (∼106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  19. Terrestrial planet formation.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  20. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    PubMed

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope. PMID:26159097

  1. Life-sustaining planets in interstellar space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    1999-07-01

    During planet formation, rock and ice embryos of the order of Earth's mass may be formed, some of which may be ejected from the Solar System as they scatter gravitationally from proto-giant planets. These bodies can retain atmospheres rich in molecular hydrogen which, upon cooling, can have basal pressures of 102 to 104 bars. Pressure-induced far-infrared opacity of H2 may prevent these bodies from eliminating internal radioactive heat except by developing an extensive adiabatic (with no loss or gain of heat) convective atmosphere. This means that, although the effective temperature of the body is around 30 K, its surface temperature can exceed the melting point of water. Such bodies may therefore have water oceans whose surface pressure and temperature are like those found at the base of Earth's oceans. Such potential homes for life will be difficult to detect.

  2. Popular Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Dale

    2004-01-01

    Traditional and innovative elements such as bells and music with quick pacing accented by a voice that students could recognize is used to effortlessly bring students to the classroom. Popular culture is shown to work well using classroom examples.

  3. Racist Ideology and Popular Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshment, Margaret

    1978-01-01

    Three popular modern British novelists are compared in terms of their treatment of the ideology of racism. Racism in fiction is seen not only to reflect current social forces, but also to have influence upon society. (Author/GC)

  4. Planets in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    All the planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun in the same direction, clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole. This is referred to as direct motion. From the perspective on the Earth's surface, the planets travel east across the sky in relation to the background of stars. The Sun also moves eastward daily, but this is an…

  5. March of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The motion of the planets in their orbits can be demonstrated to students by using planetarium software programs. These allow time to be sped up so that the relative motions are readily observed. However, it is also valuable to have the students understand the real speed of the planets in their orbits. This paper describes an exercise that gives…

  6. Name That Planet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Judy; Rust, Cindy

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students in groups explore one planet in the solar system and present their findings to the whole class. Focuses on the planet's location in the solar system, geological features, rate of revolutions, and calendar year. (YDS)

  7. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    stimulate further research on this critical subject. The study of climate involves much more than understanding atmospheric processes. This subtlety is particularly appreciated for Earth, where chemical cycles, geology, ocean influences, and biology are considered in most climate models. In Part IV, Surface and Interior, we look at the role that geochemical cycles, volcanism, and interior mantle processes play in the stability and evolution of terrestrial planetary climates. There is one vital commonality between the climates of all the planets of the solar system: Regardless of the different processes that dominate each of the climates of Earth, Mars, Venus, and Titan, they are all ultimately forced by radiation from the same star, albeit at variable distances. In Part V, Solar Influences, we discuss how the Sun's early evolution affected the climates of the terrestrial planets, and how it continues to control the temperatures and compositions of planetary atmospheres. This will be of particular interest as models of exoplanets, and the influences of much different stellar types and distances, are advanced by further observations. Comparisons of atmospheric and climate processes between the planets in our solar system has been a focus of numerous conferences over the past decade, including the Exoclimes conference series. In particular, this book project was closely tied to a conference on Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets that was held in Boulder, Colorado, on June 25-28, 2012. This book benefited from the opportunity for the author teams to interact and obtain feedback from the broader community, but the chapters do not in general tie directly to presentations at the conference. The conference, which was organized by a diverse group of atmospheric and climate scientists led by Mark Bullock and Lori Glaze, sought to build connections between the various communities, focusing on synergies and complementary capabilities. Discussion panels at the end of most

  8. Formation of giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magni, G.; Coradini, A.

    2003-04-01

    In this presentation we address the problem of the formation of giant planets and their regular satellites. We study in particular the problem of formation of the Jupiter System comparing the results of the model with the present characteristics of the system, in order to identify what are those better represented by our approach. In fact here, using a 3-D hydro-dynamical code, we study the modalities of gas accretion onto a solid core, believed to be the seed from which Jupiter started. To do that we have modelled three main regions: the central planet, a turbulent accretion disk surrounding it and an extended region from which the gas is collected. In the extended region we treat the gas as a frictionless fluid. Our main goal is to identify what are the characteristics of the planet during its growth and the physical parameters affecting its growth at the expenses of the nebular gas present in the feeding zone. Moreover we want to understand what are the thermodynamical parameters characterizing the gas captured by the planet and swirling around it. Finally, we check if a disk can be formed in prograde rotation around the planet and if this disk can survive the final phases of the planet formation. Due to the interaction between the accreting planet and the disk it has been necessary to develop a complete model of the Jupiter’s structure. In fact the radiation emitted by the growing planet heats up the surrounding gas. In turn the planet’s thermodynamic structure depend on the mass accretion rate onto it. When the accretion is rapid, shock waves in the gas are formed close to the planet. This region cannot be safely treated by a numerical code; for this reason we have developed a semi-analytically model of a a turbulent accretion disk to be considered as transition between the planet and the surrounding disk.

  9. Popularizing Space Education in Indian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalagi, Amrut

    Indians have many mythological stories about many constellations and stars. Hindu months are based on MOON and 27 stars on Zodiac. They are very important for many Indians in ritual, religious functions. By prompting them to identify their birth star, really makes them elevated. Similarly conveying them the importance of star gazing with respect to their day today life makes them to take interest and active participation in Space Activities. Space activities should be driven by public; their requirements; their dreams and imaginations. Their active participation definitely gives valuable inputs to space scientists. Hence, there is a need of involving common man or public mass by appropriate motivation by organising sky gazing sessions, exhibitions, workshops, etc. In this connection, even if the some organisation are able to attract a small percent of qualified engineers/scientists,, enthusiastic students, it would result in the creation of a sizable pool of talent in space sciences,which may well determine the future mankind on this planet. Some simple motivation acts have made the people to take interest in space. we have been using certain methodologies to popularize space science - 1] Conducting theory sessions on basics of star gazing and conveying importance of sky gazing with respect to day-today life. 2] Organising seminars, workshops, lectures and other academic/popular science activities with special reference to space science 3] Projects - a] Cubsat Missions b] Automatic Weather Station Facility c] Model making d] Creating and simulating space models and rover making competitions. The 50 year's of Exploration has left tremendous impact on many society's working towards space education and exploration.

  10. Popular Culture and the Teaching of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This issue of the "Arizona English Bulletin" contains 38 articles related to popular culture and the teaching of English. The articles discuss such topics as language in the popular arts, establishing a popular culture library, defining sexism in popular culture, detective literature and its uses in the traditional classroom, popular literature as…

  11. Global stratigraphy. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Scott, David H.; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to recent major advances in the definition and documentation of Martian stratigraphy and geology. Mariner 9 provided the images for the first global geologic mapping program, resulting in the recognition of the major geologic processes that have operated on the planet, and in the definition of the three major chronostratigraphic divisions: the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian Systems. Viking Orbiter images permitted the recognition of additional geologic units and the formal naming of many formations. Epochs are assigned absolute ages based on the densities of superposed craters and crater-flux models. Recommendations are made with regard to future areas of study, namely, crustal stratigraphy and structure, the highland-lowland boundary, the Tharsis Rise, Valles Marineris, channels and valley networks, and possible Martian oceans, lakes, and ponds.

  12. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James; Palmer, David; Doyon, Rene; Gavel, Don; Larkin, James; Oppenheimer, Ben; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Wallace, J. Kent; Bauman, Brian; Evans, Julia; Erikson, Darren; Morzinski, Katie; Phillion, Donald; Poyneer, Lisa; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi; Thibault, Simon; Veran, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10 -7 to 10 -8, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  13. The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  14. Planet formation and searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Ryan Michael

    2009-08-01

    This thesis explores the possibilities for discovery of terrestrial-mass planets in the habitable zones of their host stars. Towards this aim, we present the results of three projects and discuss another two preliminary studies of further explorations. In so doing, we explore a fairly comprehensive range of possibilities regarding the formation and detection of terrestrial- mass planets in the habitable zone. We first study the potential for terrestrial planets to form in situ in and around the habitable zones of M-dwarf stars. We proceed to explore the feasibility of searches for these planets using the transit method via Monte- Carlo simulations. We find that M-dwarfs pose an interesting challenge for study: being inherently dim, widely spread on the sky, and photometrically variable. We present results of simulated ground-based transit search campaigns as well as simulated searches from a modest satellite mission. Our second project is a straightforward extension of the previous study: a collaborative effort to search for transit signals around the nearest M-dwarf: Proxima Centauri. We describe our observations as well as the Monte-Carlo analysis used to place constraints on the possible planetary radii and periods. Our third project is a search for transiting extra-solar Jovian planets using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. We search through the private Keck radial- velocity datasets for undiscovered Rossiter-McLaughlin signals. We present our results in the form of both strong null-result datasets as well as potential transiting systems. We then briefly analyze these larger Jovian planets for potential to harbor potentially habitable terrestrial satellites. Our final preliminary analysis looks into the potential for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope to detect transiting Neptune-mass planets orbiting M-dwarfs which could then lead to terrestrial-mass planet detections. The sum of these efforts is a comprehensive investigation into the likelihood and

  15. Possibilities for the detection of microbial life on extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Knacke, Roger F

    2003-01-01

    We consider possibilities for the remote detection of microbial life on extrasolar planets. The Darwin/Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) telescope concepts for observations of terrestrial planets focus on indirect searches for life through the detection of atmospheric gases related to life processes. Direct detection of extraterrestrial life may also be possible through well-designed searches for microbial life forms. Satellites in Earth orbit routinely monitor colonies of terrestrial algae in oceans and lakes by analysis of reflected ocean light in the visible region of the spectrum. These remote sensing techniques suggest strategies for extrasolar searches for signatures of chlorophylls and related photosynthetic compounds associated with life. However, identification of such life-related compounds on extrasolar planets would require observations through strong, interfering absorptions and scattering radiances from the remote atmospheres and landmasses. Techniques for removal of interfering radiances have been extensively developed for remote sensing from Earth orbit. Comparable techniques would have to be developed for extrasolar planet observations also, but doing so would be challenging for a remote planet. Darwin/TPF coronagraph concepts operating in the visible seem to be best suited for searches for extrasolar microbial life forms with instruments that can be projected for the 2010-2020 decades, although resolution and signal-to-noise ratio constraints severely limit detection possibilities on terrestrial-type planets. The generation of telescopes with large apertures and extremely high spatial resolutions that will follow Darwin/TPF could offer striking possibilities for the direct detection of extrasolar microbial life. PMID:14678662

  16. The planets and life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  17. Kepler's Multiple Planet Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Among the 1800 Kepler targets that have candidate planets, 20% have two or more candidate planets. While most of these objects have not yet been confirmed as true planets, several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations (assuming a nominal mass-radius relationship). Statistical studies performed on these candidates reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness of planetary systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. The characteristics of the confirmed Kepler multi-planet systems will also be discussed.

  18. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This presentation highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines around "mystery planets" using orbiting "spacecraft" (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle/high school age audiences. However, we also show a scaled-down version that has been used with elementary school age audiences.

  19. Managing Planet Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the human use of the planet earth. Describes the global patterns and the regional aspects of change. Four requirements for the cultivation of leadership and institutional competence are suggested. Lists five references for further reading. (YP)

  20. Students Discover Unique Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public

  1. Planets Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolszczan, Alexander; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Anderson, Stuart B.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this proposal was to continue investigations of neutron star planetary systems in an effort to describe and understand their origin, orbital dynamics, basic physical properties and their relationship to planets around normal stars. This research represents an important element of the process of constraining the physics of planet formation around various types of stars. The research goals of this project included long-term timing measurements of the planets pulsar, PSR B1257+12, to search for more planets around it and to study the dynamics of the whole system, and sensitive searches for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of old, rapidly spinning neutron stars with planetary systems. The instrumentation used in our project included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the 100-m Green Bank Telescope with the Berkeley- Caltech Pulsar Machine (BCPM), and the 100-m Effelsberg and 64-m Parkes telescopes equipped with the observatory supplied backend hardware.

  2. The planet Saturn (1970)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The present-day knowledge on Saturn and its environment are described for designers of spacecraft which are to encounter and investigate the planet. The discussion includes physical properties of the planet, gravitational field, magnetic and electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, satellites and meteoroids, the ring system, charged particles, atmospheric composition and structure, and clouds and atmospheric motions. The environmental factors which have pertinence to spacecraft design criteria are also discussed.

  3. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  4. Atmospheres of Jovian Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanover, Nancy

    The giant planets of the solar system have been studied for centuries using a wide range of remote sensing and in situ techniques. An understanding of the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune has dramatically improved since the dawn of spacecraft exploration of the outer solar system in the 1970s. Cloud decks that were predicted to exist from thermochemical equilibrium arguments have been observationally confirmed, although the exact vertical distribution of condensible species in these atmospheres remains an active area of study. All four of the giant planets have fast zonal (east-west) winds with prograde and retrograde jets, which dominate their atmospheric circulations. Each planet also contains long-lived cyclonic features or convective cloud features that appear and disappear on short timescales. These features suggest a link between the energy transport in the deep atmosphere and the visible cloud tops; the exact nature of this connection remains an outstanding question in giant planet atmosphere studies. The chemistry of the giant planet atmospheres is driven by both the convective processes that loft disequilibrium species from the deep atmosphere into the stratosphere and the interaction between stratospheric materials and ultraviolet sunlight. A unique opportunity to study these interactions was presented to planetary scientists in 1994, when the 22 fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacted Jupiter. The future of giant planet atmospheric studies is promising. Several mission concepts that will answer fundamental questions regarding giant planet atmospheres are in various stages of development, and the James Webb Space Telescope will also contribute especially to our understanding of Uranus and Neptune. As an understanding of giant planet formation and evolution expands and deepens, these knowledge gains must be examined against the backdrop of the numerous exoplanet systems recently discovered, very few of which resemble our own.

  5. The planet Mercury (1971)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  6. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, J. R.; Palmer, D.; Doyon, R.; Larkin, J.; Oppenheimer, B.; Saddlemyer, L.; Veran, J.; Wallace, J. K.; Gemini Planet Imager Team

    2007-12-01

    Direct detection of extrasolar planets would be a major step in the study of other solar systems, sensitive to planets beyond the period cutoff of Doppler surveys. Furthermore, such planets can be spectrally characterized to measure temperature, gravity, and perhaps composition, shedding light on planet formation and evolution. Surveys of 50-100 young stars with current generation AO systems have excluded the presence of massive (2-10 MJ), young (? Myr) planets in wide (? AU) orbits, but to probe 5-20 AU scales around a large sample of target stars will require dedicated next-generation instruments. One such facility will be the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). It combines a 2000-actuator adaptive optics system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 9. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets - opening up a new field in the characterization of the environments of nearby stars. I will present an overview of the instrument design and its scientific capabilities. GPI is currently in the design phase, scheduled for deployment as a facility instrument on the Gemini South telescope in early 2011. Portions of this work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership.

  7. Planets' magnetic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzerotti, L.J.; Uberoi, C.

    1989-02-01

    The magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and comets and the heliomagnetosphere are examined. The orientations of the planetary spin and magnetic axes, the size of the magnetospheres, and the magnetic properties and the radio emissions of the planets are compared. Results from spacecraft studies of the planets are included. Plans for the Voyager 2 mission and its expected study of the Neptune magnetosphere are considered.

  8. Transit of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

  9. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  10. Popular Music in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Peter G.; Roberts, Donald F.

    This paper examines young adolescents' involvement with popular music and the health implications of that involvement. Initial discussion explores three central concepts: music media, adolescence, and mass media effects. A summary of research on music media in adolescence is offereed in two sections discussing exposure to, and gratifications and…

  11. Teaching the French Popular Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Irwin M.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the French Popular Front of 1936 as a vehicle to investigate the turbulent decade of the 1930s. Reviews current historiography and discusses various facets of Leon Blum's government, examining the interrelationship of major economic and political forces. Concludes that the French Left still faces Blum's dilemma of implementing socialism…

  12. Arab Stereotypes in Popular Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Janice J.

    1983-01-01

    Most popular fictional plots involving the Middle East--adventure stories, espionage, and themes of Western dependency on Arab oil--portray the Israelies as the good guys and the Arabs as the villians. People must be made aware that fictional literature is prejudiced and racially biased against Arabs. (RM)

  13. In Defense of Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Steven R.

    In his book "The Closing of the American Mind," Allan Bloom criticizes popular music for the "emptiness of its values." It has only one appeal, says Bloom, "a barbaric appeal, to sexual desire--not love, not eros, but sexual desire, undeveloped and untutored." However, to say "rock music is this or that" is a proposition that quickly crumbles…

  14. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  15. Building a virtual planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, V. S.

    2002-01-01

    The virtual Planetary Laboratory (VPL) is a recently funded 5-yr project, which seeks toimprove our understanding of the range of plausible environments and the likely signatures for life on extrasolar terrestrial planets. To achieve these goals we are developing a suite of innovative modeling tools to simulate the environments and spectra of extrasolar planets. The core of the VPL IS a coupled radiative transfer/climate/chemistry model, which is augmented by interchangeable modules which characterize geological, exogenic, atmospheric escape, and life processes. The VPL is validated using data derived from terrestrial planets within our own solar system. The VPL will be used to explore the plausible range of atmospheric composittions and globally averaged spectra for extrasolar planets and for early Earth, and will improve our understanding of the effect of life on a planet's atmospheric spectrum and composition. The models will also be used to create a comprehensive spectral catalog to provide recommendations on the optimum wavelength range, spectral resolution, and instrument sensitivity required to characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets. Although developed by our team, the VPL is envisioned to be a comprehensive and flexible tool, which can be collaboratively used by the broader planetary science and astrobiology communities. This presentation will describe the project concept, the tasks involved, and will outline current progress to date. This work is funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

  16. The deep ocean under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems.

  17. All for the Planet, the Planet for everyone!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndarski, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The Eco-Musketeers are unique voluntary group of students. They have been established in Belgrade, in Primary school 'Drinka Pavlović'. Since the founding in year 2000, Eco-Musketeers have been involved in peer and citizens education guided by motto: All for the planet, the planet for all! Main goals of this group are spreading and popularization of environmental approach as well as gaining knowledge through collaborative projects and research. A great number of students from other schools in Serbia have joined Eco-Musketeers in observations aiming to better understand the problem of global climate change. In the past several years Eco-Musketeers have also participated in many national and international projects related to the active citizenship and rising the awareness of the importance of biodiversity and environment for sustainable development of society. In this presentation we will show some of the main activities, eco-performances and actions of our organization related to the environment, biodiversity, conservation and recycling, such as: spring cleaning the streets of Belgrade, cleaning the Sava and the Danube river banks, removing insect moth pupae in the area of Lipovica forest near Belgrade. Also, Eco-Musketeers worked on education of employees of Coca-Cola HBC Serbia about energy efficiency. All the time, we have working on raising public awareness of the harmful effects of plastic bags on the environment, too. In order to draw attention on rare and endangered species in Serbia and around the globe, there were several performing street-plays about biodiversity and also the plays about the water ecological footprint. Eco-Musketeers also participated in international projects Greenwave-signs of spring (Fibonacci project), European Schools For A Living Planet (WWF Austria and Erste stiftung) and Eco Schools. The eco dream of Eco-Musketeers is to influence the Government of the Republic of Serbia to determine and declare a 'green habits week'. This should

  18. The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, L. J.; Seager, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we examine what can be learned about extrasolar planet atmospheres by concentrating on a class of planets that transit their parent stars. As discussed in the previous chapter, one way of detecting an extrasolar planet is by observing the drop in stellar intensity as the planet passes in front of the star. A transit represents a special case in which the geometry of the planetary system is such that the planet s orbit is nearly edge-on as seen from Earth. As we will explore, the transiting planets provide opportunities for detailed follow-up observations that allow physical characterization of extrasolar planets, probing their bulk compositions and atmospheres.

  19. Extrasolar binary planets. I. Formation by tidal capture during planet-planet scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ochiai, H.; Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S.

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated (1) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call 'binary planets') from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and (2) the subsequent long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star quasi-static tides. For the initial evolution in phase 1, we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three Jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing, and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semimajor axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semimajor axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by long-term quasi-static tide. We analytically calculated the quasi-static tidal evolution in phase 2. The binary planets first enter the spin-orbit synchronous state by the planet-planet tide. The planet-star tide removes angular momentum of the binary motion, eventually resulting in a collision between the planets. However, we found that the binary planets survive the tidal decay for the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars (∼10 Gyr), if the binary planets are beyond ∼0.3 AU from the central stars. These results suggest that the binary planets can be detected by transit observations at ≳ 0.3 AU.

  20. Astrobiological and Geological Implications of Convective Transport in Icy Outer Planet Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Zhong, Shi-Jie; Barr, Amy

    2005-01-01

    The oceans of large icy outer planet satellites are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life in our solar system. The goal of our project has been to develop models of ice convection in order to understand convection as an astrobiologically relevant transport mechanism within icy satellites, especially Europa. These models provide valuable constraints on modes of surface deformation and thus the implications of satellite surface geology for astrobiology, and for planetary protection. Over the term of this project, significant progress has been made in three areas: (1) the initiation of convection in large icy satellites, which we find probably requires tidal heating; (2) the relationship of surface features on Europa to internal ice convection, including the likely role of low-melting-temperature impurities; and (3) the effectiveness of convection as an agent of icy satellite surface-ocean material exchange, which seems most plausible if tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection work in combination. Descriptions of associated publications include: 3 published papers (including contributions to 1 review chapter), 1 manuscript in revision, 1 manuscript in preparation (currently being completed under separate funding), and 1 published popular article. A myriad of conference abstracts have also been published, and only those from the past year are listed.

  1. Dynamical Simulations of Terrestrial Planet Formation During Giant Planet Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, A. M.; Raymond, S. N.; Sigurdsson, S.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary results of dynamical simulations of young planetary systems undergoing migration of a Jovian-type planet through the terrestrial region. We find that a significant fraction (10-40%) of the initial planetary embryos remain after giant planet migration, and subsequent evolution of the system results in the formation of terrestrial planets in various configurations, often including a planet in the Habitable Zone. In simulations with gas drag, 3-6 Earth mass planets are formed interior to the migrating Jovian planet, swept inward through moving resonances, and eccentricities are damped for all planets. Systematic variations are seen between simulations with and without gas drag. The presence of a second, non-migrating giant planet reduces the water content and mass of the planets formed throughout the system. This research was supported in part by the Penn State Astrobiology Research Center and the Goddard Center for Astrobiology.

  2. Protostars and Planets VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    The Protostars and Planets book and conference series has been a long-standing tradition that commenced with the first meeting led by Tom Gehrels and held in Tucson, Arizona, in 1978. The goal then, as it still is today, was to bridge the gap between the fields of star and planet formation as well as the investigation of planetary systems and planets. As Tom Gehrels stated in the preface to the first Protostars and Planets book, "Cross-fertilization of information and understanding is bound to occur when investigators who are familiar with the stellar and interstellar phases meet with those who study the early phases of solar system formation." The central goal remained the same for the subsequent editions of the books and conferences Protostars and Planets II in 1984, Protostars and Planets III in 1990, Protostars and Planets IV in 1998, and Protostars and Planets V in 2005, but has now been greatly expanded by the flood of new discoveries in the field of exoplanet science. The original concept of the Protostars and Planets series also formed the basis for the sixth conference in the series, which took place on July 15-20, 2013. It was held for the first time outside of the United States in the bustling university town of Heidelberg, Germany. The meeting attracted 852 participants from 32 countries, and was centered around 38 review talks and more than 600 posters. The review talks were expanded to form the 38 chapters of this book, written by a total of 250 contributing authors. This Protostars and Planets volume reflects the current state-of-the-art in star and planet formation, and tightly connects the fields with each other. It is structured into four sections covering key aspects of molecular cloud and star formation, disk formation and evolution, planetary systems, and astrophysical conditions for life. All poster presentations from the conference can be found at www.ppvi.org. In the eight years that have passed since the fifth conference and book in the

  3. Climate model studies of synchronously rotating planets.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Manoj

    2003-01-01

    M stars constitute 75% of main sequence stars though, until recently, their star systems have not been considered suitable places for habitable planets to exist. In this study the climate of a synchronously rotating planet around an M dwarf star is evaluated using a three-dimensional global atmospheric circulation model. The presence of clouds and evaporative cooling at the surface of the planet result in a cooler surface temperature at the subsolar point. Water ice forms at the polar regions and on the dark side, where the minimum temperature lies between -30 degrees C and 0 degrees C. As expected, rainfall is extremely high on the starlit side and extremely low on the dark side. The presence of a dry continent causes higher temperatures on the dayside, and allows accumulation of snow on the nightside. The absence of any oceans leads to higher day-night temperature differences, consistent with previous work. The present study reinforces recent conclusions that synchronously rotating planets within the circumstellar habitable zones of M dwarf stars should be habitable, and therefore M dwarf systems should not be excluded in future searches for exoplanets. PMID:14577888

  4. Popular democracy and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The US has moved from representative democracy to popular democracy and public scrutiny is unrelenting. Any hope of success on their part in resolving the nuclear waste question hinges on their ability to condition themselves to operate in a popular democracy environment. Those opposed to the siting of high- and low-level waste repositories have already developed a set of recurring themes: (1) the siting criteria are fatally flawed; (2) the criteria are not adequate; (3) the process is driven by politics not science; (4) unrealistic deadlines lead to dangerous shortcuts; (5) transportation experience is lacking; (6) the scientific community does not really know how to dispose of the wastes. They must continue to tell the public that if science has brought us problems, then the answer can be only more knowledge - not less. Failure by their profession to recognize that popular democracy is a fact and that nuclear issues need to be addressed in humanistic terms raises the question of whether America is philosophically suited for the expanded use of nuclear power in the future - or for that matter for leadership in the world of tomorrow.

  5. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

  6. Outer Planet Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J.

    2008-09-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn (TSSM) and Europa/Jupiter Missions (EJSM). We provide an update on the background, organization and schedule for these two mission studies.

  7. Outer Planet Flagship Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J.; Cutts, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEM and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn and Europa/Jupiter Missions. We provide the background, organization and schedule that are presently envisaged for these two mission studies.

  8. Outer Planets Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J. P.; Cutts, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn (TSSM) and Europa/Jupiter Missions (EJSM). We provide an update on the background, organization and schedule for these two mission studies.

  9. Recipes for planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    2009-11-01

    Anyone who has ever used baking soda instead of baking powder when trying to make a cake knows a simple truth: ingredients matter. The same is true for planet formation. Planets are made from the materials that coalesce in a rotating disk around young stars - essentially the "leftovers" from when the stars themselves formed through the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds of gas and dust. The planet-making disk should therefore initially have the same gas-to-dust ratio as the interstellar medium: about 100 to 1, by mass. Similarly, it seems logical that the elemental composition of the disk should match that of the star, reflecting the initial conditions at that particular spot in the galaxy.

  10. Characterizing extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.

    Transiting extrasolar planets provide the best current opportunities for characterizing the physical properties of extrasolar planets. In this review, I first describe the geometry of planetary transits, and methods for detecting and refining the observations of such transits. I derive the methods by which transit light curves and radial velocity data can be analyzed to yield estimates of the planetary radius, mass, and orbital parameters. I also show how visible-light and infrared spectroscopy can be valuable tools for understanding the composition, temperature, and dynamics of the atmospheres of transiting planets. Finally, I relate the outcome of a participatory lecture-hall exercise relating to one term in the Drake equation, namely the lifetime of technical civilizations.

  11. Commission 53: Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Mayor, Michel; Bodenheimer, Peter; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Mardling, Rosemary; Minniti, Dante; Queloz, Didier

    2012-04-01

    Commission 53 was created at the 2006 Prague General Assembly (GA) of the IAU, in recognition of the outburst of astronomical progress in the field of extrasolar planet discovery, characterization, and theoretical work that has occurred since the discovery of the first planet in orbit around a solar-type star in 1995. Commission 53 is the logical successor to the IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (WGESP), which ended its six years of existence in August 2006. The founding President of Commission 53 was Michael Mayor, in honor of his seminal contributions to this new field of astronomy. The current President is Alan Boss, the former chair of the WGESP. The current members of the Commission 53 (C53) Organizing Committee (OC) began their service in August 2009 at the conclusion of the Rio de Janeiro IAU GA.

  12. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  13. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  14. Heat Pipe Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  15. Location of Planet X

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  16. Atmospheric models for post- giant impact planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, R.; Zahnle, K. J.; Marley, M. S.; Schaefer, L. K.; Fegley, B.; Morley, C.; Cahoy, K.; Freedman, R. S.; Fortney, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    The final assembly of terrestrial planets is now universally thought to have occurred through a series of giant impacts, such as Earth's own Moon-forming impact. These collisions take place over a time interval of about 100 million years, during which time it takes at least 10 collisions between planets to make a Venus or an Earth. In the aftermath of one of these collisions the surviving planet is hot, and can remain hot for millions of years. During this phase of accretion, the proto-terrestrial planet may have a dense steam atmosphere, that will affect both the cooling of the planet and our ability to detect it. Here we explore the atmospheric chemistry, photochemistry, and spectral signatures of post-giant-impact terrestrial planets enveloped by thick atmospheres consisting of vaporized rock material. The atmospheric chemistry is computed self-consistently for atmospheres in equilibrium with hot surfaces, with compositions reflecting either the bulk silicate Earth (BSE, which includes the crust, mantle, atmosphere and oceans) or Earth's continental crust (CC). These two cases allow us to examine differences in atmospheres formed by outgassing of silica-rich (felsic) rocks - like the Earth's continental crust - and MgO- and FeO-rich (mafic) rocks - like the BSE. Studies of detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Australia, show that the continental crust existed 164 million years after the formation of the solar system, in which case the material vaporized in a giant impact should likely reflect the CC composition. However, if at the time of impact the surface of the planet does not yet exhibit the formation of continents, then the BSE case becomes relevant. We compute atmospheric profiles for surface temperatures ranging from 1000 to 2200 K, surface pressures of 10 and 100 bar, and surface gravities of 10 and 30 m/s^2. We account for all major molecular and atomic opacity sources, including collision-induced absorption, to derive the atmospheric structure and compute

  17. Ocean-sized threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Jane Lubchenco, professor of marine biology and zoology at Oregon State University, and president-elect of the International Council for Science, said that scientists can do more than they currently are doing to clearly communicate to the public and to policy-makers those issues associated with the many ecological threats faced by the world's oceans. In doing so, scientists can overcome popularly-held misperceptions about the health of the world's oceans and thus, help protect the seas.“Science,” Lubchenco said, “has a huge role to play in informing [the public] what is happening and to guide the choice of solutions.

  18. THE STRUCTURE OF SURFACE H{sub 2}O LAYERS OF ICE-COVERED PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE ICE

    SciTech Connect

    Ueta, S.; Sasaki, T. E-mail: takanori@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Many extrasolar (bound) terrestrial planets and free-floating (unbound) planets have been discovered. While the existence of bound and unbound terrestrial planets with liquid water is an important question, of particular importance is the question of these planets' habitability. Even for a globally ice-covered planet, geothermal heat from the planetary interior may melt the interior ice, creating an internal ocean covered by an ice shell. In this paper, we discuss the conditions that terrestrial planets must satisfy for such an internal ocean to exist on the timescale of planetary evolution. The question is addressed in terms of planetary mass, distance from a central star, water abundance, and abundance of radiogenic heat sources. In addition, we investigate the structure of the surface H{sub 2}O layers of ice-covered planets by considering the effects of ice under high pressure (high-pressure ice). As a fiducial case, a 1 M{sub ⊕} planet at 1 AU from its central star and with 0.6-25 times the H{sub 2}O mass of the Earth could have an internal ocean. We find that high-pressure ice layers may appear between the internal ocean and the rock portion on a planet with an H{sub 2}O mass over 25 times that of the Earth. The planetary mass and abundance of surface water strongly restrict the conditions under which an extrasolar terrestrial planet may have an internal ocean with no high-pressure ice under the ocean. Such high-pressure ice layers underlying the internal ocean are likely to affect the habitability of the planet.

  19. Planets and satellites: tectonic twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2015-10-01

    There are only three solid planet-satellite pairs in the Solar system: Earth -Moon, Mars -Phobos, Pluto - Charon. For the first two pairs tectonic analogies were shown and explained by moving them in one circumsolar orbit. As it is known from the wave planetology [3, 4, 6], "orbits make structures". For the third pair the same was stated as a prediction based on this fundamental rule. Global tectonic forms of wave origin appear in cosmic bodies because they move in keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. Warping bodies waves have a stationary character and obeying wave harmonics lengths. Starting from the fundamental 2πR-long wave 1 making the ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy (two-face appearance) warping wave lengths descend along harmonics. Very prominent along with the wave 1 are waves 2 responsible for tectonic sectoring superimposed on the wave 1 segments. Practically all bodies have traces of shorter waves making numerous polygons (rings) often confused with impact craters. Earth and the Moon moving in one circumsolar orbit both are distorted by wave 1, wave 2 and wave 4 features aligned along extent tectonic lines [4, 5]. At Earth they are: Pacific Ocean (2πR-structure) and Indian Ocean (πR-structure) from both ends with Malay Archipelago (πR/4-structure) in the middle. At Moon they are: Procellarum Ocean (2πR) and SPA Basin (πR) from ends and Mare Orientale (πR/4) in the middle. A regular disposition is surprising. Both Oceans and Basin occur on opposite hemispheres, lying in the middle both ring structures occur in the boundary between two hemispheres and are of the same relative size. These triads stretch along lines parallel to the equator (Earth) and with the angle about 30 degrees to it (Moon) indicating at a different orientation of the rotation axes in the ancient time [2]. On the whole, one could speak about a "lunar mould" of Earth [5] (Fig. 1-3). Another tectonic twin is the pair Mars -Phobos. Both bodies sharing one

  20. Noble gases in meteorites and terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Terrestrial planets and chondrites have noble gas platforms that are sufficiently alike, especially Ne/Ar, that they may have acquired their noble gases by similar processes. Meteorites presumably obtained their noble gases during formation in the solar nebula. Adsorption onto C - the major gas carrier in chondrites - is the likely mechanism for trapping noble gases; recent laboratory simulations support this hypothesis. The story is more complex for planets. An attractive possibility is that the planets acquired their noble gases in a late accreting veneer of chondritic material. In chondrites, noble gases correlate with C, N, H, and volatile metals; by Occam's Razor, we would expect a similar coupling in planets. Indeed, the Earth's crust and mantle contain chondritic like trace volatiles and PL group metals, respectively and the Earth's oceans resemble C chondrites in their enrichment of D (8X vs 8-10X of the galactic D/H ratio). Models have been proposed to explain some of the specific noble gas patterns in planets. These include: (1) noble gases may have been directly trapped by preplanetary material instead of arriving in a veneer; (2) for Venus, irradiation of preplanetary material, followed by diffusive loss of Ne, could explain the high concentration of AR-36; (3) the Earth and Venus may have initially had similar abundances of noble gases, but the Earth lost its share during the Moon forming event; (4) noble gases could have been captured by planetestimals, possibly leading to gravitational fractionation, particularly of Xe isotopes and (5) noble gases may have been dissolved in the hot outer portion of the Earth during contact with a primordial atmosphere.

  1. Identifying Obstacles to Incorporating Ocean Content into California Secondary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The ocean is the dominant feature on this planet that makes all life on Earth possible. Marine educators and scientists across the country have identified essential principles and concepts that define what an "ocean literate" person should know, but there is a lack of comprehensive ocean content coverage in secondary classrooms across the United…

  2. Planet Formation and the Characteristics of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary growth, emphasizing the formation of extrasolar planets, is presented. Models of planet formation are based upon observations of the Solar System, extrasolar planets, and young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but if they become massive enough before the protoplanetary disk dissipates, then they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  3. The Planet Formation Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, S.; Buscher, D. F.; Monnier, J. D.; PFI Science, the; Technical Working Group

    2014-04-01

    Among the most fascinating and hotly-debated areas in contemporary astrophysics are the means by which planetary systems are assembled from the large rotating disks of gas and dust which attend a stellar birth. Although important work is being done both in theory and observation, a full understanding of the physics of planet formation can only be achieved by opening observational windows able to directly witness the process in action. The key requirement is then to probe planet-forming systems at the natural spatial scales over which material is being assembled. By definition, this is the so-called Hill Sphere which delineates the region of influence of a gravitating body within its surrounding environment. The Planet Formation Imager project has crystallized around this challenging goal: to deliver resolved images of Hill-Sphere-sized structures within candidate planet-hosting disks in the nearest star-forming regions. In this contribution we outline the primary science case of PFI and discuss how PFI could significantly advance our understanding of the architecture and potential habitability of planetary systems. We present radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from which we derive preliminary specifications that guide the design of the facility. Finally, we give an overview about the interferometric and non-interferometric technologies that we are investigating in order to meet the specifications.

  4. Positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressmann, M.

    A continuation of Gressman's (1980) observations is given using the Schmidt-camera 34/40 cm, f = 76. Topocentric positions of several minor planets are presented, and reference stars are obtained from the AGK(3), and applied to the two-star method to avoid any major errors. Parallax constants are also given, along with coordinates for the epoch 1950.0.

  5. Planets and Pucks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brueningsen, Christopher; Krawiec, Wesley

    1993-01-01

    Presents a simple activity designed to allow students to experimentally verify Kepler's second law, sometimes called the law of equal areas. It states that areas swept out by a planet as it orbits the Sun are equal for equal time intervals. (PR)

  6. A Planet for Goldilocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, N.

    2014-07-01

    The search for life beyond Earth has inspired Solar System exploration and SETI surveys. Today, the search for life also leads to exoplanet discovery and characterization. Launched in March 2009, NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of exoplanets with diverse properties. Though each new world is interesting in its own right, Kepler aims to understand the population as a whole. Its primary objective is to determine the frequency of exoplanets of different sizes and orbital periods. Of special interest are the Earth-size planets in the “Goldilocks” (or habitable) Zone where the flux of incoming starlight is conducive to the existence of surface liquid water. Once Kepler establishes the prevalence of such planets in the Solar neighborhood, future missions can be designed to find not just a planet in the Goldilocks Zone but a planet for Goldilocks—a truly habitable environment for life as we know it. Kepler discoveries and progress will be described as well as the resources available to bring Kepler science to the public and into the classroom. The possibility of finding evidence of life beyond Earth is working its way into the public consciousness and has the potential to inspire generations. Scientific literacy is a natural consequence of awakening the spirit of exploration and discovery that led Goldilocks into the forest and leads humans into space.

  7. The Artificial Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, D. R.

    An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

  8. Twist planet drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A planetary gear system includes a sun gear coupled to an annular ring gear through a plurality of twist-planet gears, a speeder gear, and a ground structure having an internal ring gear. Each planet gear includes a solid gear having a first half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes vertical gear teeth and a second half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes helical gear teeth that are offset from the vertical gear teeth and which contact helical gear teeth on the speeder gear and helical gear teeth on the outer ring gear. One half of the twist planet gears are preloaded downward, while the other half are preloaded upwards, each one alternating with the other so that each one twists in a motion opposite to its neighbor when rotated until each planet gear seats against the sun gear, the outer ring gear, the speeder gear, and the inner ring gear. The resulting configuration is an improved stiff anti-backlash gear system.

  9. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  10. Making and Differentiating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    The rocky planets formed by progressive aggregation of dust to make planetesimals which joined to make large objects called planetary embryos that finally accumulated into planets, one of which we live on. This chaotic process is complicated further by chemical changes with distance from the Sun, including differences in oxidation conditions and water concentration. Once the inner planets began to form, metallic iron sank to form cores, reacting with the rocky portions in the process. David C. Rubie (University of Bayreuth, Germany) and colleagues in Germany, France, and the United States put all this planetary action into an impressively thorough computer model of planet formation and differentiation. They show that the observed compositions of the Earth can be matched by simulations that include the Grand Tack (Jupiter and Saturn migrate inwards towards the Sun and then back out), and chemical gradients in the Solar System, with more reducing conditions near the Sun, more oxidizing farther from the Sun, and oxidizing and hydrated conditions even farther from the Sun. The study identifies other important variables, such as the extent to which metallic iron chemically equilibrated with the silicate making up the Earth's mantle, the pressure at which it happened, and the likelihood that Earth accreted heterogeneously.

  11. Finding Planets around other stars

    NASA Video Gallery

    Just as the Earth revolves around the sun, our closest star, other planets might orbit the stars you see in the night sky. Think of all the planets in the universe that may be just the right distan...

  12. NASA Reveals Most Unusual Planet

    NASA Video Gallery

    In exploring the universe, NASA has uncovered one planet more unusual than all others. This 30 second video shows you which planet that is, and explains that NASA science helps us better understand...

  13. Archaeoastronomical Concepts in Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Broad public embrace of archaic astronomy probably began in the eighteenth century with awareness of the summer solstice sunrise's affiliation with Stonehenge. Since that time, Stonehenge has retained an astronomical mystique that attracts crowds mobilized by the monument's supposed cosmic purpose. They are committed to witness prehistoric heritage operating in real time and with enduring function. More recently, mass media have intermittently thrown a spotlight on new archaeoastronomical discoveries. While the details, ambiguities, and nuances of disciplined study of astronomy in antiquity do not usually infiltrate popular culture, some astronomical alignments, celestial events, sky-tempered symbols, and astral narratives have become well known and referenced in popular culture. Places and relics that command public interest with astronomical connotations are transformed into cultural icons and capture visitors on a quest for the authenticity the past is believed to possess. Monuments and ideas that successfully forge a romantic bond with the past and inspire an imagined sense of sharing the experience, perspective, and wisdom of antiquity persist in the cultural landscape.

  14. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility. PMID:26467627

  15. Importance and Perspectives of the Earth Sciences Popularization in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Estrella, H.; Yussim, S.

    2007-05-01

    In our days the scientific popularization in Mexico has not a promising future and with the earth sciences is not better; most of the papers in the popularization magazines deal with subjects as earthquakes, volcanoes, plate tectonics, meteorite impacts and the massive extensions associated with them (e.g. Chicxulub). However, these subjects have not been enough to create conscience about the importance of earth sciences in the society and it has even motivated the idea of a community distant scientific with no social obligation, the idea that the earth scientists are responsible for all the problems in the planet (global warming, catastrophes) is wide spread. In these days that we need a change in our consumption, mainly in the energetic one, it's compulsory to change the relation between the subject and its environment; then, as we can not take care of something that we don't know, the scientific popularization has a fundamental role that we must start to pay attention to.

  16. Classifying Planets: Nature vs. Nurture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, Charles A.

    2009-05-01

    The idea of a planet was so simple when we learned about the solar system in elementary school. Now students and professional s alike are faced with confusing array of definitions --- from "Brown Dwarfs” to "Super Jupiters", from "Super Earths” to "Terrestrial Planets", and from "Planets” to "Small, Sort-of Round Things That Aren't Really Planets". I will discuss how planets might be defined by how they formed, where they are found, or by the life they might support.

  17. Experimental determination of salt partition coefficients between aqueous fluids, ice VI and ice VII: implication for the composition of the deep ocean and the geodynamics of large icy moons and water rich planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Daniel, Isabelle; Cardon, Hervé; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Caracas, Razvan; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The potential habitability of extraterrestrial large aqueous reservoir in icy moons and exoplanets requires an input of nutrients and chemicals that may come from the rocky part of planetary body. Because of the presence of high pressure (HP) water ices (VI, VII, etc.) between the liquid ocean and the silicates, such interactions are considered to be limited in large icy moons, like Ganymede and Titan, and water rich exoplanets. In the case of salty-rich oceans, recent experimental and modeling works have shown that aqueous fluids can be stable at higher pressures [1, 2]. This can ultimately allow direct interaction with the rocky core of icy moons. This effect is nevertheless limited and for larger bodies such as water rich exoplanets with much higher pressures in their hydrosphere, HP ice should be present between the rocky core and a putative ocean. Salts are highly incompatible with low pressure ice Ih, but recent experimental work has shown that alkali metal and halogen salts are moderately incompatible with ice VII, that can incorporate up to several mol/kg of salts [3, 4, 5]. As far as we know, no similar study has been done on ice VI, a HP ice phase expected inside large icy moons. We present here the first experimental data on the partition coefficient of RbI salt between aqueous fluids, ice VI and ice VII using in-situ synchrotron X-Ray single crystal diffraction and X-Ray fluorescence mapping (ESRF - ID-27 beam line [6]). Our experiment enable us to observe a density inversion between ice VI and the salty fluid, and to measure the values of salt partition coefficients between the aqueous fluid and ice VI (strongly incompatible) and ice VII (moderately incompatible). Using the volumes determined with X-Ray diffraction, we were able to measure the density of salty ice VI and ice VII and determine that salty ice VI is lighter than pure H2O ice VI. These results are very relevant for the study of water rich planetary bodies interior because the partition

  18. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  19. Extrasolar Planets in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Samuel J.

    2011-01-01

    The field of extrasolar planets is still, in comparison with other astrophysical topics, in its infancy. There have been about 300 or so extrasolar planets detected and their detection has been accomplished by various different techniques. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment to show how planets are detected using the transit technique.…

  20. Was There Really a Popular Science "Boom"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewenstein, Bruce V.

    1987-01-01

    Traces the major developments and trends in contemporary popular science. Identifies magazines, television shows, and newspaper sections devoted to popular science and discusses their status and impact. Comments on the rise, fall, and future of the "science boom." (ML)

  1. ALMOST ALL OF KEPLER'S MULTIPLE-PLANET CANDIDATES ARE PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Adams, Elisabeth; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Holman, Matthew J.; Ragozzine, Darin; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Morehead, Robert C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; and others

    2012-05-10

    We present a statistical analysis that demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) indeed represent true, physically associated transiting planets. Binary stars provide the primary source of false positives among Kepler planet candidates, implying that false positives should be nearly randomly distributed among Kepler targets. In contrast, true transiting planets would appear clustered around a smaller number of Kepler targets if detectable planets tend to come in systems and/or if the orbital planes of planets encircling the same star are correlated. There are more than one hundred times as many Kepler planet candidates in multi-candidate systems as would be predicted from a random distribution of candidates, implying that the vast majority are true planets. Most of these multis are multiple-planet systems orbiting the Kepler target star, but there are likely cases where (1) the planetary system orbits a fainter star, and the planets are thus significantly larger than has been estimated, or (2) the planets orbit different stars within a binary/multiple star system. We use the low overall false-positive rate among Kepler multis, together with analysis of Kepler spacecraft and ground-based data, to validate the closely packed Kepler-33 planetary system, which orbits a star that has evolved somewhat off of the main sequence. Kepler-33 hosts five transiting planets, with periods ranging from 5.67 to 41 days.

  2. How Giant Planets Shape the Characteristics of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa V.

    2016-01-01

    The giant planets in the Solar System likely played a defining role in shaping the properties of the Earth and other terrestrial planets during their formation. Observations from the Kepler spacecraft indicate that terrestrial planets are highly abundant. However, there are hints that giant planets a few AU from their stars are not ubiquitous. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that many terrestrial planets lack a Jupiter-like companion. We use a recently developed, state-of-the-art N-body model that allows for collisional fragmentation to perform hundreds of numerical simulations of the final stages of terrestrial planet formation around a Sun-like star -- with and without giant outer planets. We quantify the effects that outer giant planet companions have on collisions and the planet accretion process. We focus on Earth-analogs that form in each system and explore how giant planets influence the relative frequency of giant impacts occurring at late times and the delivery of volitiles. This work has important implications for determining the frequency of habitable planets.

  3. Popular Culture in the Junior College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David; Ayers, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture is extremely influential in both academe and society at large. However, formal disciplinary study of popular culture lags far behind that influence. Anthropology, film studies, history, musicology, and sociology are only some of the disciplines that frequently include popular culture as a research focus. This article advises on how…

  4. Mass Media and the Popular Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissover, Fredric; Birch, David C.

    This anthology consists of journalistic essays on each of these popular arts: advertising, journalism, cartoons, radio and television, photography and motion pictures, popular literature, popular music, and public education. Examples of most of the art forms are also included. The book is aimed at junior college students. Its purpose is to…

  5. Popular Culture and the New Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishwick, Marshall W.

    This paper discusses the concept of popular culture, relating it to new journalism as a phenomenon which reflects the popular images of society. Style is the essential element of popular culture so that the kind of writing presently known as new journalism is the ultimate example of the philosophy that style is supreme. But the style of the best…

  6. History of America: A Popular Music Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    The study of popular music can be an effective method of examining social and cultural life. Popular music emphasizes the variety of human existence, goals, outlooks, and biases. A pervading theme in popular American music between 1959 and 1984 has been the theme of "America." Over 200 songs reflect personal, social, and political concerns about…

  7. Popular Music Pedagogy: Peer Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebler, Don

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion of popular music as a content area in music education is not uncommon. The musicological study of popular music is well established in higher education, and even the practice of popular music is becoming more common in both secondary education and the post-compulsory sector. However, when this occurs, it is likely to be taught in…

  8. An Undergraduate Course in American Popular Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Stephen B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a special topics course in American popular psychology. Course objectives are to trace the history of the popularization of psychology in America; discuss the efforts of William James, G. Stanley Hall, and others; and evaluate the quality of various examples of popular psychology. (MJP)

  9. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  10. THE STEPPENWOLF: A PROPOSAL FOR A HABITABLE PLANET IN INTERSTELLAR SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    Abbot, D. S.; Switzer, E. R. E-mail: switzer@kicp.uchicago.edu

    2011-07-10

    Rogue planets have been ejected from their planetary system. We investigate the possibility that a rogue planet could maintain a liquid ocean under layers of thermally insulating water ice and frozen gas as a result of geothermal heat flux. We find that a rogue planet of Earth-like composition and age could maintain a subglacial liquid ocean if it were {approx}3.5 times more massive than Earth, corresponding to {approx}8 km of ice. Suppression of the melting point by contaminants, a layer of frozen gas, or a larger complement of water could significantly reduce the planetary mass that is required to maintain a liquid ocean. Such a planet could be detected from reflected solar radiation, and its thermal emission could be characterized in the far-IR if it were to pass within O(1000) AU of Earth.

  11. The Effect of Star-Planet Interactions on Planetary Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Aomawa; Meadows, Victoria; Bitz, Cecilia; Pierrehumbert, Raymond; Joshi, Manoj; Robinson, Tyler; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Charnay, Benjamin; Virtual Planetary Laboratory

    2015-01-01

    In this work I explored the effect on planetary climate and habitability of interactions between a host star, an orbiting planet and additional planets in a stellar system. I developed and tested models that include both radiative and gravitational effects, and simulated planets covered by ocean, land and water ice, with incident stellar radiation from stars of different spectral types. These simulations showed that ice-covered conditions occurred on an F-dwarf planet with a much smaller decrease in stellar flux than planets orbiting stars with less near-UV radiation, due to ice reflecting strongly in the visible and near-UV. The surface ice-albedo feedback effect is less important at the outer edge of the habitable zone, where ˜3-10 bars of CO2 could entirely mask the climatic effect of ice and snow, leaving the traditional outer limit of the habitable zone unaffected by the spectral dependence of water ice and snow albedo. The exit out of global ice cover was also sensitive to host star spectral energy distribution. A planet orbiting an M-dwarf star exhibited a smaller resistance to melting out of a frozen state, requiring a smaller stellar flux to initiate deglaciation than planets orbiting hotter, brighter stars. Given their greater climate stability, planets orbiting cooler, lower-mass stars may be the best candidates for long-term habitability and life beyond the Solar System. A specific case was explored—that of Kepler-62f, a potentially habitable planet in a five-planet system orbiting a K-dwarf star. Simulations using a 3-D Global Climate Model indicated that Kepler-62f would have areas of the planet with surface temperatures above the freezing point of water with 1 bar or more of CO2 in its atmosphere. In a low-CO2 case, increases in planetary obliquity and orbital eccentricity coupled with an orbital configuration that places the summer solstice at or near pericenter generated regions of the planet with above-freezing surface temperatures, which may

  12. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

  13. Dark compact planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, Laura; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    We investigate compact objects formed by dark matter admixed with ordinary matter made of neutron-star matter and white-dwarf material. We consider non-self annihilating dark matter with an equation of state given by an interacting Fermi gas. We find new stable solutions, dark compact planets, with Earth-like masses and radii from a few Km to few hundred Km for weakly interacting dark matter which are stabilized by the mutual presence of dark matter and compact star matter. For the strongly interacting dark matter case, we obtain dark compact planets with Jupiter-like masses and radii of few hundred Km. These objects could be detected by observing exoplanets with unusually small radii. Moreover, we find that the recently observed 2 M⊙ pulsars set limits on the amount of dark matter inside neutron stars which is, at most, 1 0-6 M⊙ .

  14. Observed properties of extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrew W

    2013-05-01

    Observational surveys for extrasolar planets probe the diverse outcomes of planet formation and evolution. These surveys measure the frequency of planets with different masses, sizes, orbital characteristics, and host star properties. Small planets between the sizes of Earth and Neptune substantially outnumber Jupiter-sized planets. The survey measurements support the core accretion model, in which planets form by the accumulation of solids and then gas in protoplanetary disks. The diversity of exoplanetary characteristics demonstrates that most of the gross features of the solar system are one outcome in a continuum of possibilities. The most common class of planetary system detectable today consists of one or more planets approximately one to three times Earth's size orbiting within a fraction of the Earth-Sun distance. PMID:23641110

  15. Dynamical Detection of Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark Fabrycky, Daniel; Orosz, Jerome; Welsh, William

    2015-12-01

    The Kepler data revealed a population of transiting gas-giant planets orbiting around close binary stars, beginning with Kepler-16, a highlight of the Extreme Solar Systems II meeting. Due to the restrictive geometry requirements of transit detections, this population is highly observationally biased towards coplanarity. However, a third of those planets detectably perturb their host binary's eclipse times, such that they could have been recognized even without transits. Here we announce the detection of three non-transiting planets based on this dynamical technique. Apsidal precession due to the planet makes the primary and secondary eclipse periods differ, and in addition a short-term modulation of the binary's eclipse times reveals the planet's orbital period. Several planetary periods are observed for each system, buttressing the interpretation. Though the method is nearly equally sensitive to all orbital orientations, each planet orbits near its host binary's plane, suggesting this class of planets formed in the circumbinary nebula.

  16. Planet Forming Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubow, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The project achieved many of its objectives. The main area of investigation was the interaction of young binary stars with surrounding protostellar disks. A secondary objective was the interaction of young planets with their central stars and surrounding disks. The grant funds were used to support visits by coinvestigators and visitors: Pawel Artymowicz, James Pringle, and Gordon Ogilvie. Funds were also used to support travel to meetings by Lubow and to provide partial salary support.

  17. Pluto: Dwarf planet 134340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, investigations of Pluto with up-to-date astronomical instruments yielded results that have been generally confirmed by the New Horizons mission. In 2006, in Prague, the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) reclassified Pluto as a member of the dwarf planet category according to the criteria defined by the IAU for the term "planet". At the same time, interest in studies of Pluto was increasing, while the space investigations of Pluto were delayed. In 2006, the New Horizons Pluto spacecraft started its journey to Pluto. On July 14, 2015, the spacecraft, being in fly-by mode, made its closest approach to Pluto. The heterogeneities and properties of the surface and rarified atmosphere were investigated thoroughly. Due to the extreme remoteness of the spacecraft and the energy limitations, it will take 18 months to transmit the whole data volume. Along with the preliminary results of the New Horizons Pluto mission, this paper reviews the basics on Pluto and its moons acquired from the ground-based observations and with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). There are only a few meteorite craters on the surfaces of Pluto and Charon, which distinctly marks them apart from such satellites of the giant planets as Ganymede and Callisto. The explanation is that the surface of Pluto is young: its age is estimated at less than 100 Myr. Ice glaciers of apparently a nitrogen nature were found. Nitrogen is also the main component of the atmosphere of Pluto. The planet demonstrates the signs of strong geologic activity, though the energy sources of these processes are unknown.

  18. Terrestrial Planet Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence

  19. The genesis of planets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Douglas N C

    2008-05-01

    Barely a decade ago scientists who study how planets form had to base their theory on a single example-our solar system. Now they have dozens of mature systems and dozens more in birth throes. No two are alike. The basic idea behind the leading theory of planetary formation--tiny grains stick together and swoop up gas--conceals many levels of intricacy. A chaotic interplay among competing mechanisms leads to a huge diversity of outcomes. PMID:18444325

  20. Extrasolar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korechoff, R. P.; Diner, D. J.; Tubbs, E. F.; Gaiser, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of extrasolar planet detection using a large-aperture infared imaging telescope. Coronagraphic stellar apodization techniques are less efficient at infrared wavelengths compared to the visible, as a result of practical limitations on aperture dimensions, thus necessitating additional starlight suppression to make planet detection feasible in this spectral domain. We have been investigating the use of rotational shearing interferometry to provide up to three orders of magnitude of starlight suppression over broad spectral bandwidths. We present a theoretical analysis of the system performance requirements needed to make this a viable instrument for planet detection, including specifications on the interferometer design and telescope aperture characteristics. The concept of using rotational shearing interferometry as a wavefront error detector, thus providing a signal that can be used to adaptively correct the wavefront, will be discussed. We also present the status of laboratory studies of on-axis source suppression using a recently constructed rotational shearing interferometer that currently operates in the visible.

  1. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marois, Christian; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam Seth; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert John J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Kathleen M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Norton, Andew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemeyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew W.; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schulyer; Gpi/Gpies Team

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of GPI has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. GPI has undergone a year of commissioning, verification, and calibration work. We have achieved an estimated H-band contrast (5-sigma) of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds in spectral mode, and suppression of unpolarized starlight by a factor of 800 in imaging polarimetry mode. Early science observations include study of the spectra of β Pic b and HR 8799, orbital investigations of β Pic b and PZ Tel, and observations of the debris disk systems associated with β Pic, AU Mic, and HR 4796A. An 890-hour exoplanet survey with GPI is scheduled to begin in late 2014. A status report for the campaign will be presented.

  2. Complex patterns in the distribution of planets show planet migration and planet and star properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    We present dramatic patterns in the distribution of exoplanet periods and eccentricities that vary as functions of iron abundance of the host star, planet mass, stellar properties, and presence of a stellar companion. These patterns include surprising peaks and gaps. They raise the question of whether planets themselves contribute to increasing stellar metallicity by causing other planets or material to “pollute” the star.We also show that the falloff in planets at the shortest periods can be used to determine the rate of planets migrating into the star as a function of the strength of tidal dissipation in the star. A small rate of planets migrating into the star can produce the observed population of the shortest period planets without having to invoke extremely weak tidal dissipation. Tidal dissipation strengths stronger than the tidal quality factor Q being equal to 107 are possible if there is a moderate flow of giant planets into the star. It is likely that within a decade it will be possible to measure the time shift of transits of the shortest period orbits due to orbital period decreases caused by tidal migration.The distribution of the shortest period planets indicates that the strength of tidal dissipation in stars is a function of stellar mass, making it worthwhile to monitor the shortest period systems for time shifts across a range of stellar masses. This time shift is inversely proportional to the lifetime of a planet.It is essential to know the rate of planets migrating into stars in order to understand whether inflated planets are only briefly inflated during a faster migration into the star, or if planets maintain anomalously large radii for longer periods of time.The paucity of Neptune-mass planets at the shortest periods could be due either to a lower rate of inward migration or to evaporation. Knowing how evaporation contributes to this paucity could help determine the fractions of planets that are rock, liquid water, or gas.

  3. PREDICTING PLANETS IN KEPLER MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-05-20

    We investigate whether any multi-planet systems among Kepler candidates (2011 February release) can harbor additional terrestrial-mass planets or smaller bodies. We apply the packed planetary systems hypothesis that suggests all planetary systems are filled to capacity, and use a Hill stability criterion to identify eight two-planet systems with significant gaps between the innermost and outermost planets. For each of these systems, we perform long-term numerical integrations of 10{sup 7} years to investigate the stability of 4000-8000 test particles injected into the gaps. We map out stability regions in orbital parameter space, and therefore quantify the ranges of semimajor axes and eccentricities of stable particles. Strong mean-motion resonances can add additional regions of stability in otherwise unstable parameter space. We derive simple expressions for the extent of the stability regions, which is related to quantities such as the dynamical spacing {Delta}, the separation between two planets in units of their mutual Hill radii. Our results suggest that planets with separation {Delta} < 10 are unlikely to host extensive stability regions, and that about 95 out of a total of 115 two-planet systems in the Kepler sample may have sizeable stability regions. We predict that Kepler candidate systems including KOI 433, KOI 72/Kepler-10, KOI 555, KOI 1596, KOI 904, KOI 223, KOI 1590, and KOI 139 can harbor additional planets or low-mass bodies between the inner and outer detected planets. These predicted planets may be detected by future observations.

  4. The Effect of Giant Planets on Terrestrial Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa

    2015-12-01

    The giant planets in the Solar System likely played a defining role in shaping the properties of the Earth and other terrestrial planets during their formation. Observations from the Kepler spacecraft indicate that terrestrial planets are highly abundant. However, there are hints that giant planets a few AU from their stars are relatively uncommon based on long baseline radial velocity searches. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that many terrestrial planets lack a Jupiter-like companion. We use a recently developed, state-of-the-art N-body model that allows for collisional fragmentation to perform hundreds of numerical simulations of the final stages of terrestrial planet formation around a Sun-like star -- with and without giant outer planets. We quantify the effects that outer giant planet companions have on collisions and the planet accretion process. We focus on Earth-analogs that form in each system and explore how giant planets influence the relative frequency of giant impacts occurring at late times.

  5. Characterizing popularity dynamics of online videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Shi, Yu-Qiang; Liao, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Online popularity has a major impact on videos, music, news and other contexts in online systems. Characterizing online popularity dynamics is nature to explain the observed properties in terms of the already acquired popularity of each individual. In this paper, we provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the popularity dynamics in two online video-provided websites, namely MovieLens and Netflix. The two collected data sets contain over 100 million records and even span a decade. We characterize that the popularity dynamics of online videos evolve over time, and find that the dynamics of the online video popularity can be characterized by the burst behaviors, typically occurring in the early life span of a video, and later restricting to the classic preferential popularity increase mechanism.

  6. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  7. THE INTERIOR DYNAMICS OF WATER PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Roger; O'Connell, Richard J.; Sasselov, Dimitar D. E-mail: richard_oconnell@harvard.ed

    2010-01-10

    The ever-expanding catalog of detected super-Earths calls for theoretical studies of their properties in the case of a substantial water layer. This work considers such water planets with a range of masses and water mass fractions (2-5 M{sub Earth}, 0.02%-50% H{sub 2}O). First, we model the thermal and dynamical structure of the near-surface for icy and oceanic surfaces, finding separate regimes where the planet is expected to maintain a subsurface liquid ocean and where it is expected to exhibit ice tectonics. Newly discovered exoplanets may be placed into one of these regimes given estimates of surface temperature, heat flux, and gravity. Second, we construct a parameterized convection model for the underlying ice mantle of higher ice phases, finding that materials released from the silicate-iron core should traverse the ice mantle on the timescale of 0.1 to 100 megayears. We present the dependence of the overturn times of the ice mantle and the planetary radius on total mass and water mass fraction. Finally, we discuss the implications of these internal processes on atmospheric observables.

  8. Mass-Radius Relationships for Low-Mass Planets: From Iron Planets to Water Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Transit observations, and radial velocity measurements, have begun to populate the mass radius diagram for extrasolar planets; fubture astrometric measurements and direct images promise more mass and radius information. Clearly, the bulk density of a planet indicates something about a planet s composition--but what? I will attempt to answer this question in general for low-mass planets (planets obey a kind of universal mass-radius relationship: an expansion whose first term is M approx. R(sup 3).

  9. The Rocky Planet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Debra

    In direct support of the NASA Origins program, we propose the Rocky Planet Survey, a high cadence exoplanet search of sixty late G and K dwarf stars using the CHIRON spectrometer, which we built and commissioned at CTIO. CHIRON operates in two high- resolution modes (R=90,000 and R=120,000) and has a demonstrated precision of better than 1 m s-1. We are contributing 200 nights of telescope time for the next three years, for the excellent phase coverage needed to carry out this work. We have developed simulation software to optimize scheduling of observations to suppress aliases and quickly extract dynamical signals. Our science objectives are to (1) provide a statistical assessment of planet occurrence as a function of decreasing mass in the range of parameter space 3 < Msini < 30 MEARTH for orbital periods up to 50 days, (2) to determine the fraction of low mass planets in multi-planet architectures, and (3) detect planets with Msini < 3 MEARTH in orbital periods shorter than ~20 days. In addition to the science objectives, we intend to push the frontiers of extreme precision Doppler measurements to keep the U.S. competitive with the next generation of European Doppler spectroscopy (ESPRESSO on the VLT). Our team has significant expertise in optical design, fiber coupling, raw extraction, barycentric velocity corrections, and Doppler analysis. The proposed work includes a new optimal extraction algorithm, with the optical designers and software engineers working together on the 2-D PSF description needed for a proper row-by-row extraction and calibration. We will also develop and test upgrades to the barycentric correction code and improvements in the Doppler code that take advantage of stability in the dispersion solution, afforded by a new vacuum-enclosed grating upgrade (scheduled for November 2011). We will test use of emission wavelength calibrations to extend the iodine (absorption) wavelength calibration that we currently use to prepare for eventual use of

  10. Astrometric Planet Searches with SIM PlanetQuest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; March, Geoffrey W.

    2007-01-01

    SIM will search for planets with masses as small as the Earth's orbiting in the habitable zones' around more than 100 of the stars and could discover many dozen if Earth-like planets are common. With a planned 'Deep Survey' of 100-450 stars (depending on desired mass sensitivity) SIM will search for terrestrial planets around all of the candidate target stars for future direct detection missions such as Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin, SIM's 'Broad Survey' of 2010 stars will characterize single and multiple-planet systems around a wide variety of stellar types, including many now inaccessible with the radial velocity technique. In particular, SIM will search for planets around young stars providing insights into how planetary systems are born and evolve with time.

  11. [Seguro popular: achievements and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Chertorivski-Woldenberg, Salomón

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare systems are organized following one of two basic models: social security systems, which link access to health services to labor status, and national health systems, which grant access to health as a citizen's right. Mexico adopted, since the institutionalization of social security and healthcare services in 1943, a mixed system. Social security institutions covered the salaried workers and public assistance was granted to the remaining of the population. At the beginning of the XXI century the Mexican health system entered a crisis as the conditions to expand health coverage through social security were not met and public assistance services were insufficient. In order to address these developments, the Healthcare Social Protection System was founded (2004) as a mechanism to effectively guarantee every person's right to health as established after the constitutional amendment of article fourth in 1983. Seguro Popular is the mechanism that through federal and states' contributions seeks to financially protect the population without access to social security's health services, and thus prevent impoverishment due to out of pocket and catastrophic health expenditures. PMID:22116179

  12. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1. PMID:22506608

  13. Origin of the atmosphere and hydrosphere of the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, T.; Abe, Y.

    1985-01-01

    An early thermal evolution of a planet growing by planetesimal impacts was studied. An evolution of an impact induced atmosphere was considered. It is known that the surface of a growing planet is heated due to the blanketing effect of the atmosphere and exceeds the melting temperature, which means that the surface of a growing planet was entirely covered by a magma ocean. The amount of water in a proto-atmosphere is influenced by the formation of a magma ocean. It is suggested the solubility of water in silicate melt controls the water content in a proto-atmsphere. It is noted that irrespective of difference in initial water content of planetesimals the final water content in the atmosphere becomes almost constant and is about 10 to the 21st power kg which is almost identical with the present amount of the ocean. It is also shown that the water in a proto-atmosphere can be liquid for the Earth and becomes to be an ocean but this does not happen on Venus.

  14. Optimal Planet Properties For Plate Tectonics Through Time And Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenkovic, Vlada; Seager, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Both the time and the location of planet formation shape a rocky planet’s mass, interior composition and structure, and hence also its tectonic mode. The tectonic mode of a planet can vary between two end-member solutions, plate tectonics and stagnant lid convection, and does significantly impact outgassing and biogeochemical cycles on any rocky planet. Therefore, estimating how the tectonic mode of a planet is affected by a planet’s age, mass, structure, and composition is a major step towards understanding habitability of exoplanets and geophysical false positives to biosignature gases. We connect geophysics to astronomy in order to understand how we could identify and where we could find planet candidates with optimal conditions for plate tectonics. To achieve this goal, we use thermal evolution models, account for the current wide range of uncertainties, and simulate various alien planets. Based on our best model estimates, we predict that the ideal targets for plate tectonics are oxygen-dominated (C/O<1) (solar system like) rocky planets of ~1 Earth mass with surface oceans, large metallic cores super-Mercury, rocky body densities of ~7000kgm-3), and with small mantle concentrations of iron 0%), water 0%), and radiogenic isotopes 10 times less than Earth). Super-Earths, undifferentiated planets, and especially hypothetical carbon planets, speculated to consist of SiC and C, are not optimal for the occurrence of plate tectonics. These results put Earth close to an ideal compositional and structural configuration for plate tectonics. Moreover, the results indicate that plate tectonics might have never existed on planets formed soon after the Big Bang—but instead is favored on planets formed from an evolved interstellar medium enriched in iron but depleted in silicon, oxygen, and especially in Th, K, and U relative to iron. This possibly sets a belated Galactic start for complex Earth-like surface life if plate tectonics significantly impacts the build up

  15. The Role of Popularity Goal in Early Adolescents' Behaviors and Popularity Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    The effect of popularity goal on the use of 3 popularity-related behaviors and later popularity status was examined in a diverse sample of 314 6th-grade students (176 girls and 138 boys) in both fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters. Popularity goal and the use of popularity-driven behaviors (e.g., "I change the way I dress in order to…

  16. Watching How Planets Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Anatomy of a Planet-Forming Disc around a Star More Massive than the Sun With the VISIR instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have mapped the disc around a star more massive than the Sun. The very extended and flared disc most likely contains enough gas and dust to spawn planets. It appears as a precursor of debris discs such as the one around Vega-like stars and thus provides the rare opportunity to witness the conditions prevailing prior to or during planet formation. "Planets form in massive, gaseous and dusty proto-planetary discs that surround nascent stars. This process must be rather ubiquitous as more than 200 planets have now been found around stars other than the Sun," said Pierre-Olivier Lagage, from CEA Saclay (France) and leader of the team that carried out the observations. "However, very little is known about these discs, especially those around stars more massive than the Sun. Such stars are much more luminous and could have a large influence on their disc, possibly quickly destroying the inner part." The astronomers used the VISIR instrument [1] on ESO's Very Large Telescope to map in the infrared the disc surrounding the young star HD 97048. With an age of a few million years [2], HD 97048 belongs to the Chameleon I dark cloud, a stellar nursery 600 light-years away. The star is 40 times more luminous than our Sun and is 2.5 times as massive. The astronomers could only have achieved such a detailed view due to the high angular resolution offered by an 8-metre size telescope in the infrared, reaching a resolution of 0.33 arcsecond. They discovered a very large disc, at least 12 times more extended than the orbit of the farthest planet in the Solar System, Neptune. The observations suggest the disc to be flared. "This is the first time such a structure, predicted by some theoretical models, is imaged around a massive star," said Lagage. ESO PR Photo 36/06 ESO PR Photo 36/06 A Flared Proto-Planetary Disc Such a geometry can only be

  17. Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy

  18. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The next decade will almost certainly see the direct imaging of extrasolar giant planets around nearby stars. Unlike purely radial velocity detections, direct imaging will open the door to characterizing the atmosphere and interiors of extrasola planets and ultimately provide clues on their formation and evolution through time. This process has already begun for the transiting planets, placing new constraints on their atmospheric structure, composition, and evolution. Indeed the key to understanding giant planet detectability, interpreting spectra, and constraining effective temperature and hence evolution-is the atmosphere. I will review the universe of extrasolar giant planet models, focusing on what we have already learned from modeling and what we will likely be able to learn from the first generation of direct detection data. In addition to these theoretical considerations, I will review the observations and interpretation of the - transiting hot Jupiters. These objects provide a test of our ability to model exotic atmospheres and challenge our current understanding of giant planet evolution.

  19. Debris Disks and Hidden Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2008-01-01

    When a planet orbits inside a debris disk like the disk around Vega or Beta Pictoris, the planet may be invisible, but the patterns it creates in the disk may give it away. Observing and decoding these patterns may be the only way we can detect exo-Neptunes orbiting more than 20 AU from their stars, and the only way we can spot planets in systems undergoing the late stages of planet formation. Fortunately, every few months, a new image of a debris disk appears with curious structures begging for explanation. I'll describe some new ideas in the theory of these planet-disk interactions and provide a buyers guide to the latest models (and the planets they predict).

  20. Planets Suitable for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Ulmschneider

    When searching for extraterrestrial life, and particularly intelligent life, elsewhere in the solar system or in our galaxy, the obvious places to look are habitable Earth-like planets. This is because most living organisms are quite vulnerable to harsh conditions, and thus the presence of life will be most likely when very favorable conditions occur. Here organisms that survive under extreme conditions on Earth represent no contradiction, because they have adapted to their way of life by the fierce battle of survival on the basis of Darwin's theory (discussed in Chap. 6). But what are the conditions that are favorable for life?

  1. Spinning Stardust into Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A computerized animation simulates the formation of a stellar disk and planets. Ten images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) show young stellar disks (taken with the Near-Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS)) and stellar disks around young stars (taken with the Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2)). Dr. Deborah Padgett describes what astronomers see in the images of young stellar disks and Dr. Karl Stapelfeldt explains HST's role in helping astronomers to examine young stars in order to understand how solar systems like our own may form.

  2. Planets in Evolved Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Hagai B.

    2011-03-01

    Exo-planets are typically thought to form in protoplanetary disks left over from protostellar disk of their newly formed host star. However, additional planetary formation and evolution routes may exist in old evolved binary systems. Here we discuss the implications of binary stellar evolution on planetary systems in such environments. In these binary systems stellar evolution could lead to the formation of symbiotic stars, where mass is lost from one star and could be transferred to its binary companion, and may form an accretion disk around it. This raises the possibility that such a disk could provide the necessary environment for the formation of a new, second generation of planets in both circumstellar or circumbinary configurations. Pre-existing first generation planets surviving the post-MS evolution of such systems would be dynamically effected by the mass loss in the systems and may also interact with the newly formed disk. Such planets and/or planetesimals may also serve as seeds for the formation of the second generation planets, and/or interact with them, possibly forming atypical planetary systems. Second generation planetary systems should be typically found in white dwarf binary systems, and may show various observational signatures. Most notably, second generation planets could form in environment which are inaccessible, or less favorable, for first generation planets. The orbital phase space available for the second generation planets could be forbidden (in terms of the system stability) to first generation planets in the pre-evolved progenitor binaries. In addition planets could form in metal poor environments such as globular clusters and/or in double compact object binaries. Observations of exo-planets in such forbidden or unfavorable regions could possibly serve to uniquely identify their second generation character. Finally, we point out a few observed candidate second generation planetary systems, including Gl 86, HD 27442 and all of the

  3. NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has decided to move forward with two complementary Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) missions, a visible coronagraph and an infrared formation flying interferometer. These missions are major missions in the NASA Office of Space Science Origins Theme. The primary science objectives of the TPF missions are to search for, detect, and characterize planets and planetary systems beyond our own Solar System, including specifically Earth-like planets.

  4. Planet X - Fact or fiction?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John

    1988-01-01

    The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

  5. Starting a Planet Protectors Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    If your mission is to teach children how to reduce, reuse, and recycle waste and create the next generation of Planet Protectors, perhaps leading a Planet Protectors Club is part of your future challenges. You don't have to be an expert in waste reduction and recycling to lead a a Planet Protectors Club. You don't even have to be a teacher. You do…

  6. Planet X - ract or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1988-08-01

    The search for a possible tenth planet in our solar system is examined. The history of the discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are reviewed. Searches of the sky with telescopes and theoretical studies of the gravitational influences on the orbits of known objects in the solar system are discussed. Information obtained during the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions which could suggest the presence of an undiscovered planet and computer simulations of the possible orbit of a tenth planet are presented.

  7. Dynamical Interactions Among Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughlin, G.

    For certain multiple planet systems such as GJ 876 and 55 Cancri, which have (1) been observed for a large number of orbital periods, and which (2) have strong planet-planet gravitational interactions, the approximation that the planets are orbiting on independent Keplerian ellipses is inadequate. We discuss the production of self-consistent dynamical fits to these interacting systems, in which a minimization scheme (such as the Levenberg-Marquardt technique, or a Genetic Algorithm) is used to repeatedly drive an N-body integrator and improve the agreement between the integrated reflex motion of the central star and the observed radial velocities.

  8. Popularizing dissent: A civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Motion, Judy; Leitch, Shirley; Weaver, C Kay

    2015-05-01

    This article theorizes civil society groups' attempts to popularize opposition to genetic modification in New Zealand as deliberative interventions that seek to open up public participation in science-society governance. In this case, the popularization strategies were designed to intensify concerns about social justice and democratic incursions, mobilize dissent and offer meaningful mechanisms for navigating and participating in public protest. Such civic popularization efforts, we argue, are more likely to succeed when popularity and politicization strategies are judiciously integrated to escalate controversy, re-negotiate power relations and provoke agency and action. PMID:25394361

  9. Planets and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

    2001-12-01

    Astrobiology involves the study of the origin and history of life on Earth, planets and moons where life may have arisen, and the search for extraterrestrial life. It combines the sciences of biology, chemistry, palaeontology, geology, planetary physics and astronomy. This textbook brings together world experts in each of these disciplines to provide the most comprehensive coverage of the field currently available. Topics cover the origin and evolution of life on Earth, the geological, physical and chemical conditions in which life might arise and the detection of extraterrestrial life on other planets and moons. The book also covers the history of our ideas on extraterrestrial life and the origin of life, as well as the ethical, philosophical and educational issues raised by astrobiology. Written to be accessible to students from diverse backgrounds, this text will be welcomed by advanced undergraduates and graduates who are taking astrobiology courses.• Compiled by world experts in their disciplines to create a truly comprehensive book • Accessible to students from a wide range of backgrounds • A welcome addition to this rapidly-growing field

  10. Stars and Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    'Estrelas e Planetas' (Stars and Planets) project was developed during the academic year 2009/2010 and was tested on three 3rd grade classes of one school in Quarteira, Portugal. The aim was to encourage the learning of science and the natural and physical phenomena through the construction and manipulation of materials that promote these themes - in this case astronomy. Throughout the project the students built a small book containing three themes of astronomy: differences between stars and planets, the solar system and the phases of the Moon. To each topic was devoted two sessions of about an hour each: the first to teach the theoretical aspects of the theme and the second session to assembly two pages of the book. All materials used (for theoretical sessions and for the construction of the book) and videos of the finished book are available for free use in www.miguelneta.pt/estrelaseplanetas. So far there is only a Portuguese version but soon will be published in English as well. This project won the Excellency Prize 2011 of Casa das Ciências, a portuguese site for teachers supported by the Calouste Gulbenkian Fundation (www.casadasciencias.org).

  11. The Planet Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Janet

    This book is not so much for the space scientist looking for background material for research as it is for one interested in the history of planetary exploration. The first half (˜100 pps) is devoted to studies of Venus before the space age, starting at several hundred years BC. It is obvious from the multitude of detailed descriptions of observers' accounts that considerable library research went into this section. While sometimes tedious, this chronology of Venus research is punctuated with amusing facts. While many may know about the Velikovsky theory of the cometary origin of the planet, few may know that Lowell drew pictures of Cytherian canals similar to the canals of Mars or that Frederick the Great of Prussia proposed to name the (once suspected) satellite of Venus D'Alembert, after the mathematician. An equally amusing appendix shows the ups and downs of the rotation period of this planet with the invisible surface. Much attention is focused on early telescope observations, the ashen light, and transits of Venus. At the end of this half, one appreciates that Venus has played a fairly important role in history in the areas of religion, science, and technology.

  12. The Giant Planet Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John H.

    2009-07-01

    Part I. Observing Jupiter: 1. Observations from Earth; 2. Observations from spacecraft; Part II. The Visible Structure of the Atmosphere: 3. Horizontal structure: belts, currents, spots and storms; 4. Vertical structure: colours and clouds; Part III. The Observational Record of the Atmosphere: 5. The Polar Region; 6. North North Temperate Regions (57°N to 35°N); 7. North Temperate Region (35°N to 23°N); 8. North Tropical Region (23°N to 9°N); 9. Equatorial Region (9°N to 9°S); 10. South Tropical Region (9°S to 27°S); 11. South Temperate Region (27°S to 37°S); 12. South South Temperate Region (37°S to 53°S); Part IV: The Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere: 13. Possible large-scale and long-term patterns; 14. The dynamics of individual spots; 15. Theoretical models of the atmosphere; 16. The composition of the planet; Part V. The Electrodynamic Environment of Jupiter: 17. Lights in the Jovian night; 18. The magnetosphere and radiation belts; Part VI. The Satellites: 19. The inner satellites and the ring; 20. The Galilean satellites; 21. Io; 22. Europa; 23. Ganymede; 24. Callisto; 25. The outer satellites; Appendices: 1. Measurement of longitude; 2. Measurement of latitude; 3. Lists of apparitions and published reports; 4. Bibliography (The planet); 5. Bibliography (The magnetosphere and satellites); Index.

  13. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  14. Inside-out Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    The compact multi-transiting planet systems discovered by Kepler challenge planet formation theories. Formation in situ from disks with radial mass surface density, Σ, profiles similar to the minimum mass solar nebula but boosted in normalization by factors >~ 10 has been suggested. We propose that a more natural way to create these planets in the inner disk is formation sequentially from the inside-out via creation of successive gravitationally unstable rings fed from a continuous stream of small (~cm-m size) "pebbles," drifting inward via gas drag. Pebbles collect at the pressure maximum associated with the transition from a magnetorotational instability (MRI)-inactive ("dead zone") region to an inner MRI-active zone. A pebble ring builds up until it either becomes gravitationally unstable to form an ~1 M ⊕ planet directly or induces gradual planet formation via core accretion. The planet may undergo Type I migration into the active region, allowing a new pebble ring and planet to form behind it. Alternatively, if migration is inefficient, the planet may continue to accrete from the disk until it becomes massive enough to isolate itself from the accretion flow. A variety of densities may result depending on the relative importance of residual gas accretion as the planet approaches its isolation mass. The process can repeat with a new pebble ring gathering at the new pressure maximum associated with the retreating dead-zone boundary. Our simple analytical model for this scenario of inside-out planet formation yields planetary masses, relative mass scalings with orbital radius, and minimum orbital separations consistent with those seen by Kepler. It provides an explanation of how massive planets can form with tightly packed and well-aligned system architectures, starting from typical protoplanetary disk properties.

  15. Inside-out planet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C. E-mail: jt@astro.ufl.edu

    2014-01-01

    The compact multi-transiting planet systems discovered by Kepler challenge planet formation theories. Formation in situ from disks with radial mass surface density, Σ, profiles similar to the minimum mass solar nebula but boosted in normalization by factors ≳ 10 has been suggested. We propose that a more natural way to create these planets in the inner disk is formation sequentially from the inside-out via creation of successive gravitationally unstable rings fed from a continuous stream of small (∼cm-m size) 'pebbles', drifting inward via gas drag. Pebbles collect at the pressure maximum associated with the transition from a magnetorotational instability (MRI)-inactive ('dead zone') region to an inner MRI-active zone. A pebble ring builds up until it either becomes gravitationally unstable to form an ∼1 M {sub ⊕} planet directly or induces gradual planet formation via core accretion. The planet may undergo Type I migration into the active region, allowing a new pebble ring and planet to form behind it. Alternatively, if migration is inefficient, the planet may continue to accrete from the disk until it becomes massive enough to isolate itself from the accretion flow. A variety of densities may result depending on the relative importance of residual gas accretion as the planet approaches its isolation mass. The process can repeat with a new pebble ring gathering at the new pressure maximum associated with the retreating dead-zone boundary. Our simple analytical model for this scenario of inside-out planet formation yields planetary masses, relative mass scalings with orbital radius, and minimum orbital separations consistent with those seen by Kepler. It provides an explanation of how massive planets can form with tightly packed and well-aligned system architectures, starting from typical protoplanetary disk properties.

  16. The earth as a planet - Paradigms and paradoxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The independent growth of the various branches of the earth sciences in the past two decades has led to a divergence of geophysical, geochemical, geological, and planetological models for the composition and evolution of a terrestrial planet. Evidence for differentiation and volcanism on small planets and a magma ocean on the moon contrasts with hypotheses for a mostly primitive, still undifferentiated, and homogeneous terrestrial mantle. In comparison with the moon, the earth has an extraordinarily thin crust. The geoid, which should reflect convection in the mantle, is apparently unrelated to the current distribution of continents and oceanic ridges. If the earth is deformable, the whole mantle should wander relative to the axis of rotation, but the implications of this are seldom discussed. The proposal of a mantle rich in olivine violates expectations based on evidence from extraterrestrial sources. These and other paradoxes force a reexamination of some long-held assumptions.

  17. WATER TRAPPING ON TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS REQUIRES SPECIAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S.; Liu, Yonggang; Hu, Yongyun

    2014-12-01

    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld, we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, nightside sea ice remains O(10 m) thick and nightside water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000 m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's would therefore experience a large decrease in sea level when plate tectonics drives their continents onto the night side, but would not experience complete dayside dessiccation. Only planets with a geothermal heat flux lower than Earth's, much of their surface covered by continents, and a surface water reservoir O(10%) of Earth's would be susceptible to complete water trapping.

  18. New Martian paradigms. [concerning planet's nature and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Alfred S.

    1991-01-01

    Several interrelated paradigms concerning the nature and the evolution of Mars are discussed. These include an impact origin of the northern lowland, Mars as a water-rich planet, former oceans in the northern lowlands, a warm wet climate on early Mars, and the possibility of ancient life on Mars. Locations on Mars suggested for the search of possible ancient life include the heavily cratered terrain dissected by valley networks, possible lacustrine deposits in Valles Marineris, the oxidizing layer below the surface, sites along the fringes of the hypothetical northern circumpolar ocean, and in evaporite deposits.

  19. Planets and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary

  20. Tides in Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    2015-11-01

    The arrival of Juno at Jupiter in less than a year necessitates analysis of what we can learn from the gravitational signal due to tides raised on the planet by satellites (especially Io but also Europa). In the existing literature, there is extensive work on static tidal theory (the response of the planet to a tidal potential whose time dependence is ignored) and this is what is usually quoted when people refer to tidal Love numbers. If this were correct then there would be almost no new information content in the measurement of tidally induced gravity field, since the perturbation is of the same kind as the response to rotation (i.e., the measurement of J2, a well-known quantity). However, tides are dynamic (that is, k2 is frequency dependent) and so there is new information in the frequency dependent part. There is also (highly important) information in the imaginary part (more commonly expressed as tidal Q) but there is no prospect of direct detection of this by Juno since that quadrature signal is so small. The difference between what we expect to measure and what we can already calculate directly from J2 is easily shown to be of order the square of tidal frequency over the lowest order normal mode frequency, and thus of order 10%. However, the governing equations are not simple (not separable) because of the Coriolis force. An approximate solution has been obtained for the n =1 polytrope showing that the correction to k2 is even smaller, typically a few percent, because the tidal frequency is not very different from twice the rotation frequency. Moreover, it is not highly sensitive to structure in standard models. However, the deep interior of the planet may be stably stratified because of a compositional gradient and this modifies the tidal flow amplitude, changing the dynamic k2 but not the static k2. This raises the exciting possibility that we can use the determination of k2 to set bounds on the extent of static stability, if any. There is also the slight

  1. Popularization and Formative Evaluation of Young Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yancai

    2005-01-01

    With the popularization of the higher education in China, training of young teachers has been more and more prominent. This paper, by using the "Formative Evaluation Theory", analyzes the relationship between popularization and university young teacher training. In addition, it also profoundly discusses the two factors influencing development of…

  2. Popular Adult Education: The Bolivian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Murray

    A discussion paper on popular adult non-formal education in rural Bolivia, based on four months of 1982 fieldwork, focuses on the nature of popular education and its meaning in a contemporary Bolivian context, program methods and operational strategies employed, outcomes and impacts on peasant participants (many of them Indians), and problems and…

  3. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  4. Popular Media and the Teaching of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giblin, Thomas R., Ed.

    This work is a collection of ideas on the why and the how of popular media study in the secondary English classroom. Chapters are divided into eight sections: "Developing a Rationale for Popular Media Study,""An English Teacher's Challange,""Understanding McLuhan,""An Expanding View of Literature,""Paperbacks,""News, Newspapers, and…

  5. Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillyard, Cinnamon

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

  6. Teaching Personality Theories Using Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leck, Kira

    2006-01-01

    Previously, psychology instructors have used popular music to illustrate psychological concepts in the classroom. In this study, students enrolled in a personality theories class heard 13 popular songs that demonstrated various concepts. Students then selected and analyzed their own songs that contained elements of personality theories. Test…

  7. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  8. Popular Magazines Discuss Online Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil

    1984-01-01

    Examines 55 articles from 25 popular magazines such as "Better Homes and Gardens,""Business Week,""Popular Mechanics," and "Working Woman" and discusses purpose of the articles, consumer oriented online services, libraries and information centers, databases, and publishers and intermediaries. A list of the articles is appended. (EJS)

  9. Popular Music in American History. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, William, Jr.

    This student book encourages an understanding of U.S. history through song, and of American song through history. The book is organized in two main parts, the first focuses on the nature of popular music. It examines "What is Popular Music?" and looks at pop themes, lyrics, melodies, rhythm, the composer, performer, and publisher. The second part…

  10. What Makes a Habitable Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, L.

    2013-04-01

    Space missions help answer one of humanity's most profound questions: Are we alone in the universe? To begin to understand what makes a planet habitable, and thus where to look for life both within and outside of Earth's solar system, scientists need to understand what in planetary formation and what in its subsequent evolution combine to produce a habitable planet.

  11. The fate of scattered planets

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-12-01

    As gas giant planets evolve, they may scatter other planets far from their original orbits to produce hot Jupiters or rogue planets that are not gravitationally bound to any star. Here, we consider planets cast out to large orbital distances on eccentric, bound orbits through a gaseous disk. With simple numerical models, we show that super-Earths can interact with the gas through dynamical friction to settle in the remote outer regions of a planetary system. Outcomes depend on planet mass, the initial scattered orbit, and the evolution of the time-dependent disk. Efficient orbital damping by dynamical friction requires planets at least as massive as the Earth. More massive, longer-lived disks damp eccentricities more efficiently than less massive, short-lived ones. Transition disks with an expanding inner cavity can circularize orbits at larger distances than disks that experience a global (homologous) decay in surface density. Thus, orbits of remote planets may reveal the evolutionary history of their primordial gas disks. A remote planet with an orbital distance ∼100 AU from the Sun is plausible and might explain correlations in the orbital parameters of several distant trans-Neptunian objects.

  12. Three Planets Orbiting Wolf 1061

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bentley, J. S.; Zhao, Jinglin

    2016-02-01

    We use archival HARPS spectra to detect three planets orbiting the M3 dwarf Wolf 1061 (GJ 628). We detect a 1.36 M⊕ minimum-mass planet with an orbital period P = 4.888 days (Wolf 1061b), a 4.25 M⊕ minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 17.867 days (Wolf 1061c), and a likely 5.21 M⊕ minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 67.274 days (Wolf 1061d). All of the planets are of sufficiently low mass that they may be rocky in nature. The 17.867 day planet falls within the habitable zone for Wolf 1061 and the 67.274 day planet falls just outside the outer boundary of the habitable zone. There are no signs of activity observed in the bisector spans, cross-correlation FWHMs, calcium H & K indices, NaD indices, or Hα indices near the planetary periods. We use custom methods to generate a cross-correlation template tailored to the star. The resulting velocities do not suffer the strong annual variation observed in the HARPS DRS velocities. This differential technique should deliver better exploitation of the archival HARPS data for the detection of planets at extremely low amplitudes.

  13. Pluto: The Farthest Planet (Usually).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universe in the Classroom, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides background information about the planet Pluto. Includes the history of Pluto and discusses some of the common misconceptions about the planets. Addresses some of the recent discoveries about Pluto and contains a resource list of books, articles, and a videotape. (TW)

  14. Popular science publishing in contemporary China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guosheng; Qiu, Hui

    2013-07-01

    Since the 1950s China's popular science publishing has been the business of the government, and subject to its will. China adopted a system of planned economies, as the Soviet Union did, until the 1980s when a policy of reform and opening-up was adopted. During the period of the planned economies, popular science publishing was not a commercial but a governmental enterprise. More than 100 million copies of the most representative publication of this period, One Hundred Thousand Whys, have been distributed. The Unmoved Mover Series of the 1990s was a milestone in the new era. What is significant about this series is that it broke through the prevailing mode of science-popularization as 'serving for industrial and agricultural production, serving for ideology'. China's popular science publishing has its defects, genetically and culturally. In an age of marketization, popular science books are frequently applauded by the experts, but not enjoyed by general readers. PMID:23833166

  15. Searching for Planets Around Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    Did you know that the very first exoplanets ever confirmed were found around a pulsar? The precise timing measurements of pulsar PSR 1257+12 were what made the discovery of its planetary companions possible. Yet surprisingly, though weve discovered thousands of exoplanets since then, only one other planet has ever been confirmed around a pulsar. Now, a team of CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science researchers are trying to figure out why.Formation ChallengesThe lack of detected pulsar planets may simply reflect the fact that getting a pulsar-planet system is challenging! There are three main pathways:The planet formed before the host star became a pulsar which means it somehow survived its star going supernova (yikes!).The planet formed elsewhere and was captured by the pulsar.The planet formed out of the debris of the supernova explosion.The first two options, if even possible, are likely to be rare occurrences but the third option shows some promise. In this scenario, after the supernova explosion, a small fraction of the material falls back toward the stellar remnant and is recaptured, forming what is known as a supernova fallback disk. According to this model, planets could potentially form out of this disk.Disk ImplicationsLed by Matthew Kerr, the CSIRO astronomers set out to systematically look for these potential planets that might have formed in situ around pulsars. They searched a sample of 151 young, energetic pulsars, scouring seven years of pulse time-of-arrival data for periodic variation that could signal the presence of planetary companions. Their methods to mitigate pulsar timing noise and model realistic orbits allowed them to have good sensitivity to low-mass planets.The results? They found no conclusive evidence that any of these pulsars have planets.This outcome carries with it some significant implications. The pulsar sample spans 2 Myr in age, in which planets should have had enough time to form in debris disks. The fact that none were detected

  16. From Pixels to Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownston, Lee; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was launched in 2009 as NASAs first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Its telescope consists of a 1.5-m primary mirror and a 0.95-m aperture. The 42 charge-coupled devices in its focal plane are read out every half hour, compressed, and then downlinked monthly. After four years, the second of four reaction wheels failed, ending the original mission. Back on earth, the Science Operations Center developed the Science Pipeline to analyze about 200,000 target stars in Keplers field of view, looking for evidence of periodic dimming suggesting that one or more planets had crossed the face of its host star. The Pipeline comprises several steps, from pixel-level calibration, through noise and artifact removal, to detection of transit-like signals and the construction of a suite of diagnostic tests to guard against false positives. The Kepler Science Pipeline consists of a pipeline infrastructure written in the Java programming language, which marshals data input to and output from MATLAB applications that are executed as external processes. The pipeline modules, which underwent continuous development and refinement even after data started arriving, employ several analytic techniques, many developed for the Kepler Project. Because of the large number of targets, the large amount of data per target and the complexity of the pipeline algorithms, the processing demands are daunting. Some pipeline modules require days to weeks to process all of their targets, even when run on NASA's 128-node Pleiades supercomputer. The software developers are still seeking ways to increase the throughput. To date, the Kepler project has discovered more than 4000 planetary candidates, of which more than 1000 have been independently confirmed or validated to be exoplanets. Funding for this mission is provided by NASAs Science Mission Directorate.

  17. The atmospheric evolution of Venus the habitable planet. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K. J.; Abe, Y.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Sleep, N. H.

    2010-12-01

    Modern theories of planetary accumulation do not build Venus dry and Earth wet save by unlucky chance. If Venus and Earth were built of the same stuff, Venus’s descent into ruin must have been caused by its proximity to the Sun: too much sunlight brought a runaway greenhouse effect, the oceans and seas evaporated, and the hydrogen in the water was irrevocably lost to space. If the story has a moral, Venus would be the earth that lost its water. A complication to the story is that early Venus occupies an ambiguous position with respect to the runaway greenhouse effect. If Venus began as an ocean planet like Earth, both runaway and non-runaway states are plausible at first. In the 50 Myr before the Sun reached the main sequence, the Sun was both bright and faint, with Venus moving in and out of the conventional habitable zone. Once the Sun reached the main sequence it settled to a luminosity 70% of today’s. At this point the critical albedo triggering the runaway greenhouse on Venus was ~0.32, slightly higher than Earth’s today. This means that Earth’s albedo would put an ocean-covered Venus in the runaway greenhouse state, but only just barely, while an albedo of a slightly cloudier planet would have let Venus’s ancient oceans condenses. Early Venus’s indecisive state makes the recovery of liquid water oceans from giant impacts such as Earth’s moon-forming impact questionable. Another interesting plot twist is that dry planets (desert worlds with limited surface water) are expected to have some immunity with respect to the runaway greenhouse effect, because the limited water can be cold trapped at high latitudes. On a hot dry planet the dearth of tropical water vapor has two effects: it stabilizes the greenhouse effect (the tropics can radiate at rates well above the traditional runaway limit because the tropical atmosphere is not saturated) and it creates a dry stratosphere that severely limits hydrogen escape. Young Venus, if dry, would have been

  18. Astrophysics: Growing planet brought to light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2015-11-01

    Thousands of extrasolar planets have been discovered, but none is a planet in its infancy. Observations have finally been made of a young planet growing in its birthplace -- opening the way to many more such discoveries. See Letter p.342

  19. The Metallicity of Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorngren, Daniel P.; Fortney, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Unique clues about the formation processes of giant planets can be found in their bulk compositions. Transiting planets provide us with bulk density determinations that can then be compared to models of planetary structure and evolution, to deduce planet bulk metallicities. At a given mass, denser planets have a higher mass fraction of metals. However, the unknown hot Jupiter "radius inflation" mechanism leads to under-dense planets that severely biases this work. Here we look at cooler transiting gas giants (Teff < 1000 K), which do not exhibit the radius inflation effect seen in their warmer cousins. We identified 40 such planets between 20 M_Earth and 20 M_Jup from the literature and used evolution models to determine their bulk heavy-element ("metal") mass. Several important trends are apparent. We see that all planets have at least ~10 M_Earth of metals, and that the mass of metal correlates strongly with the total mass of the planet. The heavy-element mass goes as the square root of the total mass. Both findings are consistent with the core accretion model. We also examined the effect of the parent star metallicity [Fe/H], finding that planets around high-metallicity stars are more likely to have large amounts of metal, but the relation appears weaker than previous studies with smaller sample sizes had suggested. We also looked for connections between bulk composition and planetary orbital parameters and stellar parameters, but saw no pattern, which is also an important result. This work can be directly compared to current and future outputs from planet formation models, including population synthesis.

  20. The Effect of Giant Planets on Habitable Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Barclay, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The giant planets in the Solar System likely played a large role in shaping the properties of the Earth during its formation. To explore their effects, we numerically model the growth of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars with and without Jupiter and Saturn analog companions. Employing state-of-the-art dynamical formation models that allow both accretion and collisional fragmentation, we perform hundreds of simulations and quantify the specific impact energies of all collisions that lead to the formation of an Earth-analog. Our model tracks the bulk compositions and water abundances in the cores and mantles of the growing protoplanets to constrain the types of giant planet configurations that allow the formation of habitable planets. We find significant differences in the collisional histories and bulk compositions of the final planets formed in the presence of different giant planet configurations. Exoplanet surveys like Kepler hint at a paucity of Jupiter analogs, thus these analyses have important implications for determining the frequency of habitable planets and also support target selection for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  1. Habitable Planets: Interior Dynamics and Long-Term Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, Paul J.; Ammann, Michael M.; Brodholt, John P.; Dobson, David P.; Valencia, Diana

    2014-04-01

    Here, the state of our knowledge regarding the interior dynamics and evolution of habitable terrestrial planets including Earth and super-Earths is reviewed, and illustrated using state-of-the-art numerical models. Convection of the rocky mantle is the key process that drives the evolution of the interior: it causes plate tectonics, controls heat loss from the metallic core (which generates the magnetic field) and drives long-term volatile cycling between the atmosphere/ocean and interior. Geoscientists have been studying the dynamics and evolution of Earth's interior since the discovery of plate tectonics in the late 1960s and on many topics our understanding is very good, yet many first-order questions remain. It is commonly thought that plate tectonics is necessary for planetary habitability because of its role in long-term volatile cycles that regulate the surface environment. Plate tectonics is the surface manifestation of convection in the 2900-km deep rocky mantle, yet exactly how plate tectonics arises is still quite uncertain; other terrestrial planets like Venus and Mars instead have a stagnant lithosphere- essentially a single plate covering the entire planet. Nevertheless, simple scalings as well as more complex models indicate that plate tectonics should be easier on larger planets (super-Earths), other things being equal. The dynamics of terrestrial planets, both their surface tectonics and deep mantle dynamics, change over billions of years as a planet cools. Partial melting is a key process influencing solid planet evolution. Due to the very high pressure inside super-Earths' mantles the viscosity would normally be expected to be very high, as is also indicated by our density function theory (DFT) calculations. Feedback between internal heating, temperature and viscosity leads to a superadiabatic temperature profile and self-regulation of the mantle viscosity such that sluggish convection still occurs.

  2. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique; Breuer, Doris; Claeys, Philippe; Debaille, Vinciane; De Keyser, Johan; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Goderis, Steven; Karatekin, Ozgur; Mattielli, Nadine; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Vanhaecke, Frank; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wilquet, Valerie

    2013-04-01

    , the possibility to have liquid water, the thermal state, the energy budget and the availability of nutrients. Shortly after formation (Hadean 4.4-4.0 Ga (billion years)), evidence supports the presence of a liquid ocean and continental crust on Earth (Wilde et al., 2001, Nature, 409, 175-178), Earth may thus have been habitable very early on. The origin of life is not understood yet but the oldest putative traces of life occur in the early Archaean (~3.5 Ga). Studies of early Earth habitats documented in rock containing traces of fossil life provide information about environmental conditions suitable for life beyond Earth, as well as methodologies for their identification and analyses. The extreme values of environmental conditions in which life thrives today can also be used to characterize the "envelope" of the existence of life and the range of potential extraterrestrial habitats. The requirement of nutrients for biosynthesis, growth, and reproduction suggest that a tectonically active planet, with liquid water is required to replenish nutrients and sustain life (as currently known). These dynamic processes play a key role in the apparition and persistence of life. This contribution will focus on the highlights of the work of the IAP Planet TOPERS.

  3. An Update on Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Whats the news coming from the research world on the search for Planet Nine? Read on for an update from a few of the latest studies.Artists illustration of Planet Nine, a hypothesized Neptune-sized planet orbiting in the distant reaches of our solar system. [Caltech/Robert Hurt]What is Planet Nine?In January of this year, Caltech researchers Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown presented evidence of a distant ninth planet in our solar system. They predicted this planet to be of a mass and volume consistent with a super-Earth, orbiting on a highly eccentric pathwith a period of tens of thousands of years.Since Batygin and Browns prediction, scientists have been hunting for further signs of Planet Nine. Though we havent yet discovered an object matching its description, we have come up with new strategies for finding it, we set some constraints on where it might be, and we made some interesting theoretical predictions about its properties.Visualizations of the resonant orbits of the four longest-period Kuiper belt objects, depicted in a frame rotating with the mean angular velocity of Planet Nine. Planet Nines position is on the right (with the trace of possible eccentric orbits e=0.17 and e=0.4 indicated in red). [Malhotra et al 2016]Here are some of the newest constraints on Planet Nine from studies published just within the past two weeks.Resonant OrbitsRenu Malhotra (University of Arizonas Lunar and Planetary Laboratory) and collaborators present further evidence of the shaping of solar system orbits by the hypothetical Planet Nine. The authors point out that the four longest-period Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) have orbital periods close to integer ratios with each other. Could it be that these outer KBOs have become locked into resonant orbits with a distant, massive body?The authors find that a distant planet orbiting with a period of ~17,117 years and a semimajor axis ~665 AU would have N/1 and N/2 period ratios with these four objects. If this is correct, it

  4. An Update on Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Whats the news coming from the research world on the search for Planet Nine? Read on for an update from a few of the latest studies.Artists illustration of Planet Nine, a hypothesized Neptune-sized planet orbiting in the distant reaches of our solar system. [Caltech/Robert Hurt]What is Planet Nine?In January of this year, Caltech researchers Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown presented evidence of a distant ninth planet in our solar system. They predicted this planet to be of a mass and volume consistent with a super-Earth, orbiting on a highly eccentric pathwith a period of tens of thousands of years.Since Batygin and Browns prediction, scientists have been hunting for further signs of Planet Nine. Though we havent yet discovered an object matching its description, we have come up with new strategies for finding it, we set some constraints on where it might be, and we made some interesting theoretical predictions about its properties.Visualizations of the resonant orbits of the four longest-period Kuiper belt objects, depicted in a frame rotating with the mean angular velocity of Planet Nine. Planet Nines position is on the right (with the trace of possible eccentric orbits e=0.17 and e=0.4 indicated in red). [Malhotra et al 2016]Here are some of the newest constraints on Planet Nine from studies published just within the past two weeks.Resonant OrbitsRenu Malhotra (University of Arizonas Lunar and Planetary Laboratory) and collaborators present further evidence of the shaping of solar system orbits by the hypothetical Planet Nine. The authors point out that the four longest-period Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) have orbital periods close to integer ratios with each other. Could it be that these outer KBOs have become locked into resonant orbits with a distant, massive body?The authors find that a distant planet orbiting with a period of ~17,117 years and a semimajor axis ~665 AU would have N/1 and N/2 period ratios with these four objects. If this is correct, it

  5. THE FIRST PLANETS: THE CRITICAL METALLICITY FOR PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Li Hui

    2012-06-01

    A rapidly growing body of observational results suggests that planet formation takes place preferentially at high metallicity. In the core accretion model of planet formation this is expected because heavy elements are needed to form the dust grains which settle into the midplane of the protoplanetary disk and coagulate to form the planetesimals from which planetary cores are assembled. As well, there is observational evidence that the lifetimes of circumstellar disks are shorter at lower metallicities, likely due to greater susceptibility to photoevaporation. Here we estimate the minimum metallicity for planet formation, by comparing the timescale for dust grain growth and settling to that for disk photoevaporation. For a wide range of circumstellar disk models and dust grain properties, we find that the critical metallicity above which planets can form is a function of the distance r at which the planet orbits its host star. With the iron abundance relative to that of the Sun [Fe/H] as a proxy for the metallicity, we estimate a lower limit for the critical abundance for planet formation of [Fe/H]{sub crit} {approx_equal} -1.5 + log (r/1 AU), where an astronomical unit (AU) is the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This prediction is in agreement with the available observational data, and carries implications for the properties of the first planets and for the emergence of life in the early universe. In particular, it implies that the first Earth-like planets likely formed from circumstellar disks with metallicities Z {approx}> 0.1 Z{sub Sun }. If planets are found to orbit stars with metallicities below the critical metallicity, this may be a strong challenge to the core accretion model.

  6. Educational And Public Outreach Software On Planet Detection For The Macintosh (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Brady, Victoria; Cannara, Rachel; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of extra-solar planets has been a very popular topic with the general public for years. Considerable media coverage of recent detections has only heightened the interest in the topic. School children are particularly interested in learning about space. Astronomers have the knowledge and responsibility to present this information in both an understandable and interesting format. Since most classrooms and homes are now equipped with computers this media can be utilized to provide more than a traditional "flat" presentation. An interactive "stack" has been developed using Hyperstudio (TM). The major topics include: "1996 - The Break Through Year In Planet Detection"; "What Determines If A Planet Is Habitable?"; "How Can We Find Other Planets (Search Methods)"; "All About the Kepler Mission: How To Find Earth-Sized Planets"; and "A Mission Simulator". Using the simulator, the student records simulated observations and then analyzes and interprets the data within the program stacks to determine the orbit and planet size, the planet's temperature and surface gravity, and finally determines if the planet is habitable. Additional related sections are also included. Many of the figures are animated to assist in comprehension of the material. A set of a dozen lesson plans for the middle school has also been drafted.

  7. Astrobiology And Extrasolar Planets- A New Lecture Course At Potsdam University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, S. A.; von Bloh, W.; Bounama, Ch.

    2006-08-01

    Astrobiology studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life on Earth and in the Universe. This addresses a very wide range of questions that have been asked by mankind from the beginning. On the other hand, the discovery of the first extrasolar planet orbiting a Sun-like star by Mayor and Queloz in 1995 opened a new area for astrobiological research. Although most of the newly discovered extrasolar planets are giants with no underlying solid surfaces or oceans that could support a biosphere, the distribution of masses lets scientists suppose that there must be a multitude of planets with lower masses, including Earth-mass planets. The lecture course contains the following topics: Survey about Extrasolar Planets, Detection Methods, Simple Earth System Models, Dynamical Earth System Models, Habitable Zones, Dynamical Habitability, Rare Earth Hypothesis, Drake Formula, Panspermia, Origin of Life, Cambrian Explosion, Impacts and Climate, Long-Term Future Scenarios, Future Space Missions.

  8. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Lunine, J

    2001-01-30

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

  9. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems

    PubMed Central

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2001-01-01

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

  10. The planet and the painted globe

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Some years ago a clever cartoonist drew a puzzled astronaut looking down on an Earth painted like a library globe: blocks of pinks, greens, and blues set off the countries, bold lines clearly delineated boundaries, and countries were identified in large letters. Research on human dimensions of global environmental changes would be so much easier if that cartographer`s globe were real. Unfortunately, what the astronauts have actually seen is a planet from which human politics have seemingly disappeared. They see an Earth on which the human creations of countries and their boundaries are veiled by the natural features of the planet-the oceans, seas, rivers, forests, ice fields, plain, and mountains that were mostly here before anyone thought to draw a national boundary or paint a map. This globe without apparent political demarcations is the natural stage on which environmental changes play. It is not, however, the globe on which social science research is conducted. The human-centered globe of the social sciences has places, cities, and nation-states of which social scientists must take account. How to do so in a manner that permits linkages of social and natural science research is problematic. This article discusses the interactions between these two different types of research in looking at global climate change.

  11. Thermal light curves of Earth-like planets: 1. Varying surface and rotation on planets in a terrestrial orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Leal, I.; Codron, F.; Selsis, F.

    2016-05-01

    The integrated thermal emission of an exoplanet and its variations along the orbital motion can carry information about the climatic conditions and the rotation of the planet. In this study, we use the LMDZ 3D Global Climate Model (GCM) to simulate the climate of a synthetic Earth and three quasi-Earth configurations: a slowly rotating Earth, an ocean-covered Earth and its snowball counterpart. We also generate the time-dependent broadband thermal emission of the planet from these simulations. In a first step, we validate the model by comparing the synthetic Earth emission with the actual emission of our planet as constrained by observations. Then, we determine the main properties of the climate and emission of the three Earth-like planets and compare them to those of the Earth. We show that planets with an uneven distribution of continents exhibit a maximum of emission during the summer of the hemisphere with larger continental masses, and they may exhibit a maximum of emission at apastron. Large convective clouds might form over the continents of slow rotating planets, having an important effect over their climate and their emission. We also show that, in all the modeled cases, the equilibrium temperature, the Bond albedo and the rotation period can in theory be retrieved from the light curve by a distant observer. The values obtained at transiting geometries have a low deviation from the global values for cases with an axis tilt similar to that of the Earth, and we are able to distinguish between the four planets presented here by the data obtained from their light curves. However, this might not be the case under different conditions.

  12. HARNESSING OCEAN WAVE ENERGY TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technical challenge to sustainability is finding an energy source that is abundant enough to meet global demands without producing greenhouse gases or radioactive waste. Energy from ocean surface waves can provide the people of this planet a clean, endless power source to me...

  13. Revitalizing Ernst Mach's Popular Scientific Lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euler, Manfred

    2007-06-01

    Compared to Ernst Mach's influence on the conceptual development of physics, his efforts to popularize science and his reflections on science literacy are known to a much lesser degree. The approach and the impact of Mach's popular scientific lectures are discussed in view of today's problems of understanding science. The key issues of Mach's popular scientific lectures, reconsidered in the light of contemporary science, still hold a high potential in fascinating a general audience. Moreover, Mach's grand theme, the relation of the physical to the psychical, is suited to contribute to a dialogue between different knowledge cultures, e.g. science and humanities.

  14. The deep ocean under climate change.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lisa A; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-13

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems. PMID:26564845

  15. Terrestrial planets in high-mass disks without gas giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Elía, G. C.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that planetary systems consisting only of rocky planets are probably the most common in the Universe. Aims: We study the potential habitability of planets formed in high-mass disks without gas giants around solar-type stars. These systems are interesting because they are likely to harbor super-Earths or Neptune-mass planets on wide orbits, which one should be able to detect with the microlensing technique. Methods: First, a semi-analytical model was used to define the mass of the protoplanetary disks that produce Earth-like planets, super-Earths, or mini-Neptunes, but not gas giants. Using mean values for the parameters that describe a disk and its evolution, we infer that disks with masses lower than 0.15 M⊙ are unable to form gas giants. Then, that semi-analytical model was used to describe the evolution of embryos and planetesimals during the gaseous phase for a given disk. Thus, initial conditions were obtained to perform N-body simulations of planetary accretion. We studied disks of 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15 M⊙. Results: All our simulations form massive planets on wide orbits. For a 0.1 M⊙ disk, 2-3 super-Earths of 2.8 to 5.9 M⊕ are formed between 2 and 5 AU. For disks of 0.125 and 0.15 M⊙, our simulations produce a 10-17.1 M⊕ planet between 1.6 and 2.7 AU, and other super-Earths are formed in outer regions. Moreover, six planets survive in the habitable zone (HZ). These planets have masses from 1.9 to 4.7 M⊕ and significant water contents ranging from 560 to 7482 Earth oceans, where one Earth ocean represents the amount of water on Earth's surface, which equals 2.8 × 10-4M⊕. Of the six planets formed in the HZ, three are water worlds with 39%-44% water by mass. These planets start the simulations beyond the snow line, which explains their high water abundances. In general terms, the smaller the mass of the planets observed on wide orbits, the higher the possibility to find water worlds in the

  16. Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    While the most common photographs of Earth taken from space show the planet covered in blue water, NASA has managed to produce detailed color images, using satellite imagery, that show the remarkable variation of colors that actually make up the oceanic surface. An ocean s color is determined by the interaction of surface waters with sunlight, and surface waters can contain any number of different particles and dissolved substances, which could then change the color. Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet? The particles are mostly phytoplankton, the microscopic, single-celled ocean plants that are the primary food source for much marine life. Remote detection of phytoplankton provides information about the uptake and cycling of carbon by the ocean through photosynthesis, as well as the overall health of the water. Inorganic particles and substances dissolved in the water also affect its color, particularly in coastal regions. Satellite images can be used to calculate the concentrations of these materials in surface waters, as well as the levels of biological activity. The satellites allow a global view that is not available from ship or shore. NASA s orbiting satellites offer a unique vantage point for studying the oceans. By resolving the biological, chemical, and physical conditions in surface waters, they have allowed the oceanographic community to make huge leaps in its understanding of oceanographic processes on regional and global fronts. The study of ocean color, in particular, has been integral in helping researchers understand the natural and human-induced changes in the global environment and establishing the role of the oceans in the biochemical cycles of elements that influence the climate and the distribution of life on Earth.

  17. NO PSEUDOSYNCHRONOUS ROTATION FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANETS AND MOONS

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael E-mail: michael.efroimsky@usno.navy.mil

    2013-02-10

    We re-examine the popular belief that a telluric planet or a satellite on an eccentric orbit can, outside a spin-orbit resonance, be captured in a quasi-static tidal equilibrium called pseudosynchronous rotation. The existence of such configurations was deduced from oversimplified tidal models assuming either a constant tidal torque or a torque linear in the tidal frequency. A more accurate treatment requires that the torque be decomposed into the Darwin-Kaula series over the tidal modes, and that this decomposition be combined with a realistic choice of rheological properties of the mantle, which we choose to be a combination of the Andrade model at ordinary frequencies and the Maxwell model at low frequencies. This development demonstrates that there exist no stable equilibrium states for solid planets and moons, other than spin-orbit resonances.

  18. No Pseudosynchronous Rotation for Terrestrial Planets and Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael

    2013-02-01

    We re-examine the popular belief that a telluric planet or a satellite on an eccentric orbit can, outside a spin-orbit resonance, be captured in a quasi-static tidal equilibrium called pseudosynchronous rotation. The existence of such configurations was deduced from oversimplified tidal models assuming either a constant tidal torque or a torque linear in the tidal frequency. A more accurate treatment requires that the torque be decomposed into the Darwin-Kaula series over the tidal modes, and that this decomposition be combined with a realistic choice of rheological properties of the mantle, which we choose to be a combination of the Andrade model at ordinary frequencies and the Maxwell model at low frequencies. This development demonstrates that there exist no stable equilibrium states for solid planets and moons, other than spin-orbit resonances.

  19. Comparative ionospheres. I - The inner planets. II - The outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given first of the fundamental physical and chemical processes controlling the thermospheres and ionospheres of the inner planets, Venus and Mars. A comparison is made between the neutral composition and temperature structure of Venus and Mars and those of the earth. Consideration is then given to the chemical and diffusion processes in the ionosphere. After a brief treatment of the ionospheric energetics and heat sources, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of the nightside ionosphere of Venus are reviewed. A description is then given of the upper atmospheres and ionospheres of the major planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The treatment of the temperature structure and composition of the thermospheres of the major planets includes a description of the physical and chemical processes controlling the hydrocarbons and atomic hydrogen. A comparison is then made between the ionospheres of the major planets and those of the inner planets. It is noted that Io and Titan also have atmospheres and ionospheres, and these are treated briefly. Even though comets cannot be classed as planets, they have atmospheres and ionospheres that are not gravitationally confined.

  20. Migration & Extra-solar Terrestrial Planets: Watering the Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter-Bond, Jade C.; O'Brien, David P.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2014-04-01

    A diverse range of terrestrial planet compositions is believed to exist within known extrasolar planetary systems, ranging from those that are relatively Earth-like to those that are highly unusual, dominated by species such as refractory elements (Al and Ca) or C (as pure C, TiC and SiC)(Bond et al. 2010b). However, all prior simulations have ignored the impact that giant planet migration during planetary accretion may have on the final terrestrial planetary composition. Here, we combined chemical equilibrium models of the disk around five known planetary host stars (Solar, HD4203, HD19994, HD213240 and Gl777) with dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation incorporating various degrees of giant planet migration. Giant planet migration is found to drastically impact terrestrial planet composition by 1) increasing the amount of Mg-silicate species present in the final body; and 2) dramatically increasing the efficiency and amount of water delivered to the terrestrial bodies during their formation process.

  1. Planets to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Casertano, Stefano

    2006-04-01

    Preface; 1. Hubble's view of transiting planets D. Charbonneau; 2. Unsolved problems in star formation C. J. Clarke; 3. Star formation in clusters S. S. Larson; 4. HST abundance studies of low metallicity stars J. W. Truran, C. Sneden, F. Primas, J. J. Cowan and T. Beers; 5. Physical environments and feedback: HST studies of intense star-forming environments J. S. Gallagher, L. J. Smith and R. W. O'Connell; 6. Quasar hosts: growing up with monstrous middles K. K. McLeod; 7. Reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei B. M. Peterson and K. Horne; 8. Feedback at high redshift A. E. Shapley; 9. The baryon content of the local intergalactic medium J. T. Stocke, J. M. Shull, and S. V. Penton; 10. Hot baryons in supercluster filaments E. D. Miller, R. A. Dupke and J. N. Bregman; 11. Galaxy assembly E. F. Bell; 12. Probing the reionization history of the Universe Z. Haiman; 13. Studying distant infrared-luminous galaxies with Spitzer and Hubble C. Papovich, E. Egami, E. Le Floc'h, P. Pérez-González, G. Rieke, J. Rigby, H. Dole and M. Reike; 14. Galaxies at z = g-i'-drop selection and the GLARE Project E. R. Stanway, K. Glazebrook, A. J. Bunker and the GLARE Consortium; 15. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field with NIMCOS R. I. Thompson, R. J. Bouwens and G. Illingworth.

  2. Planets to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Casertano, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    Preface; 1. Hubble's view of transiting planets D. Charbonneau; 2. Unsolved problems in star formation C. J. Clarke; 3. Star formation in clusters S. S. Larson; 4. HST abundance studies of low metallicity stars J. W. Truran, C. Sneden, F. Primas, J. J. Cowan and T. Beers; 5. Physical environments and feedback: HST studies of intense star-forming environments J. S. Gallagher, L. J. Smith and R. W. O'Connell; 6. Quasar hosts: growing up with monstrous middles K. K. McLeod; 7. Reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei B. M. Peterson and K. Horne; 8. Feedback at high redshift A. E. Shapley; 9. The baryon content of the local intergalactic medium J. T. Stocke, J. M. Shull, and S. V. Penton; 10. Hot baryons in supercluster filaments E. D. Miller, R. A. Dupke and J. N. Bregman; 11. Galaxy assembly E. F. Bell; 12. Probing the reionization history of the Universe Z. Haiman; 13. Studying distant infrared-luminous galaxies with Spitzer and Hubble C. Papovich, E. Egami, E. Le Floc'h, P. Pérez-González, G. Rieke, J. Rigby, H. Dole and M. Reike; 14. Galaxies at z = g-i'-drop selection and the GLARE Project E. R. Stanway, K. Glazebrook, A. J. Bunker and the GLARE Consortium; 15. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field with NIMCOS R. I. Thompson, R. J. Bouwens and G. Illingworth.

  3. PLANETS ON THE EDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Valsecchi, Francesca; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2014-05-20

    Hot Jupiters formed through circularization of high-eccentricity orbits should be found at orbital separations a exceeding twice that of their Roche limit a {sub R}. Nevertheless, about a dozen giant planets have now been found well within this limit (a {sub R} < a < 2 a {sub R}), with one coming as close as 1.2 a {sub R}. In this Letter, we show that orbital decay (starting beyond 2 a {sub R}) driven by tidal dissipation in the star can naturally explain these objects. For a few systems (WASP-4 and 19), this explanation requires the linear reduction in convective tidal dissipation proposed originally by Zahn and verified by recent numerical simulations, but rules out the quadratic prescription proposed by Goldreich and Nicholson. Additionally, we find that WASP-19-like systems could potentially provide direct empirical constraints on tidal dissipation, as we could soon be able to measure their orbital decay through high precision transit timing measurements.

  4. Outer planets satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation takes into account the published literature on outer planet satellites for 1979-1982. It is pointed out that all but three (the moon and the two Martian satellites) of the known planetary satellites are found in the outer solar system. Most of these are associated with the three regular satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. The largest satellites are Titan in the Saturn system and Ganymede and Callisto in the Jupiter system. Intermediate in size between Mercury and Mars, each has a diameter of about 5000 km. Presumably each has an internal composition about 60 percent rock and 40 ice, and each is differentiated with a dense core extending out about 75 percent of the distance to the surface, with a mantle of high-pressure ice and a crust of ordinary ice perhaps 100 km thick. Attention is also given to Io, Europa, the icy satellites of Saturn, the satellites of Uranus, the small satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, Triton and the Pluto system, and plans for future studies.

  5. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Véronique; Breuer, Doris; Claeys, Philippe; Debaille, Vinciane; de Keyser, Johan; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Goderis, Steven; Karatekin, Ozgur; Matielli, Nadine; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Vanhaecke, Frank; van Hoolst, Tim; Wilquet, Valérie; The PLANET Topers Team

    2015-04-01

    , meteorite impacts, and erosion, modify the planetary surface, the possibility to have liquid water, the thermal state, the energy budget and the availability of nutrients. Shortly after formation (Hadean 4.4-4.0 Ga), evidence supports the presence of a liquid ocean and continental crust on Earth (Wilde et al., 2001), Earth may thus have been habitable very early on (Strasdeit, 2010). The origin of life is not understood yet but the oldest putative traces of life occur in the early Archaean (~3.5 Ga). The extreme values of environmental conditions in which life thrives today can also be used to characterize the "envelope" of the existence of life and the range of potential extraterrestrial habitats. The requirement of nutrients for biosynthesis, growth, and reproduction suggests that a tectonically active planet, with liquid water is required to replenish nutrients and sustain life (as currently known). These dynamic processes play a key role in the apparition and persistence of life. Mars is presently on the edge of the HZ, but may have been much more hospitable early in its history, as the examination of its surface suggests the existence of water very early on (about 4 Ga ago) (Bibring et al., 2005; 2006). Since then, Mars lost most of its atmosphere, preventing the presence of liquid water at the surface. In comparison Earth is habitable at present and has been for at least 3.5 Ga.

  6. Irreversible evolution of the terrestrial planets (geological and petrological data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Comparative studying of tectonomagmatic evolution of the Earth and the Moon shows that cardinal irreversible change in character of tectonomagmatic processes occurred at middle stages of their evolution; very likely such changes took place on other terrestrial planets (Venus, Mars and Mercury). As a result, primordial crusts of the planets were in considerable degree replaced by secondary basaltic ones. The established succession of events on the Earth could be provided by a combination of two independent factors: (1) it was originally heterogeneous and 2) its downward heating was followed by the cooling of its outer shells. As a result the primary iron core material was long time remained untouched and was involved into global tectonomagmatic processes at ca. 2.4-2.3 Ga. We concluded about a similar scenario for the evolution of Moon and other terrestrial planets. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and Moon) was studied. What did major stages of their irreversible evolution occur before they turned into "dead" stone balls? We discuss these problems on examples of the Earth and the Moon, which evolution studied the best. According to modern views, after accretion of these bodies, magma oceans of some hundreds km deep appeared on their surface. According to Jeffries [1], solidification of large molted bodies, because of the difference between adiabatic gradient in silicate melts (0.3oC/km) and gradient of their melting points (3oC/km), could be going only upwards, from the bottom to the surface. As a result a powerful crystallizing differentiation of the oceans' magmas occurred with accumulation of the most low-melting components to the surface. Due to different deep of the magma oceans on the Earth and the Moon, the primordial crusts on these bodies were rather different: sialic on the Earth and basic (anorthosite) on the Moon.

  7. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to South Africa, Cape Town and Johannesburg using NASA Terra/MODIS data, Landsat data and 1 m IKONOS 'Spy Satellite' data. Zoom in to any place South Africa using Earth Viewer 3D from Keyhole Inc. and Landsat data at 30 m resolution Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & 'tornadoes'. See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASANOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained.

  8. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  9. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naskrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1986/1987 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with an astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  10. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1985-1986 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with a astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  11. Magnetospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanallen, James A.

    1987-01-01

    The five qualitatively different types of magnetism that a planet body can exhibit are outlined. Potential sources of energetic particles in a planetary magnetosphere are discussed. The magnetosphere of Uranus and Neptune are then described using Pioneer 10 data.

  12. Voyager to the Seventh Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Presents recent findings obtained by the Voyager 2 mission on Uranus. Updates information on the planet's moons, rings, atmosphere, and magnetic field. Illustrations and diagrams of selected aspects of Uranus are included. (ML)

  13. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in

  14. Planet Hunters: Kepler by Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, C.; Fischer, D.; Smith, A. M.; Boyajian, T. S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Lynn, S.; Parrish, M.; Schawinski, K.; Schmitt, J.; Simpson, R.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org), part of the Zooniverse's (http://www.zooniverse.org) collection of online citizen science projects, uses the World Wide Web to enlist the general public to identify transits in the pubic Kepler light curves. Planet Hunters utilizes human pattern recognition to identify planet transits that may be missed by automated detection algorithms looking for periodic events. Referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’ or ‘citizen science’, the combined assessment of many non-expert human classifiers with minimal training can often equal or best that of a trained expert and in many cases outperform the best machine-learning algorithm. Visitors to the Planet Hunters' website are presented with a randomly selected ~30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler’s ~160,000 target stars and are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits in the web interface. 5-10 classifiers review each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 260,000 volunteers world wide have participated, contributing over 20 million classifications. We have demonstrated the success of a citizen science approach with the project’s more than 20 planet candidates, the discovery of PH1b, a transiting circumbinary planet in a quadruple star system, and the discovery of PH2-b, a confirmed Jupiter-sized planet in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star. I will provide an overview of Planet Hunters, highlighting several of project's most recent exoplanet and astrophysical discoveries. Acknowledgements: MES was supported in part by a NSF AAPF under award AST-1003258 and a American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant. We acknowledge support from NASA ADAP12-0172 grant to PI Fischer.

  15. Oceanic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, merchant ships and the naval fleets of various countries have been the major source of data over and in the open ocean. Oceanographic research experiments and process studies in the field have also contributed to the climatological data bases for the global ocean, but, for the most part, these have been limited in duration and extent. However, over the last 10 years under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program and the International Geosphere Biosphere Program the role of the oceans in global and climate change has taken on increased significance. This has created a need for a considerably improved understanding of the seasonal, interannual, decadal and longer time-scale variability of the physical and biogeochemical attributes of the global ocean. As a result, over the past 10 years several major international field programs have been implemented and have had a tremendous impact on the number of in situ observations obtained for the global ocean. The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) were designed with observational, modelling, and process study components aimed at analyzing different aspects of the ocean's role in the coupled climate system. In parallel with the field programs, continuous space-based observations of sea surface temperature, sea surface topography, and sea surface winds spanning nearly a decade or longer have become a reality. During this same time period, numerical ocean models and computational power have advanced to the point where the oceanographic observations, both in situ and remotely sensed, can be assimilated into numerical ocean models in order to provide a four-dimensional (x-y-z-t) depiction of the evolving state of the global ocean.

  16. Planets in extreme magnetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutou, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between stars and planets in very close-in systems include irradiation, tidal and magnetic effects, the relative amplitudes of which depend on the system parameters. The extent of magnetic interactions, however, is only poorly known since the magnetic fields of the parent star itself is barely characterized. In this presentation, I will review the recent efforts made to measure and characterize the magnetic fields of star hosting close-in planets, in order to provide quantitative constraints in the studies of star-planet interactions.We have been using the spectropolarimeters CFHT/ESPaDOnS and TBL/NARVAL to assess the our ability to detect the circular polarization of several dozens planet-host stars, and to map the large-scale magnetic topology of a sub-sample of these stars. The detection of magnetic fields as low as a few Gauss is possible around relatively bright, solar-like stars. After hot-Jupiter systems, we got interested in systems with smaller planets in close orbits. Several applications of these magnetic topologies have already been used in theoretical analyses of the star-planet interactions, that we will briefly review. Perspectives for this work include further observing programs and more detailed theoretical representations.

  17. Kuiper Prize: Giant Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2007-10-01

    The study of giant planet atmospheres is near and dear to me, for several reasons. First, the giant planets are photogenic; the colored clouds are great tracers, and one can make fantastic movies of the atmosphere in motion. Second, the giant planets challenge us with storms that last for hundreds of years and winds that blow faster the farther you go from the sun. Third, they remind us of Earth with their hurricanes, auroras, and lightning, but they also are the link to the 200 giant planets that have been discovered around other stars. This talk will cover the past, present, and future (one hopes) of giant planet research. I will review the surprises of the Voyager and Galileo eras, and will discuss what we are learning now from the Cassini orbiter. I will review the prospects for answering the outstanding questions like: Where's the water? What is providing the colors of the clouds? How deep do the features extend? Where do the winds get their energy? What is the role of the magnetic field? Finally, I will briefly discuss how extrasolar giant planets compare with objects in our own solar system.

  18. Migration of icy planetesimals to forming terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, Sergei I.; Marov, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Our studies of migration of planetesimals from the feeding zone of Jupiter and Saturn to forming terrestrial planets were based on computer simulations of the orbital evolution of 10^4 planetesimals under the gravitational influence of planets. In series JN, all planets were considered in present orbits with present masses, and in series JS, Uranus and Neptune were excluded. Initial eccentricities and inclinations of planetesimals were 0.3 and 0.15 rad, respectively. Their initial semi-major axes were between 4.5 and 12 AU. Masses of planets moving in the orbits of the terrestrial planets were equal to present masses of the planets in series JS and JN, and were smaller by a factor of 10 in series JS_{01} and JN_{01}. The obtained results show that the ratio of the fraction of the planetesimals collided with an embryo of the Earth's embryo was about 2\\cdot10^{-6} and 4\\cdot10^{-7} for the mass of the embryo equal to the Earth mass and to 10% of the Earth mass, respectively. We concluded that during the growth of the mass of the Earth's embryo up to a half of the present mass of the Earth, the amount of water delivered to the embryo could be about 30% of all water delivered to the Earth from the feeding zone of Jupiter and Saturn. The total mass of water delivered to the Earth from the feeding zones of the giant planets and beyond these zones could be comparable with the mass of the Earth's oceans. A half of this water could come from the feeding zone of Jupiter and Saturn, and another half from more distant regions. Most of the water that was delivered from the distant regions to the Earth's embryo came when its mass was not small (e.g., was mainly greater than a half of the Earth mass). In series JS, the ratio of the mass of water delivered to a planet to the mass of the planet for the Earth was smaller by a factor of 2, 1.25, and 1.3 than for Mars, Venus and Mercury, respectively. For series JN, the above values of the factor were equal to 3.4, 0.7 i 0.8. For

  19. The Earth is a Planet Too!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Brian

    2014-01-01

    When the solar system formed, the sun was 30 dimmer than today and Venus had an ocean. As the sun brightened, a runaway greenhouse effect caused the Venus ocean to boil away. At times when Earth was younger, the sun less bright, and atmospheric CO2 less, Earth froze over (snowball Earth). Earth is in the sweet spot today. Venus is closer to sun than Earth is, but cloud-covered Venus absorbs only 25 of incident sunlight, while Earth absorbs 70. Venus is warmer because it has a thick carbon dioxide atmosphere causing a greenhouse effect of several hundred degrees. Earth is Goldilocks choice among the planets, the one that is just right for life to exist. Not too hot. Not too cold. How does the Earth manage to stay in this habitable range? Is there a Gaia phenomenon keeping the climate in bounds? A nice idea, but it doesnt work. Today, greenhouse gas levels are unprecedented compared to the last 450,000 years.

  20. Magnetic field of the planet Uranus: predictions, measurements, and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Dolginov, S.S.

    1987-09-01

    The magnitude and tilt of the eccentric dipole of Uranus are examined in the framework of a processing dynamo model. It is shown that the unique parameters of the magnetic field of Uranus are connected with the fact that, unlike the other planets, the magnetic field of Uranus is generated in two bordering regions whose highly conducting materials differ sharply in density: the density anti rho = 12 g x cm/sup -3/ in a core with an upper boundary r = 0.3R/sub U/, and anti rho = 3.1 g x cm/sup -3/ in an ocean with an upper boundary r = 0.6R/sub U/. The upper boundary of the magnetically active region in the ocean is determined by the magnetic pressure P = 1.9 Mbar, at which the ocean material is metallized.

  1. G. P. Kuiper's Early Studies of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    2005-08-01

    Gerard P. Kuiper was born on December 7, 1905; this is his centennial year. While he had an early interest in Solar System bodies, writing an extensive review about Mars for the popular Dutch astronomy journal, Hemel en Dampkring in 1931, Kuiper's first important observations began in 1944, when he discovered the atmosphere of Titan. In a letter dated February 29, 1944, to Lick Observatory director Joseph H. Moore, Kuiper noted that, ``The only reason I happened to observe the planets and the 10 brightest satellites was that they were nicely lined up in a region of the sky where I had run out of program stars (stars of large proper motion and parallax)." These spectroscopic observations were obtained with the new McDonald 82-inch telescope during a break from Kuiper's war-time work at Harvard's Radio Research Laboratory. In a letter of congratulations, his friend S. Chandrasekhar wrote, ``It is only on the impact of such discoveries that one realizes afresh the permanent value of science which no war -- not even of Hitler's -- can truly undermine. And it must be of satisfaction to you that if you took a vacation from war-work, it was only to make a fundamental discovery!" Using detectors declassified at the end of World War II, Kuiper began a study of the infrared spectra of planets and stars (with the first publication in 1947) that continued to the time of his death (December 24, 1973). Early in this work, on March 2, 1948, he wrote a lengthy letter to Henry Norris Russell in which he succinctly and enthusiastically summarized his observations and discoveries. Details in this letter give a fascinating perspective on some of the earliest physical studies of Solar System bodies, such as the detection of water ice on Saturn's rings and in the polar cap of Mars, spectral and photometric measurements of Mars' surface and atmospheric haze, and the discovery of Miranda.

  2. The atmospheres of earthlike planets after giant impact events

    SciTech Connect

    Lupu, R. E.; Freedman, Richard; Schaefer, Laura; Morley, Caroline; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Cahoy, Kerri

    2014-03-20

    It is now understood that the accretion of terrestrial planets naturally involves giant collisions, the moon-forming impact being a well-known example. In the aftermath of such collisions, the surface of the surviving planet is very hot and potentially detectable. Here we explore the atmospheric chemistry, photochemistry, and spectral signatures of post-giant-impact terrestrial planets enveloped by thick atmospheres consisting predominantly of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The atmospheric chemistry and structure are computed self-consistently for atmospheres in equilibrium with hot surfaces with composition reflecting either the bulk silicate Earth (which includes the crust, mantle, atmosphere, and oceans) or Earth's continental crust. We account for all major molecular and atomic opacity sources including collision-induced absorption. We find that these atmospheres are dominated by H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}, while the formation of CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} is quenched because of short dynamical timescales. Other important constituents are HF, HCl, NaCl, and SO{sub 2}. These are apparent in the emerging spectra and can be indicative that an impact has occurred. The use of comprehensive opacities results in spectra that are a factor of two lower brightness temperature in the spectral windows than predicted by previous models. The estimated luminosities show that the hottest post-giant-impact planets will be detectable with near-infrared coronagraphs on the planned 30 m class telescopes. The 1-4 μm will be most favorable for such detections, offering bright features and better contrast between the planet and a potential debris disk. We derive cooling timescales on the order of 10{sup 5-6} yr on the basis of the modeled effective temperatures. This leads to the possibility of discovering tens of such planets in future surveys.

  3. Planetary Systems and the Formation of Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Maindl, Thomas I.; Burger, Christoph; Schäfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland

    2015-09-01

    As part of a national scientific network 'Pathways to Habitability' the formation of planets and the delivery of water onto these planets is a key question as water is essential for the development of life. In the first part of the paper we summarize the state of the art of planet formation - which is still under debate in the astronomical community - before we show our results on this topic. The outcome of our numerical simulations depends a lot on the choice of the initial distribution of planetesimals and planetary embryos after gas disappeared in the protoplanetary disk. We also take into account that some of these planetesimals of sizes in the order of the mass of the Moon already contained water; the quantity depends on the distance from the Sun - close-by bodies are dry, but starting from a distance of about 2 AU they can contain substantial amounts of water. We assume that the gas giants and terrestrial planets are already formed when we check the collisions of the small bodies containing water (in the order of a few percent) with the terrestrial planets. We thus are able to give an estimate of the respective contribution to the actual water content (of some Earth-oceans) in the mantle, in the crust and on the surface of Earth. In the second part we discuss in more detail how the formation of larger bodies after a collision may happen as the outcome depends on parameters like collision velocity, impact angle, and the materials involved. We present results obtained by SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) simulations. We briefly describe this method and show different scenarios with respect to the formed bodies, possible fragmentation and the water content before and after the collision. In an appendix we discuss detection methods for extrasolar planets (close to 2000 such objects have been discovered so far).

  4. The Atmospheres of Earthlike Planets after Giant Impact Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, R. E.; Zahnle, Kevin; Marley, Mark S.; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce; Morley, Caroline; Cahoy, Kerri; Freedman, Richard; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2014-03-01

    It is now understood that the accretion of terrestrial planets naturally involves giant collisions, the moon-forming impact being a well-known example. In the aftermath of such collisions, the surface of the surviving planet is very hot and potentially detectable. Here we explore the atmospheric chemistry, photochemistry, and spectral signatures of post-giant-impact terrestrial planets enveloped by thick atmospheres consisting predominantly of CO2 and H2O. The atmospheric chemistry and structure are computed self-consistently for atmospheres in equilibrium with hot surfaces with composition reflecting either the bulk silicate Earth (which includes the crust, mantle, atmosphere, and oceans) or Earth's continental crust. We account for all major molecular and atomic opacity sources including collision-induced absorption. We find that these atmospheres are dominated by H2O and CO2, while the formation of CH4 and NH3 is quenched because of short dynamical timescales. Other important constituents are HF, HCl, NaCl, and SO2. These are apparent in the emerging spectra and can be indicative that an impact has occurred. The use of comprehensive opacities results in spectra that are a factor of two lower brightness temperature in the spectral windows than predicted by previous models. The estimated luminosities show that the hottest post-giant-impact planets will be detectable with near-infrared coronagraphs on the planned 30 m class telescopes. The 1-4 μm will be most favorable for such detections, offering bright features and better contrast between the planet and a potential debris disk. We derive cooling timescales on the order of 105-6 yr on the basis of the modeled effective temperatures. This leads to the possibility of discovering tens of such planets in future surveys.

  5. Planet Earth: Its Past, Our Present, A Future (?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2012-04-01

    We who have lived through the second half of the 20th century into the 21st century have witnessed a profound transition in the biological and physical relationship between humans and the rest of the planet. In the middle of the last century, our planet still had undeveloped islands: there were frontiers that held new lands, mysteries, adventures, cultures, and resources. However, these islands have merged into a relatively seamless planet by a mobile and expanding population, science and technology, and global communication. We are subject to stealth as well as natural disasters. Natural disasters result from the ongoing geological and meteorological processes on our planet, increasingly exacerbated by human presence and behavior. Stealth disasters, on the other hand, are caused by humans, but involve the natural systems that support us. Examples of stealth disasters are climate change, loss of soils, acidification of the oceans, desertification, and loss of groundwater resources. Civilization is a complex system. It has emergent properties, and a tuning parameter--a parameter that is "tuned" until the unexpected happens. The tuning parameter for populations is the number of members relative to the capacities that support them. Because of our sheer numbers, we are driving the stealth disasters, and we will be affected more severely by natural disasters than we have been in the past on a less densely populated planet. To guide our thinking about geoethical issues, we propose a (hypothetical) world organization modeled after the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the U.S., and call it the Center for Disaster Control for Planet Earth (CDCPE). This center would have a scientific body to provide impartial facts and uncertainties, an engineering body to propose and implement technical solutions, a negotiating body to balance the realities of political, economic, religious and cultural values, and an enforcement body that is responsive to all of the inputs. How shall

  6. Heat Content and Temperature of the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponte, Rui M.

    The global ocean is a vast body of water covering approximately two thirds of Earth's surface and having an average depth around 4,000 m. Temperatures in the ocean can range from a balmy 30°C in the surface layers of the tropics to an icy cold -2°C in polar regions and at abyssal depths. Apart from the strong spatial variability, water temperatures at a place also change on all time scales, from hours to decades. Variability in surface water temperatures affects air-sea heat exchange and is an important factor determining the nature and strength of ocean-atmosphere coupling. Changes in ocean temperatures imply expansion or contraction of the water column and can thus have a major impact on sea level. And given the large heat capacity of seawater compared to that of air and the large mass of the oceans compared to that of the atmosphere, relatively small fluctuations in oceanic temperatures imply substantial changes in heat content, which are essential for properly accounting for the planet's energy balance. As such, taking the temperature of the oceans and determining changes in its heat content is an essential diagnostic of the state of Earth's climate and the overall health of our planet.

  7. FLIPPER: Validation for Remote Ocean Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    one of the determining factors in the planet s ability to support life is the same factor that makes the Blue Planet blue: water. Therefore, NASA researchers have a focused interest in understanding Earth s oceans and their ability to continue sustaining life. A critical objective in this study is to understand the global processes that control the changes of carbon and associated living elements in the oceans. Since oceans are so large, one of the most widely used methods of this research is remote sensing, using satellites to observe changes in the ocean color that may be indicative of changes occurring at the surface. Major changes in carbon are due to photosynthesis conducted by phytoplankton, showing, among other things, which areas are sustaining life. Although valuable for large-scale pictures of an ocean, remote sensing really only provides a surface, and therefore incomplete, depiction of that ocean s sustainability. True and complete testing of the water requires local testing in conjunction with the satellite images in order to generate the necessary algorithm parameters to calculate ocean health. For this reason, NASA has spearheaded research to provide onsite validation for its satellite imagery surveys.

  8. Convection and plate tectonics on extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, C.; Grasset, O.; Schubert, G.

    2012-04-01

    The number of potential Earth-like exoplanets is still very limited compared to the overall number of detected exoplanets. But the different methods keep improving, giving hope for this number to increase significantly in the coming years. Based on the relationship between mass and radius, two of the easiest parameters that can be known for exoplanets, four categories of planets have been identified: (i) the gas giants including hot Jupiters, (ii) the icy giants that can be like their solar system cousins Uranus and Neptune or that can have lost their H2-He atmosphere and have become the so-called ocean planets, (iii) the Earth-like planets with a fraction of silicates and iron similar to that of the Earth, and (iv) the Mercury like planet that have a much larger fraction of iron. The hunt for exoplanets is very much focused on Earth-like planets because of the desire to find alien forms of life and the science goal to understand how life started and developed on Earth. One science question is whether heat transfer by subsolidus convection can lead to plate tectonics, a process that allows material to be recycled in the interior on timescales of hundreds of millions of years. Earth-like exoplanets may have conditions quite different from Earth. For example, COROT-7b is so close to its star that it is likely locked in synchronous orbit with one very hot hemisphere and one very cold hemisphere. It is also worth noting that among the three Earth-like planets of the solar system (Earth, Venus and Mars), only Earth is subject to plate tectonics at present time. Venus may have experienced plate tectonics before the resurfacing event that erased any clue that such a process existed. This study investigates some of the parameters that can influence the transition from stagnant-lid convection to mobile-lid convection. Numerical simulations of convective heat transfer have been performed in 3D spherical geometry in order to determine the stress field generated by convection

  9. Collisional Evolution of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnor, C. B.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2003-05-01

    The currently accepted model for the formation of terrestrial planets describes their growth as the collisional accumulation of rocky or sometimes molten planetesimals. The characteristics of the planets produced by this process are, to a large degree, determined by their collisional evolution, and their associated differentiation and thermal evolution. Studies of planet formation and planetary collisional evolution have typically been conducted separately. Most works of late-stage planet formation use perfectly inelastic mergers to model collisions (e.g. Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999, Chambers 2001, Levison & Agnor 2003), with certain recognized inadequacies, notably rotationally unstable spin rates acquired as a planet grows. Do planets really accrete in this manner? On the other hand, most of the work studying the collisional evolution of terrestrial planets has focused on determining the efficacy of single impacts to account for particular planetary characteristics and the formation of satellites (e.g. Benz et al. 1988, Canup & Asphaug 2001). It has been recognized for some time (Wetherill 1985) that the final characteristics (e.g. spin state, bulk composition, isotopic age) of an accreting planet are determined not by the last or single largest collision (Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999) but by all of the major collisional encounters in a planet's history. As demonstrated in our impact models, each major impact changes the silicate to metal ratio, the thermal state, and the spin state, and sets the stage for subsequent collisions. We have commenced a detailed study of collision dynamics and outcomes common to the late stage of terrestrial planet accretion. We are modeling collisions using smooth particle hydrodynamics to examine, primarily, the regimes of impact that truly allow for accretion (i.e. mass accumulation instead of mass loss). We are also studying the cumulative affect of giant impacts on major planetary characteristics (such as composition and spin) and

  10. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  11. GIANT PLANETS ORBITING METAL-RICH STARS SHOW SIGNATURES OF PLANET-PLANET INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2013-04-20

    Gas giants orbiting interior to the ice line are thought to have been displaced from their formation locations by processes that remain debated. Here we uncover several new metallicity trends, which together may indicate that two competing mechanisms deliver close-in giant planets: gentle disk migration, operating in environments with a range of metallicities, and violent planet-planet gravitational interactions, primarily triggered in metal-rich systems in which multiple giant planets can form. First, we show with 99.1% confidence that giant planets with semimajor axes between 0.1 and 1 AU orbiting metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < 0) are confined to lower eccentricities than those orbiting metal-rich stars. Second, we show with 93.3% confidence that eccentric proto-hot Jupiters undergoing tidal circularization primarily orbit metal-rich stars. Finally, we show that only metal-rich stars host a pile-up of hot Jupiters, helping account for the lack of such a pile-up in the overall Kepler sample. Migration caused by stellar perturbers (e.g., stellar Kozai) is unlikely to account for the trends. These trends further motivate follow-up theoretical work addressing which hot Jupiter migration theories can also produce the observed population of eccentric giant planets between 0.1 and 1 AU.

  12. Habitability of planets on eccentric orbits: Limits of the mean flux approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmont, Emeline; Libert, Anne-Sophie; Leconte, Jeremy; Selsis, Franck

    2016-06-01

    Unlike the Earth, which has a small orbital eccentricity, some exoplanets discovered in the insolation habitable zone (HZ) have high orbital eccentricities (e.g., up to an eccentricity of ~0.97 for HD 20782 b). This raises the question of whether these planets have surface conditions favorable to liquid water. In order to assess the habitability of an eccentric planet, the mean flux approximation is often used. It states that a planet on an eccentric orbit is called habitable if it receives on average a flux compatible with the presence of surface liquid water. However, because the planets experience important insolation variations over one orbit and even spend some time outside the HZ for high eccentricities, the question of their habitability might not be as straightforward. We performed a set of simulations using the global climate model LMDZ to explore the limits of the mean flux approximation when varying the luminosity of the host star and the eccentricity of the planet. We computed the climate of tidally locked ocean covered planets with orbital eccentricity from 0 to 0.9 receiving a mean flux equal to Earth's. These planets are found around stars of luminosity ranging from 1 L⊙ to 10-4L⊙. We use a definition of habitability based on the presence of surface liquid water, and find that most of the planets considered can sustain surface liquid water on the dayside with an ice cap on the nightside. However, for high eccentricity and high luminosity, planets cannot sustain surface liquid water during the whole orbital period. They completely freeze at apoastron and when approaching periastron an ocean appears around the substellar point. We conclude that the higher the eccentricity and the higher the luminosity of the star, the less reliable the mean flux approximation.

  13. Terraforming planet Dune: Climate-vegetation interactions on a sandy planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresto Aleina, F.; Baudena, M.; D'Andrea, F.; Provenzale, A.

    2012-04-01

    The climate and the biosphere of planet Earth interact in multiple, complicated ways and on many spatial and temporal scales. Some of these processes can be studied with the help of simple mathematical models, as done for the effects of vegetation on albedo in desert areas and for the mechanisms by which terrestrial vegetation affects water fluxes in arid environments. Conceptual models of this kind do not attempt at providing quantitative descriptions of the climate-biosphere interaction, but rather to explore avenues and mechanisms which can play a role in the real system, providing inspiration for further research. In this work, we develop a simple conceptual box model in the spirit illustrated above, to explore whether and how vegetation affects the planetary hydrologic cycle. We imagine a planet with no oceans and whose surface is entirely covered with sand, quite similar to planet Dune of the science-fiction series by Frank Herbert (1965). We suppose that water is entirely in the sand, below the surface. Without vegetation, only evaporation takes place, affecting the upper sand layer for a maximum depth of a few cm. The amount of water that is evaporated in the atmosphere is relatively small, and not sufficient to trigger a full hydrologic cycle. The question is what happens to this planet when vegetation is introduced: the root depth can reach a meter or more, and plant transpiration can then transfer a much larger amount of water to the atmosphere. One may wonder whether the presence of vegetation is sufficient to trigger a hydrologic cycle with enough precipitation to sustain the vegetation itself and, if the answer is positive, what is the minimum vegetation cover that is required to maintain the cycle active. In more precise terms, we want to know whether the introduction of vegetation and of the evapotranspiration feedback allows for the existence of multiple equilibria (or solutions) in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Although the box model

  14. Space activities and global popular music culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  15. Evolution of popularity in given names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mi Jin; Jo, Woo Seong; Yi, Il Gu; Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2016-02-01

    An individual's identity in a human society is specified by his or her name. Differently from family names, usually inherited from fathers, a given name for a child is often chosen at the parents' disposal. However, their decision cannot be made in a vacuum but affected by social conventions and trends. Furthermore, such social pressure changes in time, as new names gain popularity while some other names are gradually forgotten. In this paper, we investigate how popularity of given names has evolved over the last century by using datasets collected in Korea, the province of Quebec in Canada, and the United States. In each of these countries, the average popularity of given names exhibits typical patterns of rise and fall with a time scale of about one generation. We also observe that notable changes of diversity in given names signal major social changes.

  16. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  17. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frex, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins were mare-type basins produced 4 billion years ago by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upwards from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the Earth indicates that at least 50 percent of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60 percent oceanic, 40 percent continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  18. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  19. Collisional Evolution of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnor, C.; Asphaug, E.

    2004-12-01

    The terrestrial planets are generally thought to have formed via the collisional accumulation of rocky bodies. The characteristics of the planets produced by this process are, to a large degree, determined by their collisional evolution, and their associated differentiation and thermal evolution. Studies of planet formation and planetary collisional evolution have typically been conducted separately. Most works of late-stage planet formation use perfectly inelastic mergers to model collisions (e.g. Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999, Chambers 2001, Levison & Agnor 2003), with certain recognized inadequacies, notably prohibitively large spin angular momentum acquired as a planet grows. To date, studies of the collisional evolution of terrestrial planets has focused on determining the efficacy of single impacts to account for particular planetary characteristics and the formation of satellites (e.g. Benz et al. 1988, Canup & Asphaug 2001, Canup 2004). It has been recognized for some time (Wetherill 1985) that the final characteristics (e.g. spin state, bulk composition, isotopic age) of an accreting planet are determined not by the last or single largest collision but by all of the major collisional encounters in a planet's history (Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999). As demonstrated by our impact models, each major impact changes the silicate to metal ratio, the thermal state, and the spin state, and sets the stage for the subsequent collision. We are studying collisional dynamics and outcomes common to the late stage of terrestrial planet formation. We use smooth particle hydrodynamics model collisions in an effort to identify the range of impact dynamics that allow for accretion (i.e. mass growth instead of mass loss). In our initial study we found that for dynamical environments typical of most late stage accretion models, about half of all collisions between equal mass planetary embryos do not result in accumulation into a larger embryo (Agnor & Asphaug 2004). We will

  20. The evolution of ocean color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Victor A.; Espinoza, Carola

    2008-08-01

    Analog examples of what primeval oceans might have looked in the Precambrian are probably extant in various regions and at various size scales in present day oceans albeit they have not been sufficiently recognized and/or studied. The Eastern Boundary Current Ecosystems (EBCEs), with their characteristic high productivity-inducing coastal upwelling events, their extensive and intensive anoxic/hypoxic water column and methane and sulfide-rich benthic environment, appear to represent such analogs. Moreover, recent studies have shown that they possess diverse anaerobic prokaryotic communities of mat-forming large multi-cellular filamentous bacteria similar to fossils found in Archean and Proterozoic rocks. Observations in the Bay of Concepcion, central Chile (~36°S), inserted in the second most productive EBCE of the world, suggests that given similar oceanographic dynamics, past oceans may have presented different predominant colorations after the first probable "red" color of the reduced iron-rich Archean ocean and prior to the present day "blue" color. In this coastal ecosystem a "black" coloration has been observed to form as the result of the floating to the surface layer of sulfide-blackened benthic detritus together with chunks of microbial mats, and a "milky to turquoise" coloration resulting from different concentrations of colloidal, nano-sized particles which may include elemental sulfur and/or microorganisms. If the present is the key to the past we posit that "black" color oceans could have existed during the Proterozoic "Canfield sulfidic ocean" followed by "milky to turquoise" colored oceans during later stages of the Proterozoic. Meso-scale examples of "milky" and "turquoise" portions of oceans, caused by elemental sulfur from oxidized hydrogen sulfide eruptions, have been described from off Namibia and there appear to also exist elsewhere. Examples of "black" oceans have apparently not been reported but the name of the Black Sea, the largest

  1. Books and the popularization of science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, R.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses best-selling science books, the characteristics of the audience for popular science books, and the role of books within science popularization and science education. Best-selling science books have been rare, but generally readable. Regional books, also important sources of scientific information, aim at much smaller, far more price-sensitive audiences. Many successful regional, nontechnical science books are readable, heavily illustrated, and in some cases, cross-disciplinary. To increase the attentive audience for scientific information, improvement in science education is necessary, and the most efficacious role for scientific institutions may be the production of materials that can be easily incorporated into school curricula. ?? 1991 Springer.

  2. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  3. Adolescents and popular culture. A psychodynamic overview.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, D S; Daniolos, P; Kass, N; Martin, A

    1999-01-01

    Adolescents occupy a difficult and seemingly elusive developmental space, which makes them enigmas to most adults, including psychotherapists. Building upon dynamic theory such as that formulated by Winnicott or Erikson, this paper explores the relationship between adolescents and material elements of popular culture within a psychodynamic and developmental framework. Theoretical perspectives are integrated with case material to illustrate some of the roles of popular music and fashion in the lives of teenagers as a means of expression and in potential therapeutic alliance formation, dynamic understanding and working through developmental conflicts in displacement. PMID:10748638

  4. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet. PMID:11538726

  5. Abstracts of Popular Culture: A Quarterly Publication of International Popular Phenomena. Vol. 1:A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.

    Over 2100 articles concerned with popular culture, drawn from 188 American periodicals and a scattering of foreign publications, are scanned in this volume. Popular culture is defined as any aspect of life which is not academic or creative in the narrowest and most esoteric sense of the words. Thirty- to 150-word abstracts are provided of…

  6. Pragmatism and Popular Culture: Shusterman, Popular Art, and the Challenge of Visuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snaevarr, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Richard Shusterman's defense of popular culture and intends to show that the entertainment industry has a dark side which Shusterman tends to ignore. Richard Shusterman is a pragmatist aesthetician who promotes art as an integral part of the ever-changing stream of life, believing that popular culture provides…

  7. Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary star and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically effects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Systems similar to the only observed multi-planet circumbinary system, Kepler-47, can arise from much more tightly packed, unstable systems. Only extreme initial conditions introduce differences in the final planet populations. Thus, we suggest that any intrinsic differences in the populations are imprinted by formation.

  8. Mercury - the hollow planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury is turning out to be a planet characterized by various kinds of endogenous hole (discounting impact craters), which are compared here. These include volcanic vents and collapse features on horizontal scales of tens of km, and smaller scale depressions ('hollows') associated with bright crater-floor deposits (BCFD). The BCFD hollows are tens of metres deep and kilometres or less across and are characteristically flat-floored, with steep, scalloped walls. Their form suggests that they most likely result from removal of surface material by some kind of mass-wasting process, probably associated with volume-loss caused by removal (via sublimation?) of a volatile component. These do not appear to be primarily a result of undermining. Determining the composition of the high-albedo bluish surface coating in BCFDs will be a key goal for BepiColombo instruments such as MIXS (Mercury Imaging Xray Spectrometer). In contrast, collapse features are non-circular rimless pits, typically on crater floors (pit-floor craters), whose morphology suggests collapse into void spaces left by magma withdrawal. This could be by drainage of either erupted lava (or impact melt) or of shallowly-intruded magma. Unlike the much smaller-scale BCFD hollows, these 'collapse pit' features tend to lack extensive flat floors and instead tend to be close to triangular in cross-section with inward slopes near to the critical angle of repose. The different scale and morphology of BCFD hollows and collapse pits argues for quite different modes of origin. However, BCFD hollows adjacent to and within the collapse pit inside Scarlatti crater suggest that the volatile material whose loss was responsible for the growth of the hollows may have been emplaced in association with the magma whose drainage caused the main collapse. Another kind of volcanic collapse can be seen within a 25 km-wide volcanic vent outside the southern rim of the Caloris basin (22.5° N, 146.1° E), on a 28 m/pixel MDIS NAC image

  9. Growth of planets from planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Stewart, Glen R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper reviews the formation of terrestrial planets and the cores of Jovian planets within the framework of the planetesimal hypothesis, wherein planets are assumed to grow via the pairwise accumulation of small solid bodies. The rate of (proto)planetary growth is determined by the size and mass of the protoplanet, the surface density of planetesimals, and the distribution of planetesimal velocities relative to the protoplanet. Planetesimal velocities are modified by mutual gravitational interactions and collisions, which convert energy present in the ordered relative motions of orbiting particles into random motions and tend to reduce the velocities of the largest bodies in the swarm relative to those of smaller bodies, as well as by gas drag, which damps eccentricities and inclinations. The evolution of planetesimal size distribution is determined by the gravitationally enhanced collision cross section, which favors collisions between planetesimals with smaller velocities.

  10. Characterizing K2 Planet Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Montet, Benjamin; Johnson, John; Buchhave, Lars A.; Zeng, Li; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; Harps-N Collaboration, The Robo-Ao Team

    2015-01-01

    We present an effort to confirm the first planet discovered by the two-wheeled Kepler mission. We analyzed K2 photometry, correcting for nonuniform detector response as a function of the spacecraft's pointing, and detected a transiting planet candidate. We describe our multi-telescope followup observing campaign, consisting of photometric, spectroscopic, and high resolution imaging observations, including over 40 HARPS-N radial velocity measurements. The new planet is a super-Earth orbiting a bright star amenable to followup observations. HARPS-N was funded by the Swiss Space Office, the Harvard Origin of Life Initiative, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the University of Geneva, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Italian National Astrophysical Institute, the University of St. Andrews, Queens University Belfast, and the University of Edinburgh.

  11. Planet Masses from Disk Spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Young, forming planets can generate immense spiral structures within their protoplanetary disks. A recent study has shown that observations of these spiral structures may allow astronomers to measure the mass of the planets that create them.Spirals From WavesSnapshots of the surface density of a protoplanetary disk in a 2D simulation, 3D simulation, and synthesized scattered-light image. Click for a closer look! [Fung Dong, 2015]Recent studies have shown that a single planet, if it is massive enough, can excite multiple density waves within a protoplanetary disk as it orbits. These density waves can then interfere to produce a multiple-armed spiral structure in the disk inside of the planets orbit a structure which can potentially be observed in scattered-light images of the disk.But what do these arms look like, and what factors determine their structure? In a recently published study, Jeffrey Fung and Ruobing Dong, two researchers at the University of California at Berkeley, have modeled the spiral arms in an effort to answer these questions.Arms Provide AnswersA useful parameter for describing the structure is the azimuthal separation (sep) between the primary and secondary spiral arms. If you draw a circle within the disk and measure the angle between the two points where the primary and secondary arms cross it, thats sep.Azimuthal separation of the primary and secondary spiral arms, as a function of the planet-to-star mass ratio q. The different curves represent different disk aspect ratios. [Fung Dong, 2015]The authors find thatsep stays roughly constant for different radii, but its strongly dependent on the planets mass: for larger planets, sep increases. They discover that sep scales as a power of the planet mass for companions between Neptune mass and 16 Jupiter masses, orbiting around a solar-mass star. For larger, brown-dwarf-size companions, sep is a constant 180.If this new theory is confirmed, it could have very interesting implications for

  12. Habitable zone limits for dry planets.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yutaka; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Sleep, Norman H; Zahnle, Kevin J

    2011-06-01

    Most discussion of habitable planets has focused on Earth-like planets with globally abundant liquid water. For an "aqua planet" like Earth, the surface freezes if far from its sun, and the water vapor greenhouse effect runs away if too close. Here we show that "land planets" (desert worlds with limited surface water) have wider habitable zones than aqua planets. For planets at the inner edge of the habitable zone, a land planet has two advantages over an aqua planet: (i) the tropics can emit longwave radiation at rates above the traditional runaway limit because the air is unsaturated and (ii) the dry air creates a dry stratosphere that limits hydrogen escape. At the outer limits of the habitable zone, the land planet better resists global freezing because there is less water for clouds, snow, and ice. Here we describe a series of numerical experiments using a simple three-dimensional global climate model for Earth-sized planets. Other things (CO(2), rotation rate, surface pressure) unchanged, we found that liquid water remains stable at the poles of a low-obliquity land planet until net insolation exceeds 415 W/m(2) (170% that of modern Earth), compared to 330 W/m(2) (135%) for the aqua planet. At the outer limits, we found that a low-obliquity land planet freezes at 77%, while the aqua planet freezes at 90%. High-obliquity land and aqua planets freeze at 58% and 72%, respectively, with the poles offering the last refuge. We show that it is possible that, as the Sun brightens, an aqua planet like Earth can lose most of its hydrogen and become a land planet without first passing through a sterilizing runaway greenhouse. It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago. PMID:21707386

  13. Habitable planets with high obliquities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. M.; Kasting, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    Earth's obliquity would vary chaotically from 0 degrees to 85 degrees were it not for the presence of the Moon (J. Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, 1993, Nature 361, 615-617). The Moon itself is thought to be an accident of accretion, formed by a glancing blow from a Mars-sized planetesimal. Hence, planets with similar moons and stable obliquities may be extremely rare. This has lead Laskar and colleagues to suggest that the number of Earth-like planets with high obliquities and temperate, life-supporting climates may be small. To test this proposition, we have used an energy-balance climate model to simulate Earth's climate at obliquities up to 90 degrees. We show that Earth's climate would become regionally severe in such circumstances, with large seasonal cycles and accompanying temperature extremes on middle- and high-latitude continents which might be damaging to many forms of life. The response of other, hypothetical, Earth-like planets to large obliquity fluctuations depends on their land-sea distribution and on their position within the habitable zone (HZ) around their star. Planets with several modest-sized continents or equatorial supercontinents are more climatically stable than those with polar supercontinents. Planets farther out in the HZ are less affected by high obliquities because their atmospheres should accumulate CO2 in response to the carbonate-silicate cycle. Dense, CO2-rich atmospheres transport heat very effectively and therefore limit the magnitude of both seasonal cycles and latitudinal temperature gradients. We conclude that a significant fraction of extrasolar Earth-like planets may still be habitable, even if they are subject to large obliquity fluctuations.

  14. AN ULTRACOOL STAR'S CANDIDATE PLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Pravdo, Steven H.; Shaklan, Stuart B. E-mail: stuart.shaklan@jpl.nasa.gov

    2009-07-20

    We report here the discovery of the first planet around an ultracool dwarf star. It is also the first extrasolar giant planet astrometrically discovered around a main-sequence star. The statistical significance of the detection is shown in two ways. First, there is a 2 x 10{sup -8} probability that the astrometric motion fits a parallax-and-proper-motion-only model. Second, periodogram analysis shows a false alarm probability of 3 x 10{sup -5} that the discovered period is randomly generated. The planetary mass is M {sub 2} = 6.4 (+2.6,-3.1) Jupiter-masses (M {sub J}), and the orbital period is P = 0.744 (+0.013,-0.008) yr in the most likely model. In less likely models, companion masses that are higher than the 13 M {sub J} planetary mass limit are ruled out by past radial velocity (RV) measurements unless the system RV is more than twice the current upper limits and the near-periastron orbital phase was never observed. This new planetary system is remarkable, in part, because its star, VB 10, is near the lower mass limit for a star. Our astrometric observations provide a dynamical mass measurement and will in time allow us to confront the theoretical models of formation and evolution of such systems and their members. We thus add to the diversity of planetary systems and to the small number of known M-dwarf planets. Planets such as VB 10b could be the most numerous type of planets because M stars comprise >70% of all stars. To date they have remained hidden since the dominant RV planet-discovery technique is relatively insensitive to these dim, red systems.

  15. Using Popular Culture in Developmental Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    Using popular culture in my developmental writing course has prompted me to reconsider what it means to create successful developmental writing assignments. Having slipped into the questionable habit of assuming that removing complexity makes an assignment appropriate for developing writers, I pared down a fairly open-ended "media…

  16. Popular Media and the Teenage Sexual Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strover, Sharon

    A qualitative study examined how teenagers react to and interpret certain popular media messages. In addition it explored the relationship between content containing various sexual messages and teenagers' responses to those messages, with particular attention to the critical abilities this audience exhibits. Fifty male and female teenagers aged…

  17. Caveat Lector: Reviewing Popular Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Vivian Scott

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems with reviews and criticisms of popular social science books: the quality and background of reviewers, the difficulty of distinguishing between fact and opinion, and the scarcity of competent reviewers. Analyzes reviews of Robert Ardrey's "African Genesis" and "The Territorial Imperative," Konrad Lorenz's "On Aggression," and…

  18. Is Being Popular a Risky Proposition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeux, Lara; Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal associations between social preference, perceived popularity, and risk behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and sexual activity) were examined in a sample of high school students. Social preference did not predict any of the risk behaviors assessed, although the interaction between gender and social preference was predictive of sexual…

  19. Shakespeare Cereals: A Popular Culture Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Offers an exercise involving popular culture to help students experience the contemporary power of Shakespeare. Explains that after reading a Shakespeare play, students develop new cereal brands based upon the work's plot, characters, or themes, afterward naming, designing, creating, and displaying the cereal package. Combines literary analysis,…

  20. Weight Control as Portrayed in Popular Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parham, Ellen S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents findings on the overall profile of weight control information portrayed in popular magazines and compares the assessment by professional judges with that of lay judges. Results indicate that, although articles differed in quality, weight control content was basically factual and reliable. (Author/JN)

  1. Popular Music, Television, and Generational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    Although previous generations have by no means been disloyal to the popular music of their youth, the tenacious attachment of the Baby Boomers to the music of the 1960s seems unprecedented. Three main reasons account for this constantly widening musical reclamation project. First, the Baby Boomers have a clearer sense of generational identity that…

  2. Student Voice and the Perils of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudduck, Jean; Fielding, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this article we suggest that the current popularity of student voice can lead to surface compliance--to a quick response that focuses on "how to do it" rather than a reflective review of "why we might want to do it". We look at the links between student consultation and participation and the legacy of the progressive democratic tradition in our…

  3. Bolivian Currents: Popular Participation and Indigenous Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the effects on indigenous communities of Bolivia's recent Popular Participation Laws, which relocated political and financial decision making to the municipal level; community efforts toward cultural maintenance and nonformal agricultural education; the activism of indigenous university students; and the dual discrimination suffered by…

  4. Using Popular Children's Films in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Elle; Croker, Stev; Harrison, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Watching films is a common activity for children outside of school, and incorporating popular films that contain scientific references has the potential to spark interest in the classroom. Clips rather than entire films can be used, as the children will maintain focus on the lesson objectives while being excited by the appeal of the film. The use…

  5. Popular Culture in Mainland Chinese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2006-01-01

    The policy and practice of school education in mainland China have changed in response to the political and economic reformations and opening-up of the late 1970s. This paper argues that, despite the introduction and emphasis on popular culture in some areas of school education, traditional Chinese culture and values continue to consolidate the…

  6. Teaching Theory through Popular Culture Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a pedagogical approach to teaching theory to pre-service teachers. This approach involves articulating academic texts that introduce theoretical ideas and tools with carefully selected popular culture texts that can be taken up to illustrate the elements of a particular theory. Examples of the theories…

  7. Gender and Cultural Consecration in Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmutz, Vaughn; Faupel, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the gendered nature of cultural legitimacy and consecration in popular music. We explore two related questions. First, which factors affect the likelihood that female performers achieve consecrated status? Second, how are those decisions discursively legitimated? Using a mixed-methods research design, we find that in both…

  8. American Popular Music 1950-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and discusses some of the chief resources in the study of post-World War II mainstream popular music. In addition to indicating major areas of research, it can serve as a guide to collection development in the discipline.

  9. A Comparison of "Popular Music Pedagogy" Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interrogate discourses of "popular music pedagogy" in order to better understand music education practices generally and specifically those in the United States. Employing a conceptual framework based on the work of Jan Blommaert (2005), a content analysis was conducted on a sample of 81 articles related…

  10. The Nature of Science in Popular Nonfiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Barbara; Menasco, Jackie; Vannette, Trenda

    2008-01-01

    To help make science relevant to student's everyday lives, the authors required their 10th-grade summer school students to read selections from a popular nonfiction science book. By doing so, they were able to promote literacy and provide an authentic portrayal of the nature of science in a way that was fun and interesting for their students. This…

  11. UWP 011: Popular Science and Technology Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrault, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    UWP 011: Popular Science & Technology Writing is a sophomore-level course designed as an introduction to rhetoric of science at UC Davis, a science-focused land-grant university. The course fulfills the general education requirements for written literacy and for topical breadth in arts and humanities. The catalog describes the course as…

  12. What Is Popular Music Studies? Some Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Popular Music Studies (PMS) is now taught in over 20 higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK and numerous others across the world. This article outlines the constituent parts of PMS in the UK and questions its status as a discipline in its own right. It concludes by arguing that, having established itself, PMS will need to deal with two key…

  13. Popular Literature: Its Compatibility with the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This special journal issue contains nine articles on the subject of using popular literature in the classroom. Subjects covered in the articles include (1) using vernacular supernatural literature to teach the skills of literary analysis, (2) teaching Agatha Christie's "Curtain," (3) pairing the classics with detective fiction, (4) using fantasy…

  14. Understanding and Developing Black Popular Music Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, James Briggs

    1983-01-01

    Enumerates types of black popular music (work songs, spirituals, gospel music, blues, race records, rock and roll, soul, funk, disco, Caribbean, and African) and discusses collection development (current, retrospective, monographs, periodicals, sheet music, motion picture film, photographs, oral history), cataloging, and preservation. A 229-item…

  15. Popular Education As Adult Education within Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanage, Sherman M.

    1995-01-01

    Adult education must become popular education in both communal and personal terms to survive funding agencies' special power-interest hegemonies, traditional higher education models, and rampant economic materialism. This article discusses six modernist constructions of adult education, highlighting professionalization and specialization, and…

  16. Communicacion Popular: The Language of Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert A.

    "Communcacion popular" is an attempt by the peasant classes in Latin America to set up communication channels, independent of the hierarchy of intermediaries, that link them to the ruling elite. This language of liberation is self-reliant and defiant, coloring every aspect of its participants' lives. Its channels of communication are horizontal,…

  17. [Lawyers and Litigation in the Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This issue of Focus on Law Studies contains the following articles: "T.V. Law: Image versus Reality" (Suzanne Frentz); "Teaching about Civil Rights in the 1990's" (Cynthia Hamilton); "A Social History of Black Lawyers in Popular Culture" (Ric Sheffield); "Will the Real Lawyers Please Stand Up!" (Susan Adair Dwyer-Shick); "Equality, 'Political…

  18. Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

  19. Literacy and Prisoners: Reassessing Popular Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Research findings are discussed that lead to a reassessment of popular perceptions about literacy and prisoners, particularly that the percentage of illiterate prisoners is higher than in the general population and that many prisoners are reluctant to participate in prison literacy programs. (Contains 24 references.) (LB)

  20. Stepfamily Strengths: A Review of Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviewed popular literature (self-help books, magazines, adolescent fiction) that identified stepfamily strengths. Potential strengths of stepfamily life were identified in all three sources. The primary focus of self-help literature and magazine articles, however, was on stepfamily problems. Concludes that adolescent fiction may be used to good…

  1. Memory for Frequency of Hearing Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, James R.; And Others

    This experiment was designed to better understand the effects of individual differences, intent to learn, and stimulus familiarity on frequency judgment accuracy. Half of the participants in the study heard popular songs, and the other half listened to unfamiliar songs. Participants were subdivided into three more groups, introducing the "intent…

  2. The Guide to Teaching with Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA.

    Popular music is often characterized as a short work with a prominent melody and simple chordal accompaniment. Yet, teaching with pop music in the era of standards-based curriculum can present challenges. These standards offer teachers a blueprint for teaching music performance, composition, improvisation, and the relationship of music to other…

  3. Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take…

  4. Chemical kinetics on extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Moses, Julianne I

    2014-04-28

    Chemical kinetics plays an important role in controlling the atmospheric composition of all planetary atmospheres, including those of extrasolar planets. For the hottest exoplanets, the composition can closely follow thermochemical-equilibrium predictions, at least in the visible and infrared photosphere at dayside (eclipse) conditions. However, for atmospheric temperatures approximately <2000K, and in the uppermost atmosphere at any temperature, chemical kinetics matters. The two key mechanisms by which kinetic processes drive an exoplanet atmosphere out of equilibrium are photochemistry and transport-induced quenching. I review these disequilibrium processes in detail, discuss observational consequences and examine some of the current evidence for kinetic processes on extrasolar planets. PMID:24664912

  5. HUBBLE OBSERVES THE PLANET URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings and bright clouds and a high altitude haze above the planet's south pole. Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, none of these inner satellites has been further observed, and detailed observations of the rings have not been possible. Though Uranus' rings were discovered indirectly in 1977 (through stellar occultation observations), they have never before been seen in visible light through a ground-based telescope. Hubble resolves several of Uranus' rings, including the outermost Epsilon ring. The planet has a total of 11 concentric rings of dark dust. Uranus is tipped such that its rotation axis lies in the plane of its orbit, so the rings appear nearly face-on. Three of Uranus' inner moons each appear as a string of three dots at the bottom of the picture. This is because the picture is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart, and then combined to show the moons' orbital motions. The satellites are, from left to right, Cressida, Juliet, and Portia. The moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon does as it moves around the Earth, so they noticeably change position over only a few minutes. One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does resolve a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should be unusual given

  6. Hubble Observes the Planet Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings and bright clouds and a high altitude haze above the planet's south pole.

    Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, none of these inner satellites has been further observed, and detailed observations of the rings have not been possible.

    Though Uranus' rings were discovered indirectly in 1977 (through stellar occultation observations), they have never before been seen in visible light through a ground-based telescope.

    Hubble resolves several of Uranus' rings, including the outermost Epsilon ring. The planet has a total of 11 concentric rings of dark dust. Uranus is tipped such that its rotation axis lies in the plane of its orbit, so the rings appear nearly face-on.

    Three of Uranus' inner moons each appear as a string of three dots at the bottom of the picture. This is because the picture is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart, and then combined to show the moons' orbital motions. The satellites are, from left to right, Cressida, Juliet, and Portia. The moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon does as it moves around the Earth, so they noticeably change position over only a few minutes.

    One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does resolve a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should

  7. Recent Kepler Results On Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-04-01

    Ranked near the top of the long list of exciting discoveries made with NASA's Kepler photometer is the detection of transiting circumbinary planets. In just over a year the number of such planets went from zero to seven, including a multi-planet system with one of the planets in the habitable zone (Kepler-47). We are quickly learning to better detect and characterize these planets, including the recognition of their transit timing and duration variation ``smoking gun'' signature. Even with only a handful of such planets, some exciting trends are emerging.

  8. The differentiation history of the terrestrial planets as recorded on the moon

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, L

    2007-02-20

    The outline for this report is: (1) Factors Leading to Lunar Magma Ocean Model for Planetary Differentiation (2) Rationale for Magma Oceans on Other Planets Means for early efficient differentiation (Works on Moon why not here?) (3) Some Inconsistencies between the Lunar Magma Ocean Model and Observations. The conclusions are: (1) Differentiation via solidification of a magma ocean is derived from geologic observations of the Moon (2) Although geologic observations on other bodies are often consistent with differentiation via magma ocean solidification, it is not generally required. (3) There are some fundamental inconsistencies between observed lunar data and the model, that will require this model to be modified (4) Nevertheless, the Moon is the only location we know of to study magma ocean process in detail.

  9. Wide Giant Planets are Rare: Planet Demographics from Direct Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth

    2015-08-01

    The previous generation of direct imaging surveys probed samples of 100-200 stars with AO-driven coronagraphic imaging and advanced techniques such as Angular Differential Imaging (ADI) (e.g. surveys such as SEEDS, IDPS, the NICI Science Campaign, among others). These surveys found that wide giant planets are comparatively rare, especially at separations > 50 AU: for instance, Biller et al. 2013 find for a sample of 78 young moving group stars that the the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU is <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. As next generation planet-finding cameras such as GPI at Gemini, SPHERE at VLT, project 1640, and SceXAO at Suburu come online, our understanding of wide planet populations is likely to undergo a rapid evolution, especially for planets at separations of 10-50 AU. New large-scale surveys (400-500 stars) are now underway with these new instruments, e.g. NIRSUR with SPHERE and GPIES with GPI. In this talk, I will review the previous generation of surveys and the statistical results that they have yielded. I will also discuss prospects for the new generation of ongoing surveys.

  10. What Should Children Know about the Arctic Ocean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockard, James W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Lists essential information about the Arctic Ocean which should be taught in elementary social studies courses, and which teacher training programs should cover. Discusses popular misconceptions regarding the Arctic Ocean and factors, such as the coloration on maps and globes, which lead to these misconceptions. (LS)

  11. LIGHT SCATTERING FROM EXOPLANET OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Zugger, M. E.; Kane, T. J.; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M.; Philbrick, C. R.

    2010-11-10

    Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude (OL) = 180{sup 0}, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30{sup 0}. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74{sup 0}; however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90{sup 0}, but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however, polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination.

  12. Orbits and Interiors of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing

  13. Astronomers Find First Earth-like Planet in Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Astronomers have discovered the most Earth-like planet outside our Solar System to date, an exoplanet with a radius only 50% larger than the Earth and capable of having liquid water. Using the ESO 3.6-m telescope, a team of Swiss, French and Portuguese scientists discovered a super-Earth about 5 times the mass of the Earth that orbits a red dwarf, already known to harbour a Neptune-mass planet. The astronomers have also strong evidence for the presence of a third planet with a mass about 8 Earth masses. ESO PR Photo 22a/07 ESO PR Photo 22a/07 The Planetary System Around Gliese 581 This exoplanet - as astronomers call planets around a star other than the Sun - is the smallest ever found up to now [1] and it completes a full orbit in 13 days. It is 14 times closer to its star than the Earth is from the Sun. However, given that its host star, the red dwarf Gliese 581 [2], is smaller and colder than the Sun - and thus less luminous - the planet nevertheless lies in the habitable zone, the region around a star where water could be liquid! The planet's name is Gliese 581 c. "We have estimated that the mean temperature of this super-Earth lies between 0 and 40 degrees Celsius, and water would thus be liquid," explains Stéphane Udry, from the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland) and lead-author of the paper reporting the result. "Moreover, its radius should be only 1.5 times the Earth's radius, and models predict that the planet should be either rocky - like our Earth - or fully covered with oceans," he adds. ESO PR Photo 22c/07 ESO PR Photo 22c/07 The star Gliese 581 "Liquid water is critical to life as we know it," avows Xavier Delfosse, a member of the team from Grenoble University (France). "Because of its temperature and relative proximity, this planet will most probably be a very important target of the future space missions dedicated to the search for extra-terrestrial life. On the treasure map of the Universe, one would be tempted to mark this planet with an X." The

  14. The Sun, stars and planets (Christiaan Huygens Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2010-05-01

    Using stellar occultations as a tool to probe the planetary atmospheres has resulted in significant contributions to the exploration of our solar system. The technique of solar occultation has been well known for decades, but because of stars being so faint objects with respect to the Sun this technique was not very popular in the 70's. While fostering the idea of stellar occultations, I tried to avoid the unfortunate fate of Giordano Bruno, who was burned to death on February 17, 1600: he had dared to declare that the stars were objects like the sun, only much more remote. This talk will illustrate some results obtained by the star occultation technique by one scientific example on each of the three planets which are equipped with a stellar occultation instrument: GOMOS on ENVISAT (ozone monitoring), SPICAM on board Mars Express (temperature profiles), and SPICAV on Venus Express (SO2). I will also talk about Cristiaan Huygens, the first to discuss (according to the historical review of Pierre Connes) the problem of extra-solar planets in modern scientific terms which are still valid to day. Finally, I will address the threat to the planet Earth posed by Mankind, with some discussions about demography and geo-engineering.

  15. THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXII. TWO NEW MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Salter, G. S.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Tuomi, Mikko; Zhang, Z.; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; O'Toole, S. J.; Carter, B. D.; Jenkins, J. S.; Vogt, S. S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.

    2012-07-10

    We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005 {+-} 427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3 M{sub Jup}. HD 142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 {+-} 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3 {+-} 1.3 days and m sin i = 0.73 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Jup}. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

  16. Searching For Planets in "Holey Debris Disks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkat, Tiffany; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Hinz, Philip; Smith, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Directly imaging planets provides a unique opportunity to study young planets in the context of their formation and evolution. It examines the underlying semi-major axis exoplanet distribution and enables the characterization of the planet itself with spectroscopic examination of its emergent flux. However, only a handful of planets have been directly imaged, and thus the stars best suited for planet imaging are still a subject of debate. The "Holey Debris Disk" project was created in order to help determine if debris disks with gaps are signposts for planets. These gaps may be dynamically caused by planets accreting the debris material as they form. We present the results from our survey with VLT/NACO and the apodized phase plate coronagraph. We demonstrate that these disks with holes are good targets for directly detecting planets with the discovery of a planet around two of our targets, HD 95086 and HD 106906, at L'-band. Our non-detection of HD 95086 b in H-band demonstrates the importance of thermal infrared observations. The detected planets shepherd the outer cool debris belt. The relatively dust-free gap in these disks implies the presence of one or more closer-in planets. We discuss our new constraints on planets around other targets in our survey as well as disk properties of these targets and describe how future instruments will find the inner planets.

  17. Planet scattering around binaries: ejections, not collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary star and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically affects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Systems similar to the only observed multiplanet circumbinary system, Kepler-47, can arise from much more tightly packed, unstable systems. Only extreme initial conditions introduce differences in the final planet populations. Thus, we suggest that any intrinsic differences in the populations are imprinted by formation.

  18. Fourier spectra from exoplanets with polar caps and ocean glint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, P. M.; van de Bult, F. J.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The weak orbital-phase dependent reflection signal of an exoplanet contains information on the planet surface, such as the distribution of continents and oceans on terrestrial planets. This light curve is usually studied in the time domain, but because the signal from a stationary surface is (quasi)periodic, analysis of the Fourier series may provide an alternative, complementary approach. Aims: We study Fourier spectra from reflected light curves for geometrically simple configurations. Depending on its atmospheric properties, a rotating planet in the habitable zone could have circular polar ice caps. Tidally locked planets, on the other hand, may have symmetric circular oceans facing the star. These cases are interesting because the high-albedo contrast at the sharp edges of the ice-sheets and the glint from the host star in the ocean may produce recognizable light curves with orbital periodicity, which could also be interpreted in the Fourier domain. Methods: We derive a simple general expression for the Fourier coefficients of a quasiperiodic light curve in terms of the albedo map of a Lambertian planet surface. Analytic expressions for light curves and their spectra are calculated for idealized situations, and dependence of the spectral peaks on the key parameters inclination, obliquity, and cap size is studied. Results: The ice-scattering and ocean glint contributions can be separated out, because the coefficients for glint are all positive, whereas ice sheets lead to even-numbered, higher harmonics. An in-view polar cap on a planet without axial tilt only produces a single peak. The special situation of edge-on observation, which is important for planets in transit, leads to the most pronounced spectral behavior. Then the respective spectra from planets with a circumventing ocean, a circular ocean (eyeball world), polar caps, and rings, have characteristic power-law tails n-2, n-7/2, n-4, and (-1)n + 1n-2. Conclusions: Promising recently discovered

  19. A window for plate tectonics in terrestrial planet evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Craig; Lenardic, Adrian; Weller, Matthew; Moresi, Louis; Quenette, Steve; Zhang, Siqi

    2016-06-01

    The tectonic regime of a planet depends critically on the contributions of basal and internal heating to the planetary mantle, and how these evolve through time. We use viscoplastic mantle convection simulations, with evolving core-mantle boundary temperatures, and radiogenic heat decay, to explore how these factors affect tectonic regime over the lifetime of a planet. The simulations demonstrate (i) hot, mantle conditions, coming out of a magma ocean phase of evolution, can produce a "hot" stagnant-lid regime, whilst a cooler post magma ocean mantle may begin in a plate tectonic regime; (ii) planets may evolve from an initial hot stagnant-lid condition, through an episodic regime lasting 1-3 Gyr, into a plate-tectonic regime, and finally into a cold, senescent stagnant lid regime after ∼10 Gyr of evolution, as heat production and basal temperatures wane; and (iii) the thermal state of the post magma ocean mantle, which effectively sets the initial conditions for the sub-solidus mantle convection phase of planetary evolution, is one of the most sensitive parameters affecting planetary evolution - systems with exactly the same physical parameters may exhibit completely different tectonics depending on the initial state employed. Estimates of the early Earth's temperatures suggest Earth may have begun in a hot stagnant lid mode, evolving into an episodic regime throughout most of the Archaean, before finally passing into a plate tectonic regime. The implication of these results is that, for many cases, plate tectonics may be a phase in planetary evolution between hot and cold stagnant states, rather than an end-member.

  20. Planet Press: an EGU initiative to bring geoscientific research to children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    Planet Press (http://www.egu.eu/education/planet-press/) is an EGU educational project that aims to get children (mainly 7-13 year olds), as well as their parents and educators, interested in and engaged with up-to-date scientific research and news. Planet Press articles are short versions of EGU press releases written in child-friendly language. Because EGU press releases cover research published in the various EGU scientific journals, Planet Press focuses on topics as varied as air pollution, glaciers, climate change, earthquakes, ocean sciences, droughts and floods, or space sciences. The texts are reviewed by both scientists and educators to make sure they are accurate and clear to their target audience. By sharing new and exciting geoscientific research with young kids, we hope to inspire them to develop an interest in the Earth, planetary and space sciences. In this presentation, we describe how the Planet Press idea came about, how the project is run, and the challenges and lessons learnt since the launch of this educational initiative in 2014. Planet Press, which has the support of the EGU Committee on Education, is made possible by the work of volunteer scientists and educators who review and translate the texts. We are grateful for the help of Jane Robb, former EGU Educational Fellow, with launching the project. Planet Press is inspired by Space Scoop (http://www.spacescoop.org/), an initiative by UNAWE, the EU-Universe Awareness organisation, that brings astronomy news to children every week.

  1. Return to the Red Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W.

    1996-01-01

    In November 1996, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will begin America's return to Mars after a 20-year absence by launching the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. This mission will usher in a new and exciting era of scientific missions to study the red planet.

  2. Finding Spring on Planet X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  3. Terrestrial Planet Finder: science overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Beichman, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) seeks to revolutionize our understanding of humanity's place in the universe - by searching for Earth-like planets using reflected light, or thermal emission in the mid-infrared. Direct detection implies that TPF must separate planet light from glare of the nearby star, a technical challenge which has only in recent years been recognized as surmountable. TPF will obtain a low-resolution spectra of each planets it detects, providing some of its basic physical characteristics and its main atmospheric constituents, thereby allowing us to assess the likelihood that habitable conditions exist there. NASA has decided the scientific importance of this research is so high that TPF will be pursued as two complementary space observatories: a visible-light coronagraph and a mid-infrared formation flying interferometer. The combination of spectra from both wavebands is much more valuable than either taken separately, and it will allow a much fuller understanding of the wide diversity of planetary atmospheres that may be expected to exist. Measurements across a broad wavelength range will yield not only physical properties such as size and albedo, but will also serve as the foundations of a reliable and robust assessment of habitability and the presence of life.

  4. Giant Planets in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, S. N.; White, R. J.; Latham, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Two decades after the discovery of 51 Peg b, more than 200 hot Jupiters have now been confirmed, but the details of their inward migration remain uncertain. While it is widely accepted that short period giant planets could not have formed in situ, several different mechanisms (e.g., Type II migration, planet-planet scattering, Kozai-Lidov cycles) may contribute to shrinking planetary orbits, and the relative importance of each is not well-constrained. Migration through the gas disk is expected to preserve circular, coplanar orbits and must occur quickly (within ˜ 10 Myr), whereas multi-body processes should initially excite eccentricities and inclinations and may take hundreds of millions of years. Subsequent evolution of the system (e.g., orbital circularization and inclination damping via tidal interaction with the host star) may obscure these differences, so observing hot Jupiters soon after migration occurs can constrain the importance of each mechanism. Fortunately, the well-characterized stars in young and adolescent open clusters (with known ages and compositions) provide natural laboratories for such studies, and recent surveys have begun to take advantage of this opportunity. We present a review of the discoveries in this emerging realm of exoplanet science, discuss the constraints they provide for giant planet formation and migration, and reflect on the future direction of the field.

  5. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  6. Do Other Planets Have Summer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, George

    2005-01-01

    It's important to keep two things in mind when thinking about the cause of the seasons: (1) Earth and all the other planets except Pluto and Mercury move around the Sun in almost perfect circles, getting neither closer nor farther away from the Sun during the year; and (2) Earth's rotation axis is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit…

  7. MEMS AO for Planet Finding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

  8. Venus and Mercury as Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A general evolutionary history of the solar planetary system is given. The previously observed characteristics of Venus and Mercury (i.e. length of day, solar orbit, temperature) are discussed. The role of the Mariner 10 space probe in gathering scientific information on the two planets is briefly described.

  9. The Chemistry of the Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Introduces knowledge of planetary chemistry for possible use in teaching. Discusses the chemical composition of the planets; the atmosphere and clouds of Venus, Jupiter and its moons, and Titan. Includes diagrams of the greenhouse effects in the solar system, elemental abundances, and the chemical composition of Jupiter. (RT)

  10. Jupiter: Lord of the Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, William

    1984-01-01

    Presents a chapter from an introductory college-level astronomy textbook in which full-color photographs and numerous diagrams highlight an extensive description of the planet Jupiter. Topics include Jupiter's geology, rotation, magnetic field, atmosphere (including clouds and winds), and the Great Red Spot. (DH)

  11. How Common are Habitable Planets?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth is teeming with life, which, occupies a diverse array of environments; other bodies in our Solar System offer fewer, if any, niches which are habitable by life as we know it. Nonetheless, astronomical studies suggest that a large number of habitable planets-are likely to be present within our Galaxy.

  12. The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H. (Editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

  13. Tour of Planet With Extreme Temperature Swings

    NASA Video Gallery

    A computer simulation of the planet HD 80606b. The point of closest approach -- and maximum heating -- occurs about 4.5 seconds into the animation. As the planet whips around the star, we see the e...

  14. Kepler Discovers Earth-size Planet Candidates

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered its first Earth-size planet candidates and its first candidates in the habitable zone, a region where liquid water could exist on a planet's surface. Five of th...

  15. Kepler Discovers Its First Rocky Planet

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission confirmed the discovery of its first rocky planet, named Kepler-10b. Measuring 1.4 times the size of Earth, it is the smallest planet ever discovered outside our solar system....

  16. Bullying, Social Power and Heteronormativity: Girls' Constructions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were derived…

  17. Lights, Camera, Action: Integrating Popular Film in the Health Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez, Keri S.; Pleban, Francis T.; Wood, Ralph J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits as well as the important considerations that should be taken into account in integrating popular films in health education classes. Use of popular films in the classroom, termed "cinema education," is becoming increasingly popular in teaching health education. As a matter of convenience, popular films are easy…

  18. Focus: Popular Culture, Censorship, Religion in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Donald, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Kansas English" contains four articles related to popular culture, censorship, and religion. "Popular Culture Studies: A Complement to the Humanities" by Michael Marsden, focuses on the relationship between popular culture studies and the humanities, including English. "Popular Couture: La Vie En Blue" by Richard Martin, examines…

  19. Marriage and Retirement: Advice to Couples in Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbert, Ellen M.; And Others

    Though academic research has shown retirement to be viewed by retirees as a satisfying time in life, popular opinion holds that retirement is a difficult adjustment for a couple. This study was undertaken to find out more about one source of popular opinion, the popular press. All popular books and magazine articles on the topic of marriage and…

  20. A Quantitative Criterion for Defining Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    A simple metric can be used to determine whether a planet or exoplanet can clear its orbital zone during a characteristic time scale, such as the lifetime of the host star on the main sequence. This criterion requires only estimates of star mass, planet mass, and orbital period, making it possible to immediately classify 99% of all known exoplanets. All 8 planets and all classifiable exoplanets satisfy the criterion. This metric may be useful in generalizing and simplifying the definition of a planet.

  1. A Quantitative Criterion for Defining Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    A simple metric can be used to determine whether a planet or exoplanet can clear its orbital zone during a characteristic time scale, such as the lifetime of the host star on the main sequence. This criterion requires only estimates of star mass, planet mass, and orbital period, making it possible to immediately classify 99% of all known exoplanets. All eight planets and all classifiable exoplanets satisfy the criterion. This metric may be useful in generalizing and simplifying the definition of a planet.

  2. Dark victory: cancer and popular Hollywood film.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Susan E

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural representations of cancer in popular Hollywood films released between 1930 and 1970. These cinematic treatments were not representative of the types of cancer that increasingly afflicted Americans, nor were filmmakers and studios concerned with realistic representations of the disease, its treatment, and its outcomes. As in the "epidemic entertainments" of the early twentieth century that portrayed diseases as cultural commodities, popular filmmakers selectively projected some cancers rather than others, favoring those that were less offensive and more photogenic. Although the characters became weak and died, they did so without gross transformations of their bodies. This paper argues that such representations nonetheless informed American attitudes about cancer and the role of medical research in overcoming the disease. PMID:17369664

  3. Magma ocean formation due to giant impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonks, W. B.; Melosh, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of giant impacts on the initial chemical and thermal states of the terrestrial planets is just now being explored. A large high speed impact creates an approximately hemispherical melt region with a radius that depends on the projectile's radius and impact speed. It is shown that giant impacts on large planets can create large, intact melt regions containing melt volumes up to a few times the volume of the projectile. These large melt regions are not created on asteroid sized bodies. If extruded to the surface, these regions contain enough melt to create a magma ocean of considerable depth, depending on the impact speed, projectile radius, and gravity of the target planet.

  4. The andesite problem: Why is this planet to be the Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    One characteristic feature of the Earth is the bimodal height distribution at the surface. This is caused by the difference both in density and thickness of the crust. Two types of crust on the Earth, the oceanic and continental crusts, have been created at divergent and convergent plate boundaries, respectively, via. plate tectonics. The bulk composition of continental crust is andesitic (60 wt.% SiO2), in marked contrast with the basaltic oceanic crust with ˜50 wt.% SiO2. This raises the question of how intra-oceanic arcs produce continental crust if the dominant product of mantle wedge melting and a major proportion of intra-oceanic arc lava is basaltic.The essential cause of operation of plate tectonics is the temperature difference within the mantle, which triggers mantle convection. The upper thermal boundary layer of this convection corresponds to the lithospheric plate, but behaves naturally as a stagnant-lid, i.e., the plate should not move. The presence of liquid water at the surface, on the other hand, strongly reduces the yield strength and could cause the fracture within the stagnant-lid, triggering the plate subsidence or subduction. Parameters that govern the presence and absence of liquid water on the terrestrial planets are: the distance from the Sun and the mass of a planet. A conclusion of this consideration would be that the Earth is a shore planet because of the presence of the ocean, which seems to be a conclusion of a Zen dialog.

  5. The Popularity of P&P

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The classes are often…

  6. Aggressive effects of prioritizing popularity in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Mayeux, Lara; Ha, Thao; de Bruyn, Eddy H; LaFontana, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the association between early adolescents' popularity and their aggressive, leadership, and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were 288 14-year-olds from The Netherlands who completed a sociometric instrument and an assessment of how much they prioritized popularity over other personal goals. Results indicated that prioritizing popularity was distinct from actual popularity in the peer group. Further, prioritizing popularity moderated the association of popularity with aggressive and leadership behaviors, with adolescents who were both popular and who prioritized popularity being particularly aggressive and scoring high on leadership behaviors. This trend was especially true for boys. The same moderating effect was not found for prosocial behaviors. Motivational and social-cognitive factors in the dynamics of peer popularity are highlighted. PMID:24338722

  7. Progress in extra-solar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in extra-solar planet detection is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the definition of a planet; (2) the weakness of planet signals; (3) direct techniques - imaging and spectral detection; and (4) indirect techniques - reflex motion and occultations.

  8. The Use of Planisphere to Locate Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ping-Wai

    2013-01-01

    Planisphere is a simple and useful tool in locating constellations of the night sky at a specific time, date and geographic location. However it does not show the planet positions because planets are not fixed on the celestial sphere. It is known that the planet orbital planes are nearly coplanar and close to the ecliptic plane. By making…

  9. Cooperation and popularity in spatial games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Selection of the competition opponent is crucial for the evolution of cooperation in evolutionary games. In this work, we introduce a simple rule, incorporating individual popularity via the single parameter α, to study how the selection of the potential strategy sources influences individual behavior traits. For positive α players with high popularity will be considered more likely, while for negative α the opposite holds. Setting α equal to zero returns the frequently adopted random selection of the opponent. We find that positive α (namely, adopting the strategy from a more popular player) promotes the emergence of cooperation, which is robust against different interaction networks and game classes. The essence of this boosting effect can be attributed to the fact: increasing α accelerates the microscopic organization of cooperator clusters to resist the exploitation of defectors. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the introduction of a new mechanism alters the impact of uncertainty by strategy adoption on the evolution of cooperation. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  10. Flow of Planets, Not Weak Tidal Evolution, Produces the Short-Period Planet Distribution with More Planets than Expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2013-01-01

    The most unexpected planet finding is arguably the number of those with shorter periods than theorists had expected, because most such close planets had been expected to migrate into the star in shorter timescales than the ages of the stars. Subsequent effort has been made to show how tidal dissipation in stars due to planets could be weaker than expected, but we show how the occurrence distribution of differently-sized planets is more consistent with the explanation that these planets have more recently arrived as a flow of inwardly migrating planets, with giant planets more likely to be found while gradually going through a short period stage. This continual ``flow'' of new planets arriving from further out is presumably supplied by the flow likely responsible for the short period pileup of giant planets (Socrates+ 2011). We have previously shown that the shortest period region of the exoplanet occurrence distribution has a fall-off shaped by inward tidal migration due to stellar tides, that is, tides on the star caused by the planets (Taylor 2011, 2012). The power index of the fall-off of giant and intermediate radius planet candidates found from Kepler data (Howard+ 2011) is close to the index of 13/3 which is expected for planets in circular orbits undergoing tidal migration. However, there is a discrepancy of the strength of the tidal migration determined using fits to the giant and medium planets distributions. This discrepancy is best resolved by the explanation that more giant than medium radii planets migrate through these short period orbits. We also present a correlation between higher eccentricity of planetary orbits with higher Fe/H of host stars, which could be explained by high eccentricity planets being associated with recent episodes of other planets into stars. By the time these planets migrate to become hot Jupiters, the pollution may be mixed into the star. The clearing of other planets by migrating hot giant planets may result in hot Jupiters

  11. Search for Terrestrial Planets with SIM Planet Quest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Catanzarite, Joseph H.

    2006-01-01

    SIM is an astrometric mission that will be capable of 1 microarcsec relative astrometric accuracy in a single measurement of approx.1000 sec. The search for terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around nearby stars is one of the main science goals of the project. In 2001, NASA through the peer review process selected 10 key projects, two of which had as its goal, the search for terrestrial planets around nearby stars. The two teams, one led by G. Marcy (UC Berkeley) and one lead by M. Shao (JPL), have an extensive preparatory science program underway. This paper describes the status of this activity as well as the technology status of SIM's narrow angle astrometry capability, to reach 1 uas in a single epoch measure and its ability to average multiple epoch measurements to well below 1 uas.

  12. The Earth: A Changing Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Núria; Màrquez, Conxita

    2013-04-01

    text: We describe a didactic unit that rises from our own living impression about our experience on the planet. Most of us feel the Earth to be a very static place. Rocks don't easily move and most landscapes always look the same over time. Anyone would say (the same way most scientists believed until the beginning of the last century) that our planet has always remained unchanged, never transformed. But then, all of a sudden, as a misfortune for so many humans, natural hazards appear on the scene: an earthquake causing so many disasters, a tsunami carrying away everything in its path, an eruption that can destroy huge surrounding areas but also bring new geographical relief. Science cannot remain oblivious to these events, we must wonder beyond. What does an earthquake mean? Why does it happen? What about an eruption? If it comes from the inside, what can we guess from it? Researching about all of these events, scientists have been able to arrive to some important knowledge of the planet itself: It has been possible to theorize about Earth's interior. It has also been confirmed that the planet has not always been the quiet and stable place we once thought. Continents, as Wegener supposed, do move about and the Tectonic Plates Theory, thanks to the information obtained through earthquakes and eruption, can provide some interesting explanations. But how do we know about our planet's past? How can we prove that the Earth has always been moving and that its surface changes? The Earth's rocks yield the answer. Rocks have been the only witnesses throughout millions of years, since the planet first came to existence. Let's learn how to read them… Shouldn't we realize that rocks are to Geology what books are to History? This discursive process has been distributed in four learning sequences: 1. Land is not as solid nor firm as it would seem, 2. The Earth planet: a puzzle, 3. The rocks also recycle , 4. Field trip to "Sant Miquel del Fai". The subjects take about 30

  13. Finding Materials on American Popular Culture in the MSU Libraries: Popular Music, Television, Comics, Popular Fiction, Movies. How to Find Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Randall W., Comp.

    An introduction to popular culture materials in the Michigan State University Libraries, this combination library guide and bibliography presents finding tools for popular fiction, comic materials, popular music, movies, and television programming. It provides instruction on the use of the card catalog, suggested subject heading search terms, and…

  14. Magma ocean formation due to giant impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonks, W. B.; Melosh, H. J.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal effects of giant impacts are studied by estimating the melt volume generated by the initial shock wave and corresponding magma ocean depths. Additionally, the effects of the planet's initial temperature on the generated melt volume are examined. The shock pressure required to completely melt the material is determined using the Hugoniot curve plotted in pressure-entropy space. Once the melting pressure is known, an impact melting model is used to estimate the radial distance melting occurred from the impact site. The melt region's geometry then determines the associated melt volume. The model is also used to estimate the partial melt volume. Magma ocean depths resulting from both excavated and retained melt are calculated, and the melt fraction not excavated during the formation of the crater is estimated. The fraction of a planet melted by the initial shock wave is also estimated using the model.

  15. Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

  16. Europa - The prospects for an ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. T.; Mckay, C. P.; Kasting, J. F.; Squires, S. W.

    1988-01-01

    Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain a liquid water ocean below a thin ice layer. In the solar system, Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, may have such an ocean. Both theoretical calculations and certain observations support its existence, although proof is lacking. The putative ocean would probably have temperatures, pressures, and chemistry conducive to biologic activity. However, the environment would be severely energy limited. Possible energy sources include transient transmission of sunlight through fractures in the ice and hydrothermal activity on the ocean floor. While temporary conditions could exist that are within the range of adaptation of certain terrestrial organisms, origin of life under such conditions seems unlikely. In other solar systems, however, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could provide environments that are stable over an order of aeons and in which life could perhaps evolve.

  17. 40Ar retention in the terrestrial planets.

    PubMed

    Watson, E Bruce; Thomas, Jay B; Cherniak, Daniele J

    2007-09-20

    The solid Earth is widely believed to have lost its original gases through a combination of early catastrophic release and regulated output over geologic time. In principle, the abundance of 40Ar in the atmosphere represents the time-integrated loss of gases from the interior, thought to occur through partial melting in the mantle followed by melt ascent to the surface and gas exsolution. Here we present data that reveal two major difficulties with this simple magmatic degassing scenario--argon seems to be compatible in the major phases of the terrestrial planets, and argon diffusion in these phases is slow at upper-mantle conditions. These results challenge the common belief that the upper mantle is nearly degassed of 40Ar, and they call into question the suitability of 40Ar as a monitor of planetary degassing. An alternative to magmatism is needed to release argon to the atmosphere, with one possibility being hydration of oceanic lithosphere consisting of relatively argon-rich olivine and orthopyroxene. PMID:17882213

  18. Planet Detection Algorithms for the Terrestrial Planet Finder-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Braems, I.

    2005-12-01

    Critical to mission planning for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph (TPF-C) is the ability to estimate integration times for planet detection. This detection is complicated by the presence of background noise due to local and exo-zodiacal dust, by residual speckle due optical errors, and by the dependence of the PSF shape on the specific coronagraph. In this paper we examine in detail the use of PSF fitting (matched filtering) for planet detection, derive probabilistic bounds for the signal-to-noise ratio by balancing missed detection and false alarm rates, and demonstrate that this is close to the optimal linear detection technique. We then compare to a Bayesian detection approach and show that for very low background the Bayesian method offers integration time improvements, but rapidly approaches the PSF fitting result for reasonable levels of background noise. We confirm via monte-carlo simulations. This work was supported under a grant from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and by a fellowship from the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique (INRIA).

  19. Hot Jupiters from secular planet-planet interactions.

    PubMed

    Naoz, Smadar; Farr, Will M; Lithwick, Yoram; Rasio, Frederic A; Teyssandier, Jean

    2011-05-12

    About 25 per cent of 'hot Jupiters' (extrasolar Jovian-mass planets with close-in orbits) are actually orbiting counter to the spin direction of the star. Perturbations from a distant binary star companion can produce high inclinations, but cannot explain orbits that are retrograde with respect to the total angular momentum of the system. Such orbits in a stellar context can be produced through secular (that is, long term) perturbations in hierarchical triple-star systems. Here we report a similar analysis of planetary bodies, including both octupole-order effects and tidal friction, and find that we can produce hot Jupiters in orbits that are retrograde with respect to the total angular momentum. With distant stellar mass perturbers, such an outcome is not possible. With planetary perturbers, the inner orbit's angular momentum component parallel to the total angular momentum need not be constant. In fact, as we show here, it can even change sign, leading to a retrograde orbit. A brief excursion to very high eccentricity during the chaotic evolution of the inner orbit allows planet-star tidal interactions to rapidly circularize that orbit, decoupling the planets and forming a retrograde hot Jupiter. PMID:21562558

  20. Ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Andrew F.; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    The ocean moderates the Earth's climate due to its vast capacity to store and transport heat; the influence of the large-scale ocean circulation on changes in climate is considered in this chapter. The ocean experiences both buoyancy forcing (through heating/cooling and evaporation/precipitation) and wind forcing. Almost all ocean forcing occurs at the surface, but these changes are communicated throughout the entire depth of the ocean through the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). In a few localized regions, water become sufficiently dense to penetrate thousands of meters deep, where it spreads, providing a continuous source of deep dense water to the entire ocean. Dense water returns to the surface and thus closes the MOC, either through density modification due to diapycnal mixing or by upwelling along sloping isopycnals across the Southern Ocean. Determination of the relative contributions of these two processes in the MOC remains an active area of research. Observations obtained primarily from isotopic compositions in ocean sediments provide substantial evidence that the structure of the MOC has changed significantly in the past. Indeed, large and abrupt changes to the Earth's climate during the past 120,000 years can be linked to either a reorganization or a complete collapse of the MOC. Two of the more dramatic instances of abrupt change include Dansgaard-Oeschger events, abrupt warmings that could exceed 10°C over a period as short as a few decades, and Heinrich events, which are associated with massive freshwater fluxes due to rapid iceberg discharges into the North Atlantic. Numerical models of varying complexity that have captured these abrupt transitions all underscore that the MOC is a highly nonlinear system with feedback loops, multiple equilibria, and hysteresis effects. Prediction of future abrupt shifts in the MOC or "tipping points" remains uncertain. However, the inferred behavior of the MOC during glacial climates suggests that

  1. Extreme Water Loss and Abiotic O2 Buildup On Planets Throughout the Habitable Zones of M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luger, Rodrigo; Barnes, Rory

    2015-01-01

    We show that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs older than ~1 Gyr could have been in runaway greenhouses for several hundred Myr following their formation due to the star's extended pre-main sequence phase. Such prolonged runaway greenhouses can lead to planetary evolution divergent from that of Earth. During this early runaway phase, photolysis of water vapor and hydrogen/oxygen escape to space can lead to the loss of several Earth oceans of water from planets throughout the habitable zone. We find that the amount of water lost roughly scales with the planet mass: super-Earths, which lose water primarily via the escape of hydrogen, lose more water than Earth-mass planets, which lose water more slowly via the escape of both hydrogen and oxygen. If the surface is able to absorb most of the photolytically produced oxygen, planets around low mass M dwarfs can be completely desiccated for initial inventories of up to several tens of Earth oceans. On the other hand, planets with inefficient oxygen sinks at the surface may build up hundreds to thousands of bars of abiotically produced O2, resulting in potential false positives for life. The amount of O2 that builds up also scales with the planet mass; we find that O2 builds up at a constant rate of ~5 bars/Myr on Earth-mass planets and up to ~25 bars/Myr on super- Earths. The fate of a given planet strongly depends on the extreme ultraviolet flux, the duration of the runaway regime, the initial water content, and the rate at which oxygen is absorbed by the surface. In general, we find that the initial phase of high luminosity may compromise the habitability of many terrestrial planets orbiting low mass stars.

  2. Planet X : The Search for an Illusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaha, J.

    2006-10-01

    The search for Planet X began soon after the discovery of Uranus in 1781. The scientific search, over the next 200 years, resulted in the discovery of many new "Objects" (Planets and Minor Planets) but not the elusive Planet X. The data now indicate there never was a Planet X to find and the scientific search ended in the early 1990's. In the last 10 years the search has begun anew, not by scientists, interested in adding to our knowledge, but by groups advocating apocalyptic ideas. They have a wide following and are interested in promoting their pseudoscientific beliefs. This talk will discuss this history.

  3. Proceedings of Protostars and Planets V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Oral presentation sessions in this conference include: Clouds and cores; Star formation and protostars; Binaries and multiples; Newborn massive stars; jets and outflows; Clusters and associations; T Tauri stars and disks; Brown dwarfs; Planet formation and evolution; Extrasolar planets; Dust and protoplanetary disks; Early solar system and Astrobiology. Poster presentations included: Clouds and Cores. Collapse and Protostars, Binaries and Multiples, Clusters, Associations, and the IMF, Jets and Outflows, T Tauri Stars and Other Young Stars, Disks and Disk Accretion, Brown Dwarfs, Herbig Ae/Be Stars and Massive Stars, Solar System Objects, Planet Formation, Extrasolar Planets and Planet Detection, Properties of Protoplanetary Disks, Migration and Planetary Orbits and Meteoritics and Astrobiology

  4. Minor planets and other solar system objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bec-Borsenberger, A.

    1989-06-01

    The work performed to include observable planets and planet satellites in the Hipparcos input catalog is presented. The preparatory astrometric and photometric work needed to prepare the observations, and the considerations applied to their selection, are discussed. The magnitude of the minor planets proposed for observation by Hipparcos is analyzed, and those retained for observation are given. The position of minor planets in the input catalog is given by using their ephemerides, and examples of plots for Hebe and Flora planets, are given. Moreover, it is shown that Europa and Titan satellites can be adequately modulated by the Hipparcos main grid.

  5. ORBITAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS AND DISTANT PLANETS FORMED BY SCATTERING AND DYNAMICAL TIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the formation of close-in planets (hot Jupiters) by a combination of mutual scattering, Kozai effect, and tidal circularization, through N-body simulations of three gas giant planets, and compared the results with discovered close-in planets. We found that in about 350 cases out of 1200 runs ({approx}30%), the eccentricity of one of the planets is excited highly enough for tidal circularization by mutual close scatterings followed by secular effects due to outer planets, such as the Kozai mechanism, and the planet becomes a close-in planet through the damping of eccentricity and semimajor axis. The formation probability of close-in planets by such scattering is not affected significantly by the effect of the general relativity and inclusion of inertial modes in addition to fundamental modes in the tides. Detailed orbital distributions of the formed close-in planets and their counterpart distant planets in our simulations were compared with observational data. We focused on the possibility for close-in planets to retain non-negligible eccentricities ({approx}> 0.1) on timescales of {approx}10{sup 9} yr and have high inclinations, because close-in planets in eccentric or highly inclined orbits have recently been discovered. In our simulations we found that as many as 29% of the close-in planets have retrograde orbits, and the retrograde planets tend to have small eccentricities. On the other hand, eccentric close-in planets tend to have orbits of small inclinations.

  6. MESSENGER: Exploring the Innermost Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    One of Earth's closest planetary neighbors, Mercury remained comparatively unexplored for the more than three decades that followed the three flybys of the innermost planet by the Mariner 10 spacecraft in 1974-75. Mariner 10 imaged 45% of Mercury's surface at about 1 km/pixel average resolution, confirmed Mercury's anomalously high bulk density and implied large fractional core size, discovered Mercury's internal magnetic field, documented that H and He are present in the planet's tenuous exosphere, and made the first exploration of Mercury's magnetosphere and solar wind environment. Ground-based astronomers later reported Na, K, and Ca in Mercury's exosphere; the presence of deposits in the floors of polar craters having radar characteristics best matched by water ice; and strong evidence from the planet's forced libration amplitude that Mercury has a fluid outer core. Spacecraft exploration of Mercury resumed with the selection for flight, under NASA's Discovery Program, of the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. Launched in 2004, MESSENGER flew by the innermost planet three times in 2008-2009 en route to becoming the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury in March of this year. MESSENGER's first chemical remote sensing measurements of Mercury's surface indicate that the planet's bulk silicate fraction differs from those of the other inner planets, with a low-Fe surface composition intermediate between basalts and ultramafic rocks and best matched among terrestrial rocks by komatiites. Moreover, surface materials are richer in the volatile constituents S and K than predicted by most planetary formation models. Global image mosaics and targeted high-resolution images (to resolutions of 10 m/pixel) reveal that Mercury experienced globally extensive volcanism, including large expanses of plains emplaced as flood lavas and widespread examples of pyroclastic deposits likely emplaced during explosive eruptions of volatile

  7. Simulator for Microlens Planet Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, Sergei I.; Horne, Keith; Alsubai, Khalid A.; Bramich, Daniel M.; Dominik, Martin; Hundertmark, Markus P. G.; Liebig, Christine; Snodgrass, Colin D. B.; Street, Rachel A.; Tsapras, Yiannis

    2014-04-01

    We summarize the status of a computer simulator for microlens planet surveys. The simulator generates synthetic light curves of microlensing events observed with specified networks of telescopes over specified periods of time. Particular attention is paid to models for sky brightness and seeing, calibrated by fitting to data from the OGLE survey and RoboNet observations in 2011. Time intervals during which events are observable are identified by accounting for positions of the Sun and the Moon, and other restrictions on telescope pointing. Simulated observations are then generated for an algorithm that adjusts target priorities in real time with the aim of maximizing planet detection zone area summed over all the available events. The exoplanet detection capability of observations was compared for several telescopes.

  8. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, R. W.; Nagy, A. F.

    1980-11-01

    The theory and observations relating to the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Venus, the earth, and Mars are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on comparing the basic differences and similarities between the planetary ionospheres. The review covers the plasma and electric-magnetic field environments that surround the planets, the theory leading to the creation and transport of ionization in the ionospheres, the relevant observations, and the most recent model calculations. The theory section includes a discussion of ambipolar diffusion in a partially ionized plasma, diffusion in a fully ionized plasma, supersonic plasma flow, photochemistry, and heating and cooling processes. The sections on observations and model calculations cover the neutral atmosphere composition, the ion composition, the electron density, and the electron, ion, and neutral temperatures.

  9. Security for a Smarter Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaratnam, Nataraj

    Bit by bit, our planet is getting smarter. By this, we mean the systems that run, the way we live and work as a society. Three things have brought this about - the world is becoming instrumented, interconnected and intelligent. Given the planet is becoming instrumented and interconnected, this opens up more risks that need to be managed. Escalating security and privacy concerns along with a renewed focus on organizational oversight are driving governance, risk management and compliance (GRC) to the forefront of the business. Compliance regulations have increasingly played a larger role by attempting to establish processes and controls that mitigate the internal and external risks organizations have today. To effectively meet the requirements of GRC, companies must prove that they have strong and consistent controls over who has access to critical applications and data.

  10. Artemis: A Stratospheric Planet Finder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, H. C.; Petro, L. D.; Burrows, C.; Ftaclas, C.; Roggemann, M. C.; Trauger, J. T.

    2003-01-01

    The near-space environment of the stratosphere is far superior to terrestrial sites for optical and infrared observations. New balloon technologies will enable flights and safe recovery of 2-ton payloads at altitudes of 35 km for 100 days and longer. The combination of long flights and superb observing conditions make it possible to undertake science programs that otherwise could only be done from orbit. We propose to fly an "Ultra-Hubble" Stratospheric Telescope (UHST) equipped with a coronagraphic camera and active optics at 35 km to search for planets around 200 of the nearest stars. This ULDB mission will establish the frequency of solar-type planetary systems, and provide targets to search for earth-like planets.

  11. The Realm of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlet, Roger

    2010-10-01

    In November 1995, an article published in Nature [1] put planetary sciences not only as a new hot field in both observational and theoretical astrophysics but also as a topic with a large impact toward the layman. This article was reporting the first discovery of a planet orbiting a star beyond our Sun, namely the solar-type star 51 Pegasi. Nearly four centuries after Giordano Bruno was burnt in public in Roma partly for having intuitively claimed the plurality of worlds, we were entering the extraordinary epoch in which one of the oldest inquiries of mankind-are we alone in the Universe?-can be tackled with the scientific method, leaving aside centuries of endless speculations. To date (July 2010), almost 500 extrasolar planets are known. We shall briefly review the main detection methods, together with the big surprises which arose during these last exciting fifteen years, without being exhaustive.

  12. Planet-crossing asteroid survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    The planet-crossing asteroid survey was begun in 1973 in order to study those asteroids which may intersect the orbits of the inner planets. Throughout the history of the survey, many of the various classes of asteroids were investigated. The near-Earth objects including the Apollo, Amor, and Aten families were studied in addition to asteroids whose orbits cross that of Mars, and some objects which are generally confined to the main belt. Observing was done on the 18 inch Schmidt telescope at the Palomar Mtn. Observatory. Typically, two consecutive photographs of a favorable field are taken. The exposure times of the films are usually twenty minutes and ten minutes, respectively. The telescope is guided at sidereal rate, so that asteroids will leave short trailed images. The films are then scanned for trails. By comparing the two films, the direction and approximate rate of motion of an asteroid may be determined.

  13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, R. W.; Nagy, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    The theory and observations relating to the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Venus, the earth, and Mars are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on comparing the basic differences and similarities between the planetary ionospheres. The review covers the plasma and electric-magnetic field environments that surround the planets, the theory leading to the creation and transport of ionization in the ionospheres, the relevant observations, and the most recent model calculations. The theory section includes a discussion of ambipolar diffusion in a partially ionized plasma, diffusion in a fully ionized plasma, supersonic plasma flow, photochemistry, and heating and cooling processes. The sections on observations and model calculations cover the neutral atmosphere composition, the ion composition, the electron density, and the electron, ion, and neutral temperatures.

  14. Interactions between planets and evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengbang, Qian; Zhongtao, Han; Fernández Lajús, E.; liying, Zhu; Wenping, Liao; Miloslav, Zejda; Linjia, Li; Voloshina, Irina; Liang, Liu; Jiajia., He

    2016-07-01

    Searching for planetary companions to evolved stars (e.g., white dwarfs (WD) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV)) can provide insight into the interaction between planets and evolved stars as well as on the ultimate fate of planets. We have monitored decades of CVs and their progenitors including some detached WD binaries since 2006 to search for planets orbiting these systems. In the present paper, we will show some observational results of circumbinary planets in orbits around CVs and their progenitors. Some of our findings include planets with the shortest distance to the central evolved binaries and a few multiple planetary systems orbiting binary stars. Finally, by comparing the observational properties of planetary companions to single WDs and WD binaries, the interaction between planets and evolved stars and the ultimate fate of planets are discussed.

  15. Astrometeric Science with SIM PlanetQuest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Unwin, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) PlanetQuest. The topics include: 1) SIM PlanetQuest - the World's First Long- Baseline Optical Interferometer in Space; 2) National Academy of Sciences / NRC endorses SIM PlanetQuest; 3) SIM Planet Search; 4) Planetary System Architectures & Diversity; 5) SIM Search for 110 M(sub Earth) Planets Around Nearby Stars; 6) Deep Search of 120 nearby stars; 7) Planets around Young Stars; 8) SIM PlanetQuest Science Team; 9) Dark Halo of our Galaxy; 10) Dynamics of Galaxy Groups within 5 Mpc; 11) Probing Active Galactic Nuclei with Astrometry; 12) Snapshot Observing Mode: Astrometry for the masses; 13) SIM Technology Development is Complete; and 14) SIM Hardware, Tested for Flight.

  16. Irregular Satellites of the Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    2005-01-01

    This proposal is directed towards the observational exploration of the irregular satellite systems of the planets. Primarily we use large-format CCD cameras on the world's largest telescopes, on Mauna Kea, to discover new irregular satellites and then to monitor their positions in order to ascertain their orbital characteristics. Separate observations are taken to determine the physical properties of the irregular satellites. The big picture science objective is to determine how these satellites were captures, and to use the properties of the satellites and their orbits to place constraints on early solar system (including formation) processes. Work in the first year has focussed on a major investigation of the Saturn irregular satellite system. We secured observing time on the Subaru and Gemini 8-m diameter telescopes in December 2004, January, February and March 2005 for the conduct of a deep, wide-area survey. This has resulted in the detection and orbit determination for 12 new satellites to be announced in the next week or two. Additional satellites were lost, temporarily, due to unusually poor weather conditions on Mauna Kea. These objects will be recovered and their orbits published next year. A separate survey of the Uranus irregular satellites was published (Sheppard, Jewitt and Kleyna 2005). Away from the telescope, we have discovered the amazing result that the four giant planets possess similar numbers of irregular satellites. This flies in the face of the standard gas-drag model for satellite capture, since only two of the giant planets are gas giants and the others (Uranus and Neptune) formed by a different process and in the absence of much gas. The constancy of the satellite number (each giant holds approximately 100 irregular satellites measured down to the kilometer scale) is either a coincidence, with different capture mechanisms at different planets giving by chance the same total numbers of irregular satellites, or indicates that the satellites

  17. Observed positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, J.; Szczodrowska-Kozar, B.

    Photographic positions were determined for the six minor planets Ceres, Vesta, Hebe, Flora, Eunomia, and Melromene, the observations being made from the Wroclaw Astronomical Observatory between February 1981 and February 1982. Tabulated data include UT of the observation, epoch-1950 topocentric positions, standard deviation of a reference star, the number of reference stars, and the exposure time. The AGK3, SAO, and Perth 70 catalogs were used for reference star positions.

  18. Electrodynamics on extrasolar giant planets

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, T. T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Cho, J. Y-K.

    2014-11-20

    Strong ionization on close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) suggests that their atmospheres may be affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Recent models of ion drag on these planets, however, are based on thermal ionization only and do not include the upper atmosphere above the 1 mbar level. These models are also based on simplified equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics that are not always valid in extrasolar planet atmospheres. We show that photoionization dominates over thermal ionization over much of the dayside atmosphere above the 100 mbar level, creating an upper ionosphere dominated by ionization of H and He and a lower ionosphere dominated by ionization of metals such as Na, K, and Mg. The resulting dayside electron densities on close-in exoplanets are higher than those encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the conductivities are comparable to the chromosphere of the Sun. Based on these results and assumed magnetic fields, we constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in EGPs and use a generalized Ohm's law to study the basic effects of electrodynamics in their atmospheres. We find that ion drag is important above the 10 mbar level where it can also significantly alter the energy balance through resistive heating. Due to frequent collisions of the electrons and ions with the neutral atmosphere, however, ion drag is largely negligible in the lower atmosphere below the 10 mbar level for a reasonable range of planetary magnetic moments. We find that the atmospheric conductivity decreases by several orders of magnitude in the night side of tidally locked planets, leading to a potentially interesting large-scale dichotomy in electrodynamics between the day and night sides. A combined approach that relies on UV observations of the upper atmosphere, phase curve and Doppler measurements of global dynamics, and visual transit observations to probe the alkali metals can potentially be

  19. The Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broecker, Wallace S.

    1983-01-01

    The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

  20. Ocean nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    Nutrients provide the chemical life-support system for phytoplankton in the ocean. Together with the carbon fixed during photosynthesis, nutrients provide the other elements, such as N and P, needed to synthesize macromolecules to build cellular constituents such as ribosomes. The makeup of these various biochemicals, such as proteins, pigments, and nucleic acids, together determine the elemental stoichiometry of an individual phytoplankton cell. The stoichiometry of different phytoplankton species or groups will vary depending on the proportions of distinct cellular machinery, such as for growth or resource acquisition, they require for their life strategies. The uptake of nutrients by phytoplankton helps to set the primary productivity, and drives the biological pump, of the global ocean. In the case of nitrogen, the supply of nutrients is categorized as either new or regenerated. The supply of new nitrogen, such as nitrate upwelled from the ocean' interior or biological nitrogen fixation, is equal to the vertical export of particular organic matter from the upper ocean on a timescale of years. Nutrients such as silica can also play a structural role in some phytoplankton groups, such as diatoms, where they are used to synthesize a siliceous frustule that offers some mechanical protection from grazers. In this chapter, we also explore nutrient uptake kinetics, patterns in nutrient distributions in space and time, the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, the atmospheric supply of nutrients, departures from the Redfield ratio, and whether nutrient distributions and cycling will be altered in the future

  1. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., lo, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  2. Exploring Mercury. The iron planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Robert G.; Sprague, Ann L.

    How did Mercury get such an enormous iron core? Why is its tectonic framework so different from any other planet or satellite? What is its crystal composition? Why is the crust so depleted in iron when the interior is so rich in that element? What are the polar deposits? Where do the elements in the exosphere come from? Mercury is a planet shrouded in mystery. Only 45 percent of its surface has been seen in any detail, and that was from the Mariner 10 flyby in 1974. Yet what is known only makes the planet more fascinating. New Earth-based observations have shed light on surface and exosphere compositions, and re-evaluations of the Mariner 10 data, using modern image processing techniques, show evidence for volcanic flow fronts, pyroclastics and other volcanic phenomena not seen before. This ground-breaking book not only chronicles what has been discovered, but looks ahead to what has yet to emerge. An accompanying CD contains all the best Mariner 10 images, including the data for each image, photomosaics and maps.

  3. Planets, pluralism, and conceptual lineage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusse, Carl

    2016-02-01

    Conceptual change can occur for a variety of reasons; some more scientifically significant than others. The 2006 definition of 'planet', which saw Pluto reclassified as a dwarf planet, is an example toward the more mundane end of the scale. I argue however that this case serves as a useful example of a related phenomenon, whereby what appears to be a single kind term conceals two or more distinct concepts with independent scientific utility. I examine the historical background to this case, as a template for developing additional evidence for pluralist approaches to conceptual disputes within science and elsewhere. "I would like to note that the two speakers who have spoken so far have both done the same extremely insulting gaffe," he said. "They have used the expression 'a physical definition of a planet' - by implication, suggesting that a dynamical definition is not physics!" He said he felt he had to teach the panel "something you should know": that dynamics was indeed physics, and in fact was addressed before solid-state physics in every textbook ever written." (Boyle, 2010, p. 126)

  4. Looking for a habitable planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid

    Only very favorable combination of many physical parameters may provide the necessary con-ditions for unicellular organisms to evolve into multicellular animals. The main factors of the planet, that is critical for the evolution and existence of life, form a peculiar labyrinth with many impasses. Most important are mass and temperature conditions on the planet. The planet that meets RNA/ DNA life requirements must have: •a mass about 5E27 g; •some zones with a favorable thermal conditions (273-340K); •an atmosphere that is able to absorb an external hard radiation but transparent for photons with 1-3 eV energy; •a sufficient den-sity of a stellar radiation; •presence of other sources of energy, e.g. of oxidation species in the atmosphere; •a moderate gravitation; •open water with big islands or continents; •a moderate rotation period; •a moderate eccentricity of the orbit; •a moderate inclination of equator plane to the orbit plane; •an intensive meteoritic impacts or other cosmic catastrophes that stimulate evolution of the most perfect beings; •one or more massive satellites; •an intensive volcanism and/or plate tectonics.

  5. Orbits and Interiors of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing

  6. Effects of Water Amount on the Surface Environment of Terrestrial Planets: High Pressure Ice and Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Akifumi; Abe, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial planets with several wt% of H2O in extrasolar planetary systems are theoretically predicted in the habitable zone [Raymond et al., 2004]. Such planets are expected to be covered by an ocean entirely (called as “ocean planets”). Amount of atmospheric CO2 (PCO2) is important for surface environment because CO2 is a strong greenhouse gas. PCO2 is determined by a race between degassing and sink through weathering on carbon cycle. On an ocean planet, seafloor weathering is important because continental weathering can’t work [Abbot et al., 2012]. In addition, ocean planets with large water amount may have high-pressure (HP) ice on the seafloor [Leger et al., 2004]. Since the ocean floor is covered by ice in such case, it has been thought that any weathering processes will not work and PCO2 will be extremely high. When plate tectonics works, heat flow from oceanic crust decreases with distance from the mid ocean ridge. Therefore, HP ice near the mid ocean ridge will be kept solid-liquid coexistent state at the melting point because of high heat flow. Seafloor weathering works in this region. The seafloor weathering under this condition efficiently works because weathering temperature is kept melting point regardless of surface temperature. Thus, our aim is to clarify the relationship between water amount and surface environment focusing seafloor environment. We develop a carbon cycle model considering the seafloor weathering. Our major assumptions are following; 1) Earth-sized ocean planets with various water amount, 2) Degassing rate is depended on the total amount of carbon and total carbon inventory is proportional to the surface water amount. We investigated thermal state of HP ice and determined effective weathering region where HP ice is coexistent with water, then we investigated the PCO2 in equilibrium state where degassing and regassing are balanced. As a result, forming of HP ice may cause snowball state due to high weathering rate. When solar

  7. Oceanic Plateaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, A. C.

    2003-12-01

    Although the existence of large continental flood basalt provinces has been known for some considerable time, e.g., Holmes (1918), the recognition that similar flood basalt provinces also exist below the oceans is relatively recent. In the early 1970s increasing amounts of evidence from seismic reflection and refraction studies revealed that the crust in several large portions of the ocean floor is significantly thicker than "normal" oceanic crust, which is 6-7 km thick. One of the first areas of such over-thickened crust to be identified was the Caribbean plate ( Edgar et al., 1971) which Donnelly (1973) proposed to be an "oceanic flood basalt province". The term oceanic plateau was coined by Kroenke (1974), and was prompted by the discovery of a large area of thickened crust (>30 km) in the western Pacific known as the Ontong Java plateau (OJP). As our knowledge of the ocean basins has improved over the last 25 years, many more oceanic plateaus have been identified ( Figure 1). Coffin and Eldholm (1992) introduced the term "large igneous provinces" (LIPs) as a generic term encompassing oceanic plateaus, continental flood basalt provinces, and those provinces which form at the continent-ocean boundary (volcanic rifted margins). (22K)Figure 1. Map showing all major oceanic plateaus, and other large igneous provinces discussed in the text (after Saunders et al., 1992). LIPs are generally believed to be formed by decompression melting of upwelling hotter mantle, known as mantle plumes. Although ideas about hotpots and mantle plumes have been around for almost 40 years (Wilson, 1963), it is only in the past 15 years that LIPs have become the focus of major research. One of the main reasons for the increased research activity into LIPs is the realization that significant proportions of these LIPs erupted over a relatively short time, often less than 2-3 Myr (see review in Coffin, 1994). This has important implications for mantle processes and source regions ( Hart et

  8. The Evryscope and extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fors, Octavi; Law, Nicholas Michael; Ratzloff, Jeffrey; del Ser, Daniel; Wulfken, Philip J.; Kavanaugh, Dustin

    2015-08-01

    The Evryscope (Law et al. 2015) is a 24-camera hemispherical all-sky gigapixel telescope (8,000 sq.deg. FoV) with rapid cadence (2mins exposure, 4sec readout) installed at CTIO. Ground-based single-station transiting surveys typically suffer from light curve sparsity and suboptimal efficiency because of their limited field of view (FoV), resulting in incomplete and biased detections. In contrast, the Evryscope offers 97% survey efficiency and one of the single-station most continuous and simultaneous monitoring of millions of stars (only limited by the day-night window).This unique facility is capable of addressing new and more extensive planetary populations, including: 1) for the first time, continuously monitor every 2mins a set of ~1000 bright white dwarfs (WDs). This will allow us to put constraints on the habitable planet fraction of Ceres-size planetesimals at the level of 30%, only in a survey timescales of a few weeks, as well as first-time testing planetary evolution models beyond the AGB phase. 2) search for rocky planets in the habitable zone around ~5,000 bright, nearby M-dwarfs. 3) synergies between Evryscope and upcoming exoplanets missions (e.g. TESS, PLATO) are also promising for target pre-imaging characterization, and increasing the giant planet yield by recovering multiple transits from planets seen as single transit events from space. 4) all-sky 2-min cadence of rare microlensing events of nearby stars. 5) all-sky continuous survey of microlensing events of nearby stars at 2mins cadence. 6) increase the census of giant planets around ~70,000 nearby, bright (g<10) solar-type stars, whose atmospheres can be characterized by follow-up observations. We are developing new data analysis algorithms to address the above scientific goals: from detecting the extremely short and faint transits around WDs, to disentangle planetary signals from very bright stars, and to combine space-based light curves with the Evryscope's ones. We will present the first

  9. Beta Pictoris planet finally imaged?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    A team of French astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered an object located very close to the star Beta Pictoris, and which apparently lies inside its disc. With a projected distance from the star of only 8 times the Earth-Sun distance, this object is most likely the giant planet suspected from the peculiar shape of the disc and the previously observed infall of comets onto the star. It would then be the first image of a planet that is as close to its host star as Saturn is to the Sun. Sharpening Up Jupiter ESO PR Photo 42a/08 Beta Pictoris as seen in infrared light The hot star Beta Pictoris is one of the best-known examples of stars surrounded by a dusty 'debris' disc. Debris discs are composed of dust resulting from collisions among larger bodies like planetary embryos or asteroids. They are a bigger version of the zodiacal dust in our Solar System. Its disc was the first to be imaged -- as early as 1984 -- and remains the best-studied system. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and infalling comets onto the star. "These are indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggest the presence of a massive planet lying between 5 and 10 times the mean Earth-Sun distance from its host star," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "However, probing the very inner region of the disc, so close to the glowing star, is a most challenging task." In 2003, the French team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [1]), mounted on one of the 8.2 m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to benefit from both the high image quality provided by the Adaptive Optics system at infrared wavelengths and the good dynamics offered by the detector, in order to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris. Recently, a member of the team re-analysed the data in a different way to seek the trace of a companion to the star. Infrared wavelengths are indeed very well suited for such searches. "For this, the real challenge

  10. Exotic Earths: forming habitable worlds with giant planet migration.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Sean N; Mandell, Avi M; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2006-09-01

    Close-in giant planets (e.g., "hot Jupiters") are thought to form far from their host stars and migrate inward, through the terrestrial planet zone, via torques with a massive gaseous disk. Here we simulate terrestrial planet growth during and after giant planet migration. Several-Earth-mass planets also form interior to the migrating jovian planet, analogous to recently discovered "hot Earths." Very-water-rich, Earth-mass planets form from surviving material outside the giant planet's orbit, often in the habitable zone and with low orbital eccentricities. More than a third of the known systems of giant planets may harbor Earth-like planets. PMID:16960000

  11. Planets migrating into stars: Rates and Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    New measurements of the occurrence distribution of planets (POD) make it possible to make the first determination of the rate of planet migration into stars as a function of the strength of stellar tidal dissipation. We show how the period at which there is falloff in the POD due to planets migrating into the star can be used to calculate this rate. We show that it does not take extremely weak tidal dissipation for this rate to be low enough to be supplied by a reasonable number of planets being scattered into the lowest period region. The presence of the shortest period giant planets can be better explained by the ongoing migration of giant planets into stars. The presence of giant planets in period on the order of a day and less had prompted some to conclude that tidal dissipation in stars must necessarily be much weaker for planet mass than for binary star mass companions. However, a flow of less than one planet per thousand stars per gigayear could explain their presence without requiring as much of a difference in tidal dissipation strength in stars for planetary than for stellar mass companions. We show several new analytical expressions describing the rate of evolution of the falloff in the POD, as well as the rate of planet. The question of how strong is the tidal dissipation (the quality factor 'Q') for planet-mass companions may be answered within a few years by a measurable time shift in the transit period. We show that the distribution of remaining planet lifetimes indicates a mass-dependence of the stellar tidal dissipation. The possibility of regular merger of planets with stars has led us to find several correlations of iron abundance in stars with planet parameters, starting with the iron-eccentricity correlation (Taylor 2012, Dawson & Murray-Clay 2013). These correlations change in the presence of a stellar companion. We show that the distribution of planets of iron-rich planets is significantly different from the distribution of iron poor stars in

  12. Detection of Extrasolar Planets by Transit Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Webster, Larry; Dunham, Edward; Witteborn, Fred; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Showen, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A knowledge of other planetary systems that includes information on the number, size, mass, and spacing of the planets around a variety of star types is needed to deepen our understanding of planetary system formation and processes that give rise to their final configurations. Recent discoveries show that many planetary systems are quite different from the solar system in that they often possess giant planets in short period orbits. The inferred evolution of these planets and their orbital characteristics imply the absence of Earth-like planets near the habitable zone. Information on the properties of the giant-inner planets is now being obtained by both the Doppler velocity and the transit photometry techniques. The combination of the two techniques provides the mass, size, and density of the planets. For the planet orbiting star HD209458, transit photometry provided the first independent confirmation and measurement of the diameter of an extrasolar planet. The observations indicate a planet 1.27 the diameter of Jupiter with 0.63 of its mass (Charbonneau et al. 1999). The results are in excellent agreement with the theory of planetary atmospheres for a planet of the indicated mass and distance from a solar-like star. The observation of the November 23, 1999 transit of that planet made by the Ames Vulcan photometer at Lick Observatory is presented. In the future, the combination of the two techniques will greatly increase the number of discoveries and the richness of the science yield. Small rocky planets at orbital distances from 0.9 to 1.2 AU are more likely to harbor life than the gas giant planets that are now being discovered. However, new technology is needed to find smaller, Earth-like planets, which are about three hundred times less massive than Jupiter-like planets. The Kepler project is a space craft mission designed to discover hundreds of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone around a wide variety of stars. To demonstrate that the

  13. Orbital Evolution and Migration of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, D. E.; Benz, W.; Guillot, T.; Lunine, J. I.; Hubbard, W. B.; Burrows, A.

    1997-07-01

    Giant planets in circumstellar disks can migrate inward from their initial (formation) positions. Migration is caused by inward torques between the planet and the disk; by outward torques between the planet and the spinning star; and by outward torques due to Roche lobe overflow and mass loss from the planet. Summing torques on planets in disks with various physical parameters, we find that Jupiter-mass planets can stably arrive and survive at small heliocentric distances. Inward migration timescales can be approximately equal to or less than disk lifetimes and star spindown timescales. Therefore, the range of fates of Jupiter-mass planets is broad, and generally comprises three classes: (I) planets which migrate inward too rapidly and lose all their mass due to Roche lobe overflow; (II) planets which migrate inward and survive in very small orbits; and (III) planets which do not migrate very far. Some, but not all, of the planets in Class II lose mass during their evolution and migration times, resulting in planets with final masses smaller than their initial masses. For example, in our model, we produce planets similar to 51 Peg b which have lost ~ 75% of their initial mass. The observed extrasolar planets, both those with extremely small semi-major axes (51 Peg b at 0.05 AU, tau Boo b (0.046 AU), upsilon And b (0.057 AU), and 55 Cnc b (0.11 AU)) and those with more moderate semi-major axes (rho Cor Bor b (0.23 AU), 47 UMa b (2.1 AU)) form a subset of the potential outcomes of the system, in that Jupiter-mass objects can stably survive in orbits with a wide range of semi-major axes. Our numerical model produces planets which have similar characteristics to the observed planets, as well as planets similar to Jupiter, and many intermediate cases. Since Jupiters can stably migrate to various orbital separations, we predict that, as planetary detection techniques improve, Jupiter-mass planets will be found in a wide range of orbits, from much less than 1 AU to

  14. Modeling the Surface Temperature of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Silva, Laura; Murante, Giuseppe; Filippi, Luca; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a novel Earth-like planet surface temperature model (ESTM) for habitability studies based on the spatial-temporal distribution of planetary surface temperatures. The ESTM adopts a surface energy balance model (EBM) complemented by: radiative-convective atmospheric column calculations, a set of physically based parameterizations of meridional transport, and descriptions of surface and cloud properties more refined than in standard EBMs. The parameterization is valid for rotating terrestrial planets with shallow atmospheres and moderate values of axis obliquity (ɛ ≲ 45{}^\\circ ). Comparison with a 3D model of atmospheric dynamics from the literature shows that the equator-to-pole temperature differences predicted by the two models agree within ≈ 5 K when the rotation rate, insolation, surface pressure and planet radius are varied in the intervals 0.5≲ {Ω }/{{{Ω }}\\oplus }≲ 2, 0.75≲ S/{{S}\\circ }≲ 1.25, 0.3≲ p/(1 bar)≲ 10, and 0.5≲ R/{{R}\\oplus }≲ 2, respectively. The ESTM has an extremely low computational cost and can be used when the planetary parameters are scarcely known (as for most exoplanets) and/or whenever many runs for different parameter configurations are needed. Model simulations of a test-case exoplanet (Kepler-62e) indicate that an uncertainty in surface pressure within the range expected for terrestrial planets may impact the mean temperature by ˜ 60 K. Within the limits of validity of the ESTM, the impact of surface pressure is larger than that predicted by uncertainties in rotation rate, axis obliquity, and ocean fractions. We discuss the possibility of performing a statistical ranking of planetary habitability taking advantage of the flexibility of the ESTM.

  15. Habitability of Terrestrial Planets in the Early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SLEEP, N. H.

    2001-12-01

    The Protoearth, Mars, Venus, and the Moon-forming impactor were potentially habitable in the early solar system. The interiors of larger asteroids had habitable circulating water. To see when the inner solar system became continuously habitable, one needs to consider the most dangerous events and the safest refugia from them. Early geochemical and accretionary processes set the subsequent silicate planet reservoirs and hence hydrospheric and atmospheric masses. The moon-forming impact made the Moon and the Earth sterile bodies. Following the impact, the Earth passed through a rock-vapor atmosphere on the scale of 1000s of years and an internally heated steam greenhouse on the scale of 2 m.y. Minerals bearing the principle volatiles (water, Cl, and CO2) were stable at the Earth's surface by the time it cooled to 800K. The mass of reactable shallow material was insufficient to contain the available water and CO2. Habitable conditions were established after CO2 could be deeply subducted into the mantle. Vast quantities of H2 were vented during accretion and after the moon-forming impact and eventually lost to space. It is unknown whether significant amounts of this gas were present when the Earth's surface cooled into the habitable range. The moon remained sterile because its interior is essentially devoid of water. The mantle of the Earth, in contrast, cannot hold the available water, leaving the excess to form oceans. Nitrogen may behave similarly with the excess going into the air. Impacts of large asteroids (and comets) were an ever-present danger on otherwise habitable planets. The safest niche on planets was kilometer or deeper crustal rocks habitable by thermophiles. It is inevitable that several objects, which would have left only thermophile survivors, struck the Earth. Such events were so infrequent that the conditions of such a bottleneck should not be confused with conditions for the origin of life. An alternative refugium involves ejection of life within

  16. Stability of habitable exomoons of circumbinary planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyal, Suman; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy

    2015-12-01

    Among the currently known Kepler circumbinary planets, three, namely Kepler-453b, Kepler-16b, and Kepler-47c are in the binary habitable zone (HZ). Given the large sizes of these planets, it is unlikely that they would be habitable. However, similar to the giant planets in our solar system, these planets may have large moons, which orbit their host planets while in the HZ. These exomoons, if exist, present viable candidates for habitability. As a condition for habitability, the planet-moon system has to maintain its orbital stability for long time. Usually, the empirical formula by Holeman & Wiegert (1999) is used as a measure of orbital stability in circumbinary systems. However, this formula was obtained by assuming planets to be test particles and therefore does not include possible perturbation of the planet on the binary. In this work, we present results of more realistic calculations of stability of circumbinary planets where the interactions between planets and their central binaries are taken into account. We map the region of stability, which in this case will be specific to each system, and determine the range of the orbital parameters of the moons for which their orbits will be long-term stable.

  17. Disc-planet interactions in subkeplerian discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paardekooper, S.-J.

    2009-11-01

    Context: One class of protoplanetary disc models, the X-wind model, predicts strongly subkeplerian orbital gas velocities, a configuration that can be sustained by magnetic tension. Aims: We investigate disc-planet interactions in these subkeplerian discs, focusing on orbital migration for low-mass planets and gap formation for high-mass planets. Methods: We use linear calculations and nonlinear hydrodynamical simulations to measure the torque and look at gap formation. In both cases, the subkeplerian nature of the disc is treated as a fixed external constraint. Results: We show that, depending on the degree to which the disc is subkeplerian, the torque on low-mass planets varies between the usual type I torque and the one-sided outer Lindblad torque, which is also negative but an order of magnitude stronger. In strongly subkeplerian discs, corotation effects can be ignored, making migration fast and inward. Gap formation near the planet's orbit is more difficult in such discs, since there are no resonances close to the planet accommodating angular momentum transport. The location of the gap is shifted inwards with respect to the planet, leaving the planet on the outside of a surface density depression. Conclusions: Depending on the degree to which a protoplanetary disc is subkeplerian, disc-planet interactions can be very different from the usual Keplerian picture, making these discs in general more hazardous for young planets.

  18. Terrestrial Planet Finder, Planet Detection Test-Bed: Latest Results of Planet Light Detection in the Presence of Starlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Stefan R.; Booth, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder, Planet Detection Test-bed is a lab based simulation of the optics and control systems for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer mission. The test-bed supports starlight nulling at 10um infrared wavelengths, with fringe tracking at 2um wavelengths and angle and shear tracking at visible wavelengths. It further allows injection of simulated planet light in the presence of the nulled star light, to allow testing of planet detection methods. We will describe the detailed construction and operation of the test-bed from an optical and control system perspective. We will also report the latest results for narrow band nulls, and the detection of broad band planet light in the presence of nulled starlight.

  19. Oceans '88

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following papers: Solid waste disposal crisis; Plastics in Ocean; Continental shelf environmental research; Seafood technology advancements; Gulf of Mexico chemosynthetic petroleum seep communities; Water reuse on onshore mariculture and processing facilities; Oil and gas industry conflicts on the outer continental shelf; Cumulative environmental effects of the oil and gas leasing program; Oil and gas exploration; and Oil and gas resource management; Aids to navigation systems and equipment; and Surveillance experiments.

  20. Oceanic Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

  1. Ocean Currents: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halversen, Catherine; Beals, Kevin; Strang, Craig

    This teacher's guide attempts to answer questions such as: What causes ocean currents? What impact do they have on Earth's environment? and How have they influenced human history? Seven innovative activities are provided in which students can gain fascinating insights into the earth as the ocean planet. Activities focus on how wind, temperature,…

  2. Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: selection and influence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher status adolescents, whereas higher status adolescents strive to maintain their status by keeping lower status adolescents at a distance. The results largely supported these expectations. Selection partially accounted for similarity in popularity among friends; adolescents preferred to affiliate with similar-status or higher status peers, reinforcing the attractiveness of popular adolescents and explaining stability of popularity at the individual level. Influence processes also accounted for similarity in popularity over time, showing that peers increase in popularity and become more similar to their friends. The results showed how selection and influence processes account for popularity dynamics in adolescent networks over time. PMID:22985296

  3. Water cycling between ocean and mantle: Super-earths need not be waterworlds

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2014-01-20

    Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying that most super-Earths should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. In other words, the continuously habitable zone for waterworlds is much narrower than for Earth-like planets. A planet's water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust depend negatively and positively on seafloor pressure, respectively, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water partitioning on terrestrial planets. Critically, hydrostatic seafloor pressure is proportional to surface gravity, so super-Earths with a deep water cycle will tend to store more water in the mantle. We conclude that a tectonically active terrestrial planet of any mass can maintain exposed continents if its water mass fraction is less than ∼0.2%, dramatically increasing the odds that super-Earths are habitable. The greatest source of uncertainty in our study is Earth's current mantle water inventory: the greater its value, the more robust planets are to inundation. Lastly, we discuss how future missions can test our hypothesis by mapping the oceans and continents of massive terrestrial planets.

  4. Extreme water loss and abiotic O2 buildup on planets throughout the habitable zones of M dwarfs.

    PubMed

    Luger, R; Barnes, R

    2015-02-01

    We show that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs older than ∼1 Gyr could have been in runaway greenhouses for several hundred million years following their formation due to the star's extended pre-main sequence phase, provided they form with abundant surface water. Such prolonged runaway greenhouses can lead to planetary evolution divergent from that of Earth. During this early runaway phase, photolysis of water vapor and hydrogen/oxygen escape to space can lead to the loss of several Earth oceans of water from planets throughout the habitable zone, regardless of whether the escape is energy-limited or diffusion-limited. We find that the amount of water lost scales with the planet mass, since the diffusion-limited hydrogen escape flux is proportional to the planet surface gravity. In addition to undergoing potential desiccation, planets with inefficient oxygen sinks at the surface may build up hundreds to thousands of bar of abiotically produced O2, resulting in potential false positives for life. The amount of O2 that builds up also scales with the planet mass; we find that O2 builds up at a constant rate that is controlled by diffusion: ∼5 bar/Myr on Earth-mass planets and up to ∼25 bar/Myr on super-Earths. As a result, some recently discovered super-Earths in the habitable zone such as GJ 667Cc could have built up as many as 2000 bar of O2 due to the loss of up to 10 Earth oceans of water. The fate of a given planet strongly depends on the extreme ultraviolet flux, the duration of the runaway regime, the initial water content, and the rate at which oxygen is absorbed by the surface. In general, we find that the initial phase of high luminosity may compromise the habitability of many terrestrial planets orbiting low-mass stars. PMID:25629240

  5. EFFECTS OF DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF GIANT PLANETS ON SURVIVAL OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Soko; Ida, Shigeru; Nagasawa, Makiko

    2013-04-20

    The orbital distributions of currently observed extrasolar giant planets allow marginally stable orbits for hypothetical, terrestrial planets. In this paper, we propose that many of these systems may not have additional planets on these ''stable'' orbits, since past dynamical instability among giant planets could have removed them. We numerically investigate the effects of early evolution of multiple giant planets on the orbital stability of the inner, sub-Neptune-like planets which are modeled as test particles, and determine their dynamically unstable region. Previous studies have shown that the majority of such test particles are ejected out of the system as a result of close encounters with giant planets. Here, we show that secular perturbations from giant planets can remove test particles at least down to 10 times smaller than their minimum pericenter distance. Our results indicate that, unless the dynamical instability among giant planets is either absent or quiet like planet-planet collisions, most test particles down to {approx}0.1 AU within the orbits of giant planets at a few AU may be gone. In fact, out of {approx}30% of survived test particles, about three quarters belong to the planet-planet collision cases. We find a good agreement between our numerical results and the secular theory, and present a semi-analytical formula which estimates the dynamically unstable region of the test particles just from the evolution of giant planets. Finally, our numerical results agree well with the observations, and also predict the existence of hot rocky planets in eccentric giant planet systems.

  6. Toward a Model for Detecting Life on Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rye, R.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.

    2001-12-01

    available energy sources may be used by biology on detectably colonized planets. Simple feedback loops such as those governing Lovelock?s famous Daisyworld or the Walker CO2 feedback, offer starting points for thinking about global scale feedbacks. Feedbacks in microbial communities, e.g. those postulated in anaerobic methane oxidation communities, involving the use of one or more organisms? waste products as nutrients by another, hint at the local complexity from which we need to scale up. Our first attempt at bridging this gap involves describing the processes that may have helped stabilize the Archean climate. Archean biogenic methane production could have been rapid enough to provide 100s ppm atmospheric CH4. At such CH4 levels Earth would have remained ice free. Sudden increases in CH4 production might have led to runaway greenhouse conditions. However, if CH4/CO2 > 1 a UV absorbing aerosol haze should form. UV-labile ammonia could have accumulated in the atmosphere under the haze, quickly making rain pH > 7, dramatically slowing chemical weathering on the continents and interrupting vital phosphate delivery to the oceans. The residence time of P is ca.10,000 years. Thus, over a time scale of ca.10,000 years primary productivity dropped sharply. Biogenic methane production, near the base of the trophic ladder, suffered disproportionately. With little CH4 production CH4/CO2 fell to < 1. The UV screen and atmospheric NH3 disappeared in a few years. Rain pH dropped. Weathering restarted. Biological productivity recovered. The above testable scenario serves as an example of a plausible feedback involving interplay between biological, geochemical, atmospheric and stellar processes. Feedback loops of this sort will be central features of the fully realized VMC module for the VPL.

  7. Have protoplanetary discs formed planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, J. S.; Rice, W. K. M.

    2010-09-01

    It has recently been noted that many discs around T Tauri stars appear to comprise only a few Jupiter masses of gas and dust. Using millimetre surveys of discs within six local star formation regions, we confirm this result, and find that only a few per cent of young stars have enough circumstellar material to build gas giant planets, in standard core accretion models. Since the frequency of observed exoplanets is greater than this, there is a `missing-mass' problem. As alternatives to simply adjusting the conversion of dust flux to disc mass, we investigate three other classes of solution. Migration of planets could hypothetically sweep up the disc mass reservoir more efficiently, but trends in multiplanet systems do not support such a model, and theoretical models suggest that the gas accretion time-scale is too short for migration to sweep the disc. Enhanced inner-disc mass reservoirs are possible, agreeing with predictions of disc evolution through self-gravity, but not adding to millimetre dust flux as the inner disc is optically thick. Finally, the incidence of massive discs is shown to be higher at the protostellar stages, Classes 0 and I, where discs substantial enough to form planets via core accretion are abundant enough to match the frequency of exoplanets. Gravitational instability may also operate in the Class 0 epoch, where half the objects have potentially unstable discs of >~30 per cent of the stellar mass. However, recent calculations indicate that forming gas giants inside 50 au by instability is unlikely, even in such massive discs. Overall, the results presented suggest that the canonically `protoplanetary' discs of Class II T Tauri stars have globally low masses in dust observable at millimetre wavelengths, and conversion to larger bodies (anywhere from small rocks up to planetary cores) must already have occurred.

  8. Modeling the globally-integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth: The purple planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palle, E.; Sanroma, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutierrez-Navarro, A. M.; Lopez, R.; Montañes-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-03-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. But the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet were purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and bacteria concentration/ distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  9. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS. II. PREDICTIONS FOR OUTER EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2010-03-10

    We develop an idealized dynamical model to predict the typical properties of outer extrasolar planetary systems, at radii comparable to the Jupiter-to-Neptune region of the solar system. The model is based upon the hypothesis that dynamical evolution in outer planetary systems is controlled by a combination of planet-planet scattering and planetary interactions with an exterior disk of small bodies ('planetesimals'). Our results are based on 5000 long duration N-body simulations that follow the evolution of three planets from a few to 10 AU, together with a planetesimal disk containing 50 M{sub +} from 10 to 20 AU. For large planet masses (M {approx}> M{sub Sat}), the model recovers the observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. For lower-mass planets, the range of outcomes in models with disks is far greater than that which is seen in isolated planet-planet scattering. Common outcomes include strong scattering among massive planets, sudden jumps in eccentricity due to resonance crossings driven by divergent migration, and re-circularization of scattered low-mass planets in the outer disk. We present the distributions of the eccentricity and inclination that result, and discuss how they vary with planet mass and initial system architecture. In agreement with other studies, we find that the currently observed eccentricity distribution (derived primarily from planets at a {approx}< 3 AU) is consistent with isolated planet-planet scattering. We explain the observed mass dependence-which is in the opposite sense from that predicted by the simplest scattering models-as a consequence of strong correlations between planet masses in the same system. At somewhat larger radii, initial planetary mass correlations and disk effects can yield similar modest changes to the eccentricity distribution. Nonetheless, strong damping of eccentricity for low-mass planets at large radii appears to be a secure signature of the dynamical influence of disks. Radial velocity

  10. Our Solar System Features Eight Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Our solar system features eight planets, seen in this artist's diagram. Although there is some debate within the science community as to whether Pluto should be classified as a Planet or a dwarf planet, the International Astronomical Union has decided on the term plutoid as a name for dwarf planets like Pluto.

    This representation is intentionally fanciful, as the planets are depicted far closer together than they really are. Similarly, the bodies' relative sizes are inaccurate. This is done for the purpose of being able to depict the solar system and still represent the bodies with some detail. (Otherwise the Sun would be a mere speck, and the planets even the majestic Jupiter would be far too small to be seen.)

  11. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florenskiy, K. P.; Nikolayeva, O. V.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H20, CO2, etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes.

  12. Genesis of a planet in Messier 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn

    1993-01-01

    The anomalous spin period second derivative of the binary millisecond pulsar PSR 1620-26 in the globular cluster M4 is best explained by a sub-Jovian mass planet in a moderately eccentric about 7 AU orbit about the pulsar binary. We consider formation scenarios for PSR 1620-26. A planet scavenged from a single main-sequence star during an exchange encounter naturally produces systems such as PSR 1620-26. The position of the pulsar just outside the core of M4 is shown to fit naturally with the preferred formation scenario and permit a planet to have survived in the inferred orbit about the binary. It is possible that the orbital eccentricity of the binary was induced by the planet. A confirmation of a planet in eccentric orbit about PSR 1620-26 would strongly suggest that planets form ubiquitously around low-mass main-sequence stars, even stars of low metallicity.

  13. The SIM PlanetQuest Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, Stephen J.; Traub, Wesley A.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Marr, James C., IV

    2007-01-01

    SIM PlanetQuest (hereafter, just SIM) is a NASA mission to measure the angular positions of stars with unprecedented accuracy. We outline the main astrophysical science programs planned for SIM, and related opportunities for community participation. We focus especially on SIM's ability to detect exoplanets as small as the Earth around nearby stars. The planned synergy between SIM and other planet-finding missions including Kepler and GAIA, and planet-characterizing missions including the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Terrestrial Planet Finder--Coronagraph (TPF-C), and Terrestrial Planet Finder--Interferometer (TPF-I), is a key element in NASA's Navigator Program to find Earth-like planets, determine their habitability, and search for signs of life in the universe. SIM's technology development is now complete and the project is proceeding towards a launch in the next decade.

  14. The Attributes Adolescents Associate with Peer Popularity and Teacher Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Kim, Janna; Schimmelbusch, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Investigates perceived popularity and teacher preference in a sample of 351 10th-graders. Analyses revealed that different behaviors were associated with perceived popularity and teacher preference. Low GPA, low submissiveness, and high rates of absenteeism were associated with high perceived popularity and a low perceived teacher preference.…

  15. Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Martin, Ian, Ed.; Shaw, Mae, Ed.

    The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Colin Kirkwood); "Introductory Essay: Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today" (Ian Martin); "Popular Education and the Struggle for Democracy" (Jim Crowther); "Social Movements and the Politics of Educational Change" (Lindsay Paterson); "Learning from Popular Education in Latin…

  16. Social Intelligence and Academic Achievement as Predictors of Adolescent Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijs, Noortje; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Segers, Eliane; Spijkerman, Renske

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the effects of social intelligence and cognitive intelligence, as measured by academic achievement, on adolescent popularity in two school contexts. A distinction was made between sociometric popularity, a measure of acceptance, and perceived popularity, a measure of social dominance. Participants were 512, 14-15 year-old…

  17. Teaching Popular Music in Finland: What's Up, What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the history and current situation of popular music pedagogy in Finland. While popular music is widely accepted in the curriculum, there are differences in its application in the comprehensive schools and music institutions. Popular styles were first introduced into Finnish music education by secondary school music teachers;…

  18. The Use of Popular Science Articles in Teaching Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Jean; Adendorff, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the use of popular science articles in teaching scientific literacy. Comparing the discourse features of popular science with research article and textbook science--the last two being target forms for students--it argues that popular science articles cannot serve as models for scientific writing. It does, however, suggest…

  19. The Muse and the Masses: Popular Fiction in Literature Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Jan

    Popular literature consists of novels, stories, and essays--and by extension, plays, movies, and teledramas--that attract a significant audience. Having students study popular fiction in English classes can help to "hook" the non-reader because popular fiction is more accessible and simpler in structure and language than the literary classics.…

  20. The Role of Attractiveness and Aggression in High School Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch, Casey; Hyde, Allen; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of physical attractiveness and aggression on popularity among high school students. Previous work has found positive relationships between aggression and popularity and physical attractiveness and popularity. The current study goes beyond this work by examining the interactive effects of physical attractiveness and…

  1. Strategy for outer planets exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Programs Office formed a number of scientific working groups to study in depth the potential scientific return from the various candidate missions to the outer solar system. The results of these working group studies were brought together in a series of symposia to evaluate the potential outer planet missions and to discuss strategies for exploration of the outer solar system that were consistent with fiscal constraints and with anticipated spacecraft and launch vehicle capabilities. A logical, scientifically sound, and cost effective approach to exploration of the outer solar system is presented.

  2. Infrared imaging of extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Tubbs, Eldred F.; Gaiser, Steven L.; Korechoff, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    An optical system for direct detection, in the infrared, of planets orbiting other stars is described. The proposed system consists of a large aperture (about 16 m) space-based telescope to which is attached a specialized imaging instrument containing a set of optical signal processing elements to suppress diffracted light from the central star. Starlight suppression is accomplished using coronagraphic apodization combined with rotational shearing interferometry. The possibility of designing the large telescope aperture to be of a deployable, multiarm configuration is examined, and it is shown that there is some sacrifice in performance relative to a filled, circular aperture.

  3. The magnetic field of planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolginov, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    The strength of the dipole fields H sub Oi of the various inspected planets are connected by simple scaling law, involving observable angular velocity omega, planetary radia R sub p velocity omega and amplitude alpha of planetary precession, and radia R sub c, densities RHO sub c, conductivities sigma sub c of their liquid cores according to the contemporary models of planetary inner structure. The Lunar paleofield of 1G, its decay to zero is also explained in the frame of precession-dynamo model, evolution of the Earth-Moon system and primeval satellites in its suggested by Runcorn.

  4. The magnetic field of planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolginov, S. S.

    The strength of the dipole fields HOi of the various inspected planets are connected by simple scaling law, involving observable angular velocity omega, planetary radia Rp velocity omega and amplitude alpha of planetary precession, and radia Rc, densities RHOc, conductivities sigmac of their liquid cores according to the contemporary models of planetary inner structure. The Lunar paleofield of 1G, its decay to zero is also explained in the frame of precession-dynamo model, evolution of the Earth-Moon system and primeval satellites in its suggested by Runcorn.

  5. Magnetospheres of the outer planets

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.F.

    1986-12-01

    The magnetospheres of the outer planets have been shown by Voyager explorations to strongly interact with the surfaces and atmospheres of their planetary satellites and rings. In the cases of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus, the processes of charged particle sputtering, neutral gas cloud formation, and rapid plasma injection from the ionization of the neutral clouds, have important implications both for the magnetospheres as a whole and for the surfaces and atmospheres of their satellites. The general methodology employed in these researches has involved comparisons of the planetary magnetospheres in order to identify common physical processes. 16 references.

  6. Inspiration Today: Music, Astronomy, and Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We explore a variety of examples of music inspired by serious astronomy (as opposed to simply an astronomical title or quick allusion to spooning in June to the light of the Moon). The examples are drawn from my recently published catalog of 133 such pieces, including both classical and popular genres of music. We discuss operas based on the life and work of astronomers, six songs based on a reasonable understanding of the properties of black holes, constellation pieces written by composers from around the world who are or were active amateur astronomers, the song that compares walking on the Moon to being in love, the little-known rock song that became a reference in the Astrophysical Journal, pieces that base the patterns of the music on the rhythms of astronomical phenomena, and a number of others.

  7. Publishing Outside the Box: Popular Press Books.

    PubMed

    Vyse, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    Writing and publishing popular press books requires a set of skills, not natural to basic and applied researchers trained to publish in peer-referred behavior analytic journals or to practice behavior analysis in applied settings. This article provides suggestions and examples. These include finding a distinctive idea, securing a contract, hiring an agent (or not), deciding on a publisher, and writing engagingly for a broad audience. The last is the greatest challenge. Among my recommendations are to read good prose, good models, and good books about publishing; talk to experienced colleagues; read aloud to judge the appropriateness of your vocabulary and style; and interject humor, imagery, and drama. Book publishing is a long and difficult process, but it is possible. It has a great potential for bringing behavior analytic research, practice and theory to the attention of the general public. PMID:27274959

  8. Moon and Terrestrial Planets: Unresolved Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    2002-12-01

    . Additional unresolved questions raised by lunar exploration and study include 1) the effect of chondritic proto-cores on the timing of core formation in the terrestrial planets, 2) the number of extremely large basin-forming events (lunar diameters >2000 km) and the potential for proto-continents being formed by the differentiation of their melt sheets on water-rich planets, 3) effect of clays produced by the weathering of the debris and glass produced by pervasive asteroid and cometary impacts, 4) the many details of the differentiation of magma oceans, and 5) the processes governing the evolution of the lunar regolith. Finally, there is the question of when humans shall return to the Moon. On the one hand, the use of this unique and accessible planetary body as a scientific resource has barely begun. On the other hand, the Helium-3 fusion energy resources and deep space travel consumables that remain untapped in the lunar regolith hardly can be ignored in the face of human and environmental challenges on Earth and the species' desire to go to Mars. On both hands, it is time we took another walk on the Moon. 30 years going on 40 is long enough to think about what once was possible.

  9. Tectonics of the Outer Planet Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinnon, W. B.; Collins, G. C.; Moore, J. M.; Nimmo, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Prockter, L. M.; Schenk, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Tectonic features on the satellites of the outer planets range from the familiar, such as clearly recognizable graben on many satellites, to the bizarre, such as the ubiquitous double ridges on Europa, the twisting sets of ridges on Triton, or the isolated giant mountains rising from Io's surface. All of the large and middle-sized outer planet satellites except Io are dominated by water ice near their surfaces. Though ice is a brittle material at the cold temperatures found in the outer solar system, the amount of energy it takes to bring it close to its melting point is lower than for a rocky body. Therefore, some unique features of icy satellite tectonics may be influenced by a near-surface ductile layer beneath the brittle surface material, and several of the icy satellites may possess subsurface oceans. Sources of stress to drive tectonism are commonly dominated by the tides that deform these satellites as they orbit their primary giant planets. On several satellites, the observed tectonic features may be the result of changes in their tidal figures, or motions of their solid surfaces with respect to their tidal figures. Other driving mechanisms for tectonics include volume changes due to ice or water phase changes in the interior, thermoelastic stress, deformation of the surface above rising diapirs of warm ice, and motion of subsurface material toward large impact basins as they fill in and relax. Most satellites exhibit evidence for extensional deformation, and some exhibit strike-slip faulting, whereas contractional tectonism appears to be rare. Io s surface is unique, exhibiting huge isolated mountains that may be blocks of crust tilting and foundering into the rapidly emptying interior as the surface is constantly buried by deposits from hyperactive volcanoes. Of the satellites, diminutive Enceladus is spectacularly active; its south polar terrain is a site of young tectonism, copious heat flow, and tall plumes venting into space. Europa's surface is

  10. Observational Studies of Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, J.

    2015-07-01

    The study of transiting extrasolar planets is only 15 years old, but has matured into a rich area of research. I review the observational aspects of this work, concentrating on the discovery of transits, the characterization of planets from photometry and spectroscopy, the Homogeneous Studies project, starspots, orbital obliquities, and the atmospheric properties of the known planets. I begin with historical context and conclude with a glance to a future of TESS, CHEOPS, Gaia and PLATO.

  11. Infrared and the search for extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1991-01-01

    Search for evidence concerning the existence of extrasolar planets will involve both indirect detection as well as direct (imaging). Indirect detection may be possible using ground based instrumentation on the Keck telescope, Imaging probably will require an orbiting system. Characterizing other planets for complex molecules will require a large orbiting or lunar-based telescope or inteferometer. Cryogenic infrared techniques appear to be necessary. Planning for a NASA ground and space-based program, Toward Other Planet Systems (TOPS), is proceeding.

  12. Constraints on planet formation from Kepler’s multiple planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Elisa V.

    2015-01-01

    The recent haul of hundreds of multiple planet systems discovered by Kepler provides a treasure trove of new clues for planet formation theories. The substantial amount of protoplanetary disk mass needed to form the most commonly observed multi-planet systems - small (Earth-sized to mini-Neptune-sized) planets close to their stars - argues against pure in situ formation and suggests that the planets in these systems must have undergone some form of migration. I will present results from numerical simulations of terrestrial planet formation that aim to reproduce the sizes and architecture of Kepler's multi-planet systems, and will discuss the observed resonances and giant planets (or the lack thereof) associated with these systems.

  13. ACCRETION OF ROCKY PLANETS BY HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, Jacob A.; Adams, Fred C.; Bloch, Anthony M.

    2011-11-01

    The observed population of Hot Jupiters displays a stunning variety of physical properties, including a wide range of densities and core sizes for a given planetary mass. Motivated by the observational sample, this Letter studies the accretion of rocky planets by Hot Jupiters, after the Jovian planets have finished their principal migration epoch and become parked in {approx}4 day orbits. In this scenario, rocky planets form later and then migrate inward due to torques from the remaining circumstellar disk, which also damps the orbital eccentricity. This mechanism thus represents one possible channel for increasing the core masses and metallicities of Hot Jupiters. This Letter determines probabilities for the possible end states for the rocky planet: collisions with the Jovian planets, accretion onto the star, ejection from the system, and long-term survival of both planets. These probabilities depend on the mass of the Jovian planet and its starting orbital eccentricity, as well as the eccentricity damping rate for the rocky planet. Since these systems are highly chaotic, a large ensemble (N {approx} 10{sup 3}) of simulations with effectively equivalent starting conditions is required. Planetary collisions are common when the eccentricity damping rate is sufficiently low, but are rare otherwise. For systems that experience planetary collisions, this work determines the distributions of impact velocities-both speeds and impact parameters-for the collisions. These velocity distributions help determine the consequences of the impacts, e.g., where energy and heavy elements are deposited within the giant planets.

  14. Detecting Planets Outside The Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, Steven H.; Terrile, Richard J.; Ftaclas, Christ; Gatewood, George

    1993-01-01

    Report describes proposed Astrometric Imaging Telescope, used to detect planets in orbit around distant stars. Includes executive summary and statement of scientific objectives of Astrometric Imaging Telescope program.

  15. Integrated software package STAMP for minor planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochetova, O. M.; Shor, Viktor A.

    1992-01-01

    The integrated software package STAMP allowed for rapid and exact reproduction of the tables of the year-book 'Ephemerides of Minor Planets.' Additionally, STAMP solved the typical problems connected with the use of the year-book. STAMP is described. The year-book 'Ephemerides of Minor Planets' (EMP) is a publication used in many astronomical institutions around the world. It contains all the necessary information on the orbits of the numbered minor planets. Also, the astronomical coordinates are provided for each planet during its suitable observation period.

  16. Searching for Planets Around other Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this colloquim presentation, Professor of Astronomy, Geoffrey Marcy discusses the discovery of planets orbiting other stars. Using the Doppler shift caused by stellar wobble that is caused by nearby planetary mass, astronomers have been able to infer the existence of Jupiter-sized planets around other stars. Using a special spectrometer at Lick Observatory, the wobble of several stars have been traced over the years required to generate an accurate pattern required to infer the stellar wobble. Professor Marcy, discusses the findings of planets around 47 Ursae Majoris, 16 Cygni B, 51 Pegasus, and 56 Rho 1 Cne. In the case of 56 Rho 1 Cne the planet appears to be close to the star, within 1.5 astronomical units. The observations from the smaller Lick Observatory will be augmented by new observations from the larger telescope at the Kek observatory. This move will allow observations of smaller planets, as opposed to the massive planets thus far discovered. The astronomers also hope to observe smaller stars with the Kek data. Future spaceborne observations will allow the discovery of even smaller planets. A spaceborne interferometer is in the planning stages, and an even larger observatory, called the Terrestrial Planet Finder, is hoped for. Professor Marcy shows artists' renderings of two of the planets thus far discovered. He also briefly discusses planetary formation and shows slides of both observations from the Orion Nebula and models of stellar system formation.

  17. Planets, debris and their host metallicity correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Mark; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations of debris discs, believed to be made up of remnant planetesimals, brought a number of surprises. Debris disc presence does not correlate with the host star's metallicity, and may anti-correlate with the presence of gas giant planets. These observations contradict both assumptions and predictions of the highly successful Core Accretion model of planet formation. Here we explore predictions of the alternative Tidal Downsizing (TD) scenario of planet formation. In TD, small planets and planetesimal debris is made only when gas fragments, predecessors of giant planets, are tidally disrupted. We show that these disruptions are rare in discs around high metallicity stars but release more debris per disruption than their low [M/H] analogs. This predicts no simple relation between debris disc presence and host star's [M/H], as observed. A detected gas giant planet implies in TD that its predecessor fragment was not disputed, potentially explaining why DDs are less likely to be found around stars with gas giants. Less massive planets should correlate with DD presence, and sub-Saturn planets (Mp ˜ 50 M⊕) should correlate with DD presence stronger than sub-Neptunes (Mp ≲ 15 M⊕). These predicted planet-DD correlations will be diluted and weakened in observations by planetary systems' long term evolution and multi-fragment effects neglected here. Finally, although presently difficult to observe, DDs around M dwarf stars should be more prevalent than around Solar type stars.

  18. The PRIMA Astrometric Planet Search project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Henning, Thomas; Queloz, Didier; Albrecht, Simon; Bakker, Eric J.; Baumeister, Harald; Bizenberger, Peter; Bleuler, Hannes; Dandliker, Rene; de Jong, Jeroen A.; Fleury, Michel; Frink, Sabine; Gillet, Denis; Jaffe, Walter J.; Hiddo Hanenburg, S.; Hekker, Saskia; Launhardt, Ralf; Le Poole, Rudolf S.; Maire, Charles; Mathar, Richard; Mullhaupt, Philippe; Murakawa, Koji; Pepe, Francesco; Pragt, Johan H.; Sache, Laurent; Scherler, Olivier; Segransan, Damien; Setiawan, Johny; Sosnowska, Danuta; Tubbs, Robert N.; Venema, Lars B.; Wagner, Karl; Weber, Luc; Wuethrich, Rolf

    2004-10-01

    The PRIMA facility will implement dual-star astrometry at the VLTI. We have formed a consortium that will build the PRIMA differential delay lines, develop an astrometric operation and calibration plan, and deliver astrometric data reduction software. This will enable astrometric planet surveys with a target precision of 10μas. Our scientific goals include determining orbital inclinations and masses for planets already known from radial-velocity surveys, searches for planets around stars that are not amenable to high-precision radial-velocity observations, and a search for large rocky planets around nearby low-mass stars.

  19. Observing Planet Formation in Young Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kuchner, M. J.; Debes, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Identification and observation of where and when gaps form in protoplanetary disks is vital for learning about the process of planet formation. We will present simulations of radiative transfer in gas-rich protoplanetary disks with embedded planets that predict and model observable signatures of planet formation. Depending on the mass of the planet, the perturbation may be a local dimple or an annular gap. We will demonstate that these features can already be detected in some nearby gas-rich disks. The appearance of disks with embedded planets varies with wavelength as it ranges from optical through infrared to radio because of optical depth effects. Shorter wavelengths reveal superficial surface features of disks, while longer wavelengths probe deeper in the disk. Confirmation of a planet-induced gap in a disk requires multi-wavelength observations. Imaging of the predicted features of planet formation in disks requires very high spatial resolution, and is currently most feasible in the optical and radio. However, data in the infrared is crucial for constraining the models. Deep gaps created by very massive planets may be detectable in SEDs. Confirmation of a planet-induced gap in a disk requires multi-wavelength observations.

  20. Comparing Planet Formation Signatures in two Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroo, Pieter

    2012-10-01

    Following the discovery of exoplanet systems with multiple transiting planets - unique laboratories for studying planet formation and evolution - we propose to characterize and compare the exoplanet atmospheric composition in the compact solar system analog Kepler-11. We propose WFC3/G141 transmission spectroscopy of three low-density super-Earth/Neptune planets in the six-planet system. The proposed grism spectroscopy targets the strong 1.4-micron water band and the distinct 1.6-micron methane features, thus probing the principal thermochemical reservoirs of oxygen and carbon for the planets we will observe. The carbon and oxygen abundance and their ratio are key diagnostics of planet formation and evolution, and the proposed observations will provide a unique observational constraint because comparing planets in the same exoplanet system removes the variables that influence inter-system comparative exoplanetology. Together with the only other multi-planet system observation {PI Desert}, the proposed observations aim at starting the process of observationally differentiating inter-system and intra-system parameters that influence the composition of individual planets. In so doing, we will improve our understanding of whether our own solar system is typical or exceptional.