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1

76 FR 63917 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12711-005] Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of...Applicant: Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project. f. Location...Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C....

2011-10-14

2

77 FR 1674 - Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12711-005] Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice...the Proposed Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project In accordance...reviewed Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC's application...the proposed Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project (FERC...

2012-01-11

3

76 FR 42122 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice Concluding Pre-Filing Process and Approving Process...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12711-003] Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice Concluding...Submitted By: Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project. f. Location...Sauer, Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC, 120...

2011-07-18

4

76 FR 59671 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12711-005] Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of...Applicant: Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project. f. Location...Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act 16 U.S.C....

2011-09-27

5

76 FR 18750 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Change in Docket Number  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12711-003] Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Change...24, 2009, Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) filed...for the proposed Eastport Tidal Energy Project, a proposal...held by ORPC, the Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project preliminary...

2011-04-05

6

77 FR 5791 - Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Staff Participation in Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 12711-005] Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Staff Participation...with representatives from Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC at the Federal Energy...January 4, 2012, for the Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project No. 12711. A...

2012-02-06

7

77 FR 5817 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, Tidal Energy Project, Cobscook Bay, ME  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2011-1162] Ocean Renewable Power Company, Tidal Energy Project, Cobscook...Background and Purpose ORPC's tidal energy project involves...risks involved with these tidal generators, it may be...turbine and auxiliary power cables could be...

2012-02-06

8

Maximum Power Point Tracking for Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many forms of renewable energy exist in the world's oceans, with ocean wave energy showing great potential. However, the ocean environment presents many challenges for cost-effective renewable energy conversion, including optimal control of a wave energy converter (WEC). This paper presents a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for control of a point absorber WEC. The algorithm and testing hardware

Ean A. Amon; Ted K. A. Brekken; Alphonse A. Schacher

2012-01-01

9

Ocean Engineering Power Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The text presents the basic thermodynamic principles and considerations necessary for the understanding of power systems in the ocean environment. These are illustrated by the development of specific application examples thereby presented the theory in a ...

A. D. Carmichael

1974-01-01

10

Power from Ocean Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

Newman, J. N.

1979-01-01

11

Power marketing and renewable energy  

SciTech Connect

Power marketing refers to wholesale and retail transactions of electric power made by companies other than public power entities and the regulated utilities that own the generation and distribution lines. The growth in power marketing has been a major development in the electric power industry during the last few years, and power marketers are expected to realize even more market opportunities as electric industry deregulation proceeds from wholesale competition to retail competition. This Topical Issues Brief examines the nature of the power marketing business and its relationship with renewable power. The information presented is based on interviews conducted with nine power marketing companies, which accounted for almost 54% of total power sales by power marketers in 1995. These interviews provided information on various viewpoints of power marketers, their experience with renewables, and their respective outlooks for including renewables in their resource portfolios. Some basic differences exist between wholesale and retail competition that should be recognized when discussing power marketing and renewable power. At the wholesale level, the majority of power marketers stress the commodity nature of electricity. The primary criteria for developing resource portfolios are the same as those of their wholesale customers: the cost and reliability of power supplies. At the retail level, electricity may be viewed as a product that includes value-added characteristics or services determined by customer preferences.

Fang, J.M.

1997-09-01

12

Renewable Ocean Energy Sources. Part II. Working Papers: Ocean Winds, Currents, Waves, Tides and Salinity Gradients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The six renewable ocean energy systems receiving Federal research support at present are: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), tides, ocean winds, waves, currents, and salinity gradients. This report provides detailed analyses and descriptions of five ...

1979-01-01

13

Oceans and electrical power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this paper focused on the potential energy that could be extracted from salinity an'd thermal differences in the oceans; possibilities of converting marine biomass into an energy source were likewise examined. Closest to implementation are apparently schemes to harness thermal differences and wave energy. Tidal power is already producing energy in France, U.S.S.R. and China. Of

Roger H. Charlier

1982-01-01

14

Power electronic devices for renewable power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, overhead lines, cables, transformers and circuit breakers represented the core components of electric power systems. However, in light of a considerable and still increasing share of renewable energy sources in grids, a change in electricity infrastructure can be observed. Over the last decades advances in power semiconductor devices have paved the way for innovative equipment such as

Rik W. De Doncker; Christian P. Dick; Florian Mura; Thomas Butschen

2010-01-01

15

Renewables for sustainable village power  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal.

Flowers, L.

1997-03-01

16

A novel maximum power point tracking algorithm for ocean wave energy devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many forms of renewable energy exist in the world's oceans, with ocean wave energy showing great potential. However, the ocean environment presents many challenges for cost-effective renewable energy conversion, including optimal control of a wave energy converter (WEC). This paper presents a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for control of a point absorber WEC. The algorithm and control

Ean A. Amon; Alphonse A. Schacher; Ted K. A. Brekken

2009-01-01

17

Renewable power sparks financial interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A legal and economic assessment is given of section 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Practices Act (PURPA) of 1978, which guarantees a market for small electrical power producers by requiring utilities to buy from them at premium rates and, in addition, exempts them from regulatory restrictions imposed on utilities. To qualify, small power producers are limited to a capacity of 80 MW at any one site, and they must use such renewable energy sources as wind, hydroelectric, biomass, solar, and waste products. There is no size limit for industrial cogeneration facilities, but those that burn oil or natural gas must meet efficiency standards to qualify. Section 210 has, however, been seriously challenged in the courts by utility companies viewing it as a Federal infringement of the right of States to regulate their utilities; a court ruling favorable to the utilities has already been given in Mississippi, and similar rulings are being sought in New York.

Norman, C.

1981-06-01

18

Renewable Energy. The Power to Choose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, consisting of 13 chapters, charts the progress made in renewable energy in recent years and outlines renewable energy's prospects. Areas addressed include: energy at the crossroads (discussing oil, gas, coal, nuclear power, and the conservation revolution); solar building design; solar collection; sunlight to electricity; wood; energy…

Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

19

Hybrid renewable energy systems for power generation in stand-alone applications: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has become imperative for the power and energy engineers to look out for the renewable energy sources such as sun, wind, geothermal, ocean and biomass as sustainable, cost-effective and environment friendly alternatives for conventional energy sources. However, the non-availability of these renewable energy resources all the time throughout the year has led to research in the area of hybrid

Prabodh Bajpai; Vaishalee Dash

2012-01-01

20

Renewable Energy for Sustainable Rural Village Power  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services worldwide. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel generator or partial electrification. For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program that involves hybrid systems, to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy technologies.1 The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. Hybrid systems are multi-disciplinary, multi-technology, multi-application programs composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel generator, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. Thirteen countries are actively engaged in hybrid systems for rural and remote applications and another dozen countries have requested assistance in exploring wind/PV hybrid systems within their territories. At present rural/remote site application of renewable technologies is the fastest growing aspect of renewable energy worldwide.

Touryan, J. O. V.; Touryan, K. J.

1999-08-05

21

Design of isolated renewable hybrid power systems  

SciTech Connect

Isolated electrical power generating units can be used as an economically viable alternative to electrify remote villages where grid extension is not feasible. One of the options for building isolated power systems is by hybridizing renewable power sources like wind, solar, micro-hydro, etc. along with appropriate energy storage. A method to optimally size and to evaluate the cost of energy produced by a renewable hybrid system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method, which is based on the design space approach, can be used to determine the conditions for which hybridization of the system is cost effective. The simple and novel methodology, proposed in this paper, is based on the principles of process integration. It finds the minimum battery capacity when the availability and ratings of various renewable resources as well as load demand are known. The battery sizing methodology is used to determine the sizing curve and thereby the feasible design space for the entire system. Chance constrained programming approach is used to account for the stochastic nature of the renewable energy resources and to arrive at the design space. The optimal system configuration in the entire design space is selected based on the lowest cost of energy, subject to a specified reliability criterion. The effects of variation of the specified system reliability and the coefficient of correlation between renewable sources on the design space, as well as the optimum configuration are also studied in this paper. The proposed method is demonstrated by designing an isolated power system for an Indian village utilizing wind-solar photovoltaic-battery system. (author)

Sreeraj, E.S.; Chatterjee, Kishore [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Santanu [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

2010-07-15

22

Renewable energy from the ocean - a guide to OTEC  

SciTech Connect

An enormous renewable energy resource exists in the tropical oceans. The authors of this book state that this resource could be exploited to produce a large fraction of the world's energy needs in the form of methanol or ammonia and that any associated deleterious environmental effects would be minimal. Careful analyses of potential problems, detailed designs of OTEC plant ships, and consideration of costs occupy most of the book. Part of it is devoted to some limited practical experience. With the knowledge set forth a 40-MWe seagoing pilot plant could be constructed. Cost would be about $200 million in 1990 dollars. Construction could be relatively rapid, since most of the components would be commercially available. The authors provide extensive evidence that with experience costs of OTEC would be substantially reduced and that ultimately production of methanol and ammonia by OTEC could be made cost-competitive.

Avery, W.H.; Wu, C.

1994-01-01

23

Renewable power needs smart storage solutions  

SciTech Connect

Ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus claimed that the only thing constant in life is change, a truth we must accept and even celebrate. Another truth we face today is a growing demand for more energy to help us power the kind and pace of change we’ve become accustomed to, while minimizing environmental consequences. Renewable energy--two words that often find themselves woven into environmentally conscious dialogue. And according to Dave Lucero, director of alternative energy storage at EaglePicher Technologies LLC, the Tri-Cities should be thinking about two more: energy storage. Lucero recently addressed the Tri-Cities Research District about tackling the persistent challenge of maximizing renewable energy, which is inherently variable due to changing weather patterns. Capturing that energy and making it available for later use is vital.

Madison, Alison L.

2010-10-24

24

Wind power distribution over the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probability distribution and power density of wind speed over global oceans are computed from eight years of QuikSCAT measurements. They describe the variation and higher moments of wind speed that are critical in relating the non-linear effects of wind on electric power generation capability, shipping hazard, and air-sea exchanges in heat, water, and greenhouse gases. The power density distribution confirms our general knowledge of atmospheric circulation related to mid-latitude storm tracks, trade winds, and monsoons. It also reveals regions of high wind power associated with flow distortion by land, wind channeled by land topography, and buoyancy effect on turbulent stress driven by ocean fronts.

Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing; Xie, Xiaosu

2008-07-01

25

Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.  

PubMed

Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump. PMID:17813707

Beck, E J

1975-07-25

26

Renewable power for China: Past, present, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly examines the history, status, policy situation, development issues, and prospects for key renewable power\\u000a technologies in China. The country has become a global leader in wind turbine and solar photovoltaic (PV) production, and\\u000a leads the world in total power capacity from renewable energy. Policy frameworks have matured and evolved since the landmark\\u000a 2005 Renewable Energy Law, updated

Eric Martinot

2010-01-01

27

Power electronics as efficient interface of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources

F. Blaabjerg; Z. Chen; S. B. Kjaer

2004-01-01

28

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Honolulu Laboratory Renewal Project, Honolulu, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

This brochure provides an overview of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Honolulu Laboratory Renewal Project, a project designed to adhere to the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system. Diagrams of the HVAC system and the rainwater collection system are included.

Not Available

2002-08-01

29

DSP based power electronics interface for alternative /renewable energy systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an update on the research project involving the implementation of a DSP-based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems, that was funded by the Department of Energy under the Inventions and Innovations program.

1999-01-01

30

A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

2009-01-01

31

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

None

2011-01-01

32

Colorado's Prospects for Interstate Commerce in Renewable Power  

SciTech Connect

Colorado has more renewable energy potential than it is ever likely to need for its own in-state electricity consumption. Such abundance may suggest an opportunity for the state to sell renewable power elsewhere, but Colorado faces considerable competition from other western states that may have better resources and easier access to key markets on the West Coast. This report examines factors that will be important to the development of interstate commerce for electricity generated from renewable resources. It examines market fundamentals in a regional context, and then looks at the implications for Colorado.

Hurlbut, D. J.

2009-12-01

33

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen  

ScienceCinema

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

None

2013-05-29

34

Chapter 12 Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many motivations for considering the use of renewable energy (RE) for powering water reuse or desalination systems. Although many RE technologies have been combined with water treatment technologies to provide a specific solution, the two dominant ones are photovoltaic- (PV) and wind-powered desalination systems. This chapter explores the possibilities and challenges for such technologies on a global scale.

Bryce S. Richards; Andrea I. Schäfer

2010-01-01

35

Ocean Renewable Energy Research at U. New Hampshire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of New Hampshire (UNH) is strategically positioned to develop and evaluate wave and tidal energy extraction technologies, with much of the required test site infrastructure in place already. Laboratory facilities (wave/tow tanks, flumes, water tunnels) are used to test concept validation models (scale 1:25--100) and design models (scale 1:10--30). The UNH Open Ocean Aquaculture (OOA) site located 1.6 km south of the Isles of Shoals (10 km off shore) and the General Sullivan Bridge testing facility in the Great Bay Estuary are used to test process models (scale 1:3--15) and prototype/demonstration models (scale 1:1-- 4) of wave energy and tidal energy extraction devices, respectively. Both test sites are easily accessible and in close proximity of UNH, with off-the-shelf availability. The Great Bay Estuary system is one of the most energetic tidally driven estuaries on the East Coast of the U.S. The current at the General Sullivan bridge test facility reliably exceeds four knots over part of the tidal cycle. The OOA site is a ten year old, well established offshore test facility, and is continually serviced by a dedicated research vessel and operations/diving crew. In addition to an overview of the physical resources, results of recent field testing of half- and full-scale hydrokinetic turbines, and an analysis of recent acoustic Doppler surveys of the tidal estuary will be presented.

Wosnik, M.; Baldwin, K.; White, C.; Carter, M.; Gress, D.; Swift, R.; Tsukrov, I.; Kraft, G.; Celikkol, B.

2008-11-01

36

Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) hardware, the bimode UPS, is discussed. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for DC-to-AC inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous AC power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The components of the renewable hybrid

Ward Bower; G. O'Sullivan

1990-01-01

37

Power fluctuation reduction methodology for the grid-connected renewable power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new methodology for eliminating the influence of the power fluctuations of the renewable power systems. The renewable energy, which is to be considered an uncertain and uncontrollable resource, can only provide irregular electrical power to the power grid. This irregularity creates fluctuations of the generated power from the renewable power systems. These fluctuations cause instability to the power system and influence the operation of conventional power plants. Overall, the power system is vulnerable to collapse if necessary actions are not taken to reduce the impact of these fluctuations. This methodology aims at reducing these fluctuations and makes the generated power capability for covering the power consumption. This requires a prediction tool for estimating the generated power in advance to provide the range and the time of occurrence of the fluctuations. Since most of the renewable energies are weather based, as a result a weather forecast technique will be used for predicting the generated power. The reduction of the fluctuation also requires stabilizing facilities to maintain the output power at a desired level. In this study, a wind farm and a photovoltaic array as renewable power systems and a pumped-storage and batteries as stabilizing facilities are used, since they are best suitable for compensating the fluctuations of these types of power suppliers. As an illustrative example, a model of wind and photovoltaic power systems with battery energy and pumped hydro storage facilities for power fluctuation reduction is included, and its power fluctuation reduction is verified through simulation.

Aula, Fadhil T.; Lee, Samuel C.

2013-04-01

38

Connecting renewable power sources into the system  

SciTech Connect

The many technical, legal, and economic issues that must be overcome before windmills, fuel cells, and photovoltaics can serve existing grids ae discusssed. Distributed storage and generation sources (DSGs) consist of energy converters to transform sun, wind, or chemical energy into electricity; a power conditioner to convert dc to ac; relays, breakers, and fuses for equipment protection and personnel safety; and appropriate load-metering equipment for billing customers. Aside from windmills and windfarms, there are few utility owned DSGs. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (1978) requires utilities to permit the connection to their power grids of private DSGs with capacities of up to 80 MW. In addition, the utilities must purchase the power from the DSG owned at ''just and reasonable rates'' and offer to supply backup power if the owner's facility malfunctions. Before connecting to a utility line, a DSG entrepreneur must meet certain specifications spelled out by the participating utility. Long-range power-distribution strategies will be needed to assess various automated distribution schemes that have been proposed, together with communication techniques to control and coordinate the small and large DSG within a highly complex power grid.

Wetzler, F.U.

1982-11-01

39

Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination  

SciTech Connect

An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

Thomas, K.E.

1997-04-01

40

Buying Renewable Electric Power in Montgomery County, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

From mid-August 2007 until mid-August 2008, my home electricity supply was 100% wind-generated. My experience in switching to wind-generated electric power may be of interest to fellow AGU members for three reasons. First, Montgomery County, Md., where I live, is one of the few jurisdictions in the United States that has both an electric power tax and a renewable energy

Richard P. Cember

2008-01-01

41

Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

Seo, H. R.; Kim, A. R.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.

2011-11-01

42

A multi-input power converter for hybrid renewable energy generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the dc power supply system to combine with the hybrid renewable energy sources. A multi-input power converter (MIPC) which operates in four types: an operation type wherein power is delivered to dc Bus from hybrid renewable energy sources; a single type wherein only one renewable energy source supplies power to the dc Bus; an inverter type wherein

Ting-Chia Ou; Whei-Min Lin; Cong-Hui Huang

2009-01-01

43

Rapid Sizing of Renewable Energy Power Components in Hybrid Power Plants for Reverse Osmosis Desalination Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cogeneration of water and electricity through the exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources is becoming an increasingly promising option, especially for arid and remote areas, where alternative energy supply is either unavailable or too costly to develop. This paper presents a new methodological approach for the preliminary design of a Renewable Energy (RE) power plant, primarily aimed at meeting the

A. Kartalidis; G. Arampatzis; D. Assimacopoulos

44

75 FR 76055 - Nebraska Public Power District Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...50-298; NRC-2008-0617] Nebraska Public Power District Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating...Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD), the operator of the Cooper Nuclear Station (CNS). Renewed facility operating...

2010-12-07

45

Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

Lyons, Chris

2012-03-01

46

Power conversion and control methods for renewable energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy due to the growing concern over the pollution caused by fossil-fuel-based energy. Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, can be used to enhance the safety, reliability, sustainability, and transmission efficiency of a power system. This dissertation focuses on the power conversion and control for two major renewable-energy sources: PV and fuel cell. Firstly, a current-based, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed for PV energy. An economical converter system using the above scheme for converting the output from PV panels into 60 Hz AC voltage is developed and built. Secondly, a novel circuit model for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack that is useful in the design and analysis of fuel-cell-based power systems is proposed. This Pspice-based model uses elements available in the Pspice library with some modifications to represent both the static and dynamic responses of a PEM fuel-cell module. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Thirdly, a DSP-controlled three-phase induction-motor drive using constant voltage over frequency is built and can be used in a fuel-cell automobile. A hydrogen sensor is used in the drive to both sound an alarm and shut down the inverter trigger pulses through the DSP. Finally, a hybrid power system consisting of PV panels and fuel cell is proposed and built. In the proposed system, PV panels can supply most of the power when the sunlight is available, and the excess power required by the load is supplied by a fuel cell. Load sharing between a fuel cell (FC) and the PV panel is investigated by both simulation and experiments.

Yu, Dachuan

47

Unlocking Electric Power in the Oceans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cruising or stationary ocean thermal plants could convert the vast heat energy of the ocean into electricity for islands and underdeveloped countries. This approach to energy conservation is described with suggestions for design and outputs of plants. A model project operating in Hawaii is noted. (DH)

Hurwood, David L.

1985-01-01

48

Influence of distributed generations and renewable energy resources power plant on power system transient stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzing influence of distributed generation (DG) on transient stability of power system network operating parallel with large renewable energy resources (RES) power plant. The study is performed in hypothetical power system network envision in the future which contains a large number of DG. Network behavior when subjected to disturbance is compared with different level of DG penetration. The

Mohd Zamri Che Wanik; István Erlich; Azah Mohamed; Azuki Abdul Salam

2010-01-01

49

Ocean wave energy based power plant for Sandwip, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the generated electric power is not enough for the demand of Bangladesh, ocean wave energy can provide a suitable low cost and permanent solution. A promising new technology in this field is a specific wave energy generator which has recently started operation in Europe. The device floats on the ocean water and extracts energy from the waves which causes

Farhaan Fowze; Sarah Amir; Kashfia Quader Khan; Rubiya Binte Mustafiz; Fahim Arefin Khandker

2012-01-01

50

Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

Bower, W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); O'Sullivan, G. (Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (USA))

1990-08-01

51

Assessment of Japan's Optimal Power Generation Mix Considering Massive Deployment of Variable Renewable Power Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes Japan's optimal power generation mix considering massive deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) system and wind power generation. The extensive introduction of PV system and wind power system are expected to play an important role in addressing energy security and climate change concern in Japan. Considering this expected large-scale deployment of PV system in electric power system, it is necessary to investigate the optimal power generation mix which is technologically capable of controlling and accommodating the intermittent output-power fluctuation inherently derived from PV and wind energy system. On these backgrounds, we develop optimal power generation mix model, explicitly analyzing the impact of output fluctuation in variable renewable in detailed resolution of time interval like 10 minutes at consecutive 365 days, with the role of stationary battery technology incorporated. Simulation results reveal that considerable deployment of those variable renewables do not necessarily require the scale of battery capacity similar as that of variable renewable capacity, due to quick load following treatment by thermal power plants, pumped-storage hydro power and battery technology over renewable output fluctuation.

Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

52

Hybrid Filter Applications for Power Quality Improvement of Power Distribution Networks Utilizing Renewable Energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid filter constructed of a shunt active filter and distributed passive filters used for power quality improvement in dispersed generation system is presented. The distribution system consists of several kinds of renewable energies as DG units where the power quality problems due to dispersed generation LV systems are introduced and the necessity of using hybrid filters instead of active

G. Ahrabian; F. Shahnia; Mehrdad Tarafdar Haque

2006-01-01

53

Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the research that was completed under project title â?? Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

Rodney Shane

2011-09-30

54

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many

P. R. Barnes; W. P. Dykas; B. J. Kirby; S. L. Purucker; J. S. Lawler

1995-01-01

55

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment

P. R. Barnes; J. W. Vandyke; F. M. Tesche; H. W. Zaininger

1994-01-01

56

Power System Study for Renewable Energy Interconnection in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The renewable energy (RE) sector has grown exponentially in Malaysia with the introduction of the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) by the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. Photovoltaic, biogas, biomass and mini hydro are among the renewable energy sources which offer a lucrative tariff to incite developers in taking the green technology route. In order to receive the FIT, a developer is required by the utility company to perform a power system analysis which will determine the technical feasibility of an RE interconnection to the utility company's existing grid system. There are a number of aspects which the analysis looks at, the most important being the load flow and fault levels in the network after the introduction of an RE source. The analysis is done by modelling the utility company's existing network and simulating the network with the interconnection of an RE source. The results are then compared to the values before an interconnection is made as well as ensuring the voltage rise or the increase in fault levels do not violate any pre-existing regulations set by the utility company. This paper will delve into the mechanics of performing a load flow analysis and examining the results obtained.

Askar, O. F.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.

2013-06-01

57

Tensile stiffness analysis on ocean dynamic power umbilical  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensile stiffness of ocean dynamic power umbilical is an important design parameter for functional implementation and structural safety. A column with radial stiffness which is wound by helical steel wires is constructed to predict the tensile stiffness value of umbilicals in the paper. The relationship between the tension and axial deformation is expressed analytically so the radial contraction of the column is achieved in the relationship by use of a simple finite element method. With an agreement between the theoretical prediction and the tension test results, the method is proved to be simple and efficient for the estimation of tensile stiffness of the ocean dynamic power umbilical.

Tang, Ming-gang; Yan, Jun; Wang, Ye; Yue, Qian-jin

2014-04-01

58

Buying Renewable Electric Power in Montgomery County, Maryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From mid-August 2007 until mid-August 2008, my home electricity supply was 100% wind-generated. My experience in switching to wind-generated electric power may be of interest to fellow AGU members for three reasons. First, Montgomery County, Md., where I live, is one of the few jurisdictions in the United States that has both an electric power tax and a renewable energy credit. The county is therefore a case study in price-based public policy for greenhouse gas emissions control. Second, I was surprised by the comparatively small price difference (or ``price premium'') between wind-generated and conventionally generated power in the county, and I believe that Eos readers will be similarly surprised. Third, because so many U.S. federal agencies concerned with Earth science are based in the Washington, D. C., area, a high concentration of AGU members live in Montgomery County and may be personally interested in evaluating the price of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the generation of their own residential electricity.

Cember, Richard P.

2008-08-01

59

Power Storage and Conversion from an Ocean Microbial Energy Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long term microbial energy is readily available in the ocean, both in sediment and the water column. Making this energy accessible in a useful way for modern electronics requires efficient power conversion and significant bulk energy storage. This paper describes methods based on both direct DC-DC conversion and bulk storage in capacitor banks before conversion

L. R. McBride; P. Girguis; C. E. Reimers

2006-01-01

60

The renewable energy applications for uninterruptible power supply based on compressed air energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to propose a modeling of the renewable energy applications for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) based on compressed air energy storage system (CAES). The system is composite technology, which composes of energy storage system and electric power supply system. The energy will transfer from the renewable energy resource to the CAES system drives the air

Varin Vongmanee

2009-01-01

61

Future Energy Systems: Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into the Smart Power Grid Through Industrial Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses about integrating renewable energy sources into the smart power grid through industrial electronics. This paper discusses photovoltaic power, wind energy conversion, hybrid energy systems, and tidal energy conversion.

Marco Liserre; Thilo Sauter; John Hung

2010-01-01

62

Advanced building blocks of power converters for renewable energy based distributed generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power converter is a critical component of a distributed generation (DG) system, particularly for a renewable energy based distributed generator. With the rapid development and growing applications of DG systems, power converters have evolved from a traditional \\

Riming Shao; Mary Kaye; Liuchen Chang

2011-01-01

63

Sensitivity of CO 2 Emissions to Renewable Energy Penetration for Regions Utilizing Power and Water Cogeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Use of renewable energy to produce electricity is generally viewed as a promising means to mitigate CO2 emission. However,\\u000a the substitution of a significant percentage of electricity generation from fossil fuel fired power plants with renewable\\u000a energy, such as photovoltaic, concentrated solar power plant, and wind power, might not be as effective in CO2 mitigation\\u000a in regions utilizing power and

P. Lin; A. Khalid; S. Kennedy; S. Sgouridis

64

A computer-based-on-line renewable annual electrical power energy and cost saving system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a mathematical computer model which is used to calculate the annual renewable electrical power energy use and estimate the annual cost savings due to power factor improvements in power systems application. A mathematical algorithm was developed in order to permit the premium improvement in power factor value. In turn, this power factor improvement leads to a reduction

Tarik R. H. Al-Khateeb

2007-01-01

65

Mechanical Extraction of Power From Ocean Currents and Tides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed scheme for generating electric power from rivers and from ocean currents, tides, and waves is intended to offer economic and environmental advantages over prior such schemes, some of which are at various stages of implementation, others of which have not yet advanced beyond the concept stage. This scheme would be less environmentally objectionable than are prior schemes that involve the use of dams to block rivers and tidal flows. This scheme would also not entail the high maintenance costs of other proposed schemes that call for submerged electric generators and cables, which would be subject to degradation by marine growth and corrosion. A basic power-generation system according to the scheme now proposed would not include any submerged electrical equipment. The submerged portion of the system would include an all-mechanical turbine/pump unit that would superficially resemble a large land-based wind turbine (see figure). The turbine axis would turn slowly as it captured energy from the local river flow, ocean current, tidal flow, or flow from an ocean-wave device. The turbine axis would drive a pump through a gearbox to generate an enclosed flow of water, hydraulic fluid, or other suitable fluid at a relatively high pressure [typically approx.500 psi (approx.3.4 MPa)]. The pressurized fluid could be piped to an onshore or offshore facility, above the ocean surface, where it would be used to drive a turbine that, in turn, would drive an electric generator. The fluid could be recirculated between the submerged unit and the power-generation facility in a closed flow system; alternatively, if the fluid were seawater, it could be taken in from the ocean at the submerged turbine/pump unit and discharged back into the ocean from the power-generation facility. Another alternative would be to use the pressurized flow to charge an elevated reservoir or other pumped-storage facility, from whence fluid could later be released to drive a turbine/generator unit at a time of high power demand. Multiple submerged turbine/pump units could be positioned across a channel to extract more power than could be extracted by a single unit. In that case, the pressurized flows in their output pipes would be combined, via check valves, into a wider pipe that would deliver the combined flow to a power-generating or pumped-storage facility.

Jones, Jack; Chao, Yi

2010-01-01

66

PTC, ITC, or Cash Grant. An Analysis of the Choice Facing Renewable Power Projects in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Renewable power technologies are inherently capital-intensive, often (but not always) with relatively high construction costs and low operating costs. For this reason, renewable power technologies are typically more sensitive to the availability and cost ...

K. Cory M. Bolinger R. Wiser T. James

2009-01-01

67

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant The Commission has...

2010-01-01

68

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant The Commission has...

2009-01-01

69

Voltage stability constrained risk-based TTC evaluation of a power system with large integration of renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A future power grid should allow all types of generation including renewable energy, e.g. wind power and photovoltaic (PV). Over recent years, it has been witnessed a fast-growing renewable energy development throughout the world. Japan also pushes toward the renewable energy development setting out a target of 6610 MW wind power and 53 GW PV by 2030. This large penetration

Nattawut Paensuwan; Akihiko Yokoyama; S. C. Verma; Nakachi Yoshiki

2010-01-01

70

Risk-based TTC calculation of a power system with renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the electric power utilities worldwide have been moving toward the utilization of renewable energy resources because of their sustainability, environmental friendliness, and as promising low-cost energies for the future electricity production. Although a number of appealing advantages are expected, a large penetration of generation from renewable energy resources may cause some undesirable impact on system security and reliability due

Nattawut Paensuwan; Akihiko Yokoyama

2009-01-01

71

Entropy production and buoyancy power input in the oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A controversial topic in oceanography for the past hundred years has been whether surface buoyancy fluxes can contribute significantly to the mechanical power input of energy in the oceans. On one side, a popular interpretation of Sandstrom's ``theorem'' holds that the buoyancy power input B must be negligible in the oceans, because buoyancy fluxes are approximately applied at the same pressure level. On the other side, observational estimates of B based on the available potential energy production rate G(APE) suggest that B is comparable with the mechanical power input due to the wind and tides. To a large extent, the controversy stems from the lack of agreement on how to define and quantify the power input due buoyancy forcing in stratified fluids. This is in contrast with the problem of estimating the power input due to the wind and tides, which is comparatively well understood. The purpose of this work will be to review the fundamental issues associated with the definition and estimation of B starting from first principles. The main result is that there appear to be several possible physically-meaningful approaches to defining and quantifying B in ways that only involve the surface buoyancy forcing. One of them is in terms of the APE production rate G(APE), as has been proposed before. An alternative measure involves the entropy production rate by surface buoyancy fluxes. The two measures appear very different, however. The physical origin for such differences will be discussed and clarified.

Tailleux, Remi

2010-05-01

72

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

73

Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants. Supplement 40. Regarding Kewaunee Power Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) has been prepared in response to an application submitted by Dominion Energy Kewaunee, Inc. (DEK) to renew the operating license for Kewaunee Power Station (KPS) for an additional 20 years. This SEIS...

2010-01-01

74

Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High Renewables Scenarios in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the analysis of concentrating solar power (CSP) in two studies -- The SunShot Vision Study and the Renewable Electricity Futures Study -- and the potential role of CSP in a future energy mix.

Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Brinkman, G.; Drury, E.; Mowers, M.; Turchi, C.

2012-10-01

75

78 FR 37325 - License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51...NRC-2008-0608] RIN 3150-AI42 License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact...Plans for Environmental Reviews AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION:...

2013-06-20

76

78 FR 37324 - Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Revision 1 to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.2, Supplement 1 (RG 4.2S1), ``Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance to applicants in the preparation of environmental reports that are submitted with the application for the renewal of a nuclear power plant......

2013-06-20

77

Control and stability of power inverters feeding renewable power to weak AC grids with no or low mechanical inertia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of power inverter installations feeding renewable energy to AC grids is worldwide increasing. The type of inverter used depends on the power level and on the AC system conditions at the terminal connection point. Line-commutated inverters need sufficient short circuit power. Self-commutated inverters can even operate without an existing grid. In both the cases the mechanical inertia decreases

W. Kuehn

2009-01-01

78

Direct Mechanical Conversion of Ocean Wave Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently wave energy conversion has attracted renewed interest from governments and developers looking for alternative carbon free energy resources. Ocean waves have been shown to contain large quantities of power. However, it has proven very difficult to capture even a fraction of this energy in real ocean conditions. This paper reviews the complex energy flows associated with ocean waves and

L. Le-Ngoc; A. I. Gardiner

79

Aging management of nuclear power plant containments for license renewal  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), now the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), submitted for NRC review, the industry reports (IRs), NUMARC Report 90-01 and NUMARC Report 90-10, addressing aging management issues associated with PWR containments and BWR containments for license renewal, respectively. In 1996, the Commission amended 10 CFR 50.55a to promulgate requirements for inservice inspection of containment structures. This rule amendment incorporates by reference the 1992 Edition with the 1992 Addenda of Subsections IWE and IWL of the ASME Code addressing the inservice inspection of metal containments/liners and concrete containments, respectively. The purpose of this report is to reconcile the technical information and agreements resulting from the NUMARC IR reviews which are generally described in NUREG-1557 and the inservice inspection requirements of subsections IWE and IWL as promulgated in {section}50.55a for license renewal consideration. This report concludes that Subsections IWE and IWL as endorsed in {section}50.55a are generally consistent with the technical agreements reached during the IR reviews. Specific exceptions are identified and additional evaluations and augmented inspections for renewal are recommended.

Liu, W.C.; Kuo, P.T.; Lee, S.S.

1997-09-01

80

Controller and Power Hardware-In-Loop Methods for Accelerating Renewable Energy Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the basic concepts behind controller hardware-in-the-loop (CHIL) and power hardware-in- the-loop (PHIL) experimental testing from a renewable energy system integration perspective. An entire power apparatus or sub-system such as a power electronics converter for a fuel cell system or a variable speed wind power generator system can be tested in a controlled laboratory environment such as the

M. Steurer; F. Bogdan; W. Ren; M. Sloderbeck; S. Woodruff

2007-01-01

81

Advanced superconducting power conditioning system with SMES for effective use of renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since it is an urgent issue to reduce the global Carbon-dioxide in the world, renewable energy should be supplied as a large amount of the electric power. However, if a large amount of fluctuating renewable energy becomes more than adjustable amount of a utility grid capacity, instabilities such as frequency deviation might occur. We propose a system that is composed of SMES and FC-H2-Electrolyzer and also installed adjacent to Liquid Hydrogen station to cool down the SMES. Since the SMES has potentials of quick response and large I/O power, and Fuel Cell has potentials of slow response and steady power supplied from a large amount of hydrogen, we combine both storage devices and apply them to suppress the fluctuating power. We convert the fluctuating power to the constant power by using a developed prediction technology of Kalman filter to predict a trend of the fluctuating power. While the trend power should be supplied by FC or absorbed by the electrolyzer to produce hydrogen, the power difference between the renewable power and the trend power should be stored by the SMES. We simulate the power balance and analyze the required SMES capacity, design the concept of the SMES, and propose an operation algorithm for the SMES to estimate the electric efficiency of the system. It is found that the electric efficiency of the ASPCS can become greater than that of a pumped hydro-machine.

Hamajima, T.; Tsuda, M.; Miyagi, D.; Amata, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Son, K.; Atomura, N.; Shintomi, T.; Makida, Y.; Takao, T.; Munakata, K.; Kajiwara, M.

82

Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors  

SciTech Connect

Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

2012-12-01

83

Integrating Renewable and Distributed resources - IIT Perfect Power Smart Grid Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the Perfect Power Smart Grid Prototype at Illinois Institute of Technology, while highlighting some of the multi-agent system applications. The Perfect Power Prototype is supported by the Department of Energy under the Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration Program, which focuses on effectively integrating distributed resources (including distributed generation

Alexander J. Flueck; Cuong P. Nguyen

2010-01-01

84

Economic Analysis of Using a Renewable Wind Power System at a Signalized Intersection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transportation sector consumes about 28% of the total energy expended by all sectors in the United States, according to the US Energy Information Administration. This paper proposes a renewable wind power system (RWPS) as an alternative power source for a signalized traffic intersection. The RWPS can be mounted on existing transportation infrastructure to provide green energy. Large-scale implementation of

Mo Zhao; Anuj Sharma; Dave G. Bernt; Joshua A. Meyer; Benjamin Dickey; Scott Rosenbaugh; Elizabeth Jones; Laurence Rilett

2012-01-01

85

Adaptations of renewable energy policies to unstable macroeconomic situations—Case study: Wind power in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the massive cost reduction in the last decade, wind power generation is generally still more expensive than conventional energy sources which benefit from the exclusion of externality costs in the price structure. Support policies for renewable energies guarantee the economic viability of this type of electrical power generation in many European countries. In Latin America, Brazil has become the

Johannes M. Kissel; Stefan C. W. Krauter

2006-01-01

86

A power analysis and data acquisition system for ocean wave energy device testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the testing of ocean wave energy devices, the demand for a portable and robust data acquisition and electrical loading system has become apparent. This paper investigates the development of a 30 kW inclusive system combining loading capabilities, real-time power analysis, and data acquisition for the testing of deployed ocean wave energy devices. Hardware results for ocean testing are included.

Ean Amon; Ted K. A. Brekken; Annette von Jouanne

2011-01-01

87

75 FR 64350 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the NextLight Renewable Power, LLC, Silver State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the NextLight Renewable Power, LLC, Silver State Solar Project Environmental...400-megawatt (MW) solar photovoltaic (PV) power plant and facilities...decommission of a 400-MW solar photovoltaic power plant on public...

2010-10-19

88

Forty candles for the Rance River TPP tides provide renewable and sustainable power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prices of oil and other fossil fuels have proven a powerful incentive for the alternative energy hunters. The alternatives include the various forms of ocean energy that, often considered uneconomical for electricity generation, have become attractive and competitive. Many sites throughout the world have been considered, at one time or another, suitable for implantation of a tidal power station, but

Roger H. Charlier

2007-01-01

89

Impact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional approach in electric power generation is to have centralized plants distributing electricity through an extensive transmission & distribution network. Distributed generation (DG) provides electric power at a site closer to the customer, eliminating the unnecessary transmission and distribution costs. In addition, it can reduce fossil fuel emissions, defer capital cost, reduce maintenance investments and improve the distribution feeder

Miroslav Begovic; Aleksandar Pregelj; Ajeet Rohatgi; Damir Novosel

2001-01-01

90

Renewable energy in the South Pacific—options and constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last fifteen years the small island nations in the South Pacific have seen the introduction of various forms of renewable energy technologies. In spite of high expectations from the development of indigenous renewable energy resources using nonconventional approaches (wind power, wave power, ocean thermal energy conversion, biogas digestors, biomass gasifiers), these technologies have largely failed to develop into

M Jafar

2000-01-01

91

A mobile renewable house using PV\\/wind\\/fuel cell hybrid power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic\\/wind\\/fuel cell hybrid power system for stand-alone applications is proposed and demonstrated with a mobile house. This concept shows that different renewable sources can be used simultaneously to power off-grid applications. The presented mobile house can produce sufficient power to cover the peak load. Photovoltaic and wind energy are used as primary sources and a fuel cell as backup

Mehmed Eroglu; Erkan Dursun; Suat Sevencan; Junseok Song; Suha Yazici; Osman Kilic

2011-01-01

92

Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

93

Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil and Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves...

G. Jahn J. Colvinl J. Goldman J. C. Farmer R. Haul

2010-01-01

94

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [6714 Norway Road, Dallas, TX (United States); Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

95

The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

Barnes, P.R.

1994-01-01

96

Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid  

SciTech Connect

A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

Zdeborova, Lenka [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

97

Switch: a planning tool for power systems with large shares of intermittent renewable energy.  

PubMed

Wind and solar power are highly variable, so it is it unclear how large a role they can play in future power systems. This work introduces a new open-source electricity planning model--Switch--that identifies the least-cost strategy for using renewable and conventional generators and transmission in a large power system over a multidecade period. Switch includes an unprecedented amount of spatial and temporal detail, making it possible to address a new type of question about the optimal design and operation of power systems with large amounts of renewable power. A case study of California for 2012-2027 finds that there is no maximum possible penetration of wind and solar power--these resources could potentially be used to reduce emissions 90% or more below 1990 levels without reducing reliability or severely raising the cost of electricity. This work also finds that policies that encourage customers to shift electricity demand to times when renewable power is most abundant (e.g., well-timed charging of electric vehicles) could make it possible to achieve radical emission reductions at moderate costs. PMID:22506835

Fripp, Matthias

2012-06-01

98

Seawater integrated desalination plant without brine discharge and powered by renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental effects are one of the main concerns of massive desalination facilities. To reach the objective of no brine discharge the salt from seawater must be completely separated and obtained as a secondary and valuable product. If no CO2 emission increase is desired, the power source must be a combination of renewable energy systems (RES). This paper presents an analysis

C. Fernández-López; A. Viedma; R. Herrero; A. S. Kaiser

2009-01-01

99

Potential of wind-powered renewable energy membrane systems for Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas of the world that lack fresh water often have an ample supply of wind or solar energy, making renewable energy an attractive option as a power source for desalination systems. Particularly, wind energy is attractive because of its relatively low cost, high efficiency, and recent technological advancements in this area of research. To open system applicability to a broader

G. L. Park; A. I. Schäfer; B. S. Richards

2009-01-01

100

A tool for the design of desalination plants powered by renewable energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified approach for the evaluation of alternative renewable-energy-powered desalination systems and their comparison on the basis of the economics of the associated investments is presented. The proposed method works out a preliminary plant design, evaluates the energy flows and calculates the water cost and the expected water selling price. The energy needs of the desalination processes and the energy

D. Voivontas; K. Misirlis; E. Manoli; G. Arampatzis; D. Assimacopoulos

2001-01-01

101

Optimization of Pumped Storage Capacity in an Isolated Power System With Large Renewable Penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes an economic analysis of the inclusion of pumped storage in a small island system that has abundant renewable energy available but that at times cannot accept all of this power because of limits imposed by security criteria. The question of whether or how much pumped storage to include is addressed by formulating a linear programming optimization problem.

Paul D. Brown; J. A. PeÇas Lopes; Manuel A. Matos

2008-01-01

102

Redesign electricity market for the next generation power system of renewable energy and distributed storage technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a stochastic time-series based method to simulate the volatility of intermittent renewable generation and distributed storage devices along timeline. The proposed method can calculate the optimal timeline for different electricity markets and power systems. In practice, the proposed method is potentially useful for designing market rules and evaluating different design options. Following works is underway on application

Donghan Feng; Zhao Xu; J. Řstergaard

2010-01-01

103

Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Ocean habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can find out about Deep Ocean or Open Ocean! Ocean Life is a great website that tells about different parts of the ocean and about animals that live there. Ugie! You can start your mission to find out about Killer Whales by going to Orca or Killer Whales. Jakhia! You can start your mission to find ...

Ryan, Ms.

2013-02-12

104

Suppression of short term disturbances from renewable resources by load frequency control considering different characteristics of power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new control method based on PID for load frequency control in power systems is proposed in order to suppress frequency deviations due to load and generating power fluctuations occurring by increased penetration of renewable resources such as photovoltaics or wind farms. The variation of renewable resources can be considered to be a kind of load fluctuations. For the appropriate

R. Oba; G. Shirai; R. Yokoyama; T. Niimura; G. Fujita

2009-01-01

105

Economic Factors and Incentives for Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean energy conversion systems have recently seen renewed interest, stimulated mostly by today's increasing energy discussions. In addition to ocean current energy converters, several commercial ocean wave energy projects have already been undertaken; however, no clear economic model exists for developers to follow. Therefore, this paper focuses on U.S. economic factors that affect the use of wave power for generation

Jennifer G. Vining; Annette Muetze

2009-01-01

106

Economic Factors and Incentives for Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean energy conversion systems have recently seen renewed interest, stimulated mostly by today's increasing energy discussions. In addition to ocean current energy converters, several commercial ocean wave energy projects have already been undertaken, but no clear economic model exists for developers to follow. Therefore, this paper focuses on U.S. economic factors that affect the use of wave power for generation

J. G. Vining; A. Muetze

2007-01-01

107

Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore,

J C Farmer; R Haut; G Jahn; J Goldman; J Colvin; A Karpinski; A Dobley; J Halfinger; S Nagley; K Wolf; A Shapiro; P Doucette; P Hansen; A Oke; D Compton; M Cobb; R Kopps; J Chitwood; W Spence; P Remacle; C Noel; J Vicic; R Dee

2010-01-01

108

An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.  

PubMed

Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

2012-01-01

109

A Power Analysis and Data Acquisition System for Ocean Wave Energy Device Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the testing of ocean wave energy devices, the demand for a portable and robust data acquisition and electrical loading system has become apparent. This paper investigates the development of an inclusive system combining loading capabilities, real-time power analysis, and data acquisition for the testing of deployed ocean wave energy devices.

E. Amon; T. K. A. Brekken; A. von Jouanne

2009-01-01

110

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience  

SciTech Connect

Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

2012-04-01

111

Power Generation Investment Planning in a Modern Power System With High Share of Renewables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is focused on investment planning in power generation industry, which becomes an important direction of research under the conditions of newly formed environment of electricity market. The authors emphasize the key role of effective instruments and methods for estimation of the costs and economic efficiency of a generating capacity and its adequacy in a modern power system. In the paper, cost-based concepts are analyzed which form a basis for decision-making and long-term planning of investments in the power generation sector for a power system with high share of renewable energy sources. M?sdien?s energoinfrastrukt?ras att?st?bas un t? vad?bas proces? ir j?pie?em un j?pilda vair?ki l?mumi par nepieciešamiem kapit?lieguld?jumiem, kas ir r?p?gi j?pl?no un j?pamato. Viedo t?klu tehnolo?iju ieviešana un energosist?mas drošuma uztur?šana, ?emot v?r? liberaliz?to elektroener?ijas tirgu, rada nepieciešam?bu p?c principi?li jaun?m pieej?m un metod?m kapit?lieguld?jumu nov?rt?šanas uzdevumu risin?šanai. P?t?jums velt?ts invest?ciju pl?nošanai elektroener?ijas ?ener?cijas iek?rtai elektroener?ijas tirgus apst?k?os, ?emot v?r? lielo atjaun?go energoresursu (AER) ?patsvaru. Modernu energosist?mu vad?ba prasa pietiekamu ?ener?cijas jaudas elast?gumu un to pareizo kombin?ciju. Lai to sasniegtu, vispirms ir nepieciešama daž?du ?ener?cijas tehnolo?ijas izmaksu nov?rt?šana, ko var veikt, izmantojot pien?c?go instrumentu. Tas ar? ir p?t?juma m?r?is, kura rezult?t? tika pied?v?ta elektrostaciju ekonomiskas dz?votsp?jas nov?rt?šanas koncepcija, balstoties uz elektroener?ijas ražošanas l?me?izmaks?m (ed costs), lai sal?dzin?tu daž?du elektroener?ijas ražošanas tehnolo?ijas izmaksas. Lai to sasniegtu tika veikti: - invest?ciju pl?nošana ?ener?cij?, metožu p?t?šana; - elektrostaciju darb?bas principu anal?ze elektroener?ijas tirg?; - elektrostaciju ?ener?cijas tehnolo?ijas izmaksu nov?rt?šana; - elektrostaciju ?ener?cijas ?stermi?a un ilgtermi?a izmaksu nov?rt?šana; - elektrostaciju ?ener?cijas invest?ciju un vad?bas izmaksu nov?rt?šana; - daž?du ?ener?cijas tehnolo?iju izmaksu skaitliskie apr??ini un anal?ze. ?paša uzman?ba velt?ta invest?ciju pl?nošanai elektroener?ijas ražošanas nozar? liberaliz?ta tirgus apst?k?os; tika izanaliz?ti efekt?vie instrumenti, izmaksu metodes un ekonomisk?s efektivit?tes nov?rt?šanas noz?me daž?da tipa ?ener?još?m jaud?m un t?s atbilst?ba m?sdienu elektroapg?des sist?mas pras?b?m

Oleinikova, I.; Ruksans, O.; Turcik, M.

2014-04-01

112

Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems - Operations and Transmission Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Volume 4 of the Renewable Electricity Futures Study: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures. The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures), is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply ca...

E. Ela G. Brinkman J. Hein M. Milligan P. Denholm T. Schneider

2012-01-01

113

Is there a space for additional renewable energy in the Norwegian power system? Potential for reduced global emission?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a Norwegian power system analysis. An energy system analysis model based on linear programming is used for modelling and optimisation. The analyses cover a number of scenarios where the studied system is subjected to changes by introducing other renewable energy sources, energy conservation measures and measures to promote renewable energy. The study shows that

Alemayehu Gebremedhin; Jarle De Oliveira Granheim

2012-01-01

114

Wave Power Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ocean wave power is worth investigating as a useable, renewable, alternative energy source. This summary suggests that both Salter cams and Cockerell rafts can be designed to convert wave motion to relative mechanical motion and mechanical forces. Mooring...

N. Doelling

1979-01-01

115

A Measurement and Power Line Communication System Design for Renewable Smart Grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data communication over the electric power lines can be managed easily and economically since the grid connections are already spread around all over the world. This paper investigates the applicability of Power Line Communication (PLC) in an energy generation system that is based on photovoltaic (PV) panels with the modeling study in Matlab/Simulink. The Simulink model covers the designed PV panels, boost converter with Perturb and Observe (P&O) control algorithm, full bridge inverter, and the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modem that is utilized to transfer the measured data over the power lines. This study proposes a novel method to use the electrical power lines not only for carrying the line voltage but also to transmit the measurements of the renewable energy generation plants. Hence, it is aimed at minimizing the additional monitoring costs such as SCADA, Ethernet-based or GSM based systems by using the proposed technique. Although this study is performed with solar power plants, the proposed model can be applied to other renewable generation systems. Consequently, the usage of the proposed technique instead of SCADA or Ethernet-based systems eliminates additional monitoring costs.

Kabalci, E.; Kabalci, Y.

2013-10-01

116

Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 1. Development and characterization of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.  

PubMed

In isolated communities where potable water sources as well as energy grids are limited or nonexistent, treating brackish groundwater aquifers with small-scale desalination systems can be a viable alternative to existing water infrastructures. Given the unavailability of power in many such situations, renewable energy is an obvious solution to power such systems. However, renewable energy is an intermittent power supply and with regards to the performance of intermittently operated desalination systems, only very limited experience exists, both with regards to efficiency as well as water quality. In this paper, this lack of knowledge is addressed by evaluating a system operated with varying parameters (pressure and flow) with constant power as a step toward defining a safe operating window, and they provide a basis for interpreting future data obtained with a renewable energy source. Field trials were performed on a brackish (5300 mg/L TDS; 8290 microS/cm) bore in Central Australia with a photovoltaic-powered membrane filtration (PV-membrane) system. Four nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes (BW30, ESPA4, NF90, TFC-S) and a number of operation parameter combinations (transmembrane pressure, feed flow, TFC-S) and operating parameters transmembrane pressure and feed flow were investigated to find the best operating conditions for maximum drinking water production and minimum specific energy consumption (SEC). The ESPA4 membrane performed best for this brackish source, producing 250 L/h of excellent drinking water (257 mg/L TDS; 400 microS/ cm) at an SEC of 1.2 kWh/m3. The issue of brine disposal or reuse is also discussed and the article compares the salinity of the produced brine with livestock water. Since the feedwater is disinfected physically using ultrafiltration (UF), the brine is free from bacteria and most viruses and hence can be seen more as a reusable product stream than a waste stream with a disposal problem. PMID:17328215

Schäfer, A I; Broeckmann, A; Richards, B S

2007-02-01

117

Analysis of an Agent-based Electricity Market Model with Renewable Energy Power Plants by Wind and Solar Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, electricity markets were organized in many developed countries in the deregulation process of electric power industries. There have been many studies on electricity markets from the viewpoints of economics, mathematics, computer science, etc. Especially, agent-based models of electricity markets have been extensively studied. Meanwhile, many countries promote use of renewable energy for electricity generation. In this paper, we construct and analyze an agent-based model of electricity markets in which wind and photovoltaic power generation firms are introduced. Our results suggest that wind power generation needs to be improved in efficiency to survive in the market, and that bid prices of photovoltaic power generation are rather affected by change of the insolation amount than by change of the total demand.

Iwagami, Akio; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

118

The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The following utility- and site-specific conditions that may affect the economic viability of distributed renewable energy sources were considered: distribution system characteristics, and design standards, and voltage levels; load density, reliability, and power quality; solar insolation and wind resource levels; utility generation characteristics and load profiles; and investor-owned and publicly owned utilities, size, and financial assumptions.

Zaininger, H.W.

1994-01-01

119

Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While daily and seasonal patterns in general stay similar, the total feed-in can vary by more than 25 % from year to year for certain resources in a region. It is shown that the overall annual resource of wind and PV power for entire Europe is considerably less variable. The seasonal correlation of wind and PV will be presented and the consequence on reduced storage needs.

Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

2014-05-01

120

Of paradise and clean power: The effect of California's renewable portfolio standard on in-state renewable energy generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable portfolio standards (RPS), policies that encourage acquisition of electricity from renewable energy sources, have become popular instruments for discouraging the use of climate change inducing-fossil fuels. There has been limited research, however, that empirically evaluates their effectiveness. Using data gathered by three governmental entities -- the federal-level Energy Information Administration and two California agencies, the Employment Development Department and the Department of Finance -- this paper investigates the impact of California's RPS, one of the nation's most ambitious such policies, on in-state renewable energy generation. It finds that the California RPS did not bring about a one-time increase in generation with its inception, nor did it compel an increase in generation over time. These results raise questions as to the best way to structure RPS policies in light of growing interest in the establishment of a national RPS.

Yin, Clifton Lee

121

Renewable energy power in U. S. electric utility applications past progress, current status, future prospects  

SciTech Connect

During the past ten years, over two billion dollars of public and private funds have been applied toward the development of new renewable power sources. The efforts conducted over this period have led to several primary results: Lofty dreams of large energy contributions by year 2000 have been replaced by realistic projections and the realization that successful development of new power technologies takes a number of years. We have also come to realize that a contribution of one or two percent of U.S. energy needs by year 2000 from a new technology would represent a truly significant achievement, would imply productive capital investments of tens of billions of dollars, and would signal the emergence of a very healthy power option whose ultimate role would be influenced primarily by normal market forces.

De Meo, E.A.

1985-02-01

122

Implications of the North Atlantic Oscillation for a UK-Norway Renewable Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind power capacity in the UK is increasing, and new transmission links are proposed with Norway where electricity is primarily produced through hydroelectric generation. The impact of climate variability on such an interconnected power system incorporating different renewable sources therefore merits investigation. This study examines the effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant large-scale pattern of atmospheric variability affecting northern Europe, on an integrated UK-Norway power system with growing reliance on wind power. Wind and temperature data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (1948-2010) are used to model demand and wind power using simple models. 'Demand net wind' (DNW) is estimated for positive, neutral, and negative NAO, focusing on March when Norwegian hydropower reserves approach their minimum and the combined system might be most susceptible to meteorological variations. It is found that the cold and still conditions associated with the NAO negative state (compared to NAO positive or neutral) result in greater demand and decreased wind production. The resulting increase in DNW in NAO negative relative to NAO neutral, under a 2020 power system scenario, would be equivalent to an approximately 25% increase in the present-day rate of Norwegian hydropower usage during March. This represents a marked increase in the magnitude of the power system's sensitivity to NAO variability.

Ely, Caroline; Brayshaw, David; Methven, John; Cox, James; Pearce, Oliver

2014-05-01

123

Economic and technological aspects of the market introduction of renewable power technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy, if developed and delivered with appropriate technologies, is cleaner, more evenly distributed, and safer than conventional energy systems. Many countries and several states in the United States promote the development and introduction of technologies for "green" electricity production. This dissertation investigates economic and technological aspects of this process for wind energy. In liberalized electricity markets, policy makers use economic incentives to encourage the adoption of renewables. Choosing from a large range of possible policies and instruments is a multi-criteria decision process. This dissertation evaluates the criteria used and the trade-offs among the criteria, and develops a hierarchical flow scheme that policy makers can use to choose the most appropriate policy for a given situation. Economic incentives and market transformation programs seek to reduce costs through mass deployment in order to make renewable technologies competitive. Cost reduction is measured in "experience curves" that posit negative exponential relationships between cumulative deployment and production cost. This analysis reveals the weaknesses in conventional experience curve analyses for wind turbines, and concludes that the concept is limited by data availability, a weak conceptual foundation, and inappropriate statistical estimation. A revised model specifies a more complete set of economic and technological forces that determine the cost of wind power. Econometric results indicate that experience and upscaling of turbine sizes accounted for the observed cost reduction in wind turbines in the United States, Denmark and Germany between 1983 and 2001. These trends are likely to continue. In addition, future cost reductions will result from economies of scale in production. Observed differences in the performance of theoretically equivalent policy instruments could arise from economic uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, a methodology for the quantitative comparison of economic incentive schemes and their effect on uncertainty and investor behavior in renewable power markets is developed using option value theory of investment. Critical investment thresholds compared with actual benefit-cost ratios for several case studies in Germany indicate that uncertainty in prices for wind power and green certificates would delay investment. In Germany, the fixed-tariff system effectively removes this barrier.

Worlen, Christine M.

124

A Review of Hybrid Renewable\\/Alternative Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation: Configurations, Control, and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, prepared by a special task force of the IEEE PES Renewable Technologies Subcommittee, is a review of hybrid renewable\\/alternative energy (RE\\/AE) power generation systems focusing on energy sustainability. It highlights some important issues and challenges in the design and energy manage- ment of hybrid RE\\/AE systems. System configurations, generation unit sizing, storage needs, and energy management and control

M. H. Nehrir; C. Wang; K. Strunz; H. Aki; R. Ramakumar; J. Bing; Z. Miao; Z. Salameh

2011-01-01

125

An analysis for increasing the penetration of renewable energies by optimal sizing of pumped-storage power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great amount of the energy generated by renewable energy-based generation units, e.g. wind farms, is often rejected because of network restrictions. Moreover, most of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, are uncertain and uncontrollable. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the rejected energy can be applied to pumped storage power plants and reutilized via hydro-turbines when needed.

M. Khatibi; M. Jazaeri

2008-01-01

126

Tapping ocean wave energy for powering gas turbine plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new device invented by M. Tornabene of the Amanda Machinery Co. converts random wave action into mechanical or electrical power. In combination with gas turbine\\/generators, it makes for an extremely efficient peaking plant and, with provision for energy storage during off-hours (possibly through water electrolysis for hydrogen production), for a baseload power plant. The device offers low cost, long

LaStella

1975-01-01

127

Grid power integration technologies for offshore ocean wave energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the advanced electric technologies for grid power integration of different offshore wave energy conversion devices are presented. The electrical connection configurations for integrating the electric power of the multi wave energy conversion devices such as the Oscillating Water Column, Pelamis, the Wave Point Absorbers and the Wave Dragon are developed by employing the most efficient low cost

Tarek Ahmed; Katsumi Nishida; Mutsuo Nakaoka

2010-01-01

128

Modeling a drip irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food production is a problem in many of the regions in the world. Today, the process of producing food is very dependent on energy. The dependency on fossil fuels causes the cost of producing crops to increase as the prices of fuel increases. Using a renewable energy sources to power an irrigation system is a mean of decreasing the dependency of food products on the prices of fuel and minimize the impact of the irrigation system on the environment. A model was developed to simulate and predict the performance of an irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source. Both solar energy and wind energy were considered for the modeling of the system. The solar energy was simulated using the difference between the maximum and the minimum daily temperatures as an indicator of the amount of clouds in the atmosphere. The model is a modification of earlier models and has the advantage of not needing to be calibrated for each new site. Results showed that a model that calibrates it self for the upper and the lower expected values of the solar radiation can be developed using metrological data such as the location of the site, the daily temperatures, and the minimum relative humidity. The wind energy was predicted using the power coefficient of the turbine and statistical representation of the daily wind speeds. The average hourly values of the wind speed were used for finding the distribution constants for the Weibull distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The results showed that the Weibull distribution is more accurate in predicting the expected power output of the turbine when the daily wind speed coefficient of variation (Cv) was less than 0.5. When the Cv is greater than 0.5 the Rayleigh distribution gives better results. A computer model was developed using Visual Basic to model the system and the resulting model was tested and used in comparing the economics of a traditional irrigation system and an irrigation system powered by solar panels. The system powered by the solar panel had a greater total annual cost than the traditional system but the sensitivity analysis performed showed that if the trends in energy prices continue and the prices of the solar panels continue to decrease, the cost for operating the traditional systems will be close to the cost of operating the systems powered by the solar panels in less than a 10 years.

Al-Zoheiry, Ahmed M.

129

The Energy Harvesting Eel: a small subsurface ocean\\/river power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy Harvesting Eel (Eel) is a new device that uses piezoelectric polymers to convert the mechanical flow energy, available in oceans and rivers, to electrical power. Eel generators make use of the regular trail of traveling vortices behind a bluff body to strain the piezoelectric elements; the resulting undulating motion resembles that of a natural eel swimming. Internal batteries

George W. Taylor; Joseph R. Burns; Sean M. Kammann; William B. Powers; Thomas R. Welsh

2001-01-01

130

Resilient system design for Prognosis and Health Monitoring of an ocean power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a new methodology that integrates system resilience engineering and hazard analysis into complex system design. We then demonstrate its performance by applying it to the design of a Prognosis and Health Monitoring (PHM) system for an ocean current power generator. Three common methodologies for system hazard analysis were tested by applying them to the PHM

Anthony Marcus; Ionut Cardei; Timur Tavtilov; Gabriel Alsenas

2012-01-01

131

75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ER10-409-000, ER10-410-000] Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC...notice that, on February 1, 2010, Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership, Covanta Energy Marketing...

2010-02-09

132

PTC, ITC, or Cash Grant? An Analysis of the Choice Facing Renewable Power Projects in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Renewable power technologies are inherently capital-intensive, often (but not always) with relatively high construction costs and low operating costs. For this reason, renewable power technologies are typically more sensitive to the availability and cost of financing than are natural gas power plants, for example. In the United States, the bulk of renewable project finance in recent years has been provided by 'tax equity investors' (typically large investment banks and insurance companies) who partner with project developers through highly specialized financing structures (Bolinger, 2009; Cory et al., 2008; Harper et al., 2007). These structures have been designed primarily to capitalize on federal support for renewable power technologies, which has historically come in the form of tax credits and accelerated depreciation deductions. The number of tax equity investors active in the renewable power market has declined precipitously, however, as a result of the financial crisis that began unfolding across the globe in the summer of 2008. The resulting shortage and increased cost of project financing has, in turn, slowed the development of new renewable power projects, leading to layoffs throughout the entire industry supply chain. In recognition of the fact that tax-based policy incentives are not particularly effective when tax burdens are shrinking or non-existent, Congress included several provisions in 'The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009' (ARRA 2009) designed to make federal incentives for renewable power technologies more useful. Among these provisions is one that allows projects eligible to receive the production tax credit ('the PTC', see Text Box 1) to instead elect the investment tax credit ('the ITC', see Text Box 2). Another provision enables ITC-eligible projects (which now include most PTC-eligible renewable power projects) to instead receive--for a limited time only--a cash grant of equivalent value. These two provisions (among others) could have a significant impact on how renewable power projects are financed over the next few years. The purpose of this report is to both quantitatively and qualitatively analyze, from the project developer/owner perspective, the choice between the PTC and the ITC (or equivalent cash grant) for a number of different renewable power technologies.1 Because the two credits are structured differently, and apply in different ways to different technologies, the choice between the two lends itself to quantitative financial analysis of the conditions under which either the PTC or the ITC would, at least in theory, provide greater financial value. Qualitative considerations may be equally important, however, particularly in instances where quantitative differences are modest. This report proceeds as follows. Section 2 provides a brief summary of ARRA 2009, with some emphasis on those provisions designed to ease the liquidity crisis facing the renewable power sector. Section 3 describes the quantitative analysis methodology, as well as modeling results for wind, open-loop biomass, closed-loop biomass, geothermal, and landfill gas projects. Section 4 discusses a number of qualitative considerations that may play as important of a role as quantitative results in deciding between the PTC and the ITC (or equivalent cash grant). Section 5 concludes, and an Appendix provides supplemental tables that present quantitative analysis results conducted at different discount rates.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Cory, Karlynn; James, Ted

2009-03-11

133

Optimization of power plant investments under uncertain renewable energy development paths - A multistage stochastic programming approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) is supposed to increase signi ficantly within the coming decades. However, uncertainty about the progress of necessary infrastructure investments, public acceptance and cost developments of renewable energies renders the achievement of political plans uncertain. Implementation risks of renewable energy targets are challenging for investment planning, because different RES-E shares fundamentally change the optimal

Michaela Fürsch; Stephan Nagl; Dietmar Lindenberger

2012-01-01

134

Study on 10 kVDC powered junction box for a cabled ocean observatory system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cabled ocean observatory system that can provide abundant power and broad bandwidth communication for undersea instruments is developed. A 10 kV direct current (kVDC) with up to 10 kW power, along with 1 Gigabit/sec Ethernet communication, can be transmitted from the shore to the seafloor through an umbilical armored cable. A subsea junction box is fixed at a cable terminal, enabling the extension of up to nine connections. The box consists of three main pressure vessels that perform power conversion, power distribution, and real-time communication functions. A method of stacking modules is used to design the power conversion system in order to reduce the 10 kV voltage to levels that can power the attached instruments. A power distribution system and an Ethernet communication system are introduced to control the power supply and transmit data or commands between the terminals and the shore station, respectively. Specific validations of all sections were qualified in a laboratory environment prior to the sea trial. The ocean observatory system was then deployed at the coast of the East China Sea along with three in situ instruments for a 14-day test. The results show that this high voltage-powered observatory system is effective for subsea long-term and real-time observations.

Chen, Yan-hu; Yang, Can-jun; Li, De-jun; Jin, Bo; Chen, Ying

2013-04-01

135

Conservation and renewable energy technologies for utilities  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents current efforts by the US DOE Office of Utility Technologies to promote and develop cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficient technologies in the Utility sector. Major projects in the areas of solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, hydroelectric power, ocean power, and biomass are presented. The importance of efficient energy management in the transmission and distribution of electricity and through energy storage is discussed. (GHH)

Not Available

1992-04-01

136

Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of marine biota should reflect the history of 137Cs activity in this early period. The comparisons between simulated 137Cs activity of marine biota by a dynamic biological compartment and observed data also suggest that simulated 137Cs activity attributable to atmospheric deposition was underestimated in this early period. In addition, river runoff model simulations suggest that the river flux of 137Cs to the ocean was effective to the 137Cs activity in the ocean in this early period. The sediment transport model simulations suggests that the inventory of 137Cs in sediment was less than 10

Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

2014-05-01

137

License renewal and power upgrade of the Cornell University TRIGA reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Cornell Mark II TRIGA reactor has been a principal facility for instruction and research in nuclear science and engineering at Cornell, and it has been extensively used by other departments at Cornell and by nearby universities and industries. Initially the fuel was low hydride, 8.5w/o 19%-enriched, aluminum clad; in 1974 it was changed to high-hydride, stainless-steel-clad. The maximum power has been 100 kW, with pulses to $2, and operation has been on a one-shift demand basis. Annual energy generation of 50 MWH has been typical. Standard features include a 4-inch tangential port and our 6-inch radial ports, a thermal column with hohlraum and vertical access, a central thimble, a 'rabbit', and a set of dry irradiation tubes, replacing the 'Lazy Susan'. The license was renewed and amended in November 1983; the new limits are 500 kW and $3 pulses. Physical changes to the facility included addition of a water-to-water heat exchanger and of a diffuser at the water outlet {approx} 60 cm above the core. The flow rate is 300 liters per minute in the primary (reactor) side of the heat exchanger. The temperature of the chilled water entering the secondary of the exchanger is {approx} 12?C; its flow rate is adjusted by a servo-controlled by-pass valve to maintain the desired range of pool water temperature. Steps taken to go to higher power included rearrangement of fuel elements to increase excess reactivity, recalibration of control rods, and power vs ion chamber current calibrations at successively higher power by comparing the rate of rise of pool temperature with a known rate using electrical heating elements. Steady-state operation has been done up to 480 kW (nominal) but pulsing at the newly allowed higher levels has not been tested as yet.

Aderhold, Howard C. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Ward Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

1984-07-01

138

Rankings, Diversity and the Power of Renewal in Science. a Comparison between Germany, the UK and the US  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rankings are part and parcel of the neoliberal agenda in science aiming at increasing the competitive allocation of funds among universities. This article focuses on the decreasing power of renewal in science as a result of this agenda particularly because of its increasingly consolidated stratification of the academic system into élite and mass…

Münch, Richard; Schäfer, Len Ole

2014-01-01

139

An overview of renewable energy technologies with a view to stand alone power generation and water provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief overview is provided of renewable energy technologies suited to stand alone power generation; in practice this means wind turbines and photovoltaics (PV) as these can be used in diverse locations, and to a lesser extent micro-hydro which is more site specific and bio-energy although this last one may not be effective at the smaller scales mostly involved. The

D. G. Infield

2009-01-01

140

Design and analysis of a novel zero-voltage-transition interleaved boost converter for renewable power applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-efficiency stepping up operation is an important feature of the converters used in renewable power applications due to the low voltage level of photo-voltaic arrays and fuel cells. Decreasing the switching losses of the converters is an effective solution for increasing the converter efficiency, especially in high-power applications. This article presents a novel zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) interleaved dc–dc boost converter that

Ires Iskender; Naci Genc

2010-01-01

141

Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control. Part II, analysis.  

SciTech Connect

The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. The first step is to analyze the system as a conservative natural Hamiltonian system with no externally applied non-conservative forces. The Hamiltonian surface of the swing equations is related to the Equal-Area Criterion and the PEBS method to formulate the nonlinear transient stability problem. This formulation demonstrates the effectiveness of proportional feedback control to expand the stability region. The second step is to analyze the system as natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. The time derivative of the Hamiltonian produces the work/rate (power flow) equation which is used to ensure balanced power flows from the renewable generators to the loads. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generators system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate, and entropy rate. This paper will present the analysis and numerical simulation results for two nonlinear control design examples that include: (1) the One-Machine Infinite Bus (OMIB) system with a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and (2) the swing equation for a wind turbine connected to an infinite bus through a UPFC to determine the required performance of the UPFC to enable the maximum power output of a wind turbine subject to stochastic inputs while meeting the power system constraints on frequency and phase. The energy storage requirements will also be identified from the UPFC and/or FACTS devices while working in combination with the wind turbine.

Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

2010-11-01

142

Oceans of Energy⨠ 

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on the importance of ocean exploration as a way to learn how to capture, control, and distribute renewable ocean energy resources. Students begin by identifying ways the ocean can generate energy and then research one ocean energy source using the Internet. Finally, students build a Micro-Hydro Electric Generator.

Explorer, Noaa O.

143

Seawater reverse osmosis powered from renewable energy sources - hybrid wind\\/photovoltaic\\/grid power supply for small-scale desalination in Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

GECOL and a consulting consortium of experts from ZSW, German Wind Energy Institute (DEWI) and Lahmeyer International (LI) are preparing the installation of an experimental plant for seawater reverse osmosis desalination powered from renewable energy sources (SWRO+RES) at Libya's coast of the Mediterranean sea. The nominal production of the plant will be 300 m3\\/d for the supply of a village

Sultan A. Kershman; Jürgen Rheinländer; Hansjörg Gabler

2003-01-01

144

The energy of the ocean thermal resource and the second-law efficiency of idealized ocean thermal energy conversion power cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formula is developed to compute the maximum amount of work which can be extracted from a given combined mass of warm and cold ocean water (a quantity called the energy of the ocean thermal resources). Second it compares the second-law efficiencies of various proposed ocean thermal energy conversion power cycles to determine which best utilizes the energy of the ocean thermal resource. The second-law efficiencies of the multicomponent working fluid cycle, the Beck cycle, and the open and closed single- and multiple-stage Rankine cycles are compared. These types of OTEC power plants are analyzed in a consistent manner which assumes that all deviations from a plant making use of all the energy (one with a second-law efficiency of 100%) occurs because of irreversible transfer of heat across a finite temperature difference. Conversion of thermal energy to other forms is assumed to occur reversibly. The comparison of second-law efficiencies of various OTEC power cycles shows that the multistage Rankine open cycle with just three stages has the potential of best using the energy of the ocean thermal resource.

Johnson, D. H.

1982-09-01

145

Opportunities and challenges to power electronics industry in alternative and renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy and alternative energy have been gaining momentum in the past decade. Even under current distressed economic situation, they are considered to be instrumental to the future economy in many countries. Public is also embracing various clean energy and high efficiency technologies with unprecedented enthusiasm. Billions of dollars are invested on renewable energy, high efficiency technologies, EVs and HEVs.

Qing Chen

2009-01-01

146

The Key to Unlocking the Power of Small Scale Renewable Energy: Local Land Use Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myriad federal and state programs have been promoted to incentivize the research and development of renewable energy as a means of achieving sustainability and producing more affordable alternative energy systems, and these programs could potentially have a profound impact on the way that electricity is produced and consumed in the United States. Small-scale renewable energy generation from sources such as

Patricia E. Salkin

2012-01-01

147

Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

2008-01-01

148

2008 Renewable Energy Data Book  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Not Available

2009-07-01

149

Distribution of oceanic 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant simulated numerically by a regional ocean model.  

PubMed

Radioactive materials were released to the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant as a result of the reactor accident after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011. The measured (137)Cs concentration in a seawater sample near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant site reached 68 kBq L(-1) (6.8 × 10(4)Bq L(-1)) on 6 April. The two major likely pathways from the accident site to the ocean existed: direct release of high radioactive liquid wastes to the ocean and the deposition of airborne radioactivity to the ocean surface. By analysis of the (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio, we determined that direct release from the site contributed more to the measured (137)Cs concentration than atmospheric deposition did. We then used a regional ocean model to simulate the (137)Cs concentrations resulting from the direct release to the ocean off Fukushima and found that from March 26 to the end of May the total amount of (137)Cs directly released was 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq ((3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(15)Bq). The simulated temporal change in (137)Cs concentrations near the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant site agreed well with observations. Our simulation results showed that (1) the released (137)Cs advected southward along the coast during the simulation period; (2) the eastward-flowing Kuroshio and its extension transported (137)C during May 2011; and (3) (137)Cs concentrations decreased to less than 10 BqL(-1) by the end of May 2011 in the whole simulation domain as a result of oceanic advection and diffusion. We compared the total amount and concentration of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors to the ocean with the (137)Cs released to the ocean by global fallout. Even though the measured (137)Cs concentration from the Fukushima accident was the highest recorded, the total released amount of (137)Cs was not very large. Therefore, the effect of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors on concentration in the whole North Pacific was smaller than that of past release events such as global fallout, and the amount of (137)Cs expected to reach other oceanic basins is negligible comparing with the past radioactive input. PMID:22071362

Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

2012-09-01

150

Renewable Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

Boyle, Godfrey

2004-05-01

151

Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Interim Report 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electricity consumption in the Southeastern US, not including Florida, is approximately 24% of the total US. The availability of renewable resources for electricity production is relatively small compared to the high consumption. Therefore meeting a natio...

S. W. Hadley T. Key

2009-01-01

152

Data gateway for prognostic health monitoring of ocean-based power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On August 5, 2010 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has designated the Center for Ocean Energy Technology (COET) at Florida Atlantic University (FAU) as a national center for ocean energy research and development. Their focus is the research and development of open-ocean current systems and associated infrastructure needed to development and testing prototypes. The generation of power is achieved by using a specialized electric generator with a rotor called a turbine. As with all machines, the turbines will need maintenance and replacement as they near the end of their lifecycle. This prognostic health monitoring (PHM) requires data to be collected, stored, and analyzed in order to maximize the lifespan, reduce downtime and predict when failure is eminent. This thesis explores the use of a data gateway which will separate high level software with low level hardware including sensors and actuators. The gateway will standardize and store the data collected from various sensors with different speeds, formats, and interfaces allowing an easy and uniform transition to a database system for analysis.

Gundel, Joseph

153

Ocean energy program summary  

SciTech Connect

The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71{percent} of the earth's surface, this stored energy is realized as waves, currents, and thermal salinity gradients. The purpose of the federal Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The OET Program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where the commercial sector can assess whether applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives or supplements to systems. Past studies conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to United States energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. Current program emphasis has shifted to open-cycle OTEC power system research because the closed-cycle OTEC system is at a more advanced stage of development and has already attracted industrial interest. During FY 1989, the OET Program focused primarily on the technical uncertainties associated with near-shore open-cycle OTEC systems ranging in size from 2 to 15 MW{sub e}. Activities were performed under three major program elements: thermodynamic research and analysis, experimental verification and testing, and materials and structures research. These efforts addressed a variety of technical problems whose resolution is crucial to demonstrating the viability of open-cycle OTEC technology. This publications is one of a series of documents on the Renewable Energy programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy. An overview of all the programs is available, entitled Programs in Renewable Energy.

Not Available

1990-01-01

154

Supporting Solar Power in Renewables Portfolio Standards: Experience from the United States  

SciTech Connect

Among the available options for encouraging the increased deployment of renewable electricity, renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become increasingly popular. The RPS is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern that has been voiced is whether RPS policies will offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, RPS programs will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This report documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important, albeit somewhat modest, driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to continue to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved.

Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Holt, Edward

2010-10-01

155

Safety Evaluation Report. Related to the License Renewal of James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant. Docket No. 50-333.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) license renewal application (LRA) by the United States (US) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff (the staff). By letter dated ...

2008-01-01

156

Safety Evaluation Report: Related to the License Renewal of Kewaunee Power Station, Docket No. 50-305, Dominion Energy Kewaunee, Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the Kewaunee Power Station (KPS) license renewal application (LRA) by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff (the staff). By letter dated August 12, 2008, Dominion Energy Ke...

2011-01-01

157

THORs Power Method for Hydrokinetic Devices - Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean current energy represents a vast untapped source of renewable energy that exists on the outer continental shelf areas of the 5 major continents. Ocean currents are unidirectional in nature and are perpetuated by thermal and salintiy sea gradients, as well as coriolis forces imparted from the earth's rotation. This report details THORs Power Method, a breakthrough power control method

J. Turner Hunt; Joel Rumker

2012-01-01

158

Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics' Ocean Model, Kyushu University, Japan). The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation, and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 deg. E to 142.5 deg. E of east longitude and 33 deg. N and 52 deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC (Japan Oceanographic Data Center), KNFRDI (Korea National Fisheries Research and Development Institute), and ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea/Japan Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site. (authors)

Chung, Y.G.; Lee, G.B.; Bang, S.Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 103-16 Munji-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.B.; Lee, S.U. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD, 167 Samseong-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Research Institute of Applied Physics, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Nam, S.Y.; Lee, H.R. [GeoSystem Research Corporation, 306 Hanlim Human Town, 1-40 Geumjeong-Dong, Gunpo-City, Gyeonggi-Do 435-050 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

159

Power to the People: Electric Utility Restructuring and the Commitment to Renewable Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With electric generation responsible for 41 percent of U.S anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy use, development of clean energy sources is essential if the United States is to reduce release of greenhouse gases and slow global warming. Many proponents of sustainable energy anticipate that electric generation from renewable sources would thrive in a deregulated market, driven by consumer

Michael K. Heiman; Barry D. Solomon

2004-01-01

160

Renewable hybrid stand-alone telecom power system modeling and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the telecom service providers' installations, the problem of poor grid electricity supply is tackled by using diesel generators. These generators, however, entail a major problem in transportation and storage of diesel with noise pollution. Decentralized distributed generation technologies based on renewable energy resources such as solar photo voltaic (SPV) or\\/and wind turbine generators (WTG) address the above barriers to

Prabodh Bajpai; N. P. Prakshan; N. K. Kishore

2009-01-01

161

Feasibilty study of renewable energy powered seawater desalination technology using natural vacuum technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an ever-increasing population and rapid growth of industrialization, there is great demand for fresh water. Desalination has been a key proponent to meet the future challenges due to decreasing availability of fresh water. However, desalination uses significant amount of energy, today mostly from fossil fuels. It is, therefore, reasonable to rely on renewable energy sources such as solar energy,

Teoman Ayhan; Hussain Al Madani

2010-01-01

162

Promoting West African Ownership of the Power Sector: Alternative Financing for Distributed Generation of Renewable Electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centralized generation remains the prevailing approach to expanding electrification in West Africa. In contrast, distributed generation (DG) of renewable electricity emphasizes generation close to the point of consumption and offers possibilities for more effective models. However, its adoption remains ad hoc and marginal despite significant advancement in the technologies. This article provides an overview of DG, its costs, and the

Ogundiran C. Soumonni; Omolola Y. Soumonni

2011-01-01

163

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

164

The power consumed by mixing processes in the deep-ocean interior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the traditional view, the meridional overturning circulation of the ocean is assumed to close through diabatic processes in the ocean interior. In this scenario, mixing in the ocean interior acts to transfer heat from the temperate waters of the upper ocean to the coldest waters of the abyss. The upwelling of warmed abyssal waters balances the production of deep

L. St. Laurent; H. Simmons

2004-01-01

165

Multi-Fluid Geothermal Energy Systems: Using CO2 for Dispatchable Renewable Power Generation and Grid Stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract We present an approach to use CO2 to (1) generate dispatchable renewable power that can quickly respond to grid fluctuations and be cost-competitive with natural gas, (2) stabilize the grid by efficiently storing large quantities of energy, (3) enable seasonal storage of solar thermal energy for grid integration, (4) produce brine for power-plant cooling, all which (5) increase CO2 value, rendering CO2 capture to be commerically viable, while (6) sequestering huge quantities of CO2. These attributes reduce carbon intensity of electric power, and enable cost-competitive, dispatchable power from major sources of renewable energy: wind, solar, and geothermal. Conventional geothermal power systems circulate brine as the working fluid to extract heat, but the parasitic power load for this circulation can consume a large portion of gross power output. Recently, CO2 has been considered as a working fluid because its advantageous properties reduce this parasitic loss. We expand on this idea by using multiple working fluids: brine, CO2, and N2. N2 can be separated from air at lower cost than captured CO2, it is not corrosive, and it will not react with the formation. N2 also can improve the economics of energy production and enable energy storage, while reducing operational risk. Extracting heat from geothermal reservoirs often requires submersible pumps to lift brine, but these pumps consume much of the generated electricity. In contrast, our approach drives fluid circulation by injecting supplemental, compressible fluids (CO2, and N2) with high coefficients of thermal expansion. These fluids augment reservoir pressure, produce artesian flow at the producers, and reduce the parasitic load. Pressure augmentation is improved by the thermosiphon effect that results from injecting cold/dense CO2 and N2. These fluids are heated to reservoir temperature, greatly expand, and increase the artesian flow of brine and supplemental fluid at the producers. Rather than using pumps, the thermosiphon directly converts reservoir thermal energy into mechanical energy for fluid circulation. Because stored pressure drives fluid production, the response time is faster than that of conventional geothermal power, already considered to be dispatchable. For conventional geothermal, the parasitic power load is in phase with gross power output. In contrast, our approach can time-shift much of the parasitic power load, which is dominated by the power required to separate N2 from air and compress it for injection. Because N2 is readily available, it can be injected intermittently. Thus, most of the parasitic power load can be shifted to coincide with minimum power demand or when there is a surplus of renewable power. Such a time-shift also allows net power output to be nearly equal to gross power output during peak demand. Energy storage can be almost 100 percent efficient because it is achieved by shifting the parasitic load, which is more efficient than other methods used to store energy and stabilize the grid. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.; Randolph, J.; Chen, M.; Hao, Y.; Sun, Y.

2013-12-01

166

The Promise of Wave Power (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable diverse energy resource plans. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans: it is estimated that if 0.2 % of the oceans' untapped energy could be harnessed, it could provide power sufficient for the entire world.

T. Brekken

2010-01-01

167

Preliminary Evaluation of the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program for Renewable Power Projects in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This article evaluates the first year of the Section 1603 Treasury cash grant program, which enables renewable power projects in the U.S. to elect cash grants in lieu of the federal tax credits that are otherwise available. To date, the program has been heavily subscribed, particularly by wind power projects, which had received 86% of the nearly $2.6 billion in grants that had been disbursed as of March 1, 2010. As of that date, 6.2 GW of the 10 GW of new wind capacity installed in the U.S. in 2009 had applied for grants in lieu of production tax credits. Roughly 2.4 GW of this wind capacity may not have otherwise been built in 2009 absent the grant program; this 2.4 GW may have supported approximately 51,600 short-term full-time-equivalent (FTE) gross job-years in the U.S. during the construction phase of these wind projects, and 3,860 longterm FTE gross jobs during the operational phase. The program’s popularity stems from the significant economic value that it provides to renewable power projects, relative to the otherwise available tax credits. Although grants reward investment rather than efficient performance, this evaluation finds no evidence at this time of either widespread “gold-plating” or performance problems.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim

2010-05-05

168

Restructuring and renewable energy developments in California:using Elfin to simulate the future California power market  

SciTech Connect

We provide some basic background information on support for renewable in California on the expected operation of the power pool and bilateral markets, and on the three key policy types modeled here. We discuss the Elfin production cost and expansion planning model as well as key assumptions that we made to model the future California pool. We present results from the successful Elfin models runs. We discuss the implications of the study, as well as key areas for future research. Additional information on results, Elfin's expansion planning logic, and resource options can be found in the appendices.

Kirshner, Dan; Kito, Suzie; Marnay, Chris; Pickle, Steve; Schumacher, Katja; Sezgen,Osman; Wiser, Ryan

1998-06-01

169

Non-powered Dams: An untapped source of renewable electricity in the USA  

SciTech Connect

Hydropower has been a source of clean, renewable electricity in the USA for more than 100 years. Today, approximately 2500 US dams provide 78 GW of conventional and 22 GW of pumped-storage hydropower. In contrast, another approximately 80 000 dams in the USA do not include hydraulic turbine equipment and provide non-energy related services, such as flood control, water supply, navigation, and recreation.

Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Battey, Hoyt [Department of Energy; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

2012-01-01

170

Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Generator for Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Modern energy demands led the scientific community to renewable energy sources, such as ocean wave energy. The present work\\u000a describes a model for a cost efficient rotary electrical generator, optimized for ocean wave energy conversion. The electrical\\u000a power, supplied by low speed mechanical movement, requires the use of electrical machinery capable of generating high amounts\\u000a of torque. Among the analyzed

José Lima; Anabela Pronto; Mário Ventim Neves

2011-01-01

171

Development of a demonstration power plant by ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)  

SciTech Connect

At the opening ceremony, the system was praised by leading figures invited from the Oceanic non-oil-producing countries. The power generation test of the OTEC demonstration plant was completed with many new records attained. As engineers who have participated in this project, the authors believe that they have gained confidence in their ability to construct a first-stage commercial OTEC plant of the built-on-land type, though admitting that there still remain some points to be improved. Subjects requiring further study are improvements of material and installation methods enabling the use of water intake piping with larger diameters, further improvement of heat transfer performance at the seawater side (tube inside) of the heat transfer tubes, etc. Since the commercialization of an OTEC system depends mainly on the economical level of the system, cost reduction in the manufacture of equipment and construction is also required.

Ito, F.; Takazawa, K.; Terayama, T.

1984-01-01

172

Potential applications of a high altitude powered platform in the ocean/coastal zone community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community conducted for the NASA Wallops Flight Center to identify potential applications of a high altitude powered platform (HAPP) are presented. Such a platform would stationkeep at 70,000 feet for up to a year over a given location and make frequent high resolution observations, or serve as a regional communications link. The survey results indicate user interest among scientific researchers, operational agencies and private industry. It is felt that such a platform would combine the desirable characteristics of both geostationary satellites (wide area, frequent observation) and aircraft (high resolution). As a result a concept for an operational HAPP system in the form of a 'mesoscale geostationary satellite' system evolved. Such a system could employ many of the same technologies used in current NASA and NOAA geostationary satellite programs. A set of generalized instrument requirements for HAPP borne sensors is also presented.

Escoe, D.; Rigterink, P.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

1979-01-01

173

Entropy versus APE production: On the buoyancy power input in the oceans energy cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter argues that the current controversy about whether Wbuoyancy, the power input due to the surface buoyancy fluxes, is large or small in the oceans stems from two distinct and incompatible views on how Wbuoyancy relates to the volume-integrated work of expansion/contraction B. The current prevailing view is that Wbuoyancy should be identified with the net value of B, which current theories estimate to be small. The alternative view, defended here, is that only the positive part of B, i.e., the one converting internal energy into mechanical energy, should enter the definition of Wbuoyancy, since the negative part of B is associated with the non-viscous dissipation of mechanical energy. Two indirect methods suggest that by contrast, the positive part of B is potentially large.

Tailleux, R.

2010-11-01

174

Applying the Superposition Procedure for the Harmonic Sharing Responsibility between Renewable Energy Power Plants and the Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources with nonlinear characteristics, such as wind and photovoltaic power plants, demands a clear procedure for harmonic sharing responsibility between this new kind of generation and the network at the point of common coupling. In fact, there are in literature many procedures regarding the determination of responsibility for violating harmonic distortion limits. Among these proposals, the methodology based on the superposition principle has been one of the most promising procedures. In this context, the present paper is focused on a procedure that applies the superposition methodology to find the harmonic sharing responsibility between a wind power plant and the utility network. To exemplify this application, a case study is performed and analyzed.

Santos, Ivan N.; Oliveira, José C.; Ribeiro, Paulo F.; Reis, Alex; Santos, Andréia C.; Gondim, Isaque N.

2014-06-01

175

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

1995-03-01

176

Biofilm control for plate heat exchangers using surface seawater from the open ocean for the OTEC power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the proposed site for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power plant on the east coast of India, biofilm formation and its control using intermittent chlorination in plate heat exchangers was studied prior to commissioning of the plant. Settlement of fouling larvae was not observed on the plates, which may be attributed to the low density of larvae of fouling

P. Sriyutha Murthy; R. Venkatesan; K. V. K. Nair; M. Ravindran

2004-01-01

177

Mitigation of environmental impact of power-plant discharge by use of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to evaluate the mitigation method of environmental impact of power-plant discharges by reducing the temperature difference between effluent and coastal water. To minimize excessive thermal pollution which could cause serious socio-economic problems, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system can be applied to control the resultant temperature of combined discharge as well as to produce electricity by reusing

Hyeon-Ju Kim; Ho-Saeng Lee; Seung-Won Lee; Dong-Ho Jung; Duck-Su Moon

2010-01-01

178

Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, accounting for turbine characteristics and siting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, global ocean usable wind power is evaluated for modern offshore turbine characteristics including hub height, usable portion of the wind speed distribution, and siting depth. Mean wind power increases by 30%, 69%, and 73% within the tropics and Northern and Southern Hemisphere extratropics, respectively, between hub heights of 10 m and 100 m. A turbine with a cut-out speed of 25 m s-1 (30 m s-1) within the Northern Hemisphere storm track harvests between 55% (82%) and 85% (>98%) of available power. Within this region, a 2-3 m s-1 change in cut-out speed can result in a 5-7% change in usable power. Eighty meter wind power accumulates at a rate of 20-45 MW km2 m-2 per meter depth increase from the shore to the shelf break. Beyond the shelf break, wind power accumulates at a slower rate (<12 MW km2 m-2 m-1). The combined impact of all three characteristics on available wind power is assessed for three technology tiers: existing, planned, and future innovations. Usable percent of 80 m available global ocean wind power ranges from 0.40% for existing to 2.73% for future envisioned turbine specifications. Offshore wind power production is estimated using three offshore wind turbine power curves, three ocean depth limits and two siting densities. Global offshore wind power is as much as 39 TW (54% of onshore) and is maximized for the smallest and least powerful of the three turbine specifications evaluated.

Capps, Scott B.; Zender, Charles S.

2010-05-01

179

2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

Gelman, R.

2013-10-01

180

Learning about renewable energy  

SciTech Connect

This publication is a teaching aid and describes the various types of renewable energy sources available to the consumer. It is written in lay language and briefly covers producing electricity from sunlight, wind power, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, and biomass.

Not Available

1985-04-01

181

Modularized multilevel and z-source power converter as renewable energy interface for vehicle and grid-connected applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due the energy crisis and increased oil price, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panel, wind turbine, or thermoelectric generation module, are used more and more widely for vehicle and grid-connected applications. However, the output of these renewable energy sources varies according to different solar radiation, wind speed, or temperature difference, a power converter interface is required for the vehicle or grid-connected applications. Thermoelectric generation (TEG) module as a renewable energy source for automotive industry is becoming very popular recently. Because of the inherent characteristics of TEG modules, a low input voltage, high input current and high voltage gain dc-dc converters are needed for the automotive load. Traditional high voltage gain dc-dc converters are not suitable for automotive application in terms of size and high temperature operation. Switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have to be used for this application. However, high voltage spike and EMI problems exist in traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. Huge capacitor banks have to be utilized to reduce the voltage ripple and achieve high efficiency. A series of zero current switching (ZCS) or zero voltage switching switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have been proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems of the traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. By using the proposed soft-switching strategy, high voltage spike is reduced, high EMI noise is restricted, and the huge capacitor bank is eliminated. High efficiency, high power density and high temperature switched-capacitor dc-dc converters could be made for the TEG interface in vehicle applications. Several prototypes have been made to validate the proposed circuit and confirm the circuit operation. In order to apply PV panel for grid-connected application, a low cost dc-ac inverter interface is required. From the use of transformer and safety concern, two different solutions can be implemented, non-isolated or isolated PV inverter. For the non-isolated transformer-less solution, a semi-Z-source inverter for single phase photovoltaic systems has been proposed. The proposed semi-Z-source inverter utilizes only two switching devices with doubly grounded feature. The total cost have been reduced, the safety and EMI issues caused by the high frequency ground current are solved. For the transformer isolated solution, a boost half-bridge dc-ac micro-inverter has been proposed. The proposed boost half-bridge dc-dc converter utilizes only two switching devices with zero voltage switching features which is able to reduce the total system cost and power loss.

Cao, Dong

182

An utility interactive power electronics interface for alternate\\/renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foreseeable shortages in conventional sources of electric power has increased the emphasis on the research and development of alternate sources of energy. In order to make a noteworthy impact, the alternate sources of energy need to be utility interactive by means of a power electronic interface (a DC to AC converter). The inherent assumption in the control of DC

Wajiha Shireen; M. S. Arefeen

1996-01-01

183

A surface renewal model to analyze infrared image sequences of the ocean surface for the study of air-sea heat and gas exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermographic techniques are presented that directly measure the temperature difference across the thermal boundary layer at the sea surface, the probability density function of surface renewal, the net heat flux, and the heat transfer velocity during nighttime. The techniques are based on a model of surface renewal. Through the use of digital image processing techniques, temporally and spatially highly resolved

C. S. Garbe; U. Schimpf; B. Jähne

2004-01-01

184

Ocean Microbial Fuel Cell: Power Source and Research Tool for Studying Marine Biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean microbial fuel cells (OMFCs) are devices capable of producing modest levels of electrical power. The cells are ultimately driven by the oxidation of marine organic matter at the anode and reduction of dissolved oxygen at the cathode, but microbial transformations and electrochemically active intermediates play important roles in the overall process of electricity generation. By separating the factors that affect the performance of OMFCs into components of an equivalent circuit and manipulating these factors in laboratory and field experiments, we are gaining new insight into how specific redox reactions, sources of organic matter, and mass transport at small and intermediate scales may enrich environments with certain groups of microorganisms that in turn regulate anaerobic organic matter degradation. This talk will illustrate these relationships with the results from at least four experiments in which either fresh plankton, or substrates within continental margin sediments, fuelled the OMFCs. In each example, reduced sulfur compounds were found to be major electron carriers to the fuel cell anode. These intermediates came from a variety of sources including sulfide generated from sulfate reduction in mixed solutions surrounding the electrode, sulfide generated distally but transported by pore-water diffusion and advection, iron monosulfides and pyrite present is a sediment matrix centimeters from the electrode, and sulfide or polysulfide produced within an electrode biofilm. To illustrate a practical application of an OMFC, we are currently constructing a benthic cell that will power a sonic receiver in a network of underwater sensors. The form of this OMFC resembles a benthic chamber with a footprint of one square meter. It should be capable of supplying electrical power and regulating its output for years to decades.

Reimers, C. E.; Girguis, P.; Westall, J. C.; Nielsen, M. E.

2007-05-01

185

A rotational wave energy conversion system development and validation with real ocean wave data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a massive push in the research community towards green or renewable energies, specifically for electrical power generation. Fossil fuels are losing their popularity due to the associated environmental damage and hazards, and green energies are gaining momentum as significant energy resources. This paper presents a novel system and method for converting the power of open ocean

H. Bora Karayaka; Hugo Mahlke; Darek Bogucki; Mehrube Mehrubeoglu

2011-01-01

186

Environmental Technology Verification Report - Electric Power and Heat Production Using Renewable Biogas at Patterson Farms  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

187

Efficient storage capacity in power systems with thermal and renewable generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power systems with high shares of wind and solar power have to balance their intermittent nature. Pumpedâ€hydro storage plants can provide the required flexibility, while thermal backup plants offer an alternative. This paper proposes a model based on peakâ€loadâ€pricing theory to describe the efficient technology portfolio. Drawing on a load duration curve, we derive the efficient storage capacity and discuss

Bjarne Steffen; Christoph Weber

2011-01-01

188

Global Prospects for Utility-Scale Solar Power: Toward Spatially Renewable Energy Systems - Working Paper 235  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Kevin Ummel provides high-resolution estimates of the global potential and cost of solar power technologies while identifying deployment patterns that minimize the cost of greenhouse gas abatement. His findings are based on a global simulation of providing 2,000 TWh of solar power (about 7 percent of total consumption) in 2030, taking into account least-cost siting of facilities

Kevin Ummel

2010-01-01

189

Marine Renewable Energy and Cetaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an ongoing development of offshore renewable energy projects worldwide. Marine wind power technology is the most advanced and tidal and wave power projects are creating increasing interest. Marine renewable energy projects to date have been focused in northern Europe, yet developments are also planned and underway in other parts of the world. Whilst these offshore renewable energy developments

Sarah J. Dolman; Mick Green; Mark P. Simmonds

190

2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Gelman, R.

2012-10-01

191

2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Gelman, R.

2011-10-01

192

2009 Renewable Energy Data Book, August 2010  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Not Available

2010-08-01

193

Renewable energy technologies for the Indian power sector: mitigation potential and operational strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future economic development trajectory for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated growth in energy demand, with attendant shortages and problems. Due to the predominance of fossil fuels in the generation mix, there are large negative environmental externalities caused by electricity generation. The power sector alone has a 40 percent contribution to the total carbon emissions. In

Debyani Ghosh; P. R. Shukla; Amit Garg; P. Venkata Ramana

2002-01-01

194

Power grid balancing of energy systems with high renewable energy penetration by demand response  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that the integration of intermittent energy resources like wind energy and photovoltaics into an electricity system cannot exceed a limit of around 20% or 25%, see, e.g. [EWEA, 2005. Large-scale integration of wind energy in the European power supply: analysis, issues and recommendations. The European Wind Energy Association]. However, the decoupling of electricity generation and consumption

Ingo Stadler

2008-01-01

195

Can loss of balance from mesoscale eddies adequately power deep ocean mixing?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global ocean thermohaline circulation is partly composed of the sinking of dense surface waters at high latitudes. But in order to close the circulation and maintain the abyssal stratification, the dense waters must rise up again through vertical mixing. This process requires a source of energy roughly estimated to be 2 TW. Previous work has concluded that tides and winds may adequately supply the required power, but the conceivable role of loss of balance from mesoscale eddies, resulting in the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves and associated vertical mixing, has hitherto been considered to be 'of unknown importance' (Wunsch and Ferrari, 2004). We investigate the potential role of loss of balance, by studying the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves by balanced flow in a rotating two-layer annulus laboratory experiment (Williams et al., 2008). A photograph from the experiment is shown in the figure. As the Rossby number of the balanced flow decreases, the amplitude of the emitted inertia-gravity waves also decreases, but much less rapidly than is predicted by several dynamical theories. This finding suggests that inertia-gravity waves might be far more energised than previously thought. The balanced flow leaks roughly one per cent of its energy each rotation period into internal inertia-gravity waves at the peak of their generation. Crude extrapolation of this result to the global ocean suggests that the flux of energy from mesoscale eddies into internal waves may be as large as 1.5 TW. We claim no accuracy for this figure which is only indicative. Nevertheless, we are persuaded that generation of inertia-gravity waves from the balanced mesoscale flow may be an important source of energy for deep interior mixing, and deserves further study. Reference Williams, PD, Haine, TWN and Read, PL (2008) Inertia-Gravity Waves Emitted from Balanced Flow: Observations, Properties, and Consequences. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65(11), pp 3543-3556. doi:10.1175/2008JAS2480.1 Photograph showing internal inertia-gravity waves generated by loss of balance from the large-scale flow in a rotating two-layer annulus experiment in the laboratory.

Williams, P. D.; Haine, T. W.; Read, P. L.

2009-12-01

196

Analysis of a pumped storage system to increase the penetration level of renewable energy in isolated power systems. Gran Canaria: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of islands have been forced to restrict the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RES) in their conventional electrical power systems. These limitations attempt to prevent problems that might affect the stability and security of the electrical system. Restrictions that may apply to the penetration of wind energy can also be an obstacle when meeting European Union

S. Padrón; J. F. Medina; A. Rodríguez

197

Renewable Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the trade association for the UK bioenergy industry, British Biogen's mission is to promote and coordinate the commercial development of biomass as a renewable fuel resource for energy production. British Biogen has merged with the Renewable Power Association. By clicking on the Renewable Energy tab, users will find information on the different subject areas. REA adds new information based upon what we discover and updates these subject fields.

2007-06-11

198

Offshore Renewable Energy R&D (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the offshore renewable energy R&D efforts at NREL's NWTC. As the United States increases its efforts to tap the domestic energy sources needed to diversify its energy portfolio and secure its energy supply, more attention is being focused on the rich renewable resources located offshore. Offshore renewable energy sources include offshore wind, waves, tidal currents, ocean and river currents, and ocean thermal gradients. According to a report published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 2010,1 U.S. offshore wind resources have a gross potential generating capacity four times greater than the nation's present electric capacity, and the Electric Power Research Institute estimates that the nation's ocean energy resources could ultimately supply at least 10% of its electric supply. For more than 30 years, NREL has advanced the science of renewable energy while building the capabilities to guide rapid deployment of commercial applications. Since 1993, NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has been the nation's premier wind energy research facility, specializing in the advancement of wind technologies that range in size from a kilowatt to several megawatts. For more than 8 years, the NWTC has been an international leader in the field of offshore floating wind system analysis. Today, researchers at the NWTC are taking their decades of experience and extensive capabilities and applying them to help industry develop cost-effective hydrokinetic systems that convert the kinetic energy in water to provide power for our nation's heavily populated coastal regions. The center's capabilities and experience cover a wide spectrum of wind and water energy engineering disciplines, including atmospheric and ocean fluid mechanics, aerodynamics; aeroacoustics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics, control systems, electrical systems, and testing.

Not Available

2011-10-01

199

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Department of Energy site provides access to more than 600 links and 80,000 documents about renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, including such topics as: bioenergy, hydrogen, power from the oceans, and wind, solar, geothermal, and hydroenergy. Specialized resources include a collection of links to educational and training resources on energy, and a weekly newsletter covering news and events, new sites on EREN, and energy facts and tips. A consumer section offers advice on energy conservation and home weatherization.

2002-03-04

200

Spatial and temporal variations and budget of radiocesium in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We determined the inventory of radiocesium released by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident to the North Pacific Ocean based on measurements of seawater samples collected in the North Pacific Ocean after the accident. Comparison of the observed inventory with the model-simulated results allowed us to obtain realistic values of 10-13 PBq for the total atmospheric deposition of 134Cs and 137Cs released by the FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific. Before the Fukushima accident, 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific Ocean was about 69 PBq, the 12 - 15 PBq of 137Cs newly added by atmospheric deposition and the 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq added by direct discharge, therefore increased the total 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific Ocean by 22-27 %. We also determined that the total atmospheric release of 134Cs and 137Cs by the FNPP1 accident was about 14-17 PBq, respectively. Using global simulated results as boundary conditions, a 1-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was also carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99 %) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Kajino, Mizuo; Tanaka, Taichu; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Hayami, Hiroshi; Hamajima, Yasunori; Gamo, Toshitaka; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Kawano, Takeshi; Murata, Akihiro; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Fukasawa, Masao; Chino, Masamichi

2013-04-01

201

Renewable Energy Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

2010-01-01

202

A surface renewal model to analyze infrared image sequences of the ocean surface for the study of air-sea heat and gas exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermographic techniques are presented that directly measure the temperature difference across the thermal boundary layer at the sea surface, the probability density function of surface renewal, the net heat flux, and the heat transfer velocity during nighttime. The techniques are based on a model of surface renewal. Through the use of digital image processing techniques, temporally and spatially highly resolved measurements are feasible, limited only by the thermal imager. We present laboratory measurements from the Heidelberg Aeolotron and field measurements from the GasExII cruise taken at a spatial resolution of 3 mm and temporal resolution of 10 ms. The net heat flux estimates of the thermographic techniques and micrometeorological methods agree with an error less than 5% for conditions in which the surface renewal model is applicable. Experimental evidence is presented for the probability density function of surface renewal to be best described by a logarithmic normal distribution. At moderate and high wind speeds when the influence of surface films is not significant, surface renewal seems to be an adequate model for air-water heat exchange.

Garbe, C. S.; Schimpf, U.; JäHne, B.

2004-08-01

203

A survey of potential users of the High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) in the ocean/coastal zone community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community to determine potential applications of a High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) are reported. Such a platform, capable of stationkeeping for periods up to a year over a given location, could make frequent and repeated high resolution observations over a given region or serve as a high-altitude regional communications link. Users were surveyed in person and via a questionnaire to determine the desirability of the HAPP within the ocean/coastal zone community. The results of the survey indicated that there is strong interest in all areas of the user community (research and development, operational agencies, and private industry) in having NASA develop the HAPP.

Escoe, D.; Rigternik, P.

1979-01-01

204

Renewable Energy Technologies for the Developing and Developed Countries Power Sector and Assessment of CO2 Mitigation Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing negative effects of fossil fuel combustion on the environment in addition to limited stock have forced many countries to explore and change to environmentally friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Two countries have been taken in this study, one developing and other developed. China has abundant sources of renewable energy and is exploiting them

Imdadullah; Mohibullah; Imtiaz Ashraf; Mohd. Liakot Ali

2006-01-01

205

Development research for wind power weather insurance index through analysis of weather elements and new renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, social interests and concerns regarding weather risk are gradually growing with increase in frequency of unusual phenomena. Actually, the threat to many vulnerable industries (sensitive to climate conditions) such as agriculture, architecture, logistics, transportation, clothing, home appliance, and food is increasing. According to climate change scenario reports published by National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in 2012, temperature and precipitation are expected to increase by 4.8% and 13.2% respectively with current status of CO2 emissions (RCP 8.5) at the end of the 21st century. Furthermore, most of areas in Korea except some mountainous areas are also expected to shift from temperate climate to subtropical climate. In the context of climate change, the intensity of severe weathers such as heavy rainfalls and droughts is enhanced, which, in turn, increases the necessity and importance of weather insurance. However, most insurance market is small and limited to policy insurance like crop disaster insurance, and natural disaster insurance in Korea. The reason for poor and small weather insurance market could result from the lack of recognition of weather risk management even though all economic components (firms, governments, and households) are significantly influenced by weather. However, fortunately, new renewable energy and leisure industry which are vulnerable to weather risk are in a long term uptrend and the interest of weather risk is also getting larger and larger in Korea. So, in the long run, growth potential of weather insurance market in Korea might be higher than ever. Therefore, in this study, the capacity of power generation per hour and hourly wind speed are analyzed to develop and test weather insurance index for wind power, and then the effectiveness of weather insurance index are investigated and the guidance will be derived to objectively calculate the weather insurance index.

Park, Ki-Jun; jung, jihoon

2014-05-01

206

Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration--nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarized using four different NF membranes (BW30, NF90, ESPA4, TFC-S), and examined in more detail for the BW30 membrane. On an Australian spring day, the system produced 1.1 m3 of permeate with an average conductivity of 0.28 mS x cm(-1), recovering 28% of the brackish (8.29 mS x cm(-1) conductivity) feedwater with an average specific energy consumption of 2.3 kWh x m(-3). The RE-membrane system tolerated large fluctuations in solar irradiance (500--1200 W x m(-2)), resulting in only small increases in the permeate conductivity. When equipped with the NF90 (cloudy day) and ESPA4 (rainy day) membranes, the system was still able to produce 1.36 m(-3) and 0.85 m(-3) of good quality permeate, respectively. The TFC-S membrane was not able to produce adequate water quality from the bore water tested. It is concluded that batteryless operation is a simple and robust way to operate such systems under conditions ranging from clear skies to medium cloud cover. PMID:18605587

Richards, B S; Capăo, D P S; Schäfer, A I

2008-06-15

207

50 CFR 222.304 - Renewal of permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES General Permit Procedures § 222.304 Renewal of permits. When the permit is renewable and a...

2010-10-01

208

Low head tidal power: a major source of energy from the worlds oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a large number of tidal sites in the world's oceans which can provide a significant, viable and cost effective source of reliable energy. Many are strategically located close to populated areas where they can be economically harnessed using an ecologically benign low-head technology developed by Nova Energy Ltd. Early work was carried out under research contracts with the

Barry V. Davis

1997-01-01

209

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the license renewal term. Temperature effects on sediment transport capacity 1 SMALL. These effects have not been...release of chemicals. Accumulation of contaminants in sediments or biota 1 SMALL. Accumulation of...

2011-01-01

210

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the license renewal term. Temperature effects on sediment transport capacity 1 SMALL. These effects have not been...release of chemicals. Accumulation of contaminants in sediments or biota 1 SMALL. Accumulation of...

2012-01-01

211

Project NEPTUNE: an innovative, powered, fibre-optic cabled deep ocean observatory spanning the Juan de Fuca plate, NE Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEPTUNE is an innovative facility, a deep-water cabled observatory, that will transform marine science. MARS and VENUS are deep and shallow-water test bed facilities for NEPTUNE located in Monterey Canyon, California and in southern British Columbia, respectively; both were funded in 2002. NEPTUNE will be a network of over 30 subsea observatories covering the 200,000 sq. km Juan de Fuca tectonic plate, Northeast Pacific. It will draw power via two shore stations and receive and exchange data with scientists through 3000 km of submarine fiber-optic cables. Each observatory, and cabled extensions, will host and power many scientific instruments on the surrounding seafloor, in seafloor boreholes and buoyed through the water column. Remotely operated and autonomous vehicles will reside at depth, recharge at observatories, and respond to distant labs. Continuous near-real-time multidisciplinary measurement series will extend over 30 years. Free from the limitations of battery life, ship schedules/ accommodations, bad weather and delayed access to data, scientists will monitor remotely their deep-sea experiments in real time on the Internet, and routinely command instruments to respond to storms, plankton blooms, earthquakes, eruptions, slope slides and other events. Scientists will be able to pose entirely new sets of questions and experiments to understand complex, interacting Earth System processes such as the structure and seismic behavior of the ocean crust; dynamics of hot and cold fluids and gas hydrates in the upper ocean crust and overlying sediments; ocean climate change and its effect on the ocean biota at all depths; and the barely known deep-sea ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity. NEPTUNE is a US/Canada (70/30) partnership to design, test, build and operate the network on behalf of a wide scientific community. The total cost of the project is estimated at about U.S. 250 million from concept to operation. Over U.S. 50 million has already been funded for design, development, and the test beds. NEPTUNE will be among the first of many such cabled ocean observatories. Much is to be gained by being among the scientific and industrial pioneers. The multidisciplinary data archive will be an amazing, expanding resource for scientists and students. The public will share in the research discoveries of one of the last unexplored places on earth through an extensive education/outreach program.

Barnes, C.; Delaney, J.

2003-04-01

212

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Massachusetts Military Reservation. A Study Prepared in Partnership Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering Americas Land initiative, selected the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) to receive technical assistance from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a f...

B. Stafford G. Mosey R. Robichaud

2011-01-01

213

Learning about Renewable Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

214

Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions. PMID:24892049

Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

2014-01-01

215

Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan Bin; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari Bin

2014-01-01

216

Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Ocean energy conversion has been of interest for many,years. Recent developments,such as concern over global warming,have renewed,interest in the topic. This report focuses on wave energy converters (WEC) as opposed to ocean current energy converters. The point absorber and oscillating water column,WEC devices are addressed with regards tocommercial prospects, environmental concerns, and current state-of-the art. This report also provides

Jennifer Vining

2005-01-01

217

Wind powered pumped hydro storage systems, a means of increasing the penetration of renewable energy in the Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of islands have found themselves obliged to place restrictions on the penetration of renewable sourced energy in their conventional electrical grid systems. In general, this has been due to certain energy related characteristics often connected to their very nature as islands. These limitations attempt to prevent the appearance of problems that might affect the stability and safety

C. Bueno; J. A. Carta

2006-01-01

218

The potential for grid power integration of offshore ocean wave energy in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the advanced electric technologies for grid power integration of different offshore wave energy conversion devices are presented. The electrical connection configurations for integrating the electric power of the multi wave energy conversion devices such as the Oscillating Water Column, Pelamis, the Wave Point Absorbers and the Wave Dragon are developed by employing the most efficient low cost

T. Ahmed; K. Nishida; M. Nakaoka

2010-01-01

219

Radium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium has four naturally occurring isotopes that have proven useful in constraining water mass source, age, and mixing rates in the coastal and open ocean. In this study, we used radium isotopes to determine the fate and flux of runoff-derived cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). During a June 2011 cruise, the highest cesium (Cs) concentrations were found along the eastern shelf of northern Japan, from Fukushima south, to the edge of the Kuroshio Current, and in an eddy ~ 130 km from the FNPP site. Locations with the highest cesium also had some of the highest radium activities, suggesting much of the direct ocean discharges of Cs remained in the coastal zone 2-3 months after the accident. We used a short-lived Ra isotope (223Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 d) to derive an average water mass age (Tr) in the coastal zone of 32 days. To ground-truth the Ra age model, we conducted a direct, station-by-station comparison of water mass ages with a numerical oceanographic model and found them to be in excellent agreement (model avg. Tr = 27 days). From these independent Tr values and the inventory of Cs within the water column at the time of our cruise, we were able to calculate an offshore 134Cs flux of 3.9-4.6 × 1013 Bq d-1. Radium-228 (t1/2 = 5.75 yr) was used to derive a vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) of 0.7 m2 d-1 (0.1 cm2 s-1); from this Kz and 134Cs inventory, we estimated a 134Cs flux across the pycnocline of 1.8 × 104 Bq d-1 for the same time period. On average, our results show that horizontal mixing loss of Cs from the coastal zone was ~ 109 greater than vertical exchange below the surface mixed layer. Finally, a mixing/dilution model that utilized our Ra-based and oceanographic model water mass ages produced a direct ocean discharge of 134Cs from the FNPP of 11-16 PBq at the time of the peak release in early April 2011. Our results can be used to calculate discharge of other water-soluble radionuclides that were released to the ocean directly from the Fukushima NPP.

Charette, M. A.; Breier, C. F.; Henderson, P. B.; Pike, S. M.; Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Buesseler, K. O.

2013-03-01

220

Radium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium has four naturally occurring isotopes that have proven useful in constraining water mass source, age, and mixing rates in the coastal and open ocean. In this study, we used radium isotopes to determine the fate and flux of runoff-derived cesium from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). During a June 2011 cruise, the highest Cs concentrations were found along the eastern shelf of northern Japan, from Fukushima south, to the edge of the Kuroshio current, and in an eddy ∼ 130 km from the NPP site. Locations with the highest cesium also had some of the highest radium activities, suggesting much of the direct ocean discharges of Cs remained in the coastal zone 2-3 months after the accident. We used a short-lived Ra isotope (223Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 d) to derive an average water mass age (Tr) in the coastal zone of 32 days. To ground-truth the Ra age model, we conducted a direct, station-by-station comparison of water mass ages with a numerical oceanographic model and found them to be in excellent agreement (model avg. Tr = 27 days). From these independent Tr values and the inventory of Cs within the water column at the time of our cruise, we were able to calculate an offshore 134Cs flux of 3.9-4.6 × 1013 Bq d-1. Radium-228 (t1/2 = 5.75 yr) was used to derive a vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) of 0.7 m2 d-1 (0.1 cm2 s-1); from this Kz and 134Cs inventory, we estimated a 134Cs flux across the pycnocline of 1.8 × 104 Bq d-1 for the same time period. On average, our results show that horizontal mixing loss of Cs from the coastal zone was ∼ 109 greater than vertical exchange below the surface mixed layer. Finally, a mixing/dilution model that utilized our Ra-based and oceanographic model water mass ages produced a direct ocean discharge of 134Cs from the FNPP of 11-16 PBq at the time of the peak release in early April 2011. Our results can be used to calculate discharge of other water-soluble radionuclides that were released to the ocean directly from the Fukushima NPP.

Charette, M. A.; Breier, C. F.; Henderson, P. B.; Pike, S. M.; Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Buesseler, K. O.

2012-11-01

221

Ocean thermal energy conversion power system development. Final design report: PSD-I, Phase II  

SciTech Connect

The PSD-I program provides a heat exchanger sytem consisting of an evaporator, condenser and various ancillaries with ammonia used as a working fluid in a closed simulated Rankine cycle. It is to be installed on the Chepachet Research Vessel for test and evaluation of a number of OTEC concepts in a true ocean environment. It is one of several test articles to be tested. Primary design concerns include control of biofouling, corrosion and erosion of aluminum tubes, selection of materials, and the development of a basis for scale-up to large heat exchangers so as to ultimately demonstrate economic feasibility on a commercial scale. The PSD-I test article is devised to verify thermodynamic, environmental, and mechanical performance of basic design concepts. The detailed design, development, fabrication, checklist, delivery, installation support, and operation support for the Test Article Heat Exchangers are described. (WHK)

None

1980-06-30

222

Ocean Wave Energy Harvesting Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of an ocean wave energy-harvesting device that can be used as a renewable energy source for ocean monitoring systems. The core technology is a mass-spring based high efficiency, low frequency linear generator that was integrated to a spar buoy...

I. E. Childress J. T. Cheung

2007-01-01

223

Renewable Energy Supply for Power Dominated, Energy Intense Production Processes - A Systematic Conversion Approach for the Anodizing Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European countries are highly dependent on energy imports. To lower this import dependency effectively, renewable energies will take a major role in future energy supply systems. To assist the national and inter-European efforts, extensive changes towards a renewable energy supply, especially on the company level, will be unavoidable. To conduct this conversion in the most effective way, the methodology developed in this paper can support the planning procedure. It is applied to the energy intense anodizing production process, where the electrical demand is the governing factor for the energy system layout. The differences between the classical system layout based on the current energy procurement and an approach with a detailed load-time-curve analysis, using process decomposition besides thermodynamic optimization, are discussed. The technical effects on the resulting energy systems are shown besides the resulting energy supply costs which will be determined by hourly discrete simulation.

>D Stollenwerk, T Kuvarakul, I Kuperjans,

2013-06-01

224

Coupling Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion technology (OTEC) with nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

The prospects of utilizing an OTEC Related Bottoming Cycle to recover waste heat generated by a large nuclear (or fossil) power plant are examined. With such improvements, OTEC can become a major energy contributor. 12 refs.

Goldstein, M.K.; Rezachek, D.; Chen, C.S.

1981-01-01

225

Update '05: ocean wave and tidal power generation projects in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summary, San Francisco's interest in the HydroVenturi approach is due to the value proposition of no moving parts underwater, compared to the underwater turbines of a LaRance river-type saltwater entranement, of a Blue Energy or Verdant Power vertical or horizontal axis-type propeller installation. A technology with no moving parts underwater makes tidal power attractive to San Francisco's well-established environmental

P. O'Donnell

2005-01-01

226

Comparison of Direct-Drive Power Takeoff Systems for Ocean Wave Energy Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive power takeoff (PTO) analysis program conducted as a collaborative research effort between Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Oregon State University (OSU), and the U.S. Navy. Eighteen different direct-drive technologies were evaluated analytically and down-selected to five promising designs. Each of the five prototypes was simulated, modeled in SolidWorks, and built at the 200-W peak level and

Ken Rhinefrank; Alphonse Schacher; Joseph Prudell; Ted K. A. Brekken; Chad Stillinger; John Z. Yen; Steven G. Ernst; Annette von Jouanne; Ean Amon; Robert Paasch; Adam Brown; Alex Yokochi

2012-01-01

227

How U.S. ocean policy and market power can reform the coral reef wildlife trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the world’s largest importer of marine ornamental species for the aquaria, curio, home décor, and jewelry industries, the United States has an opportunity to leverage its considerable market power to promote more sustainable trade and reduce the effects of ornamental trade stress on coral reefs worldwide. Evidence indicates that collection of some coral reef animals for these trades has

Brian N. Tissot; Barbara A. Best; Eric H. Borneman; Andrew W. Bruckner; Cara H. Cooper; Heather D’Agnes; Timothy P. Fitzgerald; Amanda Leland; Susan Lieberman; Amy Mathews Amos; Rashid Sumaila; Teresa M. Telecky; Frazer McGilvray; Brian J. Plankis; Andrew L. Rhyne; Glynnis G. Roberts; Benjamin Starkhouse; Todd C. Stevenson

2010-01-01

228

Conceptual design of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plants in the Philippines  

SciTech Connect

Extensive temperature readings were obtained to determine suitable OTEC power plant sites in the Philippines. An analysis of temperature profiles reveals that surface seawater is in the range of 25 to 29{degree}C throughout the year while seawater at 500 to 700 m depth remains at a low temperature of 8 to 4{degree}C, respectively. In this article, 14 suitable sites within the Philippine seas are suggested. Conceptual designs for a 5-MW onland-type and a 25-MW floating-type OTEC power plant are proposed. Optimum conditions are determined and plant specifications are computed. Cost estimates show that a floating-type 25-MW OTEC power plant can generate electricity at a busbar power cost of 5.33 to 7.57 cents/kW {times} h while an onshore type 5-MW plant can generate electricity at a busbar cost of 14.71 to 18.09 cents/kW {times} h.

Haruo Uehara; Dilao, C.O.; Tsutomu Nakaoka (Saga Univ. (Japan))

1988-01-01

229

Conceptual design of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plants in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive temperature readings were obtained to determine suitable OTEC power plant sites in the Philippines. An analysis of temperature profiles reveals that surface seawater is in the range of 25 to 29°C throughout the year while seawater at 500 to 700 m depth remains at a low temperature of 8 to 4°C, respectively. In this article, 14 suitable sites within

Haruo Uehara; C. O. Dilao; Tsutomu Nakaoka

1988-01-01

230

Renewable energy.  

PubMed

The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use. PMID:20873681

Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

2010-01-01

231

An Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a California 33% Renewable Scenario (Report Summary) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This analysis evaluates CSP with TES in a scenario where California derives 33% of its electricity from renewable energy sources. It uses a commercial grid simulation tool to examine the avoided operational and capacity costs associated with CSP and compares this value to PV and a baseload generation with constant output. Overall, the analysis demonstrates several properties of dispatchable CSP, including the flexibility to generate during periods of high value and avoid generation during periods of lower value. Of note in this analysis is the fact that significant amount of operational value is derived from the provision of reserves in the case where CSP is allowed to provide these services. This analysis also indicates that the 'optimal' configuration of CSP could vary as a function of renewable penetration, and each configuration will need to be evaluated in terms of its ability to provide dispatchable energy, reserves, and firm capacity. The model can be used to investigate additional scenarios involving alternative technology options and generation mixes, applying these scenarios within California or in other regions of interest.

Denholm, P.; Wan, Y. H.; Hummon, M.; Mehos, M.

2013-04-01

232

Ocean Planet: Ocean Market  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on foods, materials and medicines that comes form marine life, how these resources are harvested and processed and the impacts of fisheries. Students identify and classify consumer goods from the ocean and calculate their cost. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

2012-07-19

233

New renewable energy technologies and products. [USA  

SciTech Connect

This entire issue of Commercial News USA is devoted to the title subject and highlights new renewable energy products available for export that have been developed and manufactured by US companies. One main section is devoted to Technology Status and includes solar thermal; solar thermal power systems; biomass; photovoltaic; wind energy power generation; low-head hydro; and ocean energy systems. The other main section is New Products USA and includes air collectors and systems; flat plate liquid collectors and systems; concentrating collectors and systems; photovoltaic products and systems; biomass systems; industrial process heat; energy efficiency/conservation; instrumentation; and educational and research aids. Shorter sections are devoted to US Government (and non-Government) sponsored events overseas; trade events in the US; trade associations; licensing and investment proposals; trade and technical literature; additional listing of journals; selected US government publications on renewable energy technologies; other sources of information; and glossary of key terms. Two articles prepared especially for this special issue of Commercial News USA were abstracted separately: one by Dr. David Christensen of the University of Alabama, Huntsville and the other by George P. Lewett, Office of Energy-Related Inventions/NBS.

Not Available

1981-04-01

234

Oceans Alive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

Rosentrater, Lynn

235

Plasma gasification of organic containing substances as a promising way of development of alternative renewable power engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with perspectives of large-scale implementation of the plasma gasification process of solid organic-containing substances as a source of renewable energy. First of all, such substances as wood waste, agriculture waste, solid household waste are considered. Thanks to the process of the plasma high-temperature gasification the energy of their combustion can be completely converted into the energy of the synthesis gas combustion, which use as a fuel for the combined cycle allows electricity generation with efficiency of ~60 %. Thus, if the psychogenesis production wastes are considered, this technology enables avoiding additional emission of carbon dioxide into biosphere as for production of biomass from biosphere it is extracted the same amount of carbon dioxide as is emitted at its combustion. The report represents the realized and developing designs of plasma gasification, their advantages and deficiencies.

Rutberg, Ph G.; Bratsev, A. N.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Kumkova, I. I.; Popov, V. E.; Surov, A. V.

2012-12-01

236

Calibration of a high-power, low-frequency, parametric array designed for ocean environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guigné International Limited (GIL) in association with Defense Research Establishment Atlantic (DREA), has designed and built a high-powered parametric array transmitter operating at a center frequency of 100 kHz. The parametric array will be integrated into DREA's bottom-tethered Wide Band Sonar (WBS) and used to collect environmental acoustic data in littoral waters. This paper presents the results of a calibration experiment performed at DREA's acoustic calibration barge in Bedford Basin, Halifax, Canada. The data were compared to literature models for the near-field and the far-field of a parametric array. The results indicate that the interaction zone of the array is confined to the near-field and that the array approaches the limit of non-linear absorption; however, small-signal absorption plays a non-negligible role. Using a source level of 232 dB at each primary frequency, parametric array gains of -65 dB to -40 dB were measured at difference frequencies ranging from 1 to 10 kHz. The full beam widths measured to the -3 dB points were typically 2 ° to 3 °. The modeled results were in reasonable agreement with the data. The far-field model performed almost as well as the near-field model, in spite of the fact that most measurements were made within the Rayleigh distance. .

Hines, Paul C.; Hamm, Craig

2000-07-01

237

Renewable energy driven desalination systems modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources for powering desalination processes is a very promising option especially in remote and arid regions where the use of conventional energy is costly or unavailable. Renewable energy driven desalination systems have been extensively discussed as an innovative approach to desalinate water economically and in an environmentally friendly manner. The stochastic nature of renewable energy sources (RES) which

C. Koroneos; A. Dompros; G. Roumbas

2007-01-01

238

THORs Power Method for Hydrokinetic Devices - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Ocean current energy represents a vast untapped source of renewable energy that exists on the outer continental shelf areas of the 5 major continents. Ocean currents are unidirectional in nature and are perpetuated by thermal and salinity sea gradients, as well as coriolis forces imparted from the earth's rotation. This report details THORs Power Method, a breakthrough power control method that can provide dramatic increases to the capacity factor over and above existing marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices employed in the extraction of energy from ocean currents. THORs Power Method represents a constant speed, variable depth operational method that continually locates the ocean current turbine at a depth at which the rated power of the generator is routinely achieved. Variable depth operation is achieved by using various vertical force effectors, including ballast tanks for variable weight, a hydrodynamic wing for variable lift or down force and drag flaps for variable vehicle drag forces.

J. Turner Hunt; Joel Rumker

2012-08-08

239

Renewable Energy Annual 1999: Issues and Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Renewable energy provided only three percent of US utility power purchases overall in 1995, and the average purchase price of electricity from non-utilities using renewable energy was 31 percent higher than the average retail price, according the US EIA's latest Renewable Energy Annual 1999: Issues and Trends. The EIA presents additional data on renewable electricity purchases, transmission pricing issues for electricity, wood energy, and wind energy, among other topics, in this 90-page release.

240

76 FR 23848 - Carolina Power And Light Company; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Renewed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Section 6.9.1.6 to add the NRC-approved topical report, EMF-2103(P)(A), Revision 0, ``Realistic Large-Break...Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 safety analyses. Topical Report, EMF-2103(P)(A), Revision 0, was approved by the NRC...

2011-04-28

241

Corrosion and Biofouling on the Non-Heat-Exchanger Surfaces of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Power Plant: A Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Of the many foreseeable problems confronting economical ocean thermal energy conversion operation, two major items are the deterioration of the structural and functional components, which prevents efficient operation, and the biofouling of the surfaces, w...

V. J. Castelli

1979-01-01

242

Design study of a stand-alone desalination system powered by renewable energy sources and a pumped storage unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to investigate in detail the optimum design and operation strategy of a stand-alone hybrid desalination scheme, capable to fulfill the fresh water demand of an island or other remote coastal regions. The scheme consists of a reverse-osmosis desalination unit powered by wind and solar electricity production systems and by a pumped storage unit.A specific

Ioannis D. Spyrou; John S. Anagnostopoulos

2010-01-01

243

Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment.  

PubMed

Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe(2+) release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. PMID:23523911

Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

2013-05-15

244

Renewable Energy and Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued the Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) at http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/ (May 2011 electronic version; printed form ISBN 978-1-107-60710-1, 2012). More than 130 scientists contributed to the report.* The SRREN assessed existing literature on the future potential of renewable energy for the mitigation of climate change within a portfolio of mitigation options including energy conservation and efficiency, fossil fuel switching, RE, nuclear and carbon capture and storage (CCS). It covers the six most important renewable energy technologies - bioenergy, direct solar, geothermal, hydropower, ocean and wind, as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It also takes into consideration the environmental and social consequences associated with these technologies, the cost and strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion.

Chum, H. L.

2012-01-01

245

Ocean Circulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses ocean circulation. First it explains what ocean currents are and what causes them. Then it explains other aspects of the global conveyor belt such as gyres and ocean-atmosphere interactions.

Administration, National O.

2011-08-09

246

Thermodynamic performance assessment of an ammonia–water Rankine cycle for power and heat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an ammonia–water based Rankine cycle is thermodynamically analyzed for renewable-based power production, e.g. solar, geothermal, biomass, oceanic-thermal, and nuclear as well as industrial waste heat. Due to the nature of the ammonia–water mixture, changes in its concentration allow thermodynamic cycles to adapt to fluctuations in renewable energy sources, which is an important advantage with respect to other

W. R. Wagar; C. Zamfirescu; I. Dincer

2010-01-01

247

Single-Phase Inverter Control Techniques for Interfacing Renewable Energy Sources With Microgrid—Part I: Parallel-Connected Inverter Topology With Active and Reactive Power Flow Control Along With Grid Current Shaping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel current control technique is proposed to control both active and reactive power flow from a renewable energy source feeding a microgrid system through a single-phase parallel-connected inverter. The parallel-connected inverter ensures active and reactive power flow from the grid with low-current total harmonic distortion even in the presence of non- linear load. A p-q theory-based

Souvik Dasgupta; Sanjib Kumar Sahoo; Sanjib Kumar Panda

2011-01-01

248

Ocean Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of mammals that live in the ocean? First, you will need to use the Ocean Mammals Table 1. This website is here for you to learn about ocean mammals. Mammals 2. This website will help you learn about the different mammals that live in the ocean. Ocean Mammals 3. Here is some information about how oil spills effect animal skin in the ocean. Oil Spills 4. This link ...

Teschner, Miss

2011-04-06

249

Conserving mass and energy in cooling models of oceanic lithosphere requires upper mantle origins for trends in subsidence and heat flux and indicates global power of 30 TW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-dimensional conductive cooling models of ocean lithosphere fail to predict the lateral variation in oceanic heat flux and provide problematic calculations of subsidence, for reasons enumerated below. Our new model follows conservation laws and shows that bathymetric trends are tied to upper mantle temperature variations, given realistic values for thermal expansivity. Heat flux increases towards mid-ocean ridges due to (1) flux varying across upper mantle convection cells and (2) redistribution of mantle heat (Qmtl) by moving magma, and also by (3) hydrothermal circulation. Foremost, widespread, lateral, uptake of Qmtl as latent heat occurs during deep lithospheric melting but this energy is released near ridges through dike emplacement during seafloor spreading. Redistribution and energy conservation account for the local heat flux maximum near x=1200 km, heretofore unexplained. We show that the trend Qmtl(x) far from the ridge is consistent with behavior near the ridge and measured global power of <30 TW , which is compatible with quasi-steady-state conditions and an enstatite chondrite model for the Earth. Observables, such as the pattern of mid-ocean ridges on the globe, point to layered convection and lack of vigor, and gross characteristics of the Earth are supported by an enstatite chondrite model. Our analysis circumvents problems associated with 1-d conductive cooling models of the lithosphere: (1) Existing models replaced conservation of rock-mass with isostatic balance, which unwittingly created subsidence by converting lithosphere to ocean. (2) Half-space models incorrectly cancelled infinities. (3) Plate models omitted latent heat which is immense. (4) 1-d models only permit vertical contraction. These faulty constructs fitted seafloor depths through erroneous use of volumetric (?V=3?L) thermal expansivity coupled with great leeway in cross-multiplied parameters. The underlying premise that thermal aspects of lithosphere can be separately evaluated from those of the mantle is incorrect because the lithosphere is volumetrically significant (16% of the upper mantle), but not the main part of mantle circulation.

Criss, R. E.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Hamza, V. N.

2008-12-01

250

Ocean energy program summary. Volume 2: Research summaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, this stored energy is realized as waves, currents, and thermal salinity gradients. The purpose of the Federal Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy in a cost effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The OET Program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where the commercial sector can assess whether applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives or supplements to systems. Past studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to United States energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. Current program emphasis has shifted to open-cycle OTEC power system research because the closed-cycle OTEC system is at a more advanced stage of development and has already attracted industrial interest. During FY 1989, the OET Program focused primarily on the technical uncertainties associated with near-shore open-cycle OTEC systems ranging in size from 2 to 15 MW(sub e). Activities were performed under three major program elements: thermodynamic research and analysis, experimental verification and testing, and materials and structures research. These efforts addressed a variety of technical problems whose resolution is crucial to demonstrating the viability of open-cycle OTEC technology. This publications is one of a series of documents on the Renewable Energy programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. An overview of all the programs is available, entitled Programs in Renewable Energy.

1990-01-01

251

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Devices, Potential Navigational Hazards and Mitigation Measures  

SciTech Connect

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies. A technical report addressing our findings is available on this Science and Technology Information site under the Product Title, "Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures". This product is a brochure, primarily for project developers, that summarizes important issues in that more comprehensive report, identifies locations where that report can be downloaded, and identifies points of contact for more information.

Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

2009-12-01

252

One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways: direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the accident site. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 137Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured 137Cs activities not only adjacent to the accident site, but also in a wide area in the model domain, therefore this implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Employment of improved nudging data by JCOPE2 improved both the offshore transport result and the reproducibility of 137Cs activities 30 km offshore. On the other hand, simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition into the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition into the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The consideration of inflow is important to simulate the 137Cs activity in this model region in the later period of the simulation. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99%) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

2013-08-01

253

Communication systems for grid integration of renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in renewable energy around the world. Since most renewable sources are intermittent in nature, it is a challenging task to integrate renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure. In this grid integration, communication systems are crucial technologies, which enable the accommodation of distributed renewable energy generation and play an extremely important role in monitoring, operating,

F. Richard Yu; Peng Zhang; Weidong Xiao; Paul Choudhury

2011-01-01

254

A renewable commitment  

SciTech Connect

New initiatives favoring green power and wind energy are under way in Alberta, Quebec and Ontario. The Canadian government made a major commitment to green power in April when Anne McLellan, the federal minister of natural resources (NRCan), announced in Ottawa that the Canadian government has selected the City of Calgary Electric System (CCES) to acquire and distribute green power to certain federal buildings in Alberta. This will be the first federal procurement of its kind in Canada and the first supply of green power. NRCan will acquire up to 10 GWh per year of electricity generated by renewable sources for NRCan buildings, while up to 3.1 GWh per year will go to Environment Canada buildings in Alberta. The announcement was made jointly by McLellan and Sergio Marchi, federal environment minister. CCES is a municipally owned distribution utility which supplies power to about 295,000 customer accounts in Calgary, whose population exceeds 750,000. While no details of the actual types of green power supply were available in late April, sources indicated that windpower was among the supply options under consideration. The Alberta Power Pool began on January 1, 1996, as a competitive wholesale pool providing the lowest cost power from competing suppliers. The pool is the most progressive and deregulated system in Canada, and now with an apparent mechanism to deliver green power, the pool could be a model for green power procurement in Canada.

McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

1997-06-01

255

Ocean Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Talk provides a glimpse of oceanography and an awareness of the importance of the sea to our environment and our own well-being. There are scientific explanations of ocean bottom features, the properties of seawater, underwater sound, sea ice, ocean currents, tides, waves, and tsunamis. A history of marine exploration and descriptions of the Earth's oceans are also provided.

256

Heterogeneous catalysis and the challenges of powering the planet, securing chemicals for civilised life, and clean efficient utilization of renewable feedstocks.  

PubMed

This article reviews, first, the prospects, practices and principles of generating solar fuels. It does so with an analysis of recent progress in the light-driven emission of H2 (and other fuels) as well as O2 from water. To place this challenge in perspective, some current practices entailing the use of well-proven solid catalysts developed for fossil-based feedstocks, are described. The massive differences between proven methods of generating fuel and chemicals from non-renewable and from solar radiation are emphasized with the aid of numerous quantitative examples. Whilst it is acknowledged that a key action in reducing the liberation of greenhouse gases (GHG) is to tackle the challenge of decreasing their evolution in power generation and in the production of steel, aluminium and other bulk commodities (metals, alloys, concrete and ceramics), nevertheless much can be done to diminish the emission of CO2 (and to use it as feedstock) through the agency of new, designed solid catalysts and microalgae. Solar-thermal converters are also attractive alternatives, even though they are more likely to be used centrally rather than in small modular units like 'artificial leaves,' some of which are promising for the purposes of generating energy (and perhaps fuel) in a delocalized, modular manner. PMID:24988917

Thomas, John Meurig

2014-07-01

257

Ocean Wave Energy Conversion - A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean energy conversion has been of interest for many years. Recent developments such as concern over global warming have renewed interest in the topic. This paper gives a systematic and comprehensive overview of wave energy converters (WEC) as opposed to ocean current energy converters. The point absorber and oscillating water column WEC devices are addressed with regards to commercial prospects,

A. Muetze; J. G. Vining

2006-01-01

258

EVALUATION OF THE EMERGENCY EVACUATION PLAN FOR THE OYSTER CREEK NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Lacey Township, Ocean County, New Jersey is the oldest commercial nuclear generating facility operating in the nation, and is also situated in one of the fastest growing counties in the nation's most densely populated state. In July of 2005, the owners of Oyster Creek submitted an application for license renewal, which will allow it

Lindsey Conlow

259

Integrating renewable energy sources into European grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the integration of new sources of renewable energy into the power systems in Europe—challenges and possible solutions, application of wind power prediction tools for power system operation, new tasks that create new solutions for communication in distribution systems, wind power in Greece, integration of dispersed generation in Denmark, wind power in The Netherlands, EdF and distributed energy

T. J. Hammons

2008-01-01

260

Renewable energy powered membrane technology: The effect of wind speed fluctuations on the performance of a wind-powered membrane system for brackish water desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind-powered reverse osmosis membrane (wind-membrane) system without energy storage was tested using synthetic brackish water (2750 and 5500mg\\/L NaCl) over a range of simulated wind speeds under both steady-state and fluctuating conditions. The parameters varied were: (i) average wind speed from 3.7 (system start-up) to 8.7m\\/s; (ii) wind turbulence intensity from 0.0 (steady-state conditions) to 0.6 (extreme fluctuations); and

Gavin L. Park; Andrea I. Schäfer; Bryce S. Richards

2011-01-01

261

Funding for Renewable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On May 25, 1999, the House and Senate appropriation committees cut funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency programs, while at the same time increasing funding for nuclear and fossil fuel programs. This move runs counter to the opinions of most Americans, according to a recent survey commissioned by the Sustainable Energy Coalition. According to the survey, Americans believe renewable energy and energy efficiency funding should be prioritized, while nuclear power and fossil fuel spending should be reduced. Following the budget changes, President Clinton issued an executive order for federal agencies to cut energy consumption by 35 percent of 1985 levels by 2010, as the federal government is the largest consumer of energy. Clinton also urged Congress to reevaluate and approve the 2000 budget funding requests for research to help American businesses use energy-saving technology. This week's In The News examines the recent federal decisions regarding energy use and technology; the eight resources listed provide background information on this important issue.

Schultz, Jennifer J.

262

Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

2012-07-01

263

Concentrating renewable energy in grid-tied datacenters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Datacenters, the large server farms that host widely used Internet services, account for a larger fraction of world- wide carbon emissions each year. Increasingly, datacenters are reducing their emissions by using clean, renewable energy from rooftop solar panels to partially power their servers. While some customers value renewable-powered servers, many others are indifferent. We argue that renewable energy produced on

Nan Deng; Christopher Stewart; Jing Li

2011-01-01

264

Ocean engineering for ocean thermal energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

The panel on OTEC Ocean Engineering of the National Research Council was formed to assess the state of ocean engineering knowledge, technology, and practice necessary to design, construct, and operate OTEC plants. The panel concentrated its study on platforms, moorings, and foundations; the cold water pipe; and submarine cables for electric power transmission. The panel did not address the design and engineering of power plants; institutional and management issues or the commercial feasibility of OTEC; or its environmental impacts. The panel focused instead on determining the state of development of several of the ocean engineering technologies needed to design and construct a 40-MWe OTEC plant; it also examined the technical feasibility and advantages of larger and smaller plants.

Not Available

1982-01-01

265

30 CFR 585.238 - Are there any other renewable energy research activities that will be allowed on the OCS?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Are there any other renewable energy research activities that will be allowed... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING...

2013-07-01

266

30 CFR 585.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry. 585.116 Section 585.116 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING...

2013-07-01

267

Renewable Energy Glossary of Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology (CAPT) has created this 22-page glossary of renewable energy terms which was "taken in part from the EPA and the Energy Information Administrations web site, and provides definitions of a number of important terms associated with power generation technologies and their environmental impacts, including definitions of specific pollutants, technologies, and the key terms related to the electric power marketplace." From acid rain to wood pellets, the terms are defined as they relate to renewable energy development and applications.

2010-03-24

268

Ocean Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the intent to publicize information on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) major ocean exploration efforts, the Ocean Explorer Website provides a platform to follow such explorations in near real-time, learn about ocean exploration technologies, observe remote marine areas through multimedia technology, and review NOAA's 200-year history of ocean exploration. Additional NOAA resources in the Library include related links, historical books and documents, expedition reports, and journal articles significant to NOAA's historical and current ocean exploration activities. The Calendar and Projects sections provide, respectively, a descriptive schedule of upcoming explorations and information on related activities and events.

269

Blue ocean strategy.  

PubMed

Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

2004-10-01

270

Low-level waste ocean disposal program. Annual technical progress report, June 1982-June 1983. Volume I. Summary. [Decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the status of the oceanographic research program being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) in support of a US Navy environmental evaluation nuclear-powered submarines. The SNL project is entitled The Low-Level Waste Ocean Disposal Program (LLWODP). The present report covers the fourth year of the project and is presented in three volumes. Volume I provides a summary of the fourth year's accomplishments and updates the project status. Volume II and Volume III contain the scientific reports by the principal investigators for the activities during the fourth year in the Pacific and Atlantic study areas. 40 references, 52 figures, 11 tables.

Marietta, M.G.

1984-05-01

271

Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI) Solar Trend Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents trend analyses of various financial terms for solar photovoltaic (PV) projects and concentrated solar power (CSP) projects as reported in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (...

K. Cory M. Mendelsohn R. Hubbell T. Lowder

2012-01-01

272

China Rationalizes Its Renewable Energy Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's over-reliance on thermal power generation, especially coal-fired power stations, is well-documented. While nuclear power continues as an option to coal, China's strides in renewable energy are unprecedented. Recent amendments to the Renewable Energy Law, first promulgated in 2006, attempt to rationalize the regulatory regime governing wind, solar, hydropower and biomass projects in China, currently fraught with inadequate interconnection and

Jack H. Su; Simone S. Hui; Kevin H. Tsen

2010-01-01

273

China rationalizes its renewable energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's over-reliance on thermal power generation, especially coal-fired power stations, is well-documented. While nuclear power continues as an option to coal, China's strides in renewable energy are unprecedented. Recent amendments to the Renewable Energy Law, first promulgated in 2006, attempt to rationalize the regulatory regime governing wind, solar, hydropower and biomass projects in China, currently fraught with inadequate interconnection and

Jack H. Su; Simone S. Hui; Kevin H. Tsen

2010-01-01

274

Renewables for sustainable village power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification...

L. Flowers

1997-01-01

275

Studies on Problems in the Indian Ocean and Littoral States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: French presence in Indian Ocean discussed; Indian Ocean outlook analyzed; Aspects of Djibouti independence discussed; Djibouti's crucial position described; Persian Gulf situation analyzed; Indian Ocean countries seek to avoid big-power rivalrie...

1976-01-01

276

Ocean tides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

Hendershott, M. C.

1975-01-01

277

Renewing governance.  

PubMed

Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance. PMID:17208717

Loos, Gregory P

2003-01-01

278

Ocean Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Portal is a high-level directory of Ocean Data and Information related web sites. The object of the site is to help scientists and other ocean experts in locating data and information. Sites are listed in a directory with headings that include information, data, scientific topics, agencies and societies, among others.

Team, Ioc/iode M.; Oceanportal.org

279

Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into European Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the integration of new sources of renewable energy into the power systems in Europe-challenges and possible solutions, application of wind power prediction tools for power system operation, new tasks that create new solutions for communication in distribution systems, wind power in Greece, integration of dispersed generation in Denmark, EdF and distributed energy resources in France, and new

T. J. Hammons

2006-01-01

280

Ocean Wave and Tidal Energy Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current abstract publication issued bimonthly, contains information on all aspect of ocean thermal energy conversion systems based on exploitation of the temperature difference between the surface water and ocean depth, salinity gradient power systems...

1988-01-01

281

A review on the energy production, consumption, and prospect of renewable energy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is the second largest energy consumer in the world. This paper reviews the production and consumption of traditional and renewable energy in China over the past three decades. It also presents an overview on the research and development of renewable energy, such as solar, biomass, geothermal, ocean and wind energy in China. Study indicated that the usage of renewable

J. Chang; Dennis Y. C. Leung; C. Z. Wu; Z. H. Yuan

2003-01-01

282

77 FR 74512 - Interim Policy Leasing for Renewable Energy Data Collection Facility on the Outer Continental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...state- supported renewable energy activities and initiatives...development of each of the renewable energy resource types that would be...wind, ocean current, and wave. Of the 16 areas, BOEM identified...suitable areas for renewable energy resource data collection...

2012-12-14

283

The Promise of Wave Power (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable diverse energy resource plans. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans: it is estimated that if 0.2 % of the oceans' untapped energy could be harnessed, it could provide power sufficient for the entire world. Ocean energy exists in the forms of wave, tidal, marine currents, thermal (temperature gradient) and salinity. Among these forms, significant opportunities and benefits have been identified in the area of ocean wave energy extraction, i.e., harnessing the motion of the ocean waves, and converting that motion into electrical energy. Ocean wave energy refers to the kinetic and potential energy in the heaving motion of ocean waves. Wave energy is essentially concentrated solar energy (as is wind energy). The heating of the earth’s surface by the sun (with other complex processes) drives the wind, which in turn blows across the surface of the ocean to create waves. At each stage of conversion, the power density increases. Ocean wave power offers several attractive qualities, including high power density, low variability, and excellent forecastability. A typical large ocean wave propogates at around 12 m/s with very little attenuation across the ocean. If the waves can be detected several hundred kilometers off shore, there can be 10 hours or more of accurate forecast horizon. In fact, analysis has shown good forecast accuracy up to 48 hours in advance. Off the coast Oregon, the yearly average wave power is approximately 30 kW per meter of crestlength (i.e., unit length transverse to the direction of wave propagation and parallel to the shore.) This compares very favorably with power densities of solar and wind, which typically range in the several hundreds of Watts per square meter. Globally, the wave energy resource is stronger on the west coasts of large landmasses and increases in strength toward the poles. This phenomenon is due to the prevailing west to east global winds known as the "westerlies" found in the Northern and Southern hemispheres between 30 and 60 degrees latitude. Correspondingly, the west coast of the United States, the west coast of Australia, and the coastal regions of Europe have seen the greatest wave energy industrial activity to date. Ocean wave energy has great potential to be a significant contributor of renewable power for many regions in the world. For the West coast of the US alone, the total wave energy resource is estimated at 440 TWh/yr, which is more than the typical total US annual hydroelectric production (270 TWh in 2003). For US west coast states, a fully developed wave energy industry could be a significant contributor to renewable energy portfolio standards. Within the next few years, several utility-scale wave energy converters are planned for grid connection (e.g., Ocean Power Technologies and Columbia Power Technologies in Oregon, USA), with plans for more utility-scale development to follow soon after. This presentation will cover the physical basics of wave energy, examples of commercial technology, challenges opportunities for research, and an update on the wave energy research and developments at leading commercial, industrial, and academic institutions around the world.

Brekken, T.

2010-12-01

284

Assessing Renewable Energy Progress and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although substantial progress has been made during the last 35 years in renewable energy technology, total power generated by renewable energy in the United States has only grown from approximately 1.5 percent to about 10 percent, or approximately 0.25 percent per year. Over the last 35 years, total energy losses have remained close to 50 percent for all energy conversion

Joseph F. Giacinto; Paul Petzrick; Jason Litten; Brandie Sebastian; Erica Breighner; Wayne Perkins; Samantha Petzrick

2009-01-01

285

Optimization of economizer tubing system renewal decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economizer is a critical component in coal fired power stations. An optimal renewal strategy is needed for minimizing the lifetime cost of this component. Here we present an effective optimization approach which considers economizer tubing failure probabilities, repair and renewal costs, potential production losses, and fluctuations in electricity market prices.

Yong Sun; Lin Ma; Colin Fidge

2008-01-01

286

Optimal sizing of a hybrid renewable system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sizing of an electric power generation system requires an analysis of the investment, maintenance, and operation costs. In the case of a generation system that uses renewable sources the sizing it is more complex with regard to a conventional system, due to the randomness of the renewable resources, and to the even high costs of wind generators and photovoltaic modules.

Víctor Sánchez; Juan M. Ramirez; Gerardo Arriaga

2010-01-01

287

Renewable Energy: A Viable Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy systems—notably solar, wind, and biomass—are poised to play a major role in the energy economy and in improving the environmental quality of the United States. California's energy crisis focused attention on and raised fundamental questions about regional and national energy strategies. Prior to the crisis in California, there had been too little attention given to appropriate power plant

Antonia V. Herzog; Timothy E. Lipman; Jennifer L. Edwards; Daniel M. Kammen

2001-01-01

288

Shapes of a Renewable Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To rely on coal and nuclear power as sources of energy is to narrow society's future options and to present numerous problems. Renewable solar energy, on the other hand, can preserve rather than reduce options. More jobs, rising self-reliance, and new equalities between nations will be the result. (RM)

Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

1983-01-01

289

Errors in modeling contraction, isostatic compensation and rock-mass balance in conductive cooling models of the oceanic lithosphere: Implications on Earth's power, radioactive contents, and convective style  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High values of global power (44 TW) are derived from cooling models of the oceanic floor, which find support through their alleged prediction of seafloor depths. However, a factor of 3 error exists in equations used to predict depth as a function of seafloor age. These models allow for contraction only in z, which is governed by linear thermal expansivity (?l), yet volumetric expansivity (?v= 3?l) has been erroneously used. Many additional problems exist in half-space and plate models: (1) Isostacy was considered, but rock-mass was not conserved, which means that subsidence as modeled, involves changing rock to water. (2) Contraction is based on infinitely high columns in the half-space model. (3) The half-space is assumed to start at z = dw, which means that T(z) should depend on dw but all such terms have been dropped. (4) Constant surface and constant basal temperatures are assumed, so the average temperature of the lithosphere cannot possibly change: thus, cooling or contraction is not permitted by model assumptions: the calculated contraction instead results from all these errors. These faulty 1-d models fit globally averaged depths only for seafloor ages < 60 My and only if basal temperature is ca 4000 K using reasonable values for the various physical parameters. This value is incompatible with mantle petrology, and predicts an excessive global power of >130 TW. Neither seafloor depths nor heat flux are represented by 1-d conductive cooling models. Instead of originating in contraction, subsidence actually results because mid-ocean ridges overlie hot mantle upwellings at the edge of convection cells, whereas old oceanic floor overlies colder mantle over the flanks of the convection cells. We show that upper mantle temperatures govern seafloor subsidence, suggesting layered convection.. Moreover, recent assessment of heat flow data, corrected for duplications and errors in location, limits global power to between 31+/-3 TW. This value is consistent with an enstatite chondrite model of the bulk silicate Earth, and does not require K or other substantial heat sources in the core. Known sequestering of most of the radioactives in the crust efficiently expels heat. Quasi-steady state is consistent with stratified convection.

Hofmeister, A. M.; Criss, R. E.; Hamza, V. M.

2007-12-01

290

Ocean energy program summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, they collect and store this energy as waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy cost effectively and in a way that does not harm the environment. The program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where industry can accurately assess whether the technology is a viable energy conversion alternative, or supplement, to current power generating systems. In past studies, DOE identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which uses the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water, as the most promising of the ocean energy technologies. As a result, the OET Program is concentrating on research that advances the OTEC technology. The program also continues to monitor and study developments in wave energy, ocean current, and salinity gradient concepts; but it is not actively developing these technologies now.

1990-01-01

291

Initial flux of sediment-associated radiocesium to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to quantify the flux of radiocesium in the Abukuma Basin (5,172 km2), the largest river system affected by fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) event. In the period from 10 August 2011 to 11 May 2012 an estimated 84 to 92% of the total radiocesium transported in the basin's fluvial system was carried in particulate form. During this monitoring period Typhoon Roke (September 2011) was observed to induce a significant and temporally punctuated redistribution of radiocesium. The storm-mobilised radiocesium was an estimated 6.18 Terabecquerels corresponding to 61.4% of the total load delivered to the coastal zone during the observation period. The total flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean estimated at the outlet station (basin area 5,172 km2) was 5.34 TBq for 137Cs, and 4.74 TBq for 134Cs, corresponding to 1.13% of the total estimated radiocesium fallout over the basin catchment (890 TBq). This was equivalent to the estimated amount of direct leakage from FDNPP to the ocean during June 2011 to September 2012 of 17 TBq and the Level 3 Scale Leakage on 21August 2013 (24 TBq).

Yamashiki, Yosuke; Onda, Yuichi; Smith, Hugh G.; Blake, William H.; Wakahara, Taeko; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Matsuura, Yuki; Yoshimura, Kazuya

2014-01-01

292

Hydrokinetic Energy: Overview and it's Renewable Energy Potential for the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean energy conversion has been of interest for many years. Recent developments such as concern over global warming have renewed interest in the topic. Part II provides an overview of the energy found in ocean waves and how each type of device utilizes the available ocean wave energy. Part III of this study focuses on wave energy converters (WEC) as

Jeremiah Pastor; Yucheng Liu

2012-01-01

293

Renewable Energy Guide for Highway Maintenance Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a guide for the application of renewable energy technologies to the heating and cooling, lighting, and electrical power requirements of highway maintenance facilities. The guide will be of immediate interest to staff of state departme...

D. Panich J. Cohen J. Mello R. Lorand

2013-01-01

294

Generation of renewable energy certificates from distributed procedures  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system and method for recorded renewable energy certificates from power produced by small power generators is provided. An appliance can include a renewable energy source and electronics to monitor and control the charging of batteries in the appliance utilizing power from the renewable energy source. Power from the batteries can be utilized to power or charge external devices. The electronics also records the total power production from the renewable energy source and uploads transaction records to either an external device for transmission to a records server or uploads it directly to the records server itself. The records server compiles the transaction records and generates renewable energy certificates by aggregating the transaction records. Renewable energy certificates can be redeemed in exchange for real or virtual goods and services.

2014-01-14

295

Technical review of energy storage technologies when integrated with intermittent renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind power, solar power and wave power are highly variable output. Theses energy sources are most of the time not load following. Consequently, renewable energy has limited contribution in power generation and it is difficult to be controlled. It is often stated that, this problem of intermittent renewable can be solved by integration with

B. R. Alamri; A. R. Alamri

2009-01-01

296

RENEWABLE PRODUCTION CAPACITIES INVESTMENT PROJETS MODELING, USING SPECIALIZED SOFTWARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of sustainable development strategy concept for worldwide energetic sector, the renewable energies took the priority interest both of the investors and the power producers. Taking into consideration also the environmental protection constrains, the energetic investment trend leads to considerably increase the renewable projects number. The paper reveals the capacity of renewable projects modeling, using the specialized software

Adrian Albeanu

297

The role of Remedial Action Schemes in renewable generation integrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enabling renewable generation integration to the power grids has become an essential element of the smart grid roadmap. As electric utilities prepare to meet the Renewable Portfolio Standard goals, advanced sensing and communication technologies can be used to facilitate renewable integration. The Remedial Action Scheme (RAS) is becoming an attractive mitigation approach to maintain transmission system reliability and security, while

Jun Wen; P. Arons; W.-H. E. Liu

2010-01-01

298

Advanced mechanisms for the promotion of renewable energy—Models for the future evolution of the German Renewable Energy Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German Renewable Energy Act (EEG) has been very successful in promoting the deployment of renewable electricity technologies in Germany. The increasing share of EEG power in the generation portfolio, increasing amounts of fluctuating power generation, and the growing European integration of power markets governed by competition calls for a re-design of the EEG. In particular, a more efficient system

Ole Langniß; Jochen Diekmann; Ulrike Lehr

2009-01-01

299

Ocean geography for ocean science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanding needs for ocean resources, together with the design and diffusion of new kinds of deep-ocean and coastal management\\u000a patterns, have changed profoundly in the transition from modern to post-modern society. As a result, the scientific approach\\u000a to the ocean has also undergone profound changes, which have marked the epistemology of disciplines, their logical backgrounds\\u000a and methods. This process

Adalberto Vallega

1999-01-01

300

Ocean wave energy device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an ocean wave energy device of a type including a buoy which reciprocates in a substantially vertical direction in response to successive waves of variable frequency passing therebeneath, the buoy being supported upon a substantially vertically oriented shaft and a power take off means including a shaft driven by movement of the vertical shaft. The improvement described

J. P. LaStella; M. G. Tornabene

1986-01-01

301

Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

Moriarty, K.

2013-01-01

302

Does the marine biosphere mix the ocean?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean mixing is thought to control the climatically important oceanic overturning circulation. Here we argue the marine biosphere, by a mechanism like the bioturbation occurring in marine sediments, mixes the oceans as effectively as the winds and tides. This statement is derived ultimately from an estimated 62.7 TeraWatts of chemical power provided to the marine environment in net primary production.

W. K. Dewar; R. J. Bingham; R. L. Iverson; D. P. Nowacek; L. C. St. Laurent; P. H. Wiebe

2006-01-01

303

30 CFR 585.508 - What rent payments must I pay on ROW grants or RUE grants associated with renewable energy projects?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or RUE grants associated with renewable energy projects? 585.508 Section 585.508 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING...

2013-07-01

304

Arctic Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that...

C. L. Parkinson

2000-01-01

305

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

306

Ocean Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

Nasa

307

Ocean eddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and empirical data for three classes of ocean eddies are summarized: 1) gigantic anticyclonic gyres; 2) meanders, rings, and synoptic eddies in the open ocean; and, 3) mesoscale eddies (lenses of foreign waters and rotating cells of forced convection). A number of new results obtained in the last few years are reported: linear and nonlinear instability of gigantic

A S Monin; G M Zhikharev

1990-01-01

308

Ocean Acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans play a central role in the maintenance of life on Earth. Oceans provide extensive ecosystems for marine animals and plants covering two-thirds of the Earth's surface, are essential sources of food, economic activity, and biodiversity, and are central to the global biogeochemical cycles. The oceans are the largest reservoir of carbon in the Planet, and absorb approximately one-third of the carbon emissions that are released to the Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities. Since the beginning of industrialization, humans have been responsible for the increase in one greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), from approximately 280 parts per million (ppm) at the end of the nineteenth century to the current levels of 390ppm. As well as affecting the surface ocean pH, and the organisms living at the ocean surface, these increases in CO2 are causing global mean surface temperatures to rise.

Iglesias-Rodriguez, Maria Debora

309

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students discover that measurements from space can tell us the temperature of the ocean, both on an annual average and as measured on any given date. For the annual average the highest ocean temperatures are near the equator, and drop as one moves either northward or southward from the equator. Students will graph each temperature value as a function of latitude and write a linear equation that best fits the points on their graph. They can choose as data points any point at that approximate latitude because the temperature is not uniform for a certain latitude - some areas are hotter and some are cooler. They can also look at today's ocean temperatures via the link provided to see how the seasons affect whether the northern or southern oceans are warmer. Students will take ocean temperature data from a map and plot temperature versus angle from the equator.

310

Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 18 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3, and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

2013-09-01

311

Final Report: Phase II Geothermal Exploration and Geothermal Power Plant Update for Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I study of the geothermal potential of Ascension Island concluded that the possibility of a geothermal resource existing under the island was excellent. This conclusion was based on the presence of young volcanic rocks (a heat source close to the surface), an ample supply of water from the sea, and high permeability of many of the rocks which make up the island. The assumption was made that the resource would be similar to geothermal systems in the Azores or Japan, and a conceptual design of a power plant to utilize the resource was prepared upon which cost estimates and an economic analysis were subsequently performed. The results of the economic analysis were very favorable, and the Air Force decided to proceed into Phase II of the project. Under Phase II, an exploration program was designed and carried out. The purpose of the program was to ascertain whether or not a geothermal resource existed beneath Ascension island and, to the extent possible, to evaluate the quality of that resource. The exploration involved a detailed aeromagnetic survey of the island, reconnaissance and detailed electrical resistivity surveys, and drilling of holes for the measurement of temperatures. These methods have confirmed the existence of geothermal activity beneath Ascension. Measured temperature gradients and bottom hole temperatures as well as chemical geothermometers indicate temperatures sufficient for the generation of electricity within reasonable drilling depths. This report documents those conclusions and the supporting data. This report also documents the results of the power plant update with new data supplied from the Phase II exploration activities on the island. The power plant scenario has been changed to reflect the fact that the resource temperature may not be as high as that originally assumed in the Phase I study, the location of the production wells will in all likelihood be farther from the existing Air Force facilities--either north of Grazing Valley or south of Traveller's Hill--and the demand for power has increased which results in a more efficient utilization of the geothermal resource. The power plant concept chosen is similar to that used for Phase I in that small, modular, skid-mounted, factory assembled and tested, units are used to supply the power and potable water.

Nielson, D.L.; Sibbett, B.S.; Shane, M.K.; Whitbeck, J.F.

1984-07-01

312

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Mai, T.

2012-11-01

313

Learning About Renewable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development and their mission is focused on advancing the U.S. Department of Energy's energy goals. As part of their mission, NREL provides educational and informational tools on their website and it is a great source of information on renewable energy basics. Topics available here include: using renewable energy, energy delivery and storage basics, advanced vehicles, fuels basics, and student resources.

2010-03-31

314

Renewable Energy: Capstone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the culminating activity in the series of lessons on renewable energy. It serves to reinforce the idea that renewable sources of energy are necessary for a sustainable fuure, and to discuss some of the present impacts and potential drawbacks to renewable energy. In the activity, sudents will use online resources to research their present energy consumption and investigate whether it could economically be replaced by renewable sources.

Pratte, John

315

Ocean Water: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In regions throughout the world oceans, water moves vertically to or down away from the surface and is set in motion by atmospheric winds, salinity and temperature differences. Cold water is much denser than warm and seawater has a higher density that fresh water and will sink below the less dense layer of water. Furthermore, vertical mixing powered by atmospheric winds can affect stratification and the rate of growth of the surface boundary layer. This lab activity is a simulation of the processes that create density stratification in ocean environments. It exposes students to concepts of temperature, salinity and wind and the role each plays in the development of water stratification.

Robinson, Judy

316

Global Renewable Energy Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Currently, renewable energy sources supply 14% of the total world energy demand. Renewable energy is a promising alternative solution because it is clean

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

317

Earth's Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides a good introduction to the structure of the ocean. Included are excellent graphics and text about patterns of ocean salinity and temperature with depth, as well as surface currents, deep ocean circulation and even the water cycle. Extensive in-text links provide the means for users to explore the content in an open-ended fashion, although some might find the lack of any obvious top-level navigation to be disorienting.

2008-01-01

318

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

319

Ocean Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an overview of ocean surface circulation. Satellite and model data allows high school students to investigate circulation patterns, navigation, associated weather and climate, natural hazards and marine resources. There are five lessons affiliated with this site; the teacher and student guides to each can be accessed directly from the home page. (Note that these lessons are cataloged individually.) Other links provide information on background, impact, gathering data, researchers, data resources and a glossary. There are also online quizzes on the home page on navigation, coriolis force, satellites, ocean warming, energy balance, and ocean gyres.

320

Future Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

321

Ocean Acre.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume reverberation resulting from the deep scattering layers (DSL) is an important source of interference to acoustic systems in large areas of the world's oceans. Much is unknown about how volume reverberation varies, diurnally, seasonally, and geograp...

1970-01-01

322

Ocean Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website offers a review of the surface circulation of Earth's ocean and classroom investigations appropriate for various disciplines at the high school level. Articles and video interviews about ocean current research, interactive data visualizes, news articles, simplified models, teacher and student guides will create resources for diverse audiences who are impacted by ocean surface currents. This site highlights use of data derived from the on-line satellite data of Earth for understanding patterns of ocean surface currents and how they relate to issues of human exploration, commerce, science, weather/climate, and pollution. Classroom-ready, interdisciplinary investigation swill help high school students practice science, mathematics and writing skills matched to national standards and will be keyed to topics covered in the traditional high school curriculum. Each investigation is keyed to the stages of the 5 E's teacher/learning model.

Tweedie, Sara

2010-09-17

323

Ocean wave energy overview and research at Oregon State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable a diverse national energy resource plan. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans. Ocean energy exists in the forms of wave, tidal, marine currents, thermal (temperature gradient) and salinity. Among these forms, significant opportunities and

Ted K. A. Brekken; Annette von Jouanne; Hai Yue Han

2009-01-01

324

Governmental Regulation of Ocean Wave Energy Converter Installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in ocean energy converter technology has increased with the revival of renewable energy awareness. To date, ocean current energy converters have been implemented with relatively mature technology when compared to wave energy converters. Despite the novelty of wave energy, several commercial wave energy projects have recently been undertaken. However, this process has not been accompanied by the development of

J. G. Vining; A. Muetze

2007-01-01

325

Comparing Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A variety of classroom activities and lessons that compare the world's oceans. Activities included: The Gulf of Maine, Satellite Comparisons, Design a Fish, What Migrations, Incredible Feasting of Whales, Paddle to the Sea, and Ocean Soundings. Discover why weather at identical latitudes is not always the same, learn the different ways whales eat, and find out the temperature difference between the Gulf Stream and surrounding water. Links to other Aquarium modules.

326

National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences: new opportunities for ocean research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of the NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) is to support basic, curiosity-driven research, using a competitive process based on peer-review to guide selection of grants for financial support. OCE is the leading U.S. government source of ocean science funding for academic institutions. OCE supports research in biological, chemical and physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics; ocean technology development; dedicated educational activities; large shipboard equipment and shared-use instruments; the U.S. academic research fleet, submersibles, and scientific ocean drilling (ODP/IODP). In our poster, we describe OCE plans for new infrastructure projects to support research, and some of the new research and education programs being developed. Two large ocean science infrastructure projects -- a drilling vessel conversion and the ocean observatories initiative -- have already been approved for possible inclusion in a future NSF budget request. The drilling vessel will contribute to a new international scientific ocean drilling program to replace the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), which ends in 2003. We continue to refine our plan for the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), another large infrastructure program that will provide a continuous ocean presence to advance research and education. We are also working closely with the Office of Naval Research and other agency partners to implement a federal plan to renew the academic fleet. We continue to initiate new research and education programs. Two recent examples are Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) and Centers for Oceans and Human Health; the latter supported jointly with the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences. COSEE is building a nationally coordinated effort in ocean science education designed to integrate ocean science research into delivery of high-quality education programs in the ocean sciences. The Centers for Oceans and Human Health program encourages interdisciplinary research teams to conduct innovative studies into the incidence and prevention of disease in humans related to harmful algal blooms and pathogens in marine environments.

Yoder, J. A.; Tenney, A. B.

2003-04-01

327

An agglomerative hierarchical clustering tool for renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind power based energy generation technologies are intensively studied in renewable energy generation issues since last century. The main demands directed to a renewable energy source are being reliable, sustainable and low-cost. Several studies are performed to increase the efficiency of an installed wind power plants. The preliminary analyses such as geographical structures, climate conditions, and land topography should

Ilhami Colak; Ersan Kabalci; Mehmet Yesilbudak; H. Ibrahim Bulbul

2011-01-01

328

Hybrid renewable energy system development in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes PEA's programme on design, implementation and evaluation of pilot hybrid renewable energy systems for electrification of remote villages in Thailand. It is proposed that three hybrid energy systems namely, PV\\/Microhydro\\/Diesel\\/Battery, PV\\/Diesel\\/Battery and PV batteryless grid connected power stations be installed to demonstrate and evaluate advanced renewable technologies. Methodologies used in systems design, descriptions and operations of the

P. Kruangpradit; W. Tayati

1996-01-01

329

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures  

SciTech Connect

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies, as summarized herein. The contract also required cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and two recipients of awards (Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision) in a sub-topic area to develop a protocol to identify streamlined, best-siting practices. Over the period of this contract, PCCI and our sub-consultants, David Basco, Ph.D., and Neil Rondorf of Science Applications International Corporation, met with USCG headquarters personnel, with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers headquarters and regional personnel, with U.S. Navy regional personnel and other ocean users in order to develop an understanding of existing practices for the identification of navigational impacts that might occur during construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. At these same meetings, “standard” and potential mitigation measures were discussed so that guidance could be prepared for project developers. Concurrently, PCCI reviewed navigation guidance published by the USCG and international community. This report summarizes the results of this effort, provides guidance in the form of a checklist for assessing the navigational impacts of potential marine and hydrokinetic projects, and provides guidance for improving the existing navigational guidance promulgated by the USCG in Navigation Vessel Inspection Circular 02 07. At the request of the USCG, our checklist and mitigation guidance was written in a generic nature so that it could be equally applied to offshore wind projects. PCCI teleconferenced on a monthly basis with DOE, Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision in order to share information and review work products. Although the focus of our effort was on marine and hydrokinetic technologies, as defined above, this effort drew upon earlier work by the USCG on offshore wind renewable energy installations. The guidance provided herein can be applied equally to marine and hydrokinetic technologies and to offshore wind, which are collectively referred to by the USCG as Renewable Energy Installations.

Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

2009-12-10

330

Variable renewable generation and grid operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advancement in wind and solar technology, now large wind-farms and PV systems are being integrated in the power system. This brings new level of challenges for both protection and planning engineers. This paper reviews the renewable power generation technologies available in the current market and challenges in integrating these in the grid. An introduction is provided for the

Amit Jain; Kamal Garg

2010-01-01

331

Turbines in the ocean  

SciTech Connect

It is noted that the relatively high-speed ocean currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the ocean surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an average ocean-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.

Smith, F.G.W.; Charlier, R.H.

1981-09-01

332

Numerical simulation of propagation of radioactive pollution in the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation of the large-scale horizontal mixing and transport of radioactive water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) (141°02' E, 37°27' N, east coast of Honshu Island, Japan) and the use of the satellite altimetric velocity field in the northwestern Pacific allowed us to obtain the following results. The patch of radioactive water dumped from the NPP propagated eastwards as jets of an extension of the Kuroshio Current. The discovered phenomenon of trapping the radionuclides by stable and unstable manifolds of local synoptic eddies may be harmful for living organisms. If one assumes that pollution of considerable areas of coastal waters near Honshu Island took place due to fallout of radioactive precipitation with rain, then a part of the radioactive water may be subjected to north-bound advection and is mixing under the impact of stable and unstable manifolds of the triple-eddy system to the north of the NPP. No radionuclide flux from the Tsugaru strait into the Sea of Japan has been found in the surface layer. Nevertheless, there is a small likelihood of their penetration there with a deep counter current and/or due to wind drift.

Prants, S. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.; Budyansky, M. V.

2011-08-01

333

Detailed source term estimation of atmospheric release during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal variations of release amounts of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident and their dispersion process are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. Here, we estimated a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data and coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations by WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN developed by the authors. New schemes for wet, dry, and fog depositions of radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (I-131, Te-132, Cs-137, and Cs-134) were incorporated into WSPEEDI-II. The deposition calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data of ocean dispersion calculations by SEA-GEARN. The reverse estimation method based on the simulation by both models assuming unit release rate (1 Bq h-1) was adopted to estimate the source term at the FNPP1 using air dose rate, and air sea surface concentrations. The results suggested that the major release of radionuclides from the FNPP1 occurred in the following periods during March 2011: afternoon on the 12th when the venting and hydrogen explosion occurred at Unit 1, morning on the 13th after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight on the 14th when several openings of SRV (steam relief valve) were conducted at Unit 2, morning and night on the 15th, and morning on the 16th. The modified WSPEEDI-II using the newly estimated source term well reproduced local and regional patterns of air dose rate and surface deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 obtained by airborne observations. Our dispersion simulations also revealed that the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPP1 were created from 15th to 16th March by complicated interactions among rainfall (wet deposition), plume movements, and phase properties (gas or particle) of I-131 and release rates associated with reactor pressure variations in Units 2 and 3.

Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kajino, Mizuo

2014-05-01

334

Physical Problems in Modeling the Global Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and modeling the physical ocean circulation is of primary importance for both enhancing the science of the ocean, and for providing rational projections of future climate. This talk aims to outline fundamental physical and numerical aspects of ocean climate modeling. We highlight features associated with representing elements of the continuum ocean fluid using a discrete model lattice. A major challenge of this representation includes the parameterization of scales which are unresolved by the simulation. This subgrid-scale problem is ubiquitous in computational fluid dynamics, and forms a major focus of ongoing research and development with ocean climate models. Another challenge involves developing robust numerical methods whose truncation errors do not adversely corrupt the quasi-ideal nature of much of the ocean circulation outside of boundary layers. Progress has been made on both fronts, with improvements arising from better understanding of the ocean, smarter methods used to simulate the ocean, and enhancements in computational power.

Griffies, Stephen

2008-03-01

335

National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Learning About Renewable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) research into renewable energy technologies and provides information on energy efficiency and various applications of renewable energy. Topics include the major categories of renewable energy (biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind); how renewable energy technologies can be used by consumers and providers; and how renewable energy can be stored and delivered. There is also information on advanced transportation technologies and links to a variety of educational resources for students about renewable energy sources and technologies.

336

Impact of communication over a TCP\\/IP network on the performance of a coordinated control scheme to reduce power fluctuation due to distributed renewable energy generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of small scale solar & wind generation into distribution networks could cause power fluctuations due to the intermittent & random nature of these sources. This could become one of the significant concern in future power system operator. Though the development of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) can address effectively the aforesaid concern, the high cost of batteries making

Kithsiri M. Liyanage; M. A. Muhammed Manaz; A. Yokoyama; Y. Ota; H. Taniguchi; T. Nakajima

2011-01-01

337

The SURA Coastal Ocean Observing and Prediction (SCOOP) Program: Adapting Web 2.0 technologies to power next generation science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Web 2.0 has helped globalize the economy and change social interactions, but the full impact on coastal sciences has yet to be realized. The SCOOP program (www.OpenIOOS.org/about/sura.html), an initiative of the Coastal Research Committee of the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA), has been using Web 2.0 technologies to create infrastructure for a multi-disciplinary Distributed Coastal Laboratory (DCL). In the spirit of the Web 2.0, SCOOP strives to provide an open-access virtual facility where "virtual visiting" scientists can log in, perform experiments (e.g., evaluate new wetting/drying algorithms in several different inundation models), potentially contribute to the assembly of resources (e.g., leave their algorithms for others), and then move on. The SCOOP prototype has focused on storm surge and waves (the initial science focus), and integrates a real-time data network to evaluate the predictions. The multi-purpose SCOOP components support a sensor-web initiative (www.OOSTethys.org) that is co-led by SURA. SCOOP also includes portals with real-time visualization, workflow configuration and decision-tool prototypes (www.OpenIOOS.org), powered by distributed computing resources from multiple universities across the nation (www.sura.org/SURAgrid). Based on our experience, we propose three key ingredients for initiatives to have the biggest impact on coastal science: (1) standards, (2) working prototypes and (3) communities of interest. We strongly endorse the Open Geospatial Consortium - a geospatial analog of the World Wide Web consortium - and other international consensus-standards bodies that engage government, private sector and academic involvement. But these standards are often highly complex, which can be an impediment to their use. We have overcome such hurdles with the second key ingredient: a focused working prototype. The prototype should include guides and resources that make it easy for others to apply, test, and revise the prototype, all without need to understand the standards in their overwhelming complexity. In addition, the prototype should support direct involvement of the third key ingredient: communities of interest that assess functional relevance. We expect that any two of these ingredients alone, without the third, will severely limit applicability and impact of any initiative.

Bogden, P.; Partners, S.

2008-12-01

338

Ocean data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is keeping pace with the emerging information society by offering a host of oceanographic information and charts via a new automated fax service. Scientists, fishermen, students, sailors, and mariners will now be able to dial a 24-hour service—900-28-CHART—to obtain 15 different analysis charts that detail sea surface temperatures and surface current speed and direction, for example. The analyses will be available at both high and low resolution for various regions of the coastal United States, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The charge will be $1.50 per minute, with charts taking 2-4 min to transmit. NOAA's Ocean Products Center will also offer technical assistance to interpret the fax charts. A staff oceanographer may be reached by calling 900-288-HELP between 2:30 and 4:30 p.m. EST, Monday through Friday. The charge is $3.00 a minute.

339

Arctic Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

340

Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to show how cost-minimization at the more complex plant level may deviate from cost-minimization at the generating unit level.

Kneifel, Joshua D.

341

National Renewable Energy Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Lab is the U.S. Department of Energy's premier laboratory for renewable energy research and development and a leading laboratory for energy efficiency research and development. The web site provides access to a large array of information that targets many different audiences. There are educational links and classroom activities and projects suited for audiences from primary education through college-level. Other features include information about different forms of energy, databases on renewable energy production, an extensive photo gallery, and information on current research and applications in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

2002-04-01

342

Renewable energy: an overview  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies use the energy from non-depletable sources: sunshine, water flow and vegatation. The most common renewable energy devices are solar collectors, windmills, woodburning stoves, and hydroelectric turbines. Variations of some of these devices have been used for decades. Today, efficient versions are being developed to reduce our use of non-renewable resources, such as oil, natural gas and coal. Many of the systems utilizing renewable energy require a large initial investment but can offer long-term savings over the life of the system.

Not Available

1984-09-01

343

Understanding Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on oceans currents and their effects. Students do a lab activity to show that temperature is what causes ocean currents. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

Cahill, Mary

344

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

Osis, Vicki

345

Ocean Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Geosciences Union has been working on a number of open access journals over the past few years, and Ocean Science is just such an endeavor. The intent of the journal is to publish research articles, review papers, and short communications of all stripes. Visitors can sign up for RSS feeds, look over the "General Information" area, and also learn about their submission guidelines. In the "Online Library OS" area, visitors can view recently revised papers, complete issues, special issues, and also search past works by title or author. Also, visitors are welcome to comment on published works and they can also sign up to receive an email subscription to Ocean Science.

346

Public comments on the proposed 10 CFR Part 51 rule for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses and supporting documents: Review of concerns and NRC staff response. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review of public comments provided in response to the NRC`s proposed amendments to 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 51, which establish new requirements for the environmental review of applications for the renewal of operating licenses of nuclear power plants. The public comments include those submitted in writing, as well as those provided at public meetings that were held with other Federal agencies, State agencies, nuclear industry representatives, public interest groups, and the general public. This report also contains the NRC staff response to the various concerns raised, and highlights the changes made to the final rule and the supporting documents in response to these concerns.

NONE

1996-05-01

347

The present status and the future development of renewable energy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the biggest energy consuming countries, China has to pay a great attention to the development and utilization of renewable energy to meet the increasing energy demand and to protect its environment. In this paper, the present status of the resources, development and application of different kind renewable energies including solar thermal, wind, biomass, geothermal and ocean energies,

Luguang Yan; Li Kong

1997-01-01

348

30 CFR 585.426 - When must I submit my request for renewal?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING...CONTINENTAL SHELF Lease and Grant Administration Lease Or Grant Renewal...You must submit to BOEM all information we request pertaining to...

2013-07-01

349

Renewable resources in the US electricity supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and waste) currently provide nearly 12 percent of the Nation's electricity supply. Almost 10 of this 12 percent is provided by hydroelectric resources alone. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) together contribute more than 1 percent. All other renewable resources, including geothermal, wind, and solar, together provide less than 1 percent of the total. Many renewable resources are relative newcomers to the electric power market. In particular, electricity generation using geothermal, wind, solar, and MSW resources have had their greatest expansion in the 1980's. This was a result of significant technological improvements, the implementation of favorable Federal and State policies, and the reaction to the increasing costs of using fossil and nuclear fuels. The use of renewable resources for electricity generation has also been encouraged as less environmentally damaging than fossil fuels. Because renewable energy is available domestically, renewable resources are viewed as more secure than imported fossil fuels. Descriptions of the history, current use, and forecasted future applications of renewable resources for electricity generation and of the factors that influence those applications are presented.

1993-03-01

350

Toward a Regional Geography of Renewable Electrical Energy Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is postulated that many types of renewable energy resources, like fossil fuels, are amenable to regional availability analysis. Among these are hydropower, geothermal, ocean temperature gradient, wind, and direct solar energy. A review of the spatial attributes of each of these types reveals areas of the United States that contain comparative…

Pryde, Philip R.

351

Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for electricity generation in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy encompasses a broad range of energy resources. Bangladesh is known to have a good potential for renewable energy, but so far no systematic study has been done to quantify this potential for power generation. This paper estimates the potential of renewable energy resources for power generation in Bangladesh from the viewpoint of different promising available technologies. Estimation of

Manfred Denich

2010-01-01

352

Financing investments in renewable energy: The role of policy design and restructuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs of electric power projects utilizing renewable energy technologies are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on project financing. This report describes the power plant financing process and provides insights to policymakers on the

Ryan Wiser; Steven Pickle

1997-01-01

353

Role of Satellites for Renewable Energy Generation Technologies in Urban Regional and Urban Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the renewable energy sector and the role satellites can play in its development and deployment. Satellite based sensors can provide useful information regarding the renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biodiesel and hydropower. This paper also discusses the concept of distributed power generation and how the renewable energy power can be used to implement the concept.

Adeel Ghayur

2006-01-01

354

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

355

Ocean Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) team produces high-resolution detailed imagery of significant ocean events. OSEI products typically include sea surface temperature plots and single-channel imagery of oil spills. The images are available in several different file sizes; standard (full resolution) and preview (thumbnail).

Imagery, Operational S.; Noaa

356

Ocean World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The majority of Ocean World is devoted to a series of ten reference sections: coral reefs, currents, El Nino, Fisheries, Ice Ages, icebergs, JASON-1 (a satellite), the role of the ocean in weather, satellites and ocean exploration, and waves. Each section culminates with an interactive quiz, links to sources of related real-time data, and a list of additional related links. Also available is a set of supplementary services, including a glossary, a question and answer section called Ask Dr.Bob, an index page for all of the available real-time dataset sources, primer pages on the use of internet technology, and links to three distance learning courses in oceanography offered by Texas A&M university. An additional series of link lists are broken up into Four Star Sites, General Links, and (the site author's) Bookmarks. Finally, under a teacher's introductory section to the site, instructors can access a guide to using Ocean World in the classroom, find advice on teaching oceanography in general, locate technology lab stations, and follow links to additional teaching resources.

357

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students choose shell fragments from different species of Molluscs and calculate percent lose after soaking in different ph solutions for different periods of time. They research ocean acidification and especially local events off the Oregon coast to apply to this activity.

Bown, Jennifer

358

Ocean's resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resources of the oceans may be broadly grouped as tangible or material, and intangible. The tangible resources group includes petroleum and related substances, such as sulfur; many other minerals, involving partically all of the elements; the biological resources, in which the greatest investments of marine industry to date have been made and where the vast potentials for the future

1968-01-01

359

Empty Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the human population affect the population of marine species? What can citizens do to sustain seafood populations? In this lesson, students will learn how pieces of the ocean food web, fish, are being removed faster than they can be replenished. Students will also learn how they can become informed consumers to promote sustainable seafood.

360

Ocean bowling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coach Scott Carpenter, a biology teacher at Lexington High School in Massachusetts, says that “some [students] want to show that they can win on a football field, and some want to show that they know science better than anyone else.”His team of four sophomores and one senior proved their mettle when they won the 1998 National Ocean Science Bowl on April 27.

Showstack, Randy

361

Renewable Energy in Alaska  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

Not Available

2013-03-01

362

Renewable Energy News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Renewable Energy News is a comprehensive source which provides world-wide updates on all aspects of renewable energies. The site provides links to organizations and web directories of related products and information. The site is organized in a user-friendly way with issues organized by topic or region. Science, technology, economy energy, and nuclear review are highlighted areas of news.

2007-09-17

363

Renewing Urban Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an approach to urban renewal, called the Multi-Function Polis (MFP), which emphasizes education as a key factor in a renewal process that includes development of 21st century industries such as information technology, telecommunications, and environmental management. Focusing on Adelaide, Australia, as an example, the paper…

Mayfield, John

364

Internal Wave Propagation and Numerically Induced Diapycnal Mixing in Oceanic General Circulation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical ocean models have become powerful tools for providing a realistic view of the ocean state and for describing ocean processes that are difficult to observe. Recent improvements in model performance focus on simulating realistic ocean interior mixing rates, as ocean mixing is the main physical process that creates water masses and maintains their properties. Below the mixed layer, diapycnal

Flavien Gouillon

2010-01-01

365

Renewable Electricity Futures: Exploration of a U.S. Grid with 80% Renewable Electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable Electricity Futures is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States over the next several decades. This study explores the implications and challenges of very high renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies in 2050. At such high levels of renewable electricity penetration, the unique characteristics of some renewable resources, specifically geographical distribution and variability and un-certainty in output, pose challenges to the operability of the nation's electric system. The study focuses on key technical implications of this environment from a national perspective, exploring whether the U.S. power system can supply electricity to meet customer demand on an hourly basis with high levels of renewable electricity, including variable wind and solar generation. The study also identifies some of the potential economic, environmental, and social implications of deploying and integrating high levels of renewable electricity in the U.S. The full report and associated supporting information is available at: http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/refutures/.

Mai, Trieu

2013-04-01

366

Renewable Energy: Status and Prospects – Status of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By 2050, the increased use of renewables such as hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass in power generation is projected to\\u000a contribute between 9% and 16% of the CO2 emission reductions. The share of renewables in the generation mix increases from 18% today, to as high as 34% by 2050. Hydropower\\u000a is already widely deployed and is, in many areas, the

Anthony Baratta

367

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin tuna on their oceanic migrations. The About area is a great way to learn about the research and technology involved with this complicated endeavor. Also, visitors can check out the low-tech/accessible version of the site if they are so inclined.

368

Ocean Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of Earth-size planets covered completely by a water envelope (water planets) has long fascinated scientists and the general public alike (Kuchner 2003; Leger et al. 2004). Sometimes referred to as "ocean planets", stemming from the implicit assumption of Habitable Zone (HZ) temperatures and a liquid water surface, water planets are a much broader class. Here we present a general approach to computing surface and atmospheric conditions on water planets in the HZ.

Kaltenegger, Lisa; Sasselov, Dimitar

2013-04-01

369

Ocean Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This online resource guide focuses on earth/physical science including volcanic island formation and tsunamis; life science concepts including ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; science in personal and social perspectives including pollution, endangered species and conservation; and related careers.

Lefever, Mary

2009-08-01

370

Ocean Voyagers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Voyagers is an educational outreach initiative consisting of an interdisciplinary curriculum program. It is designed to allow middle school teachers and students to gain real-world knowledge about oceanographic science, social science, maritime cultures, communication, literature, and the language arts. This site includes: integrated lesson plans on oceanographic science, maritime life and lore, technology and communications, and profiles of the Navy oceanographic survey fleet.

371

Oceans '88  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings discuss the following papers: Solid waste disposal crisis; Plastics in Ocean; Continental shelf environmental research; Seafood technology advancements; Gulf of Mexico chemosynthetic petroleum seep communities; Water reuse on onshore mariculture and processing facilities; Oil and gas industry conflicts on the outer continental shelf; Cumulative environmental effects of the oil and gas leasing program; Oil and gas exploration; and Oil and gas resource management; Aids to navigation systems and equipment; and Surveillance experiments.

Not Available

1988-01-01

372

Ocean energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress is reported on the development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual and preliminary design activity of industry teams that are designing a shelf-mounted offshore OTEC pilot plant that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway to evaluate and test the Pneumatic Wave-Energy Conversion System (PWECS), an ocean-energy device consisting of a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber. The work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1983 is reported.

373

Progress in renewable energy.  

PubMed

This paper provides an overview of some of the key technological and market developments for leading renewable energy technologies--wind, wave and tidal, photovoltaics (PV) and biomass energy. Market growth, innovation and policy are closely interrelated in the development of renewables and the key issues in each area are explored for each of the main types of renewable energy technology. This enables the prospects for future development and cost reduction to be considered in detail. Key issues for policy are outlined. PMID:12605943

Gross, Robert; Leach, Matthew; Bauen, Ausilio

2003-04-01

374

The Green Power Network: Green Power government information clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Green Power information from the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Green Power Network exists to provide "news and information on green power providers." The site's information is searchable by state and shows different markets for green power (utility green pricing, green power marketing, and renewable energy certificates).

2008-08-26

375

77 FR 31895 - Energy Northwest, Columbia Generating Station; Record of Decision and Issuance of Renewed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nuclear and NGCC; (5) coal-fired power; (6) energy conservation and energy efficiency; (7) purchased power; (8) solar...waste; (11) hydroelectric power; (12) ocean wave and current energy; (13) geothermal power; (14)...

2012-05-30

376

Adapting California's energy markets to growth in renewable resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power generation is the second-largest category of greenhouse gas emissions in California, next to transportation. California's administration, legislature, and energy regulators have adopted aggressive targets for renewable energy due to heavy reliance on natural gas as a fuel for electric generation, which will result in profound changes in markets and system operations. The growth of renewable in-state generation involves

James E. Price; Anjali Sheffrin

2010-01-01

377

An integrative computational model for intestinal tissue renewal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives : The luminal surface of the gut is lined with a monolayer of epithelial cells that acts as a nutrient absorptive engine and protective barrier. To maintain its integrity and functionality, the epithelium is renewed every few days. Theoretical models are powerful tools that can be used to test hypotheses concerning the regulation of this renewal process, to investigate

I. M. M. van Leeuwen; G. R. Mirams; A. Walter; A. Fletcher; P. Murray; J. Osborne; S. Varma; S. J. Young; J. Cooper; B. Doyle; J. Pitt-Francis; L. Momtahan; P. Pathmanathan; J. P. Whiteley; S. J. Chapman; D. J. Gavaghan; O. E. Jensen; J. R. King; P. K. Maini; S. L. Waters; H. M. Byrne

2009-01-01

378

Gauging the future competitiveness of renewable energy in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to assess the likely competitiveness of different forms of renewable energy in Colombia over the next 25 years. To this end, it compares the likely power production cost for a set of renewable energy sources, and compares them to the likely long-run cost of traditional energy. Costs from global and local externalities through the use of traditional energy

Georg Caspary

2009-01-01

379

Incentives and disincentives for using renewable energy: Turkish students’ ideas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed-form questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas of Turkish school students in years 7 and 8 (age 13–14 years) about renewable power generation. The questionnaire investigated students’ ideas about the characteristics of renewable energy, its perceived advantages and disadvantgaes, and, separately, their views about the importance of the characteristics of energy production; it is likely that

Ahmet K?l?nç; Martin Stanisstreet; Edward Boyes

2009-01-01

380

Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the environment with the current technology and it is preferred to go for recycling. Limited hydropower plants are already installed and there are plans for new projects. Small wind turbines found their way in the market for individuals living in the rural areas that suffer from blackouts the most to replace the fuel stand alone generators. Solar PV is still immature however projects like street lighting in the south were successfully achieved. Solar thermal power is the most suitable for water heating in and outside the residential areas. Projects to increase the efficiency like replacing lights with power saving lights and thermal insulation of buildings are funded by several organizations.

Hamdy, R.

2010-12-01

381

Renewable Energy for Microenterprise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide provides readers with a broad understanding of the potential benefits that current renewable energy technologies can offer rural microenterprises. It also introduces the institutional approaches that have been developed to make RE technologies ...

A. Allderdice J. H. Rogers

2000-01-01

382

Renewable Energy Technology Certificate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this framework for a renewable energy certificate. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-05-27

383

Renewable Fuels Module  

EIA Publications

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook forecasts.

Chris Namovicz

2013-07-03

384

Renew, Reflect, and Refresh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article offers an opportunity to nurture the lifelong learner deep inside with a summer reading list that will allow you to renew, reflect, and refresh. NSTA Recommends reviewers share what they're reading this summer.

Texley, Juliana; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-07-01

385

Module 5: Introduction to Renewable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eastern Iowa Community College provides this learning module to teach students about renewable energy on farms, energy storage and distribution, PURPA legislation, and a number of other topics related to agricultural energy. Users can download a zip file in which they will find a syllabus, student handouts, a quiz, and 55 slide PowerPoint presentation.

2013-11-19

386

History and Future of Renewable Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many thousands of years the use of solar energy has shaped human settlements and cities, farming and forestry, architecture and buildings, landscapes and territories, religious beliefs and cultures, and social relations and lifestyles on Earth. Cesare Silvi from the Italian Group for the History of Solar Energy (GSES)1 asks whether renewable solar energy could now power the world in

Cesare Silvi

2008-01-01

387

Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources Course Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course development model on renewable energy sources including solar energy, wind power, hydropower, fuel cells, biomass, and alternative transportation. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-05-23

388

Strategies to promote renewable energy in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is the result of recent research that has been developed in Brazil in cooperation with international research centers. The aim is to analyze the best strategies for maintaining the high share of renewable sources in Brazil's electric power generation system. The results show that, for the time horizon considered, the country still has plentiful energy resources available,

Amaro Olimpio Pereira Jr.; André Santos Pereira; Emilio Lčbre La Rovere; Martha Macedo de Lima Barata; Sandra de Castro Villar; Silvia Helena Pires

2011-01-01

389

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies (CEERT) is a nonprofit organization of concerned scientists, environmentalists, public interest advocates and innovative technology companies. CEERT advocates sustainable electric generation policies, clean vehicles, and energy efficiency and conservation. Their web site features the latest topics surrounding sustainable energy including Harnessing CA Solar Power, Reducing Coal Demand Fuels, and Transportation Fuel.

2008-09-09

390

Desalination using renewable energy in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history and performance of renewable energy driven desalination plants in Australia are reviewed. Included are the 3 500 m2 of solar stills built in South Australia in 1966, the two small scale photovoltaic reverse osmosis (RO) plants currently operating in Central Australia, a larger containerised photovoltaic RO plant from Western Australia, a Wind Powered RO Plant in Shark Bay,

D. G. Harrison; G. E. Ho; K. Mathew

1996-01-01

391

Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the impact of environmentally based market failure constraints on the adoption of renewable energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of

Anthony D. Owen

2006-01-01

392

DE-EE0000319 Final Technical Report [National Open-ocean Energy Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Under the authorization provided by Section 634 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140), in 2009 FAU was awarded U.S. Congressionally Directed Program (CDP) funding through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate and develop technologies to harness the energy of the Florida Current as a source of clean, renewable, base-load power for Florida and the U.S. A second CDP award in 2010 provided additional funding in order to enhance and extend FAU’s activities. These two CDPs in 2009 and 2010 were combined into a single DOE grant, DE-EE0000319, and are the subject of this report. Subsequently, in July 2010 funding was made available under a separate contract, DE-EE0004200. Under that funding, DOE’s Wind and Water Power Program designated FAU’s state of Florida marine renewable energy (MRE) center as the Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (SNMREC). This report discusses SNMREC activities funded by the DE-EE0000319 grant, but will make reference, as appropriate, to activities that require further investigation under the follow-on grant. The concept of extracting energy from the motions of the oceans has a long history. However, implementation on large scales of the technologies to effect renewable energy recovery from waves, tides, and open-ocean currents is relatively recent. DOE’s establishment of SNMREC recognizes a significant potential for ocean current energy recovery associated with the (relatively) high-speed Florida Current, the reach of the Gulf Stream System flowing through the Straits of Florida, between the Florida Peninsula and the Bahamas Archipelago. The proximity of the very large electrical load center of southeast Florida’s metropolitan area to the resource itself makes this potential all the more attractive. As attractive as this potential energy source is, it is not without its challenges. Although the technology is conceptually simple, its design and implementation in a commercially-viable fashion presents a variety of challenges. Beyond the technology itself (and, especially, the effects on the technology of the harsh oceanic environment), it is important to consider the possible environmental impacts of commercial-scale implementation of oceanic energy extraction. Further, because such implementation represents a completely new undertaking, the human resources required do not exist, so education and training programs are critical to eventual success. This project, establishing a national open-ocean energy laboratory, was designed to address each of these three challenges in a flexible framework allowing for adaptive management as the project proceeded. In particular: ? the technology challenge, including resource assessment, evolved during the project to recognize and address the need for a national testing facility in the ocean for small-scale prototype MRE systems developed by industry; ? the environmental challenge became formalized and expanded during the permitting process for such a testing facility; and ? the human resources/societal challenges, both in terms of the need for education and training and in terms of public acceptance of MRE, stimulated a robust outreach program far beyond that originally envisioned at SNMREC. While all of these activities at SNMREC are ongoing, a number of significant milestones (in addition to the contributions listed in the appendices) were achieved under the auspices of this award. These include: ? Planning and site selection for the first-phase test facility, offshore of Dania Beach, FL, including some equipment for the facility, submission of an Interim Policy Lease Application to the U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and completion of an Environmental Assessment by BOEM and a positive Consistency Determination by the State of Florida; ? Measurements using acoustic profilers of the current structure and variability in the vicinity of the site under a variety of weather conditions, seasons and time durations; ? Design and implementation of instrument

Skemp, Susan

2013-12-29

393

Strategical Importance of the Indian Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decision of the British government to withdraw its military forces east of the Suez and the subsequent appearance of naval units of the Soviet Union have created a recent interest in the Indian Ocean. Is there a power vacuum in the Indian Ocean. Is th...

J. R. Hinkle

1971-01-01

394

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

2013-03-01

395

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

2013-04-01

396

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kerr McGee Site in Columbus, Mississippi. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kerr McGee site in Columbus, Mississippi, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

2013-01-01

397

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

2013-01-01

398

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Chino Mine in Silver City, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Chino Mine site in Silver City, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

2013-04-01

399

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

2013-04-01

400

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

2013-03-01

401

Making use of renewable energy  

SciTech Connect

This book describes renewable energy projects proposed for the rural areas of developing countries. Topics considered include biogas generation in Zimbabwe, biogas technology for water pumping in Botswana, soil fertility and energy problems in rural development in the Zaire rain forest, international scientific collaboration on biogas technologies for rural development, alcohol from biomass, an ethanol project in Zimbabwe, biomass alcohol and the fuel-food issue, solar water heating in Zimbabwe, absorbent box solar cookers, solar crop drying in Zimbabwe, the use of passive solar energy in Botswana buildings, the potential of mini hydro systems, woodfuel as a potential renewable energy source, small-scale afforestation for domestic needs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe, muscle power, the use of human energy in construction, hand-operated water pumps, animal power for water pumping in Botswana, the production of charcoal in Zambia, improving the efficiency of a traditional charcoal-burning Burmese cooking stove, social impacts, non-engineering constraints affecting energy use in a rural area, women and energy, and non-technical factors influencing the establishment of fuels-from-crops industries in developing countries.

Johnston, J.C.

1984-01-01

402

Renewable Energy Applications for Rural Development in China  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a description of current work to promote and support the developing market for renewable (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) technologies in China. Since the signing of the US/China Protocol for Cooperation in the Fields of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology Development and Utilization in 1995, NREL has helped to promote RE and EE technologies, specifically rural energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and renewable energy business development, in addition to more general policy and planning support. This paper focuses on NREL's work in support of the $240 million Township Electrification Program, which is providing power to over 1000 rural communities using renewable based energy sources.

Ku, J.; Baring-Gould, E. I.; Stroup, K.

2005-01-01

403

Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Utility System  

SciTech Connect

Products based on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) technology offer a unique solution to today's energy conversion storage needs. PEM products have undergone continual development since the late 1950's for many diverse applications. Rooted in rigorous aerospace applications, this technology is now ''breaking away'' to provide commercial solutions to common power, energy, and industrial gas feedstock problems. Important developments in PEM electrolyzers and various energy conversion devices (e.g. engines and fuel cells) can now be combined to form the basis for a revolutionary energy storage system that provides a much needed link to renewable resources, and offers a credible alternative for off-grid power applications. This technology operates by converting electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen as part of a water electrolysis process when excess power is available. When the primary source of power is unavailable, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy through an external combustion heat engine or other energy conversion device. The Phase II portion of this program began in May of 2000. The goal of Phase II of the project was to cost reduce the hydrogen generator as a critical link to having a fully sustainable hydrogen energy system. The overall goal is to enable the link to sustainability by converting excess renewable power into hydrogen and having that hydrogen available for conversion back to power, on demand. Furthermore, the cost of the capability must be less the $1,000 per kW (electrical power into the generator) and allow for a variety of renewable technology inputs. This cost target is based on a production volume of 10,000 units per year. To that end, Proton undertook an aggressive approach to cost reduction activities surrounding the 6kW, 40 standard cubic foot per hour (scfh) HOGEN hydrogen generator. The electrical side of the system targeted a number of areas that included approaches to reduce the cost of the power supply and associated electronics as well as improving efficiency, implementing a circuit board to replace the discreet electrical components in the unit, and evaluating the system issues when operating the unit with a variety of renewable inputs. On the mechanical side of the system the targets involved creative use of manifolds to reduce components and plumbing, overall fitting reduction through layout simplification and welded tube assemblies, and the development of an inexpensive gas drying methodology to remove moisture and improve gas purity. Lastly, activities surrounding the electrolysis cell stack focused on lower cost stack compression approaches and cost reduction of critical components. The last year of this project focused on validating the cost reductions mentioned above and advancing these cost reductions forward into a larger hydrogen generator. This larger hydrogen generator is a 60kW, 380 scfh, HOGEN hydrogen generator. Most of these efforts were in the control board and manifold development areas. The results achieved over the life of this program are in line with the goals of the Department of Energy. Proton projects that the current design of the 40 scfh generator projected to a volume of 10,000 units per year would be in the range of $1,500 per kilowatt. Furthermore, continuing efforts on materials substitution and design enhancements over the next few years should bring the cost of the system to the $1,000 per kilowatt goal for a system of this size. This report provides the technical details behind the cost reduction efforts undertaken during the Phase II portion of the program.

Proton Energy Systems

2003-04-01

404

Energy extraction from ocean currents and waves: Mapping the most promising locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns about fossil fuel supplies and an ever-increasing demand for energy have prompted the search for alternative power sources. One option is the ocean, a power-dense and renewable source of energy, but its capacity to meet human energy demands is poorly understood. Although raw wave energy resources have been investigated at many scales, there is still substantial uncertainty regarding how much useful power can be extracted. Even less is known about the energy available in ocean currents, especially on a global scale. Moreover, no studies have attempted to examine wave and current energy simultaneously while at the same time taking into account geographical, environmental, and technical factors that can substantially limit the amount of extractable energy. In this study, we use high fidelity oceanographic model data to assess the availability, recoverability, and value of energy in ocean wind waves and currents. Global wave energy transport, coastal wave energy flux, and current energy are calculated and mapped using the model data. These maps are then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) in order to assess the U.S. recoverable ocean energy resource. In the GIS, the amount of recoverable energy is estimated by combining the power output from realistic wave and current energy farms with physical and ecological data such as bathymetry and environmentally protected areas. This holistic approach is then used to examine the distribution and value of extractable wave and current energy along the U.S. coast. The results support previous studies that show that the U.S. West Coast has large potential for wave energy extraction and that the Florida Strait has high potential for current energy extraction. We also show that, at any particular location, the amount of available ocean energy is only one factor of many that determines the ultimate feasibility and value of the energy. We outline ways in which the GIS framework used in this assessment can be enhanced to better model the many variables that affect the value of ocean energy; future research in this area may lead to greater support for developing, testing, and deploying ocean energy converter technology.

Ordonez, A.; Hamlington, P.; Fox-Kemper, B.

2012-12-01

405

Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama, this site seeks to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. It contains activities pertaining to ocean currents (their properties and influence on weather and sea life). Students gather data from other websites, apply the data to answer a series of questions, and participate in related enrichment exercises. A downloadable teacher's guide, student guide, and all necessary activity sheets are included.

406

Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue addresses advantages and disadvantages of having power. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources with suggested age levels and disciplines as well as ideas for appropriate related activities. Sidebars discuss the power of the pen, the power of peace, and the power of the media. (LRW)

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

407

Combined Renewable Energy Systems. Economic Evaluation for Villages with Surroundings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viability of a combined central heating-power plant based on renewable energy sources is analyzed. Village investment depends on the actual real interest and possibilities of capital supplies as well as fossil fuel prices. (ERA citation 10:008713)

F. Rasmussen H. C. Rasmussen

1983-01-01

408

Renewable Energy Living Lab: The Bright Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use real-world data to evaluate the feasibility of solar energy and other renewable energy sources in different U.S. locations. Working in small groups, students act as engineers evaluating the suitability of installing solar panels at four company locations. They access data from the online Renewable Energy Living Lab from which they make calculations and analyze how successful solar energy generation would be, as well as the potential for other power sources at those locations. Then they summarize their results, analysis and recommendations in the form of feasibility plans prepared for a CEO.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

409

Bistatic model of ocean scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical closed-form model is derived for the average power echo received by a bistatic altimeter from an oceanic surface at a frequency high enough for the Kirchhoff scattering mechanism to be dominant over the Bragg resonance one. The asymmetric behavior of the sea waves is taken into account, modeling the surface height as a non-Gaussian distributed random process and

Giovanni Picardi; Roberto Seu; Stefano G. Sorge; Manuel Martin Neira

1998-01-01

410

Ocean energy resources: the impact of OTEC  

SciTech Connect

The status of OTEC technological development is summarized with emphasis on the potential impacts of OTEC power production on the ocean environment, including implications for impacts to climate. (MHR)

Ditmars, J.D.

1980-01-01

411

Ocean Systems. Program Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program summary describes each of the DOE's Ocean Systems Program projects funded during FY 1978 (October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978) and reflects their status as of September 30, 1978. The Ocean Systems Program includes ocean thermal energy ...

1979-01-01

412

Lifeline at sea: Japan's policy toward the Indian Ocean Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Ocean emerged as a distant source of threat for Japan but became the lifeline of the Japanese economy after World War II. Japan attempted to reduce threats from the Indian Ocean by alliances, international law, and colonisation. History shows Japan can reduce threats in the Indian Ocean by allying with the dominant power there. As long as Japan

Tetsuo Kotani

2011-01-01

413

Alternative energy sources session ocean thermal energy conversion: Technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four ocean-energy technologies with significant promise are explored: ocean thermal energy conversion; wave power; ocean currents; and salinity gradients. The major funding emphasis has been in OTEC. Technical developments, accomplishments and major findings, remaining problems, and proposed plans for the future are discussed.

Richards, W. E.; Vadus, J. R.

1980-03-01

414

Green Learning Canada: Adventures in renewable energy technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of resources for secondary teachers and learners on renewable energy sources. It contains lesson plans and content support for clean energy technologies. Detailed construction plans are provided for students to construct working models of solar ovens, wind turbines, hydroelectric generators, and biogas generators. Related links and backgrounders in renewable energy basics, solar heat, solar electricity, wind power, water power, biomass energy, and other clean energy technologies are also provided.

2007-10-23

415

Distributed-dispersed renewable energy systems and novel control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable green-energy systems are re-emerging as viable economic alternative sources of environmentally safe power generation in place of conventional fossil fuels. In terms of power quality and safety, this research investigates a number of renewable green-energy (wind, photovoltaic and fuel cells) interface schemes and control strategies that ensure maximum energy utilization, voltage and frequency stabilization and minimum impact on the

Abdualah S. Aljankawey

2007-01-01

416

NREL's Renewable Energy Development Expertise Reduces Project Risks (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) success story fact sheet highlights a June 2012 solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and three corporations. The fact sheet describes how technical assistance from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory enabled the U.S. Virgin Islands to realistically assess its clean energy resources and identify the most viable and cost-effective solutions to its energy challenges--resulting in a $65 million investment in solar energy in the territory.

Not Available

2012-12-01

417

Conference Proceedings, Energy from the Oceans, Fact or Fantasy - Held in Raleigh, North Carolina on 27-28 January 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: An overview of the oceans as energy sources; Wave power - nodding duck wave energy extractors; Oceanic windpower; Salinity gradients, tides and waves as energy sources; Legal, political, and environmental aspects of ocean thermal energy ...

J. Kohl

1976-01-01

418

Ocean energy - Forms and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary nonpetroleum power sources of the sea can be classified as mechanical (waves, tides and currents), chemical (salinity gradients and biomass), and thermal (temperature gradients, including ice). Power potential of each of these sources, their particular characteristics, geographic distribution, energy density and feasibility of practical utilization are analyzed. Waves, tides and currents are already employed to produce power. Examples of some existing practical devices which utilize tidal and wave power are: wave pumps, Salter's Duck power plants, and tidal power plants. Different approaches to utilizing other marine power sources are discussed. The complexity of practical devices for the extraction of power seems to vary with energy density, the salinity gradient requiring the most complex approaches and the currents the simplest. Even more important than direct utilization of ocean energy may be the use of seawater as a coolant and of the sediments below the seabed for the disposal of nuclear wastes.

Isaacs, J. D.; Schmitt, W. R.

1980-01-01

419

Overview of energy storage systems for storing electricity from renewable energy sources in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable power (photovoltaic, solar thermal or wind) is inherently intermittent and fluctuating. If renewable power has to become a major source of base-load dispatchable power, electricity storage systems of multi-MW capacity and multi-hours duration are indispensable. An overview of the advanced energy storage systems to store electrical energy generated by renewable energy sources is presented along with climatic conditions and

Faizur Rahman; Shafiqur Rehman; Mohammed Arif Abdul-Majeed

420

Ocean Engineering for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The panel on OTEC Ocean Engineering of the National Research Council was formed to assess the state of ocean engineering knowledge, technology, and practice necessary to design, construct, and operate OTEC plants. The panel concentrated its study on platf...

1982-01-01

421

National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Education Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) believes that "educating students, teachers, and consumers is the other key to finding new renewable ways to power our homes, businesses, and cars." This site is full of important educational resources such as classroom activities, online quizzes, and fact sheets that deal with renewable energy technology and applied sciences. In the Educational Resources area, visitors can make their way through several dozen lesson plans, including "History of Solar Cells," "Teacher's Guide to Wind Energy," and "School Energy Audit." Moving on, the DOE Undergraduate Internships & Graduate Fellowships area gives interested parties access to application forms for the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship Program and the Graduate Fellowship Program. The site is rounded out by information on the annual Junior Solar Sprint & Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Competition.

2012-07-20

422

Integrating Renewable Electricity on the Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for carbon-free electricity is driving a growing movement of adding renewable energy to the grid. Renewable Portfolio Standards mandated by states and under consideration by the federal government envision a penetration of 20-30% renewable energy in the grid by 2020 or 2030. The renewable energy potential of wind and solar far exceeds these targets, suggesting that renewable energy ultimately could grow well beyond these initial goals. The grid faces two new and fundamental technological challenges in accommodating renewables: location and variability. Renewable resources are concentrated at mid-continent far from population centers, requiring additional long distance, high-capacity transmission to match supply with demand. The variability of renewables due to the characteristics of weather is high, up to 70% for daytime solar due to passing clouds and 100% for wind on calm days, much larger than the relatively predictable uncertainty in load that the grid now accommodates by dispatching conventional resources in response to demand. Solutions to the challenges of remote location and variability of generation are needed. The options for DC transmission lines, favored over AC lines for transmission of more than a few hundred miles, need to be examined. Conventional high voltage DC transmission lines are a mature technology that can solve regional transmission needs covering one- or two-state areas. Conventional high voltage DC has drawbacks, however, of high loss, technically challenging and expensive conversion between AC and DC, and the requirement of a single point of origin and termination. Superconducting DC transmission lines lose little or no energy, produce no heat, and carry higher power density than conventional lines. They operate at moderate voltage, allowing many ``on-ramps'' and ``off-ramps'' in a single network and reduce the technical and cost challenges of AC to DC conversion. A network of superconducting DC cables overlaying the existing patchwork of conventional transmission lines would create an interstate highway system for electricity that moves large amounts of renewable electric power efficiently over long distances from source to load. Research and development is needed to identify the technical challenges associated with DC superconducting transmission and how it can be most effectively deployed. The challenge of variability can be met (i) by switching conventional generation capacity in or out in response to sophisticated forecasts of weather and power generation, (ii) by large scale energy storage in heat, pumped hydroelectric, compressed air or stationary batteries designed for the grid, or (iii) by national balancing of regional generation deficits and excesses using long distance transmission. Each of these solutions to variability has merit and each requires significant research and development to understand its capacity, performance, cost and effectiveness. The challenge of variability is likely to be met by a combination of these three solutions; the interactions among them and the appropriate mix needs to be explored. The long distances from renewable sources to demand centers span many of the grid's physical, ownership and regulatory boundaries. This introduces a new feature to grid structure and operation: national and regional coordination. The grid is historically a patchwork of local generation resources and load centers that has been built, operated and regulated to meet local needs. Although it is capable of sharing power across moderate distances, the arrangements for doing so are cumbersome and inefficient. The advent of renewable electricity with its enormous potential and inherent regional and national character presents an opportunity to examine the local structure of the grid and establish coordinating principles that will not only enable effective renewable integration but also simplify and codify the grid's increasingly regional and national character.

Crabtree, George; Misewich, Jim; Ambrosio, Ron; Clay, Kathryn; Demartini, Paul; James, Revis; Lauby, Mark; Mohta, Vivek; Moura, John; Sauer, Peter; Slakey, Francis; Lieberman, Jodi; Tai, Humayun

2011-11-01

423

Renewable Energy Policy Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1995 with funding from the Energy Foundation and the Department of Energy, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) has spent the past decade educating the general public about renewable energies. This is accomplished by providing competent and rigorous policy analysis about the myriad of issues surrounding the viability and sustainability of such energy sources. Visitors to the siteâÂÂs homepage will find clickable icons (such as those depicting wind, solar, and hydrogen), and they can discover the variety of resources associated with each type of renewable energy source. These resources generally include a brief description of the REPPâÂÂs work in each field, along with links to some of their more recent working papers and policy briefs. For persons who hope to join the discussion about some of these timely topics, the site also maintains a number of relevant listservs, such as those dealing with bioconversion and strawbale conversion.

424

The assessment of renewable energy planning on CO 2 abatement in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of renewable energies (for example landfill gas, wind, solar energy) are environmentally friendly and electric power generation in South Korea has concentrated on new and renewable energy technologies. The purpose of this paper is to study the economic and environmental influence of renewable energies on existing electricity generation market of South Korea with energy-economic model called ‘Long-range Energy Alternative

Sooyoung Jun; Seungmoon Lee; Jin-Won Park; Suk-Jae Jeong; Ho-Chul Shin

2010-01-01

425

Sharing quotas of a renewable energy hedge pool: A cooperative game theory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable sources play an important role in the current climate world policy, emerging as an efficient way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming. Despite their appeal, renewable sources bring to the fore important challenges on the economic side. In Brazil, the three main renewable sources are wind power, small run-of-river hydro and cogeneration from sugarcane waste. Their

Delberis A. Lima; Lucas Freire

2011-01-01

426

Planet Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will be taken into consideration, for instance, the value of the pH, using universal indicator paper, color, through visual evaluation and the temperature with the help of a thermometer. There will be also registered some existent chemical parameters as chloride, alkalinity, total hardness (Ca2+ and Mg2+), nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate. Two methods will be used for analysis, the titration and the kit of semi-quantitative chemical analyses. This kit is composed by biocompatible substances, which means they are not harmful for the environment and can be disposed of by domestic sewage systems. The results will be subsequently analyzed bearing in mind the maximum and recommended standards values for each one of the parameters. After this, the results achieved will be discussed. I believe this project contains characteristics that will be of interest to our students, thus enabling them to participate actively and effectively develop their knowledge and enhance their scientific curiosity.

Afonso, Isabel

2014-05-01

427

Monte Carlo Planning Technique for Renewable Energy Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed power generation provides electric power at a site closer to customers. This paper, formulates the problem of optimal utilization of renewable energy options to meet the peak load demand. A Monte Carlo apportioning technique of solar photovoltaic, co-generation, wind power, and small hydro, which considers specific techno-economic constraints, such as capital cost and generation cost constraints, and carbon dioxide

C. S. Indulkar

2008-01-01

428

Renewable energy and utility regulation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC`S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

Not Available

1991-04-10

429

Renewable energy and utility regulation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC'S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

Not Available

1991-04-10

430

Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program's water power research activities. Water power is the nation's largest source of clean, domestic, renewable energy. Harnessing energy from rivers, manmade waterways, and oceans to generate electricity for the nation's homes and businesses can help secure America's energy future. Water power technologies fall into two broad categories: conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Conventional hydropower facilities include run-of-the-river, storage, and pumped storage. Most conventional hydropower plants use a diversion structure, such as a dam, to capture water's potential energy via a turbine for electricity generation. Marine and hydrokinetic technologies obtain energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, free-flowing rivers, streams and ocean thermal gradients to generate electricity. The United States has abundant water power resources, enough to meet a large portion of the nation's electricity demand. Conventional hydropower generated 257 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity in 2010 and provides 6-7% of all electricity in the United States. According to preliminary estimates from the Electric Power Resource Institute (EPRI), the United States has additional water power resource potential of more than 85,000 megawatts (MW). This resource potential includes making efficiency upgrades to existing hydroelectric facilities, developing new low-impact facilities, and using abundant marine and hydrokinetic energy resources. EPRI research suggests that ocean wave and in-stream tidal energy production potential is equal to about 10% of present U.S. electricity consumption (about 400 terrawatt-hours per year). The greatest of these resources is wave energy, with the most potential in Hawaii, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwest. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Water Power Program works with industry, universities, other federal agencies, and DOE's national laboratories to promote the development and deployment of technologies capable of generating environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity from the nation's water resources.

Not Available

2012-03-01

431

Adaptive ocean acoustic processing for a shallow ocean experiment  

SciTech Connect

A model-based approach is developed to solve an adaptive ocean acoustic signal processing problem. Here we investigate the design of model-based identifier (MBID) for a normal-mode model developed from a shallow water ocean experiment and then apply it to a set of experimental data demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. In this problem we show how the processor can be structured to estimate the horizontal wave numbers directly from measured pressure sound speed thereby eliminating the need for synthetic aperture processing or a propagation model solution. Ocean acoustic signal processing has made great strides over the past decade necessitated by the development of quieter submarines and the recent proliferation of diesel powered vessels.

Candy, J.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sullivan, E.J. [Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, RI (United States)

1995-07-19

432

Renewable Energy Business Partnerships in China: Renewable Energy in China  

SciTech Connect

China has rich potential for renewable energy development including wind energy, solar, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal. Fact sheet describes Chinas policy for attracting foreign investment, Chinas tax policy, import duties, currency exchange, and renewable joint ventures in China.

Not Available

2004-04-01

433

Renewable Energy Policy in China: Overview; Renewable Energy in China  

SciTech Connect

China has rich potential for renewable energy development including wind energy, solar, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal. Fact sheet describes Chinas policy for developing renewable energy, policy objectives, subsidies, tax incentives, custom duties, and contact information.

Not Available

2004-04-01

434

Canadian Renewable Fuels Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The CRFA promotes the use of renewable bio-fuels (ethanol, biodiesel). Membership includes representatives from fuel marketing, fuel production agriculture, forestry, engineering and environmental organizations, and researchers and individuals. Visitors can find policy papers, industry statistics, plant locations, and FAQs and fact sheets about biodiesel and ethanol.

2007-08-24

435

Insurance Renewal Tips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College business officers should take advantage of the industry's market to prepare their institutions for an upcoming hard market. Steps to be taken include evaluating the insurance broker; meeting with the company underwriter; negotiating; considering a renewal contract; negotiating pooling mechanisms; lowering deductibles; and implementing…

Madsen, Claudina

1990-01-01

436

Renewable Energy Curriculum Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eight curriculum units, developed by teachers who were National Fellows in a 2007 seminar through the National Initiative of the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, explore the science related to current and potential future sources of energy, with a focus on renewable energy.

Gary Brudvig (Yale University ;Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry)

2010-05-13

437

Renewable Energy Education Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kit demonstrates an entire miniature renewable energy system. Set includes a wind turbine kit, solar photovoltaic panel, an electrolyzer, a PEM fuel cell, and a hydrogen storage system. Helps students visualize the workings of clean energy principles. For grades 4-12.

1900-01-01

438

Information for Institutional Renewal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a planning, management, and evaluation system, an objective-based planning process, research databases, analytical reports, and transactional data as state-of-the-art tools available to generate data which link research directly to planning for institutional renewal. (RC)

Spencer, Richard L.

1979-01-01

439

Integrated Renewable Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of several manifestations of solar energy in tandem by means of integrated renewable energy systems (IRES) to supply a variety of energy and other needs has the potential to energize (in contrast to electrification) remote rural areas in a cost-effective manner. Such actions can dramatically improve the quality of life for hundreds of millions of people living in remote

R. Ramakumar

1995-01-01

440

Orchestrating Simultaneous Renewal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Orchestrating simultaneous renewal of schools and teacher education is possible in the presence of appropriate leadership, reformer diversity, program audits, accurate assessments, and a focus on the big picture. Public education is the glue that holds society together, not just a place where job skills are acquired. (MLH)

Theobald, Paul; Rochon, Ronald

1999-01-01

441

Renew, Reflect, and Refresh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is that the sound of the last bus leaving the schoolyard? Or the staff's collective sigh of relief? School's out. Now it's time to nurture the lifelong learner deep inside with a summer reading list that will allow teachers to renew, reflect, and refresh. The National Science Education Standards reminds us, "Becoming an effective science teacher…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

442

Energy 5: Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video distinguishes between renewable and non-renewable energy resources. It examines the question, "How long to do we have before we exhaust non-renewable resources?" It also looks at alternatives to non-renewable energy resources. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

443

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

2013-01-01

444

Ocean Color Climate Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual ocean color missions have finite lifetimes, so it is critical to produce a consistent time series across ocean color missions if we are to address fundamental questions of Earth science importance, especially how the ocean biogeochemical system is changing. Developing Ocean Color Climate Records (OCCR's), which meet the definitions of the National Research Council has been a challenge. Consistent

W. Gregg

2007-01-01

445

Oceanic Circulation Visualizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory presents two visualizations. The first is a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has been used for studying both the ocean climate system and idealized ocean circulations; the second is animation of sea surface height and ocean eddies.

Laboratory, Geophysical F.; Noaa

446

Prediction of ocean wave energy from meteorological variables by fuzzy logic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean wave energy which is one of the promising renewable energy types has a direct relationship with the wave climate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between ocean wave energy and meteorological variables such as wind speed, air temperature, and sea temperature. It was shown that fuzzy logic modeling of these variables provides the possible non-linear

Mehmet Özger

2011-01-01

447

Co-location of air capture, sub-ocean CO2 storage and energy production on the Kerguelen plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How can carbon capture and storage activities be sustained from an energy perspective while keeping the entire activity out of sight and away from material risk and social refrain near populated areas? In light of reducing the atmospheric CO2 level to mitigate its effect on climate change, the combination of new air-capture technologies and large offshore storage reservoirs, supplemented by carbon neutral renewable energy, could address both of these engineering and public policy concerns. Because CO2 mixes rapidly in the atmosphere, air capture scrubbers could be located anywhere in the world. Although the power requirements for this technology may reduce net efficiencies, the local availability of carbon-neutral renewable energy for this purpose would eliminate some net energy loss. Certain locations where wind speeds are high and steady, such as those observed at high latitude and across the open ocean, appeal as carbon-neutral energy sources in close proximity to immense and secure reservoirs for geological sequestration of captured CO2. In particular, sub-ocean basalt flows are vast and carry minimal risks of leakage and damages compared to on-land sites. Such implementation of a localized renewable energy source coupled with carbon capture and storage infrastructure could result in a global impact of lowered CO2 levels. We consider an extreme location on the Kerguelen plateau in the southern Indian Ocean, where high wind speeds and basalt storage reservoirs are both plentiful. Though endowed with these advantages, this mid-ocean location incurs clear material and economic challenges due to its remoteness and technological challenges for CO2 capture due to constant high humidity. We study the wind energy-air capture power balance and consider related factors in the feasibility of this location for carbon capture and storage. Other remote oceanic sites where steady winds blow and near large geological reservoirs may be viable as well, although all would require extensive research. Using these mitigation technologies in combination may offer a pivotal option for reducing atmospheric carbon to pre-industrial levels with minimal human risk or inconvenience.

Goldberg, D.; Han, P.; Lackner, K.; Wang, T.

2011-12-01

448

Federal Renewable Energy Screening Assistant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Renewable Energy Screening Assistant is a software tool to be used by energy auditors to prioritize future studies of potentially cost-effective renewable energy applications at federal facilities. This paper describes the structure and functi...

B. Shelpuk, A. Walker

1994-01-01

449

Wind power is clean. Unlike coal, oil, and gas-fired power plants that threaten our health and contribute to global warming and acid rain, wind farms generate clean, renewable energy without pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half of New York's electricity is produced by fossil fuels. As the largest source of industrial air pollution, power plant emissions result in 28,000 asthma attacks, almost 2,000 hospitalizations, and more than 1,200 premature deaths in New York State each year. 2 Currently, 30 New York counties fail to meet the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) minimum air quality

Maple Ridge; Wethersfield Fenner

2006-01-01

450

Initial spread of 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant over the Japan continental shelf: a study using a high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11 March 2011 tsunami triggered by the M9 and M7.9 earthquakes off the T?hoku coast destroyed facilities at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) leading to a significant long-term flow of the radionuclide 137Cs into coastal waters. A high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model was first constructed to simulate the 11 March tsunami and coastal inundation. Based on the model's success in reproducing the observed tsunami and coastal inundation, model experiments were then conducted with differing grid resolution to assess the initial spread of 137Cs over the eastern shelf of Japan. The 137Cs was tracked as a conservative tracer (without radioactive decay) in the three-dimensional model flow field over the period of 26 March-31 August 2011. The results clearly show that for the same 137Cs discharge, the model-predicted spreading of 137Cs was sensitive not only to model resolution but also the FNPP seawall structure. A coarse-resolution (∼2 km) model simulation led to an overestimation of lateral diffusion and thus faster dispersion of 137Cs from the coast to the deep ocean, while advective processes played a more significant role when the model resolution at and around the FNPP was refined to ∼5 m. By resolving the pathways from the leaking source to the southern and northern discharge canals, the high-resolution model better predicted the 137Cs spreading in the inner shelf where in situ measurements were made at 30 km off the coast. The overestimation of 137Cs concentration near the coast is thought to be due to the omission of sedimentation and biogeochemical processes as well as uncertainties in the amount of 137Cs leaking from the source in the model. As a result, a biogeochemical module should be included in the model for more realistic simulations of the fate and spreading of 137Cs in the ocean.

Lai, Z.; Chen, C.; Beardsley, R.; Lin, H.; Ji, R.; Sasaki, J.; Lin, J.

2013-08-01

451

GROUND WATER REMEDIATION POWERED WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Technical challenge: Resource conservation has become a critical concept in the remediation of contaminated ground water supplies. Ground water remedies which include surface discharge of treated ground water are often viewed as wasteful and non-sustainable....

452

Renewable Energy for Sustainable Rural Village Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services worldwide. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel generator or partial elec...

J. O.V. Touryan K. J. Touryan

1999-01-01

453

Effects of Long Period Ocean Tides on the Earth's Rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectra of polar motion excitation functions exhibit enhanced power in the fortnightly tidal band. This enhanced power is attributed to ocean tidal excitation. Ocean tide models predict polar motion excitation effects that differ with each other, and with observations, by factors as large as 2-3. There is a need for inproved models for the effect of long-period ocean tides on Earth's rotation.

Gross, Richard S.; Chao, Ben F.; Desai, Shailen D.

1996-01-01

454

Renewable energy and utility regulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC'S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable e...

1991-01-01

455

Renewable energy policies in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving solution to environmental problems that we face today requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions. Although, Turkey has substantial reserves of renewable energy resources, actual utilization of these resources are quite low.The aim of this study is to investigate the renewable

Durmus Kaya

2006-01-01

456

High field NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry: powerful discovery tools for the molecular level characterization of marine dissolved organic matter from the South Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non target high resolution organic structural spectroscopy of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated on 27 November 2008 by means of solid phase extraction (SPE) from four different depths in the South Atlantic Ocean off the Angola coast (3.1° E; -17.7° S; Angola basin) provided molecular level information of complex unknowns with unprecedented coverage and resolution. The sampling was intended to represent major characteristic oceanic regimes of general significance: 5 m (FISH; near surface photic zone), 48 m (FMAX; fluorescence maximum), 200 m (upper mesopelagic zone) and 5446 m (30 m above ground). 800 MHz proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 1H NMR, spectra were least affected by fast and differential transverse NMR relaxation and produced at first similar looking, rather smooth bulk NMR envelopes reflecting intrinsic averaging from massive signal overlap. Visibly resolved NMR signatures were most abundant in surface DOM but contributed at most a few percent to the total 1H NMR integral and were mainly limited to unsaturated and singly oxygenated carbon chemical environments. The relative abundance and variance of resolved signatures between samples was maximal in the aromatic region; in particular, the aromatic resolved NMR signature of the deep ocean sample at 5446 m was considerably different from that of all other samples. When scaled to equal total NMR integral, 1H NMR spectra of the four marine DOM samples revealed considerable variance in abundance for all major chemical environments across the entire range of chemical shift. Abundance of singly oxygenated CH units and acetate derivatives declined from surface to depth whereas aliphatics and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM) derived molecules increased in abundance. Surface DOM contained a remarkably lesser abundance of methyl esters than all other marine DOM, likely a consequence of photodegradation from direct exposure to sunlight. All DOM showed similar overall 13C NMR resonance envelopes typical of an intricate mixture of natural organic matter with noticeable peaks of anomerics and C-aromatics carbon whereas oxygenated aromatics and ketones were of too low abundance to result in noticeable humps at the S/N ratio provided. Integration according to major substructure regimes revealed continual increase of carboxylic acids and ketones from surface to deep marine DOM, reflecting a progressive oxygenation of marine DOM, with concomitant decline of carbohydrate-related substructures. Isolation of marine DOM by means of SPE likely discriminated against carbohydrates but produced materials with beneficial NMR relaxation properties: a substantial fraction of dissolved organic molecules present allowed the acquisition of two-dimensional NMR spectra with exceptional resolution. JRES, COSY and HMBC NMR spectra were capable to depict resolved molecular signatures of compounds exceeding a certain minimum abundance. Here, JRES spectra suffered from limited resolution whereas HMBC spectra were constrained because of limited S/N ratio. Hence, COSY NMR spectra appeared best suited to depict organic complexity in marine DOM. The intensity and number of COSY cross peaks was found maximal for sample FMAX and conformed to about 1500 molecules recognizable in variable abundance. Surface DOM (FISH) produced a slightly (~25%) lesser number of cross peaks with remarkable positional accordance to FMAX (~80% conforming COSY cross peaks were found in FISH and FMAX). With increasing water depth, progressive attenuation of COSY cross peaks was caused by fast transverse NMR relaxation of yet unknown origin. However, most of the faint COSY cross peak positions of deep water DOM conformed to those observed in the surface DOM, suggesting the presence of a numerous set of identical molecules throughout the entire ocean column even if the investigated water masses belonged to different oceanic regimes and currents. Aliphatic chemical environments of methylene (CH2) and methyl (CH3) in marine DOM were nicely discriminated in DEPT HSQC NMR spectra. Classical methyl gro

Hertkorn, N.; Harir, M.; Koch, B. P.; Michalke, B.; Grill, P.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

2012-01-01

457

Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper addresses the impact of environmentally,based market,failure constraints on the adoption,of renewable,energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of the resulting output

D. Owen

458

Renewal of Metsähovi Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Metsähovi Geodetic Observatory was established in 1975 and it has through the years become an essential part of the activities of the Finnish Geodetic Institute. The instrumentation covers the satellite laser ranging (SLR), geodetic VLBI, GPS and GLONASS receivers, DORIS beacon, super-conducting gravimeter and a seismometer. It is an IAG GGOS Core station. As a co-operation with the Metsähovi Radio Observatory of the Aalto University, geodetic VLBI observations were started in 2005. Metsähovi participates in 6--8 geo-VLBI campaigns annually, as a part of the IVS (International VLBI Service) network (IVS-T2) and the European geodynamics project (EUROPE campaigns). In 2012 Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry allocated a special 5-year funding for renewal of Metsähovi instrumentation. This includes a new SLR, and dedicated radio telescope for geodetic VLBI. We describe the renewal plans of Metsähovi and plans for the new VLBI2010 compatible system.

Poutanen, M.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H.; Näränen, J.; Raja-Halli, A.; Zubko, N.

2013-08-01

459

Staging Rankine Cycles Using Ammonia for OTEC Power Production  

SciTech Connect

Recent focus on renewable power production has renewed interest in looking into ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Early studies in OTEC applicability indicate that the island of Hawaii offers a potential market for a nominal 40-MWe system. a 40-MWe system represents a large leap in the current state of OTEC technology. Lockheed Martin Inc. is currently pursuing a more realistic goal of developing a 10-MWe system under U.S. Navy funding (Lockheed 2009). It is essential that the potential risks associated with the first-of-its-kind plant should be minimized for the project's success. Every means for reducing costs must also be pursued without increasing risks. With this in mind, the potential for increasing return on the investment is assessed both in terms of effective use of the seawater resource and of reducing equipment costs.

Bharathan, D.

2011-03-01

460

Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

Robbins, Lisa

2012-01-01

461

Models of the Ocean: Which Ocean?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physics actually represented in an ocean model depend on each model’s resolution and its parameterization of subgridscale\\u000a effects. This chapter is a review of parameterizations used in ocean models, focussing on operational ocean forecasting systems\\u000a for the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. This review is limited to z-coordinate models. A detailed presentation of the physics underlying each parameterization is out

Anne Marie Treguier

462

TidGen Power System Commercialization Project  

SciTech Connect

ORPC Maine, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (collectively ORPC), submits this Final Technical Report for the TidGen® Power System Commercialization Project (Project), partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-EE0003647). The Project was built and operated in compliance with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) pilot project license (P-12711) and other permits and approvals needed for the Project. This report documents the methodologies, activities and results of the various phases of the Project, including design, engineering, procurement, assembly, installation, operation, licensing, environmental monitoring, retrieval, maintenance and repair. The Project represents a significant achievement for the renewable energy portfolio of the U.S. in general, and for the U.S. marine hydrokinetic (MHK) industry in particular. The stated Project goal was to advance, demonstrate and accelerate deployment and commercialization of ORPC’s tidal-current based hydrokinetic power generation system, including the energy extraction and conversion technology, associated power electronics, and interconnection equipment capable of reliably delivering electricity to the domestic power grid. ORPC achieved this goal by designing, building and operating the TidGen® Power System in 2012 and becoming the first federally licensed hydrokinetic tidal energy project to deliver electricity to a power grid under a power purchase agreement in North America. Located in Cobscook Bay between Eastport and Lubec, Maine, the TidGen® Power System was connected to the Bangor Hydro Electric utility grid at an on-shore station in North Lubec on September 13, 2012. ORPC obtained a FERC pilot project license for the Project on February 12, 2012 and the first Maine Department of Environmental Protection General Permit issued for a tidal energy project on January 31, 2012. In addition, ORPC entered into a 20-year agreement with Bangor Hydro Electric Company on January 1, 2013 for up to 5 megawatts at a price of $215/MWh, escalating at 2.0% per year.

Sauer, Christopher R. [President & CEO] [President & CEO; McEntee, Jarlath [VP Engineering & CTO] [VP Engineering & CTO

2013-12-30

463

Renewable energy technology handbook for military engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy applications are introduced that are considered promising for military use in the 1980s. These are: solar hot water for buildings, active solar hot water and space heating for buildings, passive solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar industrial process heata, solar ponds, photovoltaic power for homes, photovoltaic power for remote applications, parabolic dish solar systems for remote applications, wind energy for buildings, wind energy for central power plants, wind energy for water pumping, biomass energy systems for buildings, biomass energy systems for central power plants, geothermal energy for process heat, and geothermal energy for central power plants. For each of these is given: a brief history of the technology and information on how the technology works; a detailed technical and economic profile of an operating system; and a summary listing of operating civilian and military systems that are open for public viewing.

1982-03-01

464

78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast...on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City...Street and 33rd Street over the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In...

2013-05-31

465

77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast...on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. This action...host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In...

2012-04-16

466

Multistable chain for ocean wave vibration energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heaving of ocean waves is a largely untapped, renewable kinetic energy resource. Conversion of this energy into electrical power could integrate with solar technologies to provide for round-the-clock, portable, and mobile energy supplies usable in a wide variety of marine environments. However, the direct drive conversion methodology of gridintegrated wave energy converters does not efficiently scale down to smaller, portable architectures. This research develops an alternative power conversion approach to harness the extraordinarily large heaving displacements and long oscillation periods as an excitation source for an extendible vibration energy harvesting chain. Building upon related research findings and engineering insights, the proposed system joins together a series of dynamic cells through bistable interfaces. Individual impulse events are generated as the inertial mass of each cell is pulled across a region of negative stiffness to induce local snap through dynamics; the oscillating magnetic inertial mass then generates current in a coil which is connected to energy harvesting circuitry. It is shown that linking the cells into a chain transmits impulses through the system leading to cascades of vibration and enhancement of electrical energy conversion from each impulse event. This paper describes the development of the multistable chain and ways in which realistic design challenges were addressed. Numerical modeling and corresponding experiments demonstrate the response of the chain due to slow and large amplitude input motion. Lastly, experimental studies give evidence that energy conversion efficiency of the chain for wave energy conversion is much higher than using an equal number of cells without connections.

Harne, R. L.; Schoemaker, M. E.; Wang, K. W.

2014-03-01

467

Ocean thermal energy conversion: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OTEC principle along with general system and cycle, types, specific OTEC designs, OTEC applications, and the ocean thermal resource are discussed. The historic development of OTEC is reviewed, and the status of French, Japanese, EUROCEAN, and US programs is assessed. Power system components of the more technically advanced closed cycle OTEC concept are examined. These include: heat exchangers, corrosion and biofouling countermeasures, working fluids, ammonia power systems, and on platform seawater systems. Several open cycle features are also discussed. The ocean engineering aspects of OTEC power systems are reviewed. Major subsystems such as platform, cold water pipe, mooring system, dynamic positioning system, power transmission cable system are assessed for their relationships with the ocean environment and with each other. Possible environmental and social effects of OTEC development are discussed.

Yuen, P. C.

1981-10-01

468

The Caribbean Basin: A prime market for renewables  

SciTech Connect

Countries in the Caribbean basin have high energy prices and need additional electrical generating capacity. Renewable energy and independent power sources could help meet that need. The Caribbean Basin and the Pacific Rim appear to offer the best total market opportunities considering government energy policies, prices of energy, and consumer attitudes on renewable energy applications. The Caribbean Basin was selected for an industry project opportunity review. This area was selected due to its proximity, renewable resource base, need for energy and growth, and potential for private and multidevelopment bank funding of projects. 3 figs.

Sklar, S.

1989-04-01