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1

77 FR 1674 - Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...12711-005] Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice...the Proposed Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project In accordance...reviewed Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC's application...the proposed Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project (FERC...

2012-01-11

2

77 FR 5817 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, Tidal Energy Project, Cobscook Bay, ME  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Guard [Docket No. USCG-2011-1162] Ocean Renewable Power Company, Tidal Energy Project, Cobscook Bay, ME AGENCY: Coast Guard...best address the proposal put forth by Ocean Renewable Energy Company (ORPC) to install five turbine...

2012-02-06

3

Power electronic grid-interface for renewable ocean wave energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents information on ocean wave energy converters and power electronics grid-interface. In the introduction a basic terms and methods of ocean wave energy capture are discussed. Further several most important ocean wave energy conversion prototypes are briefly described. The generators and power electronics solutions for Power Take Off (PTO) system are presented on the example of Wave Dragon

Marian P. Kazmierkowski; Marek Jasinski

2011-01-01

4

77 FR 5791 - Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Staff Participation in Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Project No. 12711-005] Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Staff Participation...with representatives from Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC at the Federal Energy...January 4, 2012, for the Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project No. 12711. A...

2012-02-06

5

76 FR 18750 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Change in Docket Number  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...12711-003] Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Change...24, 2009, Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) filed...for the proposed Eastport Tidal Energy Project, a proposal...held by ORPC, the Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project preliminary...

2011-04-05

6

Renewables for Sustainable Village Power  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the efforts of NREL's Renewables for Sustainable Village Power team to match renewable energy technologies with rural energy needs in the international market. The paper describes the team's activities, updates the lessons learned, and proposes an integrated approach as a model for rural electrification with renewables.

Flowers, L.; Baring-Gould, I.; Bianchi, J.; Corbus, D.; Drouilhet, S.; Elliott, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Jimenez, A.; Lilienthal, P.; Newcomb, C.; Taylor, R.

2000-11-06

7

Maximum Power Point Tracking for Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many forms of renewable energy exist in the world's oceans, with ocean wave energy showing great potential. However, the ocean environment presents many challenges for cost-effective renewable energy conversion, including optimal control of a wave energy converter (WEC). This paper presents a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for control of a point absorber WEC. The algorithm and testing hardware

Ean A. Amon; Ted K. A. Brekken; Alphonse A. Schacher

2012-01-01

8

Ocean waves: power unlimited  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief discussion of the types of wave power converters being developed and some technical problems involved in development, 144 bibliographic citations are listed for works on ocean wave energy conversion. (LEW)

Lockerby

1981-01-01

9

Power from Ocean Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

Newman, J. N.

1979-01-01

10

Oceans and electrical power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this paper focused on the potential energy that could be extracted from salinity an'd thermal differences in the oceans; possibilities of converting marine biomass into an energy source were likewise examined. Closest to implementation are apparently schemes to harness thermal differences and wave energy. Tidal power is already producing energy in France, U.S.S.R. and China. Of

Roger H. Charlier

1982-01-01

11

Renewables for sustainable village power  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal.

Flowers, L.

1997-03-01

12

STAFF REPORT RENEWABLE POWER IN  

E-print Network

, financing, geothermal, greenhouse gas emissions, renewable integration, interconnection, land use planning Transmission Initiative, renewable net short, Renewable Portfolio Standard, small hydroelectric, smart grid

13

Ocean wave power data generation for grid integration studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean wave power is a promising renewable energy source that offers several attractive qualities, including high power density, low variability, and excellent forecastability. Within the next few years, several utility-scale wave energy converters are planned for grid connection (e.g., Pelamis Power in Portugal and Ocean Power Technologies in Oregon, USA), with plans for more utility-scale development to follow soon after.

Shaun McArthur; Ted K. A. Brekken

2010-01-01

14

A novel maximum power point tracking algorithm for ocean wave energy devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many forms of renewable energy exist in the world's oceans, with ocean wave energy showing great potential. However, the ocean environment presents many challenges for cost-effective renewable energy conversion, including optimal control of a wave energy converter (WEC). This paper presents a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for control of a point absorber WEC. The algorithm and control

Ean A. Amon; Alphonse A. Schacher; Ted K. A. Brekken

2009-01-01

15

Renewable Energy Powers Renewable Energy Lab, Employees  

E-print Network

. NREL is also using solar energy for auxiliary purposes such as powering streetlights, water pumps and the lab's new entrance sign. An experimental 12-kilowatt rooftop solar system also feeds electricity back

16

Useful power from ocean waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements for an ocean-wave power generator are stipulated and a novel concept to meet those requirements, based on submerged pressure transducer system, is described and discussed. A comparison between solar, wind and ocean-wave energy density is given. Calculations for 24 hour periods indicate that ocean-wave energy posesses the highest energy density per unit area - seven times more than solar

M. Semo

1978-01-01

17

Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Systems   

E-print Network

There are many motivations for choosing renewable energy technologies to provide the necessary energy to power water treatment systems for reuse and desalination. These range from the lack of an existing electricity grid, ...

Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

2009-01-01

18

Ocean wave power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of wave power and some of the more promising methods of harnessing it are discussed with attention to the wave energy arriving on the west coast of the United Kingdom. Unresolved technical and engineering problems are examined, and the impact of wave power on the environment is considered. Data on wave power and its variability are supplied. It

I. Glendenning

1977-01-01

19

Power from ocean waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total power of the waves breaking against the world's shores is estimated at 10¹³ watts--the equivalent of world energy consumption. Yet recent research in Britain projects a negative near term future. Performance and costs of wave power devices compared unfavorably to electricity. Studies continue on harnessing wave power at special sites, usually islands, where the waves are energetic, and

1983-01-01

20

75 FR 9187 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Ocean Research Advisory Panel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Ocean Research Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department...that it is renewing the charter for the Ocean Research Advisory Panel (hereafter referred...Advice and recommendations to the National Ocean Research Leadership Council...

2010-03-01

21

A Methodology for Large-Scale Ocean Wave Power Time-Series Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean wave power is characterized by high power density, and wave forecasts can predict incident wave energy days in advance. These qualities make ocean wave power a promising renewable energy source. In the near future, utility-scale wave energy conversion arrays will likely be installed. However, little is currently known on the impact of large wave energy conversion (WEC) facilities on

Ted K. A. Brekken; H. Tuba Ozkan-Haller; Asher Simmons

2012-01-01

22

Wing Wave: Feasible, Alternative, Renewable, Electrical Energy Producing Ocean Floor System  

E-print Network

Wing Wave: Feasible, Alternative, Renewable, Electrical Energy Producing Ocean Floor System Mark, alternative energy system to convert the circular motion of ocean waves as they propagate through the sea and feasible alternative, renewable, electrical energy producing subsea system. Index Terms--ocean energy, wave

Wood, Stephen L.

23

Overview of Renewables for Power Rangan Banerjee  

E-print Network

/Trigeneration Decentralised Distributed Generation Isolated Demand Side Management (Solar Water Heater, Passive Solar) #12;Wind Solar Small Hydro Biomass Tidal Energy Wave Energy Ocean Thermal Energy Solar Thermal Solar Silicon Thin Film Solar Power #12;Comparison of Solar Thermal Power Generation Technologies Technology

Banerjee, Rangan

24

Optimal Power Allocation for Renewable Energy Source  

E-print Network

Battery powered transmitters face energy constraint, replenishing their energy by a renewable energy source (like solar or wind power) can lead to longer lifetime. We consider here the problem of finding the optimal power allocation under random channel conditions for a wireless transmitter, such that rate of information transfer is maximized. Here a rechargeable battery, which is periodically charged by renewable source, is used to power the transmitter. All of above is formulated as a Markov Decision Process. Structural properties like the monotonicity of the optimal value and policy derived in this paper will be of vital importance in understanding the kind of algorithms and approximations needed in real-life scenarios. The effect of curse of dimensionality which is prevalent in Dynamic programming problems can thus be reduced. We show our results under the most general of assumptions.

Sinha, Abhinav

2011-01-01

25

Science Nation: Wave of Discovery: Harnessing the Ocean's Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Capturing the power of ocean waves could become an important part of the world's renewable energy portfolio. Interest and support of this technology has not been consistent. There was enthusiasm after the 1970s oil embargo, but it dropped when oil prices stabilized. Researchers at the Wallace Energy Systems and Renewables Facility (WESRF) in Corvallis, Ore., are at work on wave energy systems. While research in wave energy is 15-20 years behind renewables such as wind power, waves are far more reliable as an energy source. While solar power is only available about 50 percent of the time; and winds are not constant, waves are, and experts say wave energy might one day provide up to six percent of the electricity needs of the United States.

26

Design of isolated renewable hybrid power systems  

SciTech Connect

Isolated electrical power generating units can be used as an economically viable alternative to electrify remote villages where grid extension is not feasible. One of the options for building isolated power systems is by hybridizing renewable power sources like wind, solar, micro-hydro, etc. along with appropriate energy storage. A method to optimally size and to evaluate the cost of energy produced by a renewable hybrid system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method, which is based on the design space approach, can be used to determine the conditions for which hybridization of the system is cost effective. The simple and novel methodology, proposed in this paper, is based on the principles of process integration. It finds the minimum battery capacity when the availability and ratings of various renewable resources as well as load demand are known. The battery sizing methodology is used to determine the sizing curve and thereby the feasible design space for the entire system. Chance constrained programming approach is used to account for the stochastic nature of the renewable energy resources and to arrive at the design space. The optimal system configuration in the entire design space is selected based on the lowest cost of energy, subject to a specified reliability criterion. The effects of variation of the specified system reliability and the coefficient of correlation between renewable sources on the design space, as well as the optimum configuration are also studied in this paper. The proposed method is demonstrated by designing an isolated power system for an Indian village utilizing wind-solar photovoltaic-battery system. (author)

Sreeraj, E.S.; Chatterjee, Kishore [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Santanu [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

2010-07-15

27

Designing and Managing Datacenters Powered by Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

Designing and Managing Datacenters Powered by Renewable Energy ´I~nigo Goiri, William Katsak, Kien,wkatsak,lekien,tdnguyen,ricardob}@cs.rutgers.edu Abstract On-site renewable energy has the potential to reduce data- centers' carbon footprint and power/energy" datacenters, i.e. datacenters partially or completely powered by renewables such as solar or wind energy

28

Power resource estimate of ocean surface waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of wave energy and power as functions of longitude and latitude are presented for the Northern Hemisphere at 12Z, October 2, 1975. Both the large peak of the distribution in the Atlantic Ocean and the smaller peak in the Pacific Ocean are found to be at longitudes towards the eastern end of the ocean basins. This ''eastern accumulation''

N PANICKER

1976-01-01

29

Reserve requirement impacts of large-scale integration of wind, solar, and ocean wave power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sources of renewable energy, including solar, wind, and ocean wave, offer significant advantages such as no fuel costs and no emissions from generation. However, in most cases these renewable power sources are variable and non-dispatchable. The utility grid is already able to accommodate the variability of the load and some additional variability introduced by sources such as wind. However,

D. A. Halamay; T. K. A. Brekken; A. Simmons; S. McArthur

2010-01-01

30

Reserve Requirement Impacts of Large-Scale Integration of Wind, Solar, and Ocean Wave Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sources of renewable energy, including solar, wind, and ocean wave, offer significant advantages such as no fuel costs and no emissions from generation. However, in most cases these renewable power sources are variable and nondispatchable. The utility grid is already able to accommodate the variability of the load and some additional variability introduced by sources such as wind. However,

Douglas A. Halamay; Ted K. A. Brekken; Asher Simmons; Shaun McArthur

2011-01-01

31

Short-Term Operation Scheduling in Renewable-Powered Microgrids  

E-print Network

Short-Term Operation Scheduling in Renewable-Powered Microgrids: A Duality-Based Approach Binyan scheduling prob- lem in renewable-powered microgrids, which is used to determine the least-cost unit- ments. The intermittency nature of the renewable energy sources, as well as microgrid's capacity

Bornemann, Jens

32

Renewable power needs smart storage solutions  

SciTech Connect

Ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus claimed that the only thing constant in life is change, a truth we must accept and even celebrate. Another truth we face today is a growing demand for more energy to help us power the kind and pace of change we’ve become accustomed to, while minimizing environmental consequences. Renewable energy--two words that often find themselves woven into environmentally conscious dialogue. And according to Dave Lucero, director of alternative energy storage at EaglePicher Technologies LLC, the Tri-Cities should be thinking about two more: energy storage. Lucero recently addressed the Tri-Cities Research District about tackling the persistent challenge of maximizing renewable energy, which is inherently variable due to changing weather patterns. Capturing that energy and making it available for later use is vital.

Madison, Alison L.

2010-10-24

33

BATTERY STORAGE CONTROL FOR STEADYING RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION  

E-print Network

BATTERY STORAGE CONTROL FOR STEADYING RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION By Shengyuan (Mike) Chen, Emilie-626-7370 URL: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;Battery Storage Control for Steadying Renewable Power Generation generation. Excess en- ergy must be stored during times of excess power generation, and then released when

34

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures  

E-print Network

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures Trieu Mai Electricity of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity

Van Veen, Barry D.

35

The RenewElec Project: Variable Renewable Energy and the Power System  

SciTech Connect

Variable energy resources, such as wind power, now produce about 4% of U.S. electricity. They can play a significantly expanded role if the U.S. adopts a systems approach that considers affordability, security and reliability. Reaching a 20-30% renewable portfolio standard goal is possible, but not without changes in the management and regulation of the power system, including accurately assessing and preparing for the operational effects of renewable generation. The RenewElec project will help the nation make the transition to the use of significant amounts of electric generation from variable and intermittent sources of renewable power.

Apt, Jay

2014-02-14

36

Power generating machine actuated by ocean swells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A power generating machine which is actuated by the continuous swells occurring in the ocean is described. The machine is supported on a pair of spaced main floats, between which is a power float connected to a linkage which allows the power float to reciprocate vertically with the passing swells. A flywheel is driven through a one way clutch connected

Parr

1976-01-01

37

Design, construction and testing of an ocean renewable energy storage scaled prototype  

E-print Network

The concept for a new form of pumped storage hydro is being developed within the Precision Engineering Research Group at MIT: the Ocean Renewable Energy Storage (ORES) project. Large, hollow concrete spheres are created, ...

Meredith, James D. C. (James Douglas Charles)

2012-01-01

38

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) A New Secure Renewable Energy Source  

E-print Network

and Commercial Applications 1 Dr. Ted Johnson Director of Alternative Energy Programs Development Lockheed MartinOcean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) A New Secure Renewable Energy Source For Defense New Ventures #12;What is OTEC? OTEC B fiOTEC Benefits: Large Renewable Energy Source 3-5 Terawatts

39

Renewable energy from the sea - organic Rankine Cycle using ocean thermal energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rankine cycles using refrigerant- and benzene-series fluids as working fluids in converting low-grade energy from renewable energy resources such as solar energy and ocean thermal energy were investigated in this study. The main purpose is to verify the feasibility of utilizing ocean energy (i.e., ocean thermal energy conversion, OTEC) which can also be combined with solar energy in an organic

S. K. Wang; T. C. Hung

2010-01-01

40

Environmental siting suitability analysis for commercial scale ocean renewable energy: A southeast Florida case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis aims to facilitate the siting and implementation of Florida Atlantic University Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (FAU SNMREC) ocean current energy (OCE) projects offshore southeastern Florida through the analysis of benthic anchoring conditions. Specifically, a suitability analysis considering all presently available biologic and geologic datasets within the legal framework of OCE policy and regulation was done. OCE related literature sources were consulted to assign suitability levels to each dataset, ArcGIS interpolations generated seafloor substrate maps, and existing submarine cable pathways were considered for OCE power cables. The finalized suitability map highlights the eastern study area as most suitable for OCE siting due to its abundance of sand/sediment substrate, existing underwater cable route access, and minimal biologic presence. Higher resolution datasets are necessary to locate specific OCE development locales, better understand their benthic conditions, and minimize potentially negative OCE environmental impacts.

Mulcan, Amanda

41

78 FR 37324 - Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications...the renewal of a nuclear power plant operating license. Applicants...series. This series was developed to describe and make available...for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating...

2013-06-20

42

Renewable Energy Living Lab: Power Your School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use real-world data to calculate the potential for solar and wind energy generation at their school location. After examining maps and analyzing data from the online Renewable Energy Living Lab, they write recommendations as to the optimal form of renewable energy the school should pursue.

2014-09-18

43

WAVE POWER INTEGRATION WITH A RENEWABLE HYDROGEN ENERGY SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In British Columbia, approximately 90% of the electricity generated comes from hydroelectric facilities while another abundant and renewable resource, ocean wave energy, is not being utilized at all. Technologies exist that can capture and convert wave energy but there are few studies examining systemic integration of wave energy devices. This work examines the potential to use wave energy as an

P. Wild; A. Rowe

44

Power electronics as efficient interface of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources

F. Blaabjerg; Z. Chen; S. B. Kjaer

2004-01-01

45

California's Renewable Portfolio Standard Northwest Power and Conservation Council  

E-print Network

Markets SymposiumCalifornia Power Markets Symposium September 5, 2013 William A. Monsen MRW & Associates target for 33% of energy to be from eligible renewable energy resources Large hydro and rooftop solar target set in April 2011 by SB1X-2 Current target set in April 2011 by SB1X-2 33% renewables by 2020

46

Detection of direction and wavelength of ocean wave by power spectrum of ocean wave image  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of ocean waves can be used to monitor ocean and to forecast wind-storms upon the ocean surface. The paper presents a method for extracting wave direction and wavelength of ocean waves from a sea image. Based on the assumption that the power spectrum of an ocean wave can be thought of as a thin plane consisting of discrete

Tang Huiming; Xu Shengrong

1992-01-01

47

Contactless power feeding for ocean buoy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many relationships between ocean and human life, and it's vital for our survival and development. Ocean observation is of great importance because it enables the prediction of specific global atmospheric changes. And ocean buoy is the core of marine monitoring system. In this paper, we propose a new method based on principle of electromagnetic induction coupling to realize non-contact signal transmission and power feeding for underwater sensors through mooring cable. Sufficient power feeding and data transmission are confirmed by experiments. It can be expected that the proposed system allows easier attachment and detachment of sensors to mooring wires and finally leads to miniaturization of the whole sensor body due to battery-free sensor operation.

Li, Xing-fei; Li, Cheng; Lin, Jie; Zhang, Qiang

2010-08-01

48

A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

2009-01-01

49

Renewable Energy Penetration on the power Grid Fall / 2010  

E-print Network

Energy: i-V, P-V curves, electrical load matching, sun tracking, PV system component and peak power pointECE 420 Renewable Energy Penetration on the power Grid Fall / 2010 Instructor: Dr. E. B. Makram principles of wind and solar operation and their impact on the power grid. Course Contents: 1. (8-periods

Bolding, M. Chad

50

Economic decision making of renewable power producers under uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent booming development of renewable power generation and government subsidies are constantly under scrutiny and various opinions exist regarding whether subsidies should be continued or not. Motivated by the controversies and debates, this dissertation attempted to address the investment decision making problem under uncertainties in the renewable power industry from the perspective of an individual power producer. Given that independent power producers still dominate the renewable power production and that majority of their output are sold through long-term power purchase agreements, this study focused on two types of uncertainties that could represent most of their kinds: the operations & maintenance (O&M) cost and governmental subsidy's renewal/expiration. Three types of investment activities that covers the major part of any renewable power plant's economic life are thoroughly investigated in a chronological order: an initial entry, exit when the plant reaches its economic life, and repowering. A real-options approach was adopted and improved to model the value of a power plant considering its future activities, while both cost and policy changes modeled as some stochastic processes. Significant policy implications and managerial insights were obtained as a result of extensive analytical modeling and statistical study of empirical evidence.

Lou, Chenlu

51

The hydrothermal power of oceanic lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have estimated the power of ventilated hydrothermal heat transport, and its spatial distribution, using a set of recently developed plate models which highlight the effects of hydrothermal circulation and thermal insulation by oceanic crust. Testing lithospheric cooling models with these two effects, we estimate that global advective heat transport is about 6.6 TW, significantly lower than previous estimates, and that the fraction of that extracted by vigorous circulation on the ridge axes (<1 Ma) is about 50% of the total, significantly higher than previous estimates. This low hydrothermal power estimate originates from the thermally insulating properties of oceanic crust in relation to the mantle. Since the crust is relatively insulating, the effective properties of the lithosphere are "crust dominated" near ridge axes (yielding lower heat flow), and gradually approach mantle values over time. Thus, cooling models with crustal insulation predict low heat flow over young seafloor, implying that the difference of modeled and measured heat flow is due to the heat transport properties of the lithosphere, in addition to ventilated hydrothermal circulation as generally accepted. These estimates may bear on important problems in the physics and chemistry of the Earth because the magnitude of hydrothermal power affects chemical exchanges between the oceans and the lithosphere, thereby affecting both thermal and chemical budgets in the oceanic crust and lithosphere, the subduction factory, and convective mantle.

Grose, C. J.; Afonso, J. C.

2015-03-01

52

Power inversion design for ocean wave energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The needs for energy sources are increasing day by day because of several factors, such as oil depletion, and global climate change due to the higher level of CO2, so the exploration of various renewable energy sources is very promising area of study. The available ocean waves can be utilized as free source of energy as the water covers 70% of the earth surface. This thesis presents the ocean wave energy as a source of renewable energy. By addressing the problem of designing efficient power electronics system to deliver 5 KW from the induction generator to the grid with less possible losses and harmonics as possible and to control current fed to the grid to successfully harvest ocean wave energy. We design an AC-DC full bridge rectifier converter, and a DC-DC boost converter to harvest wave energy from AC to regulated DC. In order to increase the design efficiency, we need to increase the power factor from (0.5-0.6) to 1. This is accomplished by designing the boost converter with power factor correction in continues mode with RC circuit as an input to the boost converter power factor correction. This design results in a phase shift between the input current and voltage of the full bridge rectifier to generate a small reactive power. The reactive power is injected to the induction generator to maintain its functionality by generating a magnetic field in its stator. Next, we design a single-phase pulse width modulator full bridge voltage source DC-AC grid-tied mode inverter to harvest regulated DC wave energy to AC. The designed inverter is modulated by inner current loop, to control current injected to the grid with minimal filter component to maintain power quality at the grid. The simulation results show that our design successfully control the current level fed to the grid. It is noteworthy that the simulated efficiency is higher than the calculated one since we used an ideal switch in the simulated circuit.

Talebani, Anwar N.

53

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

None

2011-01-01

54

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen  

ScienceCinema

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

None

2013-05-29

55

Colorado's Prospects for Interstate Commerce in Renewable Power  

SciTech Connect

Colorado has more renewable energy potential than it is ever likely to need for its own in-state electricity consumption. Such abundance may suggest an opportunity for the state to sell renewable power elsewhere, but Colorado faces considerable competition from other western states that may have better resources and easier access to key markets on the West Coast. This report examines factors that will be important to the development of interstate commerce for electricity generated from renewable resources. It examines market fundamentals in a regional context, and then looks at the implications for Colorado.

Hurlbut, D. J.

2009-12-01

56

Kolmogorov spectrum of renewable wind and solar power fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing the contribution of renewable energies in power production, the task of reducing dynamic instability in power grids must also be addressed from the generation side, because the power delivered from such sources is spatiotemporally stochastic in nature. Here we characterize the stochastic properties of the wind and solar energy sources by studying their spectrum and multifractal exponents. The computed power spectrum from high frequency time series of solar irradiance and wind power reveals a power-law behaviour with an exponent ˜ 5/3 (Kolmogorov exponent) for the frequency domain 0.001 Hz < f < 0.05 Hz, which means that the power grid is being fed by turbulent-like sources. Our results bring important evidence on the stochastic and turbulent-like behaviour of renewable power production from wind and solar energies, which can cause instability in power grids. Our statistical analysis also provides important information that must be used as a guideline for an optimal design of power grids that operate under intermittent renewable sources of power.

Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi; Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Heinemann, D.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Peinke, Joachim

2014-10-01

57

Power fluctuation reduction methodology for the grid-connected renewable power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new methodology for eliminating the influence of the power fluctuations of the renewable power systems. The renewable energy, which is to be considered an uncertain and uncontrollable resource, can only provide irregular electrical power to the power grid. This irregularity creates fluctuations of the generated power from the renewable power systems. These fluctuations cause instability to the power system and influence the operation of conventional power plants. Overall, the power system is vulnerable to collapse if necessary actions are not taken to reduce the impact of these fluctuations. This methodology aims at reducing these fluctuations and makes the generated power capability for covering the power consumption. This requires a prediction tool for estimating the generated power in advance to provide the range and the time of occurrence of the fluctuations. Since most of the renewable energies are weather based, as a result a weather forecast technique will be used for predicting the generated power. The reduction of the fluctuation also requires stabilizing facilities to maintain the output power at a desired level. In this study, a wind farm and a photovoltaic array as renewable power systems and a pumped-storage and batteries as stabilizing facilities are used, since they are best suitable for compensating the fluctuations of these types of power suppliers. As an illustrative example, a model of wind and photovoltaic power systems with battery energy and pumped hydro storage facilities for power fluctuation reduction is included, and its power fluctuation reduction is verified through simulation.

Aula, Fadhil T.; Lee, Samuel C.

2013-04-01

58

Combined power generation with wind and ocean waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often advantageous to generate power with combinations of wind and ocean waves. In fact ocean waves, their generation, propagation, dissipation are directly related to wind velocity and its duration oven the sea. In this paper an attempt has been made to demonstrate statistically to present some advantages with combined wind and ocean wave power generation. Even though many

V. N. M. R. Lakkoju

1996-01-01

59

Ocean Renewable Energy Research at U. New Hampshire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of New Hampshire (UNH) is strategically positioned to develop and evaluate wave and tidal energy extraction technologies, with much of the required test site infrastructure in place already. Laboratory facilities (wave\\/tow tanks, flumes, water tunnels) are used to test concept validation models (scale 1:25--100) and design models (scale 1:10--30). The UNH Open Ocean Aquaculture (OOA) site located 1.6

M. Wosnik; K. Baldwin; C. White; M. Carter; D. Gress; R. Swift; I. Tsukrov; G. Kraft; B. Celikkol

2008-01-01

60

Renewable Energy Powered Membrane Technology. 1. Development and Characterization of a Photovoltaic Hybrid Membrane System   

E-print Network

the unavailability of power in many such situations, renewable energy is an obvious solution to power such systems. However, renewable energy is an intermittent power supply and with regards to the performance of intermittently operated desalination systems, only...

Schäfer, Andrea; Broeckmann, Andreas; Richards, Bryce

2007-01-01

61

Renewable Energy, Nuclear Power and Galileo: Do Scientists Have a Duty to Expose Popular Misconceptions?  

E-print Network

1 OPINION Renewable Energy, Nuclear Power and Galileo: Do Scientists Have a Duty to Expose Popular misconception discussed below concerns the fallacy that renewable energy is rapidly supplanting conventional energy. Total non-hydro renewables today offset o

Hansen, James E.

62

Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination  

SciTech Connect

An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

Thomas, K.E.

1997-04-01

63

Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint  

E-print Network

Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint Zhe Wang Electrical--In this paper, we develop efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal energy schedule for fading channel with energy harvesting. We assume that the side information of both the channel states and energy harvesting

Greenberg, Albert

64

Generating Power Leveling of Renewable Energy for Small Power System in Isolated Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind turbine generators and PV system generate fluctuating power condition. Therefore, the fluctuating power causes frequency and voltage fluctuations. To solve this problem, we propose a new power supply system with using renewable energy in isolated island. The feature of this system is to use an aqua electrolyzer and fuel cell. The operation of suggested system absorbs fluctuating power of renewable energy. Furthermore, the proposed system is able to generate reactive power and active power with using three-phase inverter. The effectiveness of the proposed power supply system is shown through simulation results in this paper.

Senjyu, Tomonobu; Hayashi, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Ryosei; Urasaki, Naomitu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

65

Optimal transition from coal to gas and renewable power under capacity constraints and adjustment costs  

E-print Network

Optimal transition from coal to gas and renewable power under capacity constraints and adjustment existing coal power plants to gas and renewable power under a carbon budget. It solves a model of polluting, exhaustible resources with capacity constraints and adjustment costs (to build coal, gas, and renewable power

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Impacts of renewable energy penetration on nodal price and nodal reliability in deregulated power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of renewable sources in power generation and system deregulation are two major changes the power system are undertaking. Different evaluation models are needed in order to incorporate renewable generation in the existing power system analysis. In deregulated power system, the impacts of renewable generation penetration are not only on the physical operation, but also on economic operation. In

Qian Zhao; Peng Wang; Lalit Goel; Yi Ding

2011-01-01

67

Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to demonstrate our operational-planning framework and economic justification for different storage applications. A new reliability model is proposed for security and adequacy assessment of power networks containing renewable resources and energy storage systems. The proposed model is used in combination with the operational-planning framework to enhance the reliability and operability of wind integration. The proposed framework optimally utilizes the storage capacity for reliability applications of wind integration. This is essential for justification of storage deployment within regulated utilities where the absence of market opportunities limits the economic advantage of storage technologies over gas-fired generators. A control strategy is also proposed to achieve the maximum reliability using energy storage systems. A cost-benefit analysis compares storage technologies and conventional alternatives to reliably and efficiently integrate different wind penetrations and determines the most economical design. Our simulation results demonstrate the necessity of optimal storage placement for different wind applications. This dissertation also proposes a new stochastic framework to optimally charge and discharge electric vehicles (EVs) to mitigate the effects of wind power uncertainties. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) service for hedging against wind power imbalances is introduced as a novel application for EVs. This application enhances the predictability of wind power and reduces the power imbalances between the scheduled output and actual power. An Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) wind speed model is developed to forecast the wind power output. Driving patterns of EVs are stochastically modeled and the EVs are clustered in the fleets of similar daily driving patterns. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) simulates the system behavior by generating samples of system states using the wind ARMA model and EVs driving patterns. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used in combination with MCS to optimally coordinate the EV fleets for their V2G services and minimize the penalty cost associated wit

Ghofrani, Mahmoud

68

Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation

F. Blaabjerg; F. Iov; R. Teodorescu; Z. Chen

2006-01-01

69

Renewable Combined Heat and Power Dairy Operations  

E-print Network

horsepower Guascor model SFGLD-560 biogas-fired lean burn internal combustion (IC) engine and generator set and modify the existing biogas toelectricity combined heat and power (CHP) system operated at Fiscalini bacteria to remove hydrogen sulfide presented in the biogas. Source: Fiscalini Farms Term: March 2011

70

Ocean Renewable Energy Research at U. New Hampshire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of New Hampshire (UNH) is strategically positioned to develop and evaluate wave and tidal energy extraction technologies, with much of the required test site infrastructure in place already. Laboratory facilities (wave/tow tanks, flumes, water tunnels) are used to test concept validation models (scale 1:25--100) and design models (scale 1:10--30). The UNH Open Ocean Aquaculture (OOA) site located 1.6 km south of the Isles of Shoals (10 km off shore) and the General Sullivan Bridge testing facility in the Great Bay Estuary are used to test process models (scale 1:3--15) and prototype/demonstration models (scale 1:1-- 4) of wave energy and tidal energy extraction devices, respectively. Both test sites are easily accessible and in close proximity of UNH, with off-the-shelf availability. The Great Bay Estuary system is one of the most energetic tidally driven estuaries on the East Coast of the U.S. The current at the General Sullivan bridge test facility reliably exceeds four knots over part of the tidal cycle. The OOA site is a ten year old, well established offshore test facility, and is continually serviced by a dedicated research vessel and operations/diving crew. In addition to an overview of the physical resources, results of recent field testing of half- and full-scale hydrokinetic turbines, and an analysis of recent acoustic Doppler surveys of the tidal estuary will be presented.

Wosnik, M.; Baldwin, K.; White, C.; Carter, M.; Gress, D.; Swift, R.; Tsukrov, I.; Kraft, G.; Celikkol, B.

2008-11-01

71

Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

Miller, David

72

Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

Lyons, Chris

2012-03-01

73

On the Wind Power Input to the Ocean General Circulation  

E-print Network

The wind power input to the ocean general circulation is usually calculated from the time-averaged wind products. Here, this wind power input is reexamined using available observations, focusing on the role of the synoptically ...

Zhai, Xiaoming

74

Influence of distributed generations and renewable energy resources power plant on power system transient stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzing influence of distributed generation (DG) on transient stability of power system network operating parallel with large renewable energy resources (RES) power plant. The study is performed in hypothetical power system network envision in the future which contains a large number of DG. Network behavior when subjected to disturbance is compared with different level of DG penetration. The

Mohd Zamri Che Wanik; István Erlich; Azah Mohamed; Azuki Abdul Salam

2010-01-01

75

Renewable Energy in India: Status and future Potential  

E-print Network

Side Management (Solar Water Heater, Passive Solar) #12;Renewables in Power Power generation 6500 PJ Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Tidal Wave Ocean Thermal #12;Power Generation Options Power Generation Heating #12;Renewable Energy Options Renewable Energy Solar Wind Biomass GeothermalSmall Hydro Solar

Banerjee, Rangan

76

Removable power supply for an ocean bottom seismometer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a removable power supply for use in conjunction with an ocean bottom seismometer unit, the ocean bottom seismometer unit including electrically operated instrumentation for seismic data acquisition, comprising: power means for providing electric power to the electrically operated instrumentation for seismic data acquisition of the ocean bottom seismometer unit; housing means having an exterior and sealed from outside ambience for protecting the power means separately from the electrically operated instrumentation for seismic data acquisition; connector means fixed to the exterior of the housing means and connected to the power means and the electrically operated instrumentation respectively. The connector means providing connection between the power means and the electrically operated instrumentation external to the housing means; and means for fixed securing the housing means to the ocean bottom seismometer unit.

Schoepf, V.L.

1988-10-25

77

A Stochastic Power Network Calculus for Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into the  

E-print Network

1 A Stochastic Power Network Calculus for Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into the Power Grid. Low, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Renewable energy such as solar and wind generation will constitute an important part of the future grid. As the availability of renewable sources may not match the load, energy

Ciucu, Florin

78

Assessment of Japan's Optimal Power Generation Mix Considering Massive Deployment of Variable Renewable Power Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes Japan's optimal power generation mix considering massive deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) system and wind power generation. The extensive introduction of PV system and wind power system are expected to play an important role in addressing energy security and climate change concern in Japan. Considering this expected large-scale deployment of PV system in electric power system, it is necessary to investigate the optimal power generation mix which is technologically capable of controlling and accommodating the intermittent output-power fluctuation inherently derived from PV and wind energy system. On these backgrounds, we develop optimal power generation mix model, explicitly analyzing the impact of output fluctuation in variable renewable in detailed resolution of time interval like 10 minutes at consecutive 365 days, with the role of stationary battery technology incorporated. Simulation results reveal that considerable deployment of those variable renewables do not necessarily require the scale of battery capacity similar as that of variable renewable capacity, due to quick load following treatment by thermal power plants, pumped-storage hydro power and battery technology over renewable output fluctuation.

Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

79

Multi-port DC-DC Power Converter for Renewable Energy Application  

E-print Network

of constant frequency. This work proposed and evaluated a new power circuit that can deal with the problem of the intermittent nature and slow response of the renewable energy. The proposed circuit integrates different renewable energy sources as well...

Chou, Hung-Ming

2010-01-16

80

Ocean wave energy based power plant for Sandwip, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the generated electric power is not enough for the demand of Bangladesh, ocean wave energy can provide a suitable low cost and permanent solution. A promising new technology in this field is a specific wave energy generator which has recently started operation in Europe. The device floats on the ocean water and extracts energy from the waves which causes

Farhaan Fowze; Sarah Amir; Kashfia Quader Khan; Rubiya Binte Mustafiz; Fahim Arefin Khandker

2012-01-01

81

Process and apparatus for generating electrical power from ocean waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for generating electrical power from ocean waves comprising: first housing means adapted for submersion at a selected depth beneath the ocean waves, the first housing means including at least on opening therethrough; first flexible bladder means, the first bladder means being disposed within the first housing means; electrical generating means being associated with the first housing

Meyerand

1986-01-01

82

Hydro-piezoelectric power generation from ocean waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept is proposed for the large scale generation of electrical power from deep water, ocean wave. The concept is based on using large areas of multi-layered piezoelectric polymers to directly convert, on a contininuous basis, the essentially unlimited mechanical energy present in the ocean waves into high voltage, low frequenc electrical energy.

George W. Taylor; Joseph R. Burns

1983-01-01

83

Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the research that was completed under project title â?? Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

Rodney Shane

2011-09-30

84

77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's AGENCY: Nuclear...ISFSI) at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site near Lusby, Maryland...September 17, 2010, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (CCNPP)...

2012-06-08

85

Renewable Energy and Combined Heat and Power Resources in the UK  

E-print Network

...............................................................................................................17 2.7 Tidal powerRenewable Energy and Combined Heat and Power Resources in the UK Jim Watson, Julia Hertin, Tom;Renewable Energy and Combined Heat and Power Resources in the UK Jim Watson, Julia Hertin and Tom Randall

Watson, Andrew

86

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many

P. R. Barnes; W. P. Dykas; B. J. Kirby; S. L. Purucker; J. S. Lawler

1995-01-01

87

Workload Shaping to Mitigate Variability in Renewable Power Use by Data Centers  

E-print Network

and solar power generation data. Results show that the algorithms give 20-30% energy-savings compared]. Integration of renewable power generation ­ through solar or wind ­ presents another opportunityWorkload Shaping to Mitigate Variability in Renewable Power Use by Data Centers Muhammad Abdullah

Gupta, Rajesh

88

Parasol and GreenSwitch: Managing Datacenters Powered by Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

Parasol and GreenSwitch: Managing Datacenters Powered by Renewable Energy ´I~nigo Goiri, William- newable energy. These datacenters will either generate their own renewable energy or draw it directly from an existing nearby plant. Besides reducing carbon footprints, renewable energy can poten- tially reduce energy

89

The Treatment of Renewable Energy Certificates, EmissionsAllowances, and Green Power Programs in State Renewables PortfolioStandards  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have adopted mandatory renewables portfolio standards (RPS) over the last ten years. Renewable energy attributes-such as the energy source, conversion technology, plant location and vintage, and emissions-are usually required to verify compliance with these policies, sometimes through attributes bundled with electricity, and sometimes with the attributes unbundled from electricity and traded separately as renewable energy certificates (RECs). This report summarizes the treatment of renewable energy attributes in state RPS rules. Its purpose is to provide a source of information for states considering RPS policies, and also to draw attention to certain policy issues that arise when renewable attributes and RECs are used for RPS compliance. Three specific issues are addressed: (1) the degree to which unbundled RECs are allowed under existing state RPS programs and the status of systems to track RECs and renewable energy attributes; (2) definitions of the renewable energy attributes that must be included in order to meet state RPS obligations, including the treatment of available emissions allowances; and (3) state policies on whether renewable energy or RECs sold through voluntary green power transactions may count towards RPS obligations.

Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

2007-04-17

90

Renewable energy on the outer continental shelf off Hawaii: Implementation of a new program under the authority of the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

President Barack Obama announced, in April 2009, the completion of the Final Renewable Energy Framework to govern the management of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program. Examples of the general types of renewable energy project activities the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) has the discretion to authorize include, but are not limited to: wind

Maurice L. Hill

2011-01-01

91

Power System Study for Renewable Energy Interconnection in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The renewable energy (RE) sector has grown exponentially in Malaysia with the introduction of the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) by the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. Photovoltaic, biogas, biomass and mini hydro are among the renewable energy sources which offer a lucrative tariff to incite developers in taking the green technology route. In order to receive the FIT, a developer is required by the utility company to perform a power system analysis which will determine the technical feasibility of an RE interconnection to the utility company's existing grid system. There are a number of aspects which the analysis looks at, the most important being the load flow and fault levels in the network after the introduction of an RE source. The analysis is done by modelling the utility company's existing network and simulating the network with the interconnection of an RE source. The results are then compared to the values before an interconnection is made as well as ensuring the voltage rise or the increase in fault levels do not violate any pre-existing regulations set by the utility company. This paper will delve into the mechanics of performing a load flow analysis and examining the results obtained.

Askar, O. F.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.

2013-06-01

92

Highlights of renewable energy studies and research in the bureau of ocean energy management, regulation and enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy in the U.S. remains a frontier industry on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). This new activity in the marine environment requires an assessment of the potential environmental impacts to resources on the OCS and evaluation of technical issues related to proposed activities. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) has two distinct programs to conduct

Ann Scarborough Bull; Mary Elaine Helix

2011-01-01

93

How to develop renewable power in China? A cost-effective perspective.  

PubMed

To address the problems of climate change and energy security, Chinese government strived to develop renewable power as an important alternative of conventional electricity. In this paper, the learning curve model is employed to describe the decreasing unit investment cost due to accumulated installed capacity; the technology diffusion model is used to analyze the potential of renewable power. Combined with the investment cost, the technology potential, and scenario analysis of China social development in the future, we develop the Renewable Power Optimization Model (RPOM) to analyze the optimal development paths of three sources of renewable power from 2009 to 2020 in a cost-effective way. Results show that (1) the optimal accumulated installed capacities of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will reach 169000, 20000, and 30000?MW in 2020; (2) the developments of renewable power show the intermittent feature; (3) the unit investment costs of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will be 4500, 11500, and 5700?Yuan/KW in 2020; (4) the discounting effect dominates the learning curve effect for solar and biomass powers; (5) the rise of on-grid ratio of renewable power will first promote the development of wind power and then solar power and biomass power. PMID:24578672

Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

2014-01-01

94

Estimating the potential of ocean wave power resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realistic assessment of an ocean wave energy resource that can be converted to an electrical power at various offshore sites depends upon many factors, and these include estimating the resource recognizing the random nature of the site-specific wave field, and optimizing the power conversion from particular wave energy conversion devices. In order to better account for the uncertainty in

Amir H. Izadparast; John M. Niedzwecki

2011-01-01

95

Temporal Resolution in Time Series and Probabilistic Models of Renewable Power Eric Hoevenaars  

E-print Network

Temporal Resolution in Time Series and Probabilistic Models of Renewable Power Systems by Eric and Probabilistic Models of Renewable Power Systems by Eric Hoevenaars B.Sc., Queen's University, 2009 Supervisory Committee Dr. Curran Crawford, Supervisor (Department of Mechanical Engineering) Dr. Andrew Rowe

Victoria, University of

96

Are renewables an alternative to nuclear power? An analysis of the Austria\\/Slovakia discussions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Politicians and publics throughout Europe have different views on nuclear power and renewable energy sources. Countries such as Austria and Denmark which have no nuclear power are rather hostile towards this energy source, and at the same time view renewable energy sources as one of the solutions in curbing CO2 emissions. Other countries, such as Slovakia, which is less endowed

Ragnar Lofstedt

2008-01-01

97

An overview of renewable energy in Spain. The small hydro-power case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of hydroelectric energy, a renewable source of power, is guaranteed and maintained by the Plan of Promotion of the Renewable Energies 1999–2010 (PLAFER). This is arrived at by means of a definition and establishment of a series of power objectives in which an increase in the hydroelectric sector is anticipated. This study corresponds to a revision of the present

Germán Martínez Montes; María del Mar Serrano López; Maria del Carmen Rubio Gámez; Antonio Menéndez Ondina

2005-01-01

98

Future Energy Systems: Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into the Smart Power Grid Through Industrial Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses about integrating renewable energy sources into the smart power grid through industrial electronics. This paper discusses photovoltaic power, wind energy conversion, hybrid energy systems, and tidal energy conversion.

Marco Liserre; Thilo Sauter; John Hung

2010-01-01

99

Large-scale Ocean-based or Geothermal Power Plants by Thermoelectric Effects  

E-print Network

Heat resources of small temperature difference are easily accessible, free and unlimited on earth. Thermoelectric effects provide the technology for converting these heat resources directly into electricity. We present designs of electricity generators based on thermoelectric effects and using heat resources of small temperature difference, e.g., ocean water at different depths and geothermal sources, and conclude that large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects are feasible and economically competitive. The key observation is that the power factor of thermoelectric materials, unlike the figure of merit, can be improved by orders of magnitude upon laminating good conductors and good thermoelectric materials. The predicted large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects, if validated, will have a global economic and social impact for its scalability, and the renewability, free and unlimited supply of heat resources of small temperature difference on earth.

Liu, Liping

2012-01-01

100

Power Flow Controller for Renewables: Transformer-less Unified Power Flow Controller for Wind and Solar Power Transmission  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: MSU is developing a power flow controller to improve the routing of electricity from renewable sources through existing power lines. The fast, innovative, and lightweight circuitry that MSU is incorporating into its controller will eliminate the need for a separate heavy and expensive transformer, as well as the construction of new transmission lines. MSU’s controller is better suited to control power flows from distributed and intermittent wind and solar power systems than traditional transformer-based controllers are, so it will help to integrate more renewable energy into the grid. MSU‘s power flow controller can be installed anywhere in the existing grid to optimize energy transmission and help reduce transmission congestion.

None

2012-02-08

101

Ocean zoning for conservation, fisheries and marine renewable energy: Assessing trade-offs and co-location opportunities.  

PubMed

Oceans, particularly coastal areas, are getting busier and within this increasingly human-dominated seascape, marine biodiversity continues to decline. Attempts to maintain and restore marine biodiversity are becoming more spatial, principally through the designation of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs compete for space with other uses, and the emergence of new industries, such as marine renewable energy generation, will increase competition for space. Decision makers require guidance on how to zone the ocean to conserve biodiversity, mitigate conflict and accommodate multiple uses. Here we used empirical data and freely available planning software to identified priority areas for multiple ocean zones, which incorporate goals for biodiversity conservation, two types of renewable energy, and three types of fishing. We developed an approached to evaluate trade-offs between industries and we investigated the impacts of co-locating some fishing activities within renewable energy sites. We observed non-linear trade-offs between industries. We also found that different subsectors within those industries experienced very different trade-off curves. Incorporating co-location resulted in significant reductions in cost to the fishing industry, including fisheries that were not co-located. Co-location also altered the optimal location of renewable energy zones with planning solutions. Our findings have broad implications for ocean zoning and marine spatial planning. In particular, they highlight the need to include industry subsectors when assessing trade-offs and they stress the importance of considering co-location opportunities from the outset. Our research reinforces the need for multi-industry ocean-zoning and demonstrates how it can be undertaken within the framework of strategic conservation planning. PMID:25684567

Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S; Klein, Carissa J

2015-04-01

102

Design considerations for ocean energy resource systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceans occupy nearly three-quarters of the Earth's surface and represent an enormous source of renewable energy. While many of the world's industrialized nations have conducted exploratory research and development, the total power currently available from ocean energy systems, with the exception of the French tidal power plant, is less than one hundred megawatts (MW). An increasing number of ocean

R. Bregman; R. H. Knapp; P. K. Takahashi

1995-01-01

103

PTC, ITC, or Cash Grant? An Analysis of the Choice Facing Renewable Power Projects in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable power technologies are inherently capital-intensive, often (but not always) with relatively high construction costs and low operating costs. For this reason, renewable power technologies are typically more sensitive to the availability and cost of financing than are natural gas power plants, for example. In the United States, the bulk of renewable project finance in recent years has been provided

Mark Bolinger; Ryan Wiser; Karlynn Cory; Ted James

2009-01-01

104

Wave power estimates utilizing ocean wave spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete formulation of the spectral wave power equations, based upon linear wave theory, to be used with one-dimensional and directional sea spectrum are presented. These equations are quite general and allow for the specification of device specific information, such as, the wave capture\\/conversion efficiency and vertical projected capture height. Previously published field data is used to emphasize that the

John M. Niedzwecki

1983-01-01

105

A Critical Evaluation of Nuclear Power and Renewable Electricity in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article judges modern nuclear power and renewable electricity technologies according to six criteria: cost; fuel availability; land degradation; water use; climate change; and safety\\/security. It concludes that when these criteria are taken into consideration, renewable electricity technologies present policy makers with a superior alternative for minimising the risk of fuel interruptions and shortages, helping improve the fragile transmission network

Benjamin K. Sovacool

2010-01-01

106

Power electronics intensive solutions for integrated urban building renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, renewable energy resources have attracted a lot of effort and attention, due to issues related to utilization of traditional fossil fuels. Global warming, major energy crises, and unsecure energy supply has motivated developed countries to speed-up the process of installing renewable technologies. On the other hand, deregulation of power systems, with the aim of more competitive and

A. G. Siraki; N. Curry; P. Pillay; S. S. Williamson

2009-01-01

107

Kenninger Renewable Energy and Power Systems Seminar April 21, 2014 10:30 am Room ME 2054  

E-print Network

Kenninger Renewable Energy and Power Systems Seminar April 21, 2014 10:30 am Room ME 2054 Dr Engineering Department University of California ­ Los Angeles "A Technology Portfolio for a Renewable Energy storage and renewable energy conversion. This seminar will present a portfolio of renewable energy

Ginzel, Matthew

108

Mechanical Extraction of Power From Ocean Currents and Tides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed scheme for generating electric power from rivers and from ocean currents, tides, and waves is intended to offer economic and environmental advantages over prior such schemes, some of which are at various stages of implementation, others of which have not yet advanced beyond the concept stage. This scheme would be less environmentally objectionable than are prior schemes that involve the use of dams to block rivers and tidal flows. This scheme would also not entail the high maintenance costs of other proposed schemes that call for submerged electric generators and cables, which would be subject to degradation by marine growth and corrosion. A basic power-generation system according to the scheme now proposed would not include any submerged electrical equipment. The submerged portion of the system would include an all-mechanical turbine/pump unit that would superficially resemble a large land-based wind turbine (see figure). The turbine axis would turn slowly as it captured energy from the local river flow, ocean current, tidal flow, or flow from an ocean-wave device. The turbine axis would drive a pump through a gearbox to generate an enclosed flow of water, hydraulic fluid, or other suitable fluid at a relatively high pressure [typically approx.500 psi (approx.3.4 MPa)]. The pressurized fluid could be piped to an onshore or offshore facility, above the ocean surface, where it would be used to drive a turbine that, in turn, would drive an electric generator. The fluid could be recirculated between the submerged unit and the power-generation facility in a closed flow system; alternatively, if the fluid were seawater, it could be taken in from the ocean at the submerged turbine/pump unit and discharged back into the ocean from the power-generation facility. Another alternative would be to use the pressurized flow to charge an elevated reservoir or other pumped-storage facility, from whence fluid could later be released to drive a turbine/generator unit at a time of high power demand. Multiple submerged turbine/pump units could be positioned across a channel to extract more power than could be extracted by a single unit. In that case, the pressurized flows in their output pipes would be combined, via check valves, into a wider pipe that would deliver the combined flow to a power-generating or pumped-storage facility.

Jones, Jack; Chao, Yi

2010-01-01

109

77 FR 38742 - Non-Power Reactor License Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...License Renewal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...receipt, then contact us at 301-415-1677...Secretary, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking,...

2012-06-29

110

Renewable Energy and Inter-Island Power Transmission (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes recent findings pertaining to inter-island connection of renewable and other energy sources, in particular, as these findings relate cable options, routing, specifications, and pros and cons.

Gevorgian, V.

2011-05-01

111

On the Wind Power Input to the Ocean General Circulation XIAOMING ZHAI  

E-print Network

On the Wind Power Input to the Ocean General Circulation XIAOMING ZHAI Atmospheric, Oceanic January 2012, in final form 3 May 2012) ABSTRACT The wind power input to the ocean general circulation is usually calculated from the time-averaged wind products. Here, this wind power input is reexamined using

Johnson, Helen

112

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

113

78 FR 37325 - License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51...NRC-2008-0608] RIN 3150-AI42 License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact...Plans for Environmental Reviews AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION:...

2013-06-20

114

76 FR 11823 - Dominion Energy Kewaunee, Inc.; Kewaunee Power Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...natural gas combined-cycle generation; a combination of conservation, efficiency, wood-fired generation, and wind power; and non-renewal of the operating license. The factors considered in the record of decision can be found in the...

2011-03-03

115

Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High Renewables Scenarios in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the analysis of concentrating solar power (CSP) in two studies -- The SunShot Vision Study and the Renewable Electricity Futures Study -- and the potential role of CSP in a future energy mix.

Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Brinkman, G.; Drury, E.; Mowers, M.; Turchi, C.

2012-10-01

116

Potential of wind-powered renewable energy membrane systems for Ghana   

E-print Network

Areas of the world that lack fresh water often have an ample supply of wind or solar energy, making renewable energy an attractive option as a power source for desalination systems. Particularly, wind energy is attractive because of its relatively...

Park, G.L.; Schäfer, Andrea; Richard, B.S.

2009-01-01

117

2010 International Conference on Power System Technology Renewable energy integration: mechanism for  

E-print Network

a problem based on the optimal and timely investment on grids, mainly when power injection is considered and the grid's owner, or through the compulsory expansion plan of the renewable energy trunk transmission

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

118

Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Interim Report 1  

SciTech Connect

The power transfer potential for bringing renewable energy into the Southeast in response to a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) will depend not only on available transmission capacity but also on electricity supply and demand factors. This interim report examines how the commonly used EIA NEMS and EPRI NESSIE energy equilibrium models are considering such power transfers. Using regional estimates of capacity expansion and demand, a base case for 2008, 2020 and 2030 are compared relative to generation mix, renewable deployments, planned power transfers, and meeting RPS goals. The needed amounts of regional renewable energy to comply with possible RPS levels are compared to inter-regional transmission capacities to establish a baseline available for import into the Southeast and other regions. Gaps in the renewable generation available to meet RPS requirements are calculated. The initial finding is that the physical capability for transferring renewable energy into the SE is only about 10% of what would be required to meet a 20% RPS. Issues that need to be addressed in future tasks with respect to modeling are the current limitations for expanding renewable capacity and generation in one region to meet the demand in another and the details on transmission corridors required to deliver the power.

Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

2009-03-01

119

Microgrid economic optimal operation of the combined heat and power system with renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined heat and power system (CHP) with renewable energy generation, which operates with high efficiency and low costs, is an important form of microgrid. This paper deals with the problem of economic operation of cogeneration system including wind energy, PV, heat recovery boiler and battery. On the basis of predicting the next 24-hours' wind energy and PV power, power and

W. Gu; Z. Wu; X. Yuan

2010-01-01

120

Power-Electronic Systems for the Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Sources: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of distributed energy resources is increasingly being pursued as a supplement and an alternative to large conventional central power stations. The specification of a power-electronic interface is subject to requirements related not only to the renewable energy source itself but also to its effects on the power-system operation, especially where the intermittent energy source constitutes a significant part

Juan Manuel Carrasco; Leopoldo Garcia Franquelo; Jan T. Bialasiewicz; Eduardo Galván; Ramón C. Portillo Guisado; Ma. A. M. Prats; José Ignacio León; Narciso Moreno-Alfonso

2006-01-01

121

Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News  

E-print Network

Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley dioxide into transportation fuels, with the help of special micro-organisms and solar power. The team

Lovley, Derek

122

Wave-powered small-scale generation systems for ocean exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our initial investigation of an inertial power generation system, designed for use in small, low-power, long-endurance ocean exploration robots. The system recovers small amounts of power from the movements caused by ocean waves. The primary focus of the investigation to date has been the development of efficient power recovery system electronics that extract useful power from a

Phill Brown; D. Hardisty; T. C. A. Molteno

2006-01-01

123

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants 1 Issue...employed to control soil erosion...wetland on power line right...vegetation control is necessary...underneath power lines and...expected at any nuclear power plant during...

2012-01-01

124

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants 1 Issue...employed to control soil erosion...wetland on power line right...vegetation control is necessary...underneath power lines and...expected at any nuclear power plant during...

2013-01-01

125

Risk-Limiting Dispatch for Integrating Renewable Power Ram Rajagopal  

E-print Network

by future decisions; by additional intra-day energy and reserve capac- ity markets; and by better forecasts clean energy. California's goal is 33% by 2020. The goals are promoted by `renewable portfolio standards to these forward or future energy purchases, the SO hedges against forecast errors and equipment failure

Varaiya, Pravin

126

Direct Mechanical Conversion of Ocean Wave Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently wave energy conversion has attracted renewed interest from governments and developers looking for alternative carbon free energy resources. Ocean waves have been shown to contain large quantities of power. However, it has proven very difficult to capture even a fraction of this energy in real ocean conditions. This paper reviews the complex energy flows associated with ocean waves and

L. Le-Ngoc; A. I. Gardiner

127

Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors  

SciTech Connect

Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

2012-12-01

128

Barriers to the adoption of renewable and energy-efficient technologies in the Vietnamese power sector  

E-print Network

Développement, CNRS, France. b Institute of Energy, Vietnam. c The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden d AsianBarriers to the adoption of renewable and energy-efficient technologies in the Vietnamese power coal power generation technologies in Vietnam. It ranks their severity by applying the analytical

Boyer, Edmond

129

Determination of the maximum power generation of renewable energy generating units in an islanded microgrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy generating units (REGNs) are widely used in microgrids (MGs). REGNs can reduce the operating cost of a MG; they also affect the operating states of the connected grids, especially the voltages. The larger the power generation of REGNs, the greater the impact on voltage of MGs. Therefore, the power generation of a REGN in a MG should be

Wen-Chih Yang; Wei-Tzer Huang

2011-01-01

130

Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage  

E-print Network

Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage Huan Xu, Ufuk to the intermittency in the power output. These difficulties can be alleviated by effectively utilizing energy storage turbines, supplemented with energy storage. We use a simple storage model alongside a combination

Xu , Huan

131

Economic Analysis of Using a Renewable Wind Power System at a Signalized Intersection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transportation sector consumes about 28% of the total energy expended by all sectors in the United States, according to the US Energy Information Administration. This paper proposes a renewable wind power system (RWPS) as an alternative power source for a signalized traffic intersection. The RWPS can be mounted on existing transportation infrastructure to provide green energy. Large-scale implementation of

Mo Zhao; Anuj Sharma; Dave G. Bernt; Joshua A. Meyer; Benjamin Dickey; Scott Rosenbaugh; Elizabeth Jones; Laurence Rilett

2012-01-01

132

Utility Optimal Scheduling in Energy Cooperation Networks Powered by Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

. In such networks, nodes can provide data transmission service, and at the same time they have power lines for traffic transmission and energy transfer. In our EDA algorithm, the node only needs to keep track of itsUtility Optimal Scheduling in Energy Cooperation Networks Powered by Renewable Energy Congshi Hu

133

75 FR 64350 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the NextLight Renewable Power, LLC, Silver State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the NextLight Renewable Power, LLC, Silver State Solar Project Environmental...400-megawatt (MW) solar photovoltaic (PV) power plant and facilities...decommission of a 400-MW solar photovoltaic power plant on public...

2010-10-19

134

Design and manufacture study of Ocean Renewable Energy Storage (ORES) prototype  

E-print Network

Utility scale energy storage is needed to balance rapidly varying outputs from renewable energy systems such as wind and solar. In order to address this need, an innovative utility scale energy storage concept has been ...

Dündar, Gökhan

2012-01-01

135

Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

Not Available

2013-09-01

136

A mobile renewable house using PV\\/wind\\/fuel cell hybrid power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic\\/wind\\/fuel cell hybrid power system for stand-alone applications is proposed and demonstrated with a mobile house. This concept shows that different renewable sources can be used simultaneously to power off-grid applications. The presented mobile house can produce sufficient power to cover the peak load. Photovoltaic and wind energy are used as primary sources and a fuel cell as backup

Mehmed Eroglu; Erkan Dursun; Suat Sevencan; Junseok Song; Suha Yazici; Osman Kilic

2011-01-01

137

The Estimated Global Ocean Wind Power Potential from QuikSCAT Observations, Accounting for Turbine  

E-print Network

The Estimated Global Ocean Wind Power Potential from QuikSCAT Observations, Accounting for Turbine: (949) 824-3256 Abstract For the first time, global ocean usable wind power is evaluated for modern and siting depth. Mean wind power increases by 30%, 69% and 73% within the tropics and northern and southern

Zender, Charles

138

a 100% Renewable Power System for Europe -- let the Weather and Physics DECIDE!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of sustainable energy systems is no longer only the domain of politics, economics and engineering. Mathematical physics is able to contribute with its generic understanding of everything. A new modelling approach is presented and applied to design a fully renewable European power system. This approach is based on weather data with good spatio-temporal resolution, which is first converted into wind and solar power generation and then used to derive estimates on the optimal mix between the renewable resources and the storage needs.

Greiner, Martin; Heide, Dominik; Rasmussen, Morten; Andresen, Gorm

2012-01-01

139

Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act.

O'Brien, J.; Kim, T.J.; Reynolds, S.

1991-08-01

140

Forty candles for the Rance River TPP tides provide renewable and sustainable power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prices of oil and other fossil fuels have proven a powerful incentive for the alternative energy hunters. The alternatives include the various forms of ocean energy that, often considered uneconomical for electricity generation, have become attractive and competitive. Many sites throughout the world have been considered, at one time or another, suitable for implantation of a tidal power station, but

Roger H. Charlier

2007-01-01

141

Power electronics and its applications to renewable energy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric utility industry is gradually undergoing restructuring and the main paradigm shift is the introduction of the principles of competition. With the level of future demand for electricity being unclear, power market players are reluctant to commit to long-term capital investment, with the result that construction of new large-scale power plants and also transmission and distribution infrastructure is typically

Junichi Arai; Kenji Iba; Toshihisa Funabashi; Yosuke Nakanishi; Kaoru Koyanagi; Ryuichi Yokoyama

2008-01-01

142

Renewable Energy Expansion and the Value of Balance Regulation Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve a stable and reliable electricity supply, efficient provision of reserve capacity or, more generally, ancillary services is crucial. Because of the expansion of wind power with random variation in supply, and expected environmental restrictions in hydropower operation causing reductions in regulated hydropower capacity, the balancing power and system reliability issues have become topical in Scandinavia. Moreover, there seems

Finn Försund; Lennart Hjalmarsson

2010-01-01

143

A power analysis and data acquisition system for ocean wave energy device testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the testing of ocean wave energy devices, the demand for a portable and robust data acquisition and electrical loading system has become apparent. This paper investigates the development of a 30 kW inclusive system combining loading capabilities, real-time power analysis, and data acquisition for the testing of deployed ocean wave energy devices. Hardware results for ocean testing are included.

Ean Amon; Ted K. A. Brekken; Annette von Jouanne

2011-01-01

144

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [6714 Norway Road, Dallas, TX (United States); Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

145

Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

146

Green power grids: how energy from renewable sources affects network and markets  

E-print Network

The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources, fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and introducing new criticalities that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations causing an increased request of conventional energy sources oriented to balance energy requests on short notices. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources and to their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies among the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations on the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players behavior. Our model is a data-d...

Mureddu, Mario; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

2015-01-01

147

Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid  

SciTech Connect

A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

Zdeborova, Lenka [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

148

Floating type ocean wave power station equipped with hydroelectric unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have invented the unique ocean wave power station, which is composed of the floating type platform with a pair of the floats lining up at the interval of one wave pitch and the counter-rotating type wave power unit, its runners are submerged in the seawater at the middle position of the platform. Such profiles make the flow velocity at the runner is twice faster than that of the traditional fixed/caisson type OWC, on the ideal flow conditions. Besides, the runners counter-rotate the inner and the outer armatures of the peculiar generator, respectively, and the relative rotational speed is also twice faster than the speed of the single runner/armature. Such characteristics make the runner diameter large, namely the output higher, as requested, because the torque of the power unit never act on the floating type platform. At the preliminary reseach, this paper verifies to get the power using a Wells type single runner installed in the model station. The runner takes the output which is affected by the oscillating amplitude of the platform, the rotational speed and the inertia force of the runner, etc.

Okamoto, Shun; Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Umekage, Toshihiko

2013-10-01

149

Humankind’s detour toward sustainability: past, present, and future of renewable energies and electric power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energies have been the primary energy source in the history of the human race. During the last 200 years, industrialized countries have shifted their energy consumption toward fossil fuels. Contemporary electric power generation is based on non-renewable resources such as oil, coal, and nuclear power. New efficient and cost-effective small-scale renewable energy generation options are commercially available today. Market

Raphael Edinger; Sanjay Kaul

2000-01-01

150

Abstract--The integration of variable renewable generation sources continues to be a significant area of focus for power  

E-print Network

of additional wind generation into the Northwest Power Pool. It quantifies the number of vehicles required1 Abstract--The integration of variable renewable generation sources continues to be a significant area of focus for power system planning. Renewable portfolio standards and initiatives to reduce

151

Power optimal capacitor charging to illustrate a method for identifying microgrid renewable source characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing requirements for renewable power sources that are able to meet specified load needs is the moti- vation for this work. The approach used here is to formulate energy storage as an optimal control problem. Alternative objective functions are applied to a tutorial LC circuit yielding insight into the relationship between the supply characteristics and the rate of storage. Given

Matthew Heath; Gordon Parker; David G. Wilson; Rush D. Robinett

2011-01-01

152

Human factors, human reliability and risk assessment in license renewal of a nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes human factors and human reliability assessments carried out as a part of operating license renewal of a nuclear power plant. The structure and contents of human factors assessments, the source material and the role of probabilistic safety assessment are described. Similar evaluations are recommended as an integral part of periodic safety reviews of regulated industrial facilities.The qualitative

Jussi K. Vaurio

2009-01-01

153

Seawater integrated desalination plant without brine discharge and powered by renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental effects are one of the main concerns of massive desalination facilities. To reach the objective of no brine discharge the salt from seawater must be completely separated and obtained as a secondary and valuable product. If no CO2 emission increase is desired, the power source must be a combination of renewable energy systems (RES). This paper presents an analysis

C. Fernández-López; A. Viedma; R. Herrero; A. S. Kaiser

2009-01-01

154

LARGE SCALE DEPLOYMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY BY COMBINING WIND FARMS WITH SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The installation of megawatt-size wind turbines on 65 to 80 meter towers at Class 4 wind sites in Texas has resulted in the cheapest form of renewable energy ($0.04/kWh). However, wind farm output has a diurnal mismatch to the utility electrical loading. Combining solar thermal power plants with w...

155

Redesign electricity market for the next generation power system of renewable energy and distributed storage technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a stochastic time-series based method to simulate the volatility of intermittent renewable generation and distributed storage devices along timeline. The proposed method can calculate the optimal timeline for different electricity markets and power systems. In practice, the proposed method is potentially useful for designing market rules and evaluating different design options. Following works is underway on application

Donghan Feng; Zhao Xu; J. Østergaard

2010-01-01

156

Asymptotically Optimal Power-Aware Routing for Multihop Wireless Networks with Renewable  

E-print Network

1 Asymptotically Optimal Power-Aware Routing for Multihop Wireless Networks with Renewable Energy the performance of multihop radio networks in the presence of energy constraints, and design routing algorithms to optimally utilize the available energy. The energy model allows vastly different energy sources

Srikant, Rayadurgam

157

Renewable Energy in Rangan Banerjee  

E-print Network

Energy Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Geothermal* #12;Applications Power Generation Cooking Heating-Water Distributed Generation Isolated Demand Side Management (Solar Water Heater, Passive Solar) #12;Geothermal #12;Renewable Energy Options Wind Solar Small Hydro Biomass Tidal Energy Wave Energy Ocean Thermal

Banerjee, Rangan

158

Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is tested under variety of meaningful conditions, which proves the feasibility of the proposed design. The concepts, analysis and design of MPEI conducted in this dissertation pave the way for designing of intelligent power electronic infrastructure for future sustainable energy systems.

Jiang, Wei

159

Design, modeling and testing of the Askaryan Radio Array South Pole autonomous renewable power stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design, construction and operation of the Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Autonomous Renewable Power Stations, initially installed at the South Pole in December, 2010 with the goal of providing an independently operating 100 W power source capable of year-round operation in extreme environments. In addition to particle astrophysics applications at the South Pole, such a station can easily be, and has since been, extended to operation elsewhere, as described herein.

Besson, D. Z.; Kennedy, D. M.; Ratzlaff, K.; Young, R.

2014-11-01

160

Topic 5: Renewable Power 1Networking and Distributed Systems  

E-print Network

-Rad Texas Tech UniversityCommunications and Control in Smart Grid 4 · Annual greenhouse gas emissions UniversityCommunications and Control in Smart Grid · Carbon Footprint is usually defined as: · Usually in Smart Grid 3 · We are interested in power plants with low carbon footprint: · Both CO2 and CH4

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

161

Renewable Energy Systems With Photovoltaic Power Generators: Operation and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial increase of photovoltaic (PV) power generators installations has taken place in recent years, due to the increasing efficiency of solar cells as well as the improvements of manufacturing technology of solar panels. These generators are both grid-connected and stand-alone applications. We present an overview of the essential research results. The paper concentrates on the operation and modeling of

Jan T. Bialasiewicz

2008-01-01

162

Ocean energy resource systems  

SciTech Connect

The oceans occupy nearly three-quarters of the Earth`s surface and represent a potentially large source of renewable energy. While many industrialized nations have conducted exploratory research and development, the total power currently available from ocean energy resource systems, with the exception of a French tidal power plant, is less that 100 megawatts. A number of ocean energy conversion technologies are approaching an acceptable stage of development for commercial utilization. Factors important to the design and development of such systems-including wave, tide and thermal gradient sources are discussed.

Bregman, R.; Knapp, R.H.; Takahashi, P.K. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1996-08-01

163

Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

2008-12-01

164

Comparison of wind stress algorithms, datasets and oceanic power input  

E-print Network

If the ocean is in a statistically steady state, energy balance is a strong constraint, suggesting that the energy input into the world ocean is dissipated simultaneously at the same rate. Energy conservation is one of the ...

Yuan, Shaoyu

2009-01-01

165

Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Electricity consumption in the Southeastern US, including Florida, is approximately 32% of the total US. The availability of renewable resources for electricity production is relatively small compared to the high consumption. Therefore meeting a national renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is particularly challenging in this region. Neighboring regions, particularly to the west, have significant wind resources and given sufficient transmission these resources could serve energy markets in the SE. This report looks at renewable resource supply relative to demands and the potential for power transfer into the SE. We found that significant wind energy transfers, at the level of 30-60 GW, are expected to be economic in case of federal RPC or CO2 policy. Development of wind resources will depend not only on the available transmission capacity and required balancing resources, but also on electricity supply and demand factors.

Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Deb, Rajat [LCG Consulting

2010-02-01

166

Economic Factors and Incentives for Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean energy conversion systems have recently seen renewed interest, stimulated mostly by today's increasing energy discussions. In addition to ocean current energy converters, several commercial ocean wave energy projects have already been undertaken; however, no clear economic model exists for developers to follow. Therefore, this paper focuses on U.S. economic factors that affect the use of wave power for generation

Jennifer G. Vining; Annette Muetze

2009-01-01

167

Diffraction of ocean waves around a hollow cylindrical shell structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been renewed interest in problems of diffraction and radiation of ocean waves around structures, in relation to “green” power generation by Oscillating Water Column (OWC) devices. In this paper, we present a first-order analytical solution for the diffraction of ocean waves around a hollow cylindrical shell structure suspended in an ocean of finite depth. By

Song-Ping Zhu; Lewis Mitchell

2009-01-01

168

On the Variability of Wind Power Input to the Oceans with a Focus on the Subpolar North Atlantic  

E-print Network

Variations in power input to the ocean using a recent global “reanalysis” extending back to 1871 show a strong trend in the net power input since then, a trend dominated by the Southern Ocean region. This trend is interpreted ...

Zhai, Xiaoming

169

Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)  

SciTech Connect

The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

2010-01-07

170

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience  

SciTech Connect

Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

2012-04-01

171

Power Generation Investment Planning in a Modern Power System With High Share of Renewables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is focused on investment planning in power generation industry, which becomes an important direction of research under the conditions of newly formed environment of electricity market. The authors emphasize the key role of effective instruments and methods for estimation of the costs and economic efficiency of a generating capacity and its adequacy in a modern power system. In the paper, cost-based concepts are analyzed which form a basis for decision-making and long-term planning of investments in the power generation sector for a power system with high share of renewable energy sources. M?sdien?s energoinfrastrukt?ras att?st?bas un t? vad?bas proces? ir j?pie?em un j?pilda vair?ki l?mumi par nepieciešamiem kapit?lieguld?jumiem, kas ir r?p?gi j?pl?no un j?pamato. Viedo t?klu tehnolo?iju ieviešana un energosist?mas drošuma uztur?šana, ?emot v?r? liberaliz?to elektroener?ijas tirgu, rada nepieciešam?bu p?c principi?li jaun?m pieej?m un metod?m kapit?lieguld?jumu nov?rt?šanas uzdevumu risin?šanai. P?t?jums velt?ts invest?ciju pl?nošanai elektroener?ijas ?ener?cijas iek?rtai elektroener?ijas tirgus apst?k?os, ?emot v?r? lielo atjaun?go energoresursu (AER) ?patsvaru. Modernu energosist?mu vad?ba prasa pietiekamu ?ener?cijas jaudas elast?gumu un to pareizo kombin?ciju. Lai to sasniegtu, vispirms ir nepieciešama daž?du ?ener?cijas tehnolo?ijas izmaksu nov?rt?šana, ko var veikt, izmantojot pien?c?go instrumentu. Tas ar? ir p?t?juma m?r?is, kura rezult?t? tika pied?v?ta elektrostaciju ekonomiskas dz?votsp?jas nov?rt?šanas koncepcija, balstoties uz elektroener?ijas ražošanas l?me?izmaks?m (ed costs), lai sal?dzin?tu daž?du elektroener?ijas ražošanas tehnolo?ijas izmaksas. Lai to sasniegtu tika veikti: - invest?ciju pl?nošana ?ener?cij?, metožu p?t?šana; - elektrostaciju darb?bas principu anal?ze elektroener?ijas tirg?; - elektrostaciju ?ener?cijas tehnolo?ijas izmaksu nov?rt?šana; - elektrostaciju ?ener?cijas ?stermi?a un ilgtermi?a izmaksu nov?rt?šana; - elektrostaciju ?ener?cijas invest?ciju un vad?bas izmaksu nov?rt?šana; - daž?du ?ener?cijas tehnolo?iju izmaksu skaitliskie apr??ini un anal?ze. ?paša uzman?ba velt?ta invest?ciju pl?nošanai elektroener?ijas ražošanas nozar? liberaliz?ta tirgus apst?k?os; tika izanaliz?ti efekt?vie instrumenti, izmaksu metodes un ekonomisk?s efektivit?tes nov?rt?šanas noz?me daž?da tipa ?ener?još?m jaud?m un t?s atbilst?ba m?sdienu elektroapg?des sist?mas pras?b?m

Oleinikova, I.; Ruksans, O.; Turcik, M.

2014-04-01

172

Renewable Energy in China: Xiao Qing Dao Village Power Wind/Diesel Hybrid Pilot Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, DOE/NREL and the State Power Corporation of China (SPCC) developed a pilot project to electrify Xiao Qing Dao, a small island located in China's Yellow Sea. The project demonstrates the practicality of renewable energy systems for medium-scale, off-grid applications. It consists of four 10 k-W wind turbines connected to a 30-kW diesel generator, a 40-kW inverter and a battery bank.

Not Available

2006-01-01

173

Why are remote Western Australians installing renewable energy technologies in stand-alone power supply systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As people living in remote areas rely on SPS systems for their electricity and water needs, they hold a practical and non-idealistic perspective towards using renewable energy technologies. This research explores pastoral owner-operators’ personal experience and opinion of stand-alone power supply (SPS) systems over 30years in remote pastoral regions Western Australia (WA). This research was undertaken qualitatively in terms of

Mark P. McHenry

2009-01-01

174

Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control: Part I-theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design

Rush D. Robinett; David G. Wilson

2010-01-01

175

NORTH AMERICAN OCEAN ENERGY STATUS - MARCH 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean energy resources are attractive renewable supply alternatives for North America because good wave, tidal and river energy resources are found in close proximity to population centers. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) established two North American collaborative programs to demonstrate ocean energy conversion in North America. The two collaborative programs bring together the resources and knowledge of 10 State

Roger Bedard; Mirko Previsic; George Hagerman; Brian Polagye; Walt Musial; Justin Klure; Annette von Jouanne; Uday Mathur; Craig Collar; Charles Hopper; Scott Amsden

2007-01-01

176

Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report  

SciTech Connect

The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

Fleming, Alex J.

2014-08-23

177

Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridge: Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center. Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center, is a growing collection of on-line marine education resources. It provides educators with ...

178

Ocean conditions and Columbia River salmon Testimony provided for the House Subcommittee on Power and Water  

E-print Network

Ocean conditions and Columbia River salmon Testimony provided for the House Subcommittee on Power controlling salmon marine survival in the Pacific Northwest, several ocean-climate events have been linked with fluctuations in Northwest salmon health and abundance. These include: El Niño/La Niña, the Pacific Decadal

Mantua, Nathan

179

A Power Analysis and Data Acquisition System for Ocean Wave Energy Device Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the testing of ocean wave energy devices, the demand for a portable and robust data acquisition and electrical loading system has become apparent. This paper investigates the development of an inclusive system combining loading capabilities, real-time power analysis, and data acquisition for the testing of deployed ocean wave energy devices.

E. Amon; T. K. A. Brekken; A. von Jouanne

2009-01-01

180

Ocean Renewable Energy Storage (ORES) System: Analysis of an Undersea Energy Storage Concept  

E-print Network

Due to its higher capacity factor and proximity to densely populated areas, offshore wind power with integrated energy storage could satisfy > 20% of U.S. electricity demand. Similar results could also be obtained in many ...

Slocum, Alexander H.

181

Multi-Agent Systems and Control, Intelligent Robotics, and Cybernetics. Power Electronics, Renewable Energy, and Smart Grid.  

E-print Network

. Power Electronics, Renewable Energy, and Smart Grid. Computer Science and Engineering. Embedded Systems, Cloud/Green/Ubiquitous/Mobile Computing. Biomedical Electronics, Biomedical Imaging, Nano Electronics, Medical Electronics). Nanoelectronics / Advanced CMOS / Green Energy / Display /Bioelectronic

Wu, Yih-Min

182

Multifunctional voltage source inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning.  

PubMed

In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity. PMID:25177725

Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

2014-01-01

183

A Measurement and Power Line Communication System Design for Renewable Smart Grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data communication over the electric power lines can be managed easily and economically since the grid connections are already spread around all over the world. This paper investigates the applicability of Power Line Communication (PLC) in an energy generation system that is based on photovoltaic (PV) panels with the modeling study in Matlab/Simulink. The Simulink model covers the designed PV panels, boost converter with Perturb and Observe (P&O) control algorithm, full bridge inverter, and the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modem that is utilized to transfer the measured data over the power lines. This study proposes a novel method to use the electrical power lines not only for carrying the line voltage but also to transmit the measurements of the renewable energy generation plants. Hence, it is aimed at minimizing the additional monitoring costs such as SCADA, Ethernet-based or GSM based systems by using the proposed technique. Although this study is performed with solar power plants, the proposed model can be applied to other renewable generation systems. Consequently, the usage of the proposed technique instead of SCADA or Ethernet-based systems eliminates additional monitoring costs.

Kabalci, E.; Kabalci, Y.

2013-10-01

184

Multifunctional Voltage Source Inverter for Renewable Energy Integration and Power Quality Conditioning  

PubMed Central

In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity. PMID:25177725

Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

2014-01-01

185

Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Ocean habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can find out about Deep Ocean or Open Ocean! Ocean Life is a great website that tells about different parts of the ocean and about animals that live there. Ugie! You can start your mission to find out about Killer Whales by going to Orca or Killer Whales. Jakhia! You can start your mission to find ...

Ms. Ryan

2013-02-12

186

Overview of Ocean Wave and Tidal Energy Lingchuan Mei  

E-print Network

and consistency can ensure us ocean a dependable source of power that we can rely on. However, wave and tidal. keywords--Renewable power resource, Marine energy, wave energy, tidal energy. I. INTRODUCTION For recentOverview of Ocean Wave and Tidal Energy Lingchuan Mei Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia

Lavaei, Javad

187

Analysis of an Agent-based Electricity Market Model with Renewable Energy Power Plants by Wind and Solar Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, electricity markets were organized in many developed countries in the deregulation process of electric power industries. There have been many studies on electricity markets from the viewpoints of economics, mathematics, computer science, etc. Especially, agent-based models of electricity markets have been extensively studied. Meanwhile, many countries promote use of renewable energy for electricity generation. In this paper, we construct and analyze an agent-based model of electricity markets in which wind and photovoltaic power generation firms are introduced. Our results suggest that wind power generation needs to be improved in efficiency to survive in the market, and that bid prices of photovoltaic power generation are rather affected by change of the insolation amount than by change of the total demand.

Iwagami, Akio; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

188

An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development  

PubMed Central

Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

2012-01-01

189

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers  

SciTech Connect

Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

2012-04-01

190

On the Patterns of Wind-Power Input to the Ocean Circulation  

E-print Network

Pathways of wind-power input into the ocean general circulation are analyzed using Ekman theory. Direct rates of wind work can be calculated through the wind stress acting on the surface geostrophic flow. However, because ...

Roquet, Fabien

191

The promotional impacts of green power products on renewable energy sources: direct and indirect eco-effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green power products may be seen as a means of fostering renewable energy sources because they create and channel consumer demand for environmentally sound power generation. They can therefore be evaluated on a par with other support instruments regarding their effectiveness to connect new capacity to the grid. Apart from this direct effect however, green power products confer a much

Jochen Markard; Bernhard Truffer

2006-01-01

192

Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While daily and seasonal patterns in general stay similar, the total feed-in can vary by more than 25 % from year to year for certain resources in a region. It is shown that the overall annual resource of wind and PV power for entire Europe is considerably less variable. The seasonal correlation of wind and PV will be presented and the consequence on reduced storage needs.

Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

2014-05-01

193

The design and analysis of a vertical axis ocean current power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a calculation of the power generated by a vertical axis ocean current power plant. An analytical model is presented and a computer solution described. Results of the calculation show the optimum angles of the blades about the vertical axis to maximize power output, as well as the total extractable power of the plant for various ocean current velocities. Tow tank tests are described for a scale model of the plant. Additionally, the advantages and economics of the proposed design are discussed.

Richard, C. C.; Hartzog, J. R.; Sorge, R. V.; Quigley, J. V.; Adams, G. R.

194

Implications of the deep circulation and ventilation of the Indian Ocean on the renewal mechanism of North Atlantic Deep Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Indian Ocean sector of the ``great ocean conveyor'' scheme the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) replacement is realized by the transformation of the sinking Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) from the Southern Ocean to a prevailingly upward flow in the northern Indian Ocean. This water -mass transformation scenario has been studied by using hydrographic data including potential temperature, salinity,

Yuzhu You

2000-01-01

195

Renewable energy power in U. S. electric utility applications past progress, current status, future prospects  

SciTech Connect

During the past ten years, over two billion dollars of public and private funds have been applied toward the development of new renewable power sources. The efforts conducted over this period have led to several primary results: Lofty dreams of large energy contributions by year 2000 have been replaced by realistic projections and the realization that successful development of new power technologies takes a number of years. We have also come to realize that a contribution of one or two percent of U.S. energy needs by year 2000 from a new technology would represent a truly significant achievement, would imply productive capital investments of tens of billions of dollars, and would signal the emergence of a very healthy power option whose ultimate role would be influenced primarily by normal market forces.

De Meo, E.A.

1985-02-01

196

Implications of the North Atlantic Oscillation for a UK-Norway Renewable Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind power capacity in the UK is increasing, and new transmission links are proposed with Norway where electricity is primarily produced through hydroelectric generation. The impact of climate variability on such an interconnected power system incorporating different renewable sources therefore merits investigation. This study examines the effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant large-scale pattern of atmospheric variability affecting northern Europe, on an integrated UK-Norway power system with growing reliance on wind power. Wind and temperature data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (1948-2010) are used to model demand and wind power using simple models. 'Demand net wind' (DNW) is estimated for positive, neutral, and negative NAO, focusing on March when Norwegian hydropower reserves approach their minimum and the combined system might be most susceptible to meteorological variations. It is found that the cold and still conditions associated with the NAO negative state (compared to NAO positive or neutral) result in greater demand and decreased wind production. The resulting increase in DNW in NAO negative relative to NAO neutral, under a 2020 power system scenario, would be equivalent to an approximately 25% increase in the present-day rate of Norwegian hydropower usage during March. This represents a marked increase in the magnitude of the power system's sensitivity to NAO variability.

Ely, Caroline; Brayshaw, David; Methven, John; Cox, James; Pearce, Oliver

2014-05-01

197

Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites  

SciTech Connect

An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

2010-02-19

198

COMMISSION GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

, certificates, certification, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, eligibility, fuel cell, pipeline biomethane, power purchase agreement, Qualified Reporting Entity, RECs, renewable energy, renewable energy credits, Renewables Portfolio Standard, repowered, retail sales, small hydroelectric, Self

199

COMMISSION GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, eligibility, fuel cell, gasification, geothermal, power purchase agreement, Qualified Reporting Entity, RECs, renewable energy, renewable energy credits, Renewables Portfolio Standard, repowered, retail sales, small hydroelectric, SelfGeneration Incentive

200

Economic and technological aspects of the market introduction of renewable power technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy, if developed and delivered with appropriate technologies, is cleaner, more evenly distributed, and safer than conventional energy systems. Many countries and several states in the United States promote the development and introduction of technologies for "green" electricity production. This dissertation investigates economic and technological aspects of this process for wind energy. In liberalized electricity markets, policy makers use economic incentives to encourage the adoption of renewables. Choosing from a large range of possible policies and instruments is a multi-criteria decision process. This dissertation evaluates the criteria used and the trade-offs among the criteria, and develops a hierarchical flow scheme that policy makers can use to choose the most appropriate policy for a given situation. Economic incentives and market transformation programs seek to reduce costs through mass deployment in order to make renewable technologies competitive. Cost reduction is measured in "experience curves" that posit negative exponential relationships between cumulative deployment and production cost. This analysis reveals the weaknesses in conventional experience curve analyses for wind turbines, and concludes that the concept is limited by data availability, a weak conceptual foundation, and inappropriate statistical estimation. A revised model specifies a more complete set of economic and technological forces that determine the cost of wind power. Econometric results indicate that experience and upscaling of turbine sizes accounted for the observed cost reduction in wind turbines in the United States, Denmark and Germany between 1983 and 2001. These trends are likely to continue. In addition, future cost reductions will result from economies of scale in production. Observed differences in the performance of theoretically equivalent policy instruments could arise from economic uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, a methodology for the quantitative comparison of economic incentive schemes and their effect on uncertainty and investor behavior in renewable power markets is developed using option value theory of investment. Critical investment thresholds compared with actual benefit-cost ratios for several case studies in Germany indicate that uncertainty in prices for wind power and green certificates would delay investment. In Germany, the fixed-tariff system effectively removes this barrier.

Worlen, Christine M.

201

Modeling of an ocean waves power device AWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the steps for building the time domain model of an ocean waves energy converter device called AWS (Archimedes wave swing). This model is useful for the design of such devices and for the prediction of its behavior in different sea conditions. Besides the inherent complexity associated to the nonlinear dynamics of the AWS components, for time domain

Jod Si da Costa; Pedro Pinto; Anthio Sarmento; Fred Gardner

2003-01-01

202

A resonant point absorber of ocean-wave power  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for absorbing and utilizing the energy carried by ocean waves is discussed. The 'point absorber' considered is a system in which the horizontal extent is much smaller than one wavelength. The point absorber is optimized for efficient energy conversion. The resonant characteristic frequency of the system is at all times tuned to the characteristic frequency of the wave.

K. Budar; J. Falnes

1975-01-01

203

Renewable Energy as a Tool to Assure Continuity of Low Emissions in the Brazilian Electric Power Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Brazilian Electric Sector more than 80% of its installed capacity is based on hydro and biomass energy. A new legal framework has imposed roles for renewable sources of energy, establishing that 10% of electric power must come from these sources over the next twenty years. Historically, hydro power has been the key source of electricity in Brazil. In

Osvaldo Soliano Pereira; Tereza Mousinho Reis; R. G. B. de Araujo; F. F. Gongalves

2006-01-01

204

Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

2015-02-01

205

Agent-based power management of microgrids including renewable energy power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future smart grids may rely on microgrid systems that integrate localized generation, load, and storage assets into autonomous power system entities. Seen as an enabling technology, microgrids offer solutions for both customers and system operators as building blocks of expanding power networks capable of broadly integrating distributed energy resources (DER) and providing a means to optimize local assets based on

C. M. Colson; M. H. Nehrir

2011-01-01

206

On the Patterns of Wind-Power Input to the Ocean Circulation FABIEN ROQUET AND CARL WUNSCH  

E-print Network

On the Patterns of Wind-Power Input to the Ocean Circulation FABIEN ROQUET AND CARL WUNSCH received 1 February 2011, in final form 12 July 2011) ABSTRACT Pathways of wind-power input into the ocean pumping, with a pattern determined by the wind curl rather than the wind itself. Regions of power

Wunsch, Carl

207

Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, accounting for turbine characteristics and siting  

E-print Network

Click Here for Full Article Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, global ocean usable wind power is evaluated for modern offshore turbine characteristics including hub height, usable portion of the wind speed distribution, and siting depth. Mean wind power increases by 30

Zender, Charles

208

Abstract--Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry and it will continue to  

E-print Network

1 Abstract--Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry fault conditions. Index Terms--induction generators, wind power generation, fault tolerance. I of energy. Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry

Tolbert, Leon M.

209

The road to green power in Mexico—reflections on the prospects for the large-scale and sustainable implementation of renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the prospects for renewable energy as a source of electricity in Mexico. It shows that, in spite of the abundance of renewable energy resources, applications to green power generation are minimal. Opportunities to use renewables as part of the Mexican energy mix are many, and could bring a number of benefits, social, economic, political, environmental and otherwise.

Jorge M. Huacuz

2005-01-01

210

Energy system modelling - interactions and synergies in a highly renewable Pan-European power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very likely that the European power supply system will be transformed in the next decades to a low carbon system based almost entirely on Renewable Energy Sources (RES). However, due to the natural fluctuations of the most powerful RES (wind and solar energy), it is also very likely that a significant amount of balancing and controllable backup power capacities will be required to ensure a stable grid operation. This implies high additional investments and operating costs. Therefore this work provides an overview of potential options and possibly more cost-effective alternatives to the installation of costly storage capacities, namely grid expansion, demand side management, an optimised mix between different RES as well as the use of overcapacities. Furthermore, the paper provides an approximation of the maximum RES penetration of the German electricity system in the absence of significant storage capacities. Our calculations show that from a numerical perspective on average approximately half of the load can be met by RES if flexible conventional power stations would provide the remaining electricity demand. However, in a 100% RES scenario a significant amount of storage capacities as well as limited overcapacities are required to ensure a reliable electricity supply.

Weitemeyer, Stefan; Kleinhans, David; Vogt, Thomas; Agert, Carsten

2014-12-01

211

The status and prospect of ocean energy generation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean energy generation is a project of great potential on renewable energy at inshore areas. It could not only alleviate the press of power energy at these relative-developed areas, but also give the promotion of sustainable development for environment. Great attention has been given by many countries. This paper analyzes the necessity of the development of ocean energy generation with

Wu Hao; Yi Qiang; Wang Donju; Wan Yiru; Yu Jianhui; Zhou Hao

2009-01-01

212

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Many countries--reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems--are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy (RE) on the grid. Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Colorado and Texas), for example, have effectively integrated variable RE utilizing diverse approaches. Analysis of the results from these case studies reveals a wide range of mechanisms that can be used to accommodate high penetrations of variable RE (e.g., from new market designs to centralized planning). Nevertheless, the myriad approaches collectively suggest that governments can best enable variable RE grid integration by implementing best practices in five areas of intervention: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations.

Not Available

2014-10-01

213

Ocean energy development in the 1990s  

SciTech Connect

Of all known sources of renewable energy, the ocean possesses the greatest power potential. To date this potential remains virtually untapped. This situation is bound to change over the next decade. Technological progress in the development of ocean energy systems has steadily continued, even in the absence of government grants and preferential tax treatment accorded to other renewable energy developers. New policy directions, such as the removal of barriers to entry to both domestic and international utility markets by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Clinton Administration's enthusiasm for renewables, should stimulate private investment in ocean energy projects. This article surveys the technological, regulatory, and financial issues pertaining to ocean energy development and highlights potential development obstacles created by regulatory gaps under current law.

Elefant, C.

1993-01-01

214

PTC, ITC, or Cash Grant? An Analysis of the Choice Facing Renewable Power Projects in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Renewable power technologies are inherently capital-intensive, often (but not always) with relatively high construction costs and low operating costs. For this reason, renewable power technologies are typically more sensitive to the availability and cost of financing than are natural gas power plants, for example. In the United States, the bulk of renewable project finance in recent years has been provided by 'tax equity investors' (typically large investment banks and insurance companies) who partner with project developers through highly specialized financing structures (Bolinger, 2009; Cory et al., 2008; Harper et al., 2007). These structures have been designed primarily to capitalize on federal support for renewable power technologies, which has historically come in the form of tax credits and accelerated depreciation deductions. The number of tax equity investors active in the renewable power market has declined precipitously, however, as a result of the financial crisis that began unfolding across the globe in the summer of 2008. The resulting shortage and increased cost of project financing has, in turn, slowed the development of new renewable power projects, leading to layoffs throughout the entire industry supply chain. In recognition of the fact that tax-based policy incentives are not particularly effective when tax burdens are shrinking or non-existent, Congress included several provisions in 'The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009' (ARRA 2009) designed to make federal incentives for renewable power technologies more useful. Among these provisions is one that allows projects eligible to receive the production tax credit ('the PTC', see Text Box 1) to instead elect the investment tax credit ('the ITC', see Text Box 2). Another provision enables ITC-eligible projects (which now include most PTC-eligible renewable power projects) to instead receive--for a limited time only--a cash grant of equivalent value. These two provisions (among others) could have a significant impact on how renewable power projects are financed over the next few years. The purpose of this report is to both quantitatively and qualitatively analyze, from the project developer/owner perspective, the choice between the PTC and the ITC (or equivalent cash grant) for a number of different renewable power technologies.1 Because the two credits are structured differently, and apply in different ways to different technologies, the choice between the two lends itself to quantitative financial analysis of the conditions under which either the PTC or the ITC would, at least in theory, provide greater financial value. Qualitative considerations may be equally important, however, particularly in instances where quantitative differences are modest. This report proceeds as follows. Section 2 provides a brief summary of ARRA 2009, with some emphasis on those provisions designed to ease the liquidity crisis facing the renewable power sector. Section 3 describes the quantitative analysis methodology, as well as modeling results for wind, open-loop biomass, closed-loop biomass, geothermal, and landfill gas projects. Section 4 discusses a number of qualitative considerations that may play as important of a role as quantitative results in deciding between the PTC and the ITC (or equivalent cash grant). Section 5 concludes, and an Appendix provides supplemental tables that present quantitative analysis results conducted at different discount rates.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Cory, Karlynn; James, Ted

2009-03-11

215

Tapping ocean wave energy for powering gas turbine plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new device invented by M. Tornabene of the Amanda Machinery Co. converts random wave action into mechanical or electrical power. In combination with gas turbine\\/generators, it makes for an extremely efficient peaking plant and, with provision for energy storage during off-hours (possibly through water electrolysis for hydrogen production), for a baseload power plant. The device offers low cost, long

LaStella

1975-01-01

216

Grid power integration technologies for offshore ocean wave energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the advanced electric technologies for grid power integration of different offshore wave energy conversion devices are presented. The electrical connection configurations for integrating the electric power of the multi wave energy conversion devices such as the Oscillating Water Column, Pelamis, the Wave Point Absorbers and the Wave Dragon are developed by employing the most efficient low cost

Tarek Ahmed; Katsumi Nishida; Mutsuo Nakaoka

2010-01-01

217

77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...referenced. The Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project license renewal request is available...Mandeville, Senior Project Manager, Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch, Division...

2012-09-19

218

Optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region as a basis for an efficient electricity supply to europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable Energy sources are gaining importance in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The purpose of this study is to quantify the optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region, taking Morocco as a case study. Based on hourly meteorological data and load data, a 100% solar-plus-wind only scenario for Morocco is investigated. For the optimal mix analyses, a mismatch energy modelling approach is adopted with the objective to minimise the required storage capacities. For a hypothetical Moroccan energy supply system which is entirely based on renewable energy sources, our results show that the minimum storage capacity is achieved at a share of 63% solar and 37% wind power generations.

Alhamwi, Alaa; Kleinhans, David; Weitemeyer, Stefan; Vogt, Thomas

2014-12-01

219

Supporting solar power in renewables portfolio standards: Experience from the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become an increasingly popular option for encouraging the deployment of renewable electricity. It is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern is whether RPS policies offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, they will

Ryan Wiser; Galen Barbose; Edward Holt

2011-01-01

220

Rankings, Diversity and the Power of Renewal in Science. a Comparison between Germany, the UK and the US  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rankings are part and parcel of the neoliberal agenda in science aiming at increasing the competitive allocation of funds among universities. This article focuses on the decreasing power of renewal in science as a result of this agenda particularly because of its increasingly consolidated stratification of the academic system into élite and mass…

Münch, Richard; Schäfer, Len Ole

2014-01-01

221

Potential applications of renewable energy sources, biomass combustion problems in boiler power systems and combustion related environmental issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the potential applications of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuel combustion as the prime energy sources in various countries, and discusses problems associated with biomass combustion in boiler power systems. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal, industrial and animal waste material. Brief summaries of the

Ayhan Demirbas

2005-01-01

222

IPSYS - A simulation tool for performance assessment and controller development of integrated power system distributed renewable energy generated and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential part of rural development is the supply of electrical energy. In particular, electrical energy is used for household appliances, telecom, clean water and many other services to the local community. This requires up to standards power quality and reliability. There is a push for exploita- tion of local renewable energy resources such as wind, and a battery system

Henrik Bindner; Oliver Gehrke; Per Lundsager; Jens Carsten Hansen; Tom Cronin

223

Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program Policy Evaluation & Recommendations  

E-print Network

Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program Policy Evaluation & Recommendations Final Report August 2012 #12;Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program: Policy Recommendations 2 Project Title: Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology ­ Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Award Number: Contract No

224

Economic analysis of biomass power generation schemes under renewable energy initiative with Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) in Korea.  

PubMed

An economic analysis of biomass power generation was conducted. Two key technologies--direct combustion with a steam turbine and gasification with a syngas engine--were mainly examined. In view of the present domestic biomass infrastructure of Korea, a small and distributed power generation system ranging from 0.5 to 5 MW(e) was considered. It was found that gasification with a syngas engine becomes more economically feasible as the plant size decreases. Changes in the economic feasibilities with and without RPS or heat sales were also investigated. A sensitivity analysis of each system was conducted for representative parameters. Regarding the cost of electricity generation, electrical efficiency and fuel cost significantly affect both direct combustion and gasification systems. Regarding the internal rate of return (IRR), the heat sales price becomes important for obtaining a higher IRR, followed by power generation capacity and electrical efficiency. PMID:21856151

Moon, Ji-Hong; Lee, Jeung-Woo; Lee, Uen-Do

2011-10-01

225

Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning  

SciTech Connect

The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

2012-06-01

226

Interacting ocean waves explain powerful seafloor canyon flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off the southwestern coast of Taiwan the Gaoping Submarine Canyon meanders in a giant backward S shape as it stretches southwestward toward the South China Sea. In the canyon, a 200-meter-deep cut into the seafloor that lies 300 meters below the sea's surface, the waters carry an usually large amount of internal tidal power—9.1 megawatts from the canyon's mouth to its head. Along with the strong flows a region of enhanced vertical mixing sits at the canyon's head. Researchers had previously attributed the anomalous flows to internal waves pushing through the Gaoping Canyon, though the source of the energy remained an open question.

Schultz, Colin

2012-02-01

227

Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of marine biota should reflect the history of 137Cs activity in this early period. The comparisons between simulated 137Cs activity of marine biota by a dynamic biological compartment and observed data also suggest that simulated 137Cs activity attributable to atmospheric deposition was underestimated in this early period. In addition, river runoff model simulations suggest that the river flux of 137Cs to the ocean was effective to the 137Cs activity in the ocean in this early period. The sediment transport model simulations suggests that the inventory of 137Cs in sediment was less than 10

Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

2014-05-01

228

Renewables-to-reefs? - Decommissioning options for the offshore wind power industry.  

PubMed

The offshore wind power industry is relatively new but increasing globally, hence it is important that the whole life-cycle is managed. The construction-operation-decommissioning cycle is likely to take 20-30 years and whilst decommissioning may not be undertaken for many years, its management needs to be addressed in both current and future marine management regimes. This can be defined within a Drivers-Activities-Pressures-State Changes-Impacts (on human Welfare)-Responses framework. This paper considers the main decommissioning options - partial or complete removal of all components. A SWOT analysis shows environmental and economic benefits in partial as opposed to complete removal, especially if habitat created on the structures has conservation or commercial value. Benefits (and repercussions) are defined in terms of losses and gains of ecosystem services and societal benefits. The legal precedents and repercussions of both options are considered in terms of the 10-tenets of sustainable marine management. Finally a 'renewables-to-reefs' programme is proposed. PMID:25467865

Smyth, Katie; Christie, Nikki; Burdon, Daryl; Atkins, Jonathan P; Barnes, Richard; Elliott, Michael

2015-01-15

229

On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources [1] and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view,

Annika Skoglund; Mats Leijon; Alf Rehn; Marcus Lindahl; Rafael Waters

2010-01-01

230

System dynamics modelling of hybrid renewable energy systems and combined heating and power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of energy in the present world is critical in terms of both economical development and environmental impact. Renewable energy sources are considered essential in addressing these challenges. As a result, a growing number of organisations have been adopting hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) to reduce their environmental impact and sometimes take advantage of various incentives. When a HRES

Krishna R. Reddi; Weilin Li; Bochao Wang; Young Moon

2012-01-01

231

Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

2008-01-01

232

Regional integration to support full renewable power deployment for Europe by 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union is currently working on a achieving a target of 20% renewable energy by 2020, and has a policy framework in place that relies primarily on individual Member States implementing their own policy instruments for renewable energy support, within a larger context of a tradable quota system. For 2050 the target is likely to be more stringent, given

Anthony Patt; Nadejda Komendantova; Antonella Battaglini; Johan Lilliestam

2011-01-01

233

2008 Renewable Energy Data Book  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Not Available

2009-07-01

234

GENERATING ELECTRICITY USING OCEAN WAVES  

E-print Network

GENERATING ELECTRICITY USING OCEAN WAVES A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY REPORT FOR THE HONG KONG ELECTRIC COMPANY LIMITED Dr L F Yeung Mr Paul Hodgson Dr Robin Bradbeer July 2007 #12;Ocean Waves............................................................................................................3 OCEAN WAVE THEORY

Bradbeer, Robin Sarah

235

Integrated assessment of CCS in the German power plant sector with special emphasis on the competition with renewable energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents the results of an integrated assessment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the power plant sector in\\u000a Germany, with special emphasis on the competition with renewable energy technologies. Assessment dimensions comprise technical,\\u000a economic and environmental aspects, long-term scenario analysis, the role of stakeholders and public acceptance and regulatory\\u000a issues. The results lead to the overall conclusion

Peter Viebahn; Daniel Vallentin; Samuel Höller; Manfred Fischedick

2012-01-01

236

Staff Draft GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

, certification, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, eligibility, fuel cell, gasification, pipeline biomethane, power purchase agreement, Qualified Reporting Entity, RECs, renewable energy, renewable energy credits, Renewables Portfolio Standard, repowered, retail sales, small hydroelectric, Self

237

The energy of the ocean thermal resource and the second-law efficiency of idealized ocean thermal energy conversion power cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formula is developed to compute the maximum amount of work which can be extracted from a given combined mass of warm and cold ocean water (a quantity called the energy of the ocean thermal resources). Second it compares the second-law efficiencies of various proposed ocean thermal energy conversion power cycles to determine which best utilizes the energy of the ocean thermal resource. The second-law efficiencies of the multicomponent working fluid cycle, the Beck cycle, and the open and closed single- and multiple-stage Rankine cycles are compared. These types of OTEC power plants are analyzed in a consistent manner which assumes that all deviations from a plant making use of all the energy (one with a second-law efficiency of 100%) occurs because of irreversible transfer of heat across a finite temperature difference. Conversion of thermal energy to other forms is assumed to occur reversibly. The comparison of second-law efficiencies of various OTEC power cycles shows that the multistage Rankine open cycle with just three stages has the potential of best using the energy of the ocean thermal resource.

Johnson, D. H.

1982-09-01

238

On the Variability of Wind Power Input to the Oceans with a Focus on the Subpolar North Atlantic  

E-print Network

On the Variability of Wind Power Input to the Oceans with a Focus on the Subpolar North Atlantic of power inputs from winds and buoyancy exchange is complex in part because it depends upon knowing a great determined mainly by the wind field itself. The input of buoyancy- derived power has been generally regarded

Wunsch, Carl

239

Oceans of Energy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on the importance of ocean exploration as a way to learn how to capture, control, and distribute renewable ocean energy resources. Students begin by identifying ways the ocean can generate energy and then research one ocean energy source using the Internet. Finally, students build a Micro-Hydro Electric Generator.

NOAA Ocean Explorer

240

78 FR 46255 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part...NRC-2008-0608] Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal...Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...amendment. PART 51--ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS 0 1....

2013-07-31

241

Reliability Modeling and Simulation of Composite Power Systems with Renewable Energy Resources and Storage  

E-print Network

and simulation. To verify the results, reliability indices are compared with those from original data. As the penetration of renewables increases, the reliability issues will become more important because of the intermittent and non-dispatchable nature...

Kim, Hagkwen

2013-05-24

242

Integration of renewable energy sources: reliability-constrained power system planning and operations using computational intelligence  

E-print Network

Renewable sources of energy such as wind turbine generators and solar panels have attracted much attention because they are environmentally friendly, do not consume fossil fuels, and can enhance a nation’s energy security. As a result, recently more...

Wang, Lingfeng

2009-05-15

243

Integration of Electric Energy Storage into Power Systems with Renewable Energy Resources  

E-print Network

This dissertation investigates the distribution and transmission systems reliability and economic impact of energy storage and renewable energy integration. The reliability and economy evaluation framework is presented. Novel operation strategies...

Xu, Yixing 1985-

2012-10-26

244

Power system balancing with high renewable penetration : the potential of demand response  

E-print Network

This study investigated the ability of responsive demand to stabilize the electrical grid when intermittent renewable resources are present. The WILMAR stochastic unit commitment model was used to represent a version of ...

Critz, David Karl

2012-01-01

245

Performance of a direct drive hydro turbine for wave power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean and renewable energy technologies using ocean energy give us non-polluting alternatives to fossil-fueled power plants as a countermeasure against the global warming and growing demand for electrical energy. Among the ocean energy resources, wave power takes a growing interest because of its enormous amount of potential energy in the world. Therefore, various types of wave power system to capture

Y.-H. Lee; C.-G. Kim; Y.-D. Choi; I.-S. Kim; Y.-C. Hwang

2010-01-01

246

Available ocean wave power and prediction of power extracted by a contouring raft conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques are described which have been employed to develop detailed, quantitive estimates of the available ocean wave energy flux. A summary of results for a region of particular interest to potential U.S. developers of wave energy systems-the U.S. Northwest Pacific Coast - is also presented. Comparisons with results of other studies are made. In addition, a method for predicting the

E. L. Burdette; C. K. Gordon

1983-01-01

247

78 FR 8575 - Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY...ACTION: Notice of Renewal of the Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee...of the Interior is renewing the Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee....

2013-02-06

248

Supporting Solar Power in Renewables Portfolio Standards: Experience from the United States  

SciTech Connect

Among the available options for encouraging the increased deployment of renewable electricity, renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become increasingly popular. The RPS is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern that has been voiced is whether RPS policies will offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, RPS programs will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This report documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important, albeit somewhat modest, driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to continue to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved.

Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Holt, Edward

2010-10-01

249

Distribution of oceanic 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant simulated numerically by a regional ocean model.  

PubMed

Radioactive materials were released to the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant as a result of the reactor accident after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011. The measured (137)Cs concentration in a seawater sample near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant site reached 68 kBq L(-1) (6.8 × 10(4)Bq L(-1)) on 6 April. The two major likely pathways from the accident site to the ocean existed: direct release of high radioactive liquid wastes to the ocean and the deposition of airborne radioactivity to the ocean surface. By analysis of the (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio, we determined that direct release from the site contributed more to the measured (137)Cs concentration than atmospheric deposition did. We then used a regional ocean model to simulate the (137)Cs concentrations resulting from the direct release to the ocean off Fukushima and found that from March 26 to the end of May the total amount of (137)Cs directly released was 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq ((3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(15)Bq). The simulated temporal change in (137)Cs concentrations near the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant site agreed well with observations. Our simulation results showed that (1) the released (137)Cs advected southward along the coast during the simulation period; (2) the eastward-flowing Kuroshio and its extension transported (137)C during May 2011; and (3) (137)Cs concentrations decreased to less than 10 BqL(-1) by the end of May 2011 in the whole simulation domain as a result of oceanic advection and diffusion. We compared the total amount and concentration of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors to the ocean with the (137)Cs released to the ocean by global fallout. Even though the measured (137)Cs concentration from the Fukushima accident was the highest recorded, the total released amount of (137)Cs was not very large. Therefore, the effect of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors on concentration in the whole North Pacific was smaller than that of past release events such as global fallout, and the amount of (137)Cs expected to reach other oceanic basins is negligible comparing with the past radioactive input. PMID:22071362

Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

2012-09-01

250

The Promise of Wave Power (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable diverse energy resource plans. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans: it is estimated that if 0.2 % of the oceans' untapped energy could be harnessed, it could provide power sufficient for the entire world.

T. Brekken

2010-01-01

251

An ocean kinetic energy converter for low-power applications using piezoelectric disk elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main problem facing long-term electronic system deployments in the sea, is to find a feasible way to supply them with the power they require. Harvesting mechanical energy from the ocean wave oscillations and converting it into electrical energy, provides an alternative method for creating self-contained power sources. However, the very low and varying frequency of ocean waves, which generally varies from 0.1 Hz to 2 Hz, presents a hurdle which has to be overcome if this mechanical energy is to be harvested. In this paper, a new sea wave kinetic energy converter is described using low-cost disk piezoelectric elements, which has no dependence on their excitement frequency, to feed low-consumption maritime-deployed electronic devices. The operating principles of the piezoelectric device technique are presented, including analytical formulations describing the transfer of energy. Finally, a prototypical design, which generates electrical energy from the motion of a buoy, is introduced. The paper concludes with the the behavior study of the piezoelectric prototype device as a power generator.

Viñolo, C.; Toma, D.; Mànuel, A.; del Rio, J.

2013-09-01

252

Multi-Fluid Geothermal Energy Systems: Using CO2 for Dispatchable Renewable Power Generation and Grid Stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract We present an approach to use CO2 to (1) generate dispatchable renewable power that can quickly respond to grid fluctuations and be cost-competitive with natural gas, (2) stabilize the grid by efficiently storing large quantities of energy, (3) enable seasonal storage of solar thermal energy for grid integration, (4) produce brine for power-plant cooling, all which (5) increase CO2 value, rendering CO2 capture to be commerically viable, while (6) sequestering huge quantities of CO2. These attributes reduce carbon intensity of electric power, and enable cost-competitive, dispatchable power from major sources of renewable energy: wind, solar, and geothermal. Conventional geothermal power systems circulate brine as the working fluid to extract heat, but the parasitic power load for this circulation can consume a large portion of gross power output. Recently, CO2 has been considered as a working fluid because its advantageous properties reduce this parasitic loss. We expand on this idea by using multiple working fluids: brine, CO2, and N2. N2 can be separated from air at lower cost than captured CO2, it is not corrosive, and it will not react with the formation. N2 also can improve the economics of energy production and enable energy storage, while reducing operational risk. Extracting heat from geothermal reservoirs often requires submersible pumps to lift brine, but these pumps consume much of the generated electricity. In contrast, our approach drives fluid circulation by injecting supplemental, compressible fluids (CO2, and N2) with high coefficients of thermal expansion. These fluids augment reservoir pressure, produce artesian flow at the producers, and reduce the parasitic load. Pressure augmentation is improved by the thermosiphon effect that results from injecting cold/dense CO2 and N2. These fluids are heated to reservoir temperature, greatly expand, and increase the artesian flow of brine and supplemental fluid at the producers. Rather than using pumps, the thermosiphon directly converts reservoir thermal energy into mechanical energy for fluid circulation. Because stored pressure drives fluid production, the response time is faster than that of conventional geothermal power, already considered to be dispatchable. For conventional geothermal, the parasitic power load is in phase with gross power output. In contrast, our approach can time-shift much of the parasitic power load, which is dominated by the power required to separate N2 from air and compress it for injection. Because N2 is readily available, it can be injected intermittently. Thus, most of the parasitic power load can be shifted to coincide with minimum power demand or when there is a surplus of renewable power. Such a time-shift also allows net power output to be nearly equal to gross power output during peak demand. Energy storage can be almost 100 percent efficient because it is achieved by shifting the parasitic load, which is more efficient than other methods used to store energy and stabilize the grid. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.; Randolph, J.; Chen, M.; Hao, Y.; Sun, Y.

2013-12-01

253

Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

2008-08-01

254

Multi-criteria assessment of new and renewable energy power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-criteria evaluation of new and renewable technologies demonstrates the potential analysis of complex systems. Every energy system under consideration is an entity by itself, defined by the respective number of parameters which are deterministically interrelated according to the physical laws. Sustainability indicators take into account the economic and environmental resources parameters. This paper presents selection of criteria and options

Naim H. Afgan; Maria G. Carvalho

2002-01-01

255

Wind power! Marketing renewable energy on tribal lands and the struggle for just sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a case study approach and employing the critical framework of just sustainability, this article examines the ambivalent intersections of marketing and social\\/environmental justice as articulated through the public rhetoric of corporate entities that promote renewable energy generated on American Indian tribal lands. Because of its critical interest in the empowerment of disenfranchised communities through a shift away from traditional

Miranda J. Brady; Salma Monani

2012-01-01

256

Power and White: Race, Class, and Sexuality in Kansas City's Urban Renewal  

E-print Network

are courted and attempts are made to co-opt them as drivers of renewal, non-conforming sexual expressions, such as sex work, pornography, and much of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community are excluded. The privatization of once...

Vogler, Stefan

2012-05-31

257

Reburning renewable biomass for emissions control and ash deposition effects in power generation  

E-print Network

Cattle biomass (CB) has been proposed as a renewable, supplementary fuel for co-firing and reburning. Reburning coal with CB has the potential to reduce NOx and Hg emissions from coal fired systems. The present research focuses on three areas...

Oh, Hyuk Jin

2009-05-15

258

EHV AC and HVDC transmission working together to integrate renewable power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable resources in North America are extensive and are expected to represent a growing share of total resources. Large hydro and geothermal resources are concentrated in fixed locations and can be readily dispatched. Wind and solar resources are more dispersed, remote from major load centers, and variable in their output. New electric transmission infrastructure is needed to access newly developed

J. A. Fleeman; R. Gutman; M. Heyeck; M. Bahrman; B. Normark

2009-01-01

259

Power to the People: Electric Utility Restructuring and the Commitment to Renewable Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With electric generation responsible for 41 percent of U.S anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy use, development of clean energy sources is essential if the United States is to reduce release of greenhouse gases and slow global warming. Many proponents of sustainable energy anticipate that electric generation from renewable sources would thrive in a deregulated market, driven by consumer

Michael K. Heiman; Barry D. Solomon

2004-01-01

260

Development of renewable energy sources for indian power sector moving towards competitive electricity market  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is on the path of rapid economic growth along with speedy overall development, simultaneously it has to face the global threat of climate change. India has unique renewable energy resources (RES) and development of country depends to a great extent on harnessing these sources. Being a developing infrastructure, increasing energy needs, eradicating poverty, and social development are the overriding

Randhir Singh; Y. R. Sood; N. P. Padhy

2009-01-01

261

Draft Fourth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan, Appendix K RENEWABLE RESOURCE CONFIRMATION AGENDA  

E-print Network

been completed. Most progress has been made on long-term wind and solar resource assessment, geothermal and wind resources. The activities include resource assessment, conflict resolution and renewable and operating experience. Document the pre-development environmental characteristics of geothermal resource

262

Promoting West African Ownership of the Power Sector: Alternative Financing for Distributed Generation of Renewable Electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centralized generation remains the prevailing approach to expanding electrification in West Africa. In contrast, distributed generation (DG) of renewable electricity emphasizes generation close to the point of consumption and offers possibilities for more effective models. However, its adoption remains ad hoc and marginal despite significant advancement in the technologies. This article provides an overview of DG, its costs, and the

Ogundiran C. Soumonni; Omolola Y. Soumonni

2011-01-01

263

Renewable energy and telecommunications  

E-print Network

Renewable energy and telecommunications Case study: Energy Systems Week When AK Erlang first used fossil fuels and switch to renewable energy sources. But the unlikely convergence of the two fields lay to be able to deal with. "If we integrate renewable energies, such as wind power, in the electricity grid

264

Preliminary Evaluation of the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program for Renewable Power Projects in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This article evaluates the first year of the Section 1603 Treasury cash grant program, which enables renewable power projects in the U.S. to elect cash grants in lieu of the federal tax credits that are otherwise available. To date, the program has been heavily subscribed, particularly by wind power projects, which had received 86% of the nearly $2.6 billion in grants that had been disbursed as of March 1, 2010. As of that date, 6.2 GW of the 10 GW of new wind capacity installed in the U.S. in 2009 had applied for grants in lieu of production tax credits. Roughly 2.4 GW of this wind capacity may not have otherwise been built in 2009 absent the grant program; this 2.4 GW may have supported approximately 51,600 short-term full-time-equivalent (FTE) gross job-years in the U.S. during the construction phase of these wind projects, and 3,860 longterm FTE gross jobs during the operational phase. The program’s popularity stems from the significant economic value that it provides to renewable power projects, relative to the otherwise available tax credits. Although grants reward investment rather than efficient performance, this evaluation finds no evidence at this time of either widespread “gold-plating” or performance problems.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim

2010-05-05

265

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

266

Evaluation Method of Allowable Capacity of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources in a Microgrid with Tie-line Power Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a cooperative control system of gas engine generators and lead-acid battery in a microgrid. The control system enables a microgrid system to balance between electric power demand/supply and to control the state of charge (SOC) of the battery at the same time. To evaluate this control system, we simulated its performance in balancing the control of an experimental microgrid facility with two reciprocating engine generators for a day in which large fluctuation in PV and wind turbine output was observed. The capacity ratio of renewable energy installed in a microgrid can be increased beyond 50%.

Sasaki, Yuta; Bando, Shigeru; Asano, Hiroshi; Tagami, Seiji

267

Restructuring and renewable energy developments in California:using Elfin to simulate the future California power market  

SciTech Connect

We provide some basic background information on support for renewable in California on the expected operation of the power pool and bilateral markets, and on the three key policy types modeled here. We discuss the Elfin production cost and expansion planning model as well as key assumptions that we made to model the future California pool. We present results from the successful Elfin models runs. We discuss the implications of the study, as well as key areas for future research. Additional information on results, Elfin's expansion planning logic, and resource options can be found in the appendices.

Kirshner, Dan; Kito, Suzie; Marnay, Chris; Pickle, Steve; Schumacher, Katja; Sezgen,Osman; Wiser, Ryan

1998-06-01

268

Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics' Ocean Model, Kyushu University, Japan). The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation, and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 deg. E to 142.5 deg. E of east longitude and 33 deg. N and 52 deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC (Japan Oceanographic Data Center), KNFRDI (Korea National Fisheries Research and Development Institute), and ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea/Japan Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site. (authors)

Chung, Y.G.; Lee, G.B.; Bang, S.Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 103-16 Munji-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.B.; Lee, S.U. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD, 167 Samseong-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Research Institute of Applied Physics, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Nam, S.Y.; Lee, H.R. [GeoSystem Research Corporation, 306 Hanlim Human Town, 1-40 Geumjeong-Dong, Gunpo-City, Gyeonggi-Do 435-050 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

269

COMMISSION GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

pipeline, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, eligibility, energy storage, fuel cell, gasification, geothermal, hydroelectric, hydrogen, incremental generation, landfill gas, multifuel, municipal solid waste, ocean wave, ocean thermal, photovoltaic, pipeline biomethane, power purchase agreement

270

Quantifiably secure power grid operation, management, and evolution : a study of uncertainties affecting the grid integration of renewables.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes findings and results of the Quantifiably Secure Power Grid Operation, Management, and Evolution LDRD. The focus of the LDRD was to develop decisionsupport technologies to enable rational and quantifiable risk management for two key grid operational timescales: scheduling (day-ahead) and planning (month-to-year-ahead). Risk or resiliency metrics are foundational in this effort. The 2003 Northeast Blackout investigative report stressed the criticality of enforceable metrics for system resiliency - the grid's ability to satisfy demands subject to perturbation. However, we neither have well-defined risk metrics for addressing the pervasive uncertainties in a renewable energy era, nor decision-support tools for their enforcement, which severely impacts efforts to rationally improve grid security. For day-ahead unit commitment, decision-support tools must account for topological security constraints, loss-of-load (economic) costs, and supply and demand variability - especially given high renewables penetration. For long-term planning, transmission and generation expansion must ensure realized demand is satisfied for various projected technological, climate, and growth scenarios. The decision-support tools investigated in this project paid particular attention to tailoriented risk metrics for explicitly addressing high-consequence events. Historically, decisionsupport tools for the grid consider expected cost minimization, largely ignoring risk and instead penalizing loss-of-load through artificial parameters. The technical focus of this work was the development of scalable solvers for enforcing risk metrics. Advanced stochastic programming solvers were developed to address generation and transmission expansion and unit commitment, minimizing cost subject to pre-specified risk thresholds. Particular attention was paid to renewables where security critically depends on production and demand prediction accuracy. To address this concern, powerful filtering techniques for spatio-temporal measurement assimilation were used to develop short-term predictive stochastic models. To achieve uncertaintytolerant solutions, very large numbers of scenarios must be simultaneously considered. One focus of this work was investigating ways of reasonably reducing this number.

Gray, Genetha Anne; Watson, Jean-Paul [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Gramacy, Robert B. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

2013-09-01

271

EEE 463 Electrical Power Plants (3) [F] Course (Catalog) Description  

E-print Network

. Components and operation of a nuclear power plant (2 lectures) 7. Hydroelectric power (1 lecture) 8EEE 463 Electrical Power Plants (3) [F] Course (Catalog) Description: Generation of electric power using fossil, nuclear and renewable, including solar, geothermal, wind, hydroelectric, biomass and ocean

Zhang, Junshan

272

Power-Aware Task Motion for Enhancing Dynamic Range  

E-print Network

. They are being built today to draw energy from solar power, wind power, or even ocean waves. They represent for fixed budgets. For example, a system with an XScale draws approximately 1W of power, but when the solarPower-Aware Task Motion for Enhancing Dynamic Range of Embedded Systems with Renewable Energy

Chou, Pai H.

273

2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

Gelman, R.

2013-10-01

274

2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

Esterly, S.

2014-12-01

275

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

1995-03-01

276

Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Generator for Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Modern energy demands led the scientific community to renewable energy sources, such as ocean wave energy. The present work\\u000a describes a model for a cost efficient rotary electrical generator, optimized for ocean wave energy conversion. The electrical\\u000a power, supplied by low speed mechanical movement, requires the use of electrical machinery capable of generating high amounts\\u000a of torque. Among the analyzed

José Lima; Anabela Pronto; Mário Ventim Neves

2011-01-01

277

Wave power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean wave power was investigated as a usable, renewable, alternative energy source. The results suggest that both Salter cams and Cockerell rafts can be designed to convert wave motion to relative mechanical motion and mechanical forces. Mooring problems and costs suggest that Salter cams will be much more expensive than Cockerell rafts. A major problem is converting the available mechanical

N. Doelling

1979-01-01

278

Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle-to-grid power (V2G) uses electric-drive vehicles (battery, fuel cell, or hybrid) to provide power for specific electric markets. This article examines the systems and processes needed to tap energy in vehicles and implement V2G. It quantitatively compares today's light vehicle fleet with the electric power system. The vehicle fleet has 20 times the power capacity, less than one-tenth the utilization, and one-tenth the capital cost per prime mover kW. Conversely, utility generators have 10-50 times longer operating life and lower operating costs per kWh. To tap V2G is to synergistically use these complementary strengths and to reconcile the complementary needs of the driver and grid manager. This article suggests strategies and business models for doing so, and the steps necessary for the implementation of V2G. After the initial high-value, V2G markets saturate and production costs drop, V2G can provide storage for renewable energy generation. Our calculations suggest that V2G could stabilize large-scale (one-half of US electricity) wind power with 3% of the fleet dedicated to regulation for wind, plus 8-38% of the fleet providing operating reserves or storage for wind. Jurisdictions more likely to take the lead in adopting V2G are identified.

Kempton, Willett; Tomi?, Jasna

279

Fundamental Properties of and Transition to a Fully Renewable Pan-European Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a top-down stylized model to analyse the impact of a transition to a European power system based only on wind and solar power. Wind and solar power generation is calculated from high-resolution weather data and based on the country specific electricity demand alone, we introduce a model of the conventional power system that facilitates simple spatio-temporal modelling of its macroscopic behavior without direct reference to the underlying technological, economical, and political development in the system. Using this model, we find that wind and solar power generation can replace conventional power generation and power capacity to a large degree if power transmission across the continent is made possible.

Andresen, G. B.; Rasmussen, M. G.; Rodriguez, R. A.; Becker, S.; Greiner, M.

2012-10-01

280

World Energy Congress, Sydney, Australia September 5-9, 2004 OFFSHORE WIND POWER: EASING A RENEWABLE  

E-print Network

19 th World Energy Congress, Sydney, Australia September 5-9, 2004 1 OFFSHORE WIND POWER: EASING By the end of 2003, the worldwide installed capacity of grid-connected wind power exceeded 40GW corresponding exponentially over a 25-year period and in the process the cost of energy from wind power plants has been

281

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

Mai, T.

2012-08-01

282

State Renewable Electricity Profiles  

EIA Publications

Presents a summary of current and recent historical data for the renewable electric power industry. The data focuses on net summer capacity and net generation for each type of renewable generator, as well as fossil-fired and nuclear power plant types, for the period 2006 through 2010.

2012-01-01

283

Linear Generators for Wave Power Plants to Be Set up Near the Romanian Coasts of the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generating power is of great importance in today's world. Due to the pending exhaustion of fossil fuels and to their environmental impact it is crucial to develop clean renewable energy sources. Ocean energy is one of the candidates being a huge, yet unexploited renewable energy source on our planet. Preliminary surveys show that marine power has a potential to supply

Loránd SZABÓ; Claudiu OPREA

284

Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a California 33% Renewable Scenario  

SciTech Connect

This analysis evaluates CSP with TES in a scenario where California derives 33% of its electricity from renewable energy sources. It uses a commercial grid simulation tool to examine the avoided operational and capacity costs associated with CSP and compares this value to PV and a baseload generation with constant output. Overall, the analysis demonstrates several properties of dispatchable CSP, including the flexibility to generate during periods of high value and avoid generation during periods of lower value. Of note in this analysis is the fact that significant amount of operational value is derived from the provision of reserves in the case where CSP is allowed to provide these services. This analysis also indicates that the 'optimal' configuration of CSP could vary as a function of renewable penetration, and each configuration will need to be evaluated in terms of its ability to provide dispatchable energy, reserves, and firm capacity. The model can be used to investigate additional scenarios involving alternative technology options and generation mixes, applying these scenarios within California or in other regions of interest.

Denholm, P.; Wan, Y. H.; Hummon, M.; Mehos, M.

2013-03-01

285

The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 1 - Evaluation of aggregate energy and greenhouse gas performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study that analyzes the effectiveness of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) to meet holistic environmental goals has been performed across the combined electricity and light-duty transportation sectors. PHEV penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 45%. Part 1 of the study focuses on CO2 emissions, fuel usage, and the renewable penetration level of individual and combined energy sectors. The effect on grid renewable penetration level depends on two factors: the additional vehicle load demand acting to decrease renewable penetration, and the controllability of vehicle charging acting to reduce curtailment of renewable power. PHEV integration can reduce CO2 emissions and fuel usage and increase the aggregate renewable energy share compared to the no-vehicle case. The benefits of isolated PHEV integration are slightly offset by increased CO2 emissions and fuel usage by the electric grid. Significant benefits are only realized when PHEVs are appropriately deployed in conjunction with renewable energy resources, highlighting important synergies between the electric and light-duty transportation sectors for meeting sustainability goals.

Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

2014-07-01

286

Grid-Tie Control of Cascade Dual-Buck Inverter With Wide-Range Power Flow Capability for Renewable Energy Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a grid-tie control system for cascade dual-buck inverter with both active and reactive power flow capability in a wide range under two types of renewable energy sources. A fuel-cell power-conditioning system (PCS) is a Type I system with active power command generated by balance of plant of each unit; and photovoltaic or wind PCS is a Type

Pengwei Sun; Chuang Liu; Jih-Sheng Lai; Chien-Liang Chen

2012-01-01

287

Entropy versus APE production: On the buoyancy power input in the oceans energy cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter argues that the current controversy about whether Wbuoyancy, the power input due to the surface buoyancy fluxes, is large or small in the oceans stems from two distinct and incompatible views on how Wbuoyancy relates to the volume-integrated work of expansion/contraction B. The current prevailing view is that Wbuoyancy should be identified with the net value of B, which current theories estimate to be small. The alternative view, defended here, is that only the positive part of B, i.e., the one converting internal energy into mechanical energy, should enter the definition of Wbuoyancy, since the negative part of B is associated with the non-viscous dissipation of mechanical energy. Two indirect methods suggest that by contrast, the positive part of B is potentially large.

Tailleux, R.

2010-11-01

288

Energy Storage for Variable Renewable Energy Resource Integration - A Regional Assessment for the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP)  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the following key questions in the discussion on the integration of renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest power grid: a) what will be the future balancing requirement to accommodate a simulated expansion of wind energy resources from 3.3 GW in 2008 to 14.4 GW in 2019 in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP), and b) what are the most cost effective technological solutions for meeting the balancing requirements in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP). A life-cycle analysis was performed to assess the least-cost technology option for meeting the new balancing requirement. The technologies considered in this study include conventional turbines (CT), sodium sulfur (NaS) batteries, lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, pumped hydro energy storage (PH), and demand response (DR). Hybrid concepts that combine 2 or more of the technologies above are also evaluated. This analysis was performed with collaboration by the Bonneville Power Administration and funded by the Energy Storage Systems Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Guo, Xinxin; Nguyen, Tony B.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

2011-03-20

289

Modularized multilevel and z-source power converter as renewable energy interface for vehicle and grid-connected applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due the energy crisis and increased oil price, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panel, wind turbine, or thermoelectric generation module, are used more and more widely for vehicle and grid-connected applications. However, the output of these renewable energy sources varies according to different solar radiation, wind speed, or temperature difference, a power converter interface is required for the vehicle or grid-connected applications. Thermoelectric generation (TEG) module as a renewable energy source for automotive industry is becoming very popular recently. Because of the inherent characteristics of TEG modules, a low input voltage, high input current and high voltage gain dc-dc converters are needed for the automotive load. Traditional high voltage gain dc-dc converters are not suitable for automotive application in terms of size and high temperature operation. Switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have to be used for this application. However, high voltage spike and EMI problems exist in traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. Huge capacitor banks have to be utilized to reduce the voltage ripple and achieve high efficiency. A series of zero current switching (ZCS) or zero voltage switching switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have been proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems of the traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. By using the proposed soft-switching strategy, high voltage spike is reduced, high EMI noise is restricted, and the huge capacitor bank is eliminated. High efficiency, high power density and high temperature switched-capacitor dc-dc converters could be made for the TEG interface in vehicle applications. Several prototypes have been made to validate the proposed circuit and confirm the circuit operation. In order to apply PV panel for grid-connected application, a low cost dc-ac inverter interface is required. From the use of transformer and safety concern, two different solutions can be implemented, non-isolated or isolated PV inverter. For the non-isolated transformer-less solution, a semi-Z-source inverter for single phase photovoltaic systems has been proposed. The proposed semi-Z-source inverter utilizes only two switching devices with doubly grounded feature. The total cost have been reduced, the safety and EMI issues caused by the high frequency ground current are solved. For the transformer isolated solution, a boost half-bridge dc-ac micro-inverter has been proposed. The proposed boost half-bridge dc-dc converter utilizes only two switching devices with zero voltage switching features which is able to reduce the total system cost and power loss.

Cao, Dong

290

2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Gelman, R.

2012-10-01

291

2009 Renewable Energy Data Book, August 2010  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Not Available

2010-08-01

292

2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Gelman, R.

2011-10-01

293

Financing Home Energy and Renewable Energy Improvements with FHA PowerSaver Loans (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet is a revision to the PowerSaver Loan Benefits fact sheet from April 2014. It describes how the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) PowerSaver Loan Program offers borrowers low-cost FHA-insured loans to make energy-saving improvements to their homes.

Not Available

2014-07-01

294

75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power, LLC; Notice of Filing...Limited Partnership, Covanta Energy Marketing LLC, and Covanta Power, LLC filed to...DC 20426. This filing is accessible on-line at http://www.ferc.gov,...

2010-02-09

295

An utility interactive power electronics interface for alternate\\/renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foreseeable shortages in conventional sources of electric power has increased the emphasis on the research and development of alternate sources of energy. In order to make a noteworthy impact, the alternate sources of energy need to be utility interactive by means of a power electronic interface (a DC to AC converter). The inherent assumption in the control of DC

Wajiha Shireen; M. S. Arefeen

1996-01-01

296

Control and analysis of a hybrid renewable energy-based power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a methodology for the integration of various energy sources into a hybrid generation system for stand-alone power applications. The system employs a wind generator (WG) and photovoltaic (PV) arrays as main energy sources while a fuel cell (FC) is included for supplying excess power demand. An ultra-capacitor (UC) bank is also implemented in order to cover rapid

C. Patsios; M. Antonakopoulos; A. Chaniotis; A. Kladas

2010-01-01

297

Testing the suitability of digital image matching using swell images for the determination of ocean wave power spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three?dimensional evaluation of ocean wave photographies by means of digital image matching yields the same results as an analytical plotting of the same photos. This will be demonstrated on the basis of an example with deep water waves photos. The deducted power spectra from the three?dimensional model are in agreement with the results from traditional swell measuring methods.

Gerd Redweik

1994-01-01

298

Poster presented at the OCEANS'11 Conference, September, 2011 Seeking Optimal Geometry of a Heaving Body for Improved Wave Power  

E-print Network

1 Poster presented at the OCEANS'11 Conference, September, 2011 Seeking Optimal Geometry of a Heaving Body for Improved Wave Power Absorption Efficiency Rachael Hager, Nelson Fernandez and Michelle H generated interest in wave energy. This project has been inspired by Salter's work to better understand wave

299

A rotational wave energy conversion system development and validation with real ocean wave data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a massive push in the research community towards green or renewable energies, specifically for electrical power generation. Fossil fuels are losing their popularity due to the associated environmental damage and hazards, and green energies are gaining momentum as significant energy resources. This paper presents a novel system and method for converting the power of open ocean

H. Bora Karayaka; Hugo Mahlke; Darek Bogucki; Mehrube Mehrubeoglu

2011-01-01

300

Ocean energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Energy is stored by nature in the tides, waves, and thermal and salinity gradients of the world`s oceans. Although the total energy flux of each of these renewable resources is large, only a small fraction of their potential is likely to be exploited in the foreseeable future. There are two reasons for this. First, ocean energy is spread diffusely over a wide area, requiring large and expensive plants for its collection; and second, the energy is often available in areas remote from centers of consumption. Tidal energy, which entails the use of estuarine barrages at sites having high tidal ranges, offers the best prospects in the short to medium term. Not only are its components commercially available, but many of the best sites for implementation have been identified. Indeed, on the basis of current field experience, tidal power may be regarded as a technically proven, dependable and long-lived source of electric power. The exploitation of wave energy, by comparison, is still in its infancy. Small shoreline and nearshore devices are likely to be developed first, but their applicability and potential is limited. More powerful, large-wave offshore energy plants are unlikely to be deployed for a few decades, although the bulk of ocean-energy potential is located offshore. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which is currently in the prototype stage, is costly and largely restricted to tropical locations. Its applications are likely to be limited. Salt-gradient energy, once a focus of interest, is not expected to be exploited in the foreseeable future. Overall, the pace and extent of commercial exploitation of ocean energy is likely to be affected by the rising environmental costs of fossil fuels and by the availability of construction capital at modes real interest rates. If the largest projects are to succeed, however, government support at the national level may be necessary. 42 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

Cavanagh, J.E.; Clarke, J.H.; Price, R. [Harwell Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

1993-12-31

301

Potential impacts of electric power production utilizing natural gas, renewables and carbon capture and sequestration on US Freshwater resources.  

PubMed

Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has important implications relative to future thermoelectric water use. A bounding analysis is performed using past greenhouse gas emission policy proposals and assumes either all effected capacity retires (lower water use bound) or is retrofitted (upper bound). The analysis is performed in the context of recent trends in electric power generation expansion, namely high penetration of natural gas and renewables along with constrained cooling system options. Results indicate thermoelectric freshwater withdrawals nationwide could increase by roughly 1% or decrease by up to 60% relative to 2009 levels, while consumption could increase as much as 21% or decrease as much as 28%. To identify where changes in freshwater use might be problematic at a regional level, electric power production has been mapped onto watersheds with limited water availability (where consumption exceeds 70% of gauged streamflow). Results suggest that between 0.44 and 0.96 Mm(3)/d of new thermoelectric freshwater consumption could occur in watersheds with limited water availability, while power plant retirements in these watersheds could yield 0.90 to 1.0 Mm(3)/d of water savings. PMID:23789965

Tidwell, Vincent C; Malczynski, Leonard A; Kobos, Peter H; Klise, Geoffrey T; Shuster, Erik

2013-08-01

302

Renewable energy powered membrane technology: Salt and inorganic contaminant removal by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis   

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fluctuating energy and pH on retention of dissolved contaminants from real Australian groundwaters using a solar (photovoltaic) powered ultrafiltration – ...

Richards, Laura A.; Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

2011-01-01

303

Maximizing nuclear power plant performance via mega-uprates and subsequent license renewal  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to develop a methodology to evaluate the engineering and economic implications of maximizing performance of the United States' commercial fleet of nuclear power plants. This methodology addresses ...

DeWitte, Jacob D. (Jacob Dominic)

2014-01-01

304

Impact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Power Systems M. Begovi, A. Pregelj, A. Rohatgi D. Novosel  

E-print Network

. Novosel School of Electrical and Computer Engineering ABB T&D Technology Ltd Georgia Institute of Technology Baden, Switzerland Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 Abstract The traditional approach in electric power

305

Environmental Technology Verification Report - Electric Power and Heat Production Using Renewable Biogas at Patterson Farms  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

306

Analysing the impact of renewable electricity support schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is sometimes argued that renewables are “expensive”. However, although it is generally true that the private costs of renewable electricity generation are certainly above those of conventional electricity, that statement fails to consider the social benefits provided by electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), including environmental and socioeconomic ones. This paper empirically analyses an additional albeit usually neglected benefit:

Gonzalo Sáenz de Miera; Ignacio Vizcaíno

2008-01-01

307

Study on Power Quality Control in Multiple Renewable Energy Hybrid MicroGrid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compounding the various kinds of power sources would impact the quality of power supply within the MicroGrid and cause many control problems to be dealt with. This paper focuses on the stability of MicroGrid operation and discusses the control techniques of combining micro turbine and Fuel cell, Hydrogen tank, and Electrolyzer system hybrid System (FHES) to expand the MicroGrid system's

Xiangjun Li; Yu-Jin Song; Soo-Bin Han

2007-01-01

308

Ocean Engineering at UNH THE OCEAN ENGINEERING program at UNH provides students with hands-on  

E-print Network

-of-the-art testing facilities for underwater/ocean engineering, including a 20-foot-deep engineering tank, and a 100Ocean Engineering at UNH THE OCEAN ENGINEERING program at UNH provides students with hands-on opportunities for research in ocean renewable energy, remotely operated vehicles, ocean mapping, ocean acoustics

Pringle, James "Jamie"

309

Economic Effects of Installing Renewable Energy in the Tohoku Region:Analyses of mega solar and wind power generation using the interregional IO table (Japanese)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the regional economic recovery effects as well as the mitigation effect of CO? in monetary terms from installing mega solar and wind power generation systems in the Tohoku region, in particular, Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures which were substantially damaged by the March 11, 2011 earthquake.By considering the possible amount of renewable energy in the three areas

ISHIKAWA Yoshifumi; NAKAMURA Ryohei; MATSUMOTO Akira

2012-01-01

310

ICREPQ (Intern. Conf. On Renewable Energies and Power Quality) 2003, Vigo (Spain) 9-11 april 2003. ECONOMIC FORMALISM FOR OPTIMIZING THE DESIGN AND ENERGY  

E-print Network

, design optimization 1. Introduction Our aim is to satisfy the energy-related demand of the consumerICREPQ (Intern. Conf. On Renewable Energies and Power Quality) 2003, Vigo (Spain) 9-11 april 2003 and an inverter that coordinates energy flows between these elements (see Fig. 1). Storage Consumer User Grid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Renewable energy: Environment and development  

SciTech Connect

This hardcover is authored by India's secretary in the Ministry of Energy's Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources. Part 1 deals with bio-energy, starting with a general presentation of energy from biomass and subsequently focusing on India's biogas technology program. Part 2 contains an exposition of direct uses of solar power and the related program in India. Finally, Part 3 elaborates on other forms of renewable energy technologies, such as wind, ocean, and geothermal energy. Generally, the presentation of each technology follows a more or less standard mode, containing a technical section, some form of financial analysis, and R D efforts in India. The material in this publication updates the already rich Indian literature and nicely complements a recent report released by the International Energy Agency covering the topic of renewable energy technologies. Given its content alone, however, the book would have been better represented by a slightly different title such as Renewable Energy Technologies and Programs in India. The author provides no explicit linkage to the literature on the modern topic of [open quotes]environment and development[close quotes] to warrant its inclusion in the title. That topic has recently captured the attention of both researchers and policy makers into identifying, unfolding, and adopting the idea of sustainable development.

Dayal, M.

1989-01-01

312

Renewable Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the trade association for the UK bioenergy industry, British Biogen's mission is to promote and coordinate the commercial development of biomass as a renewable fuel resource for energy production. British Biogen has merged with the Renewable Power Association. By clicking on the Renewable Energy tab, users will find information on the different subject areas. REA adds new information based upon what we discover and updates these subject fields.

313

Agent based control scheme for a smart power system including renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a PV energy source has been connected to a flywheel (FW) for short term energy storage in addition to a battery (BAT) for long term energy storage. The purpose of this system is to serve as a part of a shipboard power system as means to deal with large transient loads. In order to make a robust

Mahdi Saghaleini; Ali Mazloomzadeh

2011-01-01

314

DC power system for Radio Base Station by renewables energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remarkable growing of the energy consumption from fossil fuels and the gases given off by them to the atmosphere promoting the greenhouse effect, has risen exponentially. In the last two years it has experienced an insignificant fall due to the financial crisis in several economic sectors. Moreover, it there had been a launching in the production of electric power

Pere Sabater; Andreu Moia; R. Prasad

2010-01-01

315

Offshore Renewable Energy R&D (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the offshore renewable energy R&D efforts at NREL's NWTC. As the United States increases its efforts to tap the domestic energy sources needed to diversify its energy portfolio and secure its energy supply, more attention is being focused on the rich renewable resources located offshore. Offshore renewable energy sources include offshore wind, waves, tidal currents, ocean and river currents, and ocean thermal gradients. According to a report published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 2010,1 U.S. offshore wind resources have a gross potential generating capacity four times greater than the nation's present electric capacity, and the Electric Power Research Institute estimates that the nation's ocean energy resources could ultimately supply at least 10% of its electric supply. For more than 30 years, NREL has advanced the science of renewable energy while building the capabilities to guide rapid deployment of commercial applications. Since 1993, NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has been the nation's premier wind energy research facility, specializing in the advancement of wind technologies that range in size from a kilowatt to several megawatts. For more than 8 years, the NWTC has been an international leader in the field of offshore floating wind system analysis. Today, researchers at the NWTC are taking their decades of experience and extensive capabilities and applying them to help industry develop cost-effective hydrokinetic systems that convert the kinetic energy in water to provide power for our nation's heavily populated coastal regions. The center's capabilities and experience cover a wide spectrum of wind and water energy engineering disciplines, including atmospheric and ocean fluid mechanics, aerodynamics; aeroacoustics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics, control systems, electrical systems, and testing.

Not Available

2011-10-01

316

Distribution of oceanic 137Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant simulated numerically by a regional ocean model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive materials were released to the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant as a result of the reactor accident after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011. The measured 137Cs concentration in a seawater sample near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant site reached 68kBqL?1 (6.8×104BqL?1) on 6 April. The two major likely pathways from the

Daisuke Tsumune; Takaki Tsubono; Michio Aoyama; Katsumi Hirose

317

Impacts of demand response and renewable generation in electricity power market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents the objective of the research which is to analyze the impacts of uncertain wind power and demand response on power systems operation and power market clearing. First, in order to effectively utilize available wind generation, it is usually given the highest priority by assigning zero or negative energy bidding prices when clearing the day-ahead electric power market. However, when congestion occurs, negative wind bidding prices would aggravate locational marginal prices (LMPs) to be negative in certain locations. A load shifting model is explored to alleviate possible congestions and enhance the utilization of wind generation, by shifting proper amount of load from peak hours to off peaks. The problem is to determine proper amount of load to be shifted, for enhancing the utilization of wind generation, alleviating transmission congestions, and making LMPs to be non-negative values. The second piece of work considered the price-based demand response (DR) program which is a mechanism for electricity consumers to dynamically manage their energy consumption in response to time-varying electricity prices. It encourages consumers to reduce their energy consumption when electricity prices are high, and thereby reduce the peak electricity demand and alleviate the pressure to power systems. However, it brings additional dynamics and new challenges on the real-time supply and demand balance. Specifically, price-sensitive DR load levels are constantly changing in response to dynamic real-time electricity prices, which will impact the economic dispatch (ED) schedule and in turn affect electricity market clearing prices. This thesis adopts two methods for examining the impacts of different DR price elasticity characteristics on the stability performance: a closed-loop iterative simulation method and a non-iterative method based on the contraction mapping theorem. This thesis also analyzes the financial stability of DR load consumers, by incorporating explicit LMP formulations and consumer payment requirements into the network-constrained unit commitment (NCUC) problem. The proposed model determines the proper amount of DR loads to be shifted from peak hours to off-peaks under ISO's direct load control, for reducing the operation cost and ensuring that consumer payments of DR loads will not deteriorate significantly after load shifting. Both MINLP and MILP models are discussed, and improved formulation strategies are presented.

Zhao, Zhechong

318

Renewable energy: Sources for fuels and electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book assesses the technical and economic prospects for making fuels and electricity from renewable energy sources. Twenty-three chapters discuss the following renewable technologies: hydropower; wind energy; solar thermal electric technology; photovoltaic technology (6 chapters); ocean energy systems; geothermal energy; biomass conversion technology (8 chapters); solar hydrogen; and utility strategies for using renewables. All chapters have been processed for inclusion

T. B. Johansson; H. Kelly; A. K. N. Reddy; R. H. Williams

1993-01-01

319

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

, reliable and affordable energy technologies to the marketplace; and, · make a difference in the everyday.S. Department of Energy #12;Renewable Energy Solar Biomass/Biofuels Hydrogen/Fuel Cells Wind/ Water PowerEnergy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Energy Overview & A Perspective on Fuel Cell Technologies Dr

320

Renewable Energy Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

2010-01-01

321

Renewables and air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate

Wooley

2000-01-01

322

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

Mai, T.

2012-08-01

323

Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

Moriarty, K.

2013-02-01

324

High-power high-brightness solar laser approach for renewable Mg recovery from MgO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen and heat energy from the reaction of magnesium with water can be used for engines and fuel cells. However, at least 4000 K is necessary for magnesium oxide reduction. Ultra high brightness solar-pumped lasers become essential to make this renewable process technology efficient and economically competitive. 2.3 mg/kJ solar laser - induced magnesium production efficiency has been achieved by T. Yabe et al., in 2012, by focusing a 53 W solar laser beam on a mixture of MgO with Si as reducing agent. This result is however far from the 12.1 mg/kJ attained with 2 kW/mm2 CO2 laser beam. To improve substantially the solar laser - induced Mg production efficiency, a simple high-power, high brightness Nd:YAG solar laser pumping approach is proposed. The solar radiation is both collected and concentrated by four Fresnel lenses, and redirected towards a Nd:YAG laser head by four plane folding mirrors. A fused-silica secondary concentrator is used to compress the highly concentrated solar radiation to a laser rod. Optimum pumping conditions and laser resonator parameters are found through ZEMAXand LASCADnumerical analysis. High-record solar laser beam brightness figure of merit - defined as the ratio between laser power and the product of Mx 2 and My 2 - of 10.5 W is numerically achieved, being 5.5 times higher than the previous record and about 1600 times more than that of the most powerful Nd:YAG solar laser. 8340 W/mm2 is numerically achieved at its focal region, which can quadruple the magnesium production efficiency with clean energy.

Almeida, Joana; Liang, Dawei

2014-08-01

325

1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 677, Marine Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 677, Marine Renewable Energy 2. Designation as a Required. Renewable Energy from the Ocean ­ a Guide to OTEC, W.H. Avery and C. Wu, Oxford University Press, 1994. 2 and tidal resources. 3. An understanding of the role of ocean renewable energy within the current worldwide

Frandsen, Jannette B.

326

Load Frequency Control by use of a Number of Both Heat Pump Water Heaters and Electric Vehicles in Power System with a Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, from the viewpoints of global warming countermeasures and energy security, it is expected to establish a smart grid as a power system into which a large amount of generation from renewable energy sources such as wind power generation and photovoltaic generation can be installed. Measures for the power system stability and reliability are necessary because a large integration of these renewable energy sources causes some problems in power systems, e.g. frequency fluctuation and distribution voltage rise, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is one of effective solutions to these problems. Due to a high cost of the BESS, our research group has studied an application of controllable loads such as Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) and Electric Vehicle (EV) to the power system control for reduction of the required capacity of BESS. This paper proposes a new coordinated Load Frequency Control (LFC) method for the conventional power plants, the BESS, the HPWHs, and the EVs. The performance of the proposed LFC method is evaluated by the numerical simulations conducted on a power system model with a large integration of wind power generation and photovoltaic generation.

Masuta, Taisuke; Shimizu, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Akihiko

327

Development research for wind power weather insurance index through analysis of weather elements and new renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, social interests and concerns regarding weather risk are gradually growing with increase in frequency of unusual phenomena. Actually, the threat to many vulnerable industries (sensitive to climate conditions) such as agriculture, architecture, logistics, transportation, clothing, home appliance, and food is increasing. According to climate change scenario reports published by National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in 2012, temperature and precipitation are expected to increase by 4.8% and 13.2% respectively with current status of CO2 emissions (RCP 8.5) at the end of the 21st century. Furthermore, most of areas in Korea except some mountainous areas are also expected to shift from temperate climate to subtropical climate. In the context of climate change, the intensity of severe weathers such as heavy rainfalls and droughts is enhanced, which, in turn, increases the necessity and importance of weather insurance. However, most insurance market is small and limited to policy insurance like crop disaster insurance, and natural disaster insurance in Korea. The reason for poor and small weather insurance market could result from the lack of recognition of weather risk management even though all economic components (firms, governments, and households) are significantly influenced by weather. However, fortunately, new renewable energy and leisure industry which are vulnerable to weather risk are in a long term uptrend and the interest of weather risk is also getting larger and larger in Korea. So, in the long run, growth potential of weather insurance market in Korea might be higher than ever. Therefore, in this study, the capacity of power generation per hour and hourly wind speed are analyzed to develop and test weather insurance index for wind power, and then the effectiveness of weather insurance index are investigated and the guidance will be derived to objectively calculate the weather insurance index.

Park, Ki-Jun; jung, jihoon

2014-05-01

328

RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES PROCUREMENT PLAN This Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan ("RPS Procurement Plan" or  

E-print Network

Standard" or "RPS Program"). SB 2-1X directed the California Energy Commission ("CEC") to adopt regulations," ("CEC Regulations"), which became effective as of October 1, 2013, following Law subsequently approval: Eligible Renewable Energy Resources Biodiesel Fuel cells using renewable fuels Ocean wave, ocean thermal

329

Programs in Renewable Energy  

SciTech Connect

Our nation faces significant challenges as we enter the 1990s: securing a reliable supply of competitively priced energy, improving the quality of our environment, and increasing our share of foreign markets for goods and services. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Programs in Renewable Energy are working toward meeting these challenges by developing the technologies that make use of our nation's largest energy resource: renewable energy. The sunlight, wind biomass, flowing water, ocean energy, and geothermal energy that make up the renewable energy resource can be found throughout our nation. These resources can provide all the forms of energy our nation needs: liquid fuels, electricity, and heating and cooling. Renewable energy meets about 10% of our need for these forms of energy today, yet the potential contribution is many times greater. DOE's Programs in Renewable Energy are working side-by-side with American industry to develop the technologies that convert renewable energy resources into practical, cost-competitive energy. After a decade of progress in research, several of these technologies are poised to make large contributions during the 1990s and beyond. This booklet provides an overview of the renewable energy programs and their plans for FY 1990. Sources of additional information are listed at the back of the booklet. 48 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

330

Programs in Renewable Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our nation faces significant challenges as we enter the 1990s: securing a reliable supply of competitively priced energy, improving the quality of our environment, and increasing our share of foreign markets for goods and services. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Programs in Renewable Energy are working toward meeting these challenges by developing the technologies that make use of our nation's largest energy resource: renewable energy. The sunlight, wind biomass, flowing water, ocean energy, and geothermal energy that make up the renewable energy resource can be found throughout our nation. These resources can provide all the forms of energy our nation needs: liquid fuels, electricity, and heating and cooling. Renewable energy meets about 10 percent of our need for these forms of energy today, yet the potential contribution is many times greater. DOE's Programs in Renewable Energy are working side-by-side with American industry to develop the technologies that convert renewable energy resources into practical, cost-competitive energy. After a decade of progress in research, several of these technologies are poised to make large contributions during the 1990s and beyond. This booklet provides an overview of the renewable energy programs and their plans for FY 1990. Sources of additional information are listed at the back of the booklet.

1990-01-01

331

Spatial and temporal variations and budget of radiocesium in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We determined the inventory of radiocesium released by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident to the North Pacific Ocean based on measurements of seawater samples collected in the North Pacific Ocean after the accident. Comparison of the observed inventory with the model-simulated results allowed us to obtain realistic values of 10-13 PBq for the total atmospheric deposition of 134Cs and 137Cs released by the FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific. Before the Fukushima accident, 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific Ocean was about 69 PBq, the 12 - 15 PBq of 137Cs newly added by atmospheric deposition and the 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq added by direct discharge, therefore increased the total 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific Ocean by 22-27 %. We also determined that the total atmospheric release of 134Cs and 137Cs by the FNPP1 accident was about 14-17 PBq, respectively. Using global simulated results as boundary conditions, a 1-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was also carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99 %) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Kajino, Mizuo; Tanaka, Taichu; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Hayami, Hiroshi; Hamajima, Yasunori; Gamo, Toshitaka; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Kawano, Takeshi; Murata, Akihiro; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Fukasawa, Masao; Chino, Masamichi

2013-04-01

332

Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy - case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. 15 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City (Taiwan). Department of Environmental Engineering

2009-03-15

333

California Energy Commission: Ocean Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This California Energy Commission website discusses how electrical power can be generated from tidal power, wave power, ocean thermal energy conversion, ocean currents, ocean winds, salinity gradients, and other ocean phenomena. Users can learn how different areas of the ocean vary in their potential energy production. The site presents the history of ocean energy production and the issues associated with permitting an ocean wave-energy conversion facility. Users can find links to ocean energy education and to companies and research groups involved with ocean energy development.

334

Innovative Power-Augmentation-Guide-Vane Design of Wind-Solar Hybrid Renewable Energy Harvester for Urban High Rise Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To generate greater quantities of energy from wind, the most efficient solution would be by increasing the wind speed. Also, due to the decreasing number of economic wind energy sites, there are plans to place wind turbines closer to populated areas. To site wind turbines out from rural areas, the current problems of wind turbines need to be resolved, especially visual impact, poor starting behaviour in low wind speeds, noise and danger caused by blade failure. In this paper, a patented wind-solar hybrid renewable energy harvester is introduced. It is a compact system that integrates and optimizes several green elements and can be built on the top (or between upper levels) of high rise buildings or structures. This system can be used in remote and urban areas, particularly at locations where the wind speed is lower and more turbulent. It overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by guiding and increasing the speed of the high altitude free-stream wind through fixed or yaw-able power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) before entering the wind turbine (straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine, VAWT in this project) at center portion. PAGV is a new and innovative design where its appearance or outer design can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact. From the studies, it is shown that the wind speed increment in the PAGV can be produced according to the Bernoulli's principle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is used to optimize the geometry of the PAGV and the simulation results demonstrated the technical possibility of this innovative concept. The PAGV replaces the free air-stream from wind by multiple channels of speed-increased and directional-controlled air-stream. With the PAGV, this lift-type VAWT can be self-started and its size can be reduced for a given power output. The design is also safer since the VAWT is enclosed by the PAGV. By integrating the PAGV with the VAWT (the diameter and height of PAGV are 2 times larger than the VAWT's), the predicted power generated (at free-stream wind speed = 3.5 m/s) is 1.25 times higher than the VAWT that has the same size as the PAGV. This new wind energy generation configuration should generate interest in the international market, even for regions with weaker winds. The correlation between CFD simulation and wind tunnel test will be carried out and reported elsewhere.

Tong, Chong Wen; Zainon, M. Z.; Chew, Poh Sin; Kui, Soo Chun; Keong, Wee Seng; Chen, Pan Kok

2010-06-01

335

STAFF FINAL GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, eligibility, energy storage, fuel cell, gasification, geothermal, hydroelectric, hydrogen, incremental generation, landfill gas, multifuel, municipal solid waste, ocean wave, ocean thermal, photovoltaic, pipeline biomethane, power purchase agreement, Qualified Reporting Entity

336

30 CFR 585.427 - How long is a renewal?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...long is a renewal? 585.427 Section 585.427 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

2012-07-01

337

A survey of potential users of the High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) in the ocean/coastal zone community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community to determine potential applications of a High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) are reported. Such a platform, capable of stationkeeping for periods up to a year over a given location, could make frequent and repeated high resolution observations over a given region or serve as a high-altitude regional communications link. Users were surveyed in person and via a questionnaire to determine the desirability of the HAPP within the ocean/coastal zone community. The results of the survey indicated that there is strong interest in all areas of the user community (research and development, operational agencies, and private industry) in having NASA develop the HAPP.

Escoe, D.; Rigternik, P.

1979-01-01

338

Turning Renewable Energy Ambitions into Successful Projects: A Study of How Communication can be Improved in the Wave Power Sector.   

E-print Network

The purpose of the dissertation was to research how to improve communication between marine renewable energy developers and the stakeholders involved in their development. The process was qualitative and involved analysing publications...

Lancaster, Gregor

2011-11-24

339

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...license renewal term. Impingement of fish and shellfish 1 SMALL. The impingement...Electromagnetic fields, acute effects (electric shock) 2 SMALL, MODERATE, OR...required to determine the significance of the electric shock potential at the site. See §...

2011-01-01

340

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...license renewal term. Impingement of fish and shellfish 1 SMALL. The impingement...Electromagnetic fields, acute effects (electric shock) 2 SMALL, MODERATE, OR...required to determine the significance of the electric shock potential at the site. See §...

2010-01-01

341

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

342

COMMISSION GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

. Keywords: Biodiesel, biogas, biomass, biomethane, certificates, certification, conduit hydroelectric, multifuel, municipal solid waste, ocean wave, photovoltaic, pipeline biomethane, power purchase agreement, repowered, retail sales, small hydroelectric, Self Generation Incentive Program, solar thermal, supplemental

343

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Modelling Concentrating Solar Power  

E-print Network

and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Modelling Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage for Integration Studies Marissa Hummon 3rd International Solar Power Integration the three main components of the plant: solar field, storage tank, and power block. We show the effect

344

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Downscaling Solar Power  

E-print Network

and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies Marissa Hummon 3rd International Solar Power Integration Workshop integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact

345

Low head tidal power: a major source of energy from the worlds oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a large number of tidal sites in the world's oceans which can provide a significant, viable and cost effective source of reliable energy. Many are strategically located close to populated areas where they can be economically harnessed using an ecologically benign low-head technology developed by Nova Energy Ltd. Early work was carried out under research contracts with the

Barry V. Davis

1997-01-01

346

Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions. PMID:24892049

Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

2014-01-01

347

Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions. PMID:24892049

Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan Bin; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari Bin

2014-01-01

348

Learning about Renewable Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

349

A Hybrid renewable DC microgrid voltage control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DC microgrid is a hybrid renewable system that renewable sources supply the average load demand, while storage and nonrenewable generation maintain the power balance in the presence of the stochastic renewable sources. The control strategy can realize the optimal allocation of power by using DC bus signal and the bus voltage is controlled by PV converter, battery converter and

Xiaofeng Sun; Zhizhen Lian; Baocheng Wang; Xin Li

2009-01-01

350

Modeling of hybrid renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) are becoming popular for remote area power generation applications due to advances in renewable energy technologies and subsequent rise in prices of petroleum products. Economic aspects of these technologies are sufficiently promising to include them in developing power generation capacity for developing countries. Research and development efforts in solar, wind, and other renewable energy technologies

M. K. Deshmukh; S. S. Deshmukh

2008-01-01

351

California Renewable Energy Center Integrated Assessment  

E-print Network

;California Renewable Energy Center Organization of this session: · Overview of solar, wind, geothermal Collaborative Henry Shiu Case van Dam #12;California Renewable Energy Center 13 Wind Power: Industry Status, power smoothing, frequency regulation #12;California Renewable Energy Center 19 Wind: Emerging

California at Davis, University of

352

Wind powered pumped hydro storage systems, a means of increasing the penetration of renewable energy in the Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of islands have found themselves obliged to place restrictions on the penetration of renewable sourced energy in their conventional electrical grid systems. In general, this has been due to certain energy related characteristics often connected to their very nature as islands. These limitations attempt to prevent the appearance of problems that might affect the stability and safety

C. Bueno; J. A. Carta

2006-01-01

353

Cool energy. Renewal solutions to environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

This book begins with a chapter describing some of the economic and environmental consequences of America's fossil-fuel-based economy. It makes the case that, despite some progress in reducing pollution from fossil fuels, no lasting cure for the deteriorating environment - in particular, the looming threat of global warming - is possible without developing alternative fuel sources. That renewable energy can provide the bulk of the new supplies needed is the theme of the second chapter, which discusses the relative advantages of these resources compared to fossil fuels and nuclear power and evaluates their long-term potential. The bulk of the book considers five broad categories of renewable energy sources: solar, wind, biomass (plant matter), rivers and oceans, and geothermal. For each of these sources, the book describes its current application, discusses its costs, analyzes new technologies under development, and assesses its positive and negative environmental impacts. This book shows the vital role renewable sources can and should play in America's energy future. It cites studies indicating that, with the right policies, renewable energy could provide as much as half of America's energy within 40 years, and an even larger fraction down the road. Such a rapid shift from existing energy sources would be dramatic but not unprecedented. In 1920, coal supplied 70% of US energy, but within 40 years its share had dropped to just 20% as oil and natural gas use increased. Sooner or later, oil and natural gas will also fade in importance. The real question is when. This book makes the case that the time to move decisively toward a renewable energy economy has arrived.

Brower, M.

1992-01-01

354

Ocean wave power available to submerged energy devices of finite dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of deploying wave energy converters at offshore sites near coastal population centers depends upon many factors. Some of the factors to be considered include preliminary power estimates for site selection, converter design, mooring or restraining problems and power transmission to shore. The accuracy of the preliminary wave power estimates depends upon the accuracy and extent of the site

J. M. Niedzwecki

1979-01-01

355

Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific Ocean before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic radionuclides such as Pu-239 (half-life: 24100 yr), Pu-240 (half-life: 6560 yr) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 yr) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. In the North Pacific Ocean, two distinct sources of Pu isotopes can be identified; i.e., the global stratospheric fallout and close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater and marine sediment samples collected in the western North Pacific before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station will provide useful background data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The atom ratios of Pu-240/Pu-239 in water columns from the Yamato and Tsushima Basins in the Japan Sea were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18; however, there were no temporal variation of atom ratios during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the Japan Sea. The total Pu-239+240 inventories in the whole water columns were approximately doubled during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the two basins. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 in surface water from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific Ocean, was 0.224 and showed no notable variation from the surface to the bottom with the mean atom ratio being 0.234. The atom ratios for the Pacific coast, near the Rokkasho nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, were approximately the same as the 0.224 ratio obtained from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific margin. The atom ratios in the surficial sediments from Sagami Bay ranged from 0.229 to 0.247. The mean atom ratio in the sediment columns in the East China Sea ranged from 0.248 for the Changjiang estuary to 0.268 for the shelf edge. The observed atom ratios were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.180, proving the existence of close-in fallout Pu originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds. The North Equatorial Current and Kuroshio Current were proposed as pathways for transporting Pacific Proving Grounds-origin Pu to the western North Pacific Ocean.

Yamada, M.; Zheng, J.; Aono, T.

2011-12-01

356

Quantifying avoided emissions from renewable generation  

E-print Network

Quantifying the reduced emissions due to renewable power integration and providing increasingly accurate emissions analysis has become more important for policy makers in the age of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and ...

Gomez, Gabriel R. (Gabriel Rodriguez)

2009-01-01

357

Singularity Analysis: a powerful image processing tool in remote sensing of the oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of fully developed turbulence has given rise to the development of new methods to describe real data of scalars submitted to the action of a turbulent flow. The application of this brand of methodologies (known as Microcanonical Multifractal Formalism, MMF) on remote sensing ocean maps open new ways to exploit those data for oceanographic purposes. The main technique in MMF is that of Singularity Analysis (SA). By means of SA a singularity exponents is assigned to each point of a given image. The singularity exponent of a given point is a dimensionless measure of the regularity or irregularity of the scalar at that point. Singularity exponents arrange in singularity lines, which accurately track the flow streamlines from any scalar, as we have verified with remote sensing and simulated data. Applications of SA include quality assessment of different products, the estimation of surface velocities, the development of fusion techniques for different types of scalars, comparison with measures of ocean mixing, and improvement in assimilation schemes.

Turiel, A.; Umbert, M.; Hoareau, N.; Ballabrera-Poy, J.; Portabella, M.

2012-04-01

358

Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant  

PubMed Central

Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109?bq.month?1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111?TBq for 137Cs and 44?TBq for 134Cs. PMID:25673214

Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

2015-01-01

359

Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.  

PubMed

Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R(2) obtained from (137)Cs and (134)Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 10(9)?bq.month(-1) while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111?TBq for (137)Cs and 44?TBq for (134)Cs. PMID:25673214

Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

2015-01-01

360

Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109 bq.month-1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for 137Cs and 44 TBq for 134Cs.

Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

2015-02-01

361

Novel design of an ocean wave power device utilizing a bi-directional turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details an innovative design for a wave energy harvester that converts the heaving motion of waves into electrical power. The conceptual design utilizes a unique bi-directional turbine system that develops a torque in a given direction, independent of whether the fluid is moving upward or downward. The result is power production both as the buoy is heaved upward

Steven Helkin; Carlos Velez

2010-01-01

362

Potential for ocean thermal energy conversion electric power generation in the Southeast region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the operating characteristics and investment costs of an OTEC electric power plant in the Southeast U.S. is presented. Conceptual design of an OTEC plant is discussed with the capital cost estimate, and conventional coal fuel plant costs. A computer analysis is made of the life cycle costs of electric power generation with conventional generating plants, and an OTEC

P. L. Sutherland; F. G. Arey Jr.; D. H. Guild

1979-01-01

363

The potential for grid power integration of offshore ocean wave energy in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the advanced electric technologies for grid power integration of different offshore wave energy conversion devices are presented. The electrical connection configurations for integrating the electric power of the multi wave energy conversion devices such as the Oscillating Water Column, Pelamis, the Wave Point Absorbers and the Wave Dragon are developed by employing the most efficient low cost

T. Ahmed; K. Nishida; M. Nakaoka

2010-01-01

364

Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Ocean energy conversion has been of interest for many,years. Recent developments,such as concern over global warming,have renewed,interest in the topic. This report focuses on wave energy converters (WEC) as opposed to ocean current energy converters. The point absorber and oscillating water column,WEC devices are addressed with regards tocommercial prospects, environmental concerns, and current state-of-the art. This report also provides

Jennifer Vining

2005-01-01

365

California's Soft Renewable Portfolio Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across the world, there is a growing commitment to power from renewable sources. The benefits are obvious and well known: reduce reliance on fossil fuel consumption and thereby achieve both lower greenhouse gas emissions and greater local control over the power industry. The main challenge, however, is that private costs of green power production remain higher than for power from

Asbjorn Moseidjord

2004-01-01

366

Radium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium has four naturally occurring isotopes that have proven useful in constraining water mass source, age, and mixing rates in the coastal and open ocean. In this study, we used radium isotopes to determine the fate and flux of runoff-derived cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). During a June 2011 cruise, the highest cesium (Cs) concentrations were found along the eastern shelf of northern Japan, from Fukushima south, to the edge of the Kuroshio Current, and in an eddy ~ 130 km from the FNPP site. Locations with the highest cesium also had some of the highest radium activities, suggesting much of the direct ocean discharges of Cs remained in the coastal zone 2-3 months after the accident. We used a short-lived Ra isotope (223Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 d) to derive an average water mass age (Tr) in the coastal zone of 32 days. To ground-truth the Ra age model, we conducted a direct, station-by-station comparison of water mass ages with a numerical oceanographic model and found them to be in excellent agreement (model avg. Tr = 27 days). From these independent Tr values and the inventory of Cs within the water column at the time of our cruise, we were able to calculate an offshore 134Cs flux of 3.9-4.6 × 1013 Bq d-1. Radium-228 (t1/2 = 5.75 yr) was used to derive a vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) of 0.7 m2 d-1 (0.1 cm2 s-1); from this Kz and 134Cs inventory, we estimated a 134Cs flux across the pycnocline of 1.8 × 104 Bq d-1 for the same time period. On average, our results show that horizontal mixing loss of Cs from the coastal zone was ~ 109 greater than vertical exchange below the surface mixed layer. Finally, a mixing/dilution model that utilized our Ra-based and oceanographic model water mass ages produced a direct ocean discharge of 134Cs from the FNPP of 11-16 PBq at the time of the peak release in early April 2011. Our results can be used to calculate discharge of other water-soluble radionuclides that were released to the ocean directly from the Fukushima NPP.

Charette, M. A.; Breier, C. F.; Henderson, P. B.; Pike, S. M.; Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Buesseler, K. O.

2013-03-01

367

Radium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium has four naturally occurring isotopes that have proven useful in constraining water mass source, age, and mixing rates in the coastal and open ocean. In this study, we used radium isotopes to determine the fate and flux of runoff-derived cesium from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). During a June 2011 cruise, the highest Cs concentrations were found along the eastern shelf of northern Japan, from Fukushima south, to the edge of the Kuroshio current, and in an eddy ∼ 130 km from the NPP site. Locations with the highest cesium also had some of the highest radium activities, suggesting much of the direct ocean discharges of Cs remained in the coastal zone 2-3 months after the accident. We used a short-lived Ra isotope (223Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 d) to derive an average water mass age (Tr) in the coastal zone of 32 days. To ground-truth the Ra age model, we conducted a direct, station-by-station comparison of water mass ages with a numerical oceanographic model and found them to be in excellent agreement (model avg. Tr = 27 days). From these independent Tr values and the inventory of Cs within the water column at the time of our cruise, we were able to calculate an offshore 134Cs flux of 3.9-4.6 × 1013 Bq d-1. Radium-228 (t1/2 = 5.75 yr) was used to derive a vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) of 0.7 m2 d-1 (0.1 cm2 s-1); from this Kz and 134Cs inventory, we estimated a 134Cs flux across the pycnocline of 1.8 × 104 Bq d-1 for the same time period. On average, our results show that horizontal mixing loss of Cs from the coastal zone was ∼ 109 greater than vertical exchange below the surface mixed layer. Finally, a mixing/dilution model that utilized our Ra-based and oceanographic model water mass ages produced a direct ocean discharge of 134Cs from the FNPP of 11-16 PBq at the time of the peak release in early April 2011. Our results can be used to calculate discharge of other water-soluble radionuclides that were released to the ocean directly from the Fukushima NPP.

Charette, M. A.; Breier, C. F.; Henderson, P. B.; Pike, S. M.; Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Buesseler, K. O.

2012-11-01

368

Renewable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students are introduced to the five types of renewable energy resources by engaging in various activities to help them understand the transformation of energy (solar, water and wind) into electricity. Students explore the different roles engineers who work in renewable energy fields have in creating a sustainable environment – an environment that contributes to greater health, happiness and safety.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

369

Wisconsin PSC adopts renewable incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first experiment of its kind in the nation, the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin will allow utilities to earn an extra profit on renewable energy by granting production credits for wind and solar power and other renewables. The program, which will last through 1998, will allow rate hikes of three-quarters of a cent per kilowatt hour for wind

1993-01-01

370

Ocean thermal energy conversion power system development. Final design report: PSD-I, Phase II  

SciTech Connect

The PSD-I program provides a heat exchanger sytem consisting of an evaporator, condenser and various ancillaries with ammonia used as a working fluid in a closed simulated Rankine cycle. It is to be installed on the Chepachet Research Vessel for test and evaluation of a number of OTEC concepts in a true ocean environment. It is one of several test articles to be tested. Primary design concerns include control of biofouling, corrosion and erosion of aluminum tubes, selection of materials, and the development of a basis for scale-up to large heat exchangers so as to ultimately demonstrate economic feasibility on a commercial scale. The PSD-I test article is devised to verify thermodynamic, environmental, and mechanical performance of basic design concepts. The detailed design, development, fabrication, checklist, delivery, installation support, and operation support for the Test Article Heat Exchangers are described. (WHK)

None

1980-06-30

371

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...soil conditions on plant operations and...be small for all nuclear power plants and would not change...are employed to control soil erosion...occurs during a plant outage. Altered...small at operating nuclear power plants....

2014-01-01

372

Architectures and circuits for low-voltage energy conversion and applications in renewable energy and power management  

E-print Network

In this thesis we seek to develop smaller, less expensive, and more efficient power electronics. We also investigate emerging applications where the proper implementation of these new types of power converters can have a ...

Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N

2012-01-01

373

Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-to-grid power (V2G) uses electric-drive vehicles (battery, fuel cell, or hybrid) to provide power for specific electric markets. This article examines the systems and processes needed to tap energy in vehicles and implement V2G. It quantitatively compares today's light vehicle fleet with the electric power system. The vehicle fleet has 20 times the power capacity, less than one-tenth the utilization,

Willett Kempton; Jasna Tomi?

2005-01-01

374

Update '05: ocean wave and tidal power generation projects in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summary, San Francisco's interest in the HydroVenturi approach is due to the value proposition of no moving parts underwater, compared to the underwater turbines of a LaRance river-type saltwater entranement, of a Blue Energy or Verdant Power vertical or horizontal axis-type propeller installation. A technology with no moving parts underwater makes tidal power attractive to San Francisco's well-established environmental

P. O'Donnell

2005-01-01

375

Automation infrastructure and operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system based on renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the automation system and the implemented operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system in Greece are fully analyzed in the present study. A photovoltaic array and three wind generators serve as the system main power sources and meet a predefined load demand. A lead-acid accumulator is used to compensate the inherent power fluctuations (excess or shortage)

Chrysovalantou Ziogou; Dimitris Ipsakis; Costas Elmasides; Fotis Stergiopoulos; Simira Papadopoulou; Panos Seferlis; Spyros Voutetakis

2011-01-01

376

Open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): Status and potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical oceans with a 20 C or more temperature difference between surface and deep water represent a vast resource of renewable thermal energy. One of the methods of harnessing this resource is an open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system utilizing steam evaporated from the surface water for powering the turbine. In this paper, the state of the art of research and component development, as related to heat and mass transfer processes, power production, noncondensable gas handling, and seawater flow hydraulics, are described through an illustrated preliminary design study of a 1-MW facility.

Bharathan, D.

1984-08-01

377

Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Ocean wave power can be a significant source of large?scale, renewable energy for the US electrical grid. The Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) conservatively estimated that 20% of all US electricity could be generated by wave energy. Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. (OPT), with funding from private sources and the US Navy, developed the PowerBuoy? to generate renewable energy from the readily available power in ocean waves. OPT's PowerBuoy converts the energy in ocean waves to electricity using the rise and fall of waves to move the buoy up and down (mechanical stroking) which drives an electric generator. This electricity is then conditioned and transmitted ashore as high?voltage power via underwater cable. OPT's wave power generation system includes sophisticated techniques to automatically tune the system for efficient conversion of random wave energy into low cost green electricity, for disconnecting the system in large waves for hardware safety and protection, and for automatically restoring operation when wave conditions normalize. As the first utility scale wave power project in the US, the Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, OR, will consist of 10 PowerBuoys located 2.5 miles off the coast. This U.S. Department of Energy Grant funding along with funding from PNGC Power, an Oregon?based electric power cooperative, was utilized for the design completion, fabrication, assembly and factory testing of the first PowerBuoy for the Reedsport project. At this time, the design and fabrication of this first PowerBuoy and factory testing of the power take?off subsystem are complete; additionally the power take?off subsystem has been successfully integrated into the spar.

Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator] [Principal Investigator; Downie, Bruce [Project Manager] [Project Manager

2013-10-21

378

Errors in modeling contraction, isostatic compensation and rock-mass balance in conductive cooling models of the oceanic lithosphere: Implications on Earth's power, radioactive contents, and convective style  

Microsoft Academic Search

High values of global power (44 TW) are derived from cooling models of the oceanic floor, which find support through their alleged prediction of seafloor depths. However, a factor of 3 error exists in equations used to predict depth as a function of seafloor age. These models allow for contraction only in z, which is governed by linear thermal expansivity

A. M. Hofmeister; R. E. Criss; V. M. Hamza

2007-01-01

379

An Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a California 33% Renewable Scenario (Report Summary) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This analysis evaluates CSP with TES in a scenario where California derives 33% of its electricity from renewable energy sources. It uses a commercial grid simulation tool to examine the avoided operational and capacity costs associated with CSP and compares this value to PV and a baseload generation with constant output. Overall, the analysis demonstrates several properties of dispatchable CSP, including the flexibility to generate during periods of high value and avoid generation during periods of lower value. Of note in this analysis is the fact that significant amount of operational value is derived from the provision of reserves in the case where CSP is allowed to provide these services. This analysis also indicates that the 'optimal' configuration of CSP could vary as a function of renewable penetration, and each configuration will need to be evaluated in terms of its ability to provide dispatchable energy, reserves, and firm capacity. The model can be used to investigate additional scenarios involving alternative technology options and generation mixes, applying these scenarios within California or in other regions of interest.

Denholm, P.; Wan, Y. H.; Hummon, M.; Mehos, M.

2013-04-01

380

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

2013-03-01

381

STAFF DRAFT GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

, certificates, certification, common carrier pipeline, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, eligibility, energy storage, fuel cell, gasification, geothermal, hydroelectric, hydrogen, incremental, pipeline biomethane, power purchase agreement, Qualified Reporting Entity (QRE), RECs, renewable energy

382

STAFF DRAFT GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

, biomethane, certificates, certification, common carrier pipeline, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, eligibility, energy storage, fuel cell, gasification, geothermal, hydroelectric, hydrogen, photovoltaic, pipeline biomethane, power purchase agreement, Qualified Reporting Entity (QRE), RECs, renewable

383

Conceptual design of an Open-Cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Net Power-Producing Experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii.

Bharathan, D.; Green, H. J.; Link, H. F.; Parsons, B. K.; Parsons, J. M.; Zangrando, F.

1990-07-01

384

Conceptual design of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. 71 refs., 41 figs., 34 tabs.

Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.; Link, H.F.; Parsons, B.K.; Parsons, J.M.; Zangrando, F.

1990-07-01

385

Nuclear plant license renewal; Structural issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform

P. A. Gazda; P. C. Bhatt

1991-01-01

386

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

DeMeo, E.

2012-08-01

387

Energy and economic evaluation of PHEVs and their interaction with renewable energy sources and the power grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong dependency on crude oil in most areas of modern transportation coupled with increased demand for electric power generation lead to a significant consumption of fossil fuel resources over many decades. Homes and cars represent the biggest personal impact on the increasing energy demand, global warming and air quality; furthermore, electric power utilities spend a tremendous amount of capacity to

Vincenzo Marano; Giorgio Rizzoni

2008-01-01

388

Renewable Energy Resources Impact on Clean Electrical Power by developing the North-West England Hydro Resource Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a sequential decision support system to promote hydroelectric power in North-West England. The system, composed of integrated models, addresses barriers to the installation of hydroelectric power schemes. Information is linked through an economic assessment which identifies different turbine options, assesses their suitability for location and demand; and combines the different types of information in

Philip Leigh; George Aggidis; David Howard; Bob Rothschild

2007-01-01

389

Hybrid stand-alone renewable energy system with high fuel-cell efficiency and unity power factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a hybrid standalone power conversion strategy for the integrated connection of multiple remote loads. The proposed system consists of fuel cells, PV panels, a wind turbine and batteries. The primary aims of the proposed controller are to operate the fuel cells about their maximum possible efficiency whilst maintaining unity power factor. A control technique for charging and

E. K. Hussain; C. M Bingham; D. Stone

2011-01-01

390

77 FR 50489 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar, can stress power systems as their...installation of renewables like wind and solar that produce variable power. Simultaneously...from hydro owner-operators to solar and wind industry experts, to...

2012-08-21

391

THORs Power Method for Hydrokinetic Devices - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Ocean current energy represents a vast untapped source of renewable energy that exists on the outer continental shelf areas of the 5 major continents. Ocean currents are unidirectional in nature and are perpetuated by thermal and salinity sea gradients, as well as coriolis forces imparted from the earth's rotation. This report details THORs Power Method, a breakthrough power control method that can provide dramatic increases to the capacity factor over and above existing marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices employed in the extraction of energy from ocean currents. THORs Power Method represents a constant speed, variable depth operational method that continually locates the ocean current turbine at a depth at which the rated power of the generator is routinely achieved. Variable depth operation is achieved by using various vertical force effectors, including ballast tanks for variable weight, a hydrodynamic wing for variable lift or down force and drag flaps for variable vehicle drag forces.

J. Turner Hunt; Joel Rumker

2012-08-08

392

Experience in Developing a Single-Phase Two Winding 5 kW Self-excited Induction Generator for Off-Grid Renewable Energy Based Power Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the design and development of a novel single-phase two winding self-excited squirrel cage induction generator (SEIG) for off-grid renewable energy based power generation. The principles underlying the design process and experience with SPEED design tool are described to design a 5 kW, 50 Hz, 230 V, 4 pole single phase AC generator. All possible configurations to reduce harmonic components of induced e.m.f. are attempted for desired performance and to get an optimum design keeping in view the manufacturing constraints. The development of a prototype based on this design has been completed with the help of an industry. Typical test results on the prototype are presented to demonstrate its performance. Computed results are obtained with a design based computational procedure for performance analysis and a critical comparison is made with test results.

Murthy, S. S.; Singh, Bhim; Sandeep, Vuddanti

2015-02-01

393

Conceptual design of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plants in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive temperature readings were obtained to determine suitable OTEC power plant sites in the Philippines. An analysis of temperature profiles reveals that surface seawater is in the range of 25 to 29°C throughout the year while seawater at 500 to 700 m depth remains at a low temperature of 8 to 4°C, respectively. In this article, 14 suitable sites within

Haruo Uehara; C. O. Dilao; Tsutomu Nakaoka

1988-01-01

394

75 FR 19990 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the NextLight Renewable...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NextLight Renewable Power, LLC, Silver State Solar Project, Primm...NextLight Renewable Power, LLC applied to...lands to construct a solar photovoltaic (PV...renewable energy. The solar field and infrastructure...overhead electrical power collection...

2010-04-16

395

Renewable Energy Annual 1999: Issues and Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Renewable energy provided only three percent of US utility power purchases overall in 1995, and the average purchase price of electricity from non-utilities using renewable energy was 31 percent higher than the average retail price, according the US EIA's latest Renewable Energy Annual 1999: Issues and Trends. The EIA presents additional data on renewable electricity purchases, transmission pricing issues for electricity, wood energy, and wind energy, among other topics, in this 90-page release.

396

Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system   

E-print Network

This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration – nanofiltration / reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating ...

Richards, B.S.; Capão, D.P.S.; Schäfer, Andrea

2008-01-01

397

30 CFR 585.426 - When must I submit my request for renewal?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...request for renewal? 585.426 Section 585.426 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

2012-07-01

398

76 FR 4244 - Regulation and Enforcement; Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management 30 CFR Part 285 [Docket...1010-AD71 Regulation and Enforcement; Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities...final rule to amend BOEMRE's renewable energy regulatory provisions that...

2011-01-25

399

Marine power - Accomplishments of the 1970s  

SciTech Connect

Considerable optimism prevailed at the decade's beginning that marine energy fluxes would be utilized widely and soon. Potential resources were overestimated and technical difficulties underestimated. Then leaping fuel prices were thought to give a competitive edge to renewable, fuel-free, power technologies. But since most renewable power is of low intensity and requires large conversion systems, costs are innately high and have been very sensitive to the inflation engendered by the 1973 oil embargo, staying well ahead of those of fossil-fueled power. The necessary low-pressure technology has proved difficult to master, and power utilities have been reluctant to invest in variable, undependable supplies. Prospects for power from the oceans were thus at a low ebb near the end of the Seventies. However, persevering efforts helped by more patient expectations have turned the prospects around and up again, and demonstration facilities are under test or construction for temperature-gradient, tidal, wave, and wind power.

Schmitt, W.R.

1982-08-01

400

Long distance renewable-energy-sources power transmission using hydrogen-cooled MgB 2 superconducting line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable Energy Sources (RES) exploitation for electric energy and hydrogen production has been identified as one of the leading ways towards a future sustainable energy system. Hydrogen can be stored and transported in gaseous (GH 2) or liquid form (LH 2). When large hydrogen storage is required, liquefaction can be convenient with respect to compression, because of its higher storage density. LH 2 can also be used as a coolant for superconducting lines, acting at the same time as energy vector and cryogen. In particular, in this paper we focus on the MgB 2 material mainly due to economic considerations and working temperature match with LH 2. A system for large scale RES exploitation allowing flexible and controlled delivery of electric energy and LH 2 is presented. For the thermo-hydraulic design, a method is proposed which resorts to compressible fluid equations put in a convenient simplified form. A case application with 20 km distance between cooling stations is considered, and the need of taking into account LH 2 compressibility for pipeline design is shown.

Trevisani, L.; Fabbri, M.; Negrini, F.

2007-02-01

401

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. An Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power  

E-print Network

and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. An Analysis of Concentrating Solar concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in a commercial production cost model o historical prices o Cannot perform forwardlooking analysis in a future system o Limited in scope

402

Single-Phase Inverter Control Techniques for Interfacing Renewable Energy Sources With Microgrid—Part I: Parallel-Connected Inverter Topology With Active and Reactive Power Flow Control Along With Grid Current Shaping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel current control technique is proposed to control both active and reactive power flow from a renewable energy source feeding a microgrid system through a single-phase parallel-connected inverter. The parallel-connected inverter ensures active and reactive power flow from the grid with low-current total harmonic distortion even in the presence of non- linear load. A p-q theory-based

Souvik Dasgupta; Sanjib Kumar Sahoo; Sanjib Kumar Panda

2011-01-01

403

76 FR 23848 - Carolina Power And Light Company; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Renewed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Section 6.9.1.6 to add the NRC-approved topical report, EMF-2103(P)(A), Revision 0, ``Realistic Large-Break...Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 safety analyses. Topical Report, EMF-2103(P)(A), Revision 0, was approved by the NRC...

2011-04-28

404

Evaluation Method of Allowable Capacity of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources in a Microgrid with Tie-line Power Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a cooperative control system of gas engine generators and lead-acid battery in a microgrid. The control system enables a microgrid system to balance between electric power demand\\/supply and to control the state of charge (SOC) of the battery at the same time. To evaluate this control system, we simulated its performance in balancing the control of an experimental

Yuta Sasaki; Shigeru Bando; Hiroshi Asano; Seiji Tagami

2009-01-01

405

DSM renewable opportunities in Boston  

SciTech Connect

The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), in conjunction with MSB Energy Associates, conducted a study for the Boston Edison Demand-Side Management (DSM) Settlement Board on the potential for DSM renewables in the Boston area. DSM renewables are resources that can be used in a distributed utility approach to avoid transmission and distribution (T and D) costs, as well as costs associated with operating and building power plants. The results show that avoided costs in areas with deferrable T and D investments can be nearly twice as high as system-wide average avoided costs. As a result, renewable technologies that might not be considered cost effective as DSM under system-wide average criteria, can produce large shavings for the utility and its customers. Adopting a deliberate program designed to provide sustained orderly development of these renewables is essential in order for renewable technologies to achieve the maximum level of cost-effectiveness and net savings.

Tennis, M.W.; Nogee, A.J. [Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA (United States); Coakley, S. [Boston Edison DSM Settlement Board, Lexington, MA (United States); Schoengold, D. [MSB Energy Associates, Middleton, WI (United States)

1995-11-01

406

STAFF DRAFT GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

, biomass, biomethane, certificates, certification, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, ocean wave, photovoltaic, pipeline biomethane, power purchase agreement, Qualified Reporting Entity sales, small hydroelectric, SelfGeneration Incentive Program, solar thermal, supplemental energy

407

LEAD COMMISSIONER DRAFT RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

: Biodiesel, biogas, biomass, biomethane, certificates, certification, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, municipal solid waste, ocean wave, photovoltaic, pipeline biomethane, power purchase agreement, Qualified, repowered, retail sales, small hydroelectric, SelfGeneration Incentive Program, solar thermal, supplemental

408

Ocean Planet: Ocean Market  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on foods, materials and medicines that comes form marine life, how these resources are harvested and processed and the impacts of fisheries. Students identify and classify consumer goods from the ocean and calculate their cost. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

409

Oceans Alive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

Lynn Rosentrater

410

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

2013-11-01

411

The Power of Full Engagement. Managing Energy, Not Time, Is the Key to High Performance and Personal Renewal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leistung, Gesundheit und Glück beruhen auf dem ausgewogenen und geschickten Einsatz von Energie: Mit dieser klaren Prämisse\\u000a vereinfacht und revolutioniert das Autorenduo die Art und Weise, wie wir mit Hindernissen und Leistungsbarrieren in unserem\\u000a persönlichen wie beruflichen Umfeld umgehen. Das „Power of Full Engagement-Trainingsystem“ ist denn auch weniger eine Arbeitsweise\\u000a als vielmehr eine elementare Lebensphilosophie.

Jim Loehr; Tony Schwartz

412

Ocean wave energy harvesting buoy for sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methodology and results are presented for the numerical simulations and experimental measurements on ocean energy harvesting systems that utilize anchored linear generators, driven by heaving surface buoys that convert ambient ocean wave energy into useful electrical power. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using ocean wave energy harvesting buoys and simple linear generators to provide sufficient electrical power for ocean

Steven P. Bastien; Raymond B. Sepe; Annette R. Grilli; Stephan T. Grilli; Malcolm L. Spaulding

2009-01-01

413

Microgrids — an integration of renewable energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microgrids may be a prospective power system that addresses the renewable energy technologies (RET) accompanying necessary growing deployment of distributed energy resources (DER), especially small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) and small-scale renewable energy sources (RES). This article introduces the RET expected to be applied in the microgrids system depending on the RES. The RET include: microturbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic

Xuan Liu; Bin Su

2008-01-01

414

Some future scenarios for renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy security issues, climate change, fossil fuel depletion, new technologies, and environmentally conscious consumers are powerful forces shaping the renewable energy sector. The future of renewable energy depends upon how powerful these forces are and which combination of forces prevails. This paper defines and analyzes four different scenarios, business as usual (2010–2030), focus on climate change (2010–2060), focus on energy

Perry Sadorsky

2011-01-01

415

Renewable Energy and Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued the Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) at http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/ (May 2011 electronic version; printed form ISBN 978-1-107-60710-1, 2012). More than 130 scientists contributed to the report.* The SRREN assessed existing literature on the future potential of renewable energy for the mitigation of climate change within a portfolio of mitigation options including energy conservation and efficiency, fossil fuel switching, RE, nuclear and carbon capture and storage (CCS). It covers the six most important renewable energy technologies - bioenergy, direct solar, geothermal, hydropower, ocean and wind, as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It also takes into consideration the environmental and social consequences associated with these technologies, the cost and strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion.

Chum, H. L.

2012-01-01

416

NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3: Additional tabulation of the power spectra, part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At Sea Test are analyzed. Also included are the following ittems: (1) sensor factors and offsets, and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented.

1983-12-01

417

NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3, part 1: Tabulation of the power spectra for selected channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test was analyzed. Data presented included: (1)sensor factors and off sets and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical units to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe. The mean, root-mean-square (RMS) maximum, and minimum values at each depth are shown in each plot.

1983-11-01

418

Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I: Dynamic Voltage Restorer In the present power grids, voltage sags are recognized as a serious threat and a frequently occurring power-quality problem and have costly consequence such as sensitive loads tripping and production loss. Consequently, the demand for high power quality and voltage stability becomes a pressing issue. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), as a custom power device, is more effective and direct solutions for "restoring" the quality of voltage at its load-side terminals when the quality of voltage at its source-side terminals is disturbed. In the first part of this thesis, a DVR configuration with no need of bulky dc link capacitor or energy storage is proposed. This fact causes to reduce the size of the DVR and increase the reliability of the circuit. In addition, the proposed DVR topology is based on high-frequency isolation transformer resulting in the size reduction of transformer. The proposed DVR circuit, which is suitable for both low- and medium-voltage applications, is based on dc-ac converters connected in series to split the main dc link between the inputs of dc-ac converters. This feature makes it possible to use modular dc-ac converters and utilize low-voltage components in these converters whenever it is required to use DVR in medium-voltage application. The proposed configuration is tested under different conditions of load power factor and grid voltage harmonic. It has been shown that proposed DVR can compensate the voltage sag effectively and protect the sensitive loads. Following the proposition of the DVR topology, a fundamental voltage amplitude detection method which is applicable in both single/three-phase systems for DVR applications is proposed. The advantages of proposed method include application in distorted power grid with no need of any low-pass filter, precise and reliable detection, simple computation and implementation without using a phased locked loop and lookup table. The proposed method has been verified by simulation and experimental tests under various conditions considering all possible cases such as different amounts of voltage sag depth (VSD), different amounts of point-on-wave (POW) at which voltage sag occurs, harmonic distortion, line frequency variation, and phase jump (PJ). Furthermore, the ripple amount of fundamental voltage amplitude calculated by the proposed method and its error is analyzed considering the line frequency variation together with harmonic distortion. The best and worst detection time of proposed method were measured 1ms and 8.8ms, respectively. Finally, the proposed method has been compared with other voltage sag detection methods available in literature. Part 2: Power System Modeling for Renewable Energy Integration: As power distribution systems are evolving into more complex networks, electrical engineers have to rely on software tools to perform circuit analysis. There are dozens of powerful software tools available in the market to perform the power system studies. Although their main functions are similar, there are differences in features and formatting structures to suit specific applications. This creates challenges for transferring power system circuit models data (PSCMD) between different software and rebuilding the same circuit in the second software environment. The objective of this part of thesis is to develop a Unified Platform (UP) to facilitate transferring PSCMD among different software packages and relieve the challenges of the circuit model conversion process. UP uses a commonly available spreadsheet file with a defined format, for any home software to write data to and for any destination software to read data from, via a script-based application called PSCMD transfer application. The main considerations in developing the UP are to minimize manual intervention and import a one-line diagram into the destination software or export it from the source software, with all details to allow load flow, short circuit and other analyses. In this study, ETAP, OpenDSS, and GridLab-D are considered, and PSCMD trans

Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

419

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Devices, Potential Navigational Hazards and Mitigation Measures  

SciTech Connect

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies. A technical report addressing our findings is available on this Science and Technology Information site under the Product Title, "Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures". This product is a brochure, primarily for project developers, that summarizes important issues in that more comprehensive report, identifies locations where that report can be downloaded, and identifies points of contact for more information.

Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

2009-12-01

420

New Renewable 1 Emerging Renewables  

E-print Network

Education Customer Credit TOTAL Collected Funds 5 592,893,678$ 449,087,292$ 435,666,549$ 22,665,711$ 75 to General Fund per Budget Act of 2009 9 (35,000,000)$ Loan to Dept. of Fish and Game per SB X8 34 10 (10 installations, generation from existing renewable facilities, and consumer education activities. 7 $150 million

421

Assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion  

E-print Network

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising renewable energy technology to generate electricity and has other applications such as production of freshwater, seawater air-conditioning, marine culture and chilled-soil ...

Muralidharan, Shylesh

2012-01-01

422

Heterogeneous catalysis and the challenges of powering the planet, securing chemicals for civilised life, and clean efficient utilization of renewable feedstocks.  

PubMed

This article reviews, first, the prospects, practices and principles of generating solar fuels. It does so with an analysis of recent progress in the light-driven emission of H2 (and other fuels) as well as O2 from water. To place this challenge in perspective, some current practices entailing the use of well-proven solid catalysts developed for fossil-based feedstocks, are described. The massive differences between proven methods of generating fuel and chemicals from non-renewable and from solar radiation are emphasized with the aid of numerous quantitative examples. Whilst it is acknowledged that a key action in reducing the liberation of greenhouse gases (GHG) is to tackle the challenge of decreasing their evolution in power generation and in the production of steel, aluminium and other bulk commodities (metals, alloys, concrete and ceramics), nevertheless much can be done to diminish the emission of CO2 (and to use it as feedstock) through the agency of new, designed solid catalysts and microalgae. Solar-thermal converters are also attractive alternatives, even though they are more likely to be used centrally rather than in small modular units like 'artificial leaves,' some of which are promising for the purposes of generating energy (and perhaps fuel) in a delocalized, modular manner. PMID:24988917

Thomas, John Meurig

2014-07-01

423

The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: an early assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with

Ole Langniss; Ryan Wiser

2003-01-01

424

The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: An early assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with

Ryan H. Wiser; Ole Langniss

2001-01-01

425

Ocean energy program summary. Volume 2: Research summaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, this stored energy is realized as waves, currents, and thermal salinity gradients. The purpose of the Federal Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy in a cost effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The OET Program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where the commercial sector can assess whether applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives or supplements to systems. Past studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to United States energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. Current program emphasis has shifted to open-cycle OTEC power system research because the closed-cycle OTEC system is at a more advanced stage of development and has already attracted industrial interest. During FY 1989, the OET Program focused primarily on the technical uncertainties associated with near-shore open-cycle OTEC systems ranging in size from 2 to 15 MW(sub e). Activities were performed under three major program elements: thermodynamic research and analysis, experimental verification and testing, and materials and structures research. These efforts addressed a variety of technical problems whose resolution is crucial to demonstrating the viability of open-cycle OTEC technology. This publications is one of a series of documents on the Renewable Energy programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. An overview of all the programs is available, entitled Programs in Renewable Energy.

1990-01-01

426

Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. Different OTEC plants are described that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor; the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs where appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed; 40 inch high density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii.

Rabas, T.; Panchal, C. B.; Genens, L.

427

A Review of Barriers to and Opportunities for the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Southeast  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to prepare a summary report that examines the opportunities for and obstacles to the integration of renewable energy resources in the Southeast between now and the year 2030. The report, which is based on a review of existing literature regarding renewable resources in the Southeast, includes the following renewable energy resources: wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, biomass, and tidal. The evaluation was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Energy Foundation and is a subjective review with limited detailed analysis. However, the report offers a best estimate of the magnitude, time frame, and cost of deployment of renewable resources in the Southeast based upon the literature reviewed and reasonable engineering and economic estimates. For the purposes of this report, the Southeast is defined as the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. In addition, some aspects of the report (wind and geothermal) also consider the extended Southeast, which includes Maryland, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. A description of the existing base of renewable electricity installations in the region is given for each technology considered. Where available, the possible barriers and other considerations regarding renewable energy resources are listed in terms of availability, investment and maintenance costs, reliability, installation requirements, policies, and energy market. As stated above, the report is a comprehensive review of renewable energy resources in the southeastern region of United States based on a literature study that included information obtained from the Southern Bio-Power wiki, sources from the Energy Foundation, sources available to ORNL, and sources found during the review. The report consists of an executive summary, this introductory chapter describing report objectives, a chapter on analysis methods and the status of renewable resources, chapters devoted to each identified renewable resource, and a brief summary chapter. Chapter 2 on analysis methods and status summarizes the benefits of integrating renewable energy resources in the Southeast. The utilization of the existing fuels, both the fossil fuels and the renewable energy resources, is evaluated. The financial rewards of renewable resources are listed, which includes the amount of fuel imported from outside the Southeast to find the net benefit of local renewable generation, and both the typical and new green job opportunities that arise from renewable generation in the Southeast. With the load growth in the Southeast, the growth of transmission and fossil fuel generation may not meet the growing demands for energy. The load growth is estimated, and the benefits of renewable resources for solving local growing energy demands are evaluated. Chapters 3-7 discuss the key renewable energy resources in the Southeast. Six resources available in this region that are discussed are (1) wind, including both onshore and offshore; (2) solar, including passive, photovoltaic, and concentrating; (3) biomass energy, including switchgrass, biomass co-firing, wood, woody biomass, wood industry by-products (harvesting residues, mill waste, etc.), agricultural byproducts, landfill gas to energy and anaerobic digester gas; (4) hydro; and (5) geothermal. Because of limited development, ocean wave and tidal were not considered to be available in significant quantity before 2030 and are not presented in the final analysis. Estimates on the location of potential megawatt generation from these renewable resources in the Southeast are made. Each chapter will describe the existing base of the renewable electricity installations in the region now and, when available, the base of the existing manufacturing capacity in the region for renewable energy resources hardware and software. The possible barriers and considerations for renewable energy resources are presented.

McConnell, Ben W [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL

2011-08-01

428

Analysis of the Behavior of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations with Renewable Generations  

E-print Network

Analysis of the Behavior of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations with Renewable Generations Woongsup between electric vehicle charging stations (EVCSs) with renewable electricity generation facilities (REGFs electricity generation [1]. Therefore, renewable power generation will play a significant role in smart grid

Wong, Vincent

429

One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a~lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99%) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

2013-04-01

430

One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways: direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the accident site. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 137Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured 137Cs activities not only adjacent to the accident site, but also in a wide area in the model domain, therefore this implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Employment of improved nudging data by JCOPE2 improved both the offshore transport result and the reproducibility of 137Cs activities 30 km offshore. On the other hand, simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition into the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition into the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The consideration of inflow is important to simulate the 137Cs activity in this model region in the later period of the simulation. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99%) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

2013-08-01

431

Funding for Renewable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On May 25, 1999, the House and Senate appropriation committees cut funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency programs, while at the same time increasing funding for nuclear and fossil fuel programs. This move runs counter to the opinions of most Americans, according to a recent survey commissioned by the Sustainable Energy Coalition. According to the survey, Americans believe renewable energy and energy efficiency funding should be prioritized, while nuclear power and fossil fuel spending should be reduced. Following the budget changes, President Clinton issued an executive order for federal agencies to cut energy consumption by 35 percent of 1985 levels by 2010, as the federal government is the largest consumer of energy. Clinton also urged Congress to reevaluate and approve the 2000 budget funding requests for research to help American businesses use energy-saving technology. This week's In The News examines the recent federal decisions regarding energy use and technology; the eight resources listed provide background information on this important issue.

Schultz, Jennifer J.

432

Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

2012-07-01

433

US Renewable Futures in the GCAM  

SciTech Connect

This project examines renewable energy deployment in the United States using a version of the GCAM integrated assessment model with detailed a representation of renewables, the GCAM-RE. Electricity generation was modeled in four generation segments and 12-subregions. This level of regional and sectoral detail allows a more explicit representation of renewable energy generation. Wind, solar thermal power, and central solar PV plants are implemented in explicit resource classes with new intermittency parameterizations appropriate for each technology. A scenario analysis examines a range of assumptions for technology characteristics, climate policy, and long-distance transmission. We find that renewable generation levels grow over the century in all scenarios. As expected, renewable generation increases with lower renewable technology costs, more stringent climate policy, and if alternative low-carbon technology are not available. The availability of long distance transmission lowers policy costs and changes the renewable generation mix.

Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.; Karas, Joseph F.; Nathan, Mayda

2011-10-06

434

75 FR 72679 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...unsolicited request for an OCS renewable energy lease are inconsistent. This...the Interior; Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...30 CFR part 285 cover renewable energy and alternative uses of existing facilities...

2010-11-26

435

Renewable Energy Glossary of Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology (CAPT) has created this 22-page glossary of renewable energy terms which was "taken in part from the EPA and the Energy Information Administrations web site, and provides definitions of a number of important terms associated with power generation technologies and their environmental impacts, including definitions of specific pollutants, technologies, and the key terms related to the electric power marketplace." From acid rain to wood pellets, the terms are defined as they relate to renewable energy development and applications.

436

Ocean Circulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses ocean circulation. First it explains what ocean currents are and what causes them. Then it explains other aspects of the global conveyor belt such as gyres and ocean-atmosphere interactions.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

2011-08-09

437

China rationalizes its renewable energy policy  

SciTech Connect

China's over-reliance on thermal power generation, especially coal-fired power stations, is well-documented. While nuclear power continues as an option to coal, China's strides in renewable energy are unprecedented. Recent amendments to the Renewable Energy Law, first promulgated in 2006, attempt to rationalize the regulatory regime governing wind, solar, hydropower and biomass projects in China, currently fraught with inadequate interconnection and tariff shock issues. (author)

Su, Jack H.; Hui, Simone S.; Tsen, Kevin H.

2010-04-15

438

Ocean Wave Energy Conversion - A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean energy conversion has been of interest for many years. Recent developments such as concern over global warming have renewed interest in the topic. This paper gives a systematic and comprehensive overview of wave energy converters (WEC) as opposed to ocean current energy converters. The point absorber and oscillating water column WEC devices are addressed with regards to commercial prospects,

A. Muetze; J. G. Vining

2006-01-01

439

Ocean Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of mammals that live in the ocean? First, you will need to use the Ocean Mammals Table 1. This website is here for you to learn about ocean mammals. Mammals 2. This website will help you learn about the different mammals that live in the ocean. Ocean Mammals 3. Here is some information about how oil spills effect animal skin in the ocean. Oil Spills 4. This link ...

Miss Teschner

2011-04-06

440

The Promise of Wave Power (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable diverse energy resource plans. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans: it is estimated that if 0.2 % of the oceans' untapped energy could be harnessed, it could provide power sufficient for the entire world. Ocean energy exists in the forms of wave, tidal, marine currents, thermal (temperature gradient) and salinity. Among these forms, significant opportunities and benefits have been identified in the area of ocean wave energy extraction, i.e., harnessing the motion of the ocean waves, and converting that motion into electrical energy. Ocean wave energy refers to the kinetic and potential energy in the heaving motion of ocean waves. Wave energy is essentially concentrated solar energy (as is wind energy). The heating of the earth’s surface by the sun (with other complex processes) drives the wind, which in turn blows across the surface of the ocean to create waves. At each stage of conversion, the power density increases. Ocean wave power offers several attractive qualities, including high power density, low variability, and excellent forecastability. A typical large ocean wave propogates at around 12 m/s with very little attenuation across the ocean. If the waves can be detected several hundred kilometers off shore, there can be 10 hours or more of accurate forecast horizon. In fact, analysis has shown good forecast accuracy up to 48 hours in advance. Off the coast Oregon, the yearly average wave power is approximately 30 kW per meter of crestlength (i.e., unit length transverse to the direction of wave propagation and parallel to the shore.) This compares very favorably with power densities of solar and wind, which typically range in the several hundreds of Watts per square meter. Globally, the wave energy resource is stronger on the west coasts of large landmasses and increases in strength toward the poles. This phenomenon is due to the prevailing west to east global winds known as the "westerlies" found in the Northern and Southern hemispheres between 30 and 60 degrees latitude. Correspondingly, the west coast of the United States, the west coast of Australia, and the coastal regions of Europe have seen the greatest wave energy industrial activity to date. Ocean wave energy has great potential to be a significant contributor of renewable power for many regions in the world. For the West coast of the US alone, the total wave energy resource is estimated at 440 TWh/yr, which is more than the typical total US annual hydroelectric production (270 TWh in 2003). For US west coast states, a fully developed wave energy industry could be a significant contributor to renewable energy portfolio standards. Within the next few years, several utility-scale wave energy converters are planned for grid connection (e.g., Ocean Power Technologies and Columbia Power Technologies in Oregon, USA), with plans for more utility-scale development to follow soon after. This presentation will cover the physical basics of wave energy, examples of commercial technology, challenges opportunities for research, and an update on the wave energy research and developments at leading commercial, industrial, and academic institutions around the world.

Brekken, T.

2010-12-01

441

Communication Systems for Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Resources  

E-print Network

There is growing interest in renewable energy around the world. Since most renewable sources are intermittent in nature, it is a challenging task to integrate renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure. In this grid integration, communication systems are crucial technologies, which enable the accommodation of distributed renewable energy generation and play extremely important role in monitoring, operating, and protecting both renewable energy generators and power systems. In this paper, we review some communication technologies available for grid integration of renewable energy resources. Then, we present the communication systems used in a real renewable energy project, Bear Mountain Wind Farm (BMW) in British Columbia, Canada. In addition, we present the communication systems used in Photovoltaic Power Systems (PPS). Finally, we outline some research challenges and possible solutions about the communication systems for grid integration of renewable energy resources.

Yu, F Richard; Xiao, Weidong; Choudhury, Paul

2011-01-01

442

China's Ocean Policymaking: Practice and Lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growth of China's maritime power, China's ocean policy has caught the attention of the world community. People may wonder what China's ocean policy is, how it is made, and through what kind of mechanisms. This article will discuss and assess China's basic ocean policy and ocean policymaking process as well as some remaining issues in that process. China's

Keyuan Zou

2012-01-01

443

Managing intermittent renewables in a microgrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources connected to the utility grid can achieve enough penetration to affect the distribution system since they are intermittent. An aging electric distribution system infrastructure, with an increasing demand for power quality, reliability, energy surety, and security, needs solutions for managing increasing penetration of renewables. By 2015, the global wind and solar Photovoltaic production capacities are expected to

A. Solanki; L. F. Montoya; Q. Fu; A. Nasiri; V. Bhavaraju; T. Abdallah; D. Yu

2012-01-01

444

Valuing the attributes of renewable energy investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many countries's strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude

Ariel Bergmann; Nick Hanley; Robert Wright

2006-01-01

445

Profiles of America's leading renewable electricity developers  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the nuclear power industry has been struggling with widely publicized economic and regulatory snafus as well as the fallout of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the renewable energy industry has continued to evolve - largely without fanfare. Capable of producing electricity from a variety of sources ranging from the wind to garbage, the renewable industry holds commercially viable alternatives to

2009-01-01

446

Canada's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview of Canadanain oceans outlines the characteristics of the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic marine ecosystems. After a brief look at Canada's ocean environments from a global perspective, additional chapters provide an overview of the physical properties, fauna and human impacts associated with Canada's oceans. For each ocean there is information on water properties, currents, tides, and the ocean floor. Ocean floor information includes descriptions of ocean basins, submarine ridges, continental shelves and sedimentation while current information includes the causes, effects, and names of the currents. There is an explanation of the cause of tides and how they affect each shoreline.

447

Using Renewable Energy to Pump Water  

E-print Network

Solar and wind power can be economical and environmentally friendly ways to pump water for homes, irrigation and/or livestock water wells. This publication explains how these pumps work, the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy...

Mecke, Michael; Enciso, Juan

2007-06-08

448

Renewing governance.  

PubMed

Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance. PMID:17208717

Loos, Gregory P

2003-01-01

449

Opportunities and challenges for renewable energy policy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy is the inevitable choice for sustainable economic growth, for the harmonious coexistence of human and environment as well as for the sustainable development. Government support is the key and initial power for developing renewable energy. In this article, an overall review has been conducted on renewable energy development policy (including laws and regulations, economic encouragement, technical research and

Zhang Peidong; Yang Yanli; Shi jin; Zheng Yonghong; Wang Lisheng; Li Xinrong

2009-01-01

450

Renewable energy policy and electricity restructuring: a California case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries are in the process of deregulating and restructuring their electric power industries. Although the introduction of retail competition may have negative impacts on the development of renewable energy, a number of countries are establishing new programs to support these clean energy technologies. In the United States, debate has centered on three primary renewables support mechanisms: (1) the renewables

Ryan Wiser; Steven Pickle; Charles Goldman

1998-01-01

451

Renewable Energy Integration and the Impact of Carbon Regulation  

E-print Network

Renewable Energy Integration and the Impact of Carbon Regulation on the Electric Grid Future Grid the Future Electric Energy System #12;Thrust Area 3 White Paper Renewable Energy Integration and the Impact. #12;ii Executive Summary The integration of renewable energy resources into the power grid is driven

452

Integrating Renewable Energy Using Data Analytics Systems: Challenges and Opportunities  

E-print Network

Integrating Renewable Energy Using Data Analytics Systems: Challenges and Opportunities Andrew and intermittent nature of many renewable energy sources makes integrating them into the electric grid challenging-following loads adjust their power consumption to match the avail- able renewable energy supply. We show Internet

California at Berkeley, University of

453

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future  

E-print Network

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance two-way power flow with communication and control. Renewable Energy Grid Integration As the market

454

National Renewable Energy Laboratory  

E-print Network

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future ponsorship Format Reversed Color:White rtical Format Reversed-A ertical Format Reversed-B National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future National Renewable Energy Laboratory

455

Renewable energy research leases: Prospects and opportunities on the Hawaiian Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceans represent a vast and largely untapped source for energy production. Our oceans have the potential to provide wave, wind, solar and other resources that can be used to produce abundant, clean and renewable energy to meet the demands of growing consumption. The Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) plays a significant

John B. Smith; Jaron Ming

2011-01-01

456

THE OCEAN CONVEYOR BELT (Part 1) Stephen Riser, University of Washington  

E-print Network

amount of water that is sinking via deep convection in the world ocean is 30 Sv (20 N. Atlantic, 10 Antarctic). The volume of the deep ocean is ~ 109 km3 . The appropriate time scale TA for the renewal of water in the ocean by deep convection is TA ~ (ocean volume) / (convection volume transport) = (1018 m3

Riser, Stephen C.

457

Renewable Energy ] (  

E-print Network

starting from available area, which determines the location and count of turbines. Then existing wind data sheet area available for wind turbines is calculated. The second step is calculation of power production, and these maps are useful in locating suitable wind sites with high wind speed and proximity to loads

Firestone, Jeremy

458

Mercury Air Pollution Reflected in Ocean Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercury Air Pollution Reflected in Ocean Fish, Study Says Concentrations in ... mercury in the open ocean is fallout from air pollution, especially from coal-fired power plants and artisanal ...

459

The role of government in the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: Wind power in the United States, California, Denmark and Germany, 1970--2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation seeks to determine the role of government policy in advancing the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies, and to determine if specific policies or policy types are more effective than others in achieving these ends. This study analyzes legislation, regulations, research and development (R&D) programs and their impacts on wind energy in California, the rest of the

Janet Laughlin Sawin

2001-01-01

460

75 FR 57286 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the NextLight Renewable...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NextLight Renewable Power, LLC, Silver State Solar Project, Clark...NextLight Renewable Power, LLC, applied...lands to construct a solar photovoltaic (PV...electricity. The solar field and infrastructure...overhead electrical power collection...

2010-09-20

461

Initial flux of sediment-associated radiocesium to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.  

PubMed

This study aimed to quantify the flux of radiocesium in the Abukuma Basin (5,172?km(2)), the largest river system affected by fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) event. In the period from 10 August 2011 to 11 May 2012 an estimated 84 to 92% of the total radiocesium transported in the basin's fluvial system was carried in particulate form. During this monitoring period Typhoon Roke (September 2011) was observed to induce a significant and temporally punctuated redistribution of radiocesium. The storm-mobilised radiocesium was an estimated 6.18 Terabecquerels corresponding to 61.4% of the total load delivered to the coastal zone during the observation period. The total flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean estimated at the outlet station (basin area 5,172?km(2)) was 5.34?TBq for (137)Cs, and 4.74?TBq for (134)Cs, corresponding to 1.13% of the total estimated radiocesium fallout over the basin catchment (890?TBq). This was equivalent to the estimated amount of direct leakage from FDNPP to the ocean during June 2011 to September 2012 of 17?TBq and the Level 3 Scale Leakage on 21 August 2013 (24?TBq). PMID:24429978

Yamashiki, Yosuke; Onda, Yuichi; Smith, Hugh G; Blake, William H; Wakahara, Taeko; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Matsuura, Yuki; Yoshimura, Kazuya

2014-01-01

462

Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

Moriarty, K.

2013-01-01

463

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

464

Ocean Terracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean

Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

2007-01-01

465

Ocean Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Portal is a high-level directory of Ocean Data and Information related web sites. The object of the site is to help scientists and other ocean experts in locating data and information. Sites are listed in a directory with headings that include information, data, scientific topics, agencies and societies, among others.

IOC/IODE Marine Data Training Team

466

Thermal Pollution by Nuclear Power Plants. A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 320. [Project COAST].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication includes several activities regarding the use of nuclear power plants and possible effects on the environment. The materials are designed for secondary school students and include reference materials and masters for transparencies. (RH)

Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

467

Renewable energy in Indian country  

SciTech Connect

On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

NONE

1995-12-31

468

Renewable energy annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

NONE

1997-03-01

469

Renew-a-Bead  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A quantitative illustration of how non-renewable resources are depleted while renewable resources continue to provide energy. Students remove beads (units of energy) from a bag (representing a country). A certain number of beads are removed from the bag each "year." At some point, no non-renewable beads remain. Student groups have different ratios of renewable and non-renewable energy beads. A comparison of the remaining beads and time when they ran out of energy shows the value of utilizing a greater proportion of renewable resources as a sustainable energy resources.

Office of Educational Partnerships,

470

The application of a fuel cell-electrolyzer arrangement as a power balancing set-up in autonomous renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale autonomous renewable energy systems have gained attention during the last years due to growing concerns in relation to an increasing world energy demand and to constraints in CO2 emissions. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), wind turbines and solar panels are promising zero-emission devices to be incorporated into these systems. In order to integrate them, appropriate control designs are

Laura M. Ramirez-Elizondo; Gerardus C. Paap; Nico Woudstra

2008-01-01

471

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

2013-05-01

472

Ocean Terracing  

E-print Network

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean Art is the technically possible 21-st Century terracing of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Art is applicable worldwide to places that might be practically improved by its judicious employment. Such Ocean Art may constitute an entirely unique category of solutions to coastal disaster prevention planning.

Richard Cathcart; Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-09

473

Ocean energy program summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, they collect and store this energy as waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy cost effectively and in a way that does not harm the environment. The program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where industry can accurately assess whether the technology is a viable energy conversion alternative, or supplement, to current power generating systems. In past studies, DOE identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which uses the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water, as the most promising of the ocean energy technologies. As a result, the OET Program is concentrating on research that advances the OTEC technology. The program also continues to monitor and study developments in wave energy, ocean current, and salinity gradient concepts; but it is not actively developing these technologies now.

1990-01-01

474

The role of government in the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: Wind power in the United States, California, Denmark and Germany, 1970--2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation seeks to determine the role of government policy in advancing the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies, and to determine if specific policies or policy types are more effective than others in achieving these ends. This study analyzes legislation, regulations, research and development (R&D) programs and their impacts on wind energy in California, the rest of the United States, Denmark and Germany, from 1970 through 2000. These countries (and state) were chosen because each has followed a very different path and has adopted wind energy at different rates. Demand for energy, particularly electricity, is rising rapidly worldwide. Renewable energy technologies could meet much of the world's future demand for electricity without the national security, environmental and social costs of conventional technologies. But renewables now play only a minor role in the electric generation systems of most countries. According to conventional economic theory, renewable energy will achieve greater market penetration once it is cost-competitive with conventional generation. This dissertation concludes, however, that government policy is the most significant causal variable in determining the development and diffusion of wind energy technology. Policy is more important for bringing wind energy to maturity than a nation's wind resource potential, wealth, relative differences in electricity prices, or existing infrastructure. Further, policy is essential for enabling a technology to succeed in the marketplace once it is cost-competitive. Policies can affect a technology's perceived, or real, costs; they can reduce risks or increase the availability and affordability of capital; appropriate and consistent policies can eliminate barriers to wind technology. To be adopted on a large scale, renewables require effective, appropriate and, above all, consistent policies that are legislated with a long-term view toward advancing a technology and an industry. Inconsistent policy is economically costly and creates cycles of boom and bust, making it impossible to build a strong domestic industry. To be effective, policy must place priority on demand creation rather than government R&D; it must create a market, establish turbine standards and siting criteria, require data collection and dissemination, facilitate grid access, establish price guarantees, and enable stakeholder participation.

Sawin, Janet Laughlin

2001-07-01

475

Renewable Electricity Futures for the United States  

SciTech Connect

This paper highlights the key results from the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study. It is a detailed consideration of renewable electricity in the United States. The paper focuses on technical issues related to the operability of the U. S. electricity grid and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. The results indicate that the future U. S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and the further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway. The central conclusion of the analysis is that renewable electricity generation from technologies that are commercially available today, in combination with a more flexible electric system, is more than adequate to supply 80% of the total U. S. electricity generation in 2050 while meeting electricity demand on an hourly basis in every region of the United States.

Mai, Trieu; Hand, Maureen; Baldwin, Sam F.; Wiser , Ryan; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, Paul; Arent, Doug; Porro, Gian; Sandor, Debra; Hostick, Donna J.; Milligan, Michael; DeMeo, Ed; Bazilian, Morgan

2014-04-14

476

Renewable Energy Certificate Program  

SciTech Connect

This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

Gwendolyn S. Andersen

2012-07-17

477

The role of renewable energy in climate stabilization: results from the EMF27  

E-print Network

The role of renewable energy in climate stabilization: results from the EMF27 scenarios Gunnar the role of renewable energy in climate change mitigation. Renewables currently supply approximately 18, renewables are the most important long-term mitigation option for power supply. Wind energy is competitive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

478

WB/GEF Renewable Energy Development Project: Renewable Energy in China  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet describes China's Renewable Energy Development Project to supply electricity to rural households and institutions with wind energy and solar power (photovoltaics). World Bank and Global Environmental Facility fund the project.

Not Available

2004-04-01

479

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Mai, T.

2012-11-01

480

The Renewable Energy Footprint  

E-print Network

With the shift toward renewable energy comes the potential for staggering land impacts – many millions of acres may be consumed to meet demand for electricity and fuel over the next 20 years. To conservationists’ dismay, the more renewable energy we...

Outka, Uma

2011-01-01

481

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Mai, T.

2013-04-01

482

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Hand, M. M.

2012-09-01

483

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Mai, T.

2012-10-01

484

Learning About Renewable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development and their mission is focused on advancing the U.S. Department of Energy's energy goals. As part of their mission, NREL provides educational and informational tools on their website and it is a great source of information on renewable energy basics. Topics available here include: using renewable energy, energy delivery and storage basics, advanced vehicles, fuels basics, and student resources.

485

Renewable Energy: Capstone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the culminating activity in the series of lessons on renewable energy. It serves to reinforce the idea that renewable sources of energy are necessary for a sustainable fuure, and to discuss some of the present impacts and potential drawbacks to renewable energy. In the activity, sudents will use online resources to research their present energy consumption and investigate whether it could economically be replaced by renewable sources.

John Pratte

486

Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study Solar Dataset (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory produced solar power production data for the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) including "real time" 5-minute interval data, "four hour ahead forecast" 60-minute interval data, and "day-ahead forecast" 60-minute interval data for the year 2006. This presentation provides a brief overview of the three solar power datasets.

Hummon, M.

2014-04-01

487

Renewable Electricity Futures Study  

E-print Network

not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service Renewable Energy Laboratory Baldwin, S. U.S. Department of Energy DeMeo, E. Renewable Energy Consulting Services, Inc. Reilly, J.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mai, T. National Renewable Energy

488

INFORMATION FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY  

E-print Network

ENHANCING INFORMATION FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT IN BRAZIL, CHINA, AND SOUTH AFRICA UNITEDNATIONSENERGYPROGRAMME #12;#12;Enhancing Information for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment in Brazil, China Palmer, JL Van Niekerk, Center for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies (CRSES) in South Africa E

489

Renewable resource policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive volume covers the history, laws, and important national policies affecting renewable resource management. The author traces the history of renewable natural resource policy and management in the US, describes the major federal agencies and their functions, and examines the evolution of the primary resource policy areas. Renewable Resource Policy provides valuable insight into the often neglected legal administrative,

1993-01-01

490

Global Renewable Energy Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Currently, renewable energy sources supply 14% of the total world energy demand. Renewable energy is a promising alternative solution because it is clean

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

491

COMMISSION GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLE ENERGY PROGRAM  

E-print Network

COMMISSION GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLE ENERGY PROGRAM OVERALL PROGRAM GUIDEBOOK Fourth Edition Manager Renewable Energy Office G. William Pennington Acting Deputy Director Efficiency and Renewable of how the Energy Commission's Renewable Energy Program is administered and outlines terms

492

Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 18 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3, and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

2013-09-01

493

Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 1.5 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 18-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 18-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 17 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3 and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 1.5 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

2013-03-01

494

Impact of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in the western North Pacific Ocean about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.  

PubMed

We measured vertical distributions of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) at stations along the 149°E meridian in the western North Pacific during winter 2012, about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident. The Fukushima-derived (134)Cs activity concentration and water-column inventory were largest in the transition region between 35 and 40°N approximately due to the directed discharge of the contaminated water from the FNPP1. The bomb-derived (137)Cs activity concentration just before the FNPP1 accident was derived from the excess (137)Cs activity concentration relative to the (134)Cs activity concentration. The water-column inventory of the bomb-derived (137)Cs was largest in the subtropical region south of 35°N, which implies that the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs will also be transported from the transition region to the subtropical region in the coming decades. Mean values of the water-column inventories decay-corrected for the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and the bomb-derived (137)Cs were estimated to be 1020 ± 80 and 820 ± 120 Bq m(-2), respectively, suggesting that in winter 2012 the impact of the FNPP1 accident in the western North Pacific Ocean was nearly the same as that of nuclear weapons testing. Relationship between the water-column inventory and the activity concentration in surface water for the radiocesium is essential information for future evaluation of the total amount of Fukushima-derived radiocesium released into the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:25461523

Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi

2015-02-01

495

Area Solar energy production BACKGROUND -All renewable energies, except for geothermal and tidal, derive their energy from the sun. By harnessing the power of  

E-print Network

. By harnessing the power of the sun, a solar solution can be a zero emissions energy Hall and on the Cornell Store. Solar-Powered Bus Shelters were built on a local 4-H facility. Solar panel on Day Hall Solar powered bus shelter

Keinan, Alon

496

Using Renewable Energy to Pump Water  

E-print Network

Using Renewable Energy to Pump Water Juan Enciso and Michael Mecke* Wind power Wind is often used as an energy source to operate pumps and supply water to livestock. Because of the large amount of water needed for crops, wind power is rarely used... renewable energy sources ? such as solar or wind power ? for your home, for drip irrigation or for livestock water wells. Wind and solar energy can be excellent options in remote areas where the costs of extending transmission lines are high. Extending...

Enciso, J.; Mecke, M.

497

Final Report: Phase II Geothermal Exploration and Geothermal Power Plant Update for Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I study of the geothermal potential of Ascension Island concluded that the possibility of a geothermal resource existing under the island was excellent. This conclusion was based on the presence of young volcanic rocks (a heat source close to the surface), an ample supply of water from the sea, and high permeability of many of the rocks which make up the island. The assumption was made that the resource would be similar to geothermal systems in the Azores or Japan, and a conceptual design of a power plant to utilize the resource was prepared upon which cost estimates and an economic analysis were subsequently performed. The results of the economic analysis were very favorable, and the Air Force decided to proceed into Phase II of the project. Under Phase II, an exploration program was designed and carried out. The purpose of the program was to ascertain whether or not a geothermal resource existed beneath Ascension island and, to the extent possible, to evaluate the quality of that resource. The exploration involved a detailed aeromagnetic survey of the island, reconnaissance and detailed electrical resistivity surveys, and drilling of holes for the measurement of temperatures. These methods have confirmed the existence of geothermal activity beneath Ascension. Measured temperature gradients and bottom hole temperatures as well as chemical geothermometers indicate temperatures sufficient for the generation of electricity within reasonable drilling depths. This report documents those conclusions and the supporting data. This report also documents the results of the power plant update with new data supplied from the Phase II exploration activities on the island. The power plant scenario has been changed to reflect the fact that the resource temperature may not be as high as that originally assumed in the Phase I study, the location of the production wells will in all likelihood be farther from the existing Air Force facilities--either north of Grazing Valley or south of Traveller's Hill--and the demand for power has increased which results in a more efficient utilization of the geothermal resource. The power plant concept chosen is similar to that used for Phase I in that small, modular, skid-mounted, factory assembled and tested, units are used to supply the power and potable water.

Nielson, D.L.; Sibbett, B.S.; Shane, M.K.; Whitbeck, J.F.

1984-07-01

498

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data – both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Kimberly Lightle

499

Ocean Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Ocean Planet_ is a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition that now has a companion on-line exhibition. It covers varied topics associated with the ocean, such as the science of the ocean, the animals, people, and communities who use the ocean, and pollution problems currently endangering ocean resources. The exhibit features all of the text and a good portion of the images from the traveling exhibit. The curator of this exhibit has put together six special interest tours including Biodiversity, Women and the Sea, and Pollution. Users can also build their own special tour from a list of key words. The current list contains only four words, but is expected to grow in the future. Visitors can also consult a comprehensive list of educational materials and ocean resources.

500

Combination power plant  

SciTech Connect

A combination power plant is disclosed including an ocean thermal energy conversion power plant and a steam generation power plant. Water discharged from a condenser in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant is mixed with water discharged from an evaporator in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant. The mixed water is used as cooling water for a condenser in the steam generation power plant. Part of the water discharged from the condenser in the steam generation power plant is used as heating water for the evaporator in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant.

Nakamoto, Y.; Terayama, T.

1983-11-29