Note: This page contains sample records for the topic ocean renewable power from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

77 FR 5817 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, Tidal Energy Project, Cobscook Bay, ME  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. USCG-2011-1162] Ocean Renewable Power Company, Tidal Energy...address the proposal put forth by Ocean Renewable Energy Company (ORPC...turbine generator units secured to the ocean floor, used for generating...

2012-02-06

2

76 FR 42122 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice Concluding Pre-Filing Process and Approving Process...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12711-003] Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC...Approving Process Plan And Schedule...Submitted By: Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC...502-6359. j. Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC...with monitoring plans; (2) a...

2011-07-18

3

Power electronic grid-interface for renewable ocean wave energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents information on ocean wave energy converters and power electronics grid-interface. In the introduction a basic terms and methods of ocean wave energy capture are discussed. Further several most important ocean wave energy conversion prototypes are briefly described. The generators and power electronics solutions for Power Take Off (PTO) system are presented on the example of Wave Dragon

Marian P. Kazmierkowski; Marek Jasinski

2011-01-01

4

77 FR 5791 - Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Staff Participation in Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12711-005] Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Staff Participation in Meeting On February 15, 2012, Office of Energy Projects staff will participate in a meeting with representatives...

2012-02-06

5

Ocean Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast reports on ways to put ocean water to work doing everything from running steam engines and providing electricity to providing air conditioning and growing marine life and vegetables. After harnessing the power of the sea, the water is still clean and can be returned to the ocean. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

6

Ocean engineering power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The text presents basic thermodynamic principles and engineering considerations for ocean power systems. A survey chapter introduces a wide range of applications of power systems in the oceans. Thermodynamic principles and engine cycles are extensively reviewed in the next chapter. Then, chapters on energy sources, thermal power plants, and engineering of specific types of ocean systems are presented. Engineering principles

Carmichael

1974-01-01

7

Recent developments and forecasts for renewable ocean energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources from the oceans include, among others, offshore wind, underwater currents, and wave energy. Growing awareness of renewable energy sources as a key element in sustaining future economies has lead to development in renewable ocean energy systems. Examination of worldwide investments in implementation of renewable energy technologies reveals that offshore wind energy is one of the fastest growing

A. T. Jones; W. Rowley

2001-01-01

8

Ocean thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various ocean thermal energy conversion power plants are examined which are practical with current technology, and are capable of exploiting the temperature difference between the warm sun-heated surface of the tropical ocean and cooler lower depths. The power plant types include: a submerged catamaran configuration, a modular submerged automatic unmanned plant, an anchored spar-buoy plant, a foam-lift open-cycle plant, and

G. L. Dugger; H. L. Olsen; W. B. Shippen; E. J. Francis; W. H. Avery

1975-01-01

9

Renewables for Sustainable Village Power  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the efforts of NREL's Renewables for Sustainable Village Power team to match renewable energy technologies with rural energy needs in the international market. The paper describes the team's activities, updates the lessons learned, and proposes an integrated approach as a model for rural electrification with renewables.

Flowers, L.; Baring-Gould, I.; Bianchi, J.; Corbus, D.; Drouilhet, S.; Elliott, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Jimenez, A.; Lilienthal, P.; Newcomb, C.; Taylor, R.

2000-11-06

10

Power from Ocean Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

Newman, J. N.

1979-01-01

11

Power from Ocean Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)|

Newman, J. N.

1979-01-01

12

An overview of ocean renewable energy resources in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korea relies on imported fossil fuels to meet its energy consumption demands. As such, there is a need to investigate alternative energy resources such as renewable energy. In this paper, assessments of the potential of various ocean renewable energy resources in the sea around Korea; potential sources of energy including wave energy, tidal energy, tidal current energy and ocean thermal

Gunwoo Kim; Myung Eun Lee; Kwang Soo Lee; Jin-Soon Park; Weon Mu Jeong; Sok Kuh Kang; Jae-Gwi Soh; Hanna Kim

2012-01-01

13

Renewable Energy Powered Bicycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the project is to convert a standard twenty inch bicycle wheel into a retrofit hydraulic powered wheel. The wheel will harness energy in a self-contained storage unit (the high-pressure accumulator) which will drive a power train including various gears, a motor and a pump.\\u000aThe bike wheel converts braking energy from deceleration to fluid energy at high

Huiming Gong

2012-01-01

14

Ocean wave power data generation for grid integration studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean wave power is a promising renewable energy source that offers several attractive qualities, including high power density, low variability, and excellent forecastability. Within the next few years, several utility-scale wave energy converters are planned for grid connection (e.g., Pelamis Power in Portugal and Ocean Power Technologies in Oregon, USA), with plans for more utility-scale development to follow soon after.

Shaun McArthur; Ted K. A. Brekken

2010-01-01

15

Renewables for sustainable village power  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal.

Flowers, L.

1997-03-01

16

A novel maximum power point tracking algorithm for ocean wave energy devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many forms of renewable energy exist in the world's oceans, with ocean wave energy showing great potential. However, the ocean environment presents many challenges for cost-effective renewable energy conversion, including optimal control of a wave energy converter (WEC). This paper presents a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for control of a point absorber WEC. The algorithm and control

Ean A. Amon; Alphonse A. Schacher; Ted K. A. Brekken

2009-01-01

17

Renewable and nuclear power: A common future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear power and renewable energy are the main options to bring down the carbon intensity of commercial energy supply. What technology is unlimited backstop supply depends on its performance on the sustainability criteria: democratic decided, globally accessible, environmental benign, low risk, affordable.Renewable power meets all criteria, with affordability under debate. Maximizing energy efficiency as prerequisite, the affordable sustainable option in

Aviel Verbruggen

2008-01-01

18

Research Applied to Ocean Sited Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research includes two exploratory research projects involving marine system concepts and the analysis of technical and economic feasibility of two different types of ocean sited power plants: (A) Ocean thermal power plants in which electricity is gene...

J. H. Anderson

1973-01-01

19

A Methodology for Large-Scale Ocean Wave Power Time-Series Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean wave power is characterized by high power density, and wave forecasts can predict incident wave energy days in advance. These qualities make ocean wave power a promising renewable energy source. In the near future, utility-scale wave energy conversion arrays will likely be installed. However, little is currently known on the impact of large wave energy conversion (WEC) facilities on

Ted K. A. Brekken; H. Tuba Ozkan-Haller; Asher Simmons

2012-01-01

20

Renewable Energy. The Power to Choose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book, consisting of 13 chapters, charts the progress made in renewable energy in recent years and outlines renewable energy's prospects. Areas addressed include: energy at the crossroads (discussing oil, gas, coal, nuclear power, and the conservation revolution); solar building design; solar collection; sunlight to electricity; wood; energy…

Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

21

Hydroelectric power from ocean waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a system which converts the variable energy of ocean waves into a steady supply of energy in a conventional form. The system consists of a set of floats and Persian wheels located off-shore and a storage reservoir on the shore. The floats oscillate vertically as the waves pass below them and turn their respective Persian wheels which lift sea water to a height and deliver to the reservoir through an interconnecting pipeline. The head of water in the reservoir operates a hydraulic turbine which in turn works a generator to supply electricity. Due to the recurrent wave action, water is maintained at the optimum level in the reservoir to ensure continuous power supply.

Raghavendran, K.

1981-02-01

22

Reserve requirement impacts of large-scale integration of wind, solar, and ocean wave power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sources of renewable energy, including solar, wind, and ocean wave, offer significant advantages such as no fuel costs and no emissions from generation. However, in most cases these renewable power sources are variable and non-dispatchable. The utility grid is already able to accommodate the variability of the load and some additional variability introduced by sources such as wind. However,

D. A. Halamay; T. K. A. Brekken; A. Simmons; S. McArthur

2010-01-01

23

Hydroelectric power apparatus utilizing ocean currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydro-electric power apparatus including an electrical generator is mounted in a combination power house and crew housing disposed at or above the surface of a current of ocean or other water current and a hydraulic turbine for driving the electrical generator is suspended into the water from a supporting platform on which the power house and crew housing are

Mettersheimer

1982-01-01

24

Wind power distribution over the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probability distribution and power density of wind speed over global oceans are computed from eight years of QuikSCAT measurements. They describe the variation and higher moments of wind speed that are critical in relating the non-linear effects of wind on electric power generation capability, shipping hazard, and air-sea exchanges in heat, water, and greenhouse gases. The power density distribution confirms our general knowledge of atmospheric circulation related to mid-latitude storm tracks, trade winds, and monsoons. It also reveals regions of high wind power associated with flow distortion by land, wind channeled by land topography, and buoyancy effect on turbulent stress driven by ocean fronts.

Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing; Xie, Xiaosu

2008-07-01

25

Renewable power needs smart storage solutions  

SciTech Connect

Ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus claimed that the only thing constant in life is change, a truth we must accept and even celebrate. Another truth we face today is a growing demand for more energy to help us power the kind and pace of change we’ve become accustomed to, while minimizing environmental consequences. Renewable energy--two words that often find themselves woven into environmentally conscious dialogue. And according to Dave Lucero, director of alternative energy storage at EaglePicher Technologies LLC, the Tri-Cities should be thinking about two more: energy storage. Lucero recently addressed the Tri-Cities Research District about tackling the persistent challenge of maximizing renewable energy, which is inherently variable due to changing weather patterns. Capturing that energy and making it available for later use is vital.

Madison, Alison L.

2010-10-24

26

Hydroelectric power from ocean waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system which converts the variable energy of ocean waves into a steady supply of energy in a conventional form. The system consists of a set of floats and Persian wheels located off-shore and a storage reservoir on the shore. The floats oscillate vertically as the waves pass below them and turn their respective Persian wheels which

K. Raghavendran

1981-01-01

27

Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.  

PubMed

Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump. PMID:17813707

Beck, E J

1975-07-25

28

Renewable energy from the sea - organic Rankine Cycle using ocean thermal energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rankine cycles using refrigerant- and benzene-series fluids as working fluids in converting low-grade energy from renewable energy resources such as solar energy and ocean thermal energy were investigated in this study. The main purpose is to verify the feasibility of utilizing ocean energy (i.e., ocean thermal energy conversion, OTEC) which can also be combined with solar energy in an organic

S. K. Wang; T. C. Hung

2010-01-01

29

Development of a renewable hybrid power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A renewable hybrid power generation system is proposed. The motivation for the system is that grid power is often unreliable, limited or even nonexistent remote\\/rural areas such as forward operating bases and schools and hospitals in developing countries. The challenge of this system is to provide a reliable, cost-effective power management system that is scalable and uses renewable energy sources.

Chi Cheung; K. Bengtson; M. Moser; A. Wu; B. Parrilla; C. Mastrangelo

2009-01-01

30

Renewable energy credit driven wind power growth for system reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental concerns over electric power generation from conventional sources has led to widespread public support for renewable energy sources. Governments throughout the world have responded by providing various forms of financial incentives to promote power generation from renewable energy sources. The rapid growth of wind power since the last decade has primarily been driven by governmental subsidies. Long-term growth of

Rajesh Karki

2007-01-01

31

Power Electronics, a Key Technology for Energy Efficiency and Renewables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power Electronics will play a key role in this paradigm shift to more renewable electrical energy and higher energy efficiency in multiple applications including transportation. In electrical energy generation a major shift to renewables as sources of future electrical energy will happen. The political institutions world-wide have the responsibility to create the boundary conditions to accelerate this needed change. Renewables

P. K. Steimer

2008-01-01

32

Contactless power feeding for ocean buoy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many relationships between ocean and human life, and it's vital for our survival and development. Ocean observation is of great importance because it enables the prediction of specific global atmospheric changes. And ocean buoy is the core of marine monitoring system. In this paper, we propose a new method based on principle of electromagnetic induction coupling to realize non-contact signal transmission and power feeding for underwater sensors through mooring cable. Sufficient power feeding and data transmission are confirmed by experiments. It can be expected that the proposed system allows easier attachment and detachment of sensors to mooring wires and finally leads to miniaturization of the whole sensor body due to battery-free sensor operation.

Li, Xing-Fei; Li, Cheng; Lin, Jie; Zhang, Qiang

2010-08-01

33

Renewing Green Power: The Paradox of Renewable Energy and Green Political Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently hundreds of proposals for massive renewable energy projects, primarily utility-scale solar and wind power, throughout the United States. From proposals to cover the deserts of the southwest with parabolic mirrors to large wind farms on the plains, these projects present the green movement with a recurring paradox: On the one hand, greens want as much renewable power

Phil Brick

34

Market potential of renewable energy powered desalination systems in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work analyzes water management strategies based on advanced desalination schemes powered by renewable energy sources. The framework for developing a decision procedure, which monitors water shortage problems and identifies the availability of renewable energy resources to power desalination plants, is presented. Cost of alternative solutions, taking into account energy cost or profits by energy selling to grid, is

D. Voivontas; K. Yannopoulos; K. Rados; A. Zervos; D. Assimacopoulos

1999-01-01

35

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Honolulu Laboratory Renewal Project, Honolulu, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

This brochure provides an overview of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Honolulu Laboratory Renewal Project, a project designed to adhere to the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system. Diagrams of the HVAC system and the rainwater collection system are included.

Not Available

2002-08-01

36

78 FR 46255 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction...renewing the operating license of a nuclear power plant. Compliance with the provisions...renewing the operating license of a nuclear power plant. This document is...

2013-07-31

37

78 FR 37324 - Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications...Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications...application for the renewal of a nuclear power plant operating license....

2013-06-20

38

On the wind power input to the ocean general circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind power input to the ocean general circulation is usually calculated from the time-averaged wind products. Here, this wind power input is reexamined using available observations, focusing on the role of the synoptically varying wind. Power input to the ocean general circulation is found to increase by over 70% when 6-hourly winds are used instead of monthly winds. Much of the increase occurs in the storm-track regions of the Southern Ocean, Gulf Stream, and Kuroshio Extension. This result holds irrespective of whether the ocean surface velocity is accounted for in the wind stress calculation. Depending on the fate of the high-frequency wind power input, the power input to the ocean general circulation relevant to deep-ocean mixing may be less than previously thought. This study emphasizes the difficulty of choosing appropriate forcing for ocean-only models.

Zhai, Xiaoming; Johnson, Helen; Marshall, David; Wunsch, Carl

2013-04-01

39

77 FR 38742 - Non-Power Reactor License Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...3150-AI96 Non-Power Reactor License Renewal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Mail Stop...and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. [FR...

2012-06-29

40

77 FR 60039 - Non-Power Reactor License Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...3150-AI96 Non-Power Reactor License Renewal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear...and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. [FR...

2012-10-02

41

Green power: a renewable energy resources marketing plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green power is electricity generated from renewable energy sources such as power generated from the Sun, the wind, the heat of the earth and biomass. Green pricing is the marketing strategy to sell green power to customers who voluntarily pay a premium for it. Green pricing is evolving from the deregulation of the electric industry, the need for clean air,

R. C. Barr

1997-01-01

42

Powering Los Angeles with renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The City of Los Angeles is nearly two thirds of the way towards its goal of generating a third of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020; cities around the world can glean valuable technical, economic and political lessons from its experience.

Villaraigosa, Mayor Antonio R.; Sivaram, Varun; Nichols, Ron

2013-09-01

43

Power Quality in Grid Connected Renewable Energy Systems: Role of Custom Power Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the technical review of power quality problems associated with the renewable based distributed generation systems and how the custom power devices like STATCOM, DVR and UPQC play important role in power quality improvement. IEEE and IEC standard for the grid connected renewable energy systems are one of the critical point of interest for the selection of

Malabika Basu; Michael F Conlon

2010-01-01

44

Developing Environmental Protocols and Modeling Tools to Support Ocean Renewable Energy and Stewardship, National Oceanogrpahic Partnership Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document serves as the Final Report (Draft) for National Oceanographic Partnership Program project number M10PC00097, Developing Environmental Protocols and Modeling Tools to Support Ocean Renewable Energy and Stewardship. This document presents a su...

J. McCann

2012-01-01

45

Hydrodynamics of Gulf Stream ocean thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report considers the external hydrodynamic aspects of Gulf Stream sited Ocean Thermal Power Plants. Specific details of the ocean resource including flow, temperature, and density profiles are examined for suitability at selected sites. In the light of the most current system design, a semi-submersible 400 Mwe net power plant, the fluid mechanical detail of the interaction of the hot

R. H. Kirchhoff; P. A. Mangarella; J. G. McGowan

1975-01-01

46

Indian Ocean: An Area of Tension and Big Power Pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Ocean has become an area of acute tension—a peril zone with conventional and nuclear naval vessels of the major powers staging a permanent presence in the area. Naval task forces, because of their inherent mobility, can constitute a powerful projection of military might. That is why the non-aligned countries of the Indian Ocean are exercised over the threat

S. N. Kohli

1986-01-01

47

Power fluctuation reduction methodology for the grid-connected renewable power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new methodology for eliminating the influence of the power fluctuations of the renewable power systems. The renewable energy, which is to be considered an uncertain and uncontrollable resource, can only provide irregular electrical power to the power grid. This irregularity creates fluctuations of the generated power from the renewable power systems. These fluctuations cause instability to the power system and influence the operation of conventional power plants. Overall, the power system is vulnerable to collapse if necessary actions are not taken to reduce the impact of these fluctuations. This methodology aims at reducing these fluctuations and makes the generated power capability for covering the power consumption. This requires a prediction tool for estimating the generated power in advance to provide the range and the time of occurrence of the fluctuations. Since most of the renewable energies are weather based, as a result a weather forecast technique will be used for predicting the generated power. The reduction of the fluctuation also requires stabilizing facilities to maintain the output power at a desired level. In this study, a wind farm and a photovoltaic array as renewable power systems and a pumped-storage and batteries as stabilizing facilities are used, since they are best suitable for compensating the fluctuations of these types of power suppliers. As an illustrative example, a model of wind and photovoltaic power systems with battery energy and pumped hydro storage facilities for power fluctuation reduction is included, and its power fluctuation reduction is verified through simulation.

Aula, Fadhil T.; Lee, Samuel C.

2013-04-01

48

Contactless power feeding for ocean buoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many relationships between ocean and human life, and it's vital for our survival and development. Ocean observation is of great importance because it enables the prediction of specific global atmospheric changes. And ocean buoy is the core of marine monitoring system. In this paper, we propose a new method based on principle of electromagnetic induction coupling to realize

Xing-Fei Li; Cheng Li; Jie Lin; Qiang Zhang

2010-01-01

49

Seawater pump study: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Program. Final report. [For ocean thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pumping power required to move cold seawater and warm seawater through an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant is a significant portion of the plant power output; therefore, seawater pump performance, sizing, and cost information are very influential inputs into any power plant system design optimizations. The analysis and evaluation of large seawater pumping systems selected specifically for

1978-01-01

50

Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation

F. Blaabjerg; F. Iov; R. Teodorescu; Z. Chen

2006-01-01

51

Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination  

SciTech Connect

An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

Thomas, K.E.

1997-04-01

52

Optimization of RO desalination systems powered by renewable energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the initial stage of the project, a meticulous analysis was made on the behaviour of membranes and on the response that offers a reverse osmosis pilot plant, working in a discontinuous regime, with constant stops and successive fluctuations of pressure and volume, as the data of simulation of power coming from renewable energies (availability of wind and\\/or sun), with

AntonioGomez Gotor; Ignacio De la Nuez Pestana; Celso Argudo Espinoza

2003-01-01

53

Spiritual power: the internal, renewable social power source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of social power have not included spirituality as a source of power, which may miss an important dynamic in organizations. A definition of spiritual power is proposed based on empirically demonstrated effects of spiritual practice. Unlike other sources of power, spiritual power is independent of external resources, does not deplete as it is spent, and stimulates transcendent responses. The

Sonia M. Goltz

2011-01-01

54

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Background for Ocean Thermal Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vertical temperature gradient in the tropical oceans can be used to operate ocean thermal power plants (OTPP's) that function as heat engines. Such energy extraction would entail very large scale pumping of both warm surface water and cold bottom wate...

S. A. Piacsek J. Toomre G. O. Roberts

1976-01-01

55

Geophysical fluid dynamics background for ocean thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background material and brief assessments in several areas of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) which bear directly on problems of the ocean thermal power plant operation are provided. Relevant GFD research areas discussed include: turbulence and thermal wakes; ocean circulation and the permanent thermocline; air\\/sea interaction and thermocline variation; weather and climate modeling; and marine ecosystems. The relationships of each GFD

S. A. Piacsek; J. Toomre; G. O. Roberts

1976-01-01

56

Unlocking Electric Power in the Oceans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cruising or stationary ocean thermal plants could convert the vast heat energy of the ocean into electricity for islands and underdeveloped countries. This approach to energy conservation is described with suggestions for design and outputs of plants. A model project operating in Hawaii is noted. (DH)|

Hurwood, David L.

1985-01-01

57

A multi-input power converter for hybrid renewable energy generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the dc power supply system to combine with the hybrid renewable energy sources. A multi-input power converter (MIPC) which operates in four types: an operation type wherein power is delivered to dc Bus from hybrid renewable energy sources; a single type wherein only one renewable energy source supplies power to the dc Bus; an inverter type wherein

Ting-Chia Ou; Whei-Min Lin; Cong-Hui Huang

2009-01-01

58

Global ocean wind power sensitivity to surface layer stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global ocean wind power has recently been assessed (W. T. Liu et al., 2008) using scatterometry-based 10 m winds. We characterize, for the first time, wind power at 80 m (typical wind turbine hub height) above the global ocean surface, and account for the effects of surface layer stability. Accounting for realistic turbine height and atmospheric stability increases mean global ocean wind power by +58% and -4%, respectively. Our best estimate of mean global ocean wind power is 731 W m-2, about 50% greater than the 487 W m-2 based on previous methods. 80 m wind power is 1.2-1.5 times 10 m power equatorward of 30° latitude, between 1.4 and 1.7 times 10 m power in wintertime storm track regions and >6 times 10 m power in stable regimes east of continents. These results are relatively insensitive to methodology as wind power calculated using a fitted Weibull probability density function is within 10% of power calculated from discrete wind speed measurements over most of the global oceans.

Capps, Scott B.; Zender, Charles S.

2009-05-01

59

Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

Lyons, Chris

2012-03-01

60

Efficiency and internal power flow of renewable power supply system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplying of separate isolated load systems such as street lighting can be realized by combination of wind and solar power. Hybrid power supply system consists of a number of independent and different sources of electrical energy with different operating times during different seasons and with energy storage system. Deployment of a hybrid power system is expected in places outside the

Petr Bilik; Jakub Kvapil; Stanislav Misak

2011-01-01

61

Power conversion and control methods for renewable energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy due to the growing concern over the pollution caused by fossil-fuel-based energy. Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, can be used to enhance the safety, reliability, sustainability, and transmission efficiency of a power system. This dissertation focuses on the power conversion and control for two major renewable-energy sources: PV and fuel cell. Firstly, a current-based, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed for PV energy. An economical converter system using the above scheme for converting the output from PV panels into 60 Hz AC voltage is developed and built. Secondly, a novel circuit model for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack that is useful in the design and analysis of fuel-cell-based power systems is proposed. This Pspice-based model uses elements available in the Pspice library with some modifications to represent both the static and dynamic responses of a PEM fuel-cell module. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Thirdly, a DSP-controlled three-phase induction-motor drive using constant voltage over frequency is built and can be used in a fuel-cell automobile. A hydrogen sensor is used in the drive to both sound an alarm and shut down the inverter trigger pulses through the DSP. Finally, a hybrid power system consisting of PV panels and fuel cell is proposed and built. In the proposed system, PV panels can supply most of the power when the sunlight is available, and the excess power required by the load is supplied by a fuel cell. Load sharing between a fuel cell (FC) and the PV panel is investigated by both simulation and experiments.

Yu, Dachuan

62

Control and power electronics technology in renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the cut-in point of research on control and power electronics technology used in renewable energy, this paper does not\\u000a aim to analyze particular theories or technologies in this field, but, instead, is to go back to the fountainhead of the issue\\u000a to illustrate the essential concepts in this field, which are usually neglected and may become bottle-neck of the

Jie Wu; SiZhe Chen; Dan Liu

2008-01-01

63

Influence of distributed generations and renewable energy resources power plant on power system transient stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzing influence of distributed generation (DG) on transient stability of power system network operating parallel with large renewable energy resources (RES) power plant. The study is performed in hypothetical power system network envision in the future which contains a large number of DG. Network behavior when subjected to disturbance is compared with different level of DG penetration. The

Mohd Zamri Che Wanik; István Erlich; Azah Mohamed; Azuki Abdul Salam

2010-01-01

64

Optimum power plant capacity of ocean-based ocean thermal energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is proposed to optimize the ocean thermal energy conversion plant capacity on the basis of performance evaluation by the heat transfer area of heat exchanger per net generated output power. This optimization process is illustrated by the example of a plant with total output capacity of 100 MW (working fluid NH3). Temperature and pump power allocations and the

Takenobu Kajikawa; Takashi Agawa; Takuya Homma

1977-01-01

65

Oceans and electrical power (part I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

What could replace our exhausting fossil fuels? The nuclear solution has generated considerable controversy and land opposition. Atomic fusion is by no means close to implementation; direct solarenergy is abundant, but its conversion at an acceptable cost has not been as yet developed. Geothermal energy has been tapped, but it is only locally available and is non?renewable. In the first

R. H. Charlier

1982-01-01

66

Solar-electric power generation: ocean-related energy and satellite solar power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and satellite solar power systems to generate electriciy is discussed in the third of a series presented at the National Science Teachers Association Convention. OTEC is a 24-hour energy source, but requires large installations of expensive equipment that would corrode rapidly in the ocean environment. Power transmission to land would also be

F. R. Jr

1979-01-01

67

A study of particle swarm technique for renewable energy power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable power system is an innovative option for electricity generation as it is a clean energy resource. Noting the climate change becomes an important issue the whole world is currently facing, the ever-increasing price of petroleum products (now about US$ 80 a barrel) and the reduction in cost of renewable energy power systems, opportunities for renewable energy systems to address

N. Phuangpornpitak; W. Prommee; S. Tia; W. Phuangpornpitak

2010-01-01

68

Renewed energy sources and power supplies of radio-electronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper there are several renewable sources, which are described and included to the engineers training program. Renewable energy sources make 10-22% of general power supply complex in European union. That's why there are some perspective questions of power supply complex development and solutions of these questions we can find in renewable energy sources.

A. Smerdov; V. Bondarenko; M. Polyakov

2004-01-01

69

77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's AGENCY: Nuclear...ISFSI) at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site near Lusby, Maryland...September 17, 2010, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (CCNPP)...

2012-06-08

70

Simulation factors involved in ocean thermal power plants. [Nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters which control the diffusion of heat from an ocean sited nuclear power plant are studied. This problem is sometimes referred to as the thermal plume problem. Dimensional analysis is applied to identify dimensionless groups which are involved in the diffusion of heat from the ocean sited plant. (GRA)

B. J. Wegner; M. E. Nelson

1975-01-01

71

The Treatment of Renewable Energy Certificates, EmissionsAllowances, and Green Power Programs in State Renewables PortfolioStandards  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have adopted mandatory renewables portfolio standards (RPS) over the last ten years. Renewable energy attributes-such as the energy source, conversion technology, plant location and vintage, and emissions-are usually required to verify compliance with these policies, sometimes through attributes bundled with electricity, and sometimes with the attributes unbundled from electricity and traded separately as renewable energy certificates (RECs). This report summarizes the treatment of renewable energy attributes in state RPS rules. Its purpose is to provide a source of information for states considering RPS policies, and also to draw attention to certain policy issues that arise when renewable attributes and RECs are used for RPS compliance. Three specific issues are addressed: (1) the degree to which unbundled RECs are allowed under existing state RPS programs and the status of systems to track RECs and renewable energy attributes; (2) definitions of the renewable energy attributes that must be included in order to meet state RPS obligations, including the treatment of available emissions allowances; and (3) state policies on whether renewable energy or RECs sold through voluntary green power transactions may count towards RPS obligations.

Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

2007-04-17

72

Design considerations for energy storage power electronics interfaces for high penetration of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses design considerations of power electronics interfaces between renewable energy sources and energy storage. When renewable energy sources—including photovoltaic modules, wind generators, and fuel cells—are used to generate power, there are certain electrical properties of each source that need to be considered for the design of energy storage power electronics interface. In addition, energy storage's charging and discharging

Junseok Song; Ruichen Zhao; Alexis Kwasinski

2011-01-01

73

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment

P. R. Barnes; J. W. Vandyke; F. M. Tesche; H. W. Zaininger

1994-01-01

74

Integrating renewable sources of energy into an existing combined heat and power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, renewable energy sources have played an increasingly important role in potential energy production. The integration of renewables into energy production plants has therefore become a major challenge for many organizations. This study concerns the modernization of a small power plant in a large hospital. The design criteria include the possibility of utilizing renewable energy sources and providing

Martin Pavlas; Petr Stehlík; Jaroslav Oral; Ji?í Šikula

2006-01-01

75

Buying Renewable Electric Power in Montgomery County, Maryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From mid-August 2007 until mid-August 2008, my home electricity supply was 100% wind-generated. My experience in switching to wind-generated electric power may be of interest to fellow AGU members for three reasons. First, Montgomery County, Md., where I live, is one of the few jurisdictions in the United States that has both an electric power tax and a renewable energy credit. The county is therefore a case study in price-based public policy for greenhouse gas emissions control. Second, I was surprised by the comparatively small price difference (or ``price premium'') between wind-generated and conventionally generated power in the county, and I believe that Eos readers will be similarly surprised. Third, because so many U.S. federal agencies concerned with Earth science are based in the Washington, D. C., area, a high concentration of AGU members live in Montgomery County and may be personally interested in evaluating the price of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the generation of their own residential electricity.

Cember, Richard P.

2008-08-01

76

Integration of ocean thermal energy conversion power plants with existing power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of integrating an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant with existing power systems is studied. A nonlinear model of an OTEC power system is developed. The dynamics of the large local induction motor load, and the coaxial cable connection to the mainland are included in the model. The effect of the motor load and the coaxial cable

Arunasalam

1986-01-01

77

Mechanical power input to the oceans from buoyancy and wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical power input from buoyancy and wind forcing at the ocean surface affects the global circulation on different length and time scales. We explore how mechanisms associated with buoyancy and wind stress enter the mechanical energy budget and convert energy between its kinetic and potential forms. The steady-state, volume-integrated conversion between kinetic and potential energy is found to easily mask the range of mechanisms and scales that affect the circulation. Using idealized numerical simulations, we find that the rate of generation of mechanical energy associated with buoyancy forcing at the ocean surface, and the rate of conversion from potential energy to kinetic energy are comparable to the rate of generation (of kinetic energy) by wind work. We find also that power input from buoyancy forcing and from wind stress have positive feedbacks on each other.

Saenz, J. A.; Hogg, A. M.; Hughes, G. O.; Griffiths, R. W.

2012-04-01

78

Distributed Scheduling in Smart Grid Communications with Dynamic Power Demands and Intermittent Renewable Energy Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about climate change, rising fossil fuel prices and energy security have spurred interest in renew- able energy generation and smart grid. Due to the dynamic power demands and intermittent renewable energy resources, optimal scheduling of power generation systems is important to minimize cost and green house gas emissions, and to avoid blackouts in smart grid. In this paper, we

Shengrong Bu; F. Richard Yu; Peter X. Liu; Peng Zhang

2011-01-01

79

Renewable energy and energy storage systems in rural electrical power systems: Issues, challenges and application guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing demand both by legislation and the public for a more secured, reliable and efficient power system using dispatchable and non-dispatchable renewable resources. However, the existing design and operational practice of the electrical power grid does not lend itself easily to the incorporation of non-dispatchable renewable energy resources. Distributive Electrical Energy Storage (DESS) is a key to

Steven C. Smith; P. K. Sen; Benjamin Kroposki; K. Malmedal

2010-01-01

80

The renewable energy applications for uninterruptible power supply based on compressed air energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to propose a modeling of the renewable energy applications for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) based on compressed air energy storage system (CAES). The system is composite technology, which composes of energy storage system and electric power supply system. The energy will transfer from the renewable energy resource to the CAES system drives the air

Varin Vongmanee

2009-01-01

81

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant The Commission has...

2010-01-01

82

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant The Commission has...

2009-01-01

83

Weather Adaptive Renewable Energy Based Self Correctional Dynamic Power System for 2020 and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a modified model of a power grid which consists of renewable power systems and other types of traditional power systems. The rising demand of the electricity makes the ordinary fossil sources may not be adequate to accommodate this growth and the expansion of the power grid. On the other hand, these types of sources may not be

Fadhil T. Aula; Samuel C. Lee

2011-01-01

84

PTC, ITC, or Cash Grant? An Analysis of the Choice Facing Renewable Power Projects in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable power technologies are inherently capital-intensive, often (but not always) with relatively high construction costs and low operating costs. For this reason, renewable power technologies are typically more sensitive to the availability and cost of financing than are natural gas power plants, for example. In the United States, the bulk of renewable project finance in recent years has been provided

Mark Bolinger; Ryan Wiser; Karlynn Cory; Ted James

2009-01-01

85

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY GENERATION ON CO2 EMISSIONS AND POWER PLANT OPERATION IN GERMANY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable electricity generation plays an important role in the German strategy to reduce CO2 emissions. This paper seeks to analyse the impact of renewable electricity generation on the CO2 emissions and utilisation of the power plant portfolio in Germany. The analysis based on the PowerACE simulation platform shows that most of the renewable electricity generation replaces hard coal fired power

Massimo Genoese; Mario Ragwitz

86

Renewable Energy and Inter-Island Power Transmission (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes recent findings pertaining to inter-island connection of renewable and other energy sources, in particular, as these findings relate cable options, routing, specifications, and pros and cons.

Gevorgian, V.

2011-05-01

87

Effective policies for renewable energy—the example of China's wind power—lessons for China's photovoltaic power  

Microsoft Academic Search

China, one of the global biggest emitter of CO2, needs promotion renewable energy to reduce air pollution from its surging fossil fuel use, and to increase its energy supply security. Renewable energy in its infancy needs policy support and market cultivation. Wind power installed capacity has boomed in recent year in China, as a series of effective support policies were

Qiang Wang

2010-01-01

88

Risk-based TTC calculation of a power system with renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the electric power utilities worldwide have been moving toward the utilization of renewable energy resources because of their sustainability, environmental friendliness, and as promising low-cost energies for the future electricity production. Although a number of appealing advantages are expected, a large penetration of generation from renewable energy resources may cause some undesirable impact on system security and reliability due

Nattawut Paensuwan; Akihiko Yokoyama

2009-01-01

89

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States

J. Cochran; L. Bird; J. Heeter; D. A. Arent

2012-01-01

90

Impacts of renewable energy regulations on the structure of power generation in China – A critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is facing a number of energy-related challenges such as shortage of electricity supply and environmental pollution. The Government recognized the important role the renewable energy plays in the power generation structure. As a result, a series of supporting policies, laws and regulations have been issued to boost the renewable energies in China. This paper provides a critical analysis of

Zhen-Yu Zhao; Jian Zuo; Lei-Lei Fan; George Zillante

2011-01-01

91

Ocean radar for the planning and operational phase of off-shore renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WERA system (WavE RAdar) is a shore based remote sensing system to monitor ocean surface currents, waves and wind direction. This long range, high resolution monitoring system is based on short radio wave radar technology. The vertically polarized electromagnetic wave is coupled to the conductive ocean surface and follows the curvature of the earth. This over the horizon oceanographic

Thomas Helzel; Oswaldo Lopez; Lucy Wyatt

2011-01-01

92

Conceptual Study of Electrical Power Transmission Systems to Deep Ocean Installations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study considered the technical feasibility and limits of transmitting electrical power to deep ocean installations and to provide comparisons of various power sources applicable to underwater power transmission systems. The most serious limitation ass...

I. M. Waitsman

1967-01-01

93

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

94

Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants. Supplement 40. Regarding Kewaunee Power Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) has been prepared in response to an application submitted by Dominion Energy Kewaunee, Inc. (DEK) to renew the operating license for Kewaunee Power Station (KPS) for an additional 20 years. This SEIS...

2010-01-01

95

Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High Renewables Scenarios in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the analysis of concentrating solar power (CSP) in two studies -- The SunShot Vision Study and the Renewable Electricity Futures Study -- and the potential role of CSP in a future energy mix.

Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Brinkman, G.; Drury, E.; Mowers, M.; Turchi, C.

2012-10-01

96

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many countries--reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems--are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best pra...

D. J. Arent J. Cochran J. Heeter L. Bird

2012-01-01

97

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many countries--reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems--are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approac...

D. A. Arent J. Cochran J. Heeter L. Bird

2012-01-01

98

78 FR 37325 - License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51...NRC-2008-0608] RIN 3150-AI42 License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact...Plans for Environmental Reviews AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION:...

2013-06-20

99

A DSP based power electronics interface for alternative /renewable energy system.  

SciTech Connect

This report is an update on the research project involving the implementation of a DSP-based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems, that was funded by the Department of Energy under the Inventions and Innovations program.

NONE

1999-09-28

100

Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power 1 2?v3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant climatic impacts due to a substantial increase of heat transport across the jet streams in the upper atmosphere. This results in upper atmospheric temperature differences of >20 °C, greater atmospheric stability, substantial reduction in synoptic activity, and substantial differences in surface climate. We conclude that jet stream wind power does not have the potential to become a significant source of renewable energy.

Miller, L. M.; Gans, F.; Kleidon, A.

2012-04-01

101

Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power 12 ?v3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant climatic impacts due to a substantial increase of heat transport across the jet streams in the upper atmosphere. This results in upper atmospheric temperature differences of >20 °C, greater atmospheric stability, substantial reduction in synoptic activity, and substantial differences in surface climate. We conclude that jet stream wind power does not have the potential to become a significant source of renewable energy.

Miller, L. M.; Gans, F.; Kleidon, A.

2011-11-01

102

Control algorithm of renewable energy power plant supplied by fuel cell\\/solar cell\\/ supercapacitor power source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A renewable energy hybrid power plant, fed by photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell (FC) sources with a supercapacitor storage device and suitable for distributed generation applications, is proposed herein. The PV is used as the main generator; the FC acts as a power source, feeding only the insufficiency power (steady-state) from the PV; and the supercapacitor functions as an auxiliary

P. Thounthong; S. Sikkabut; P. Sethakul; B. Davat

2010-01-01

103

Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Interim Report 1  

SciTech Connect

The power transfer potential for bringing renewable energy into the Southeast in response to a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) will depend not only on available transmission capacity but also on electricity supply and demand factors. This interim report examines how the commonly used EIA NEMS and EPRI NESSIE energy equilibrium models are considering such power transfers. Using regional estimates of capacity expansion and demand, a base case for 2008, 2020 and 2030 are compared relative to generation mix, renewable deployments, planned power transfers, and meeting RPS goals. The needed amounts of regional renewable energy to comply with possible RPS levels are compared to inter-regional transmission capacities to establish a baseline available for import into the Southeast and other regions. Gaps in the renewable generation available to meet RPS requirements are calculated. The initial finding is that the physical capability for transferring renewable energy into the SE is only about 10% of what would be required to meet a 20% RPS. Issues that need to be addressed in future tasks with respect to modeling are the current limitations for expanding renewable capacity and generation in one region to meet the demand in another and the details on transmission corridors required to deliver the power.

Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

2009-03-01

104

Renewable integration in Romanian power system, challenge for Transelectrica company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following his energetic policy concerning the renewable expansion, Romania is in front of an explosive development of wind farms. If in 2007 the total installed wind capacity was 7 MW while at the middle of 2008 it was noticed a requirement of grid access for more than 10,000 MW wind farm installed capacity. This situation requires modifications in the future

D. Ilisiu; C. Munteanu; V. Topa

2009-01-01

105

Floating type ocean wave power station equipped with hydroelectric unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have invented the unique ocean wave power station, which is composed of the floating type platform with a pair of the floats lining up at the interval of one wave pitch and the counter-rotating type wave power unit, its runners are submerged in the seawater at the middle position of the platform. Such profiles make the flow velocity at the runner is twice faster than that of the traditional fixed/caisson type OWC, on the ideal flow conditions. Besides, the runners counter-rotate the inner and the outer armatures of the peculiar generator, respectively, and the relative rotational speed is also twice faster than the speed of the single runner/armature. Such characteristics make the runner diameter large, namely the output higher, as requested, because the torque of the power unit never act on the floating type platform. At the preliminary reseach, this paper verifies to get the power using a Wells type single runner installed in the model station. The runner takes the output which is affected by the oscillating amplitude of the platform, the rotational speed and the inertia force of the runner, etc.

Okamoto, Shun; Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Umekage, Toshihiko

2013-10-01

106

Biomass power and state renewable energy policies under electric industry restructuring  

SciTech Connect

Several states are pursuing policies to foster renewable energy as part of efforts to restructure state electric power markets. The primary policies that states are pursuing for renewables are system benefits charges (SBCs) and renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). However, the eligibility of biomass under state RPS and SBC policies is in question in some states. Eligibility restrictions may make it difficult for biomass power companies to access these policies. Moreover, legislative language governing the eligibility of biomass power is sometimes vague and difficult to interpret. This paper provides an overview of state RPS and SBC policies and focuses on the eligibility of biomass power. For this paper, the authors define biomass power as using wood and agricultural residues and landfill methane, but not waste-to-energy, to produce energy.

Porter, K.; Wiser, R.

2000-08-01

107

Gas fired electricity: the Ocean State Power project  

SciTech Connect

Ocean State Power is a partnership of utility companies and private developers who have joined together to build a gas-fired combined cycle generating plant in Burrillville, Rhode Island. The initial capacity of the plant is expected to be approximately 235 MW, with a provision to double the size at a later date. The OSP equity group as currently envisioned will include TransCanada PipeLines, Eastern Utilities Associates, Newport Electric and J. Makowski Associates. Other investors have expressed an interest in being admitted to the group and will be considered as the project develops. This paper describes the rationale behind the project and its driving forces. The project economics and components are discussed, as are the key contractual commitments and regulatory issues. Finally, the present status of the project's implementation is outlined. 6 figures.

Makowski, J.; Riva, C.

1986-03-01

108

Renewable energy powered desalination in Baja California Sur, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baja California Sur (BCS) is an arid sparsely populated coastal state in northwest Mexico. Population growth, agriculture and booming tourism have lead to severe overexploitation of underground aquifers and saline intrusion. This paper reviews the current water and energy situation in BCS. The state enjoys very high levels of solar radiation, typically above 5 kWh\\/m2\\/day, and the suitability of renewable

Alfredo Bermudez-Contreras; Murray Thomson; David G. Infield

2008-01-01

109

Aging management of nuclear power plant containments for license renewal  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), now the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), submitted for NRC review, the industry reports (IRs), NUMARC Report 90-01 and NUMARC Report 90-10, addressing aging management issues associated with PWR containments and BWR containments for license renewal, respectively. In 1996, the Commission amended 10 CFR 50.55a to promulgate requirements for inservice inspection of containment structures. This rule amendment incorporates by reference the 1992 Edition with the 1992 Addenda of Subsections IWE and IWL of the ASME Code addressing the inservice inspection of metal containments/liners and concrete containments, respectively. The purpose of this report is to reconcile the technical information and agreements resulting from the NUMARC IR reviews which are generally described in NUREG-1557 and the inservice inspection requirements of subsections IWE and IWL as promulgated in {section}50.55a for license renewal consideration. This report concludes that Subsections IWE and IWL as endorsed in {section}50.55a are generally consistent with the technical agreements reached during the IR reviews. Specific exceptions are identified and additional evaluations and augmented inspections for renewal are recommended.

Liu, W.C.; Kuo, P.T.; Lee, S.S.

1997-09-01

110

Boosting the power curve for deep ocean systems  

SciTech Connect

Several years ago when considering the features of advanced ocean scientific research submersibles, it became obvious that an appropriate source of energy was needed. Electrical rechargable batteries were specified to provide 50 kilowatt-hours available energy for the Pices series, later upgraded to 100kWh for the Mir1 and Mir2 submersibles in 1979. As an alternative a hydrazine hydrate power pack has been developed and successfully tested. This chemical can be catalytically dissociated, giving hot (about 700[degree]C) steam-gas products (mostly ammonia) under more than 700 bar (10,150 psi) pressure. Because of its physical characteristics, hydrazine hydrateis especially suitable for use in underwater devices. The power pack was tested successfully March 10-14, 1993 in the eastern mid-Atlantic. The device was installed on a specially designed natural environment frame (NEF) with autonomous buoyancy control, several measuring sensors, and a recording system. The tests proved the normal, self-controlled work of the power pack at different depths to more than 2,600 meters, self-start and emergency-stop operations, and its ability to blow out 500 liters of water immediately to provide additional buoyancy for rapid ascent.

Mikhaltsev, I.E. (P. P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-04-01

111

Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridge: Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center. Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center, is a growing collection of on-line marine education resources. It provides educators with ...

112

A Power Market Model with Renewable Portfolio Standards, Green Pricing and GHG Emissions Trading Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models based on complementarity formulation have been a useful tool to simulate the interactions between environmental policies and the power market. This paper presents a power market model that considers renewable portfolio standards (RPS), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cap-and-trade and green pricing programs. These are three concurrent policies in the United States that are expected to be implemented to reduce

Yihsu Chen; Lizhi Wang

2008-01-01

113

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations

J. Cochran; L. Bird; J. Heeter; D. A. Arent

2012-01-01

114

Power management in smart grids for the integration of renewable energy resources and fluctuated loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In smart grids many business cases of fair electricity transaction have been creating. However, the existing methods of agent-based control and event-based control can not always guarantee an optimized power flow in the electric power distribution networks, if there are renewable energy resources and fluctuated loads. Therefore, a virtual agent is introduced in the server of smart grids, to enhance

Yonghua Cheng

2011-01-01

115

Satellite solar power: Renewed interest in an age of climate change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of generating electricity using satellite solar power (SSP) has recently enjoyed renewed interest as a source of non-fossil fuel energy. First proposed in the 1960s, then studied sporadically in the past decade, SSP offers a potentially large supply of power but without the carbon emissions associated with evidence of global climate change. SSP faces challenges: competition from other

Molly K. Macauley; Jhih-Shyang Shih

2007-01-01

116

Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Interim Report 2  

SciTech Connect

Electricity consumption in the Southeastern US, not including Florida, is approximately 24% of the total US. The availability of renewable resources for electricity production is relatively small compared to the high consumption. Therefore meeting a national renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is particularly challenging in this region. Neighboring regions, particularly to the west, have significant wind resources and given sufficient long distant transmission these resources could serve energy markets in the SE. This report looks at renewable resource supply relative to demands and the potential for power transfer into the SE. It shows that development of wind resources will depend not only on available transmission capacity but also on electricity supply and demand factors.

Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Deb, Rajat [LCG Consulting

2009-05-01

117

Machines and Drives Comparison for Low-Power Renewable Energy and Oscillating Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to analyze, test, and compare machines and drives in oscillating applications. In particular, this paper is focused on low-power wave energy generator applications, such as autonomous weather and monitoring buoys with power requirements in the 100 W and less range. Due to the oscillating motion of waves, the ocean environment can require bidirectional and

T. K. A. Brekken; H. M. Hapke; C. Stillinger; J. Prudell

2010-01-01

118

Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors  

SciTech Connect

Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

2012-12-01

119

Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Ocean habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can find out about Deep Ocean or Open Ocean! Ocean Life is a great website that tells about different parts of the ocean and about animals that live there. Ugie! You can start your mission to find out about Killer Whales by going to Orca or Killer Whales. Jakhia! You can start your mission to find ...

Ryan, Ms.

2013-02-12

120

Power electronics and its applications to renewable energy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric utility industry is gradually undergoing restructuring and the main paradigm shift is the introduction of the principles of competition. With the level of future demand for electricity being unclear, power market players are reluctant to commit to long-term capital investment, with the result that construction of new large-scale power plants and also transmission and distribution infrastructure is typically

Junichi Arai; Kenji Iba; Toshihisa Funabashi; Yosuke Nakanishi; Kaoru Koyanagi; Ryuichi Yokoyama

2008-01-01

121

Transient stability and voltage regulation in power systems with renewable distributed energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, energy storage used to enhance the transient stability of an electrical power system with renewable power generation is investigated. The passivity-based control design method (IDA-PBC) is used to achieve power angle stability and frequency and voltage regulation after the occurrence of a large disturbance (a symmetrical three-phase short circuit transmission line fault). The performance of the control

Adirak Kanchanaharuthai; Vira Chankong; Kenneth Loparo

2011-01-01

122

Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act.

O'Brien, J.; Kim, T.J.; Reynolds, S.

1991-08-01

123

Coupling Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion technology \\/OTEC\\/ with nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Related Bottoming Cycle (ORBC) to recover the waste heat generated by a large nuclear or fossil power plant is considered. To take advantage of an ORBC, a plant must be located close to cold, deep ocean water, either open-ocean or shore-based. The ORBC can also be retrofitted to existing shore-based nuclear plants

M. K. Goldstein; D. Rezachek; C. S. Chen

1981-01-01

124

The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

Barnes, P.R.

1994-01-01

125

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [6714 Norway Road, Dallas, TX (United States); Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

126

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. 2, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

Barnes, P. R.; Vandyke, J. W.; Tesche, F. M.; Zaininger, H. W.

1994-06-01

127

A Power Analysis and Data Acquisition System for Ocean Wave Energy Device Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the testing of ocean wave energy devices, the demand for a portable and robust data acquisition and electrical loading system has become apparent. This paper investigates the development of an inclusive system combining loading capabilities, real-time power analysis, and data acquisition for the testing of deployed ocean wave energy devices.

E. Amon; T. K. A. Brekken; A. von Jouanne

2009-01-01

128

Recent trends and achievements in renewable power for telecommunications  

SciTech Connect

Sun and wind available power values are essenttially random. As such they need a good degree of statistics and experience to be rendered suitable for usage in telecommunications, where relia bility and availability are of paramount importance. However, the telecommunications industry can count - by tradition - on the awareness and know ledge of how to master phenomena related to atmospheric variations, such as radio propagation. Such a knowledge, combined with new data and experiments, has led to the engineering of photovoltaic and wind-driven primary power sources optimized for telecommunications and targeted to obtaining the desired availability with the lowest cost.

Antoniucci, P.G.

1983-10-01

129

Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid  

SciTech Connect

A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

Zdeborova, Lenka [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

130

Autonomous Fossil Fuel and Renewable Energy (RE)- based Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous power systems (APS) comprise a solution for the electrification of applications when the access to a large transmission\\u000a network is not economically viable or even impossible. Their size can range from few hundred Watts to tens or hundreds of\\u000a MW.

A. S. Neris

131

Performance of different types of renewable power supply systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of different types of generator has proved useful on technical and economic levels. In this paper we investigate the performance of a hybrid Photovoltaic(PV)-Wind generator power supply system operating under good and fair insolation and wind regimes. The effectiveness of such a hybrid system is measured by the Relative Sizing Parameter (RSP), Money Saving Parameter (MSP), and the

M. K. Al-Motawakel; H. M. Abu-El-Eizz; Z. Awwad

1991-01-01

132

Recent Trends and Achievements in Renewable Power for Telecommunications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sun and wind available power values are essenttially random. As such they need a good degree of statistics and experience to be rendered suitable for usage in telecommunications, where relia bility and availability are of paramount importance. However, the telecommunications industry can count - by tradition - on the awareness and know ledge of how to master phenomena related to

P. G. Antoniucci

1983-01-01

133

Switch: a planning tool for power systems with large shares of intermittent renewable energy.  

PubMed

Wind and solar power are highly variable, so it is it unclear how large a role they can play in future power systems. This work introduces a new open-source electricity planning model--Switch--that identifies the least-cost strategy for using renewable and conventional generators and transmission in a large power system over a multidecade period. Switch includes an unprecedented amount of spatial and temporal detail, making it possible to address a new type of question about the optimal design and operation of power systems with large amounts of renewable power. A case study of California for 2012-2027 finds that there is no maximum possible penetration of wind and solar power--these resources could potentially be used to reduce emissions 90% or more below 1990 levels without reducing reliability or severely raising the cost of electricity. This work also finds that policies that encourage customers to shift electricity demand to times when renewable power is most abundant (e.g., well-timed charging of electric vehicles) could make it possible to achieve radical emission reductions at moderate costs. PMID:22506835

Fripp, Matthias

2012-05-08

134

Design and implementation of MAS in renewable energy power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-agent system (MAS) is farther development of distributed artificial intelligence. Agent technology is an advanced control method. Now the human are faced with the problem of energy sources lack and environment worsened. Wind and solar energy will be promising renewable energy in century. But randomicity and complexity of climate make windsolar hybrid power generation system difficult to be controlled. In

Shuyun Jia; Jiangchang

2010-01-01

135

Design and implementation of MAS in renewable energy power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-agent system (MAS) is farther development of distributed artificial intelligence. Agent technology is an advanced control method. Now the human are faced with the problem of energy sources lack and environment worsened. Wind and solar energy will be promising renewable energy in century. But randomicity and complexity of climate make wind-solar hybrid power generation system difficult to be controlled. In

Shu-Yun Jia; Jiang Chang

2010-01-01

136

On the impact of renewable energy support schemes on power prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power production from renewable energies is supported through special support schemes in almost all industrialised countries. This is because they are generally not competitive today although their use offers a number of benefits that are not considered by energy markets. These support schemes need to be financed, though. Two main options can be observed: Either support through the general public

Sven Bode

2006-01-01

137

LARGE SCALE DEPLOYMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY BY COMBINING WIND FARMS WITH SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The installation of megawatt-size wind turbines on 65 to 80 meter towers at Class 4 wind sites in Texas has resulted in the cheapest form of renewable energy ($0.04/kWh). However, wind farm output has a diurnal mismatch to the utility electrical loading. Combining solar thermal power plants with w...

138

Evaluation of nuclear power and renewable alternatives as portrayed in UK local press coverage title  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis was conducted of all UK local daily newspaper articles appearing in the first half of 1981, concerned with nuclear power or renewable alternatives. Evaluative coverage of these technologies was compared on dimensions found to characterise energy issues (economic, environmental, technological future\\/political, physical and psychological risks). In addition, comparisons were drawn between coverage in areas 'threatened' with the

R. Spears; J. R. Eiser; J van der Pligt

1986-01-01

139

Seawater integrated desalination plant without brine discharge and powered by renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental effects are one of the main concerns of massive desalination facilities. To reach the objective of no brine discharge the salt from seawater must be completely separated and obtained as a secondary and valuable product. If no CO2 emission increase is desired, the power source must be a combination of renewable energy systems (RES). This paper presents an analysis

C. Fernández-López; A. Viedma; R. Herrero; A. S. Kaiser

2009-01-01

140

An implementation of grid interactive inverter with reactive power support capability for renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a DSP based three phase current c ontrolled grid interactive inverter with reactive power injection capability is proposed for renewable energy sources. The proposed voltage source inverter consists of a line frequency transformer, LCL filter at the output and PI current regulator. The proposed inverter system has been designed, simulated and implemented. Both experimental and simulation studies

Ibrahim Sefa; Necmi Altin; Saban Ozdemir

2011-01-01

141

High-power, resonant DC\\/DC converter for integration of renewable sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies practical design aspects of a high-power DC-DC converter which might be employed with renewable power sources like large offshore wind farms. The component selection and losses are studied for a 6.8 kV\\/100 kV, 5 MW step-up DC\\/DC converter. It is concluded that inverter-grade thyristors offer overall advantages because of ability to operate at high switching frequencies. The

D. Jovcic; B. T. Ooi

2009-01-01

142

Japanese Trend of Advanced Smart Grid Technology for Harmonization of Renewable Energy Resources and Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In tandem with the penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) such as photovoltaic and wind power generation to reduce CO2 emissions and conserve energy, development of advanced smart grid technologies is needed to secure a stable power supply of grid with RES by controlling power quality (voltage and frequency) within each secure range. This paper describes Japanese trend of the advanced smart grid technologies to harmonize RES and conventional bulk power system. Furthermore, several ongoing field tests to try to realize Japanese version of smart grid are briefly introduced.

Hayashi, Yasuhiro

143

Electrical power generation from ocean currents in the Straits of Florida: Some environmental considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean currents contain a remarkable amount of kinetic energy and have potential worldwide capability. Initial tests to harness current power focus on the Straits of Florida where the Florida Current has a total flow capacity of about 30×106m3s?1. Generation of clean electricity from ocean currents off southeast Florida is based on a power extractor comprising open-center turbine technology. This innovative

Charles W. Finkl; Roger Charlier

2009-01-01

144

Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

2008-12-01

145

An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development  

PubMed Central

Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

2012-01-01

146

Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)  

SciTech Connect

The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

2010-01-07

147

Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Electricity consumption in the Southeastern US, including Florida, is approximately 32% of the total US. The availability of renewable resources for electricity production is relatively small compared to the high consumption. Therefore meeting a national renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is particularly challenging in this region. Neighboring regions, particularly to the west, have significant wind resources and given sufficient transmission these resources could serve energy markets in the SE. This report looks at renewable resource supply relative to demands and the potential for power transfer into the SE. We found that significant wind energy transfers, at the level of 30-60 GW, are expected to be economic in case of federal RPC or CO2 policy. Development of wind resources will depend not only on the available transmission capacity and required balancing resources, but also on electricity supply and demand factors.

Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Deb, Rajat [LCG Consulting

2010-02-01

148

The design and analysis of a vertical axis ocean current power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a calculation of the power generated by a vertical axis ocean current power plant. An analytical model is presented and a computer solution described. Results of the calculation show the optimum angles of the blades about the vertical axis to maximize power output, as well as the total extractable power of the plant for various ocean current velocities. Tow tank tests are described for a scale model of the plant. Additionally, the advantages and economics of the proposed design are discussed.

Richard, C. C.; Hartzog, J. R.; Sorge, R. V.; Quigley, J. V.; Adams, G. R.

149

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience  

SciTech Connect

Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

2012-04-01

150

Impact of public policy uncertainty on renewable energy investment: Wind power and the production tax credit  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the federal production tax credit (PTC) causes a boom–bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the US. This on–off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. It is often assumed

Merrill Jones Barradale

2010-01-01

151

Impact of Policy Uncertainty on Renewable Energy Investment: Wind Power and PTC  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the federal production tax credit (PTC) causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. It is widely assumed

Merrill Jones Barradale

152

Renewable Energy in China: Xiao Qing Dao Village Power Wind/Diesel Hybrid Pilot Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, DOE/NREL and the State Power Corporation of China (SPCC) developed a pilot project to electrify Xiao Qing Dao, a small island located in China's Yellow Sea. The project demonstrates the practicality of renewable energy systems for medium-scale, off-grid applications. It consists of four 10 k-W wind turbines connected to a 30-kW diesel generator, a 40-kW inverter and a battery bank.

Not Available

2006-01-01

153

Why are remote Western Australians installing renewable energy technologies in stand-alone power supply systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As people living in remote areas rely on SPS systems for their electricity and water needs, they hold a practical and non-idealistic perspective towards using renewable energy technologies. This research explores pastoral owner-operators’ personal experience and opinion of stand-alone power supply (SPS) systems over 30years in remote pastoral regions Western Australia (WA). This research was undertaken qualitatively in terms of

Mark P. McHenry

2009-01-01

154

Using the condenser effluent from a nuclear power plant for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been increasing interest in clean energy over past few years. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants have been examined as a viable option for supplying clean energy. This paper evaluated the thermodynamic performance of the OTEC power system. Computer simulation programs were developed under the same conditions but with various working fluids for a closed system, a

Nam Jin Kim; Kim Choon Ng; Wongee Chun

2009-01-01

155

Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems - Operations and Transmission Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Volume 4 of the Renewable Electricity Futures Study: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures. The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures), is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply ca...

E. Ela G. Brinkman J. Hein M. Milligan P. Denholm T. Schneider

2012-01-01

156

Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small

L. M. Miller; F. Gans; A. Kleidon

2011-01-01

157

Energy management and power flow of decoupled generation system for power conditioning of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper presents decoupled variable (adjustable) speed generation system and its application in renewable energy generation. The decoupled generation system consists of internal combustion engine, permanent magnet generator and AC\\/AC converter. Performance of single decoupled generation set are discussed supported by results of laboratory tests. The variable speed system provides high quality voltage in wide speed range when the step of

W. Koczara; Z. Chlodnicki; N. Al-Khayat; N. L. Brown

2008-01-01

158

Analysis of an Agent-based Electricity Market Model with Renewable Energy Power Plants by Wind and Solar Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, electricity markets were organized in many developed countries in the deregulation process of electric power industries. There have been many studies on electricity markets from the viewpoints of economics, mathematics, computer science, etc. Especially, agent-based models of electricity markets have been extensively studied. Meanwhile, many countries promote use of renewable energy for electricity generation. In this paper, we construct and analyze an agent-based model of electricity markets in which wind and photovoltaic power generation firms are introduced. Our results suggest that wind power generation needs to be improved in efficiency to survive in the market, and that bid prices of photovoltaic power generation are rather affected by change of the insolation amount than by change of the total demand.

Iwagami, Akio; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

159

Safety Evaluation Report: Related to the License Renewal of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Docket No. 50-271.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a supplemental Safety Evaluation Report (SSER) for the License Renewal Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VYNPS) as Filed by Entergy Nuclear Operation, Inc. and Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC. (Entergy or the Appli...

2009-01-01

160

Safety Evaluation Report: Related to the License Renewal of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station. Docket No. 50-271.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the Vermont Yankees Nuclear Power Station (VYNPS) license renewal application (LRA) by the United States (US) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff (the staff). By letter dated Janu...

2008-01-01

161

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers  

SciTech Connect

Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

2012-04-01

162

Optimizing power complexes operating on renewable energy resources with the use of water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Pumped water storage of renewable energy sources is an effective method of coordinating the arrivals of renewable energy and\\u000a consumer's load which are nonuniform in time.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The use of water storage makes it possible to increase the firm output of power produced by plants based on RESs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a The proposed characteristic makes it possible to optimize the

V. V. Elistratov; A. L. Tin'kov

1998-01-01

163

The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The following utility- and site-specific conditions that may affect the economic viability of distributed renewable energy sources were considered: distribution system characteristics, and design standards, and voltage levels; load density, reliability, and power quality; solar insolation and wind resource levels; utility generation characteristics and load profiles; and investor-owned and publicly owned utilities, size, and financial assumptions.

Zaininger, H.W.

1994-01-01

164

The Economics of Wind Power: Destabilizing an Electricity Grid with Renewable Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the impact policy choices, including a carbon tax, on the optimal allocation of power across different generation sources and on future investments in generating facilities. The focus in on the Alberta power grid as it is heavily dependent on fossil fuels and has only limited ties to other power grids, although the model could be

Ryan Prescott; G. Cornelis van Kooten

2007-01-01

165

Concentrating on Solar Power in a Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining the large demand of clean electricity in Europe (EU) with the large potential of solar electricity generation from concentrating solar power stations (CSP) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) can provide both climate protection and development for both regions and lead to environmental, economical and social sustainability. The presentation will address the concept of solar cogeneration of electricity and desalted water and the scope of generating clean power for MENA and Europe while providing large quantities of freshwater for the MENA countries. Costs and benefits of the concept will be quantified, and the first steps to realisation within the Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation TREC are presented. After running through the technology learning curve within about 10-15 years, concentrated solar electricity will be generated at a cost of roughly 4 ct/kWh. Importing solar power from North Africa to Europe, will add 1 ct/kWh, thus being competitive with new fuel fired plants. The total initial support of about 1 billion € needed to trigger CSP market introduction and to achieve forever low electricity costs in the EU and MENA, equals 25 % of the German annual coal subsidies, 1 month of EU agronomic-subsidies or 1 day of US military expenses and could be provided in form of public investment, soft loans or feed-in guaranties like the German Renewable Energy Act.

Trieb, F.; Kronshage, S.; Knies, G.

2004-12-01

166

The Energy Harvesting Eel: a small subsurface ocean\\/river power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy Harvesting Eel (Eel) is a new device that uses piezoelectric polymers to convert the mechanical flow energy, available in oceans and rivers, to electrical power. Eel generators make use of the regular trail of traveling vortices behind a bluff body to strain the piezoelectric elements; the resulting undulating motion resembles that of a natural eel swimming. Internal batteries

George W. Taylor; Joseph R. Burns; Sean M. Kammann; William B. Powers; Thomas R. Welsh

2001-01-01

167

Environmental and Technical Factors Influencing Power in Work Organizations: Ocean Fishing in Peasant Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comparative analysis of ocean fishing work organizations located in complex agricultural societies finds that laborers in fishing have relatively high power and rewards; three technical and environmental differences can account for authority differences; greater isolation of workplace demands for coordination, and physical risks in fishing.…

Norr, Kathleen; Norr, James L.

1974-01-01

168

Hot side heat exchanger for an ocean thermal difference power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a study to use the kinetic energy of the Gulf Stream to pump the evaporators of an ocean thermal difference power plant. The internal frictional flow in the exchanger was matched to the external potential flow to develop the flow model. The model was merged with a previously developed Rankine cycle analysis of the

R. H. Kirchhoff; J. G. McGowan; J. W. Connell; D. Seluk

1974-01-01

169

Entropy versus APE production: On the buoyancy power input in the oceans energy cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter argues that the current controversy about whether Wbuoyancy, the power input due to the surface buoyancy fluxes, is large or small in the oceans stems from two distinct and incompatible views on how Wbuoyancy relates to the volume-integrated work of expansion\\/contraction B. The current prevailing view is that Wbuoyancy should be identified with the net value of B,

R. Tailleux

2010-01-01

170

A DSP based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems. Quarterly report 3.  

SciTech Connect

This report is an update on the research project involving the implementation of a DSP based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems that was funded by the Department of Energy under the Inventions and Innovations program 1998. The objective of this research is to develop a utility interface (dc to ac converter) suitable to interconnect alternate/renewable energy sources to the utility system. The DSP based power electronics interface in comparison with existing methods will excel in terms of efficiency, reliability and cost. Moreover DSP-based control provides the flexibility to upgrade/modify control algorithms to meet specific system requirements. The proposed interface will be capable of maintaining stiffness of the ac voltages at the point of common coupling regardless of variation in the input dc bus voltage. This will be achieved without the addition of any extra components to the basic interface topology but by inherently controlling the inverter switching strategy in accordance to the input voltage variation.

NONE

2000-03-31

171

Energy storage for variable renewable energy resource integration — A regional assessment for the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the following key questions in the discussion on the integration of renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest power grid: a) what will be the future balancing requirement to accommodate a simulated expansion of wind energy resources from 3.3 GW in 2008 to 14.4 GW in 2019 in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP), and b) what are

Michael CW Kintner-Meyer; Chunlian Jin; Patrick J. Balducci; Marcelo A. Elizondo; Xinxin Guo; Tony B. Nguyen; Francis K. Tuffner; Vilayanur V. Viswanathan

2011-01-01

172

Renewable Energy as a Tool to Assure Continuity of Low Emissions in the Brazilian Electric Power Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Brazilian Electric Sector more than 80% of its installed capacity is based on hydro and biomass energy. A new legal framework has imposed roles for renewable sources of energy, establishing that 10% of electric power must come from these sources over the next twenty years. Historically, hydro power has been the key source of electricity in Brazil. In

Osvaldo Soliano Pereira; Tereza Mousinho Reis; R. G. B. de Araujo; F. F. Gongalves

2006-01-01

173

Study on 10 kVDC powered junction box for a cabled ocean observatory system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cabled ocean observatory system that can provide abundant power and broad bandwidth communication for undersea instruments is developed. A 10 kV direct current (kVDC) with up to 10 kW power, along with 1 Gigabit/sec Ethernet communication, can be transmitted from the shore to the seafloor through an umbilical armored cable. A subsea junction box is fixed at a cable terminal, enabling the extension of up to nine connections. The box consists of three main pressure vessels that perform power conversion, power distribution, and real-time communication functions. A method of stacking modules is used to design the power conversion system in order to reduce the 10 kV voltage to levels that can power the attached instruments. A power distribution system and an Ethernet communication system are introduced to control the power supply and transmit data or commands between the terminals and the shore station, respectively. Specific validations of all sections were qualified in a laboratory environment prior to the sea trial. The ocean observatory system was then deployed at the coast of the East China Sea along with three in situ instruments for a 14-day test. The results show that this high voltage-powered observatory system is effective for subsea long-term and real-time observations.

Chen, Yan-hu; Yang, Can-jun; Li, De-jun; Jin, Bo; Chen, Ying

2013-04-01

174

Magnetic power spectrum of the ocean crust on large scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geomagnetic power spectrum Rl is the squared magnetic field in each spherical harmonic degree averaged over a spherical surface. Satellite measurements have given reliable estimates of the spectrum for the part that originates in the core, but above l=15, where the geomagnetic field arises primarily from crustal magnetization, there is considerable disagreement between various estimates derived from observation. Furthermore,

Michael S. O'Brien; Robert L. Parker; Catherine G. Constable

1999-01-01

175

A Review of Hybrid Renewable\\/Alternative Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation: Configurations, Control, and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, prepared by a special task force of the IEEE PES Renewable Technologies Subcommittee, is a review of hybrid renewable\\/alternative energy (RE\\/AE) power generation systems focusing on energy sustainability. It highlights some important issues and challenges in the design and energy manage- ment of hybrid RE\\/AE systems. System configurations, generation unit sizing, storage needs, and energy management and control

M. H. Nehrir; C. Wang; K. Strunz; H. Aki; R. Ramakumar; J. Bing; Z. Miao; Z. Salameh

2011-01-01

176

An analysis for increasing the penetration of renewable energies by optimal sizing of pumped-storage power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great amount of the energy generated by renewable energy-based generation units, e.g. wind farms, is often rejected because of network restrictions. Moreover, most of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, are uncertain and uncontrollable. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the rejected energy can be applied to pumped storage power plants and reutilized via hydro-turbines when needed.

M. Khatibi; M. Jazaeri

2008-01-01

177

Development of a demonstration power plant by ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the opening ceremony, the system was praised by leading figures invited from the Oceanic non-oil-producing countries. The power generation test of the OTEC demonstration plant was completed with many new records attained. As engineers who have participated in this project, the authors believe that they have gained confidence in their ability to construct a first-stage commercial OTEC plant of

F. Ito; K. Takazawa; T. Terayama

1984-01-01

178

77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...referenced. The Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project license renewal request is available...Mandeville, Senior Project Manager, Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch, Division...

2012-09-19

179

PTC, ITC, or Cash Grant? An Analysis of the Choice Facing Renewable Power Projects in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Renewable power technologies are inherently capital-intensive, often (but not always) with relatively high construction costs and low operating costs. For this reason, renewable power technologies are typically more sensitive to the availability and cost of financing than are natural gas power plants, for example. In the United States, the bulk of renewable project finance in recent years has been provided by 'tax equity investors' (typically large investment banks and insurance companies) who partner with project developers through highly specialized financing structures (Bolinger, 2009; Cory et al., 2008; Harper et al., 2007). These structures have been designed primarily to capitalize on federal support for renewable power technologies, which has historically come in the form of tax credits and accelerated depreciation deductions. The number of tax equity investors active in the renewable power market has declined precipitously, however, as a result of the financial crisis that began unfolding across the globe in the summer of 2008. The resulting shortage and increased cost of project financing has, in turn, slowed the development of new renewable power projects, leading to layoffs throughout the entire industry supply chain. In recognition of the fact that tax-based policy incentives are not particularly effective when tax burdens are shrinking or non-existent, Congress included several provisions in 'The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009' (ARRA 2009) designed to make federal incentives for renewable power technologies more useful. Among these provisions is one that allows projects eligible to receive the production tax credit ('the PTC', see Text Box 1) to instead elect the investment tax credit ('the ITC', see Text Box 2). Another provision enables ITC-eligible projects (which now include most PTC-eligible renewable power projects) to instead receive--for a limited time only--a cash grant of equivalent value. These two provisions (among others) could have a significant impact on how renewable power projects are financed over the next few years. The purpose of this report is to both quantitatively and qualitatively analyze, from the project developer/owner perspective, the choice between the PTC and the ITC (or equivalent cash grant) for a number of different renewable power technologies.1 Because the two credits are structured differently, and apply in different ways to different technologies, the choice between the two lends itself to quantitative financial analysis of the conditions under which either the PTC or the ITC would, at least in theory, provide greater financial value. Qualitative considerations may be equally important, however, particularly in instances where quantitative differences are modest. This report proceeds as follows. Section 2 provides a brief summary of ARRA 2009, with some emphasis on those provisions designed to ease the liquidity crisis facing the renewable power sector. Section 3 describes the quantitative analysis methodology, as well as modeling results for wind, open-loop biomass, closed-loop biomass, geothermal, and landfill gas projects. Section 4 discusses a number of qualitative considerations that may play as important of a role as quantitative results in deciding between the PTC and the ITC (or equivalent cash grant). Section 5 concludes, and an Appendix provides supplemental tables that present quantitative analysis results conducted at different discount rates.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Cory, Karlynn; James, Ted

2009-03-11

180

Mechanical power input from buoyancy and wind to the circulation in an ocean model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We make a systematic quantitative comparison of the effects that surface buoyancy forcing and wind stress have on the energy balance of an idealized, rotating, pole-to-pole ocean model with a zonally re-entrant channel in the south, forced by realistic heat (buoyancy) fluxes and wind stresses representative of global climatology. Surface buoyancy fluxes and wind stress forcing are varied independently; both have significant effects on the reservoirs of various forms of energy and the rates of transfer between them. Importantly, we show for the first time that in the ocean, each power input has a positive feedback on the other. Changes in the rate of generation of available potential energy by buoyancy fluxes at the surface lead to similar changes in the rate of conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy by buoyancy forces (sinking) in the interior, and to changes in the rate of generation of kinetic energy by wind stress. Conversely, changes in the rate of generation of kinetic energy by wind stress lead to changes in the rate of generation of available potential energy by buoyancy forcing. We discuss how this feedback is mediated by the circumpolar current, and processes involving buoyancy, mixing and geostrophic balances. Our results support the notion that surface buoyancy forcing, along with wind and tidal forcing, plays an active role in the energy balance of the oceans. The overturning circulation in the oceans is not the result of a single driving force. Rather, it is a manifestation of a complex and subtle balance.

Saenz, J. A.; Hogg, A. M.; Hughes, G. O.; Griffiths, R. W.

2012-07-01

181

A methodology for quantifying variability of renewable energy sources by reserve requirement calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the major renewable power sources, such as solar, wind, and ocean wave, are variable in time. Variability arises from local turbulence, weather patterns, clouds, diurnal variations, and seasonal variations. The variable, non-dispatchable nature of renewable power sources requires an increase in the utility reserve requirement to maintain reliability. Power sources with greater minute-to-minute and hourly variation require greater

Douglas A. Halamay; Ted K. A. Brekken

2010-01-01

182

Grid integration of wind-solar hybrid renewables using AC\\/DC converters as DG power sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable Energy Resources are best practices possible today to stand against increasingly risk of climate changes and global warming of the world and the most important sources of such types of resources of energies can be Wind and Solar energies which are most the efficient relatively. These clean power resources are used as in Distributed Generation (DGs) units technology to

Saeed Jahdi; Loi Lei Lai; Daniel Nankoo

2011-01-01

183

Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control. Part II, analysis.  

SciTech Connect

The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. The first step is to analyze the system as a conservative natural Hamiltonian system with no externally applied non-conservative forces. The Hamiltonian surface of the swing equations is related to the Equal-Area Criterion and the PEBS method to formulate the nonlinear transient stability problem. This formulation demonstrates the effectiveness of proportional feedback control to expand the stability region. The second step is to analyze the system as natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. The time derivative of the Hamiltonian produces the work/rate (power flow) equation which is used to ensure balanced power flows from the renewable generators to the loads. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generators system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate, and entropy rate. This paper will present the analysis and numerical simulation results for two nonlinear control design examples that include: (1) the One-Machine Infinite Bus (OMIB) system with a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and (2) the swing equation for a wind turbine connected to an infinite bus through a UPFC to determine the required performance of the UPFC to enable the maximum power output of a wind turbine subject to stochastic inputs while meeting the power system constraints on frequency and phase. The energy storage requirements will also be identified from the UPFC and/or FACTS devices while working in combination with the wind turbine.

Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

2010-11-01

184

Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning  

SciTech Connect

The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

2012-06-01

185

Global numeric analysis of a moored ocean current turbine testing platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to Florida's growing energy needs and drive to develop renewable power, Florida Atlantic University's Center for Ocean Energy Technology (COET) plans to deploy a mooring near the core of the Gulf Stream off southeast Florida's coast. This mooring system testing platform will be used to evaluate the performance of prototype ocean current turbines including COET's 20 kW turbine

Allison R. Cribbs; James H. VanZwieten

2010-01-01

186

An ocean kinetic energy converter for low-power applications using piezoelectric disk elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main problem facing long-term electronic system deployments in the sea, is to find a feasible way to supply them with the power they require. Harvesting mechanical energy from the ocean wave oscillations and converting it into electrical energy, provides an alternative method for creating self-contained power sources. However, the very low and varying frequency of ocean waves, which generally varies from 0.1 Hz to 2 Hz, presents a hurdle which has to be overcome if this mechanical energy is to be harvested. In this paper, a new sea wave kinetic energy converter is described using low-cost disk piezoelectric elements, which has no dependence on their excitement frequency, to feed low-consumption maritime-deployed electronic devices. The operating principles of the piezoelectric device technique are presented, including analytical formulations describing the transfer of energy. Finally, a prototypical design, which generates electrical energy from the motion of a buoy, is introduced. The paper concludes with the the behavior study of the piezoelectric prototype device as a power generator.

Viñolo, C.; Toma, D.; Mànuel, A.; del Rio, J.

2013-09-01

187

Detailed Evaluation of Renewable Energy Power System Operation: A Summary of the European Union Hybrid Power System Component Benchmarking Project; Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of the European Union (EU) Benchmarking Project, a 3-year, multi-agency research project to improve the design of renewable-based hybrid power systems based on the analysis of existing systems and the benchmarking of specific system components, most critically batteries. Based on the analysis of hundreds of power systems, efforts were made to classify different categories of

E. I. Baring-Gould; H. Wenzl; R. Kaiser; N. Wilmot; F. Mattera; S. Tselepis; F. Nieuwenhout; C. Rodrigues; A. Perujo; A. Ruddell; P. Lindsager; H. Bindner; T. Cronin; V. Svoboda; J. Manwell

2005-01-01

188

Regional integration to support full renewable power deployment for Europe by 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union is currently working on a achieving a target of 20% renewable energy by 2020, and has a policy framework in place that relies primarily on individual Member States implementing their own policy instruments for renewable energy support, within a larger context of a tradable quota system. For 2050 the target is likely to be more stringent, given

Anthony Patt; Nadejda Komendantova; Antonella Battaglini; Johan Lilliestam

2011-01-01

189

The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and\\/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems

Zaininger

1994-01-01

190

Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

2008-01-01

191

Regulation and trends in electric power industry: Renewable generation in Germany and Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes and compares regulatory approaches applied in Germany and Switzerland to promote renewable electricity generation. Influence of regulation applied on wholesale market and consumer electricity prices is shown based on German experience. Some conclusions are proposed about further development of renewable generation in Germany and Switzerland.

Mikhail Vasilyev

2011-01-01

192

Ocean thermal energy conversion gas desorption studies. Volume 1. Design of experiments. [Open-cycle power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater deaeration is a process affecting almost all proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) open-cycle power systems. If the noncondensable dissolved air is not removed from a power system, it will accumulate in thecondenser, reduce the effectiveness of condensation, and result in deterioration of system performance. A gas desorption study is being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with

A. Golshani; F. C. Chen

1980-01-01

193

Development of composite fiber-optic electric-power umbilical cable and optical feedthrough for deep ocean mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of mining systems for mineral resources from deep ocean floors is now progressing in many countries. In Japan, the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, has conducted research and development for a manganese nodule mining system. In this project, it is planned to use a new composite fiber-optic electric power umbilical cable for electrical power and control signal

T. Mitsui; T. Gomi; T. Ito; S. Ushitani; M. Yamaguchi

1983-01-01

194

Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, accounting for turbine characteristics and siting  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, global ocean usable wind power is evaluated for modern offshore turbine characteristics including hub height, usable portion of the wind speed distribution, and siting depth. Mean wind power increases by 30%, 69%, and 73% within the tropics and Northern and Southern Hemisphere extratropics, respectively, between hub heights of 10 m and 100 m. A turbine with

Scott B. Capps; Charles S. Zender

2010-01-01

195

Renewable energy in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy,

Falin Chen; Shyi-Min Lu; Eric Wang; Kuo-Tung Tseng

2010-01-01

196

Performance of a direct drive hydro turbine for wave power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean and renewable energy technologies using ocean energy give us non-polluting alternatives to fossil-fueled power plants as a countermeasure against the global warming and growing demand for electrical energy. Among the ocean energy resources, wave power takes a growing interest because of its enormous amount of potential energy in the world. Therefore, various types of wave power system to capture

Y.-H. Lee; C.-G. Kim; Y.-D. Choi; I.-S. Kim; Y.-C. Hwang

2010-01-01

197

2008 Renewable Energy Data Book  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Not Available

2009-07-01

198

Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics' Ocean Model, Kyushu University, Japan). The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation, and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 deg. E to 142.5 deg. E of east longitude and 33 deg. N and 52 deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC (Japan Oceanographic Data Center), KNFRDI (Korea National Fisheries Research and Development Institute), and ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea/Japan Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site. (authors)

Chung, Y.G.; Lee, G.B.; Bang, S.Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 103-16 Munji-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.B.; Lee, S.U. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD, 167 Samseong-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Research Institute of Applied Physics, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Nam, S.Y.; Lee, H.R. [GeoSystem Research Corporation, 306 Hanlim Human Town, 1-40 Geumjeong-Dong, Gunpo-City, Gyeonggi-Do 435-050 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

199

Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electricity consumption in the Southeastern US, including Florida, is approximately 32% of the total US. The availability of renewable resources for electricity production is relatively small compared to the high consumption. Therefore meeting a national ...

S. W. Hadley T. S. Key

2010-01-01

200

Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Interim Report 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electricity consumption in the Southeastern US, not including Florida, is approximately 24% of the total US. The availability of renewable resources for electricity production is relatively small compared to the high consumption. Therefore meeting a natio...

S. W. Hadley T. Key

2009-01-01

201

Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollutant Emission Reduction Potentials of Renewable Energy—Case Studies on Photovoltaic and Wind Power Introduction Considering Interactions among Technologies in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting

Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima; Tracy Glenz; Lisa Brosseau; Richard Hoffbeck; Kyoko Yamashita; Naomichi Yamamoto; Atsushi Mizukoshi; Miyuki Noguchi; Yueyong Ni; Yukio Yanagisawa; Yongping Li; Guohe Huang; James Schwab; John Spicer; Kenneth Demerjian; Mark Gibson; Judith Guernsey; Stephen Beauchamp; David Waugh; Mathew Heal; Jeffrey Brook; Robert Maher; Graham Gagnon; Johnny McPherson; Barbara Bryden; Richard Gould; Liming Zhou; Philip Hopke; Weixiang Zhao; Elisabeth Hawley; Neven Kresic; Alexandra Wright; Michael Kavanaugh; Pat Saathoff; Amit Gupta; Ted Stathopoulos; Louis Lazure; ABM Khan; Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; W. Wayne; Gregory Thompson; Donald Lyons

2009-01-01

202

The Promise of Wave Power (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable diverse energy resource plans. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans: it is estimated that if 0.2 % of the oceans' untapped energy could be harnessed, it could provide power sufficient for the entire world.

T. Brekken

2010-01-01

203

Safety Evaluation Report: Related to the License Renewal of Kewaunee Power Station, Docket No. 50-305, Dominion Energy Kewaunee, Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the Kewaunee Power Station (KPS) license renewal application (LRA) by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff (the staff). By letter dated August 12, 2008, Dominion Energy Ke...

2011-01-01

204

Supporting Solar Power in Renewables Portfolio Standards: Experience from the United States  

SciTech Connect

Among the available options for encouraging the increased deployment of renewable electricity, renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become increasingly popular. The RPS is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern that has been voiced is whether RPS policies will offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, RPS programs will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This report documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important, albeit somewhat modest, driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to continue to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved.

Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Holt, Edward

2010-10-01

205

A solar powered distillation plant and pump station for use in ocean side desert areas  

SciTech Connect

There are thousands of miles of ocean shoreline which could sustain a productive human existence if sufficient fresh water were available for human consumption and for irrigation of crops. While solar stills can be built to produce fresh water at or close to sea level, raising water to a height sufficient to irrigate crops, even with minimum water usage crops, requires a significant amount of energy. This paper describes a ``no-external power`` process by which seawater can be purified and raised to a height above sea level sufficient to carry on a productive living in certain areas of the world. This device, the Solar Evaporation and Pumping System (SEAPS) is described as to function and areas of use.

Dearien, J.A.; Priebe, S.J.

1994-12-31

206

Renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternate energy options include sophistication of mundane windows, cheaper photovoltaics, making liquid biofuels and more reliable wind generators. These elude sophistication of mundane windows, cheaper photovoltaics, making liquid biofuels and more reliable wind generators. These energy technologies are renewable in the sense that they derive power directly or indirectly only from sunlight. Improved window design could make a major contribution

1984-01-01

207

Oceans of Energyâî  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on the importance of ocean exploration as a way to learn how to capture, control, and distribute renewable ocean energy resources. Students begin by identifying ways the ocean can generate energy and then research one ocean energy source using the Internet. Finally, students build a Micro-Hydro Electric Generator.

Explorer, Noaa O.

208

Solar energy education. Renewable energy: A background text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the Sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the Sun's composition and the relationship between the Earth, Sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy.

209

An inquiry into the feasibility of using ocean surface wave energy to power an oceanographic data collection buoy. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief history of attempts to use ocean surface wave energy is presented and applicable wave theory is reviewed. Six distinct modes of interaction between a wave and a buoy are defined. These are evaluated by deriving expressions for the maximum power realizable from each and by considering how the use of each would affect buoy functioning. Those modes involving

1969-01-01

210

Mitigation of environmental impact of power-plant discharge by use of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to evaluate the mitigation method of environmental impact of power-plant discharges by reducing the temperature difference between effluent and coastal water. To minimize excessive thermal pollution which could cause serious socio-economic problems, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system can be applied to control the resultant temperature of combined discharge as well as to produce electricity by reusing

Hyeon-Ju Kim; Ho-Saeng Lee; Seung-Won Lee; Dong-Ho Jung; Duck-Su Moon

2010-01-01

211

A regional comparison of particle size distributions and the power law approximation in oceanic and estuarine surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particle size distribution (PSD) is commonly used in studies of sediment fluxes, phytoplankton dynamics, and optical scattering from particulates, but little is known about the spatial and temporal variability of this parameter. Here, we analyze in situ laser diffraction measurements of the PSD from a variety of estuarine and open ocean systems. The power law or “Junge-type” distribution provided

C. J. Buonassissi; H. M. Dierssen

2010-01-01

212

Enabled by high power electronics - Energy efficiency, renewables and smart grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global demand for electrical energy is growing continuously, at double the growth rate of primary energy consumption. A clear transition to more electric energy systems is mandatory as energy efficiency from primary fuel to the enduser and the integration of renewables are the future key challenges. This transition to more electrical energy systems requires the transformation of today's electric

P. K. Steimer

2010-01-01

213

Taxonomy based trend discovery of renewable energy technologies in desalination and power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy (RE) technologies are increasingly viewed as critically important since the noticeable depletion of fossil fuel. Knowledge that facilitates forecasting the likely growth and consequences of emergent technologies is essential for well-informed technology management. Acquiring and analyzing such knowledge is hampered by the amount of data available in publications. In order to elucidate the advance of technologies, we want

Gihan Dawelbait; Toufic Mezher; Wei Lee Woon; Andreas Henschel

2010-01-01

214

Power sector investment risk and renewable energy: A Japanese case study using portfolio risk optimization method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional pricing mechanism used for electricity systematically hides huge investment risks which are embedded in the overall cost of production. Although consumers are often unaware of these risks, they present a large financial burden on the economy. This study applies the portfolio optimization concepts from the field of finance to demonstrate the scope of greater utilization of renewable energies

Anindya Bhattacharya; Satoshi Kojima

215

Wind power! Marketing renewable energy on tribal lands and the struggle for just sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a case study approach and employing the critical framework of just sustainability, this article examines the ambivalent intersections of marketing and social\\/environmental justice as articulated through the public rhetoric of corporate entities that promote renewable energy generated on American Indian tribal lands. Because of its critical interest in the empowerment of disenfranchised communities through a shift away from traditional

Miranda J. Brady; Salma Monani

2012-01-01

216

Corrosion and biofouling on the non-heat-exchanger surfaces of an ocean thermal energy conversion power plant: a survey  

SciTech Connect

Of the many foreseeable problems confronting economical ocean thermal energy conversion operation, two major items are the deterioration of the structural and functional components, which prevents efficient operation, and the biofouling of the surfaces, which adds excess weight to the floating ocean platform. The techniques required for effective long-term control of deterioration and corrosion have been investigated actively for many years, and successful solutions for most situations have been developed. For the most part, these solutions can be directly transferred to the ocean thermal energy conversion plant. The majority of problems in these areas are expected to be associated with scale-up and will require some advanced development due to the immensity of the ocean thermal energy conversion platform. Current antifouling control systems are not effective for long-term fouling prevention. Commercially available antifouling coatings are limited to a 3-year service life in temperate waters, and even shorter in tropical waters. However, underwater cleaning techniques and some fouling-control systems presently being used by conventional power plants may find utility on an ocean thermal energy conversion plant. In addition, some recent major advances in long-term antifouling coatings sponsored by the Navy may be applicable to ocean thermal energy conversion. 132 references.

Castelli, V.J. (ed.)

1979-05-01

217

State variable analysis, control, and feasibility of design of an ocean thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most attractive energy conversion techniques is ocean thermal energy conversion. This process uses the existing temperature difference between the upper and lower layers of the ocean to cause phase changes in a working fluid and thus extract net work. Details of the design of a 24 MWe ocean thermal energy converter are presented. In particular, the following

J. S. Sigg; G. T. Heydt

1976-01-01

218

Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, accounting for turbine characteristics and siting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, global ocean usable wind power is evaluated for modern offshore turbine characteristics including hub height, usable portion of the wind speed distribution, and siting depth. Mean wind power increases by 30%, 69%, and 73% within the tropics and Northern and Southern Hemisphere extratropics, respectively, between hub heights of 10 m and 100 m. A turbine with a cut-out speed of 25 m s-1 (30 m s-1) within the Northern Hemisphere storm track harvests between 55% (82%) and 85% (>98%) of available power. Within this region, a 2-3 m s-1 change in cut-out speed can result in a 5-7% change in usable power. Eighty meter wind power accumulates at a rate of 20-45 MW km2 m-2 per meter depth increase from the shore to the shelf break. Beyond the shelf break, wind power accumulates at a slower rate (<12 MW km2 m-2 m-1). The combined impact of all three characteristics on available wind power is assessed for three technology tiers: existing, planned, and future innovations. Usable percent of 80 m available global ocean wind power ranges from 0.40% for existing to 2.73% for future envisioned turbine specifications. Offshore wind power production is estimated using three offshore wind turbine power curves, three ocean depth limits and two siting densities. Global offshore wind power is as much as 39 TW (54% of onshore) and is maximized for the smallest and least powerful of the three turbine specifications evaluated.

Capps, Scott B.; Zender, Charles S.

2010-05-01

219

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

220

Preliminary Evaluation of the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program for Renewable Power Projects in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This article evaluates the first year of the Section 1603 Treasury cash grant program, which enables renewable power projects in the U.S. to elect cash grants in lieu of the federal tax credits that are otherwise available. To date, the program has been heavily subscribed, particularly by wind power projects, which had received 86% of the nearly $2.6 billion in grants that had been disbursed as of March 1, 2010. As of that date, 6.2 GW of the 10 GW of new wind capacity installed in the U.S. in 2009 had applied for grants in lieu of production tax credits. Roughly 2.4 GW of this wind capacity may not have otherwise been built in 2009 absent the grant program; this 2.4 GW may have supported approximately 51,600 short-term full-time-equivalent (FTE) gross job-years in the U.S. during the construction phase of these wind projects, and 3,860 longterm FTE gross jobs during the operational phase. The program’s popularity stems from the significant economic value that it provides to renewable power projects, relative to the otherwise available tax credits. Although grants reward investment rather than efficient performance, this evaluation finds no evidence at this time of either widespread “gold-plating” or performance problems.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim

2010-05-05

221

Evaluation Method of Allowable Capacity of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources in a Microgrid with Tie-line Power Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a cooperative control system of gas engine generators and lead-acid battery in a microgrid. The control system enables a microgrid system to balance between electric power demand/supply and to control the state of charge (SOC) of the battery at the same time. To evaluate this control system, we simulated its performance in balancing the control of an experimental microgrid facility with two reciprocating engine generators for a day in which large fluctuation in PV and wind turbine output was observed. The capacity ratio of renewable energy installed in a microgrid can be increased beyond 50%.

Sasaki, Yuta; Bando, Shigeru; Asano, Hiroshi; Tagami, Seiji

222

Restructuring and renewable energy developments in California:using Elfin to simulate the future California power market  

SciTech Connect

We provide some basic background information on support for renewable in California on the expected operation of the power pool and bilateral markets, and on the three key policy types modeled here. We discuss the Elfin production cost and expansion planning model as well as key assumptions that we made to model the future California pool. We present results from the successful Elfin models runs. We discuss the implications of the study, as well as key areas for future research. Additional information on results, Elfin's expansion planning logic, and resource options can be found in the appendices.

Kirshner, Dan; Kito, Suzie; Marnay, Chris; Pickle, Steve; Schumacher, Katja; Sezgen,Osman; Wiser, Ryan

1998-06-01

223

Global Renewable Energy Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources (RES) supply 14% of the total world energy demand. RES are biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind, and marine energies. The renewables are the primary, domestic and clean or inexhaustible energy resources. The percentage share of biomass was 62.1% of total renewable energy sources in 1995. Large-scale hydropower supplies 20 percent of global electricity. Wind power in coastal

Ayhan Demirba?

2006-01-01

224

Subsidies for Renewable Energies in the Presence of Learning Effects and Market Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the impact of learning by doing, learning spill-overs, and imperfect competition in a model with two types of electricity producers, an oligopolistic sector of polluting fossil-fuel utilities and a competitive fringe of non-polluting generators of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E). Furthermore we consider an upstream industry of RES-E equipment producers engaged in learning by doing. We show

Johanna Reichenbach; Till Requate

2011-01-01

225

Non-powered Dams: An untapped source of renewable electricity in the USA  

SciTech Connect

Hydropower has been a source of clean, renewable electricity in the USA for more than 100 years. Today, approximately 2500 US dams provide 78 GW of conventional and 22 GW of pumped-storage hydropower. In contrast, another approximately 80 000 dams in the USA do not include hydraulic turbine equipment and provide non-energy related services, such as flood control, water supply, navigation, and recreation.

Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Battey, Hoyt [Department of Energy; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

2012-01-01

226

Ocean Microbial Fuel Cell: Power Source and Research Tool for Studying Marine Biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean microbial fuel cells (OMFCs) are devices capable of producing modest levels of electrical power. The cells are ultimately driven by the oxidation of marine organic matter at the anode and reduction of dissolved oxygen at the cathode, but microbial transformations and electrochemically active intermediates play important roles in the overall process of electricity generation. By separating the factors that affect the performance of OMFCs into components of an equivalent circuit and manipulating these factors in laboratory and field experiments, we are gaining new insight into how specific redox reactions, sources of organic matter, and mass transport at small and intermediate scales may enrich environments with certain groups of microorganisms that in turn regulate anaerobic organic matter degradation. This talk will illustrate these relationships with the results from at least four experiments in which either fresh plankton, or substrates within continental margin sediments, fuelled the OMFCs. In each example, reduced sulfur compounds were found to be major electron carriers to the fuel cell anode. These intermediates came from a variety of sources including sulfide generated from sulfate reduction in mixed solutions surrounding the electrode, sulfide generated distally but transported by pore-water diffusion and advection, iron monosulfides and pyrite present is a sediment matrix centimeters from the electrode, and sulfide or polysulfide produced within an electrode biofilm. To illustrate a practical application of an OMFC, we are currently constructing a benthic cell that will power a sonic receiver in a network of underwater sensors. The form of this OMFC resembles a benthic chamber with a footprint of one square meter. It should be capable of supplying electrical power and regulating its output for years to decades.

Reimers, C. E.; Girguis, P.; Westall, J. C.; Nielsen, M. E.

2007-05-01

227

Fundamental Properties of and Transition to a Fully Renewable Pan-European Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a top-down stylized model to analyse the impact of a transition to a European power system based only on wind and solar power. Wind and solar power generation is calculated from high-resolution weather data and based on the country specific electricity demand alone, we introduce a model of the conventional power system that facilitates simple spatio-temporal modelling of its macroscopic behavior without direct reference to the underlying technological, economical, and political development in the system. Using this model, we find that wind and solar power generation can replace conventional power generation and power capacity to a large degree if power transmission across the continent is made possible.

Andresen, G. B.; Rasmussen, M. G.; Rodriguez, R. A.; Becker, S.; Greiner, M.

2012-10-01

228

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

1995-03-01

229

California Energy Commission: Ocean Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This California Energy Commission website discusses how electrical power can be generated from tidal power, wave power, ocean thermal energy conversion, ocean currents, ocean winds, salinity gradients, and other ocean phenomena. Users can learn how different areas of the ocean vary in their potential energy production. The site presents the history of ocean energy production and the issues associated with permitting an ocean wave-energy conversion facility. Users can find links to ocean energy education and to companies and research groups involved with ocean energy development.

230

Single-phase Shunt Active Filter interfacing renewable energy sources with the power grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a single-phase Shunt Active Filter combined with a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) connected to a solar panel array. The Shunt Active Filter's power stage consists of a two-leg IGBT inverter commanded by a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) with control based on the Theory of Instantaneous Reactive Power (p-q Theory). The MPPT is based on a step-up

Pedro Neves; D. Goncalves; J. G. Pinto; Renato Alves; João L. Afonso

2009-01-01

231

Re-tracking of SAR altimeter ocean power-waveforms and related accuracies of the retrieved sea surface height, significant wave height and wind speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the simulation of the power- waveforms acquired in by a radar altimeter operating in SAR mode over ocean surfaces, including the effects of the radar transfer function and of the geophysical ocean parameters, namely the sea surface height( SSH), the sea surface wave height (SWH) and the surface wind speed (WS). The performances of the SAR mode

L. Phalippou; V. Enjolras

2007-01-01

232

Energy Storage for Variable Renewable Energy Resource Integration - A Regional Assessment for the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP)  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the following key questions in the discussion on the integration of renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest power grid: a) what will be the future balancing requirement to accommodate a simulated expansion of wind energy resources from 3.3 GW in 2008 to 14.4 GW in 2019 in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP), and b) what are the most cost effective technological solutions for meeting the balancing requirements in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP). A life-cycle analysis was performed to assess the least-cost technology option for meeting the new balancing requirement. The technologies considered in this study include conventional turbines (CT), sodium sulfur (NaS) batteries, lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, pumped hydro energy storage (PH), and demand response (DR). Hybrid concepts that combine 2 or more of the technologies above are also evaluated. This analysis was performed with collaboration by the Bonneville Power Administration and funded by the Energy Storage Systems Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Guo, Xinxin; Nguyen, Tony B.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

2011-03-20

233

Can loss of balance from mesoscale eddies adequately power deep ocean mixing?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global ocean thermohaline circulation is partly composed of the sinking of dense surface waters at high latitudes. But in order to close the circulation and maintain the abyssal stratification, the dense waters must rise up again through vertical mixing. This process requires a source of energy roughly estimated to be 2 TW. Previous work has concluded that tides and winds may adequately supply the required power, but the conceivable role of loss of balance from mesoscale eddies, resulting in the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves and associated vertical mixing, has hitherto been considered to be 'of unknown importance' (Wunsch and Ferrari, 2004). We investigate the potential role of loss of balance, by studying the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves by balanced flow in a rotating two-layer annulus laboratory experiment (Williams et al., 2008). A photograph from the experiment is shown in the figure. As the Rossby number of the balanced flow decreases, the amplitude of the emitted inertia-gravity waves also decreases, but much less rapidly than is predicted by several dynamical theories. This finding suggests that inertia-gravity waves might be far more energised than previously thought. The balanced flow leaks roughly one per cent of its energy each rotation period into internal inertia-gravity waves at the peak of their generation. Crude extrapolation of this result to the global ocean suggests that the flux of energy from mesoscale eddies into internal waves may be as large as 1.5 TW. We claim no accuracy for this figure which is only indicative. Nevertheless, we are persuaded that generation of inertia-gravity waves from the balanced mesoscale flow may be an important source of energy for deep interior mixing, and deserves further study. Reference Williams, PD, Haine, TWN and Read, PL (2008) Inertia-Gravity Waves Emitted from Balanced Flow: Observations, Properties, and Consequences. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65(11), pp 3543-3556. doi:10.1175/2008JAS2480.1 Photograph showing internal inertia-gravity waves generated by loss of balance from the large-scale flow in a rotating two-layer annulus experiment in the laboratory.

Williams, P. D.; Haine, T. W.; Read, P. L.

2009-12-01

234

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

Mai, T.

2012-08-01

235

A probabilistic study of electric power systems considering the uncertainties of renewable generation and loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach based upon probabilistic load flow to study the effect of wind gener- ation and variation in loads on an electric power grid. A probabilistic approach was adopted due to the uncertainty associated with wind generation and power consumption. A new method of selecting random variables from historical data is implemented by finding the times of

Justin Goza; Kevin Wedeward; Michael Smith

2011-01-01

236

Spatial and temporal variations and budget of radiocesium in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We determined the inventory of radiocesium released by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident to the North Pacific Ocean based on measurements of seawater samples collected in the North Pacific Ocean after the accident. Comparison of the observed inventory with the model-simulated results allowed us to obtain realistic values of 10-13 PBq for the total atmospheric deposition of 134Cs and 137Cs released by the FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific. Before the Fukushima accident, 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific Ocean was about 69 PBq, the 12 - 15 PBq of 137Cs newly added by atmospheric deposition and the 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq added by direct discharge, therefore increased the total 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific Ocean by 22-27 %. We also determined that the total atmospheric release of 134Cs and 137Cs by the FNPP1 accident was about 14-17 PBq, respectively. Using global simulated results as boundary conditions, a 1-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was also carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99 %) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Kajino, Mizuo; Tanaka, Taichu; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Hayami, Hiroshi; Hamajima, Yasunori; Gamo, Toshitaka; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Kawano, Takeshi; Murata, Akihiro; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Fukasawa, Masao; Chino, Masamichi

2013-04-01

237

Autonomous renewable energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a

Ventzislav Valtchev; Alex Van den Bossche; Jozef Ghijselen; Jan Melkebeek

2000-01-01

238

Environmental Technology Verification Report - Electric Power and Heat Production Using Renewable Biogas at Patterson Farms  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

239

Global Prospects for Utility-Scale Solar Power: Toward Spatially Renewable Energy Systems - Working Paper 235  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Kevin Ummel provides high-resolution estimates of the global potential and cost of solar power technologies while identifying deployment patterns that minimize the cost of greenhouse gas abatement. His findings are based on a global simulation of providing 2,000 TWh of solar power (about 7 percent of total consumption) in 2030, taking into account least-cost siting of facilities

Kevin Ummel

2010-01-01

240

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...license renewal term. Stimulation of nuisance organisms...shipworms) 1 SMALL. Stimulation of nuisance organisms...license renewal term. Ground-water Use and Quality...Impacts of refurbishment on ground-water use and...

2009-01-01

241

Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy--case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan.  

PubMed

To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. PMID:19320274

Kuo, Yu-Ming; Fukushima, Yasuhiro

2009-03-01

242

2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Gelman, R.

2012-10-01

243

2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Gelman, R.

2011-10-01

244

2009 Renewable Energy Data Book, August 2010  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Not Available

2010-08-01

245

Lineáris generátorok hullámer?m?vek számára Linear Generators for Wave Power Plants Generatoare liniare destinate centralelor electrice bazate pe energia valurilor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generating power is of great importance in today's world. Due to the pending exhaustion of fossil fuels and to their environmental impact it is crucial to develop clean renewable energy sources. Ocean energy is one of the candidates being a huge, yet unexploited renewable energy source on our planet. In this paper the wave power potential of the Black Sea

Szabó Loránd

246

Exergy of the Ocean Thermal Resource and the Second-Law Efficiency of Idealized Ocean Thermal-Energy-Conversion Power Cycles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A formula is developed to compute the maximum amount of work which can be extracted from a given combined mass of warm and cold ocean water (a quantity called the exergy of the ocean thermal resource). The second-law efficiencies of various proposed ocean...

D. H. Johnson

1982-01-01

247

Optimization of RO desalination systems powered by renewable energies. Part I: Wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation of an experimental RO plant connected directly to a wind system without energy storage was studied. The data obtained confirm the wide spectrum of operation of the plant with respect to the power available and the operation of the system.

Ignacio de la Nuez Pestana; Francisco Javier García Latorre; Celso Argudo Espinoza; Antonio Gómez Gotor

2004-01-01

248

Renewable energy technologies for the Indian power sector: mitigation potential and operational strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future economic development trajectory for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated growth in energy demand, with attendant shortages and problems. Due to the predominance of fossil fuels in the generation mix, there are large negative environmental externalities caused by electricity generation. The power sector alone has a 40 percent contribution to the total carbon emissions. In

Debyani Ghosh; P. R. Shukla; Amit Garg; P. Venkata Ramana

2002-01-01

249

Supply Adequacy Issues in Renewable Energy and Hydro-Based Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supply adequacy represents the systems ability to meet demand on an extended time scale in view of the inherent fluctuation and uncertainty in demand and supply, the non- storability of power and the lead time inherent in capacity additions. With auction based short term spot markets, spot prices should theoretically provide the correct economic signals for ensuring supply adequacy and

Egill Benedikt Hreinsson

2006-01-01

250

Concentrating on Solar Power in a Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining the large demand of clean electricity in Europe (EU) with the large potential of solar electricity generation from concentrating solar power stations (CSP) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) can provide both climate protection and development for both regions and lead to environmental, economical and social sustainability. The presentation will address the concept of solar cogeneration of

F. Trieb; S. Kronshage; G. Knies

2004-01-01

251

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Department of Energy site provides access to more than 600 links and 80,000 documents about renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, including such topics as: bioenergy, hydrogen, power from the oceans, and wind, solar, geothermal, and hydroenergy. Specialized resources include a collection of links to educational and training resources on energy, and a weekly newsletter covering news and events, new sites on EREN, and energy facts and tips. A consumer section offers advice on energy conservation and home weatherization.

2002-03-04

252

Safety Evaluation Report Related to the License Renewal and Power Increase for the National Bureau of Standards Reactor, Docket No. 50-184. Supplement Number 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supplement 1 to the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) related to the renewal of the operating license and for a power increase (10 MWt to 20 MWt) for the research reactor at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) facility has been prepared by the Office of N...

1984-01-01

253

Renewability of wind power in China: A case study of nonrenewable energy cost and greenhouse gas emission by a plant in Guangxi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high degree of renewability of wind power in China is illustrated by a case study of nonrenewable energy cost and greenhouse gas emission to a typical wind farm in Guangxi. The account for the life cycle of components manufacturing and transportation, installation, operation, maintenance, disassembly and disposal is based on the embodiment intensities of nonrenewable energy use and greenhouse

G. Q. Chen; Q. Yang; Y. H. Zhao

2011-01-01

254

Renewable Power Production of Moderate Temperature Geothermal Heat Using Air Conditioning Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been developed to enable cost-effective power production from moderate temperature liquid heat sources, defined as temperatures less than 125 0C. Examples of such heat sources are the warm water from geothermal wells, the warm water\\/oil mixture from active or abandoned oil and gas wells and the warm jacket water from reciprocating engines that is normally cooled in

JOOST J. BRASZ

255

Holistic modeling, design and optimal digital control of a combined renewable power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the holistic modeling approach of a combined Photovoltaic, Wind and Fuel Cell power system. The method is using the DK5 modeling\\/design environment from Mentor Graphics and is based on the new Handel-C programming language. The goal of the work carried out was to achieve an optimized holistic digital control system design, followed by its rapid prototyping

Alin Tisan; Marcian Cirstea; Attila Buchman; Alberto Parera; Stefan Oniga; Danut Ilea

2010-01-01

256

Renewable Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the trade association for the UK bioenergy industry, British Biogen's mission is to promote and coordinate the commercial development of biomass as a renewable fuel resource for energy production. British Biogen has merged with the Renewable Power Association. By clicking on the Renewable Energy tab, users will find information on the different subject areas. REA adds new information based upon what we discover and updates these subject fields.

2007-06-11

257

Temporal Resolution in Time Series and Probabilistic Models of Renewable Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two main types of logistical models used for long-term performance prediction of autonomous power systems: time series and probabilistic. Time series models are more common and are more accurate for sizing storage systems because they are able to track the state of charge. However, the computational time is usually greater than for probabilistic models. It is common for time series models to perform 1-year simulations with a 1-hour time step. This is likely because of the limited availability of high resolution data and the increase in computation time with a shorter time step. Computation time is particularly important because these types of models are often used for component size optimization which requires many model runs. This thesis includes a sensitivity analysis examining the effect of the time step on these simulations. The results show that it can be significant, though it depends on the system configuration and site characteristics. Two probabilistic models are developed to estimate the temporal resolution error of a 1-hour simulation: a time series/probabilistic model and a fully probabilistic model. To demonstrate the application of and evaluate the performance of these models, two case studies are analyzed. One is for a typical residential system and one is for a system designed to provide on-site power at an aquaculture site. The results show that the time series/probabilistic model would be a useful tool if accurate distributions of the sub-hour data can be determined. Additionally, the method of cumulant arithmetic is demonstrated to be a useful technique for incorporating multiple non-Gaussian random variables into a probabilistic model, a feature other models such as Hybrid2 currently do not have. The results from the fully probabilistic model showed that some form of autocorrelation is required to account for seasonal and diurnal trends.

Hoevenaars, Eric

258

Renewables and air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate

Wooley

2000-01-01

259

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

Mai, T.

2012-08-01

260

Renewable Energy Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

2010-01-01

261

Project NEPTUNE: an innovative, powered, fibre-optic cabled deep ocean observatory spanning the Juan de Fuca plate, NE Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEPTUNE is an innovative facility, a deep-water cabled observatory, that will transform marine science. MARS and VENUS are deep and shallow-water test bed facilities for NEPTUNE located in Monterey Canyon, California and in southern British Columbia, respectively; both were funded in 2002. NEPTUNE will be a network of over 30 subsea observatories covering the 200,000 sq. km Juan de Fuca tectonic plate, Northeast Pacific. It will draw power via two shore stations and receive and exchange data with scientists through 3000 km of submarine fiber-optic cables. Each observatory, and cabled extensions, will host and power many scientific instruments on the surrounding seafloor, in seafloor boreholes and buoyed through the water column. Remotely operated and autonomous vehicles will reside at depth, recharge at observatories, and respond to distant labs. Continuous near-real-time multidisciplinary measurement series will extend over 30 years. Free from the limitations of battery life, ship schedules/ accommodations, bad weather and delayed access to data, scientists will monitor remotely their deep-sea experiments in real time on the Internet, and routinely command instruments to respond to storms, plankton blooms, earthquakes, eruptions, slope slides and other events. Scientists will be able to pose entirely new sets of questions and experiments to understand complex, interacting Earth System processes such as the structure and seismic behavior of the ocean crust; dynamics of hot and cold fluids and gas hydrates in the upper ocean crust and overlying sediments; ocean climate change and its effect on the ocean biota at all depths; and the barely known deep-sea ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity. NEPTUNE is a US/Canada (70/30) partnership to design, test, build and operate the network on behalf of a wide scientific community. The total cost of the project is estimated at about U.S. 250 million from concept to operation. Over U.S. 50 million has already been funded for design, development, and the test beds. NEPTUNE will be among the first of many such cabled ocean observatories. Much is to be gained by being among the scientific and industrial pioneers. The multidisciplinary data archive will be an amazing, expanding resource for scientists and students. The public will share in the research discoveries of one of the last unexplored places on earth through an extensive education/outreach program.

Barnes, C.; Delaney, J.

2003-04-01

262

Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration--nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarized using four different NF membranes (BW30, NF90, ESPA4, TFC-S), and examined in more detail for the BW30 membrane. On an Australian spring day, the system produced 1.1 m3 of permeate with an average conductivity of 0.28 mS x cm(-1), recovering 28% of the brackish (8.29 mS x cm(-1) conductivity) feedwater with an average specific energy consumption of 2.3 kWh x m(-3). The RE-membrane system tolerated large fluctuations in solar irradiance (500--1200 W x m(-2)), resulting in only small increases in the permeate conductivity. When equipped with the NF90 (cloudy day) and ESPA4 (rainy day) membranes, the system was still able to produce 1.36 m(-3) and 0.85 m(-3) of good quality permeate, respectively. The TFC-S membrane was not able to produce adequate water quality from the bore water tested. It is concluded that batteryless operation is a simple and robust way to operate such systems under conditions ranging from clear skies to medium cloud cover. PMID:18605587

Richards, B S; Capão, D P S; Schäfer, A I

2008-06-15

263

Renewable energy: An assessment of public awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted to assess attitudes of the public towards renewable energy. The information gathered was analysed for respondents attitudes towards issues such as, knowledge of renewable energy sources and power generation, encouragement by government as well as at a personal level, comparison of fossil fuels use and renewable power, opinions for encouragement, leads for encouraging renewable energy growth

V. P. Khambalkar; S. S. Katkhede; S. Dahatonde; N. D. Korpe; S. M. Nage

2010-01-01

264

Programs in Renewable Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our nation faces significant challenges as we enter the 1990s: securing a reliable supply of competitively priced energy, improving the quality of our environment, and increasing our share of foreign markets for goods and services. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Programs in Renewable Energy are working toward meeting these challenges by developing the technologies that make use of our nation's largest energy resource: renewable energy. The sunlight, wind biomass, flowing water, ocean energy, and geothermal energy that make up the renewable energy resource can be found throughout our nation. These resources can provide all the forms of energy our nation needs: liquid fuels, electricity, and heating and cooling. Renewable energy meets about 10 percent of our need for these forms of energy today, yet the potential contribution is many times greater. DOE's Programs in Renewable Energy are working side-by-side with American industry to develop the technologies that convert renewable energy resources into practical, cost-competitive energy. After a decade of progress in research, several of these technologies are poised to make large contributions during the 1990s and beyond. This booklet provides an overview of the renewable energy programs and their plans for FY 1990. Sources of additional information are listed at the back of the booklet.

1990-01-01

265

Development of tidal and ocean current power plant using elastic turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power generating cost is a important problem in a sustainable energy. In order to reduce the cost for the power generation, passive power control using elastic turbine blade made of composites is adopted. In this study, the performance evaluation system with fluid-structure interaction analysis and water tank tests has been developed to design the passive power control property and

Y. Minami; T. Nimura; N. Sasaki; H. Murayama; K. Uzawa; H. Wada

2011-01-01

266

The Oceans  

SciTech Connect

Table of Contents: The Physical Ocean. The Chemical Ocean. The Biological Ocean. The Geoglogical Ocean. The Metorological Ocean. The Engineer's Ocean. The Global Ocean - Past, Present, and Future. Table 1: Distances, Areas, Volumes, and Weights. Table 2: Some Facts About the Earth and the Ocean. Table 3: Some Properties of Ocean Water. Table 4: Elements Present in Solution in Oceanic Seawater. Table 5: Animal Forms in the Ocean. Glossary. Bibliography. Index.

Groves

1989-01-01

267

Innovative Power-Augmentation-Guide-Vane Design of Wind-Solar Hybrid Renewable Energy Harvester for Urban High Rise Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To generate greater quantities of energy from wind, the most efficient solution would be by increasing the wind speed. Also, due to the decreasing number of economic wind energy sites, there are plans to place wind turbines closer to populated areas. To site wind turbines out from rural areas, the current problems of wind turbines need to be resolved, especially visual impact, poor starting behaviour in low wind speeds, noise and danger caused by blade failure. In this paper, a patented wind-solar hybrid renewable energy harvester is introduced. It is a compact system that integrates and optimizes several green elements and can be built on the top (or between upper levels) of high rise buildings or structures. This system can be used in remote and urban areas, particularly at locations where the wind speed is lower and more turbulent. It overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by guiding and increasing the speed of the high altitude free-stream wind through fixed or yaw-able power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) before entering the wind turbine (straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine, VAWT in this project) at center portion. PAGV is a new and innovative design where its appearance or outer design can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact. From the studies, it is shown that the wind speed increment in the PAGV can be produced according to the Bernoulli's principle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is used to optimize the geometry of the PAGV and the simulation results demonstrated the technical possibility of this innovative concept. The PAGV replaces the free air-stream from wind by multiple channels of speed-increased and directional-controlled air-stream. With the PAGV, this lift-type VAWT can be self-started and its size can be reduced for a given power output. The design is also safer since the VAWT is enclosed by the PAGV. By integrating the PAGV with the VAWT (the diameter and height of PAGV are 2 times larger than the VAWT's), the predicted power generated (at free-stream wind speed = 3.5 m/s) is 1.25 times higher than the VAWT that has the same size as the PAGV. This new wind energy generation configuration should generate interest in the international market, even for regions with weaker winds. The correlation between CFD simulation and wind tunnel test will be carried out and reported elsewhere.

Tong, Chong Wen; Zainon, M. Z.; Chew, Poh Sin; Kui, Soo Chun; Keong, Wee Seng; Chen, Pan Kok

2010-06-01

268

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): Ocean Engineering Technology Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is the principal ocean energy source under development in the U.S. because of its potential, state of development, and availability and access of the resource to the U.S. The major features of OTEC are that the source is renewable with minimum impact on the environment and the constant availability of the resource enhances OTEC acceptability

J. Giannotti; J. Vadus

1981-01-01

269

Potential for ocean thermal energy conversion electric power generation in the Southeast region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the operating characteristics and investment costs of an OTEC electric power plant in the Southeast U.S. is presented. Conceptual design of an OTEC plant is discussed with the capital cost estimate, and conventional coal fuel plant costs. A computer analysis is made of the life cycle costs of electric power generation with conventional generating plants, and an OTEC

P. L. Sutherland; F. G. Arey Jr.; D. H. Guild

1979-01-01

270

Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are

Y. G. Chung; G. B. Lee; S. Y. Bang; S. B. Choi; S. U. Lee; J. H. Yoon; S. Y. Nam; H. R. Lee

2006-01-01

271

Ocean Wave Energy Harvesting Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of an ocean wave energy-harvesting device that can be used as a renewable energy source for ocean monitoring systems. The core technology is a mass-spring based high efficiency, low frequency linear generator that was integrated to a spar buoy...

I. E. Childress J. T. Cheung

2007-01-01

272

OTEC ocean engineering technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is the principal ocean energy source under development by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) because of its potential, state of development, and availability and access of the resource to the U. S. The major features of OTEC are that the source is renewable with minimum impact on the environment, and the constant availability

J. Vadus

1982-01-01

273

Update '05: ocean wave and tidal power generation projects in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summary, San Francisco's interest in the HydroVenturi approach is due to the value proposition of no moving parts underwater, compared to the underwater turbines of a LaRance river-type saltwater entranement, of a Blue Energy or Verdant Power vertical or horizontal axis-type propeller installation. A technology with no moving parts underwater makes tidal power attractive to San Francisco's well-established environmental

P. O'Donnell

2005-01-01

274

Renewables and air quality  

SciTech Connect

The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

Wooley, D.R.

2000-08-01

275

Learning about Renewable Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

276

Two-dimensional numerical model of the near-field flow for an Ocean Thermal Power Plant. Part I. The theoretical approach and a laboratory simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the computer model NRFL02 which has been developed to calculate the near-field stratified turbulent flow driven by the intakes and outflows of an ocean thermal power plant. A two-dimensional geometry is assumed, with the power plant intakes and jet outflows modelled by boundary conditions on the left boundary of a rectangular domain. Horizontal flow through the right

G. O. Roberts; S. A. Piacsek; J. Toomre

1977-01-01

277

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...renewal term. However, site-specific review is required...shock potential at the site. See § 51.53(c...at plants located in a medium or high population...services: public safety, social services, and tourism...small significance at all sites. Public...

2008-01-01

278

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...renewal term. However, site-specific review is required...shock potential at the site. See § 51.53(c...at plants located in a medium or high population...services: public safety, social services, and tourism...small significance at all sites. Public...

2007-01-01

279

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...renewal term. However, site-specific review is required...shock potential at the site. See § 51.53(c...at plants located in a medium or high population...services: public safety, social services, and tourism...small significance at all sites. Public...

2003-01-01

280

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...renewal term. However, site-specific review is required...shock potential at the site. See § 51.53(c...at plants located in a medium or high population...services: public safety, social services, and tourism...small significance at all sites. Public...

2011-01-01

281

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...renewal term. However, site-specific review is required...shock potential at the site. See § 51.53(c...at plants located in a medium or high population...services: public safety, social services, and tourism...small significance at all sites. Public...

2005-01-01

282

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...renewal term. However, site-specific review is required...shock potential at the site. See § 51.53(c...at plants located in a medium or high population...services: public safety, social services, and tourism...small significance at all sites. Public...

2012-01-01

283

Wind powered pumped hydro storage systems, a means of increasing the penetration of renewable energy in the Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of islands have found themselves obliged to place restrictions on the penetration of renewable sourced energy in their conventional electrical grid systems. In general, this has been due to certain energy related characteristics often connected to their very nature as islands. These limitations attempt to prevent the appearance of problems that might affect the stability and safety

C. Bueno; J. A. Carta

2006-01-01

284

Cool energy. Renewal solutions to environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

This book begins with a chapter describing some of the economic and environmental consequences of America's fossil-fuel-based economy. It makes the case that, despite some progress in reducing pollution from fossil fuels, no lasting cure for the deteriorating environment - in particular, the looming threat of global warming - is possible without developing alternative fuel sources. That renewable energy can provide the bulk of the new supplies needed is the theme of the second chapter, which discusses the relative advantages of these resources compared to fossil fuels and nuclear power and evaluates their long-term potential. The bulk of the book considers five broad categories of renewable energy sources: solar, wind, biomass (plant matter), rivers and oceans, and geothermal. For each of these sources, the book describes its current application, discusses its costs, analyzes new technologies under development, and assesses its positive and negative environmental impacts. This book shows the vital role renewable sources can and should play in America's energy future. It cites studies indicating that, with the right policies, renewable energy could provide as much as half of America's energy within 40 years, and an even larger fraction down the road. Such a rapid shift from existing energy sources would be dramatic but not unprecedented. In 1920, coal supplied 70% of US energy, but within 40 years its share had dropped to just 20% as oil and natural gas use increased. Sooner or later, oil and natural gas will also fade in importance. The real question is when. This book makes the case that the time to move decisively toward a renewable energy economy has arrived.

Brower, M.

1992-01-01

285

Conceptual design of an Open-Cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Net Power-Producing Experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii.

Bharathan, D.; Green, H. J.; Link, H. F.; Parsons, B. K.; Parsons, J. M.; Zangrando, F.

1990-07-01

286

Oceans Alive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

Rosentrater, Lynn

287

Conceptual design of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plants in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive temperature readings were obtained to determine suitable OTEC power plant sites in the Philippines. An analysis of temperature profiles reveals that surface seawater is in the range of 25 to 29°C throughout the year while seawater at 500 to 700 m depth remains at a low temperature of 8 to 4°C, respectively. In this article, 14 suitable sites within

Haruo Uehara; C. O. Dilao; Tsutomu Nakaoka

1988-01-01

288

A Hybrid renewable DC microgrid voltage control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DC microgrid is a hybrid renewable system that renewable sources supply the average load demand, while storage and nonrenewable generation maintain the power balance in the presence of the stochastic renewable sources. The control strategy can realize the optimal allocation of power by using DC bus signal and the bus voltage is controlled by PV converter, battery converter and

Xiaofeng Sun; Zhizhen Lian; Baocheng Wang; Xin Li

2009-01-01

289

Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-to-grid power (V2G) uses electric-drive vehicles (battery, fuel cell, or hybrid) to provide power for specific electric markets. This article examines the systems and processes needed to tap energy in vehicles and implement V2G. It quantitatively compares today's light vehicle fleet with the electric power system. The vehicle fleet has 20 times the power capacity, less than one-tenth the utilization,

Willett Kempton; Jasna Tomi?

2005-01-01

290

THORs Power Method for Hydrokinetic Devices - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Ocean current energy represents a vast untapped source of renewable energy that exists on the outer continental shelf areas of the 5 major continents. Ocean currents are unidirectional in nature and are perpetuated by thermal and salinity sea gradients, as well as coriolis forces imparted from the earth's rotation. This report details THORs Power Method, a breakthrough power control method that can provide dramatic increases to the capacity factor over and above existing marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices employed in the extraction of energy from ocean currents. THORs Power Method represents a constant speed, variable depth operational method that continually locates the ocean current turbine at a depth at which the rated power of the generator is routinely achieved. Variable depth operation is achieved by using various vertical force effectors, including ballast tanks for variable weight, a hydrodynamic wing for variable lift or down force and drag flaps for variable vehicle drag forces.

J. Turner Hunt; Joel Rumker

2012-08-08

291

Calibration of a high-power, low-frequency, parametric array designed for ocean environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guigné International Limited (GIL) in association with Defense Research Establishment Atlantic (DREA), has designed and built a high-powered parametric array transmitter operating at a center frequency of 100 kHz. The parametric array will be integrated into DREA's bottom-tethered Wide Band Sonar (WBS) and used to collect environmental acoustic data in littoral waters. This paper presents the results of a calibration experiment performed at DREA's acoustic calibration barge in Bedford Basin, Halifax, Canada. The data were compared to literature models for the near-field and the far-field of a parametric array. The results indicate that the interaction zone of the array is confined to the near-field and that the array approaches the limit of non-linear absorption; however, small-signal absorption plays a non-negligible role. Using a source level of 232 dB at each primary frequency, parametric array gains of -65 dB to -40 dB were measured at difference frequencies ranging from 1 to 10 kHz. The full beam widths measured to the -3 dB points were typically 2 ° to 3 °. The modeled results were in reasonable agreement with the data. The far-field model performed almost as well as the near-field model, in spite of the fact that most measurements were made within the Rayleigh distance. .

Hines, Paul C.; Hamm, Craig

2000-07-01

292

NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3: Additional tabulation of the power spectra, part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At Sea Test are analyzed. Also included are the following ittems: (1) sensor factors and offsets, and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented.

1983-12-01

293

NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3, part 1: Tabulation of the power spectra for selected channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test was analyzed. Data presented included: (1)sensor factors and off sets and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical units to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe. The mean, root-mean-square (RMS) maximum, and minimum values at each depth are shown in each plot.

1983-11-01

294

Renewable Diesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about the environmental impact of fossil fuels – as well as the possibility that fossil fuel production may soon\\u000a fall short of demand~– have spurred a search for renewable alternative fuels. Distillates, the class of fossil fuels which\\u000a includes diesel and fuel oil, account for a significant fraction of worldwide fossil fuel demand. Renewable distillates may\\u000a be produced via

Robert Rapier

295

The impact of oceanic circulation and phase transfer on the dispersion of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism behind the dispersion of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 2011 is investigated using a numerical model. This model is a Lagrangian particle tracking-ocean circulation coupled model that is capable of solving the movement and migration of radionuclides between seawater, particulates, and bottom sediments. Model simulations show the radionuclides dispersing rapidly into the interior of the North Pacific once they enter a meso-scale eddy. However, some radionuclides also remain near the coast, with spatial distribution depending strongly on the oceanic circulation during the first month after the release. Major adsorption to bottom sediments occurs during this first month and many of these radionuclides remain on the sea floor once they are adsorbed. Model results suggest that weak offshore advection during the first month will increase the adsorption of radionuclides to bottom sediments and decelerate the dispersion to the open ocean. If vertical mixing is weak, however, fewer radionuclides reach the sea floor and adsorb to bottom sediments. More radionuclides will then quickly disperse to the open ocean.

Choi, Y.; Kida, S.; Takahashi, K.

2013-07-01

296

Renewable Energy Resources Impact on Clean Electrical Power by developing the North-West England Hydro Resource Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a sequential decision support system to promote hydroelectric power in North-West England. The system, composed of integrated models, addresses barriers to the installation of hydroelectric power schemes. Information is linked through an economic assessment which identifies different turbine options, assesses their suitability for location and demand; and combines the different types of information in

Philip Leigh; George Aggidis; David Howard; Bob Rothschild

2007-01-01

297

Applications of the Renewable Energy Network Optimization Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the renewable energy industry continues to grow so does the requirement for atmospheric modeling and analysis tools to maximize both wind and solar power. Renewable energy generation is variable however; presenting challenges for electrical grid operation and requires a variety of measures to adequately firm power. These measures include the production of non-renewable generation during times when renewables are

R. Alliss; R. Link; D. Apling; H. Kiley; M. Mason; K. Darmenova

2010-01-01

298

Development of Composite Fiber-Optic Electric-Power Umbilical Cable and Optical Feedthrough for Deep Ocean Mining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of mining systems for mineral resources from deep ocean floors is now progressing in many countries. In Japan, the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, has conducted research and development for a manganese nodule mining system. In...

T. Mitsui T. Gomi T. Ito S. Ushitani M. Yamaguchi

1983-01-01

299

Corrosion and Biofouling on the Non-Heat-Exchanger Surfaces of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Power Plant. A Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Of the many foreseeable problems confronting economical ocean thermal energy conversion operation, two major items are the deterioration of the structural and functional components, which prevents efficient operation, and the biofouling of the surfaces, w...

V. J. Castelli

1979-01-01

300

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

DeMeo, E.

2012-08-01

301

Inventory of Renewable Energy Generators Eligible for the Maryland Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Maryland Power Plant Research Program published the Inventory of Renewable Energy Resources Eligible for the Maryland Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard in 2006 (2006 Inventory Report). That inventory quantified resources that were eligible at the ti...

C. Mudd L. Schultz P. O'Conner

2012-01-01

302

Heliodromus: Renewable energy from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and the related running out of fossil fuel reserves drive the development of renewable energy sources. To contribute to a solution of these problems, we present the results of a BSc student design synthesis exercise project on Space Based Solar Power (SBSP). A SBSP system generates power in space using solar cells concentrator systems and wireless power transmittance

J. M. Kuiper

2010-01-01

303

Ocean energy program summary. Volume 2: Research summaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, this stored energy is realized as waves, currents, and thermal salinity gradients. The purpose of the Federal Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy in a cost effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The OET Program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where the commercial sector can assess whether applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives or supplements to systems. Past studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to United States energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. Current program emphasis has shifted to open-cycle OTEC power system research because the closed-cycle OTEC system is at a more advanced stage of development and has already attracted industrial interest. During FY 1989, the OET Program focused primarily on the technical uncertainties associated with near-shore open-cycle OTEC systems ranging in size from 2 to 15 MW(sub e). Activities were performed under three major program elements: thermodynamic research and analysis, experimental verification and testing, and materials and structures research. These efforts addressed a variety of technical problems whose resolution is crucial to demonstrating the viability of open-cycle OTEC technology. This publications is one of a series of documents on the Renewable Energy programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. An overview of all the programs is available, entitled Programs in Renewable Energy.

1990-01-01

304

Ice Adhesion Issues in Renewable Energy Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable resources supply only a small fraction of global energy demand. The majority of today’s energy is supplied by fossil fuels. The capacity of fossil fueled facilities to produce power is not as location dependent as renewable energy sources. Many mainstream renewable energy sources like wind, solar, and hydrokinetic must be located where the appropriate natural resources are most abundant.

Rupp Carriveau; Afsaneh Edrisy; Peter Cadieux; Russel Mailloux

2012-01-01

305

Vedvarende energi i stor skala til el- og varmeproduktion. Hovedrapport. (Renewable energy for large-scale power and heat production in the future Danish energy system. Main report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of the project is to analyze the technical, economic and environmental consequences of large-scale introduction of renewable technologies in the Danish energy system. Three strategies for large-scale application of renewable energy are ...

L. H. Nielsen

1994-01-01

306

One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a~lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99%) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

2013-04-01

307

One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways: direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the accident site. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 137Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured 137Cs activities not only adjacent to the accident site, but also in a wide area in the model domain, therefore this implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Employment of improved nudging data by JCOPE2 improved both the offshore transport result and the reproducibility of 137Cs activities 30 km offshore. On the other hand, simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition into the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition into the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The consideration of inflow is important to simulate the 137Cs activity in this model region in the later period of the simulation. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99%) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

2013-08-01

308

Ocean Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Talk provides a glimpse of oceanography and an awareness of the importance of the sea to our environment and our own well-being. There are scientific explanations of ocean bottom features, the properties of seawater, underwater sound, sea ice, ocean currents, tides, waves, and tsunamis. A history of marine exploration and descriptions of the Earth's oceans are also provided.

309

Integrated renewable energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Utilization of several manifestations of solar energy in tandem by means of integrated renewable energy systems (IRES) to supply a variety of energy and other needs has the potential to energize (in contrast to electrification) remote rural areas in a cost-effective manner. Such actions can dramatically improve the quality of life for hundreds of millions of people living in remote villages in the continents of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The environmentally benign nature of renewable resource utilization and the potability of exploiting locally available resources with the consequent growth of job opportunities are some of the many benefits that can accrue by the deployment of IRES. Even small amounts of energy can be very beneficial in remote rural areas of developing countries with no grid connection as compared to the massive urban sprawls in both developed and developing countries. A concerted global effort in this direction can build the much-needed market potential for renewables now, resulting in future cost reductions. Summaries of the three panel session presentations are assembled here for the readers of the IEEE Power Engineering Review: Designing an Integrated Renewable Energy System, by K. Ashenayi, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Africa-1000: Water in Thousands of Villages, by C. Kashkari Founder, Africa-1000, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio; Renewables in Mexico, by J. Gutierrez-Vera, Energia Del Siglo 21, Mexico D.F.

Ramakumar, R. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

1995-02-01

310

Canada's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview of Canadanain oceans outlines the characteristics of the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic marine ecosystems. After a brief look at Canada's ocean environments from a global perspective, additional chapters provide an overview of the physical properties, fauna and human impacts associated with Canada's oceans. For each ocean there is information on water properties, currents, tides, and the ocean floor. Ocean floor information includes descriptions of ocean basins, submarine ridges, continental shelves and sedimentation while current information includes the causes, effects, and names of the currents. There is an explanation of the cause of tides and how they affect each shoreline.

311

76 FR 23848 - Carolina Power And Light Company; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Renewed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Section 6.9.1.6 to add the NRC-approved topical report, EMF-2103(P)(A), Revision 0, ``Realistic Large-Break...Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 safety analyses. Topical Report, EMF-2103(P)(A), Revision 0, was approved by the NRC...

2011-04-28

312

Technological Model of the Independent Power Supply with Converters of Renewable Energy for Base Station of Mobile Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Uzbekistan is present very much of items, which compactly dispersed near to underground water wells and the mountain rivers, deprived of the centralized power supply and network of communication. The basic activity of the inhabitants of these areas is the farm and for its development wireless mobile communication could be in perspective to replace telephone communication. But the embrace

B. M. Makhkamdjanov

2006-01-01

313

Ocean thermal energy conversion: Perspective and status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the thermal gradient between the warm surface waters and the deep cold waters of tropical oceans was first proposed by J. A. d'Arsonval in 1881 and tried unsuccessfully by George Claude in 1930. Interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and other renewable energy sources revived in the 1970s as a result of oil embargoes. At that

Anthony Thomas; David L. Hillis

1990-01-01

314

Renewable Energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

At prevailing economic practice the alarming “two degrees-limit” of global warming will be reached long before the known fossil fuel reserves are gone. A future alternative energy economy relying on renewable energies will be more diverse yet more expensive than traditional combustion the new figure of merit is the cost of CO2 avoidance. This communication surveys the relevant alternatives –

Ulrich Schindewolf; Karl Wilhelm Boeddeker

2010-01-01

315

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Devices, Potential Navigational Hazards and Mitigation Measures  

SciTech Connect

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies. A technical report addressing our findings is available on this Science and Technology Information site under the Product Title, "Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures". This product is a brochure, primarily for project developers, that summarizes important issues in that more comprehensive report, identifies locations where that report can be downloaded, and identifies points of contact for more information.

Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

2009-12-01

316

Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment.  

PubMed

Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe(2+) release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. PMID:23523911

Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

2013-03-05

317

The impact of oceanic circulation and phase transfer on the dispersion of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism behind the dispersion of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 2011 is investigated using a numerical model. This model is a Lagrangian particle tracking - ocean circulation coupled model that has the capability of solving the concentration of radionuclides for those dissolved in seawater and those adsorbed in particulates and bottom sediments. Model results show the radionuclides dispersing rapidly to the interior of the North Pacific along the Kuroshio Extension once they enter a meso-scale eddy. However, radionuclides are also found to remain near the coast with their spatial pattern depending strongly on the oceanic circulation during the first month of the release. This is when most of the adsorption to bottom sediments occurs. If the offshore advection were weak during this period, many radionuclides will be adsorbed to bottom sediments and remain on the coast for some time. If vertical mixing is weak, less radionuclide reach the sea floor and get adsorbed to bottom sediments. More radionuclides will then disperse to the open ocean.

Choi, Y.; Kida, S.; Takahasi, K.

2013-02-01

318

EVALUATION OF THE EMERGENCY EVACUATION PLAN FOR THE OYSTER CREEK NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Lacey Township, Ocean County, New Jersey is the oldest commercial nuclear generating facility operating in the nation, and is also situated in one of the fastest growing counties in the nation's most densely populated state. In July of 2005, the owners of Oyster Creek submitted an application for license renewal, which will allow it

Lindsey Conlow

319

Blue ocean strategy.  

PubMed

Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

2004-10-01

320

Ocean's Alive!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the Museum of Science, Boston, the Ocean's Alive Web site takes a look into the fascinating world of oceans. The Water Planet link has information about the physical features of oceans, how they've been created, the water cycle, and ocean profiles. Other links explain ocean currents, winds and waves, tides, life in the sea, and scientists who study the oceans. The site contains good and easy-to-read descriptions, along with unique and interesting illustrations that make it fun to explore and a must-visit for users interested in the subject.

1998-01-01

321

Ocean Wave and Tidal Energy Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current abstract publication issued bimonthly, contains information on all aspect of ocean thermal energy conversion systems based on exploitation of the temperature difference between the surface water and ocean depth, salinity gradient power systems...

1988-01-01

322

Communication systems for grid integration of renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in renewable energy around the world. Since most renewable sources are intermittent in nature, it is a challenging task to integrate renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure. In this grid integration, communication systems are crucial technologies, which enable the accommodation of distributed renewable energy generation and play an extremely important role in monitoring, operating,

F. Richard Yu; Peng Zhang; Weidong Xiao; Paul Choudhury

2011-01-01

323

Ocean Fertilization and Other Climate Change Mitigation Strategies: An Overview  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate ocean fertilization in the larger context of other proposed strategies for reducing the threat of the global warming, a wide range of different climate change mitigation approaches are compared in terms of their long-term potential, stage of development, relative costs and potential risks, as well as public acceptance. This broad comparative analysis is carried out for the following climate change mitigation strategies: supply-side and end-use efficiency improvements, terrestrial and geological carbon sequestration, CO2 ocean disposal and iron fertilization, nuclear power, and renewable energy generation from biomass, passive solar, solar thermal, photovoltaics, hydroelectric and wind. In addition, because of the inherent problems of conducting an objective comparative cost-benefit analysis, two non-technological solutions to global warming are also discussed: curbing population growth and transitioning to a steady-state economy.

Huesemann, Michael H.

2008-07-29

324

Renewable energy for sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the sole provider of human food. Most farm machines are driven by fossil fuels, which contribute to greenhouse\\u000a gas emissions and, in turn, accelerate climate change. Such environmental damage can be mitigated by the promotion of renewable\\u000a resources such as solar, wind, biomass, tidal, geo-thermal, small-scale hydro, biofuels and wave-generated power. These renewable\\u000a resources have a huge potential

A. Chel; G. Kaushik

2011-01-01

325

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

326

Ocean Terracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean

Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

2007-01-01

327

Combination power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination power plant is disclosed including an ocean thermal energy conversion power plant and a steam generation power plant. Water discharged from a condenser in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant is mixed with water discharged from an evaporator in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant. The mixed water is used as cooling water for a condenser

Y. Nakamoto; T. Terayama

1983-01-01

328

Renewable energy in Taiwan: Its developing status and strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 97% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy,

Falin Chen; Shyi-Min Lu; Yi-Lin Chang

2007-01-01

329

The Promise of Wave Power (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable diverse energy resource plans. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans: it is estimated that if 0.2 % of the oceans' untapped energy could be harnessed, it could provide power sufficient for the entire world. Ocean energy exists in the forms of wave, tidal, marine currents, thermal (temperature gradient) and salinity. Among these forms, significant opportunities and benefits have been identified in the area of ocean wave energy extraction, i.e., harnessing the motion of the ocean waves, and converting that motion into electrical energy. Ocean wave energy refers to the kinetic and potential energy in the heaving motion of ocean waves. Wave energy is essentially concentrated solar energy (as is wind energy). The heating of the earth’s surface by the sun (with other complex processes) drives the wind, which in turn blows across the surface of the ocean to create waves. At each stage of conversion, the power density increases. Ocean wave power offers several attractive qualities, including high power density, low variability, and excellent forecastability. A typical large ocean wave propogates at around 12 m/s with very little attenuation across the ocean. If the waves can be detected several hundred kilometers off shore, there can be 10 hours or more of accurate forecast horizon. In fact, analysis has shown good forecast accuracy up to 48 hours in advance. Off the coast Oregon, the yearly average wave power is approximately 30 kW per meter of crestlength (i.e., unit length transverse to the direction of wave propagation and parallel to the shore.) This compares very favorably with power densities of solar and wind, which typically range in the several hundreds of Watts per square meter. Globally, the wave energy resource is stronger on the west coasts of large landmasses and increases in strength toward the poles. This phenomenon is due to the prevailing west to east global winds known as the "westerlies" found in the Northern and Southern hemispheres between 30 and 60 degrees latitude. Correspondingly, the west coast of the United States, the west coast of Australia, and the coastal regions of Europe have seen the greatest wave energy industrial activity to date. Ocean wave energy has great potential to be a significant contributor of renewable power for many regions in the world. For the West coast of the US alone, the total wave energy resource is estimated at 440 TWh/yr, which is more than the typical total US annual hydroelectric production (270 TWh in 2003). For US west coast states, a fully developed wave energy industry could be a significant contributor to renewable energy portfolio standards. Within the next few years, several utility-scale wave energy converters are planned for grid connection (e.g., Ocean Power Technologies and Columbia Power Technologies in Oregon, USA), with plans for more utility-scale development to follow soon after. This presentation will cover the physical basics of wave energy, examples of commercial technology, challenges opportunities for research, and an update on the wave energy research and developments at leading commercial, industrial, and academic institutions around the world.

Brekken, T.

2010-12-01

330

Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of aragonite is 8.18 and 3.5). As a result of ocean fertilization, 10 years from now, the depth of saturation horizon (the depth below which ocean water is undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate) for aragonite in the Southern Ocean shoals from its present average value of about 700 m to 100 m. In contrast, no significant change in the depth of aragonite saturation horizontal is seen in the scenario without fertilization for the corresponding period. By year 2100, global mean calcite saturation horizon shoals from its present value of 3150 m to 2965 and 2534 m in the case without fertilization and with it. In contrast, if the sale of carbon credits from ocean fertilization leads to greater CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (e.g., if carbon credits from ocean fertilization are used to offset CO2 emissions from a coal plant), then there is the potential that ocean fertilization would further acidify the deep ocean without conferring any chemical benefit to surface ocean waters.

Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

2008-12-01

331

A Review of Barriers to and Opportunities for the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Southeast  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to prepare a summary report that examines the opportunities for and obstacles to the integration of renewable energy resources in the Southeast between now and the year 2030. The report, which is based on a review of existing literature regarding renewable resources in the Southeast, includes the following renewable energy resources: wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, biomass, and tidal. The evaluation was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Energy Foundation and is a subjective review with limited detailed analysis. However, the report offers a best estimate of the magnitude, time frame, and cost of deployment of renewable resources in the Southeast based upon the literature reviewed and reasonable engineering and economic estimates. For the purposes of this report, the Southeast is defined as the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. In addition, some aspects of the report (wind and geothermal) also consider the extended Southeast, which includes Maryland, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. A description of the existing base of renewable electricity installations in the region is given for each technology considered. Where available, the possible barriers and other considerations regarding renewable energy resources are listed in terms of availability, investment and maintenance costs, reliability, installation requirements, policies, and energy market. As stated above, the report is a comprehensive review of renewable energy resources in the southeastern region of United States based on a literature study that included information obtained from the Southern Bio-Power wiki, sources from the Energy Foundation, sources available to ORNL, and sources found during the review. The report consists of an executive summary, this introductory chapter describing report objectives, a chapter on analysis methods and the status of renewable resources, chapters devoted to each identified renewable resource, and a brief summary chapter. Chapter 2 on analysis methods and status summarizes the benefits of integrating renewable energy resources in the Southeast. The utilization of the existing fuels, both the fossil fuels and the renewable energy resources, is evaluated. The financial rewards of renewable resources are listed, which includes the amount of fuel imported from outside the Southeast to find the net benefit of local renewable generation, and both the typical and new green job opportunities that arise from renewable generation in the Southeast. With the load growth in the Southeast, the growth of transmission and fossil fuel generation may not meet the growing demands for energy. The load growth is estimated, and the benefits of renewable resources for solving local growing energy demands are evaluated. Chapters 3-7 discuss the key renewable energy resources in the Southeast. Six resources available in this region that are discussed are (1) wind, including both onshore and offshore; (2) solar, including passive, photovoltaic, and concentrating; (3) biomass energy, including switchgrass, biomass co-firing, wood, woody biomass, wood industry by-products (harvesting residues, mill waste, etc.), agricultural byproducts, landfill gas to energy and anaerobic digester gas; (4) hydro; and (5) geothermal. Because of limited development, ocean wave and tidal were not considered to be available in significant quantity before 2030 and are not presented in the final analysis. Estimates on the location of potential megawatt generation from these renewable resources in the Southeast are made. Each chapter will describe the existing base of the renewable electricity installations in the region now and, when available, the base of the existing manufacturing capacity in the region for renewable energy resources hardware and software. The possible barriers and considerations for renewable energy resources are presented.

McConnell, Ben W [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL

2011-08-01

332

Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

2012-07-01

333

Market performance and distributional effects on renewable energy markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A renewable obligation combined with tradable renewable energy certificates is a market-based instrument used to promote the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. A renewable obligation is an alternative for subsidies.A renewable obligation will only be an efficient instrument if certificate markets are efficient. This requires that there is no market power and no anti-competitive behaviour on the certificate

Paul Koutstaal; Michiel Bijlsma; Gijsbert Zwart; X. van Tilburg

2009-01-01

334

Personal renewal.  

PubMed

After John Gardner's presentation on "Self-Renewal" to THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Editors' Meeting, (*) Joseph Murphy, MD, Special Editor for Wyoming, asked the former Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, "Where are you in your life's cycle?" Dr Gardner, who is 80 years old, answered, "When Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr, was in his 90s, he was asked a similar question and said, ;I'm like a race horse cantering along after the race is over, cooling down.' Well, I'm nowhere near cantering! I'm still in the race, pushing the world." race, pushing the world."John Gardner, who received his undergraduate degree from Stanford and PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, taught at the college level for several years before he joined the Carnegie Foundation. As president of Carnegie Corporation and Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, he began to "push the world" toward education and in 1964 received the country's highest civilian honor, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He has also pushed it toward political reform by founding Common Cause, toward grass-roots political action by founding the Urban Coalition, toward leadership training by founding the White House Fellows program, and toward volunteerism by founding the Independent Sector (a coalition of for-profit and not-for-profit organizations and foundations). His books, including Excellence, Self-Renewal, No Easy Victories, and On Leadership, have pushed readers to new understanding of themselves and of organizations to higher levels of creativity and energy to get important work done. His current research focuses on discovering and defining the characteristics of healthy, vital communities. His call to "keep on keeping on," indeed, to push the world, leads to constructive change. Active people become effective people, infused with the energy and optimism that good hard work inspires. I think you will find this paper as invigorating to read as it was to hear. PMID:1462549

Gardner, J W

1992-10-01

335

US Renewable Futures in the GCAM  

SciTech Connect

This project examines renewable energy deployment in the United States using a version of the GCAM integrated assessment model with detailed a representation of renewables, the GCAM-RE. Electricity generation was modeled in four generation segments and 12-subregions. This level of regional and sectoral detail allows a more explicit representation of renewable energy generation. Wind, solar thermal power, and central solar PV plants are implemented in explicit resource classes with new intermittency parameterizations appropriate for each technology. A scenario analysis examines a range of assumptions for technology characteristics, climate policy, and long-distance transmission. We find that renewable generation levels grow over the century in all scenarios. As expected, renewable generation increases with lower renewable technology costs, more stringent climate policy, and if alternative low-carbon technology are not available. The availability of long distance transmission lowers policy costs and changes the renewable generation mix.

Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.; Karas, Joseph F.; Nathan, Mayda

2011-10-06

336

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data â both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Lightle, Kimberly; Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-10-01

337

Ocean Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Ocean Planet_ is a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition that now has a companion on-line exhibition. It covers varied topics associated with the ocean, such as the science of the ocean, the animals, people, and communities who use the ocean, and pollution problems currently endangering ocean resources. The exhibit features all of the text and a good portion of the images from the traveling exhibit. The curator of this exhibit has put together six special interest tours including Biodiversity, Women and the Sea, and Pollution. Users can also build their own special tour from a list of key words. The current list contains only four words, but is expected to grow in the future. Visitors can also consult a comprehensive list of educational materials and ocean resources.

1995-01-01

338

Indian Renewable Energy Status Report: Background Report for DIREC 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India has great potential to accelerate use of endowed renewable resources in powering its growing economy with a secure and affordable energy supply. The Government of India recognizes that development of local, renewable resources will be critical to en...

D. S. Arora S. Busche S. Cowlin

2010-01-01

339

Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI) Solar Trend Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents trend analyses of various financial terms for solar photovoltaic (PV) projects and concentrated solar power (CSP) projects as reported in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (...

K. Cory M. Mendelsohn R. Hubbell T. Lowder

2012-01-01

340

China rationalizes its renewable energy policy  

SciTech Connect

China's over-reliance on thermal power generation, especially coal-fired power stations, is well-documented. While nuclear power continues as an option to coal, China's strides in renewable energy are unprecedented. Recent amendments to the Renewable Energy Law, first promulgated in 2006, attempt to rationalize the regulatory regime governing wind, solar, hydropower and biomass projects in China, currently fraught with inadequate interconnection and tariff shock issues. (author)

Su, Jack H.; Hui, Simone S.; Tsen, Kevin H.

2010-04-15

341

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Cole, Ms.

2011-04-07

342

Ocean thermal power and windpower systems - Natural solar energy conversion for near-term impact on world energy markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of two energy conversion systems which use the natural solar collection of the earth and its atmosphere over land and sea as their power input is discussed. The first concept, for large scale power generation, is based on a Rankine cycle heat engine driven by the thermal difference which exists between the warm tropical surface waters of the

W. E. Heronemus; J. G. McGowan

1975-01-01

343

The return to renewables: Will it help in global warming control?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For all but the last 250 years, mankind was almost entirely dependent on renewable energy, mainly from biomass and wind. Then the era of fossil fuels downed and we shifted away from renewables. But excessive use of fossil fuel has now precipitated existence-threatening climate change and ocean acidification. So the world is once again reverting to renewables in a big

Tasneem Abbasi; M. Premalatha; S. A. Abbasi

2011-01-01

344

Renewable energy research leases: Prospects and opportunities on the Hawaiian Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceans represent a vast and largely untapped source for energy production. Our oceans have the potential to provide wave, wind, solar and other resources that can be used to produce abundant, clean and renewable energy to meet the demands of growing consumption. The Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) plays a significant

John B. Smith; Jaron Ming

2011-01-01

345

The Ocean: Our Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

1998-09-01

346

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Power System Development (PSD) II. Preliminary Design Report. Appendix II: Supporting Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The trade studies, calculations, and reports which provide the rationale for design conclusions for the 10 MWe OTEC power system are presented in this volume. These appendices include: (1) system design and optimization model; (2) system off-design perfor...

1979-01-01

347

Thermal Pollution by Nuclear Power Plants. A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 320. [Project COAST].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication includes several activities regarding the use of nuclear power plants and possible effects on the environment. The materials are designed for secondary school students and include reference materials and masters for transparencies. (RH)

Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

348

Thermal Pollution by Nuclear Power Plants. A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 320. [Project COAST].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication includes several activities regarding the use of nuclear power plants and possible effects on the environment. The materials are designed for secondary school students and include reference materials and masters for transparencies. (RH)|

Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

349

Renewing governance.  

PubMed

Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance. PMID:17208717

Loos, Gregory P

2003-01-01

350

Two-dimensional numerical model of the near-field flow for an ocean thermal power plant. Part I. The theoretical approach and a laboratory simulation. [Turbulent water motions resulting from intakes and outflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the computer model NRFL02 which has been developed to calculate the near-field stratified turbulent flow driven by the intakes and outflows of an ocean thermal power plant. A two-dimensional geometry is assumed, with the power plant intakes and jet outflows modelled by boundary conditions on the left boundary of a rectangular domain. Horizontal flow through the right

G. O. Roberts; S. A. Piacsek; J. Toomre

1976-01-01

351

and Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of electromagnetic induction within a hemispherical conducting sheet over a nonconductor and underlain by a concentric sphere of uniform conductivity is de- scribed. The theory is applied to the induction by Sq in a vast ocean. It is concluded that the electric currents induced in the ocean are considerably smaller than those estimated for a single hemispherical sheet,

TSUNEJI IIKITAKE

1961-01-01

352

Ocean eddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and empirical data for three classes of ocean eddies are summarized: 1) gigantic anticyclonic gyres; 2) meanders, rings, and synoptic eddies in the open ocean; and, 3) mesoscale eddies (lenses of foreign waters and rotating cells of forced convection). A number of new results obtained in the last few years are reported: linear and nonlinear instability of gigantic

A S Monin; G M Zhikharev

1990-01-01

353

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

354

Ocean Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

Nasa

356

Profiles of America's leading renewable electricity developers  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the nuclear power industry has been struggling with widely publicized economic and regulatory snafus as well as the fallout of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the renewable energy industry has continued to evolve - largely without fanfare. Capable of producing electricity from a variety of sources ranging from the wind to garbage, the renewable industry holds commercially viable alternatives to

2009-01-01

357

Assessing Renewable Energy Progress and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although substantial progress has been made during the last 35 years in renewable energy technology, total power generated by renewable energy in the United States has only grown from approximately 1.5 percent to about 10 percent, or approximately 0.25 percent per year. Over the last 35 years, total energy losses have remained close to 50 percent for all energy conversion

Joseph F. Giacinto; Paul Petzrick; Jason Litten; Brandie Sebastian; Erica Breighner; Wayne Perkins; Samantha Petzrick

2009-01-01

358

Valuing the Attributes of Renewable Energy Investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many country's strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially-optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of

Ariel Bergmann; Nick HANLEY; Robert Wright

2004-01-01

359

Renewable energy sources for desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources (RES) coupled to desalination offers a promising prospect for covering the fundamental needs of power and water in remote regions, where connection to the public electrical grid is either not cost effective or not feasible, and where the water scarcity is severe. Stand-alone systems for electricity supply in isolated locations are now proven technologies. Correct matching of

Eftihia Tzen; Richard Morris

2003-01-01

360

Renewable Energy: A Viable Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy systems—notably solar, wind, and biomass—are poised to play a major role in the energy economy and in improving the environmental quality of the United States. California's energy crisis focused attention on and raised fundamental questions about regional and national energy strategies. Prior to the crisis in California, there had been too little attention given to appropriate power plant

Antonia V. Herzog; Timothy E. Lipman; Jennifer L. Edwards; Daniel M. Kammen

2001-01-01

361

Shapes of a Renewable Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To rely on coal and nuclear power as sources of energy is to narrow society's future options and to present numerous problems. Renewable solar energy, on the other hand, can preserve rather than reduce options. More jobs, rising self-reliance, and new equalities between nations will be the result. (RM)

Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

1983-01-01

362

Green Power Partnership Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Renewable Energy Resources:  See Green Power Market section of this Web site. (http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/pubs/glossary.htm)   From Green Power Partnership Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing renewable energy resources

2011-04-20

363

Ocean Water: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In regions throughout the world oceans, water moves vertically to or down away from the surface and is set in motion by atmospheric winds, salinity and temperature differences. Cold water is much denser than warm and seawater has a higher density that fresh water and will sink below the less dense layer of water. Furthermore, vertical mixing powered by atmospheric winds can affect stratification and the rate of growth of the surface boundary layer. This lab activity is a simulation of the processes that create density stratification in ocean environments. It exposes students to concepts of temperature, salinity and wind and the role each plays in the development of water stratification.

Robinson, Judy

364

Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 18 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3, and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

2013-09-01

365

Oceanic Tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomena of tides are a matter of common experience: ocean tides under the influence of the Moon and the Sun, differences of the surface level of the oceans reaching several meters, following well-established cycles. In the present chapter we propose a first step in the general and classical mathematical formulations of the tidal potential and tidal force. Then we apply this formulation to the concrete case of the lunisolar ocean tides at a given point of the surface of the sea. At the end we give a review of various tidal manifestations all around the world.

Simon, Bernard; Lemaitre, Anne; Souchay, Jean

366

Earth's Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides a good introduction to the structure of the ocean. Included are excellent graphics and text about patterns of ocean salinity and temperature with depth, as well as surface currents, deep ocean circulation and even the water cycle. Extensive in-text links provide the means for users to explore the content in an open-ended fashion, although some might find the lack of any obvious top-level navigation to be disorienting.

2008-01-01

367

“Energy, People, Environment”. Development of an integrated renewable energy and energy storage system, an uninterruptible power supply for people and for better environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy continues to be an essential key to worldwide development approaching higher standard of life. The main source of energy in the past and present in industrial nations has been fossil energy and in the next century these countries will need to depend more on coal, nuclear and renewable energy. Generation of energy from fossil fuels is always associated with

A. Zahedi

1994-01-01

368

Future Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

369

Ocean Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy reference list has 12 kid-friendly books on marine biology. A short description is given for each title, along with author name and publisher. The list includes illustrated looks at ocean habitats, marine life, and more, hands-on activities and experiments that build kids' scientific observation skills along with their marine biology knowledge and puzzle and coloring books that offer creative ways to introduce kids to ocean life.

370

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion and the Next Generation Fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's fisheries are in decline and so are also the reservoirs of fossil fuels. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) is a process that can harness vast amounts of renewable thermal energy from the ocean and convert it to electricity. OTEC prototypes of the order of 1 MW have been tested, and GW-size floating plants have been designed. The cost

Lars G. Golmen; Stephen M. Masutani; Kazuyuki Ouchi

371

Ocean wave energy overview and research at Oregon State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable a diverse national energy resource plan. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans. Ocean energy exists in the forms of wave, tidal, marine currents, thermal (temperature gradient) and salinity. Among these forms, significant opportunities and

Ted K. A. Brekken; Annette von Jouanne; Hai Yue Han

2009-01-01

372

Ocean policy development in the State of Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oregon Ocean Resources Management Program is an unprecedented effort by a state to protect the long?term values and benefits of renewable ocean resources and activities. The program extends Oregon's comprehensive statewide planning and coastal zone management program seaward to provide a coordinated, comprehensive policy and management framework for state and federal agencies and Oregon's local governments. Its objective is

Eldon Hout

1990-01-01

373

Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

Moriarty, K.

2013-01-01

374

The application of a fuel cell-electrolyzer arrangement as a power balancing set-up in autonomous renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale autonomous renewable energy systems have gained attention during the last years due to growing concerns in relation to an increasing world energy demand and to constraints in CO2 emissions. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), wind turbines and solar panels are promising zero-emission devices to be incorporated into these systems. In order to integrate them, appropriate control designs are

Laura M. Ramirez-Elizondo; Gerardus C. Paap; Nico Woudstra

2008-01-01

375

Renewable energy annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

NONE

1997-03-01

376

Renewable Energy: Energy Security and Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy offers the possibility of providing a complete, sustainable energy infrastructure without anthropogenic emission of CO2. Large-scale implementation of renewable technologies would eliminate the need to develop and implement sequestration systems, by reducing the use of, and ultimately eliminating fossil based energy production. Renewable energy also offers energy security because indigenous resources are sufficient. The major renewable energy systems include phovoltaics (solar cells), solar thermal (electric and thermal), wind, biomass (plants and trees), hydroelectric, ocean, and geothermal. Given the intermittent nature of solar energy, only those energy systems that are coupled to an energy storage technology will be viable. Among the energy storage technologies are hydrogen, batteries, flywheels, superconductivity, ultracapacitors, pumped hydro, molten salts (for thermal storage), and compressed gas. One of the most versatile energy storage systems and the best energy carrier for transportation is hydrogen. This talk will review some of the basic renewable energy systems, present possible pathways for the implementation of hydrogen into the energy infrastructure and offer research areas that need to be addressed to increase the viability of these renewable energy technologies.

Turner, John

2002-03-01

377

Renewable Energy Certificate Program  

SciTech Connect

This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

Gwendolyn S. Andersen

2012-07-17

378

The role of government in the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: Wind power in the United States, California, Denmark and Germany, 1970--2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation seeks to determine the role of government policy in advancing the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies, and to determine if specific policies or policy types are more effective than others in achieving these ends. This study analyzes legislation, regulations, research and development (R&D) programs and their impacts on wind energy in California, the rest of the United States, Denmark and Germany, from 1970 through 2000. These countries (and state) were chosen because each has followed a very different path and has adopted wind energy at different rates. Demand for energy, particularly electricity, is rising rapidly worldwide. Renewable energy technologies could meet much of the world's future demand for electricity without the national security, environmental and social costs of conventional technologies. But renewables now play only a minor role in the electric generation systems of most countries. According to conventional economic theory, renewable energy will achieve greater market penetration once it is cost-competitive with conventional generation. This dissertation concludes, however, that government policy is the most significant causal variable in determining the development and diffusion of wind energy technology. Policy is more important for bringing wind energy to maturity than a nation's wind resource potential, wealth, relative differences in electricity prices, or existing infrastructure. Further, policy is essential for enabling a technology to succeed in the marketplace once it is cost-competitive. Policies can affect a technology's perceived, or real, costs; they can reduce risks or increase the availability and affordability of capital; appropriate and consistent policies can eliminate barriers to wind technology. To be adopted on a large scale, renewables require effective, appropriate and, above all, consistent policies that are legislated with a long-term view toward advancing a technology and an industry. Inconsistent policy is economically costly and creates cycles of boom and bust, making it impossible to build a strong domestic industry. To be effective, policy must place priority on demand creation rather than government R&D; it must create a market, establish turbine standards and siting criteria, require data collection and dissemination, facilitate grid access, establish price guarantees, and enable stakeholder participation.

Sawin, Janet Laughlin

2001-07-01

379

The Europa Ocean Discovery mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since the first proposal that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa's ice cover, scientists have speculated over the exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is thought to be an essential ingredient for life, so the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance in any search for life beyond Earth. We present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa's surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and completing the mission within the Discovery program's constraints on launch vehicle (Delta II or smaller) and budget (approximately $DOL250M plus launch). Europa Ocean Discovery will carry four scientific instruments to study Europa: (1) an ice-penetrating radar sounder to probe tens of kilometers below Europa's surface; (2) a laser altimeter, to determine the height and phase of Europa's time-varying tidal bulge; (3) an X-band transponder to determine Europa's gravity field; and (4) a solid-state optical imager. These instruments will provide important information about Europa's surface, subsurface, and will provide definitive evidence about the existence of a Europan ocean.

Edwards, Bradley C.; Chyba, Christopher F.; Abshire, James B.; Burns, Joseph A.; Geissler, Paul; Konopliv, Alex S.; Malin, Michael C.; Ostro, Steven J.; Rhodes, Charley; Rudiger, Chuck; Shao, Xaun-Min; Smith, David E.; Squyres, Steven W.; Thomas, Peter C.; Uphoff, Chauncey W.; Walberg, Gerald D.; Werner, Charles L.; Yoder, Charles F.; Zuber, Maria T.

1997-07-01

380

Numerical simulation of propagation of radioactive pollution in the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation of the large-scale horizontal mixing and transport of radioactive water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) (141°02' E, 37°27' N, east coast of Honshu Island, Japan) and the use of the satellite altimetric velocity field in the northwestern Pacific allowed us to obtain the following results. The patch of radioactive water dumped from the NPP propagated eastwards as jets of an extension of the Kuroshio Current. The discovered phenomenon of trapping the radionuclides by stable and unstable manifolds of local synoptic eddies may be harmful for living organisms. If one assumes that pollution of considerable areas of coastal waters near Honshu Island took place due to fallout of radioactive precipitation with rain, then a part of the radioactive water may be subjected to north-bound advection and is mixing under the impact of stable and unstable manifolds of the triple-eddy system to the north of the NPP. No radionuclide flux from the Tsugaru strait into the Sea of Japan has been found in the surface layer. Nevertheless, there is a small likelihood of their penetration there with a deep counter current and/or due to wind drift.

Prants, S. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.; Budyansky, M. V.

2011-08-01

381

Ocean data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is keeping pace with the emerging information society by offering a host of oceanographic information and charts via a new automated fax service. Scientists, fishermen, students, sailors, and mariners will now be able to dial a 24-hour service—900-28-CHART—to obtain 15 different analysis charts that detail sea surface temperatures and surface current speed and direction, for example. The analyses will be available at both high and low resolution for various regions of the coastal United States, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The charge will be $1.50 per minute, with charts taking 2-4 min to transmit. NOAA's Ocean Products Center will also offer technical assistance to interpret the fax charts. A staff oceanographer may be reached by calling 900-288-HELP between 2:30 and 4:30 p.m. EST, Monday through Friday. The charge is $3.00 a minute.

382

Optimal utilization of renewable energy-based IPPs for industrial load management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Share of power generation from renewable energy sources has been steadily increasing all over the world, mainly due to the concern about clean environment. Cost of renewable power generation has reduced considerably during the last two decades due to technological advancements and at present some of the renewable energy sources can generate power at costs comparable with that of fossil

C. A. Babu; S. Ashok

2009-01-01

383

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Mai, T.

2012-10-01

384

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Hand, M. M.

2012-09-01

385

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Mai, T.

2012-11-01

386

Understanding Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on oceans currents and their effects. Students do a lab activity to show that temperature is what causes ocean currents. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

Cahill, Mary

387

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

Osis, Vicki

388

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering A...

G. Mosey L. Lisell M. Steen

2013-01-01

389

Renewable Energy: Capstone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the culminating activity in the series of lessons on renewable energy. It serves to reinforce the idea that renewable sources of energy are necessary for a sustainable fuure, and to discuss some of the present impacts and potential drawbacks to renewable energy. In the activity, sudents will use online resources to research their present energy consumption and investigate whether it could economically be replaced by renewable sources.

Pratte, John

390

Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a

R. Robichaud; J. Fields; J. O. Roberts

2012-01-01

391

77 FR 15382 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Notice of Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Renewal...of the Interior through the Director of BOEM. The Committee reviews the relevance of the research and data being produced to meet BOEM's scientific information needs for...

2012-03-15

392

Renewable resource policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive volume covers the history, laws, and important national policies affecting renewable resource management. The author traces the history of renewable natural resource policy and management in the US, describes the major federal agencies and their functions, and examines the evolution of the primary resource policy areas. Renewable Resource Policy provides valuable insight into the often neglected legal administrative,

1993-01-01

393

Renewable and nuclear heresies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewables are not green. To reach the scale at which they would contribute importantly to meeting global energy demand, renewable sources of energy, such as wind, water and biomass, cause serious environmental harm. Measuring renewables in watts per square metre that each source could produce smashes these environmental idols. Nuclear energy is green. However, in order to grow, the nuclear

Jesse H. Ausubel

2007-01-01

394

Annual Southern Ocean heat flux measured for first time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Ocean makes up nearly a quarter of the global ocean by surface area and plays a powerful role in regulating Earth's climate by affecting ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns. Modeled representations of the Southern Ocean, however, are plagued by uncertainty. Obtaining direct observations of Southern Ocean properties with which to confirm the modeled estimates is difficult in such hostile polar conditions. To help overcome this shortfall, the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS), the first moored sensor array to ever be successfully deployed in the Southern Ocean, was set up south of Australia.

Schultz, Colin

2012-10-01

395

Environmental and Technology Policies for Climate Change and Renewable Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We assess different policies for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and promoting,the innovation and diffusion of CO2-reducing power technologies: (1) emissions price, (2) tax on fossil power, (3) tradable emissions performance standard, (4) market share requirement for renewables, (5) renewables production subsidy, and (6) R&D subsidy for renewables. We evaluate the relative performance,of the policies according to incentives they

Carolyn Fischer; Richard G. Newell

2003-01-01

396

Fukushima and the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The triple disaster of the March 11, 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent radiation releases at Fukushima Dai-ichi were unprecedented events for the ocean and society. The earthquake was the fourth largest ever recorded; the tsunami resulted in over 20,000 dead or missing and destroyed entire towns; and the radiation releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants created the largest accidental release of man-made radionuclides to the oceans in history— a release that continues to this day. Compared to monitoring on land, studies of the ocean are far fewer, yet the area impacted and quantity delivered- 80% of all radioactivity released- is far greater. For oceanographers, this presents a challenge of unprecedented scope and complexity: to understand exactly how these events played out, how radiation continues to move through the marine system (including important seafood items), and, in turn, how best to communicate scientific findings that will inform public policy decisions far into the future. This presentation will provide an overview of the sources and fate of radionuclides released from Fukushima to the ocean. An emphasis will be given on the sources of cesium, its transport in waters, and fluxes associated with sinking particles and accumulation in sediments.

Buesseler, Ken

2013-04-01

397

Ocean Acoustics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main element of this final report is a discussion of the development of the trace method for determining the acoustic properties of the ocean bottom sediments and basement. In addition a method is reported for the uniform determination of the continuo...

D. Stickler

1984-01-01

398

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

399

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)|

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

400

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students choose shell fragments from different species of Molluscs and calculate percent lose after soaking in different ph solutions for different periods of time. They research ocean acidification and especially local events off the Oregon coast to apply to this activity.

Bown, Jennifer

401

Ocean Circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH no mathematician, and only an amateur in physics, it appears to me that the difficulties and objections of Mr. Croll on this subject may be obviated, and the whole question elucidated by a reference to the admitted facts, and a common sense interpretation of them. And first, as to the fact that the surface water of the Atlantic Ocean,

Alfred R. Wallace

1872-01-01

402

High performance hybrid cascaded inverter for renewable energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage source inverter is commonly used as the interface to connect the renewable energy source and the power grid. In order to improve the performance of renewable energy system, the topology and control method of the inverter system need to be analyzed. In this paper, a single-phase hybrid cascaded inverter is proposed. It is based on two kinds of power

Xiaonan Lu; Kai Sun; Yiwei Ma; Lipei Huang; Seiki Igarashi

2011-01-01

403

Renewable energy annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

NONE

1995-12-01

404

Renewable energy resources in energy management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the ever increasing amount of Renewable Energy Resources production integrated in Power Systems, Energy Management Systems (EMS) used for decades in control centers to manage power flows need to adapt. This paper aims at providing detailed understanding of impacts on “standard” EMS functions of these new sources of productions. This paper will first highlight the characteristics of

E. Goutard

2010-01-01

405

Design, construction, and ocean testing of a taut-moored dual-body wave energy converter with a linear generator power take-off  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the SeaBeavI project which began in the fall of 2006 and culminated in the ocean testing of a 10kW direct-drive wave energy conversion system in the fall of 2007. The SeaBeavI project was an interdisciplinary effort bringing together researchers from electrical, mechanical, and ocean engineering. A systems design approach was used to develop the

David Elwood; Solomon C. Yim; Joe Prudell; Chad Stillinger; Annette von Jouanne; Ted Brekken; Adam Brown; Robert Paasch

2010-01-01

406

Ocean models and the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Ocean, because of its size and remoteness, has proved to be one of the most difficult oceans for the experimentalists to study and understand. Partly as a result of this, it has also been the ocean where large-scale ocean models have made some of the most interesting and useful contributions. In this review talk I aim to review

D. J. Webb

2003-01-01

407

Ocean energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress is reported on the development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual and preliminary design activity of industry teams that are designing a shelf-mounted offshore OTEC pilot plant that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway to evaluate and test the Pneumatic Wave-Energy Conversion System (PWECS), an ocean-energy device consisting of a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber. The work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1983 is reported.

408

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin tuna on their oceanic migrations. The About area is a great way to learn about the research and technology involved with this complicated endeavor. Also, visitors can check out the low-tech/accessible version of the site if they are so inclined.

409

Planet Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From DiscoverySchool.com, Planet Ocean is a Web site developed for students in grade 5-8 to learn about the abundant life found in the world's vast marine environments. Students are introduced to oceanography, marine biology, food chains, and ecosystems. Teachers will appreciate the tips for using this site in the classroom and related resources, and almost anyone will appreciate the Amazing Facts found under each topic.

2002-01-01

410

Ocean Voyagers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Voyagers is an educational outreach initiative consisting of an interdisciplinary curriculum program. It is designed to allow middle school teachers and students to gain real-world knowledge about oceanographic science, social science, maritime cultures, communication, literature, and the language arts. This site includes: integrated lesson plans on oceanographic science, maritime life and lore, technology and communications, and profiles of the Navy oceanographic survey fleet.

411

Ocean thermal energy conversion: Perspective and status  

SciTech Connect

The use of the thermal gradient between the warm surface waters and the deep cold waters of tropical oceans was first proposed by J. A. d'Arsonval in 1881 and tried unsuccessfully be George Claude in 1930. Interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and other renewable energy sources revived in the 1970s as a result of oil embargoes. At that time, the emphasis was on large floating plants miles from shore producing 250--400 MW for maintained grids. When the problems of such plants became better understood and the price of oil reversed its upward trend, the emphasis shifted to smaller (10 MW) shore-based plants on tropical islands. Such plants would be especially attractive if they produce fresh water as a by-product. During the past 15 years, major progress has been made in converting OTEC unknowns into knowns. Mini-OTEC proved the closed-cycle concept. Cost-effective heat-exchanger concepts were identified. An effective biofouling control technique was discovered. Aluminum was determined to be promising for OTEC heat exchangers. Heat-transfer augmentation techniques were identified, which promised a reduction on heat-exchanger size and cost. Fresh water was produced by an OTEC open-cycle flash evaporator, using the heat energy in the seawater itself. The current R D emphasis is on the design and construction of a test facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the open-cycle process. The 10 MW shore-based, closed-cycle plant can be built with today's technology; with the incorporation of a flash evaporator, it will produce fresh water as well as electrical power -- both valuable commodities on many tropical islands. The open-cycle process has unknowns that require solution before the technical feasibility can be demonstrated. The economic viability of either cycle depends on reducing the capital costs of OTEC plants and on future trends in the costs of conventional energy sources. 7 refs.

Thomas, A.; Hillis, D.L.

1990-01-01

412

Ocean thermal energy conversion: Perspective and status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the thermal gradient between the warm surface waters and the deep cold waters of tropical oceans was first proposed by J. A. d'Arsonval in 1881 and tried unsuccessfully by George Claude in 1930. Interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and other renewable energy sources revived in the 1970s as a result of oil embargoes. At that time, the emphasis was on large floating plants miles from shore producing 250 to 400 MW for maintained grids. When the problems of such plants became better understood and the price of oil reversed its upward trend, the emphasis shifted to smaller (10 MW) shore based plants on tropical islands. Such plants would be especially attractive if they produce fresh water as a by-product. During the past 15 years, major progress has been made in converting OTEC unknowns into knowns. Mini-OTEC proved the closed cycle concept. Cost effective heat exchanger concepts were identified. An effective biofouling control technique was discovered. Aluminum was determined to be promising for OTEC heat exchangers. Heat transfer augmentation techniques were identified, which promised a reduction on heat exchanger size and cost. Fresh water was produced by an OTEC open cycle flash evaporator, using the heat energy in the seawater itself. The current R and D emphasis is on the design and construction of a test facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the open cycle process. The 10 MW shore-based, closed cycle plant can be built with today's technology; with the incorporation of a flash evaporator, it will produce fresh water as well as electrical power; both valuable commodities on many tropical islands. The open cycle process has unknowns that require solution before the technical feasibility can be demonstrated. The economic viability of either cycle depends on reducing the capital costs of OTEC plants and on future trends in the costs of conventional energy sources.

Thomas, Anthony; Hillis, David L.

413

Oceanic Hotspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wilson-Morgan hypothesis that fixed mantle plumes rising from deep in Earth's mantle give rise to linear island and seamount chains like Hawaii has been a leading idea in planetary geodynamics for many decades. However, the notion that these ascending columns of buoyant mantle material are fixed relative to each other or to a fixed reference frame has been questioned because the mean regional flow of the mantle (the so-called mantle wind) would be expected to entrain them and waft them about. Lately, even more fundamental questions have been raised regarding the existence of deep mantle conduits. In fact, the subject of plumes has become quite controversial, with important implications for ideas of mantle convection, Earth's differentiation, and planetary magma budgets and cooling. The appearance of Oceanic Hotspots: Intraplate Submarine Magmatism and Tectonics is thus timely. The 14 chapters contained in this nicely produced volume reflect in part the successful Franco-German collaboration spanning more than 17 years (1986 to present) and 15 expeditions to largely uncharted and unexplored regions of the South Pacific Ocean. The editors intended to produce a comprehensive multidisciplinary overview of oceanic plumes in this region, and in this they have succeeded, with both review and research chapters. Most papers document new discoveries and contain new data and/or new and original thinking, whereas others provide a broad overview and synthesis of existing data.

Batiza, Rodey

2004-10-01

414

National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Learning About Renewable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) research into renewable energy technologies and provides information on energy efficiency and various applications of renewable energy. Topics include the major categories of renewable energy (biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind); how renewable energy technologies can be used by consumers and providers; and how renewable energy can be stored and delivered. There is also information on advanced transportation technologies and links to a variety of educational resources for students about renewable energy sources and technologies.

415

Toward a Regional Geography of Renewable Electrical Energy Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is postulated that many types of renewable energy resources, like fossil fuels, are amenable to regional availability analysis. Among these are hydropower, geothermal, ocean temperature gradient, wind, and direct solar energy. A review of the spatial attributes of each of these types reveals areas of the United States that contain comparative…

Pryde, Philip R.

416

Limits to Tidal Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean tides have been proposed as a source of renewable energy, though the maximum available power may be shown to be only a fraction of the present dissipation rate of 3.5 TW, which is small compared with global insolation (nearly 105 TW), wind dissipation (103 TW), and even human power usage of 15 TW. Nonetheless, tidal power could be a useful contributor in some locations. Traditional use of tidal power, involving the trapping of water behind a barrage at high tide, can produce an average power proportional to the area of the headpond and the square of the tidal range; the power density is approximately 6 W per square meter for a tidal range of 10 m. Capital costs and fears of environmental damage have put barrage schemes in disfavor, with interest turning to the exploitation of strong tidal currents, using turbines in a manner similar to wind turbines. There is a limit to the available power, however, as adding turbines reduces the flow, ultimately reducing the power. For sinusoidal forcing of flow in a channel connecting two large open basins, the maximum available power may be shown to be given approximately by 0.2? g a Q_max, where ? is the water density, g gravity, a the amplitude of the tidal sea level difference along the channel, and Q_max is the maximum volume flux in the natural state. The same formula applies if the channel is the entrance to a semi-enclosed basin, with a now the amplitude of the external tide. A flow reduction of approximately 40% is typically associated with the maximum power extraction. The power would be reduced if only smaller environmental changes are acceptable, and reduced further by drag on supporting structures, dissipation in turbine wakes, and internal inefficiencies. It can be suggested that the best use of strong, cold, tidal currents is to provide cooling water for nuclear reactors.

Garrett, C.

2008-12-01

417

Public comments on the proposed 10 CFR Part 51 rule for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses and supporting documents: Review of concerns and NRC staff response. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review of public comments provided in response to the NRC`s proposed amendments to 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 51, which establish new requirements for the environmental review of applications for the renewal of operating licenses of nuclear power plants. The public comments include those submitted in writing, as well as those provided at public meetings that were held with other Federal agencies, State agencies, nuclear industry representatives, public interest groups, and the general public. This report also contains the NRC staff response to the various concerns raised, and highlights the changes made to the final rule and the supporting documents in response to these concerns.

NONE

1996-05-01

418

Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to show how cost-minimization at the more complex plant level may deviate from cost-minimization at the generating unit level.

Kneifel, Joshua D.

419

Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for electricity generation in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy encompasses a broad range of energy resources. Bangladesh is known to have a good potential for renewable energy, but so far no systematic study has been done to quantify this potential for power generation. This paper estimates the potential of renewable energy resources for power generation in Bangladesh from the viewpoint of different promising available technologies. Estimation of

Manfred Denich

2010-01-01

420

Decentralised Energy Management System with comprehension of fluctuated renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under integration of renewable energy resources many still understand only proof procedures to connect new power plant to public grid. The existing management systems aim to observe electrical and thermal grid condition. In defined situations renewable power plants will be turned off. Another huge problem is the natural fluctuation of direct renewable energy converter such as photovoltaic and wind turbine.

A. Dowrueng; J. zum Hingst; A. Mbuy; E.-A. Wehrmann; H.-P. Beck

2009-01-01

421

License renewal aging management review of insulated cables for Oconee Nuclear Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The license renewal federal regulation, 10 CFR 54, Requirements for Renewal of Operating Licenses for Nuclear Power Plants, describes the process and the technical requirements for an application to extend the operating license of a commercial nuclear power plant. The license renewal (LR) rule requires that an integrated plant assessment (IPA) be completed. The IPA is an assessment which demonstrates

R. P. Colaianni

1998-01-01

422

Ocean Drilling in Service to Understanding Oceanic Geohazards (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural geohazards, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and volcanic collapse, are of immediate societal concern. In an oceanic setting, all are capable of generating tsunami that threaten coastal communities, infrastructure, and global economies at distances of many thousands of kilometers. This power and its effects were forcefully shown by Mw 9.2 giant earthquake and tsunami of 26 December 2004

J. K. Morgan; E. A. Silver

2009-01-01

423

Distributed-dispersed renewable energy systems and novel control strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable green-energy systems are re-emerging as viable economic alternative sources of environmentally safe power generation in place of conventional fossil fuels. In terms of power quality and safety, this research investigates a number of renewable green-energy (wind, photovoltaic and fuel cells) interface schemes and control strategies that ensure maximum energy utilization, voltage and frequency stabilization and minimum impact on the host electric grid systems. The research key objectives are to study efficient and robust renewable energy converter schemes with associated control strategies and validate their operations for both stand-alone and electric utility grid interfacing. The research work investigates both stand-alone and grid connected renewable green-energy utilization schemes with a number of power electronic converter topologies and robust control schemes for both dispersed and hybrid renewable energy systems. Different sample study systems and control strategies are digitally simulated and fully validated using the MATLAB-Simulink-SimPower environment.

Aljankawey, Abdualah S.

424

Renewable resources in the US electricity supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and waste) currently provide nearly 12 percent of the Nation's electricity supply. Almost 10 of this 12 percent is provided by hydroelectric resources alone. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) together contribute more than 1 percent. All other renewable resources, including geothermal, wind, and solar, together provide less than 1 percent of the total. Many renewable resources are relative newcomers to the electric power market. In particular, electricity generation using geothermal, wind, solar, and MSW resources have had their greatest expansion in the 1980's. This was a result of significant technological improvements, the implementation of favorable Federal and State policies, and the reaction to the increasing costs of using fossil and nuclear fuels. The use of renewable resources for electricity generation has also been encouraged as less environmentally damaging than fossil fuels. Because renewable energy is available domestically, renewable resources are viewed as more secure than imported fossil fuels. Descriptions of the history, current use, and forecasted future applications of renewable resources for electricity generation and of the factors that influence those applications are presented.

1993-03-01

425

Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of the Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment (OSNPE) was to learn how to make high quality broadband seismic measurements on the ocean bottom in preparation for a permanent ocean seismic network. The experiment also had implications for the development of a capability for temporary (e.g., 1 year duration) seismic experiments on the ocean floor. Equipment for installing, operating and monitoring borehole observatories in the deep sea was also tested including a lead-in package, a logging probe, a wire line packer and a control vehicle. The control vehicle was used in three modes during the experiment: for observation of seafloor features and equipment, for equipment launch and recovery, and for power supply and telemetry between ocean bottom units and the ship. The OSNPE which was completed in June 1998 acquired almost four months of continuous data and it demonstrated clearly that a combination of shallow buried and borehole broadband sensors could provide comparable quality data to broadband seismic installations on islands and continents. Burial in soft mud appears to be adequate at frequencies below the microseism peak. Although the borehole sensor was subject to installation noise at low frequencies (0.6 to 50 mHz), analysis of the OSNPE data provides new insights into our understanding of ocean bottom ambient noise. The OSNPE results clearly demonstrate the importance of sediment borne shear modes in ocean bottom ambient noise behavior. Ambient noise drops significantly at high frequencies for a sensor placed just at the sediment basalt interface. At frequencies above the microseism peak, there are two reasons that ocean bottom stations have been generally regarded as noisier than island or land stations: ocean bottom stations are closer to the noise source (the surface gravity waves) and most ocean bottom stations to date have been installed on low rigidity sediments where they are subject to the effects of shear wave resonances. When sensors are placed in boreholes in basement the performance of ocean bottom seismic stations approaches that of continental and island stations. A broadband borehole seismic station should be included in any real-time ocean bottom observatory.

Stephen, R. A.; Spiess, F. N.; Collins, J. A.; Hildebrand, J. A.; Orcutt, J. A.; Peal, K. R.; Vernon, F. L.; Wooding, F. B.

2003-10-01

426

Determination of the Seismic Velocity Structure of Sediments Using Both Sources and Receiver Near the Ocean Floor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A trial experiment proves the power and practicality of using both sources and receivers near the ocean floor to make precise measurements of deep (approx. 600 m) ocean sediment velocity structure. A digitally recording ocean bottom hydrophone receiver op...

G. M. Purdy

1986-01-01

427

Dynamic response of oceanic hydrate deposits to ocean temperature change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vast quantities of methane are trapped in oceanic hydrate deposits. Because methane is a powerful greenhouse gas (about 26 times more effective than CO2), there is considerable concern that a rise in the temperature of the oceans will induce dissociation of oceanic hydrate accumulations, potentially releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Such a release could have dramatic climatic consequences because it could amplify atmospheric and oceanic warming and possibly accelerate dissociation of the remaining hydrates. This study assesses the stability of three types of hydrates (case I, deep-ocean deposits; case II, shallow, warm deposits; and case III, shallow, cold deposits) and simulates the dynamic behavior of these deposits under the influence of moderate ocean temperature increases. The results indicate that deep-ocean hydrates are stable under the influence of moderate increases in ocean temperature; however, shallow deposits can be very unstable and release significant quantities of methane under the influence of as little as 1°C of seafloor temperature increase. Less permeable sediments, or burial underneath layers of hydrate-free sediment, affect both the rate of hydrate dissociation and methane transport to the seafloor but may not prevent methane release. Higher-saturation deposits can produce larger methane fluxes with the thermodynamics of hydrate dissociation retarding the rate of recession of the upper hydrate interface. These results suggest possible worst case scenarios for climate-change-induced methane release and point toward the need for detailed assessment of the hydrate hazard and the coupling of hydrate-derived methane to regional and global ecosystems.

Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.

2008-12-01

428

Global Shallow-Water Bathymetry From Satellite Ocean Color Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of ocean bathymetry is important, not only for navigation but also for scientific studies of the ocean's volume, ecology, and circulation, all of which are related to Earth's climate. In coastal regions, moreover, detailed bathymetric maps are critical for storm surge modeling, marine power plant planning, understanding of ecosystem connectivity, coastal management, and change analyses. Because ocean areas are

ZhongPing Lee; Chuanmin Hu; Brandon Casey; Shaoling Shang; Heidi Dierssen; Robert Arnone

2010-01-01

429

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama, this site seeks to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. In this unit, students investigate ocean temperature around the world, and how it varies during the year and at different locations. This helps explain what causes seasons, and allows students to make predictions about future changes in sea and air temperatures. Students use data from the National Data Buoy Center to answer a series of questions, and complete related enrichment exercises. A downloadable teacher's guide, student guide, and necessary activity sheets are provided.

Dempsey, John

2007-12-12

430

The Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many practitioners of the marine sciences, including myself, one of the most alluring aspects of investigating the oceans is the need to marry the scientific disciplines. The complex linkages among geological, chemical, physical, and biological processes that govern the behavior and evolution of nearly 60% of the Earth's surface are fascinating and often surprising. Making progress in decoding this planetary fugue requires investigative strategies that fly squarely in the face of the increasing specialization that characterizes most modern scientific research. The successful oceanographer must endeavor to see the forest as well as the trees, or perhaps more fittingly, the kelp.

Karlsten, Jill

431

Ocean energy resources: the impact of OTEC  

SciTech Connect

The status of OTEC technological development is summarized with emphasis on the potential impacts of OTEC power production on the ocean environment, including implications for impacts to climate. (MHR)

Ditmars, J.D.

1980-01-01

432

Update on Ocean Energy Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the largest blocks of ocean extracted energy are from the tides, research emphasis has been directed during the last decade towards OTEC. Actual placing in service of small OTEC plants has occurred. Progress has been made in tidal power plants construction and new views expressed for their operation; new centrals were put into operation in China and Canada. Other

R. Charlier

1984-01-01

433

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

Hand, M.; Mai, T.

2012-08-01

434

Renewing the Core Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The core curriculum accompanied the development of the academic discipline with multiple names such as Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Science, and Health and Human Performance. It provides commonalties for undergraduate majors. It is timely to renew this curriculum. Renewal involves strategic reappraisals. It may stimulate change or reaffirm the…

Lawson, Hal A.

2007-01-01

435

Renewable Energy News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Renewable Energy News is a comprehensive source which provides world-wide updates on all aspects of renewable energies. The site provides links to organizations and web directories of related products and information. The site is organized in a user-friendly way with issues organized by topic or region. Science, technology, economy energy, and nuclear review are highlighted areas of news.

2007-09-17

436

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

Hand, M.

2012-10-01

437

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

Hand, M. M.

2012-08-01

438

Report of the 6th Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference. Ocean Thermal Energy for the 1980's  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the United States, four ocean energy technologies offer significant promises: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) (using heated surface waters), wave power, ocean currents, and salinity gradients. An overview of the DOE program for these four technologies is presented in terms of plans, concept descriptions, projected market penetration, and potential institutional barriers to implementation. The OTEC program presently receives about

G. L. Dugger

1979-01-01

439

10 CFR 54.33 - Continuation of CLB and conditions of renewed license.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...renewed license. 54.33 Section 54.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF OPERATING LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 54.33 Continuation...

2013-01-01

440

Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's ...

J. Fields J. O. Roberts R. Robichaud

2012-01-01

441

Renewable Electricity Futures: Exploration of a U.S. Grid with 80% Renewable Electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable Electricity Futures is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States over the next several decades. This study explores the implications and challenges of very high renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies in 2050. At such high levels of renewable electricity penetration, the unique characteristics of some renewable resources, specifically geographical distribution and variability and un-certainty in output, pose challenges to the operability of the nation's electric system. The study focuses on key technical implications of this environment from a national perspective, exploring whether the U.S. power system can supply electricity to meet customer demand on an hourly basis with high levels of renewable electricity, including variable wind and solar generation. The study also identifies some of the potential economic, environmental, and social implications of deploying and integrating high levels of renewable electricity in the U.S. The full report and associated supporting information is available at: http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/refutures/.

Mai, Trieu

2013-04-01

442

A New AC Current Switch Called MERS with Low On-State Voltage IGBTs (1.54 V) for Renewable Energy and Power Saving Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergence of new power electronics configurations have historically been one of the important drivers for improvement of the IGBT technology. Development of new IGBTs is said to be a trade-off between saturation voltage, short-circuit capability and switching losses. With the common applications requiring high switching frequency and short-circuit capability, the saturation voltage performance has not been fully optimized. This paper

Ryuichi Shimada; Jan A. Wiik; Takanori Isobe; Taku Takaku; Noriyuki Iwamuro; Yoshiyuki Uchida; Marta Molinas; Tore M. Undeland

2008-01-01

443

Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue addresses advantages and disadvantages of having power. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources with suggested age levels and disciplines as well as ideas for appropriate related activities. Sidebars discuss the power of the pen, the power of peace, and the power of the media. (LRW)|

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

444

Renewable energy plan of action for American Samoa  

SciTech Connect

American Samoa has no indigenous fossil fuels and is almost totally dependent for energy on seaborne petroleum. However, the seven Pacific Islands located at 14 degrees south latitude that constitute American Samoa have a wide variety of renewable resources with the potential for substituting for imported oil. Included as possible renewable energy conversion technologies are solar thermal, photovoltaics, wind, geothermal, ocean thermal, and waste-to-energy recovery. This report evaluates the potential of each of these renewable energy alternatives and establishes recommended priorities for their development in American Samoa. Rough cost estimates are also included. Although renewable energy planning is highly site specific, information in this report should find some general application to other tropical insular areas.

Shupe, J.W. (USDOE San Francisco Operations Office, Honolulu, HI (USA). Pacific Site Office); Stevens, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-11-01

445

Overview of Canadian activities in renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian federal government energy research and development program is outlined. Major projects, arranged in order of priority are: (1) energy conservation, (2) maintenance of adequate oil and gas supplies, (3) use of coal as an oil and gas substitute, (4) use of nuclear power, and (5) development of renewable energy sources. More specifically, the development of renewable energy sources

E. P. Cockshutt

1976-01-01

446

Supplying renewable energy to deferrable loads: Algorithms and economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a direct coupling of renewable generation with deferrable demand in order to mitigate the unpredictable and non-controllable fluctuation of renewable power supply. We cast our problem in the form of a stochastic dynamic program and we characterize the value function of the problem in order to develop efficient solution methods. We develop and compare two

Anthony Papavasiliou; Shmuel S. Oren

2010-01-01

447

Incentives and disincentives for using renewable energy: Turkish students’ ideas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed-form questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas of Turkish school students in years 7 and 8 (age 13–14 years) about renewable power generation. The questionnaire investigated students’ ideas about the characteristics of renewable energy, its perceived advantages and disadvantgaes, and, separately, their views about the importance of the characteristics of energy production; it is likely that

Ahmet K?l?nç; Martin Stanisstreet; Edward Boyes

2009-01-01

448

Adapting California's energy markets to growth in renewable resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power generation is the second-largest category of greenhouse gas emissions in California, next to transportation. California's administration, legislature, and energy regulators have adopted aggressive targets for renewable energy due to heavy reliance on natural gas as a fuel for electric generation, which will result in profound changes in markets and system operations. The growth of renewable in-state generation involves

James E. Price; Anjali Sheffrin

2010-01-01

449

An integrative computational model for intestinal tissue renewal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives : The luminal surface of the gut is lined with a monolayer of epithelial cells that acts as a nutrient absorptive engine and protective barrier. To maintain its integrity and functionality, the epithelium is renewed every few days. Theoretical models are powerful tools that can be used to test hypotheses concerning the regulation of this renewal process, to investigate

I. M. M. van Leeuwen; G. R. Mirams; A. Walter; A. Fletcher; P. Murray; J. Osborne; S. Varma; S. J. Young; J. Cooper; B. Doyle; J. Pitt-Francis; L. Momtahan; P. Pathmanathan; J. P. Whiteley; S. J. Chapman; D. J. Gavaghan; O. E. Jensen; J. R. King; P. K. Maini; S. L. Waters; H. M. Byrne

2009-01-01

450

Renewable Energy Supply for Electric Vehicle Operations in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to technological progress, policy thrust and economic circumstances, the large scale integration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is becoming a reality in California, however the variable and unpredictable supply of these renewable resources poses a significant obstacle to their integration. At the same time we are witnessing a strong thrust towards the large scale

Anthony Papavasiliou

451

Experience with Promotion of Renewable Energy: Successes and Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Abstract: Renewable energy is becoming economic in all markets as its rapid growth results in more competitive prices. It is particularly appropriate and increasingly being adopted for providing electric power services to rural areas in developing countries unlikely to be served by grid electricity. Policies needed to implement renewable energy systems in rural areas are discussed in this paper.

Richard L. Ottinger

452

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kerr McGee Site in Columbus, Mississippi. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kerr McGee site in Columbus, Mississippi, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

2013-01-01

453

Investment issues in nuclear plant license renewal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method that determines the operating lives for existing nuclear power plants is discussed. These assumptions are the basis for projections of electricity supply through 2020 reported in the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) Annual Energy Outlook 1999. To determine if plants will seek license renewal, one must first determine if they will be operating to the end of their current

Eynon

1999-01-01

454

Engineered Carbon Storage in the Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of carbon in the ocean is large relative to the amount of fossil-fuel resources. The oceans are currently absorbing over 8 billion tons of anthropogenic carbon dioxide each year and will eventually absorb most anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. These observations have led many to ask whether it might be helpful to engineer an acceleration of this transfer of carbon to the oceans, and, if so, to understand how this feat might be accomplished most economically and with a minimum of adverse environmental consequence. There is no unique taxonomy of engineered ocean carbon storage options, but they might broadly be divided into three categories, depending on whether they depend for their efficacy primarily upon physics, chemistry, or biology. Physics. Carbon dioxide could be captured from power plants and injected deep in the ocean, where physical mixing processes could keep it isolated from the atmosphere for centuries. Sub-species of this category include injection of carbon dioxide directly into the deep ocean, into seafloor lakes, or into engineered containment vessels. Chemistry. Alkalinity, derived from limestone or other minerals, could be added to the ocean, causing carbon to be stored effectively permanently in the oceans primarily in the form of bicarbonate ions. Sub- species of this category include the dissolution of calcium carbon at power plants or in deep-waters near upwelling zones. Biology. Some of the organic matter sinking from the surface ocean to the deep ocean is replaced by carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Thus, it has been proposed that we should attempt to diminish atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations by fertilizing the oceans. Sub-species of this category include fertilization with micronutrients such as iron or macronutrients such as nitrogen or phosphorus. This talk will present this taxonomy and quantitatively discuss some of the pros and cons and unanswered research questions associated with each approach.

Caldeira, K.; Cao, L.

2008-12-01

455

Ocean tomography with acoustic daylight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient noise in the ocean provides acoustic illumination, which can be used, similarly to daylight in the atmosphere, to visualize objects and characterize the environment. It has been shown theoretically that deterministic travel times between any two points in a moving or motionless, inhomogeneous, time-independent medium can be retrieved from the cross-correlation function of diffuse acoustic noise recorded at the two points, without a detailed knowledge of the noise field's sources or properties. In this paper, techniques are developed to account for receiver motion and suppress contributions due to powerful transient localized noise sources, such as nearby shipping, in order to enhance noise diffusivity. The data-processing techniques are applied to ambient noise recordings of opportunity, which were obtained as a by-product of a long-range sound propagation experiment in the Pacific Ocean. The feasibility of passive ocean acoustic tomography with ambient noise recorded at two vertical line arrays is demonstrated successfully.

Godin, Oleg A.; Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Goncharov, Valery V.

2010-07-01

456

Ocean Currents Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on classroom learning unit looks at ocean currents and allows students to "understand, witness, and interact with the properties of water and discover the role of the oceans in the global climate." The surface tension of water, ocean currents and the ocean's connections to climate change are explored in three mini activities. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Orzali, Joe

2011-12-13

457

Ocean Energy Technology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Ocean Energy Technology (DOE\\/ OET) Program was instituted to develop options for extracting and distributing significant amounts of ocean energy in a reliable, environmentally acceptable and cost-effective manner. Since it's inception in 1974, the program originally emphasized the identification of the most viable ocean energy options and determination of their resource potential. Ocean current devices,

W. Richards

1983-01-01

458

The Ocean: Our Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as

Mario Soares

1998-01-01

459

Renew, Reflect, and Refresh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article offers an opportunity to nurture the lifelong learner deep inside with a summer reading list that will allow you to renew, reflect, and refresh. NSTA Recommends reviewers share what they're reading this summer.

Texley, Juliana; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-07-01

460

Renewable Fuels Module  

EIA Publications

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook forecasts.

Chris Namovicz

2013-07-03

461

Renewing Our Energy Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the potential for cost-effective renewable energy in the coming decades and the actions that have to be taken to achieve the potential. Some applications, especially wind and bioenergy, are already competitive with conventional techno...

1995-01-01

462

Economic evaluation of renewable energy systems under varying scenarios and its implications to Korea’s renewable energy plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies economics of renewable energy systems with consideration of future prospects on costs and uncertain external conditions that may affect competitiveness in the power plant market. The concept of learning curve is adopted to compute estimates on the costs of installing and operating renewable energy systems in the future; fuel costs and carbon price are modeled as scenario-dependent

Jamin Koo; Kyungtae Park; Dongil Shin; En Sup Yoon

2011-01-01

463

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

Hand, M. M.

2012-08-01

464

Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Utility System  

SciTech Connect

Products based on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) technology offer a unique solution to today's energy conversion storage needs. PEM products have undergone continual development since the late 1950's for many diverse applications. Rooted in rigorous aerospace applications, this technology is now ''breaking away'' to provide commercial solutions to common power, energy, and industrial gas feedstock problems. Important developments in PEM electrolyzers and various energy conversion devices (e.g. engines and fuel cells) can now be combined to form the basis for a revolutionary energy storage system that provides a much needed link to renewable resources, and offers a credible alternative for off-grid power applications. This technology operates by converting electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen as part of a water electrolysis process when excess power is available. When the primary source of power is unavailable, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy through an external combustion heat engine or other energy conversion device. The Phase II portion of this program began in May of 2000. The goal of Phase II of the project was to cost reduce the hydrogen generator as a critical link to having a fully sustainable hydrogen energy system. The overall goal is to enable the link to sustainability by converting excess renewable power into hydrogen and having that hydrogen available for conversion back to power, on demand. Furthermore, the cost of the capability must be less the $1,000 per kW (electrical power into the generator) and allow for a variety of renewable technology inputs. This cost target is based on a production volume of 10,000 units per year. To that end, Proton undertook an aggressive approach to cost reduction activities surrounding the 6kW, 40 standard cubic foot per hour (scfh) HOGEN hydrogen generator. The electrical side of the system targeted a number of areas that included approaches to reduce the cost of the power supply and associated electronics as well as improving efficiency, implementing a circuit board to replace the discreet electrical components in the unit, and evaluating the system issues when operating the unit with a variety of renewable inputs. On the mechanical side of the system the targets involved creative use of manifolds to reduce components and plumbing, overall fitting reduction through layout simplification and welded tube assemblies, and the development of an inexpensive gas drying methodology to remove moisture and improve gas purity. Lastly, activities surrounding the electrolysis cell stack focused on lower cost stack compression approaches and cost reduction of critical components. The last year of this project focused on validating the cost reductions mentioned above and advancing these cost reductions forward into a larger hydrogen generator. This larger hydrogen generator is a 60kW, 380 scfh, HOGEN hydrogen generator. Most of these efforts were in the control board and manifold development areas. The results achieved over the life of this program are in line with the goals of the Department of Energy. Proton projects that the current design of the 40 scfh generator projected to a volume of 10,000 units per year would be in the range of $1,500 per kilowatt. Furthermore, continuing efforts on materials substitution and design enhancements over the next few years should bring the cost of the system to the $1,000 per kilowatt goal for a system of this size. This report provides the technical details behind the cost reduction efforts undertaken during the Phase II portion of the program.

Proton Energy Systems

2003-04-01

465

Ocean Planet: Sea Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on ocean bottom features including continental shelf, deep ocean plain, and mid-ocean ridges. Students study the discovery and mapping of seafloor features, learn to read seafloor maps, then create a map of Atlantic seafloor features. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; maps and forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

466

Continents and Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn and explore the seven continents and five oceans. 1. Explore the 7 continents and 5 oceans Continents and Oceans! 2. Play the quiz on the continents and oceans. Start at Beginner and work your way up to Expert! Continents and Oceans! 3. Look at this map and write down all your seven continents! Continents 4. Go to this website and play the game about continents. Continue playing until ...

Kneugent

2012-11-26

467

An Ocean of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate the close relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere to determine the extent the ocean affects the Earth's weather in the South Atlantic Bight region. As they study this relationship, students will learn that the ocean and atmosphere work together as a system. They will experiment to find out that heat transfer from the ocean is a cause of much of Earth's weather and will make and explain an ocean water cycle.

468

78 FR 52219 - Notice of Acceptance of Renewal Application for Special Nuclear Materials License From Tennessee...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Valley Authority for Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2, Opportunity To...public version of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2, license renewal...SNM) license for Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2 (WBN2),...

2013-08-22

469

Renewable Energy Positioning System: Energy Positioning: Control and Economics  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: The University of Washington and the University of Michigan are developing an integrated system to match well-positioned energy storage facilities with precise control technologies so the electric grid can more easily include energy from renewable power sources like wind and solar. Because renewable energy sources provide intermittent power, it is difficult for the grid to efficiently allocate those resources without developing solutions to store their energy for later use. The two universities are working with utilities, regulators, and the private sector to position renewable energy storage facilities in locations that optimize their ability to provide and transmit electricity where and when it is needed most. Expanding the network of transmission lines is prohibitively expensive, so combining well-placed storage facilities with robust control systems to efficiently route their power will save consumers money and enable the widespread use of safe, renewable sources of power.

None

2012-03-01

470

Initial spread of 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant over the Japan continental shelf: a study using a high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11 March 2011 tsunami triggered by the M9 and M7.9 earthquakes off the T?hoku coast destroyed facilities at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) leading to a significant long-term flow of the radionuclide 137Cs into coastal waters. A high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model was first constructed to simulate the 11 March tsunami and coastal inundation. Based on the model's success in reproducing the observed tsunami and coastal inundation, model experiments were then conducted with differing grid resolution to assess the initial spread of 137Cs over the eastern shelf of Japan. The 137Cs was tracked as a conservative tracer (without radioactive decay) in the three-dimensional model flow field over the period of 26 March-31 August 2011. The results clearly show that for the same 137Cs discharge, the model-predicted spreading of 137Cs was sensitive not only to model resolution but also the FNPP seawall structure. A coarse-resolution (∼2 km) model simulation led to an overestimation of lateral diffusion and thus faster dispersion of 137Cs from the coast to the deep ocean, while advective processes played a more significant role when the model resolution at and around the FNPP was refined to ∼5 m. By resolving the pathways from the leaking source to the southern and northern discharge canals, the high-resolution model better predicted the 137Cs spreading in the inner shelf where in situ measurements were made at 30 km off the coast. The overestimation of 137Cs concentration near the coast is thought to be due to the omission of sedimentation and biogeochemical processes as well as uncertainties in the amount of 137Cs leaking from the source in the model. As a result, a biogeochemical module should be included in the model for more realistic simulations of the fate and spreading of 137Cs in the ocean.

Lai, Z.; Chen, C.; Beardsley, R.; Lin, H.; Ji, R.; Sasaki, J.; Lin, J.

2013-08-01

471

Green Learning Canada: Adventures in renewable energy technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of resources for secondary teachers and learners on renewable energy sources. It contains lesson plans and content support for clean energy technologies. Detailed construction plans are provided for students to construct working models of solar ovens, wind turbines, hydroelectric generators, and biogas generators. Related links and backgrounders in renewable energy basics, solar heat, solar electricity, wind power, water power, biomass energy, and other clean energy technologies are also provided.

2007-10-23

472

NREL's Renewable Energy Development Expertise Reduces Project Risks (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) success story fact sheet highlights a June 2012 solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and three corporations. The fact sheet describes how technical assistance from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory enabled the U.S. Virgin Islands to realistically assess its clean energy resources and identify the most viable and cost-effective solutions to its energy challenges--resulting in a $65 million investment in solar energy in the territory.

Not Available

2012-12-01

473

PROPULSION AND POWER RAPID RESPONSE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D) SUPPORT. Delivery Order 0011: Production Demonstration and Laboratory Evaluation of R-8 and R-8X Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel for the DoD Alternative Fuels Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research project was to determine whether a suitable jet fuel could be made from animal fat and other bio feed stocks. A pilot production of 610 gallons of renewable synthetic fuel (termed R-8 and R- 8X for renewable and JP-8 like) w...

J. K. Klein

2010-01-01

474

Promoting STEM to Young Students by Renewable Energy Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Math-Science-Engineering Technology in Iowa on Applied Renewable Energy Areas (MSETI-AREA) projects are aimed at providing area school teachers with an applied mathematics and science curriculum package based on photovoltaic (PV) power, wind power, human power and hydrogen fuel-cell fundamentals. The MSETI-AREA project has established a…

Pecen, Recayi; Humston, Jill L.; Yildiz, Faruk

2012-01-01

475

The autonomous ocean profiler  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and initial field test results of the Autonomous Ocean Profiler (AOP). The AOP is an oceanographic instrument platform for measuring profiles of physical, thermodynamic, and biological properties in the ocean. The profiler employs a hydrodynamic lift device to ''fly'' the instrument package up and down the water column along a taut vertical cable. Because the local currents drive the platform's vertical motion, power requirements are low, and therefore long, unattended deployments are possible. By using ARGOS or GOES satellite retrieval networks, the system can supply near real-time data. The system provides profile data at very high vertical resolution in contrast to conventional buoys, which gather data at only fixed sensor depths. Because only a single set of sensors is required to cover the vertical range desired, the system is low cost and, for many applications, expendable. The initial deployment configuration is as an Arctic drifting buoy. A satellite retransmission buoy is placed on the sea-ice surface with the cable suspended below the ice. Conductivity, temperature, and depth information are gathered over a depth range of 0 to 300 m. Data are internally recorded and relayed to the surface buoy through an inductive communications link for transmission via satellite.

Echert, D.C.; White, G.B.; Geller, E.W.; Morison, J.H.

1989-04-01

476

High field NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry: powerful discovery tools for the molecular level characterization of marine dissolved organic matter from the South Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non target high resolution organic structural spectroscopy of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated on 27 November 2008 by means of solid phase extraction (SPE) from four different depths in the South Atlantic Ocean off the Angola coast (3.1° E; -17.7° S; Angola basin) provided molecular level information of complex unknowns with unprecedented coverage and resolution. The sampling was intended to represent major characteristic oceanic regimes of general significance: 5 m (FISH; near surface photic zone), 48 m (FMAX; fluorescence maximum), 200 m (upper mesopelagic zone) and 5446 m (30 m above ground). 800 MHz proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 1H NMR, spectra were least affected by fast and differential transverse NMR relaxation and produced at first similar looking, rather smooth bulk NMR envelopes reflecting intrinsic averaging from massive signal overlap. Visibly resolved NMR signatures were most abundant in surface DOM but contributed at most a few percent to the total 1H NMR integral and were mainly limited to unsaturated and singly oxygenated carbon chemical environments. The relative abundance and variance of resolved signatures between samples was maximal in the aromatic region; in particular, the aromatic resolved NMR signature of the deep ocean sample at 5446 m was considerably different from that of all other samples. When scaled to equal total NMR integral, 1H NMR spectra of the four marine DOM samples revealed considerable variance in abundance for all major chemical environments across the entire range of chemical shift. Abundance of singly oxygenated CH units and acetate derivatives declined from surface to depth whereas aliphatics and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM) derived molecules increased in abundance. Surface DOM contained a remarkably lesser abundance of methyl esters than all other marine DOM, likely a consequence of photodegradation from direct exposure to sunlight. All DOM showed similar overall 13C NMR resonance envelopes typical of an intricate mixture of natural organic matter with noticeable peaks of anomerics and C-aromatics carbon whereas oxygenated aromatics and ketones were of too low abundance to result in noticeable humps at the S/N ratio provided. Integration according to major substructure regimes revealed continual increase of carboxylic acids and ketones from surface to deep marine DOM, reflecting a progressive oxygenation of marine DOM, with concomitant decline of carbohydrate-related substructures. Isolation of marine DOM by means of SPE likely discriminated against carbohydrates but produced materials with beneficial NMR relaxation properties: a substantial fraction of dissolved organic molecules present allowed the acquisition of two-dimensional NMR spectra with exceptional resolution. JRES, COSY and HMBC NMR spectra were capable to depict resolved molecular signatures of compounds exceeding a certain minimum abundance. Here, JRES spectra suffered from limited resolution whereas HMBC spectra were constrained because of limited S/N ratio. Hence, COSY NMR spectra appeared best suited to depict organic complexity in marine DOM. The intensity and number of COSY cross peaks was found maximal for sample FMAX and conformed to about 1500 molecules recognizable in variable abundance. Surface DOM (FISH) produced a slightly (~25%) lesser number of cross peaks with remarkable positional accordance to FMAX (~80% conforming COSY cross peaks were found in FISH and FMAX). With increasing water depth, progressive attenuation of COSY cross peaks was caused by fast transverse NMR relaxation of yet unknown origin. However, most of the faint COSY cross peak positions of deep water DOM conformed to those observed in the surface DOM, suggesting the presence of a numerous set of identical molecules throughout the entire ocean column even if the investigated water masses belonged to different oceanic regimes and currents. Aliphatic chemical environments of methylene (CH2) and methyl (CH3) in marine DOM were nicely discriminated in DEPT HSQC NMR spectra. Classical methyl gro

Hertkorn, N.; Harir, M.; Koch, B. P.; Michalke, B.; Grill, P.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

2012-01-01

477

Ocean thermal energy conversion: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OTEC principle along with general system and cycle, types, specific OTEC designs, OTEC applications, and the ocean thermal resource are discussed. The historic development of OTEC is reviewed, and the status of French, Japanese, EUROCEAN, and US programs is assessed. Power system components of the more technically advanced closed cycle OTEC concept are examined. These include: heat exchangers, corrosion and biofouling countermeasures, working fluids, ammonia power systems, and on platform seawater systems. Several open cycle features are also discussed. The ocean engineering aspects of OTEC power systems are reviewed. Major subsystems such as platform, cold water pipe, mooring system, dynamic positioning system, power transmission cable system are assessed for their relationships with the ocean environment and with each other. Possible environmental and social effects of OTEC development are discussed.

Yuen, P. C.

1981-10-01

478

Integrating Renewable Electricity on the Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for carbon-free electricity is driving a growing movement of adding renewable energy to the grid. Renewable Portfolio Standards mandated by states and under consideration by the federal government envision a penetration of 20-30% renewable energy in the grid by 2020 or 2030. The renewable energy potential of wind and solar far exceeds these targets, suggesting that renewable energy ultimately could grow well beyond these initial goals. The grid faces two new and fundamental technological challenges in accommodating renewables: location and variability. Renewable resources are concentrated at mid-continent far from population centers, requiring additional long distance, high-capacity transmission to match supply with demand. The variability of renewables due to the characteristics of weather is high, up to 70% for daytime solar due to passing clouds and 100% for wind on calm days, much larger than the relatively predictable uncertainty in load that the grid now accommodates by dispatching conventional resources in response to demand. Solutions to the challenges of remote location and variability of generation are needed. The options for DC transmission lines, favored over AC lines for transmission of more than a few hundred miles, need to be examined. Conventional high voltage DC transmission lines are a mature technology that can solve regional transmission needs covering one- or two-state areas. Conventional high voltage DC has drawbacks, however, of high loss, technically challenging and expensive conversion between AC and DC, and the requirement of a single point of origin and termination. Superconducting DC transmission lines lose little or no energy, produce no heat, and carry higher power density than conventional lines. They operate at moderate voltage, allowing many ``on-ramps'' and ``off-ramps'' in a single network and reduce the technical and cost challenges of AC to DC conversion. A network of superconducting DC cables overlaying the existing patchwork of conventional transmission lines would create an interstate highway system for electricity that moves large amounts of renewable electric power efficiently over long distances from source to load. Research and development is needed to identify the technical challenges associated with DC superconducting transmission and how it can be most effectively deployed. The challenge of variability can be met (i) by switching conventional generation capacity in or out in response to sophisticated forecasts of weather and power generation, (ii) by large scale energy storage in heat, pumped hydroelectric, compressed air or stationary batteries designed for the grid, or (iii) by national balancing of regional generation deficits and excesses using long distance transmission. Each of these solutions to variability has merit and each requires significant research and development to understand its capacity, performance, cost and effectiveness. The challenge of variability is likely to be met by a combination of these three solutions; the interactions among them and the appropriate mix needs to be explored. The long distances from renewable sources to demand centers span many of the grid's physical, ownership and regulatory boundaries. This introduces a new feature to grid structure and operation: national and regional coordination. The grid is historically a patchwork of local generation resources and load centers that has been built, operated and regulated to meet local needs. Although it is capable of sharing power across moderate distances, the arrangements for doing so are cumbersome and inefficient. The advent of renewable electricity with its enormous potential and inherent regional and national character presents an opportunity to examine the local structure of the grid and establish coordinating principles that will not only enable effective renewable integration but also simplify and codify the grid's increasingly regional and national character.

Crabtree, George; Misewich, Jim; Ambrosio, Ron; Clay, Kathryn; Demartini, Paul; James, Revis; Lauby, Mark; Mohta, Vivek; Moura, John; Sauer, Peter; Slakey, Francis; Lieberman, Jodi; Tai, Humayun

2011-11-01

479

National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Education Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) believes that "educating students, teachers, and consumers is the other key to finding new renewable ways to power our homes, businesses, and cars." This site is full of important educational resources such as classroom activities, online quizzes, and fact sheets that deal with renewable energy technology and applied sciences. In the Educational Resources area, visitors can make their way through several dozen lesson plans, including "History of Solar Cells," "Teacher's Guide to Wind Energy," and "School Energy Audit." Moving on, the DOE Undergraduate Internships & Graduate Fellowships area gives interested parties access to application forms for the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship Program and the Graduate Fellowship Program. The site is rounded out by information on the annual Junior Solar Sprint & Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Competition.

2012-07-20

480

Deep Water Pipe and Mooring Design Study Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Program. First Quarterly Progress Report, May 1, 1975--August 1, 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Westinghouse Oceanic Division is participating in the study of ocean engineering issues affecting the design, construction, deployment, and operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. Specifically this study responds to the probl...

T. E. Little

1975-01-01

481

ExploreWorldOcean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ExploreWorldOcean supports Exploring the World Ocean, an introductory oceanography textbook written by Sean Chamberlin, PhD, at Fullerton College, and Tommy Dickey, PhD, at the University of California, Santa Barbara. ExploreWorldOcean is an educational web site that inspires people to learn more about the world ocean. Featuring hundreds of pages of content , it aims to provide a broad range of information on the ocean and oceanography suitable for beginning and advanced students of oceanography. Perhaps most importantly, the site strives to help people understand their relationship with the world ocean and how they may help it.

Chamberlin, W. S.; Exploreworldocean

482

A 20 KW open ocean current test turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida is faced with an energy crisis with respect to capacity, supply, cost, emissions, and stability. The untapped energetic waters of the Florida Current could provide a clean, reliable, base-load local renewable energy source for Florida. To facilitate the successful commercial harvesting of this hydrokinetic resource, Florida Atlantic University's Center for Ocean Energy Technology is designing, fabricating, deploying, and operating

F. R. Driscoll; G. M. Alsenas; P. P. Beaujean; S. Ravenna; J. Raveling; E. Busold; C. Slezycki

2008-01-01

483

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

Mai, T.

2012-08-01

484

Renewal of Tohoku ISOL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the new AVF cyrclotron has been constructed at cyclotron and radioisotope center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University, the ISOL facility at CYRIC has also been renewed. The pumping system, beam focusing devices, the tape transportation and their control system have been modified. In addition, a large volume HPGe detector system which consist of six clover type HPGe detectors with BGO anti-compton suppressor has also been constructed. Details of the renewal of the ISOL facility and the result of the performance test of the new detector system will be reported in addition to the plans for some experiments.

Fujita, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi; Sonoda, Tetsu; Oshima, Tatsuaki; Mizunuma, Katsuhito; Tamura, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Eiji; Shinozuka, Tsutomu

2001-10-01

485

The Ocean Literacy Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

2008-12-01

486

Computational ocean acoustics: Advances in 3D ocean acoustic modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical model of ocean acoustic propagation developed in the 1980's are still in widespread use today, and the field of computational ocean acoustics is often considered a mature field. However, the explosive increase in computational power available to the community has created opportunities for modeling phenomena that earlier were beyond reach. Most notably, three-dimensional propagation and scattering problems have been prohibitive computationally, but are now addressed routinely using brute force numerical approaches such as the Finite Element Method, in particular for target scattering problems, where they are being combined with the traditional wave theory propagation models in hybrid modeling frameworks. Also, recent years has seen the development of hybrid approaches coupling oceanographic circulation models with acoustic propagation models, enabling the forecasting of sonar performance uncertainty in dynamic ocean environments. These and other advances made over the last couple of decades support the notion that the field of computational ocean acoustics is far from being mature. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research, Code 321OA].

Schmidt, Henrik; Jensen, Finn B.

2012-11-01

487

Monitoring Global Ocean Carbon Inventories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword by OOSDP chairman; Preface by Author; Significance of a Changing Oceanic Carbon Inventory; The Case for Monitoring Ocean Carbon Inventories; Ocean Carbon Monitoring Approaches (Air-Sea Fluxes, CO(sub 2) Transport within the Ocean, Inven...

D. W. R. Wallace

1995-01-01

488

Staging Rankine Cycles Using Ammonia for OTEC Power Production  

SciTech Connect

Recent focus on renewable power production has renewed interest in looking into ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Early studies in OTEC applicability indicate that the island of Hawaii offers a potential market for a nominal 40-MWe system. a 40-MWe system represents a large leap in the current state of OTEC technology. Lockheed Martin Inc. is currently pursuing a more realistic goal of developing