Science.gov

Sample records for ocean renewable power

  1. 77 FR 1674 - Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...12711-005] Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice...the Proposed Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project In accordance...reviewed Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC's application...the proposed Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project (FERC...

  2. 76 FR 63917 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    .... d. Applicant: Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy... Energy Regulatory Commission Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for.... The project does not affect federal lands. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C....

  3. 77 FR 1674 - Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...) regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC's application for an 8-year pilot license for the proposed Cobscook Bay Tidal... Energy Regulatory Commission Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Availability...

  4. 76 FR 18750 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Change in Docket Number

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Change in Docket Number On July 24, 2009, Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) filed a draft hydrokinetic pilot license application (DLA) for the proposed Eastport Tidal Energy Project, a proposal that unified two...

  5. 77 FR 5791 - Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Staff Participation in Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...Project No. 12711-005] Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Staff Participation...with representatives from Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC at the Federal Energy...January 4, 2012, for the Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project No. 12711. A...

  6. 76 FR 18750 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Change in Docket Number

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...12711-003] Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Change...24, 2009, Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) filed...for the proposed Eastport Tidal Energy Project, a proposal...held by ORPC, the Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project preliminary...

  7. 77 FR 5791 - Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Staff Participation in Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC; Notice of Staff Participation in... representatives from Ocean Renewable Power Company Maine, LLC at the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  8. 77 FR 5817 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, Tidal Energy Project, Cobscook Bay, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Ocean Renewable Power Company, Tidal Energy Project, Cobscook Bay, ME AGENCY: Coast... on how to best address the proposal put forth by Ocean Renewable Energy Company (ORPC) to install..., issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Dated: January 20, 2012. C.L. Roberge, Captain, U.S....

  9. 76 FR 42122 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice Concluding Pre-Filing Process and Approving Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... By: Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project. f... Energy Regulatory Commission Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice Concluding Pre-Filing Process and... R. Sauer, Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC, 120 Exchange Street, Suite 508, Portland, Maine...

  10. 76 FR 59671 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for... License. b. Project No.: 12711-005. c. Date Filed: September 1, 2011. d. Applicant: Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project. f. Location: The proposed...

  11. NREL and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Support of Ocean Renewable Power Company's TidGen™ Power System Technology Readiness Advancement Initiative Project

    SciTech Connect

    LiVecchi, Al

    2015-05-07

    This document summarizes the tasks identified for National Laboratory technical support of Ocean Renewable Power Corporation (ORPC) DOE grant awarded under the FY10 Industry Solicitation DE-FOA-0000293: Technology Readiness Advancement Initiative. The system ORPC will deploy in Cobscook Bay, ME is known as the TidGen™ Power System. The Turbine Generator Unit (TGU) each have a rated capacity of 150 to 175 kW, and they are mounted on bottom support frames and connected to an onshore substation using an underwater power and control cable. This system is designed for tidal energy applications in water depths from 60 to 150 feet. In funding provided separately by DOE, National Laboratory partners NREL and SNL will provide in-kind resources and technical expertise to help ensure that industry projects meet DOE WWPP (Wind and Water Power Program) objectives by reducing risk to these high value projects.

  12. 76 FR 63917 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...building 32 feet wide by 35 feet long, housing the SatCon power inverter and the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system; and (5) appurtenant facilities for navigation safety and operation. The project would have a total rated...

  13. Renewables for Sustainable Village Power

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.; Baring-Gould, I.; Bianchi, J.; Corbus, D.; Drouilhet, S.; Elliott, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Jimenez, A.; Lilienthal, P.; Newcomb, C.; Taylor, R.

    2000-11-06

    This paper describes the efforts of NREL's Renewables for Sustainable Village Power team to match renewable energy technologies with rural energy needs in the international market. The paper describes the team's activities, updates the lessons learned, and proposes an integrated approach as a model for rural electrification with renewables.

  14. 76 FR 42122 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice Concluding Pre-Filing Process and Approving Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...building 32 feet wide by 35 feet long, housing the SatCon power inverter and the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system; and (5) appurtenant facilities for navigation safety and operation. The project would have a total rated...

  15. 76 FR 59671 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...building 32 feet wide by 35 feet long, housing the SatCon power inverter and the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system; and (5) appurtenant facilities for navigation safety and operation. The project would have a total rated...

  16. Renewables for sustainable village power

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.

    1997-03-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal.

  17. Renewable Energy. The Power to Choose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    This book, consisting of 13 chapters, charts the progress made in renewable energy in recent years and outlines renewable energy's prospects. Areas addressed include: energy at the crossroads (discussing oil, gas, coal, nuclear power, and the conservation revolution); solar building design; solar collection; sunlight to electricity; wood; energy…

  18. Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Systems 

    E-print Network

    Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    There are many motivations for choosing renewable energy technologies to provide the necessary energy to power water treatment systems for reuse and desalination. These range from the lack of an existing electricity grid, ...

  19. Panelists to discuss renewable energy from the ocean in annual Norris Lecture November 10

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Panelists to discuss renewable energy from the ocean in annual Norris Lecture November 10 SANTA CRUZ, CA--Panelists will explore the current prospects of deriving renewable energy from our oceans 10, 2011 at 7 p.m. The event, "Renewable Energy from the Sea," is free and open to the public

  20. Wing Wave: Feasible, Alternative, Renewable, Electrical Energy Producing Ocean Floor System

    E-print Network

    Wood, Stephen L.

    Wing Wave: Feasible, Alternative, Renewable, Electrical Energy Producing Ocean Floor System Mark, alternative energy system to convert the circular motion of ocean waves as they propagate through the sea and feasible alternative, renewable, electrical energy producing subsea system. Index Terms--ocean energy, wave

  1. 75 FR 9187 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Ocean Research Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ...Federal Advisory Committee; Ocean Research Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department Of Defense (DoD). ACTION...renewing the charter for the Ocean Research Advisory Panel (hereafter referred to as the Panel). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim...

  2. Design of isolated renewable hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sreeraj, E.S.; Chatterjee, Kishore; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2010-07-15

    Isolated electrical power generating units can be used as an economically viable alternative to electrify remote villages where grid extension is not feasible. One of the options for building isolated power systems is by hybridizing renewable power sources like wind, solar, micro-hydro, etc. along with appropriate energy storage. A method to optimally size and to evaluate the cost of energy produced by a renewable hybrid system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method, which is based on the design space approach, can be used to determine the conditions for which hybridization of the system is cost effective. The simple and novel methodology, proposed in this paper, is based on the principles of process integration. It finds the minimum battery capacity when the availability and ratings of various renewable resources as well as load demand are known. The battery sizing methodology is used to determine the sizing curve and thereby the feasible design space for the entire system. Chance constrained programming approach is used to account for the stochastic nature of the renewable energy resources and to arrive at the design space. The optimal system configuration in the entire design space is selected based on the lowest cost of energy, subject to a specified reliability criterion. The effects of variation of the specified system reliability and the coefficient of correlation between renewable sources on the design space, as well as the optimum configuration are also studied in this paper. The proposed method is demonstrated by designing an isolated power system for an Indian village utilizing wind-solar photovoltaic-battery system. (author)

  3. Fiscalini Farms Renewable Energy Power Generation Project

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Fiscalini Farms L.P., in collaboration with University of the Pacific, Biogas Energy, Inc., and the University of California at Berkeley will measure and analyze the efficiency and regulatory compliance of a renewable energy system for power generation. The system will utilize digester gas from an anaerobic digester located at the Fiscalini Farms dairy for power generation with a reciprocating engine. The project will provide power, efficiency, emissions, and cost/benefit analysis for the system and evaluate its compliance with federal and California emissions standards.

  4. Designing and Managing Datacenters Powered by Renewable Energy

    E-print Network

    Designing and Managing Datacenters Powered by Renewable Energy ´I~nigo Goiri, William Katsak, Kien,wkatsak,lekien,tdnguyen,ricardob}@cs.rutgers.edu Abstract On-site renewable energy has the potential to reduce data- centers' carbon footprint and power/energy" datacenters, i.e. datacenters partially or completely powered by renewables such as solar or wind energy

  5. Renewable Energy Penetration on the power Grid Fall / 2010

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    ECE 420 Renewable Energy Penetration on the power Grid Fall / 2010 Instructor: Dr. E. B. Makram: TBA Text: Renewable Energy Systems M. Godoy Simoes and Felix A. Farret Attendance: Test attendance): Principles of Renewable Sources of Energy and Electric Power: basic definitions of electrical power

  6. Renewable energy from the ocean - a guide to OTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, W.H.; Wu, C.

    1994-01-01

    An enormous renewable energy resource exists in the tropical oceans. The authors of this book state that this resource could be exploited to produce a large fraction of the world's energy needs in the form of methanol or ammonia and that any associated deleterious environmental effects would be minimal. Careful analyses of potential problems, detailed designs of OTEC plant ships, and consideration of costs occupy most of the book. Part of it is devoted to some limited practical experience. With the knowledge set forth a 40-MWe seagoing pilot plant could be constructed. Cost would be about $200 million in 1990 dollars. Construction could be relatively rapid, since most of the components would be commercially available. The authors provide extensive evidence that with experience costs of OTEC would be substantially reduced and that ultimately production of methanol and ammonia by OTEC could be made cost-competitive.

  7. Renewable power needs smart storage solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2010-10-24

    Ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus claimed that the only thing constant in life is change, a truth we must accept and even celebrate. Another truth we face today is a growing demand for more energy to help us power the kind and pace of change we’ve become accustomed to, while minimizing environmental consequences. Renewable energy--two words that often find themselves woven into environmentally conscious dialogue. And according to Dave Lucero, director of alternative energy storage at EaglePicher Technologies LLC, the Tri-Cities should be thinking about two more: energy storage. Lucero recently addressed the Tri-Cities Research District about tackling the persistent challenge of maximizing renewable energy, which is inherently variable due to changing weather patterns. Capturing that energy and making it available for later use is vital.

  8. BATTERY STORAGE CONTROL FOR STEADYING RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION

    E-print Network

    BATTERY STORAGE CONTROL FOR STEADYING RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION By Shengyuan (Mike) Chen, Emilie-626-7370 URL: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;Battery Storage Control for Steadying Renewable Power Generation by storing excess power to a battery during excess generation, and then releasing the energy when power

  9. Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.

    PubMed

    Beck, E J

    1975-07-25

    Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump. PMID:17813707

  10. Risk-Limiting Dispatch for Integrating Renewable Power Ram Rajagopal

    E-print Network

    into the power grid. The SO makes a sequence of decisions to balance the supply and load of electric power decision is based on the most recent available information, including demand, renewable power, weather technology, and renewable penetration. 1 Introduction States are setting ambitious goals for electricity from

  11. Design, construction and testing of an ocean renewable energy storage scaled prototype

    E-print Network

    Meredith, James D. C. (James Douglas Charles)

    2012-01-01

    The concept for a new form of pumped storage hydro is being developed within the Precision Engineering Research Group at MIT: the Ocean Renewable Energy Storage (ORES) project. Large, hollow concrete spheres are created, ...

  12. The RenewElec Project: Variable Renewable Energy and the Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Apt, Jay

    2014-02-14

    Variable energy resources, such as wind power, now produce about 4% of U.S. electricity. They can play a significantly expanded role if the U.S. adopts a systems approach that considers affordability, security and reliability. Reaching a 20-30% renewable portfolio standard goal is possible, but not without changes in the management and regulation of the power system, including accurately assessing and preparing for the operational effects of renewable generation. The RenewElec project will help the nation make the transition to the use of significant amounts of electric generation from variable and intermittent sources of renewable power.

  13. 77 FR 60039 - Non-Power Reactor License Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... FR 38742), for comment from the public, licensees, certificate holders, and other stakeholders. The... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 RIN 3150-AI96 Non-Power Reactor License Renewal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... streamline non-power reactor license renewal. This final regulatory basis incorporates input from the...

  14. Efficiently Operating Wireless Nodes Powered by Renewable Energy Sources

    E-print Network

    Gautam, Natarajan

    1 Efficiently Operating Wireless Nodes Powered by Renewable Energy Sources Natarajan Gautam Senior. The node uses energy harvesting in the sense that it is powered by batteries that are charged by renewable that is responsible for transmitting messages in a timely manner while being prudent about energy consumption

  15. The hydrothermal power of oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grose, C. J.; Afonso, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    We have estimated the power of ventilated hydrothermal heat transport, and its spatial distribution, using a set of recently developed plate models which highlight the effects of hydrothermal circulation and thermal insulation by oceanic crust. Testing lithospheric cooling models with these two effects, we estimate that global advective heat transport is about 6.6 TW, significantly lower than previous estimates, and that the fraction of that extracted by vigorous circulation on the ridge axes (<1 Ma) is about 50% of the total, significantly higher than previous estimates. This low hydrothermal power estimate originates from the thermally insulating properties of oceanic crust in relation to the mantle. Since the crust is relatively insulating, the effective properties of the lithosphere are "crust dominated" near ridge axes (yielding lower heat flow), and gradually approach mantle values over time. Thus, cooling models with crustal insulation predict low heat flow over young seafloor, implying that the difference of modeled and measured heat flow is due to the heat transport properties of the lithosphere, in addition to ventilated hydrothermal circulation as generally accepted. These estimates may bear on important problems in the physics and chemistry of the Earth because the magnitude of hydrothermal power affects chemical exchanges between the oceans and the lithosphere, thereby affecting both thermal and chemical budgets in the oceanic crust and lithosphere, the subduction factory, and convective mantle.

  16. Modeling the Ocean Tide for Tidal Power Generation Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, M.; Gedney, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent years have seen renewed interest in the ocean tide as a source of energy for electrical power generation. Unlike in the 1960s, when the tidal barrage was the predominant method of power extraction considered and implemented, the current methodology favors operation of a free-stream turbine or an array of them in strong tidal currents. As tidal power generation moves from pilot-scale projects to actual array implementations, numerical modeling of tidal currents is expected to play an increasing role in site selection, resource assessment, array design, and environmental impact assessment. In this presentation, a simple, coupled ocean/estuary model designed for research into fundamental aspects of tidal power generation is described. The model consists of a Pacific Ocean-size rectangular basin and a connected fjord-like embayment with dimensions similar to that of Puget Sound, Washington, one of the potential power generation sites in the United States. The model is forced by an idealized lunar tide-generating potential. The study focuses on the energetics of a tidal system including tidal power extraction at both global and regional scales. The hyperbolic nature of the governing shallow water equations means consequence of tidal power extraction cannot be limited to the local waters, but is global in extent. Modeling power extraction with a regional model with standard boundary conditions introduces uncertainties of 3 ~ 25% in the power extraction estimate depending on the level of extraction. Power extraction in the model has a well-defined maximum (~800 MW in a standard case) that is in agreement with previous theoretical studies. Natural energy dissipation and tidal power extraction strongly interact; for a turbine array of a given capacity, the higher the level of natural dissipation the lower the power the array can extract. Conversely, power extraction leads to a decrease in the level of natural dissipation (Figure) as well as the tidal range and the current speed. In the standard case considered, at the maximum power extraction the tidal range in the estuary is reduced by 37% and the natural dissipation by 78% from the unperturbed state. Thus, environmental consequences of power generation are likely to become the limiting factor on the scale of resource development before the physical maximum is reached.

  17. The hydrothermal power of oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grose, C. J.; Afonso, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We have estimated the power of ventilated hydrothermal heat transport, and its spatial distribution, using a set of recently developed plate models which highlight the effects of axial hydrothermal circulation and thermal insulation by oceanic crust. Testing lithospheric cooling models with these two effects, we estimate that global advective heat transport is about 6.6 TW, significantly lower than most previous estimates, and that the fraction of that extracted by vigorous circulation on the ridge axes (< 1 My old) is about 50 % of the total, significantly higher than previous estimates. These new estimates originate from the thermally insulating properties of oceanic crust in relation to the mantle. Since the crust is relatively insulating, the effective properties of the lithosphere are "crust dominated" near ridge axes (a thermal blanketing effect yielding lower heat flow) and gradually approach mantle values over time. Thus, cooling models with crustal insulation predict low heat flow over young seafloor, implying that the difference of modeled and measured heat flow is due to the heat transport properties of the lithosphere, in addition to ventilated hydrothermal circulation as generally accepted. These estimates may bear on important problems in the physics and chemistry of the Earth because the magnitude of ventilated hydrothermal power affects chemical exchanges between the oceans and the lithosphere, thereby affecting both thermal and chemical budgets in the oceanic crust and lithosphere, the subduction factory, and the convective mantle.

  18. Topic 5: Renewable Power 1Networking and Distributed Systems

    E-print Network

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    . · Desired choices (Renewable Sources): · Marine: Wave and Tidal · PV: Solar · Wind · Hydro #12;Carbon Tax Dr of sea levels: · Caused by moon and sun's gravitational forces. · Most places in the ocean usually: ·Are influenced by the alignment of the sun and moon. #12;Tidal Energ

  19. 77 FR 38742 - Non-Power Reactor License Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...3150-AI96 Non-Power Reactor License Renewal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Mail Stop...and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. [FR...

  20. 77 FR 60039 - Non-Power Reactor License Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...3150-AI96 Non-Power Reactor License Renewal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear...and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. [FR...

  1. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  2. Powering Los Angeles with renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaraigosa, Mayor Antonio R.; Sivaram, Varun; Nichols, Ron

    2013-09-01

    The City of Los Angeles is nearly two thirds of the way towards its goal of generating a third of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020; cities around the world can glean valuable technical, economic and political lessons from its experience.

  3. Economic decision making of renewable power producers under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Chenlu

    The recent booming development of renewable power generation and government subsidies are constantly under scrutiny and various opinions exist regarding whether subsidies should be continued or not. Motivated by the controversies and debates, this dissertation attempted to address the investment decision making problem under uncertainties in the renewable power industry from the perspective of an individual power producer. Given that independent power producers still dominate the renewable power production and that majority of their output are sold through long-term power purchase agreements, this study focused on two types of uncertainties that could represent most of their kinds: the operations & maintenance (O&M) cost and governmental subsidy's renewal/expiration. Three types of investment activities that covers the major part of any renewable power plant's economic life are thoroughly investigated in a chronological order: an initial entry, exit when the plant reaches its economic life, and repowering. A real-options approach was adopted and improved to model the value of a power plant considering its future activities, while both cost and policy changes modeled as some stochastic processes. Significant policy implications and managerial insights were obtained as a result of extensive analytical modeling and statistical study of empirical evidence.

  4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Honolulu Laboratory Renewal Project, Honolulu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-08-01

    This brochure provides an overview of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Honolulu Laboratory Renewal Project, a project designed to adhere to the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system. Diagrams of the HVAC system and the rainwater collection system are included.

  5. 77 FR 38742 - Non-Power Reactor License Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 RIN 3150-AI96 Non-Power Reactor License Renewal AGENCY... changes to address technical issues in existing non-power reactor regulations. The NRC is seeking input... Reactors Licensing Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation,...

  6. Colorado's Prospects for Interstate Commerce in Renewable Power

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Colorado has more renewable energy potential than it is ever likely to need for its own in-state electricity consumption. Such abundance may suggest an opportunity for the state to sell renewable power elsewhere, but Colorado faces considerable competition from other western states that may have better resources and easier access to key markets on the West Coast. This report examines factors that will be important to the development of interstate commerce for electricity generated from renewable resources. It examines market fundamentals in a regional context, and then looks at the implications for Colorado.

  7. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

  8. Power fluctuation reduction methodology for the grid-connected renewable power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aula, Fadhil T.; Lee, Samuel C.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for eliminating the influence of the power fluctuations of the renewable power systems. The renewable energy, which is to be considered an uncertain and uncontrollable resource, can only provide irregular electrical power to the power grid. This irregularity creates fluctuations of the generated power from the renewable power systems. These fluctuations cause instability to the power system and influence the operation of conventional power plants. Overall, the power system is vulnerable to collapse if necessary actions are not taken to reduce the impact of these fluctuations. This methodology aims at reducing these fluctuations and makes the generated power capability for covering the power consumption. This requires a prediction tool for estimating the generated power in advance to provide the range and the time of occurrence of the fluctuations. Since most of the renewable energies are weather based, as a result a weather forecast technique will be used for predicting the generated power. The reduction of the fluctuation also requires stabilizing facilities to maintain the output power at a desired level. In this study, a wind farm and a photovoltaic array as renewable power systems and a pumped-storage and batteries as stabilizing facilities are used, since they are best suitable for compensating the fluctuations of these types of power suppliers. As an illustrative example, a model of wind and photovoltaic power systems with battery energy and pumped hydro storage facilities for power fluctuation reduction is included, and its power fluctuation reduction is verified through simulation.

  9. On the Wind Power Input to the Ocean General Circulation

    E-print Network

    Zhai, Xiaoming

    The wind power input to the ocean general circulation is usually calculated from the time-averaged wind products. Here, this wind power input is reexamined using available observations, focusing on the role of the synoptically ...

  10. Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, H. R.; Kim, A. R.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.

    2011-11-01

    This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

  11. Guide to purchasing green power. Renewable electricity, renewable energy certificates and on-site renewable generation

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-30

    The Guide to Purchasing Green Power is intended for organizations that are considering the merits of buying green power as well as those that have decided to buy it and want help doing so. The Guide was written for a broad audience, including businesses, government agencies, universities, and all organizations wanting to diversify their energy supply and to reduce the environmental impact of their electricity use.The Guide provides an overview of green power markets and describes the necessary steps to buying green power. This section summarizes the Guide to help readers find the information they need.

  12. Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.E.

    1997-04-01

    An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

  13. Water energy nexus in biofuels production and renewable based power

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    the water consumed accordingly. In terms of efficient processes in water­energy consumption, the best oneWater ­ energy nexus in biofuels production and renewable based power Mariano Martína1, Ignacio E and glycerol ethers, as long as the rainfall water is not included in the analysis. Otherwise, solar based

  14. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to demonstrate our operational-planning framework and economic justification for different storage applications. A new reliability model is proposed for security and adequacy assessment of power networks containing renewable resources and energy storage systems. The proposed model is used in combination with the operational-planning framework to enhance the reliability and operability of wind integration. The proposed framework optimally utilizes the storage capacity for reliability applications of wind integration. This is essential for justification of storage deployment within regulated utilities where the absence of market opportunities limits the economic advantage of storage technologies over gas-fired generators. A control strategy is also proposed to achieve the maximum reliability using energy storage systems. A cost-benefit analysis compares storage technologies and conventional alternatives to reliably and efficiently integrate different wind penetrations and determines the most economical design. Our simulation results demonstrate the necessity of optimal storage placement for different wind applications. This dissertation also proposes a new stochastic framework to optimally charge and discharge electric vehicles (EVs) to mitigate the effects of wind power uncertainties. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) service for hedging against wind power imbalances is introduced as a novel application for EVs. This application enhances the predictability of wind power and reduces the power imbalances between the scheduled output and actual power. An Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) wind speed model is developed to forecast the wind power output. Driving patterns of EVs are stochastically modeled and the EVs are clustered in the fleets of similar daily driving patterns. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) simulates the system behavior by generating samples of system states using the wind ARMA model and EVs driving patterns. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used in combination with MCS to optimally coordinate the EV fleets for their V2G services and minimize the penalty cost associated wit

  15. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  16. Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

  17. A Stochastic Power Network Calculus for Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K; Ciucu, F; Lin, C; Low, SH

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy such as solar and wind generation will constitute an important part of the future grid. As the availability of renewable sources may not match the load, energy storage is essential for grid stability. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of integrating solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines into the grid by also accounting for energy storage. To deal with the fluctuation in both the power supply and demand, we extend and apply stochastic network calculus to analyze the power supply reliability with various renewable energy configurations. To illustrate the validity of the model, we conduct a case study for the integration of renewable energy sources into the power system of an island off the coast of Southern California. In particular, we asses the power supply reliability in terms of the average Fraction of Time that energy is Not-Served (FTNS).

  18. 77 FR 28871 - Renewable Power Strategies, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Renewable Power Strategies, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Renewable Power Strategies, LLC's application for...

  19. Transmission needs across a fully renewable European power system

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Rolando A; Andresen, Gorm B; Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The residual load and excess power generation of 27 European countries with a 100% penetration of variable renewable energy sources are explored in order to quantify the benefit of power transmission between countries. Estimates are based on extensive weather data, which allows for modelling of hourly mismatches between the demand and renewable generation from wind and solar photovoltaics. For separated countries, balancing is required to cover around 24% of the total annual energy consumption. This number can be reduced down to 15% once all countries are networked together with uncon- strained interconnectors. The reduction represents the maximum possible benefit of transmission for the countries. The total Net Transfer Capacity of the unconstrained interconnectors is roughly twelve times larger than current values. However, constrained interconnector capacities six times larger than the current values are found to provide 97% of the maximum possible benefit of cooperation. This motivates a detailed investig...

  20. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify transmission corridors from the generation areas to the demand centers in the target regions, using a GIS-based transmission algorithm that minimizes economic, social and environmental costs. Third, we use the multi-scale energy system model Calliope to specify the optimal configuration and operation of the CSP fleet to reliably follow the demand every hour of the year in the target regions, and to calculate the levelized cost of doing so, including both generation and transmission costs. The final output will show whether and how much reliable renewable electricity can be supplied from CSP fleets in deserts to demand centers in adjacent regions, at which costs this is possible, as well as a detailed description of the routes of HVDC transmission links. We expect to find that the potential for deserts to supply reliable CSP to the regions in focus is very large in all cases, despite the long distances.

  1. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-07-22

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 ? CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8-1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) during a multiday (36 h total hours) CO2 electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 10(6) and 4 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient to power larger-scale, tonne per day CO2 conversion systems. PMID:26121278

  2. Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Shane

    2011-09-30

    This report describes the research that was completed under project title â?? Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

  3. Power System Study for Renewable Energy Interconnection in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askar, O. F.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.

    2013-06-01

    The renewable energy (RE) sector has grown exponentially in Malaysia with the introduction of the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) by the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. Photovoltaic, biogas, biomass and mini hydro are among the renewable energy sources which offer a lucrative tariff to incite developers in taking the green technology route. In order to receive the FIT, a developer is required by the utility company to perform a power system analysis which will determine the technical feasibility of an RE interconnection to the utility company's existing grid system. There are a number of aspects which the analysis looks at, the most important being the load flow and fault levels in the network after the introduction of an RE source. The analysis is done by modelling the utility company's existing network and simulating the network with the interconnection of an RE source. The results are then compared to the values before an interconnection is made as well as ensuring the voltage rise or the increase in fault levels do not violate any pre-existing regulations set by the utility company. This paper will delve into the mechanics of performing a load flow analysis and examining the results obtained.

  4. 78 FR 46255 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI42 Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant... environmental effect of renewing the operating license of a nuclear power plant. Compliance with the provisions... nuclear power plant. This document is necessary to clarify and correct the revisions made to the...

  5. 78 FR 37325 - License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI42 License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact... 1, ``Standard Review Plans for Environmental Reviews for Nuclear Power Plants, Supplement 1... for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses'' (RIN 3150-AI42), that is amending...

  6. 78 FR 37324 - Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 51 and 54 RIN 3150-AI42 Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant..., Supplement 1 (RG 4.2S1), ``Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal... reports that are submitted with the application for the renewal of a nuclear power plant operating...

  7. Large-scale Ocean-based or Geothermal Power Plants by Thermoelectric Effects

    E-print Network

    Liu, Liping

    2012-01-01

    Heat resources of small temperature difference are easily accessible, free and unlimited on earth. Thermoelectric effects provide the technology for converting these heat resources directly into electricity. We present designs of electricity generators based on thermoelectric effects and using heat resources of small temperature difference, e.g., ocean water at different depths and geothermal sources, and conclude that large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects are feasible and economically competitive. The key observation is that the power factor of thermoelectric materials, unlike the figure of merit, can be improved by orders of magnitude upon laminating good conductors and good thermoelectric materials. The predicted large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects, if validated, will have a global economic and social impact for its scalability, and the renewability, free and unlimited supply of heat resources of small temperature difference on earth.

  8. Load Scheduling and Power Trading in Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy

    E-print Network

    Wong, Vincent

    Load Scheduling and Power Trading in Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Resources with high penetration of renewable energy resources (RERs). We adopt approximate dynamic programming friendly renewable energy resources (RERs). Regulations have been passed to increase the pro- duction

  9. Power politics : renewable energy policy change in US states

    E-print Network

    Stokes, Leah C

    2015-01-01

    Addressing climate change requires societies to transition towards renewable energy resources. In the United States, most states have passed renewables portfolio standards (RPS), creating goals for electricity's share of ...

  10. How to develop renewable power in China? A cost-effective perspective.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2014-01-01

    To address the problems of climate change and energy security, Chinese government strived to develop renewable power as an important alternative of conventional electricity. In this paper, the learning curve model is employed to describe the decreasing unit investment cost due to accumulated installed capacity; the technology diffusion model is used to analyze the potential of renewable power. Combined with the investment cost, the technology potential, and scenario analysis of China social development in the future, we develop the Renewable Power Optimization Model (RPOM) to analyze the optimal development paths of three sources of renewable power from 2009 to 2020 in a cost-effective way. Results show that (1) the optimal accumulated installed capacities of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will reach 169000, 20000, and 30000?MW in 2020; (2) the developments of renewable power show the intermittent feature; (3) the unit investment costs of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will be 4500, 11500, and 5700?Yuan/KW in 2020; (4) the discounting effect dominates the learning curve effect for solar and biomass powers; (5) the rise of on-grid ratio of renewable power will first promote the development of wind power and then solar power and biomass power. PMID:24578672

  11. Mechanical Extraction of Power From Ocean Currents and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Chao, Yi

    2010-01-01

    A proposed scheme for generating electric power from rivers and from ocean currents, tides, and waves is intended to offer economic and environmental advantages over prior such schemes, some of which are at various stages of implementation, others of which have not yet advanced beyond the concept stage. This scheme would be less environmentally objectionable than are prior schemes that involve the use of dams to block rivers and tidal flows. This scheme would also not entail the high maintenance costs of other proposed schemes that call for submerged electric generators and cables, which would be subject to degradation by marine growth and corrosion. A basic power-generation system according to the scheme now proposed would not include any submerged electrical equipment. The submerged portion of the system would include an all-mechanical turbine/pump unit that would superficially resemble a large land-based wind turbine (see figure). The turbine axis would turn slowly as it captured energy from the local river flow, ocean current, tidal flow, or flow from an ocean-wave device. The turbine axis would drive a pump through a gearbox to generate an enclosed flow of water, hydraulic fluid, or other suitable fluid at a relatively high pressure [typically approx.500 psi (approx.3.4 MPa)]. The pressurized fluid could be piped to an onshore or offshore facility, above the ocean surface, where it would be used to drive a turbine that, in turn, would drive an electric generator. The fluid could be recirculated between the submerged unit and the power-generation facility in a closed flow system; alternatively, if the fluid were seawater, it could be taken in from the ocean at the submerged turbine/pump unit and discharged back into the ocean from the power-generation facility. Another alternative would be to use the pressurized flow to charge an elevated reservoir or other pumped-storage facility, from whence fluid could later be released to drive a turbine/generator unit at a time of high power demand. Multiple submerged turbine/pump units could be positioned across a channel to extract more power than could be extracted by a single unit. In that case, the pressurized flows in their output pipes would be combined, via check valves, into a wider pipe that would deliver the combined flow to a power-generating or pumped-storage facility.

  12. Power Flow Controller for Renewables: Transformer-less Unified Power Flow Controller for Wind and Solar Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: MSU is developing a power flow controller to improve the routing of electricity from renewable sources through existing power lines. The fast, innovative, and lightweight circuitry that MSU is incorporating into its controller will eliminate the need for a separate heavy and expensive transformer, as well as the construction of new transmission lines. MSU’s controller is better suited to control power flows from distributed and intermittent wind and solar power systems than traditional transformer-based controllers are, so it will help to integrate more renewable energy into the grid. MSU‘s power flow controller can be installed anywhere in the existing grid to optimize energy transmission and help reduce transmission congestion.

  13. On the Wind Power Input to the Ocean General Circulation XIAOMING ZHAI

    E-print Network

    Wunsch, Carl

    On the Wind Power Input to the Ocean General Circulation XIAOMING ZHAI Atmospheric, Oceanic January 2012, in final form 3 May 2012) ABSTRACT The wind power input to the ocean general circulation is usually calculated from the time-averaged wind products. Here, this wind power input is reexamined using

  14. Ocean zoning for conservation, fisheries and marine renewable energy: assessing trade-offs and co-location opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S; Klein, Carissa J

    2015-04-01

    Oceans, particularly coastal areas, are getting busier and within this increasingly human-dominated seascape, marine biodiversity continues to decline. Attempts to maintain and restore marine biodiversity are becoming more spatial, principally through the designation of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs compete for space with other uses, and the emergence of new industries, such as marine renewable energy generation, will increase competition for space. Decision makers require guidance on how to zone the ocean to conserve biodiversity, mitigate conflict and accommodate multiple uses. Here we used empirical data and freely available planning software to identified priority areas for multiple ocean zones, which incorporate goals for biodiversity conservation, two types of renewable energy, and three types of fishing. We developed an approached to evaluate trade-offs between industries and we investigated the impacts of co-locating some fishing activities within renewable energy sites. We observed non-linear trade-offs between industries. We also found that different subsectors within those industries experienced very different trade-off curves. Incorporating co-location resulted in significant reductions in cost to the fishing industry, including fisheries that were not co-located. Co-location also altered the optimal location of renewable energy zones with planning solutions. Our findings have broad implications for ocean zoning and marine spatial planning. In particular, they highlight the need to include industry subsectors when assessing trade-offs and they stress the importance of considering co-location opportunities from the outset. Our research reinforces the need for multi-industry ocean-zoning and demonstrates how it can be undertaken within the framework of strategic conservation planning. PMID:25684567

  15. Grid System Technologies Advanced Research Team Be recognized worldwide as the leading renewable energy integration experts specializing in islanded power

    E-print Network

    renewable energy integration experts specializing in islanded power systems and advanced micro, enabling policies, and new technologies and methods for effective integration of renewable energy resources · Advanced inverters Power Systems Planning Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa

  16. Renewable Energy and Inter-Island Power Transmission (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes recent findings pertaining to inter-island connection of renewable and other energy sources, in particular, as these findings relate cable options, routing, specifications, and pros and cons.

  17. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L.; Lawler, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  18. Potential of wind-powered renewable energy membrane systems for Ghana 

    E-print Network

    Park, G.L.; Schäfer, Andrea; Richard, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    Areas of the world that lack fresh water often have an ample supply of wind or solar energy, making renewable energy an attractive option as a power source for desalination systems. Particularly, wind energy is attractive because of its relatively...

  19. Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High Renewables Scenarios in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Brinkman, G.; Drury, E.; Mowers, M.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the analysis of concentrating solar power (CSP) in two studies -- The SunShot Vision Study and the Renewable Electricity Futures Study -- and the potential role of CSP in a future energy mix.

  20. A DSP based power electronics interface for alternative /renewable energy system.

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-28

    This report is an update on the research project involving the implementation of a DSP-based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems, that was funded by the Department of Energy under the Inventions and Innovations program.

  1. 78 FR 37325 - License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51...NRC-2008-0608] RIN 3150-AI42 License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact...Plans for Environmental Reviews AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION:...

  2. 75 FR 76055 - Nebraska Public Power District Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... operation of CNS at reactor core power levels not in excess of 2419 megawatts thermal (830 megawatts... Docket No. 50-298; NRC-2008-0617] Nebraska Public Power District Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of... issued renewed facility operating license No. DPR-46 to Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD),...

  3. 77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site near Lusby, Maryland. The NRC has prepared an Environmental Assessment... dated September 17, 2010, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (CCNPP) submitted an application...

  4. Draft Fourth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan, Appendix K RENEWABLE RESOURCE CONFIRMATION AGENDA

    E-print Network

    K-1 Draft Fourth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan, Appendix K APPENDIX K RENEWABLE in Chapter 1 of Volume II of the 1991 Power Plan. In general, the Council has avoided advocating new policies being permitted for development. Demonstrate the feasibility of electric power generation using

  5. Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Interim Report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Key, Thomas S

    2009-03-01

    The power transfer potential for bringing renewable energy into the Southeast in response to a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) will depend not only on available transmission capacity but also on electricity supply and demand factors. This interim report examines how the commonly used EIA NEMS and EPRI NESSIE energy equilibrium models are considering such power transfers. Using regional estimates of capacity expansion and demand, a base case for 2008, 2020 and 2030 are compared relative to generation mix, renewable deployments, planned power transfers, and meeting RPS goals. The needed amounts of regional renewable energy to comply with possible RPS levels are compared to inter-regional transmission capacities to establish a baseline available for import into the Southeast and other regions. Gaps in the renewable generation available to meet RPS requirements are calculated. The initial finding is that the physical capability for transferring renewable energy into the SE is only about 10% of what would be required to meet a 20% RPS. Issues that need to be addressed in future tasks with respect to modeling are the current limitations for expanding renewable capacity and generation in one region to meet the demand in another and the details on transmission corridors required to deliver the power.

  6. Biomass power and state renewable energy policies under electric industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, K.; Wiser, R.

    2000-08-01

    Several states are pursuing policies to foster renewable energy as part of efforts to restructure state electric power markets. The primary policies that states are pursuing for renewables are system benefits charges (SBCs) and renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). However, the eligibility of biomass under state RPS and SBC policies is in question in some states. Eligibility restrictions may make it difficult for biomass power companies to access these policies. Moreover, legislative language governing the eligibility of biomass power is sometimes vague and difficult to interpret. This paper provides an overview of state RPS and SBC policies and focuses on the eligibility of biomass power. For this paper, the authors define biomass power as using wood and agricultural residues and landfill methane, but not waste-to-energy, to produce energy.

  7. Floating type ocean wave power station equipped with hydroelectric unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Shun; Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Umekage, Toshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The authors have invented the unique ocean wave power station, which is composed of the floating type platform with a pair of the floats lining up at the interval of one wave pitch and the counter-rotating type wave power unit, its runners are submerged in the seawater at the middle position of the platform. Such profiles make the flow velocity at the runner is twice faster than that of the traditional fixed/caisson type OWC, on the ideal flow conditions. Besides, the runners counter-rotate the inner and the outer armatures of the peculiar generator, respectively, and the relative rotational speed is also twice faster than the speed of the single runner/armature. Such characteristics make the runner diameter large, namely the output higher, as requested, because the torque of the power unit never act on the floating type platform. At the preliminary reseach, this paper verifies to get the power using a Wells type single runner installed in the model station. The runner takes the output which is affected by the oscillating amplitude of the platform, the rotational speed and the inertia force of the runner, etc.

  8. 75 FR 62154 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... February 24, 2009 (74 FR 8283). However, by letter dated September 28, 2010, the licensee withdrew the... Carolina Power & Light Company; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Renewed Facility... the Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee) to withdraw its application dated September 29,...

  9. Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage

    E-print Network

    Xu, Huan

    Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage Huan Xu, Ufuk to the intermittency in the power output. These difficulties can be alleviated by effectively utilizing energy storage turbines, supplemented with energy storage. We use a simple storage model alongside a combination

  10. 76 FR 11823 - Dominion Energy Kewaunee, Inc.; Kewaunee Power Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Dominion Energy Kewaunee, Inc.; Kewaunee Power Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating... license No. DPR-43 to Dominion Energy Kewaunee, Inc. (licensee), the operator of the Kewaunee Power... requirements of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), and the Commission's regulations....

  11. Design and manufacture study of Ocean Renewable Energy Storage (ORES) prototype

    E-print Network

    Dündar, Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    Utility scale energy storage is needed to balance rapidly varying outputs from renewable energy systems such as wind and solar. In order to address this need, an innovative utility scale energy storage concept has been ...

  12. Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Interim Report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Key, Thomas S; Deb, Rajat

    2009-05-01

    Electricity consumption in the Southeastern US, not including Florida, is approximately 24% of the total US. The availability of renewable resources for electricity production is relatively small compared to the high consumption. Therefore meeting a national renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is particularly challenging in this region. Neighboring regions, particularly to the west, have significant wind resources and given sufficient long distant transmission these resources could serve energy markets in the SE. This report looks at renewable resource supply relative to demands and the potential for power transfer into the SE. It shows that development of wind resources will depend not only on available transmission capacity but also on electricity supply and demand factors.

  13. Space Solar Power and Other Renewable Energy Sources: Understanding the Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAuley, Molly K.

    2002-01-01

    fossil fuels. In addition, a ground-based electricity generation system is now increasingly realized as also vulnerable to disruption. What advantages does space solar power (SSP) offer over other renewable energy sources (wind, terrestrial photovoltaics, biopower, and geothermal) in addressing these concerns? What are disadvantages? This paper discusses the economics of renewable energy in the United States' market in two geographic regions (the west coast and the north central regions) where renewable energy resources are abundant and relatively low cost (thus, aggressively competitive with SSP), but where the security and reliability advantages of SSP may indeed outweigh any generation cost advantage of the terrestrial technologies.

  14. Renewable Power Options for Electrical Generation on Kaua'i: Economics and Performance Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, K.; Keller, J.; Kroposki, B.; Lilienthal, P.; Slaughter, R.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-11-01

    The Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) is working with a team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the economic and technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of renewable energy in Hawaii. This part of the HCEI project focuses on working with Kaua'i Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) to understand how to integrate higher levels of renewable energy into the electric power system of the island of Kaua'i. NREL partnered with KIUC to perform an economic and technical analysis and discussed how to model PV inverters in the electrical grid.

  15. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  16. Comparison of wind stress algorithms, datasets and oceanic power input

    E-print Network

    Yuan, Shaoyu

    2009-01-01

    If the ocean is in a statistically steady state, energy balance is a strong constraint, suggesting that the energy input into the world ocean is dissipated simultaneously at the same rate. Energy conservation is one of the ...

  17. Integration of ocean thermal energy conversion power plants with existing power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, N.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of integrating an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant with existing power systems is studied. A nonlinear model of an OTEC power system is developed. The dynamics of the large local induction motor load, and the coaxial cable connection to the mainland are included in the model. The effect of the motor load and the coaxial cable on the steady-state stability of the OTEC power plant is investigated using linearized analysis. The transient stability of the OTEC system is investigated through simulation. The contribution made by the motor load and the coaxial cable to the transient stability is studied. The occurrence of self excitation phenomena is analyzed using linear methods and simulation. The effects of wave and vessel motion on the electrical power output of the OTEC plant is investigated.

  18. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  19. Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

  20. 1. Multi-Agent Systems, Intelligent Robotics, Mechatronics, and General Control Areas. 2. Power Electronics, Renewable Energy, and Smart Grid.

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    , and General Control Areas. 2. Power Electronics, Renewable Energy, and Smart Grid. 3. Computer Science Electronics, Medical Electronics). 9. Nanoelectronics / Advanced CMOS / Green Energy / Display /Bioelectronic

  1. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, J.; Kim, T.J.; Reynolds, S.

    1991-08-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act.

  2. On the Variability of Wind Power Input to the Oceans with a Focus on the Subpolar North Atlantic

    E-print Network

    Zhai, Xiaoming

    Variations in power input to the ocean using a recent global “reanalysis” extending back to 1871 show a strong trend in the net power input since then, a trend dominated by the Southern Ocean region. This trend is interpreted ...

  3. Suppressing the non-Gaussian statistics of Renewable Power from Wind and Solar

    E-print Network

    Anvari, M; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Wächter, M; Milan, P; Heinemann, D; Peinke, Joachim; Lorenz, E

    2015-01-01

    The power from wind and solar exhibits a nonlinear flickering variability, which typically occurs at time scales of a few seconds. We show that high-frequency monitoring of such renewable powers enables us to detect a transition, controlled by the field size, where the output power qualitatively changes its behaviour from a flickering type to a diffusive stochastic behaviour. We find that the intermittency and strong non-Gaussian behavior in cumulative power of the total field, even for a country-wide installation still survives for both renewable sources. To overcome the short time intermittency, we introduce a time-delayed feedback method for power output of wind farm and solar field that can change further the underlying stochastic process and suppress their strong non- gaussian fluctuations.

  4. Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei

    Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is tested under variety of meaningful conditions, which proves the feasibility of the proposed design. The concepts, analysis and design of MPEI conducted in this dissertation pave the way for designing of intelligent power electronic infrastructure for future sustainable energy systems.

  5. Exergy of the ocean thermal resource and the second-law efficiency of idealized ocean thermal energy conversion power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    A formula is developed to compute the maximum amount of work which can be extracted from a given combined mass of warm and cold ocean water (a quantity called the exergy of the ocean thermal resource). Second it compares the second-law efficiencies of various proposed ocean thermal energy conversion power cycles to determine which best utilizes the exergy of the ocean thermal resource. The second-law efficiencies of the multicomponent working fluid cycle, the Beck cycle, and the open and closed single- and multiple-stage Rankine cycles are compared. These types of OTEC power plants are analyzed in a consistent manner which assumes that all deviations from a plant making use of all the exergy (one with a second-law efficiency of 100%) occurs because of irreversible transfer of heat across a finite temperature difference. Conversion of thermal energy to other forms is assumed to occur reversibly. The comparison of second-law efficiencies of various OTEC power cycles shows that the multistage Rankine open cycle with just three stages has the potential of best using the exergy of the ocean thermal resource.

  6. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; Tesche, F.M.; Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-06-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

  7. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, P. R.; Vandyke, J. W.; Tesche, F. M.; Zaininger, H. W.

    1994-06-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. 2, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

  8. Green power grids: how energy from renewable sources affects network and markets

    E-print Network

    Mureddu, Mario; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources, fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and introducing new criticalities that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations causing an increased request of conventional energy sources oriented to balance energy requests on short notices. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources and to their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies among the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations on the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players behavior. Our model is a data-d...

  9. Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zdeborova, Lenka; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

  10. Ocean energy resource systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bregman, R.; Knapp, R.H.; Takahashi, P.K.

    1996-08-01

    The oceans occupy nearly three-quarters of the Earth`s surface and represent a potentially large source of renewable energy. While many industrialized nations have conducted exploratory research and development, the total power currently available from ocean energy resource systems, with the exception of a French tidal power plant, is less that 100 megawatts. A number of ocean energy conversion technologies are approaching an acceptable stage of development for commercial utilization. Factors important to the design and development of such systems-including wave, tide and thermal gradient sources are discussed.

  11. Switch: a planning tool for power systems with large shares of intermittent renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Fripp, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    Wind and solar power are highly variable, so it is it unclear how large a role they can play in future power systems. This work introduces a new open-source electricity planning model--Switch--that identifies the least-cost strategy for using renewable and conventional generators and transmission in a large power system over a multidecade period. Switch includes an unprecedented amount of spatial and temporal detail, making it possible to address a new type of question about the optimal design and operation of power systems with large amounts of renewable power. A case study of California for 2012-2027 finds that there is no maximum possible penetration of wind and solar power--these resources could potentially be used to reduce emissions 90% or more below 1990 levels without reducing reliability or severely raising the cost of electricity. This work also finds that policies that encourage customers to shift electricity demand to times when renewable power is most abundant (e.g., well-timed charging of electric vehicles) could make it possible to achieve radical emission reductions at moderate costs. PMID:22506835

  12. Deferrable Load Scheduling in a Stand-alone Power System with Renewable Energy Sources and a

    E-print Network

    Chang, Cheng-Shang

    on weather conditions. When renewable energy sources do not produce enough energy to meet the demand, an electrical system has to draw additional energy either from the power grids or from energy storage devices, it is shown in [12] that there is an equivalent theorem between a distribution network and a queueing system

  13. LARGE SCALE DEPLOYMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY BY COMBINING WIND FARMS WITH SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The installation of megawatt-size wind turbines on 65 to 80 meter towers at Class 4 wind sites in Texas has resulted in the cheapest form of renewable energy ($0.04/kWh). However, wind farm output has a diurnal mismatch to the utility electrical loading. Combining solar thermal power plants with w...

  14. Renewable Energy, Nuclear Power and Galileo: Do Scientists Have a Duty to Expose Popular Misconceptions?

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    1 OPINION Renewable Energy, Nuclear Power and Galileo: Do Scientists Have a Duty to Expose Popular reported reasonably well. Here I present climate and energy data to help expose popular misconceptions about energy. These misconceptions have a greater impact on prospects for stabilizing climate

  15. 77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit... 2.311.\\3\\ \\3\\ Requesters should note that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR... Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...

  16. A Method to Study the Effect of Renewable Resource Variability on Power System Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro

    .g., synchronous generator speeds, system fre- quency, or bus voltages, must remain at all times. To address- tricity generation on power system dynamics, with a focus on time-scales involving electromechanical, then it may be concluded that variability arising from in renewable-based electricity generation does not have

  17. Workload Shaping to Mitigate Variability in Renewable Power Use by Data Centers

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Rajesh

    the opportunity for energy saving in data centers using the flexibility from the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and proposes a novel approach for scheduling workload that incorporates use of renewable energy sources. We and solar power generation data. Results show that the algorithms give 20-30% energy-savings compared

  18. Asymptotically Optimal Power-Aware Routing for Multihop Wireless Networks with Renewable

    E-print Network

    Srikant, Rayadurgam

    1 Asymptotically Optimal Power-Aware Routing for Multihop Wireless Networks with Renewable Energy the performance of multihop radio networks in the presence of energy constraints, and design routing algorithms to optimally utilize the available energy. The energy model allows vastly different energy sources

  19. Near and far field models of external fluid mechanics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez Buño, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The world is facing the challenge of finding new renewable sources of energy - first, in response to fossil fuel reserve depletion, and second, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) can ...

  20. Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

    2010-01-07

    The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

  1. 77 FR 31895 - Energy Northwest, Columbia Generating Station; Record of Decision and Issuance of Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... proposed issuance of the renewed license was published in the Federal Register on March 11, 2010 (75 FR...; (11) hydroelectric power; (12) ocean wave and current energy; (13) geothermal power; (14)...

  2. Ocean conditions and Columbia River salmon Testimony provided for the House Subcommittee on Power and Water

    E-print Network

    Mantua, Nathan

    Ocean conditions and Columbia River salmon Testimony provided for the House Subcommittee on Power controlling salmon marine survival in the Pacific Northwest, several ocean-climate events have been linked with fluctuations in Northwest salmon health and abundance. These include: El Niño/La Niña, the Pacific Decadal

  3. On the Patterns of Wind-Power Input to the Ocean Circulation

    E-print Network

    Roquet, Fabien

    Pathways of wind-power input into the ocean general circulation are analyzed using Ekman theory. Direct rates of wind work can be calculated through the wind stress acting on the surface geostrophic flow. However, because ...

  4. Power Transfer Potential to the Southeast in Response to a Renewable Portfolio Standard: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Key, Thomas S; Hadley, Stanton W; Deb, Rajat

    2010-02-01

    Electricity consumption in the Southeastern US, including Florida, is approximately 32% of the total US. The availability of renewable resources for electricity production is relatively small compared to the high consumption. Therefore meeting a national renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is particularly challenging in this region. Neighboring regions, particularly to the west, have significant wind resources and given sufficient transmission these resources could serve energy markets in the SE. This report looks at renewable resource supply relative to demands and the potential for power transfer into the SE. We found that significant wind energy transfers, at the level of 30-60 GW, are expected to be economic in case of federal RPC or CO2 policy. Development of wind resources will depend not only on the available transmission capacity and required balancing resources, but also on electricity supply and demand factors.

  5. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  6. Ocean Renewable Energy Storage (ORES) System: Analysis of an Undersea Energy Storage Concept

    E-print Network

    Slocum, Alexander H.

    Due to its higher capacity factor and proximity to densely populated areas, offshore wind power with integrated energy storage could satisfy > 20% of U.S. electricity demand. Similar results could also be obtained in many ...

  7. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe can reduce storage needs by up to 50% with respect to stored energy. This requires however large transmission capacities between the major hydro power producers in Scandinavia and the largest consumers of electrical energy in Western Europe. We show how Scandinavian hydro power can reduce storage needs in dependency of the transmission grid for two fully renewable scenarios: The first one has its wind and pv generation capacities distributed according to an empirically derived approach. The second scenario has an optimal spatial distribution to minimize storage needs distribution of wind and pv generation capacities across Europe. We show that in both cases hydro power together with a well developed transmission grid has the potential to contribute a large share to the solution of the generation-consumption mismatch problem. The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMBF) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities and the development of new balancing technologies.

  8. Renewable Energy in China: Xiao Qing Dao Village Power Wind/Diesel Hybrid Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, DOE/NREL and the State Power Corporation of China (SPCC) developed a pilot project to electrify Xiao Qing Dao, a small island located in China's Yellow Sea. The project demonstrates the practicality of renewable energy systems for medium-scale, off-grid applications. It consists of four 10 k-W wind turbines connected to a 30-kW diesel generator, a 40-kW inverter and a battery bank.

  9. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  10. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  11. Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Alex J.

    2014-08-23

    The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  12. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  13. A Measurement and Power Line Communication System Design for Renewable Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabalci, E.; Kabalci, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The data communication over the electric power lines can be managed easily and economically since the grid connections are already spread around all over the world. This paper investigates the applicability of Power Line Communication (PLC) in an energy generation system that is based on photovoltaic (PV) panels with the modeling study in Matlab/Simulink. The Simulink model covers the designed PV panels, boost converter with Perturb and Observe (P&O) control algorithm, full bridge inverter, and the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modem that is utilized to transfer the measured data over the power lines. This study proposes a novel method to use the electrical power lines not only for carrying the line voltage but also to transmit the measurements of the renewable energy generation plants. Hence, it is aimed at minimizing the additional monitoring costs such as SCADA, Ethernet-based or GSM based systems by using the proposed technique. Although this study is performed with solar power plants, the proposed model can be applied to other renewable generation systems. Consequently, the usage of the proposed technique instead of SCADA or Ethernet-based systems eliminates additional monitoring costs.

  14. Multifunctional Voltage Source Inverter for Renewable Energy Integration and Power Quality Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity. PMID:25177725

  15. Power flow tracing in a simplified highly renewable European electricity network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranberg, Bo; Thomsen, Anders B.; Rodriguez, Rolando A.; Andresen, Gorm B.; Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The increasing transmission capacity needs in a future energy system raise the question of how associated costs should be allocated to the users of a strengthened power grid. In contrast to straightforward oversimplified methods, a flow tracing based approach provides a fair and consistent nodal usage and thus cost assignment of transmission investments. This technique follows the power flow through the network and assigns the link capacity usage to the respective sources or sinks using a diffusion-like process, thus taking into account the underlying network structure and injection pattern. As a showcase, we apply power flow tracing to a simplified model of the European electricity grid with a high share of renewable wind and solar power generation, based on long-term weather and load data with an hourly temporal resolution.

  16. Power flow tracing in a simplified highly renewable European electricity network

    E-print Network

    Tranberg, Bo; Rodriguez, Rolando A; Andresen, Gorm B; Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing transmission capacity needs in a future energy system raise the question how associated costs should be allocated to the users of a strengthened power grid. In contrast to straightforward oversimplified methods, a flow tracing based approach provides a fair and consistent nodal usage and thus cost assignment of transmission investments. This technique follows the power flow through the network and assigns the link capacity usage to the respective sources or sinks using a diffusion-like process, thus taking into account the underlying network structure and injection pattern. As a showcase, we apply power flow tracing to a simplified model of the European electricity grid with a high share of renewable wind and solar power generation, based on long-term weather and load data with an hourly temporal resolution.

  17. Overview of Ocean Wave and Tidal Energy Lingchuan Mei

    E-print Network

    Lavaei, Javad

    and consistency can ensure us ocean a dependable source of power that we can rely on. However, wave and tidal. keywords--Renewable power resource, Marine energy, wave energy, tidal energy. I. INTRODUCTION For recentOverview of Ocean Wave and Tidal Energy Lingchuan Mei Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia

  18. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  19. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    PubMed

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  20. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  1. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  2. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets

    PubMed Central

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players’ behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents’ behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  3. On the Patterns of Wind-Power Input to the Ocean Circulation FABIEN ROQUET AND CARL WUNSCH

    E-print Network

    Wunsch, Carl

    On the Patterns of Wind-Power Input to the Ocean Circulation FABIEN ROQUET AND CARL WUNSCH received 1 February 2011, in final form 12 July 2011) ABSTRACT Pathways of wind-power input into the ocean pumping, with a pattern determined by the wind curl rather than the wind itself. Regions of power

  4. Design of a mediated enzymatic fuel cell to generate power from renewable fuel sources.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Seyda; Kilic, Muhammet Samet

    2016-01-01

    The present work reported a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) based on newly synthesized Poly(pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid-co-3-thiophene acetic acid) film containing glucose oxidase and laccase effectively wired by p-benzoquinone incorporated into the copolymer structure. The resulting system generated a power density of 18.8?µW/cm(2) with 30?mM of glucose addition at +0.94?V at room temperature. Improvements to maximize the power output were ensured with step-by-step optimization of electrode fabrication design and operational parameters for operating the system with renewable fuel sources. We demonstrated that the improved fuel cell could easily harvest glucose produced during photosynthesis to produce electrical energy in a simple, renewable and sustainable way by generating a power density of 10?nW/cm(2) in the plant leaf within 2 min. An EFC for the first time was successfully operated in municipal wastewater which contained glycolytic substances to generate electrical energy with a power output of 3.3?µW/cm(2). PMID:26102352

  5. The impact of monsoon intraseasonal variability on renewable power generation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, C. M.; Turner, A. G.; Brayshaw, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    India is increasingly investing in renewable technology to meet rising energy demands, with hydropower and other renewables comprising one-third of current installed capacity. Installed wind-power is projected to increase 5-fold by 2035 (to nearly 100GW) under the International Energy Agency's New Policies scenario. However, renewable electricity generation is dependent upon the prevailing meteorology, which is strongly influenced by monsoon variability. Prosperity and widespread electrification are increasing the demand for air conditioning, especially during the warm summer. This study uses multi-decadal observations and meteorological reanalysis data to assess the impact of intraseasonal monsoon variability on the balance of electricity supply from wind-power and temperature-related demand in India. Active monsoon phases are characterized by vigorous convection and heavy rainfall over central India. This results in lower temperatures giving lower cooling energy demand, while strong westerly winds yield high wind-power output. In contrast, monsoon breaks are characterized by suppressed precipitation, with higher temperatures and hence greater demand for cooling, and lower wind-power output across much of India. The opposing relationship between wind-power supply and cooling demand during active phases (low demand, high supply) and breaks (high demand, low supply) suggests that monsoon variability will tend to exacerbate fluctuations in the so-called demand-net-wind (i.e., electrical demand that must be supplied from non-wind sources). This study may have important implications for the design of power systems and for investment decisions in conventional schedulable generation facilities (such as coal and gas) that are used to maintain the supply/demand balance. In particular, if it is assumed (as is common) that the generated wind-power operates as a price-taker (i.e., wind farm operators always wish to sell their power, irrespective of price) then investors in conventional facilities will face additional weather-volatility through the monsoonal impact on the length and frequency of production periods (i.e. their load-duration curves).

  6. Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While daily and seasonal patterns in general stay similar, the total feed-in can vary by more than 25 % from year to year for certain resources in a region. It is shown that the overall annual resource of wind and PV power for entire Europe is considerably less variable. The seasonal correlation of wind and PV will be presented and the consequence on reduced storage needs.

  7. Renewable energy power in U. S. electric utility applications past progress, current status, future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    De Meo, E.A.

    1985-02-01

    During the past ten years, over two billion dollars of public and private funds have been applied toward the development of new renewable power sources. The efforts conducted over this period have led to several primary results: Lofty dreams of large energy contributions by year 2000 have been replaced by realistic projections and the realization that successful development of new power technologies takes a number of years. We have also come to realize that a contribution of one or two percent of U.S. energy needs by year 2000 from a new technology would represent a truly significant achievement, would imply productive capital investments of tens of billions of dollars, and would signal the emergence of a very healthy power option whose ultimate role would be influenced primarily by normal market forces.

  8. Concentrating on Solar Power in a Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieb, F.; Kronshage, S.; Knies, G.

    2004-12-01

    Combining the large demand of clean electricity in Europe (EU) with the large potential of solar electricity generation from concentrating solar power stations (CSP) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) can provide both climate protection and development for both regions and lead to environmental, economical and social sustainability. The presentation will address the concept of solar cogeneration of electricity and desalted water and the scope of generating clean power for MENA and Europe while providing large quantities of freshwater for the MENA countries. Costs and benefits of the concept will be quantified, and the first steps to realisation within the Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation TREC are presented. After running through the technology learning curve within about 10-15 years, concentrated solar electricity will be generated at a cost of roughly 4 ct/kWh. Importing solar power from North Africa to Europe, will add 1 ct/kWh, thus being competitive with new fuel fired plants. The total initial support of about 1 billion € needed to trigger CSP market introduction and to achieve forever low electricity costs in the EU and MENA, equals 25 % of the German annual coal subsidies, 1 month of EU agronomic-subsidies or 1 day of US military expenses and could be provided in form of public investment, soft loans or feed-in guaranties like the German Renewable Energy Act.

  9. The vulnerabilities of the power-grid system: renewable microgrids as an alternative source of energy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Victor; Myres, Charles; Bakshi, Nitin

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the vulnerabilities of current power-grid systems and to propose alternatives to using fossil fuel power generation and infrastructure solutions in the form of microgrids, particularly those from renewable energy sources. One of the key potential benefits of microgrids, apart from their inherent sustainability and ecological advantages, is increased resilience. The analysis is targeted towards the context of business process outsourcing in India. However, much of the research on vulnerabilities has been derived from the USA and as such many of the examples cite vulnerabilities in the USA and other developed economies. Nevertheless, the vulnerabilities noted are to a degree common to all grid systems, and so the analysis may be more broadly applicable. PMID:20494879

  10. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  11. Hawai`i Hydrogen Power Park Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute | School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology

    E-print Network

    Hawai`i Hydrogen Power Park Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute | School of Ocean & Earth Science party safety reviews of the equipment and site. Figure 1: First Fill November 2014 Contact(s): Mitch`i #12;Hawai`i Hydrogen Power Park Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute | School of Ocean & Earth Science

  12. Integration of Renewable Energy Sources in Future Power Systems: The Role of Storage

    E-print Network

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Vogt, Thomas; Agert, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Integrating a high share of electricity from non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources in a power supply system is a challenging task. One option considered in many studies dealing with prospective power systems is the installation of storage devices to balance the fluctuations in power production. However, it is not yet clear how soon storage devices will be needed and how the integration process depends on different storage parameters. Using long-term solar and wind energy power production data series, we present a modelling approach to investigate the influence of storage size and efficiency on the pathway towards a 100% RES scenario. Applying our approach to data for Germany, we found that up to 50% of the overall electricity demand can be met by an optimum combination of wind and solar resources without both curtailment and storage devices if the remaining energy is provided by sufficiently flexible power plants. Our findings show further that the installation of small, but highly efficient storage devic...

  13. 75 FR 64350 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the NextLight Renewable Power, LLC, Silver State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Record of Decision (ROD) for the NextLight Renewable Power, LLC, Silver State Solar Project Environmental..., operate, maintain and decommission a 400-megawatt (MW) solar photovoltaic (PV) power plant and facilities... was released for public comment on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 19990). Four hundred eighty one comments...

  14. 76 FR 78173 - Options for Developing the Regulatory Basis for Streamlining Non-Power Reactor License Renewal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ..., Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Regulatory Commission. Jessie F. Quichocho, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor...- Power Reactor License Renewal and Non-Power Reactor Emergency Preparedness AGENCY: Nuclear...

  15. 76 FR 23848 - Carolina Power And Light Company; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power And Light Company; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Renewed Facility Operating License The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) has granted the request of the Carolina Power and Light Company...

  16. Modeling a drip irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zoheiry, Ahmed M.

    Food production is a problem in many of the regions in the world. Today, the process of producing food is very dependent on energy. The dependency on fossil fuels causes the cost of producing crops to increase as the prices of fuel increases. Using a renewable energy sources to power an irrigation system is a mean of decreasing the dependency of food products on the prices of fuel and minimize the impact of the irrigation system on the environment. A model was developed to simulate and predict the performance of an irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source. Both solar energy and wind energy were considered for the modeling of the system. The solar energy was simulated using the difference between the maximum and the minimum daily temperatures as an indicator of the amount of clouds in the atmosphere. The model is a modification of earlier models and has the advantage of not needing to be calibrated for each new site. Results showed that a model that calibrates it self for the upper and the lower expected values of the solar radiation can be developed using metrological data such as the location of the site, the daily temperatures, and the minimum relative humidity. The wind energy was predicted using the power coefficient of the turbine and statistical representation of the daily wind speeds. The average hourly values of the wind speed were used for finding the distribution constants for the Weibull distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The results showed that the Weibull distribution is more accurate in predicting the expected power output of the turbine when the daily wind speed coefficient of variation (Cv) was less than 0.5. When the Cv is greater than 0.5 the Rayleigh distribution gives better results. A computer model was developed using Visual Basic to model the system and the resulting model was tested and used in comparing the economics of a traditional irrigation system and an irrigation system powered by solar panels. The system powered by the solar panel had a greater total annual cost than the traditional system but the sensitivity analysis performed showed that if the trends in energy prices continue and the prices of the solar panels continue to decrease, the cost for operating the traditional systems will be close to the cost of operating the systems powered by the solar panels in less than a 10 years.

  17. LI, BINGHUI. The Economic Performance of Ocean Compressed Air Energy Storage. (Under the direction of Dr. Joseph DeCarolis).

    E-print Network

    Barlaz, Morton A.

    ABSTRACT LI, BINGHUI. The Economic Performance of Ocean Compressed Air Energy Storage. (Under associated with renewables such as wind, wave, and solar power. Ocean Compressed Air Energy Storage (OCAES) represents an advanced compressed air energy storage technology that can be coupled with offshore renewables

  18. Energy system modelling - interactions and synergies in a highly renewable Pan-European power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Kleinhans, David; Vogt, Thomas; Agert, Carsten

    2014-12-01

    It is very likely that the European power supply system will be transformed in the next decades to a low carbon system based almost entirely on Renewable Energy Sources (RES). However, due to the natural fluctuations of the most powerful RES (wind and solar energy), it is also very likely that a significant amount of balancing and controllable backup power capacities will be required to ensure a stable grid operation. This implies high additional investments and operating costs. Therefore this work provides an overview of potential options and possibly more cost-effective alternatives to the installation of costly storage capacities, namely grid expansion, demand side management, an optimised mix between different RES as well as the use of overcapacities. Furthermore, the paper provides an approximation of the maximum RES penetration of the German electricity system in the absence of significant storage capacities. Our calculations show that from a numerical perspective on average approximately half of the load can be met by RES if flexible conventional power stations would provide the remaining electricity demand. However, in a 100% RES scenario a significant amount of storage capacities as well as limited overcapacities are required to ensure a reliable electricity supply.

  19. Abstract--Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry and it will continue to

    E-print Network

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    1 Abstract--Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry fault conditions. Index Terms--induction generators, wind power generation, fault tolerance. I of energy. Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry

  20. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    Many countries--reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems--are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy (RE) on the grid. Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Colorado and Texas), for example, have effectively integrated variable RE utilizing diverse approaches. Analysis of the results from these case studies reveals a wide range of mechanisms that can be used to accommodate high penetrations of variable RE (e.g., from new market designs to centralized planning). Nevertheless, the myriad approaches collectively suggest that governments can best enable variable RE grid integration by implementing best practices in five areas of intervention: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations.

  1. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2014-05-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of marine biota should reflect the history of 137Cs activity in this early period. The comparisons between simulated 137Cs activity of marine biota by a dynamic biological compartment and observed data also suggest that simulated 137Cs activity attributable to atmospheric deposition was underestimated in this early period. In addition, river runoff model simulations suggest that the river flux of 137Cs to the ocean was effective to the 137Cs activity in the ocean in this early period. The sediment transport model simulations suggests that the inventory of 137Cs in sediment was less than 10

  2. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  3. 75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket...ER10-410-000] Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy...February 1, 2010, Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership,...

  4. 75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy..., Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership, Covanta Energy Marketing LLC, and Covanta...

  5. 77 FR 5817 - Ocean Renewable Power Company, Tidal Energy Project, Cobscook Bay, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...the meeting or the proposed rule, please call or email Lieutenant Megan Drewniak of the Waterways Management Division, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Northern New England; email Megan.L.Drewniak@uscg.mil, telephone 207- 741-5421. If...

  6. Optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region as a basis for an efficient electricity supply to europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamwi, Alaa; Kleinhans, David; Weitemeyer, Stefan; Vogt, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Renewable Energy sources are gaining importance in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The purpose of this study is to quantify the optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region, taking Morocco as a case study. Based on hourly meteorological data and load data, a 100% solar-plus-wind only scenario for Morocco is investigated. For the optimal mix analyses, a mismatch energy modelling approach is adopted with the objective to minimise the required storage capacities. For a hypothetical Moroccan energy supply system which is entirely based on renewable energy sources, our results show that the minimum storage capacity is achieved at a share of 63% solar and 37% wind power generations.

  7. 526 IEEE JOURNAL OF OCEANIC ENGINEERING, VOL. 26, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2001 Power Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Singh, Hanumant

    -transfer (charging) techniques for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) operating within an Autonomous Ocean526 IEEE JOURNAL OF OCEANIC ENGINEERING, VOL. 26, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2001 Power Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Albert M. Bradley, Michael D. Feezor, Member, IEEE, Hanumant Singh, and F. Yates Sorrell

  8. Economic analysis of biomass power generation schemes under renewable energy initiative with Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hong; Lee, Jeung-Woo; Lee, Uen-Do

    2011-10-01

    An economic analysis of biomass power generation was conducted. Two key technologies--direct combustion with a steam turbine and gasification with a syngas engine--were mainly examined. In view of the present domestic biomass infrastructure of Korea, a small and distributed power generation system ranging from 0.5 to 5 MW(e) was considered. It was found that gasification with a syngas engine becomes more economically feasible as the plant size decreases. Changes in the economic feasibilities with and without RPS or heat sales were also investigated. A sensitivity analysis of each system was conducted for representative parameters. Regarding the cost of electricity generation, electrical efficiency and fuel cost significantly affect both direct combustion and gasification systems. Regarding the internal rate of return (IRR), the heat sales price becomes important for obtaining a higher IRR, followed by power generation capacity and electrical efficiency. PMID:21856151

  9. Renewable Mongolia

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2005-12-07

    Broadcast Transcript: As China's economy booms, its demand for energy grows. With oil prices up and coal-fired power plants choking Chinese cities and people, the government is aggressively developing renewable energy sources, particularly wind...

  10. Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control. Part II, analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2010-11-01

    The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. The first step is to analyze the system as a conservative natural Hamiltonian system with no externally applied non-conservative forces. The Hamiltonian surface of the swing equations is related to the Equal-Area Criterion and the PEBS method to formulate the nonlinear transient stability problem. This formulation demonstrates the effectiveness of proportional feedback control to expand the stability region. The second step is to analyze the system as natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. The time derivative of the Hamiltonian produces the work/rate (power flow) equation which is used to ensure balanced power flows from the renewable generators to the loads. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generators system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate, and entropy rate. This paper will present the analysis and numerical simulation results for two nonlinear control design examples that include: (1) the One-Machine Infinite Bus (OMIB) system with a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and (2) the swing equation for a wind turbine connected to an infinite bus through a UPFC to determine the required performance of the UPFC to enable the maximum power output of a wind turbine subject to stochastic inputs while meeting the power system constraints on frequency and phase. The energy storage requirements will also be identified from the UPFC and/or FACTS devices while working in combination with the wind turbine.

  11. Exergy of the ocean thermal resource and the second-law efficiency of idealized ocean thermal-energy-conversion power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.H.

    1982-02-01

    A formula is developed to compute the maximum amount of work which can be extracted from a given combined mass of warm and cold ocean water (a quantity called the exergy of the ocean thermal resource). The second-law efficiencies of various proposed ocean thermal energy conversion power cycles are compared to determine which best utilizes the exergy of the ocean thermal resource. The second-law efficiencies of the multicomponent working fluid cycle, the Beck cycle, and the open and closed single- and multiple-stage Rankine cycles are compared. These types of OTEC power plants are analyzed in a consistent manner which assumes that all deviations from a plant making use of all the exergy (one with a second-law efficiency of 100%) occurs because of irreversible transfer of heat across a finite temperature difference. Conversion of thermal energy to other forms is assumed to occur reversibly. The comparison of second-law efficiencies of various OTEC power cycles shows that the multistage Rankine open cycle with just three stages has the potential of best using the exergy of the ocean thermal resource.

  12. On the Variability of Wind Power Input to the Oceans with a Focus on the Subpolar North Atlantic

    E-print Network

    Wunsch, Carl

    On the Variability of Wind Power Input to the Oceans with a Focus on the Subpolar North Atlantic of power inputs from winds and buoyancy exchange is complex in part because it depends upon knowing a great determined mainly by the wind field itself. The input of buoyancy- derived power has been generally regarded

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Michael; Ela, Erik; Hein, Jeff; Schneider, Thomas; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  15. Renewables-to-reefs? - Decommissioning options for the offshore wind power industry.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Katie; Christie, Nikki; Burdon, Daryl; Atkins, Jonathan P; Barnes, Richard; Elliott, Michael

    2015-01-15

    The offshore wind power industry is relatively new but increasing globally, hence it is important that the whole life-cycle is managed. The construction-operation-decommissioning cycle is likely to take 20-30 years and whilst decommissioning may not be undertaken for many years, its management needs to be addressed in both current and future marine management regimes. This can be defined within a Drivers-Activities-Pressures-State Changes-Impacts (on human Welfare)-Responses framework. This paper considers the main decommissioning options - partial or complete removal of all components. A SWOT analysis shows environmental and economic benefits in partial as opposed to complete removal, especially if habitat created on the structures has conservation or commercial value. Benefits (and repercussions) are defined in terms of losses and gains of ecosystem services and societal benefits. The legal precedents and repercussions of both options are considered in terms of the 10-tenets of sustainable marine management. Finally a 'renewables-to-reefs' programme is proposed. PMID:25467865

  16. NREL's Water Power Software Makes a Splash; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    WEC-Sim is a DOE-funded software tool being jointly developed by NREL and SNL. WEC-Sim computationally models wave energy converters (WEC), devices that generate electricity using movement of water systems such as oceans, rivers, etc. There is great potential for WECs to generate electricity, but as of yet, the industry has yet to establish a commercially viable concept. Modeling, design, and simulations tools are essential to the successful development of WECs. Commercial WEC modeling software tools can't be modified by the user. In contrast, WEC-Sim is a free, open-source, and flexible enough to be modified to meet the rapidly evolving needs of the WEC industry. By modeling the power generation performance and dynamic loads of WEC designs, WEC-Sim can help support the development of new WEC devices by optimizing designs for cost of energy and competitiveness. By being easily accessible, WEC-Sim promises to help level the playing field in the WEC industry. Importantly, WEC-Sim is also excellent at its job! In 2014, WEC-Sim was used in conjunction with NREL’s FAST modeling software to win a hydrodynamic modeling competition. WEC-Sim and FAST performed very well at predicting the motion of a test device in comparison to other modeling tools. The most recent version of WEC-Sim (v1.1) was released in April 2015.

  17. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  18. Distribution of oceanic 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant simulated numerically by a regional ocean model.

    PubMed

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    Radioactive materials were released to the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant as a result of the reactor accident after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011. The measured (137)Cs concentration in a seawater sample near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant site reached 68 kBq L(-1) (6.8 × 10(4)Bq L(-1)) on 6 April. The two major likely pathways from the accident site to the ocean existed: direct release of high radioactive liquid wastes to the ocean and the deposition of airborne radioactivity to the ocean surface. By analysis of the (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio, we determined that direct release from the site contributed more to the measured (137)Cs concentration than atmospheric deposition did. We then used a regional ocean model to simulate the (137)Cs concentrations resulting from the direct release to the ocean off Fukushima and found that from March 26 to the end of May the total amount of (137)Cs directly released was 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq ((3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(15)Bq). The simulated temporal change in (137)Cs concentrations near the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant site agreed well with observations. Our simulation results showed that (1) the released (137)Cs advected southward along the coast during the simulation period; (2) the eastward-flowing Kuroshio and its extension transported (137)C during May 2011; and (3) (137)Cs concentrations decreased to less than 10 BqL(-1) by the end of May 2011 in the whole simulation domain as a result of oceanic advection and diffusion. We compared the total amount and concentration of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors to the ocean with the (137)Cs released to the ocean by global fallout. Even though the measured (137)Cs concentration from the Fukushima accident was the highest recorded, the total released amount of (137)Cs was not very large. Therefore, the effect of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors on concentration in the whole North Pacific was smaller than that of past release events such as global fallout, and the amount of (137)Cs expected to reach other oceanic basins is negligible comparing with the past radioactive input. PMID:22071362

  19. Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program Policy Evaluation & Recommendations

    E-print Network

    Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program Policy Evaluation & Recommendations Final Report August 2012 #12;Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program: Policy Recommendations 2 Project Title: Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology ­ Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Award Number: Contract No

  20. An ocean kinetic energy converter for low-power applications using piezoelectric disk elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñolo, C.; Toma, D.; Mànuel, A.; del Rio, J.

    2013-09-01

    The main problem facing long-term electronic system deployments in the sea, is to find a feasible way to supply them with the power they require. Harvesting mechanical energy from the ocean wave oscillations and converting it into electrical energy, provides an alternative method for creating self-contained power sources. However, the very low and varying frequency of ocean waves, which generally varies from 0.1 Hz to 2 Hz, presents a hurdle which has to be overcome if this mechanical energy is to be harvested. In this paper, a new sea wave kinetic energy converter is described using low-cost disk piezoelectric elements, which has no dependence on their excitement frequency, to feed low-consumption maritime-deployed electronic devices. The operating principles of the piezoelectric device technique are presented, including analytical formulations describing the transfer of energy. Finally, a prototypical design, which generates electrical energy from the motion of a buoy, is introduced. The paper concludes with the the behavior study of the piezoelectric prototype device as a power generator.

  1. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-15

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  2. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  3. Pigs, peas, and. power Farmers soon may grow a renewable energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, J.H.

    1993-04-01

    Biomass, grown in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner, realistically could be used to supply 50,000 MW (5 Quads) of electric capacity by 2010 and probably twice that amount by 2030. During the past year, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy each have been evaluating the potential for biomass to become a major renewable energy resource over the next four decades, able to offset some of the US dependency on imported fossil fuels while offering environmental and economic benefits. EPRI's conclusion that biomass could become a truly important feedstock for electric generation in the near term grew out of a series of workshops attended by experts from government, academia, and industry. These experts did not conclude that significant biomass resource development would take place, but rather that it could take place in an economically profitable and environmentally acceptable manner. They identified two major barriers to biomass resource development: a lack of assurance that a reliable market exists for a dedicated biomass energy crop (significantly influenced by the current costs of both coal and natural gas); and current federal agricultural policies, particularly those dealing with price supports for some types of crops and the present constraints on the use of the more than 54 million acres of agricultural reserve program lands. Moreover, the very limited federal budget and program support for biomass energy within both the US Departments of Energy and Agriculture over the past 12 years has exacerbated the risks facing farmers making biomass/biofuels resource decisions and electric utilities considering using biomass resources. A third barrier is the general lack of consensus as to what criteria should be used for the environmentally sound development of biomass.

  4. Power system balancing with high renewable penetration : the potential of demand response

    E-print Network

    Critz, David Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of responsive demand to stabilize the electrical grid when intermittent renewable resources are present. The WILMAR stochastic unit commitment model was used to represent a version of ...

  5. Power and White: Race, Class, and Sexuality in Kansas City's Urban Renewal

    E-print Network

    Vogler, Stefan

    2012-05-31

    This paper explores the role of non-hegemonic sexualities in urban renewal through a case study of a Kansas City, Missouri redevelopment project. Using document analysis, interviews, and participant observation, I argue ...

  6. Integration of Electric Energy Storage into Power Systems with Renewable Energy Resources 

    E-print Network

    Xu, Yixing 1985-

    2012-10-26

    This dissertation investigates the distribution and transmission systems reliability and economic impact of energy storage and renewable energy integration. The reliability and economy evaluation framework is presented. Novel operation strategies...

  7. Discovery of Power-Law Growth in the Self-Renewal of Heterogeneous Glioma Stem Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Boman, Bruce M.; Fields, Jeremy Z.; Awaji, Miharu; Kozano, Hiroko; Tamura, Ryoi; Yamamoto, Seiji; Ogata, Toru; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Endo, Shunro; Kurimoto, Masanori; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive tumorigenesis. This suggests that CSCs should make ideal therapeutic targets. However, because CSC populations in tumors appear heterogeneous, it remains unclear how CSCs might be effectively targeted. To investigate the mechanisms by which CSC populations maintain heterogeneity during self-renewal, we established a glioma sphere (GS) forming model, to generate a population in which glioma stem cells (GSCs) become enriched. We hypothesized, based on the clonal evolution concept, that with each passage in culture, heterogeneous clonal sublines of GSs are generated that progressively show increased proliferative ability. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we determined whether, with each passage, glioma neurosphere culture generated from four different glioma cell lines become progressively proliferative (i.e., enriched in large spheres). Rather than monitoring self-renewal, we measured heterogeneity based on neurosphere clone sizes (#cells/clone). Log-log plots of distributions of clone sizes yielded a good fit (r>0.90) to a straight line (log(% total clones) = k*log(#cells/clone)) indicating that the system follows a power-law (y = xk) with a specific degree exponent (k = ?1.42). Repeated passaging of the total GS population showed that the same power-law was maintained over six passages (CV = ?1.01 to ?1.17). Surprisingly, passage of either isolated small or large subclones generated fully heterogeneous populations that retained the original power-law-dependent heterogeneity. The anti-GSC agent Temozolomide, which is well known as a standard therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), suppressed the self-renewal of clones, but it never disrupted the power-law behavior of a GS population. Conclusions/Significance Although the data above did not support the stated hypothesis, they did strongly suggest a novel mechanism that underlies CSC heterogeneity. They indicate that power-law growth governs the self-renewal of heterogeneous glioma stem cell populations. That the data always fit a power-law suggests that: (i) clone sizes follow continuous, non-random, and scale-free hierarchy; (ii) precise biologic rules that reflect self-organizing emergent behaviors govern the generation of neurospheres. That the power-law behavior and the original GS heterogeneity are maintained over multiple passages indicates that these rules are invariant. These self-organizing mechanisms very likely underlie tumor heterogeneity during tumor growth. Discovery of this power-law behavior provides a mechanism that could be targeted in the development of new, more effective, anti-cancer agents. PMID:26284929

  8. Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.G.; Lee, G.B.; Bang, S.Y.; Choi, S.B.; Lee, S.U.; Yoon, J.H.; Nam, S.Y.; Lee, H.R.

    2006-07-01

    Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics' Ocean Model, Kyushu University, Japan). The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation, and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 deg. E to 142.5 deg. E of east longitude and 33 deg. N and 52 deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC (Japan Oceanographic Data Center), KNFRDI (Korea National Fisheries Research and Development Institute), and ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea/Japan Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site. (authors)

  9. Supporting Solar Power in Renewables Portfolio Standards: Experience from the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Holt, Edward

    2010-10-01

    Among the available options for encouraging the increased deployment of renewable electricity, renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become increasingly popular. The RPS is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern that has been voiced is whether RPS policies will offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, RPS programs will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This report documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important, albeit somewhat modest, driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to continue to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved.

  10. 2008 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-07-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  11. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    R. Gelman

    2013-02-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  12. Ocean energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71{percent} of the earth's surface, this stored energy is realized as waves, currents, and thermal salinity gradients. The purpose of the federal Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The OET Program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where the commercial sector can assess whether applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives or supplements to systems. Past studies conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to United States energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. Current program emphasis has shifted to open-cycle OTEC power system research because the closed-cycle OTEC system is at a more advanced stage of development and has already attracted industrial interest. During FY 1989, the OET Program focused primarily on the technical uncertainties associated with near-shore open-cycle OTEC systems ranging in size from 2 to 15 MW{sub e}. Activities were performed under three major program elements: thermodynamic research and analysis, experimental verification and testing, and materials and structures research. These efforts addressed a variety of technical problems whose resolution is crucial to demonstrating the viability of open-cycle OTEC technology. This publications is one of a series of documents on the Renewable Energy programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy. An overview of all the programs is available, entitled Programs in Renewable Energy.

  13. Multi-Fluid Geothermal Energy Systems: Using CO2 for Dispatchable Renewable Power Generation and Grid Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.; Randolph, J.; Chen, M.; Hao, Y.; Sun, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract We present an approach to use CO2 to (1) generate dispatchable renewable power that can quickly respond to grid fluctuations and be cost-competitive with natural gas, (2) stabilize the grid by efficiently storing large quantities of energy, (3) enable seasonal storage of solar thermal energy for grid integration, (4) produce brine for power-plant cooling, all which (5) increase CO2 value, rendering CO2 capture to be commerically viable, while (6) sequestering huge quantities of CO2. These attributes reduce carbon intensity of electric power, and enable cost-competitive, dispatchable power from major sources of renewable energy: wind, solar, and geothermal. Conventional geothermal power systems circulate brine as the working fluid to extract heat, but the parasitic power load for this circulation can consume a large portion of gross power output. Recently, CO2 has been considered as a working fluid because its advantageous properties reduce this parasitic loss. We expand on this idea by using multiple working fluids: brine, CO2, and N2. N2 can be separated from air at lower cost than captured CO2, it is not corrosive, and it will not react with the formation. N2 also can improve the economics of energy production and enable energy storage, while reducing operational risk. Extracting heat from geothermal reservoirs often requires submersible pumps to lift brine, but these pumps consume much of the generated electricity. In contrast, our approach drives fluid circulation by injecting supplemental, compressible fluids (CO2, and N2) with high coefficients of thermal expansion. These fluids augment reservoir pressure, produce artesian flow at the producers, and reduce the parasitic load. Pressure augmentation is improved by the thermosiphon effect that results from injecting cold/dense CO2 and N2. These fluids are heated to reservoir temperature, greatly expand, and increase the artesian flow of brine and supplemental fluid at the producers. Rather than using pumps, the thermosiphon directly converts reservoir thermal energy into mechanical energy for fluid circulation. Because stored pressure drives fluid production, the response time is faster than that of conventional geothermal power, already considered to be dispatchable. For conventional geothermal, the parasitic power load is in phase with gross power output. In contrast, our approach can time-shift much of the parasitic power load, which is dominated by the power required to separate N2 from air and compress it for injection. Because N2 is readily available, it can be injected intermittently. Thus, most of the parasitic power load can be shifted to coincide with minimum power demand or when there is a surplus of renewable power. Such a time-shift also allows net power output to be nearly equal to gross power output during peak demand. Energy storage can be almost 100 percent efficient because it is achieved by shifting the parasitic load, which is more efficient than other methods used to store energy and stabilize the grid. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  15. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs. 36 pp

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori A.; Cory, Karlynn S.; Swezey, Blair G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  16. Potential applications of a high altitude powered platform in the ocean/coastal zone community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escoe, D.; Rigterink, P.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community conducted for the NASA Wallops Flight Center to identify potential applications of a high altitude powered platform (HAPP) are presented. Such a platform would stationkeep at 70,000 feet for up to a year over a given location and make frequent high resolution observations, or serve as a regional communications link. The survey results indicate user interest among scientific researchers, operational agencies and private industry. It is felt that such a platform would combine the desirable characteristics of both geostationary satellites (wide area, frequent observation) and aircraft (high resolution). As a result a concept for an operational HAPP system in the form of a 'mesoscale geostationary satellite' system evolved. Such a system could employ many of the same technologies used in current NASA and NOAA geostationary satellite programs. A set of generalized instrument requirements for HAPP borne sensors is also presented.

  17. Development of a demonstration power plant by ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, F.; Takazawa, K.; Terayama, T.

    1984-01-01

    At the opening ceremony, the system was praised by leading figures invited from the Oceanic non-oil-producing countries. The power generation test of the OTEC demonstration plant was completed with many new records attained. As engineers who have participated in this project, the authors believe that they have gained confidence in their ability to construct a first-stage commercial OTEC plant of the built-on-land type, though admitting that there still remain some points to be improved. Subjects requiring further study are improvements of material and installation methods enabling the use of water intake piping with larger diameters, further improvement of heat transfer performance at the seawater side (tube inside) of the heat transfer tubes, etc. Since the commercialization of an OTEC system depends mainly on the economical level of the system, cost reduction in the manufacture of equipment and construction is also required.

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program for Renewable Power Projects in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim

    2010-05-05

    This article evaluates the first year of the Section 1603 Treasury cash grant program, which enables renewable power projects in the U.S. to elect cash grants in lieu of the federal tax credits that are otherwise available. To date, the program has been heavily subscribed, particularly by wind power projects, which had received 86% of the nearly $2.6 billion in grants that had been disbursed as of March 1, 2010. As of that date, 6.2 GW of the 10 GW of new wind capacity installed in the U.S. in 2009 had applied for grants in lieu of production tax credits. Roughly 2.4 GW of this wind capacity may not have otherwise been built in 2009 absent the grant program; this 2.4 GW may have supported approximately 51,600 short-term full-time-equivalent (FTE) gross job-years in the U.S. during the construction phase of these wind projects, and 3,860 longterm FTE gross jobs during the operational phase. The program’s popularity stems from the significant economic value that it provides to renewable power projects, relative to the otherwise available tax credits. Although grants reward investment rather than efficient performance, this evaluation finds no evidence at this time of either widespread “gold-plating” or performance problems.

  19. OCEANS`13 MTS/IEEE SAN DIEGO, SEPTEMBER 2013 1 Electromechanical Emulation of Hydrokinetic

    E-print Network

    Siefert, Chris

    interesting due to the high power density of river and tidal water currents as well as ocean waves that have Abstract--The pace of research and development efforts to integrate renewable power sources into modern paramount. In particular, hydrokinetic power is appealing due to its high energy density and superior

  20. Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power. [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.; Genens, L.

    1990-01-01

    There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. This paper describes different OTEC plants that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor -- the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs were appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed -- 40-inch high-density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii. 30 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Restructuring and renewable energy developments in California:using Elfin to simulate the future California power market

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshner, Dan; Kito, Suzie; Marnay, Chris; Pickle, Steve; Schumacher, Katja; Sezgen,Osman; Wiser, Ryan

    1998-06-01

    We provide some basic background information on support for renewable in California on the expected operation of the power pool and bilateral markets, and on the three key policy types modeled here. We discuss the Elfin production cost and expansion planning model as well as key assumptions that we made to model the future California pool. We present results from the successful Elfin models runs. We discuss the implications of the study, as well as key areas for future research. Additional information on results, Elfin's expansion planning logic, and resource options can be found in the appendices.

  2. Non-powered Dams: An untapped source of renewable electricity in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Wei, Yaxing; Battey, Hoyt; Smith, Brennan T

    2012-01-01

    Hydropower has been a source of clean, renewable electricity in the USA for more than 100 years. Today, approximately 2500 US dams provide 78 GW of conventional and 22 GW of pumped-storage hydropower. In contrast, another approximately 80 000 dams in the USA do not include hydraulic turbine equipment and provide non-energy related services, such as flood control, water supply, navigation, and recreation.

  3. Quantifiably secure power grid operation, management, and evolution : a study of uncertainties affecting the grid integration of renewables.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Genetha Anne; Watson, Jean-Paul; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Gramacy, Robert B.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes findings and results of the Quantifiably Secure Power Grid Operation, Management, and Evolution LDRD. The focus of the LDRD was to develop decisionsupport technologies to enable rational and quantifiable risk management for two key grid operational timescales: scheduling (day-ahead) and planning (month-to-year-ahead). Risk or resiliency metrics are foundational in this effort. The 2003 Northeast Blackout investigative report stressed the criticality of enforceable metrics for system resiliency - the grid's ability to satisfy demands subject to perturbation. However, we neither have well-defined risk metrics for addressing the pervasive uncertainties in a renewable energy era, nor decision-support tools for their enforcement, which severely impacts efforts to rationally improve grid security. For day-ahead unit commitment, decision-support tools must account for topological security constraints, loss-of-load (economic) costs, and supply and demand variability - especially given high renewables penetration. For long-term planning, transmission and generation expansion must ensure realized demand is satisfied for various projected technological, climate, and growth scenarios. The decision-support tools investigated in this project paid particular attention to tailoriented risk metrics for explicitly addressing high-consequence events. Historically, decisionsupport tools for the grid consider expected cost minimization, largely ignoring risk and instead penalizing loss-of-load through artificial parameters. The technical focus of this work was the development of scalable solvers for enforcing risk metrics. Advanced stochastic programming solvers were developed to address generation and transmission expansion and unit commitment, minimizing cost subject to pre-specified risk thresholds. Particular attention was paid to renewables where security critically depends on production and demand prediction accuracy. To address this concern, powerful filtering techniques for spatio-temporal measurement assimilation were used to develop short-term predictive stochastic models. To achieve uncertaintytolerant solutions, very large numbers of scenarios must be simultaneously considered. One focus of this work was investigating ways of reasonably reducing this number.

  4. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

  5. Model-Predictive Cascade Mitigation in Electric Power Systems With Storage and Renewables-Part I: Theory and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Almassalkhi, MR; Hiskens, IA

    2015-01-01

    A novel model predictive control (MPC) scheme is developed for mitigating the effects of severe line-overload disturbances in electrical power systems. A piece-wise linear convex approximation of line losses is employed to model the effect of transmission line power flow on conductor temperatures. Control is achieved through a receding-horizon model predictive control (MPC) strategy which alleviates line temperature overloads and thereby prevents the propagation of outages. The MPC strategy adjusts line flows by rescheduling generation, energy storage and controllable load, while taking into account ramp-rate limits and network limitations. In Part II of this paper, the MPC strategy is illustrated through simulation of the IEEE RTS-96 network, augmented to incorporate energy storage and renewable generation.

  6. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced waterpower, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  7. 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Rachel

    2010-08-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced waterpower, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  8. 2008 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Rachel

    2009-07-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced waterpower, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  9. Solar energy education. Renewable energy: A background text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the Sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the Sun's composition and the relationship between the Earth, Sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy.

  10. Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a California 33% Renewable Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Wan, Y. H.; Hummon, M.; Mehos, M.

    2013-03-01

    This analysis evaluates CSP with TES in a scenario where California derives 33% of its electricity from renewable energy sources. It uses a commercial grid simulation tool to examine the avoided operational and capacity costs associated with CSP and compares this value to PV and a baseload generation with constant output. Overall, the analysis demonstrates several properties of dispatchable CSP, including the flexibility to generate during periods of high value and avoid generation during periods of lower value. Of note in this analysis is the fact that significant amount of operational value is derived from the provision of reserves in the case where CSP is allowed to provide these services. This analysis also indicates that the 'optimal' configuration of CSP could vary as a function of renewable penetration, and each configuration will need to be evaluated in terms of its ability to provide dispatchable energy, reserves, and firm capacity. The model can be used to investigate additional scenarios involving alternative technology options and generation mixes, applying these scenarios within California or in other regions of interest.

  11. Financing Home Energy and Renewable Energy Improvements with FHA PowerSaver Loans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-07-01

    This fact sheet is a revision to the PowerSaver Loan Benefits fact sheet from April 2014. It describes how the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) PowerSaver Loan Program offers borrowers low-cost FHA-insured loans to make energy-saving improvements to their homes.

  12. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, Scot

    2015-06-10

    Presentation containing an update for the Power Electronics Thermal Management project in the Electric Drive Train task funded by the Vehicle Technology Office of DOE. This presentation outlines the purpose, plan, and results of research thus far for cooling and material selection strategies to manage heat in power electronic assemblies such as inverters, converters, and chargers.

  13. Detailed Evaluation of Renewable Energy Power System Operation: A Summary of the European Union Hybrid Power System Component Benchmarking Project; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E. I.; Wenzl, H.; Kaiser, R.; Wilmot, N.; Mattera, F.; Tselepis, S.; Nieuwenhout, F.; Rodrigues, C.; Perujo, A.; Ruddell, A.; Lindsager, P.; Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Svoboda, V.; Manwell, J.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the results of the European Union (EU) Benchmarking Project, a 3-year, multi-agency research project to improve the design of renewable-based hybrid power systems based on the analysis of existing systems and the benchmarking of specific system components, most critically batteries. Based on the analysis of hundreds of power systems, efforts were made to classify different categories of similar use and then determine component-specific recommendations that will allow more consistent and longer product life. Based on the classification of different use types, assessments of critical ware factors could be conducted and recommendations of appropriate component selection undertaken. The project results make it possible to match most systems to a use category, thus allowing recommendations to improve project life.

  14. Giant Clams and Rising CO2: Light May Ameliorate Effects of Ocean Acidification on a Solar-Powered Animal.

    PubMed

    Watson, Sue-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change and ocean acidification pose a serious threat to marine life. Marine invertebrates are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification, especially highly calcareous taxa such as molluscs, echinoderms and corals. The largest of all bivalve molluscs, giant clams, are already threatened by a variety of local pressures, including overharvesting, and are in decline worldwide. Several giant clam species are listed as 'Vulnerable' on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and now climate change and ocean acidification pose an additional threat to their conservation. Unlike most other molluscs, giant clams are 'solar-powered' animals containing photosynthetic algal symbionts suggesting that light could influence the effects of ocean acidification on these vulnerable animals. In this study, juvenile fluted giant clams Tridacna squamosa were exposed to three levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) (control ~400, mid ~650 and high ~950 ?atm) and light (photosynthetically active radiation 35, 65 and 304 ?mol photons m-2 s-1). Elevated CO2 projected for the end of this century (~650 and ~950 ?atm) reduced giant clam survival and growth at mid-light levels. However, effects of CO2 on survival were absent at high-light, with 100% survival across all CO2 levels. Effects of CO2 on growth of surviving clams were lessened, but not removed, at high-light levels. Shell growth and total animal mass gain were still reduced at high-CO2. This study demonstrates the potential for light to alleviate effects of ocean acidification on survival and growth in a threatened calcareous marine invertebrate. Managing water quality (e.g. turbidity and sedimentation) in coastal areas to maintain water clarity may help ameliorate some negative effects of ocean acidification on giant clams and potentially other solar-powered calcifiers, such as hard corals. PMID:26083404

  15. Giant Clams and Rising CO2: Light May Ameliorate Effects of Ocean Acidification on a Solar-Powered Animal

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sue-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change and ocean acidification pose a serious threat to marine life. Marine invertebrates are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification, especially highly calcareous taxa such as molluscs, echinoderms and corals. The largest of all bivalve molluscs, giant clams, are already threatened by a variety of local pressures, including overharvesting, and are in decline worldwide. Several giant clam species are listed as ‘Vulnerable’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and now climate change and ocean acidification pose an additional threat to their conservation. Unlike most other molluscs, giant clams are ‘solar-powered’ animals containing photosynthetic algal symbionts suggesting that light could influence the effects of ocean acidification on these vulnerable animals. In this study, juvenile fluted giant clams Tridacna squamosa were exposed to three levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) (control ~400, mid ~650 and high ~950 ?atm) and light (photosynthetically active radiation 35, 65 and 304 ?mol photons m-2 s-1). Elevated CO2 projected for the end of this century (~650 and ~950 ?atm) reduced giant clam survival and growth at mid-light levels. However, effects of CO2 on survival were absent at high-light, with 100% survival across all CO2 levels. Effects of CO2 on growth of surviving clams were lessened, but not removed, at high-light levels. Shell growth and total animal mass gain were still reduced at high-CO2. This study demonstrates the potential for light to alleviate effects of ocean acidification on survival and growth in a threatened calcareous marine invertebrate. Managing water quality (e.g. turbidity and sedimentation) in coastal areas to maintain water clarity may help ameliorate some negative effects of ocean acidification on giant clams and potentially other solar-powered calcifiers, such as hard corals. PMID:26083404

  16. Modularized multilevel and z-source power converter as renewable energy interface for vehicle and grid-connected applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dong

    Due the energy crisis and increased oil price, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panel, wind turbine, or thermoelectric generation module, are used more and more widely for vehicle and grid-connected applications. However, the output of these renewable energy sources varies according to different solar radiation, wind speed, or temperature difference, a power converter interface is required for the vehicle or grid-connected applications. Thermoelectric generation (TEG) module as a renewable energy source for automotive industry is becoming very popular recently. Because of the inherent characteristics of TEG modules, a low input voltage, high input current and high voltage gain dc-dc converters are needed for the automotive load. Traditional high voltage gain dc-dc converters are not suitable for automotive application in terms of size and high temperature operation. Switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have to be used for this application. However, high voltage spike and EMI problems exist in traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. Huge capacitor banks have to be utilized to reduce the voltage ripple and achieve high efficiency. A series of zero current switching (ZCS) or zero voltage switching switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have been proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems of the traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. By using the proposed soft-switching strategy, high voltage spike is reduced, high EMI noise is restricted, and the huge capacitor bank is eliminated. High efficiency, high power density and high temperature switched-capacitor dc-dc converters could be made for the TEG interface in vehicle applications. Several prototypes have been made to validate the proposed circuit and confirm the circuit operation. In order to apply PV panel for grid-connected application, a low cost dc-ac inverter interface is required. From the use of transformer and safety concern, two different solutions can be implemented, non-isolated or isolated PV inverter. For the non-isolated transformer-less solution, a semi-Z-source inverter for single phase photovoltaic systems has been proposed. The proposed semi-Z-source inverter utilizes only two switching devices with doubly grounded feature. The total cost have been reduced, the safety and EMI issues caused by the high frequency ground current are solved. For the transformer isolated solution, a boost half-bridge dc-ac micro-inverter has been proposed. The proposed boost half-bridge dc-dc converter utilizes only two switching devices with zero voltage switching features which is able to reduce the total system cost and power loss.

  17. Integration of renewable energy sources: reliability-constrained power system planning and operations using computational intelligence 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lingfeng

    2009-05-15

    be considered in grid interconnection, including system cost, reliability, and pollutant emissions. Furthermore, due to the high complexity and high nonlinearity of such non-traditional power systems with multiple energy sources, computational intelligence based...

  18. Renewable energy powered membrane technology: Salt and inorganic contaminant removal by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis 

    E-print Network

    Richards, Laura A.; Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fluctuating energy and pH on retention of dissolved contaminants from real Australian groundwaters using a solar (photovoltaic) powered ultrafiltration – ...

  19. Renewable Energy Powered Membrane Technology. 1. Development and Characterization of a Photovoltaic Hybrid Membrane System 

    E-print Network

    Schäfer, Andrea; Broeckmann, Andreas; Richards, Bryce

    2007-01-01

    -powered membrane filtration (PV-membrane) system. Four nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes (BW30, ESPA4, NF90, TFC?S) and a number of operation parameter combinations (transmembrane pressure, feed flow, TFC-S) and operating parameters transmembrane...

  20. 77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...Programs, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant...safety; and waste management...significantly affect the quality of the human environment...2012. For the Nuclear Regulatory...Division of Waste...

  1. Maximizing nuclear power plant performance via mega-uprates and subsequent license renewal

    E-print Network

    DeWitte, Jacob D. (Jacob Dominic)

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to develop a methodology to evaluate the engineering and economic implications of maximizing performance of the United States' commercial fleet of nuclear power plants. This methodology addresses ...

  2. 78 FR 37324 - Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...Environmental Reviews for Nuclear Power Plants, Supplement...public comments from the Nuclear Energy Institute, New York...April, 2013. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division...

  3. Environmental Technology Verification Report - Electric Power and Heat Production Using Renewable Biogas at Patterson Farms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

  4. Reliability Modeling and Simulation of Composite Power Systems with Renewable Energy Resources and Storage 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Hagkwen

    2013-05-24

    This research proposes an efficient reliability modeling and simulation methodology in power systems to include photovoltaic units, wind farms and storage. Energy losses by wake effect in a wind farm are incorporated. Using the wake model, wind...

  5. Can loss of balance from mesoscale eddies adequately power deep ocean mixing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Haine, T. W.; Read, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The global ocean thermohaline circulation is partly composed of the sinking of dense surface waters at high latitudes. But in order to close the circulation and maintain the abyssal stratification, the dense waters must rise up again through vertical mixing. This process requires a source of energy roughly estimated to be 2 TW. Previous work has concluded that tides and winds may adequately supply the required power, but the conceivable role of loss of balance from mesoscale eddies, resulting in the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves and associated vertical mixing, has hitherto been considered to be 'of unknown importance' (Wunsch and Ferrari, 2004). We investigate the potential role of loss of balance, by studying the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves by balanced flow in a rotating two-layer annulus laboratory experiment (Williams et al., 2008). A photograph from the experiment is shown in the figure. As the Rossby number of the balanced flow decreases, the amplitude of the emitted inertia-gravity waves also decreases, but much less rapidly than is predicted by several dynamical theories. This finding suggests that inertia-gravity waves might be far more energised than previously thought. The balanced flow leaks roughly one per cent of its energy each rotation period into internal inertia-gravity waves at the peak of their generation. Crude extrapolation of this result to the global ocean suggests that the flux of energy from mesoscale eddies into internal waves may be as large as 1.5 TW. We claim no accuracy for this figure which is only indicative. Nevertheless, we are persuaded that generation of inertia-gravity waves from the balanced mesoscale flow may be an important source of energy for deep interior mixing, and deserves further study. Reference Williams, PD, Haine, TWN and Read, PL (2008) Inertia-Gravity Waves Emitted from Balanced Flow: Observations, Properties, and Consequences. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65(11), pp 3543-3556. doi:10.1175/2008JAS2480.1 Photograph showing internal inertia-gravity waves generated by loss of balance from the large-scale flow in a rotating two-layer annulus experiment in the laboratory.

  6. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 1 - Evaluation of aggregate energy and greenhouse gas performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-07-01

    A study that analyzes the effectiveness of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) to meet holistic environmental goals has been performed across the combined electricity and light-duty transportation sectors. PHEV penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 45%. Part 1 of the study focuses on CO2 emissions, fuel usage, and the renewable penetration level of individual and combined energy sectors. The effect on grid renewable penetration level depends on two factors: the additional vehicle load demand acting to decrease renewable penetration, and the controllability of vehicle charging acting to reduce curtailment of renewable power. PHEV integration can reduce CO2 emissions and fuel usage and increase the aggregate renewable energy share compared to the no-vehicle case. The benefits of isolated PHEV integration are slightly offset by increased CO2 emissions and fuel usage by the electric grid. Significant benefits are only realized when PHEVs are appropriately deployed in conjunction with renewable energy resources, highlighting important synergies between the electric and light-duty transportation sectors for meeting sustainability goals.

  7. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, R.

    2013-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  8. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Esterly, S.

    2014-12-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  9. Impact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Power Systems M. Begovi, A. Pregelj, A. Rohatgi D. Novosel

    E-print Network

    & distribution network. Distributed generation (DG) provides electric power at a site closer to the customer. 1. Introduction This paper investigates the effects of the dispersed generation (DG) devices onto/or by switching on the shunt capacitors. By providing a portion of energy on site, DG systems reduce branch

  10. Predicting the Power Output of Distributed Renewable Energy Resources within a Broad Geographical Region

    E-print Network

    Chalkiadakis, Georgios

    , are inherently intermittent, as their power output depends on a variety of factors. This fact has lead research recently, AI and multiagent systems research has been increasingly preoccupying itself with building systems output can, in many cases, be linked to the task of forecasting solar irradiance (or radiation

  11. Parasol and GreenSwitch: Managing Datacenters Powered by Renewable Energy

    E-print Network

    service companies like Google and Microsoft. Collectively, datacenters consume a mas- sive amount {goiri,wkatsak,lekien,tdnguyen,ricardob}@cs.rutgers.edu Abstract Several companies have recently power management, storing energy on the grid, and the ability to delay the MapReduce jobs. Finally, our

  12. A Stochastic Power Network Calculus for Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into the

    E-print Network

    Ciucu, Florin

    Kai Wang, Student Member, IEEE, Florin Ciucu, Member, IEEE Chuang Lin, Senior Member, IEEE, Steven H sources to reduce the carbon footprint. A challenge, however, of solar and wind generation. It has been recently reported that the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has formed

  13. Multi-port DC-DC Power Converter for Renewable Energy Application 

    E-print Network

    Chou, Hung-Ming

    2010-01-16

    . . . . . . 56 1. Transformer Turn Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 2. Leakage Inductance of Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3. Output Filter Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 4. Input Inductor L0, L1... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 5. DC Bus Capacitor CDC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 6. Energy Storage Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 7. Current and Voltage Rating of Switches . . . . . . . . 60 D. Modeling of Proposed Multi-port Power Converter . . . . . 61...

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  15. Wind Power Siting: Public Acceptance and Land Use; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-06-17

    Suzanne Tegen presented this information as part of the June 17, 2015 WINDExchange webinar: Overcoming Wind Siting Challenges III: Public Acceptance and Land Use. This presentation provides an overview of current NREL research related to wind energy deployment considerations, the DOE Wind Vision as it relates to public acceptance and land use, why public acceptance of wind power matters, where the U.S. wind resource is best, and how those rich resource areas overlay with population centers.

  16. Implementation Scenarios for Electric Vehicle Roadway Wireless Power Transfer; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Meintz, A.; Markel, T.; Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2015-06-05

    Analysis has been performed on the Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC) warehouse of collected GPS second-by-second driving profile data of vehicles in the Atlanta, Chicago, Fresno, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Sacramento, and San Francisco Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) to understand in-motion wireless power transfer introduction scenarios. In this work it has been shown that electrification of 1% of road miles could reduce fuel use by 25% for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) in these CSAs. This analysis of strategically located infrastructure offers a promising approach to reduced fuel consumption; however, even the most promising 1% of road miles determined by these seven analysis scenarios still represent an impressive 2,700 miles of roadway to electrify. Therefore to mitigate the infrastructure capital costs, integration of the grid-tied power electronics in the Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system at the DC-link to photovoltaic and/or battery storage is suggested. The integration of these resources would allow for the hardware to provide additional revenue through grid services at times of low traffic volumes and conversely at time of high traffic volumes these resources could reduce the peak demand that the WPT system would otherwise add to the grid.

  17. Impacts of demand response and renewable generation in electricity power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhechong

    This thesis presents the objective of the research which is to analyze the impacts of uncertain wind power and demand response on power systems operation and power market clearing. First, in order to effectively utilize available wind generation, it is usually given the highest priority by assigning zero or negative energy bidding prices when clearing the day-ahead electric power market. However, when congestion occurs, negative wind bidding prices would aggravate locational marginal prices (LMPs) to be negative in certain locations. A load shifting model is explored to alleviate possible congestions and enhance the utilization of wind generation, by shifting proper amount of load from peak hours to off peaks. The problem is to determine proper amount of load to be shifted, for enhancing the utilization of wind generation, alleviating transmission congestions, and making LMPs to be non-negative values. The second piece of work considered the price-based demand response (DR) program which is a mechanism for electricity consumers to dynamically manage their energy consumption in response to time-varying electricity prices. It encourages consumers to reduce their energy consumption when electricity prices are high, and thereby reduce the peak electricity demand and alleviate the pressure to power systems. However, it brings additional dynamics and new challenges on the real-time supply and demand balance. Specifically, price-sensitive DR load levels are constantly changing in response to dynamic real-time electricity prices, which will impact the economic dispatch (ED) schedule and in turn affect electricity market clearing prices. This thesis adopts two methods for examining the impacts of different DR price elasticity characteristics on the stability performance: a closed-loop iterative simulation method and a non-iterative method based on the contraction mapping theorem. This thesis also analyzes the financial stability of DR load consumers, by incorporating explicit LMP formulations and consumer payment requirements into the network-constrained unit commitment (NCUC) problem. The proposed model determines the proper amount of DR loads to be shifted from peak hours to off-peaks under ISO's direct load control, for reducing the operation cost and ensuring that consumer payments of DR loads will not deteriorate significantly after load shifting. Both MINLP and MILP models are discussed, and improved formulation strategies are presented.

  18. pp. 1057-1073 in Parsons 2003: Engineering Issues in Turbine Machinery, Power Plants and Renewables, The Institute for Materials, Minerals and Mining, Maney

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    pp. 1057-1073 in Parsons 2003: Engineering Issues in Turbine Machinery, Power Plants and Renewables gas turbines. Most commercial recuperators today are made from 347 stainless steel sheet or foil to larger industrial gas turbines, which operate at pressure ratios greater than 10:1, microturbines require

  19. Heat pipe turbine for production of electrical power from renewable sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.; Mochizuki, M.; Mashiko, M.; Sauciuc, I.; Akbarzadeh, A.; Johnson, P.; Kusaba, S.; Suzuki, H.

    1999-07-01

    The Heat Pipe Turbine or Thermosyphon Rankine Engine (TSR) is a new concept for power generation using solar, geothermal or other available low grade heat sources. The basis of the engine is the modified thermosyphon cycle, with its excellent heat and mass transfer characteristics, which incorporates a turbine in the adiabatic region. The configuration is a closed vertical cylinder functioning as an evaporator, an insulated section and a condenser. The turbine is placed in the upper end between the insulated section and a condenser section, and a plate is installed to separate the high pressure region from the low pressure region in the condenser. Conversion of the enthalpy to kinetic energy is achieved through the nozzle. The mechanical energy developed by the turbine can be converted to electrical energy by direct coupling to an electrical energy. This paper will describe the development of Heat Pipe Turbine from the concept to reality, a series of development taken to optimize the design and manufacture. Also in this paper, attempts have been made to provide relationships for the developed power in terms of the geometric and thermodynamical parameters and to discuss the limitations existing on the efficiencies of these turbines.

  20. Landing Marine-derived Renewable Energy: Optimising Power Cable Routing in the Nearshore Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Rosalind, ,, Dr.; Keane, Tom; Mullins, Brian; Phipps, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that a vast unexploited source of energy can be derived from the marine environment. Recent evolution of the energy market and looming EU renewable energy uptake targets for 2020 have driven a huge explosion of interest in exploiting this resource, triggering both governments and industry to move forward in undertaking feasibility assessments and demonstration projects for wave, tidal and offshore wind farms across coastlines. The locations which naturally lend themselves to high yield energy capture, are by definition, exposed and may be remote, located far from the end user of the electricity generated. A fundamental constraint to successfully exploiting these resources will be whether electricity generated in high energy, variable and constantly evolving environments can be brought safely and reliably to shore without the need for constant monitoring and maintenance of the subsea cables and landfall sites. In the case of riverine cable crossings superficial sediments would typically be used to trench and bury the cable. High energy coastal environments may be stripped of soft sediments. Any superficial sediments present at the site may be highly mobile and subject to re-suspension throughout the tidal cycle or under stormy conditions. EirGrid Plc. and Mott MacDonald Ireland Ltd. have been investigating the potential for routing a cable across the exposed Shannon estuary in Ireland. Information regarding the geological ground model, meteo-oceanographic and archaeological conditions of the proposed site was limited, necessitating a clear investigation strategy. The investigation included gathering site information on currents, bathymetry and geology through desk studies, hydrographic and geophysical surveys, an intrusive ground investigation and coastal erosion assessments at the landfall sites. The study identified a number of difficulties for trenching and protecting a cable through an exposed environment such as the Shannon estuary. Such difficulties include limited availability of superficial sediments for cable trenching and protection; where sediments were present there were indications that the sediments were either mobile sands, or difficult to trench glacial tills. Areas of the estuary feature steep side slopes and rocky outcrops, which also provide a challenge for cable installation and long-term protection. Difficult ground conditions were set against an aggressive meteo-oceanographic environment, tidal currents reached 5-7 knots on the ebb tide with reverse eddies around the landfalls coupled with an active wave climate. These conditions pose implications on the working time, installation vessels and methodology. The estuary is also a designated Special Area of Conservation for the protection of bottlenose dolphins, therefore, the cable installation methodology needed to consider ecological sensitivities. Additionally, an area near to the southern landfall has historically been an area of strategic significance and has a number of fortifications adding archaeological constraints for the cable route. The increasing need and importance of investigation and planning for submarine cable routes will be discussed alongside potential methods for installation in the aggressive nearshore environment, this paper will summarise findings and observations of working in a high energy environment, will consider options for installation and protection of cables, will discuss the key lessons learned and look at potential implications for offshore electricity generation.

  1. High-power high-brightness solar laser approach for renewable Mg recovery from MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Joana; Liang, Dawei

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen and heat energy from the reaction of magnesium with water can be used for engines and fuel cells. However, at least 4000 K is necessary for magnesium oxide reduction. Ultra high brightness solar-pumped lasers become essential to make this renewable process technology efficient and economically competitive. 2.3 mg/kJ solar laser - induced magnesium production efficiency has been achieved by T. Yabe et al., in 2012, by focusing a 53 W solar laser beam on a mixture of MgO with Si as reducing agent. This result is however far from the 12.1 mg/kJ attained with 2 kW/mm2 CO2 laser beam. To improve substantially the solar laser - induced Mg production efficiency, a simple high-power, high brightness Nd:YAG solar laser pumping approach is proposed. The solar radiation is both collected and concentrated by four Fresnel lenses, and redirected towards a Nd:YAG laser head by four plane folding mirrors. A fused-silica secondary concentrator is used to compress the highly concentrated solar radiation to a laser rod. Optimum pumping conditions and laser resonator parameters are found through ZEMAXand LASCADnumerical analysis. High-record solar laser beam brightness figure of merit - defined as the ratio between laser power and the product of Mx 2 and My 2 - of 10.5 W is numerically achieved, being 5.5 times higher than the previous record and about 1600 times more than that of the most powerful Nd:YAG solar laser. 8340 W/mm2 is numerically achieved at its focal region, which can quadruple the magnesium production efficiency with clean energy.

  2. A survey of potential users of the High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) in the ocean/coastal zone community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escoe, D.; Rigternik, P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community to determine potential applications of a High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) are reported. Such a platform, capable of stationkeeping for periods up to a year over a given location, could make frequent and repeated high resolution observations over a given region or serve as a high-altitude regional communications link. Users were surveyed in person and via a questionnaire to determine the desirability of the HAPP within the ocean/coastal zone community. The results of the survey indicated that there is strong interest in all areas of the user community (research and development, operational agencies, and private industry) in having NASA develop the HAPP.

  3. ENEE 719B: Advanced Power Electronics Course Outline Instructor: Alireza Khaligh

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    drives, to high-power active filters, renewable (Solar, wind, and ocean) energy systems, and flexible AC variety of applications from low-power personal computers, laptops, digital cameras, cell phones, home appliances, to medium-power telecommunication systems, switching power supplies, hybrid electric, plug

  4. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, R.

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  5. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, R.

    2012-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  6. 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book, August 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  7. Development research for wind power weather insurance index through analysis of weather elements and new renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ki-Jun; jung, jihoon

    2014-05-01

    Recently, social interests and concerns regarding weather risk are gradually growing with increase in frequency of unusual phenomena. Actually, the threat to many vulnerable industries (sensitive to climate conditions) such as agriculture, architecture, logistics, transportation, clothing, home appliance, and food is increasing. According to climate change scenario reports published by National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in 2012, temperature and precipitation are expected to increase by 4.8% and 13.2% respectively with current status of CO2 emissions (RCP 8.5) at the end of the 21st century. Furthermore, most of areas in Korea except some mountainous areas are also expected to shift from temperate climate to subtropical climate. In the context of climate change, the intensity of severe weathers such as heavy rainfalls and droughts is enhanced, which, in turn, increases the necessity and importance of weather insurance. However, most insurance market is small and limited to policy insurance like crop disaster insurance, and natural disaster insurance in Korea. The reason for poor and small weather insurance market could result from the lack of recognition of weather risk management even though all economic components (firms, governments, and households) are significantly influenced by weather. However, fortunately, new renewable energy and leisure industry which are vulnerable to weather risk are in a long term uptrend and the interest of weather risk is also getting larger and larger in Korea. So, in the long run, growth potential of weather insurance market in Korea might be higher than ever. Therefore, in this study, the capacity of power generation per hour and hourly wind speed are analyzed to develop and test weather insurance index for wind power, and then the effectiveness of weather insurance index are investigated and the guidance will be derived to objectively calculate the weather insurance index.

  8. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    PubMed

    Richards, B S; Capão, D P S; Schäfer, A I

    2008-06-15

    This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration--nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarized using four different NF membranes (BW30, NF90, ESPA4, TFC-S), and examined in more detail for the BW30 membrane. On an Australian spring day, the system produced 1.1 m3 of permeate with an average conductivity of 0.28 mS x cm(-1), recovering 28% of the brackish (8.29 mS x cm(-1) conductivity) feedwater with an average specific energy consumption of 2.3 kWh x m(-3). The RE-membrane system tolerated large fluctuations in solar irradiance (500--1200 W x m(-2)), resulting in only small increases in the permeate conductivity. When equipped with the NF90 (cloudy day) and ESPA4 (rainy day) membranes, the system was still able to produce 1.36 m(-3) and 0.85 m(-3) of good quality permeate, respectively. The TFC-S membrane was not able to produce adequate water quality from the bore water tested. It is concluded that batteryless operation is a simple and robust way to operate such systems under conditions ranging from clear skies to medium cloud cover. PMID:18605587

  9. Offshore Renewable Energy R&D (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the offshore renewable energy R&D efforts at NREL's NWTC. As the United States increases its efforts to tap the domestic energy sources needed to diversify its energy portfolio and secure its energy supply, more attention is being focused on the rich renewable resources located offshore. Offshore renewable energy sources include offshore wind, waves, tidal currents, ocean and river currents, and ocean thermal gradients. According to a report published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 2010,1 U.S. offshore wind resources have a gross potential generating capacity four times greater than the nation's present electric capacity, and the Electric Power Research Institute estimates that the nation's ocean energy resources could ultimately supply at least 10% of its electric supply. For more than 30 years, NREL has advanced the science of renewable energy while building the capabilities to guide rapid deployment of commercial applications. Since 1993, NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has been the nation's premier wind energy research facility, specializing in the advancement of wind technologies that range in size from a kilowatt to several megawatts. For more than 8 years, the NWTC has been an international leader in the field of offshore floating wind system analysis. Today, researchers at the NWTC are taking their decades of experience and extensive capabilities and applying them to help industry develop cost-effective hydrokinetic systems that convert the kinetic energy in water to provide power for our nation's heavily populated coastal regions. The center's capabilities and experience cover a wide spectrum of wind and water energy engineering disciplines, including atmospheric and ocean fluid mechanics, aerodynamics; aeroacoustics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics, control systems, electrical systems, and testing.

  10. Over Three years of Monitoring 129I spread in Pacific Ocean After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. C.; Burr, G.; Jull, A. J. T.; Priyadarshi, A.; Thiemens, M. H.; Biddulph, D.; Russell, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    129I is a long-lived radionuclide that has been used as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global 129I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1990 levels. The anthropogenic 129I signal produced from industrial nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is known to be the primary source of 129I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic, and elevated 129I values are found globally. The Great East Japan Earthquake and the induced tsunami in 2011 triggered the nuclear shutdowns, failures, and partial meltdowns of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The accident resulted in a series of radioactive material releases into the environment and spread out through atmospheric and ocean circulation. We will present 129I results of water samples collected weekly near Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA for the past 3 years. We also have several measurements collected a year apart from Kaohsiung, Taiwan, which represent west margin of Pacific Ocean, and from Alaska, Washington, and Oregon. By establishing 129I time series, we can observe the spread of 129I in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean that resulted from the accidental releases.

  11. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  12. 76 FR 23848 - Carolina Power And Light Company; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ...Application for Amendment to Renewed Facility Operating License The U...proposed amendment to Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF-63...allowed the use of the thermal-hydraulic computer analysis code S...of the S- RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code...

  13. Project NEPTUNE: an innovative, powered, fibre-optic cabled deep ocean observatory spanning the Juan de Fuca plate, NE Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C.; Delaney, J.

    2003-04-01

    NEPTUNE is an innovative facility, a deep-water cabled observatory, that will transform marine science. MARS and VENUS are deep and shallow-water test bed facilities for NEPTUNE located in Monterey Canyon, California and in southern British Columbia, respectively; both were funded in 2002. NEPTUNE will be a network of over 30 subsea observatories covering the 200,000 sq. km Juan de Fuca tectonic plate, Northeast Pacific. It will draw power via two shore stations and receive and exchange data with scientists through 3000 km of submarine fiber-optic cables. Each observatory, and cabled extensions, will host and power many scientific instruments on the surrounding seafloor, in seafloor boreholes and buoyed through the water column. Remotely operated and autonomous vehicles will reside at depth, recharge at observatories, and respond to distant labs. Continuous near-real-time multidisciplinary measurement series will extend over 30 years. Free from the limitations of battery life, ship schedules/ accommodations, bad weather and delayed access to data, scientists will monitor remotely their deep-sea experiments in real time on the Internet, and routinely command instruments to respond to storms, plankton blooms, earthquakes, eruptions, slope slides and other events. Scientists will be able to pose entirely new sets of questions and experiments to understand complex, interacting Earth System processes such as the structure and seismic behavior of the ocean crust; dynamics of hot and cold fluids and gas hydrates in the upper ocean crust and overlying sediments; ocean climate change and its effect on the ocean biota at all depths; and the barely known deep-sea ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity. NEPTUNE is a US/Canada (70/30) partnership to design, test, build and operate the network on behalf of a wide scientific community. The total cost of the project is estimated at about U.S. 250 million from concept to operation. Over U.S. 50 million has already been funded for design, development, and the test beds. NEPTUNE will be among the first of many such cabled ocean observatories. Much is to be gained by being among the scientific and industrial pioneers. The multidisciplinary data archive will be an amazing, expanding resource for scientists and students. The public will share in the research discoveries of one of the last unexplored places on earth through an extensive education/outreach program.

  14. Innovative Power-Augmentation-Guide-Vane Design of Wind-Solar Hybrid Renewable Energy Harvester for Urban High Rise Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Chong Wen; Zainon, M. Z.; Chew, Poh Sin; Kui, Soo Chun; Keong, Wee Seng; Chen, Pan Kok

    2010-06-01

    To generate greater quantities of energy from wind, the most efficient solution would be by increasing the wind speed. Also, due to the decreasing number of economic wind energy sites, there are plans to place wind turbines closer to populated areas. To site wind turbines out from rural areas, the current problems of wind turbines need to be resolved, especially visual impact, poor starting behaviour in low wind speeds, noise and danger caused by blade failure. In this paper, a patented wind-solar hybrid renewable energy harvester is introduced. It is a compact system that integrates and optimizes several green elements and can be built on the top (or between upper levels) of high rise buildings or structures. This system can be used in remote and urban areas, particularly at locations where the wind speed is lower and more turbulent. It overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by guiding and increasing the speed of the high altitude free-stream wind through fixed or yaw-able power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) before entering the wind turbine (straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine, VAWT in this project) at center portion. PAGV is a new and innovative design where its appearance or outer design can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact. From the studies, it is shown that the wind speed increment in the PAGV can be produced according to the Bernoulli's principle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is used to optimize the geometry of the PAGV and the simulation results demonstrated the technical possibility of this innovative concept. The PAGV replaces the free air-stream from wind by multiple channels of speed-increased and directional-controlled air-stream. With the PAGV, this lift-type VAWT can be self-started and its size can be reduced for a given power output. The design is also safer since the VAWT is enclosed by the PAGV. By integrating the PAGV with the VAWT (the diameter and height of PAGV are 2 times larger than the VAWT's), the predicted power generated (at free-stream wind speed = 3.5 m/s) is 1.25 times higher than the VAWT that has the same size as the PAGV. This new wind energy generation configuration should generate interest in the international market, even for regions with weaker winds. The correlation between CFD simulation and wind tunnel test will be carried out and reported elsewhere.

  15. A review of hydrodynamic investigations into arrays of ocean wave energy converters

    E-print Network

    De Chowdhury, S; Sanchez, A Madrigal; Fleming, A; Winship, B; Illesinghe, S; Toffoli, A; Babanin, A; Penesis, I; Manasseh, R

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical, numerical and experimental studies on arrays of ocean wave energy converter are reviewed. The importance of extracting wave power via an array as opposed to individual wave-power machines has long been established. There is ongoing interest in implementing key technologies at commercial scale owing to the recent acceleration in demand for renewable energy. To date, several reviews have been published on the science and technology of harnessing ocean-wave power. However, there have been few reviews of the extensive literature on ocean wave-power arrays. Research into the hydrodynamic modelling of ocean wave-power arrays is analysed. Where ever possible, comparisons are drawn with physical scaled experiments. Some critical knowledge gaps have been found. Specific emphasis has been paid on understanding how the modelling and scaled experiments are likely to be complementary to each other.

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  17. Renewable Energy Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  18. Turning Renewable Energy Ambitions into Successful Projects: A Study of How Communication can be Improved in the Wave Power Sector. 

    E-print Network

    Lancaster, Gregor

    2011-11-24

    The purpose of the dissertation was to research how to improve communication between marine renewable energy developers and the stakeholders involved in their development. The process was qualitative and involved analysing ...

  19. 10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...newly constructed renewable energy facility, or a facility... (1) A facility employing solar, wind ocean, geothermal...2) A facility not employing solar, wind ocean, geothermal... The qualified renewable energy facility must be located...

  20. 10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...newly constructed renewable energy facility, or a facility... (1) A facility employing solar, wind ocean, geothermal...2) A facility not employing solar, wind ocean, geothermal... The qualified renewable energy facility must be located...

  1. 10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...newly constructed renewable energy facility, or a facility... (1) A facility employing solar, wind ocean, geothermal...2) A facility not employing solar, wind ocean, geothermal... The qualified renewable energy facility must be located...

  2. 10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...newly constructed renewable energy facility, or a facility... (1) A facility employing solar, wind ocean, geothermal...2) A facility not employing solar, wind ocean, geothermal... The qualified renewable energy facility must be located...

  3. 10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...newly constructed renewable energy facility, or a facility... (1) A facility employing solar, wind ocean, geothermal...2) A facility not employing solar, wind ocean, geothermal... The qualified renewable energy facility must be located...

  4. Programs in Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Our nation faces significant challenges as we enter the 1990s: securing a reliable supply of competitively priced energy, improving the quality of our environment, and increasing our share of foreign markets for goods and services. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Programs in Renewable Energy are working toward meeting these challenges by developing the technologies that make use of our nation's largest energy resource: renewable energy. The sunlight, wind biomass, flowing water, ocean energy, and geothermal energy that make up the renewable energy resource can be found throughout our nation. These resources can provide all the forms of energy our nation needs: liquid fuels, electricity, and heating and cooling. Renewable energy meets about 10% of our need for these forms of energy today, yet the potential contribution is many times greater. DOE's Programs in Renewable Energy are working side-by-side with American industry to develop the technologies that convert renewable energy resources into practical, cost-competitive energy. After a decade of progress in research, several of these technologies are poised to make large contributions during the 1990s and beyond. This booklet provides an overview of the renewable energy programs and their plans for FY 1990. Sources of additional information are listed at the back of the booklet. 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Programs in Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Our nation faces significant challenges as we enter the 1990s: securing a reliable supply of competitively priced energy, improving the quality of our environment, and increasing our share of foreign markets for goods and services. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Programs in Renewable Energy are working toward meeting these challenges by developing the technologies that make use of our nation's largest energy resource: renewable energy. The sunlight, wind biomass, flowing water, ocean energy, and geothermal energy that make up the renewable energy resource can be found throughout our nation. These resources can provide all the forms of energy our nation needs: liquid fuels, electricity, and heating and cooling. Renewable energy meets about 10 percent of our need for these forms of energy today, yet the potential contribution is many times greater. DOE's Programs in Renewable Energy are working side-by-side with American industry to develop the technologies that convert renewable energy resources into practical, cost-competitive energy. After a decade of progress in research, several of these technologies are poised to make large contributions during the 1990s and beyond. This booklet provides an overview of the renewable energy programs and their plans for FY 1990. Sources of additional information are listed at the back of the booklet.

  6. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109?bq.month?1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111?TBq for 137Cs and 44?TBq for 134Cs. PMID:25673214

  7. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-02-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109 bq.month-1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for 137Cs and 44 TBq for 134Cs.

  8. Ocean thermal energy conversion power system development. Final design report: PSD-I, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-30

    The PSD-I program provides a heat exchanger sytem consisting of an evaporator, condenser and various ancillaries with ammonia used as a working fluid in a closed simulated Rankine cycle. It is to be installed on the Chepachet Research Vessel for test and evaluation of a number of OTEC concepts in a true ocean environment. It is one of several test articles to be tested. Primary design concerns include control of biofouling, corrosion and erosion of aluminum tubes, selection of materials, and the development of a basis for scale-up to large heat exchangers so as to ultimately demonstrate economic feasibility on a commercial scale. The PSD-I test article is devised to verify thermodynamic, environmental, and mechanical performance of basic design concepts. The detailed design, development, fabrication, checklist, delivery, installation support, and operation support for the Test Article Heat Exchangers are described. (WHK)

  9. Simulation and Feasibility Study on a ‘Renewable Energy House’ with a Geothermal Heat Pump-Powered Floor Heating System in Cold Climate Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Masafumi; Akpan, Itoro; Endoh, Noboru

    An actual renewable energy house, equipped with a geothermal heat pump (GHP)-powered floor heating system was investigated and analyzed. Daily annual monitoring between February 2005 ˜ February 2006 and real-time continuous system monitoring within selected periods during the winter season between November 2006 ˜ January 2007, were carried out in order to establish the actual performance of the system. It emerged that the GHP-powered floor heating system is sufficient for space heating, with the maintenance of near-uniform room temperatures even during the coldest days in a very cold region like Hokkaido, Japan. About 37% average of the floor heat losses are recoverable and more than 50% of the ventilation heat losses are recovered due to various innovative energy-saving techniques built into the system. Annual heat loss from the house estimated by the numerical simulation showed good agreement with the measured annual thermal demand for room heating. The simulation also estimated that annual running costs and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 47% and 49% respectively, can be realized with this system compared to an equivalent conventional system. A detailed cost analysis for the GHP-only system revealed that if the cost of fuel oil increases by about 50% from the current value of ¥80/L, then the payback period for a GHP-powered renewable energy system is about 14 years. This payback period reduces to about 10 years if 30% of the initial cost of the GHP-powered system is externally funded.

  10. Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan Bin; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari Bin

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions. PMID:24892049

  11. Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions. PMID:24892049

  12. Coupling Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion technology (OTEC) with nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, M.K.; Rezachek, D.; Chen, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The prospects of utilizing an OTEC Related Bottoming Cycle to recover waste heat generated by a large nuclear (or fossil) power plant are examined. With such improvements, OTEC can become a major energy contributor. 12 refs.

  13. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  14. Renewable Energy Companies Website Algal Biomass Organization http://www.algaebiomass.org/

    E-print Network

    McGaughey, Alan

    Hydropower Association http://hydro.org/ Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition httpRenewable Energy Companies Website Biomass Algal Biomass Organization http://www.algaebiomass.org/ Aventine Renewable Energy, Inc. http://www.aventinerei.com/ Biomass Engineering UK http

  15. The influence of spatially and temporally high-resolution wind forcing on the power input to near-inertial waves in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimac, Antonija; von Storch, Jin-Song; Eden, Carsten

    2013-04-01

    The estimated power required to sustain global general circulation in the ocean is about 2 TW. This power is supplied with wind stress and tides. Energy spectrum shows pronounced maxima at near-inertial frequency. Near-inertial waves excited by high-frequency winds represent an important source for deep ocean mixing since they can propagate into the deep ocean and dissipate far away from the generation sites. The energy input by winds to near-inertial waves has been studied mostly using slab ocean models and wind stress forcing with coarse temporal resolution (e.g. 6-hourly). Slab ocean models lack the ability to reproduce fundamental aspects of kinetic energy balance and systematically overestimate the wind work. Also, slab ocean models do not account the energy used for the mixed layer deepening or the energy radiating downward into the deep ocean. Coarse temporal resolution of the wind forcing strongly underestimates the near-inertial energy. To overcome this difficulty we use an eddy permitting ocean model with high-frequency wind forcing. We establish the following model setup: We use the Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (MPIOM) on a tripolar grid with 45 km horizontal resolution and 40 vertical levels. We run the model with wind forcings that vary in horizontal and temporal resolution. We use high-resolution (1-hourly with 35 km horizontal resolution) and low-resolution winds (6-hourly with 250 km horizontal resolution). We address the following questions: Is the kinetic energy of near-inertial waves enhanced when high-resolution wind forcings are used? If so, is this due to higher level of overall wind variability or higher spatial or temporal resolution of wind forcing? How large is the power of near-inertial waves generated by winds? Our results show that near-inertial waves are enhanced and the near-inertial kinetic energy is two times higher (in the storm track regions 3.5 times higher) when high-resolution winds are used. Filtering high-resolution winds in space and time, the near-inertial kinetic energy reduces. The reduction is faster when a temporal filter is used suggesting that the high-frequency wind forcing is more efficient in generating near-inertial wave energy than the small-scale wind forcing. Using low-resolution wind forcing the wind generated power to near-inertial waves is 0.55 TW. When we use high-resolution wind forcing the result is 1.6 TW meaning that the result increases by 300%.

  16. Conceptual design of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plants in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Haruo Uehara; Dilao, C.O.; Tsutomu Nakaoka )

    1988-01-01

    Extensive temperature readings were obtained to determine suitable OTEC power plant sites in the Philippines. An analysis of temperature profiles reveals that surface seawater is in the range of 25 to 29{degree}C throughout the year while seawater at 500 to 700 m depth remains at a low temperature of 8 to 4{degree}C, respectively. In this article, 14 suitable sites within the Philippine seas are suggested. Conceptual designs for a 5-MW onland-type and a 25-MW floating-type OTEC power plant are proposed. Optimum conditions are determined and plant specifications are computed. Cost estimates show that a floating-type 25-MW OTEC power plant can generate electricity at a busbar power cost of 5.33 to 7.57 cents/kW {times} h while an onshore type 5-MW plant can generate electricity at a busbar cost of 14.71 to 18.09 cents/kW {times} h.

  17. Radiocesium transfer from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident: A review.

    PubMed

    Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J Patrick; Lepage, Hugo; Onda, Yuichi; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    The devastating tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) resulting in a loss of cooling and a series of explosions releasing the largest quantity of radioactive material into the atmosphere since the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Although 80% of the radionuclides from this accidental release were transported over the Pacific Ocean, 20% were deposited over Japanese coastal catchments that are subject to frequent typhoons. Among the radioisotopes released during the FDNPP accident, radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) is considered the most serious current and future health risk for the local population. The goal of this review is to synthesize research relevant to the transfer of FDNPP derived radiocesium from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean. After radiocesium fallout deposition on vegetation and soils, the contamination may remain stored in forest canopies, in vegetative litter on the ground, or in the soil. Once radiocesium contacts soil, it is quickly and almost irreversibly bound to fine soil particles. The kinetic energy of raindrops instigates the displacement of soil particles, and their bound radiocesium, which may be mobilized and transported with overland flow. Soil erosion is one of the main processes transferring particle-bound radiocesium from hillslopes through rivers and streams, and ultimately to the Pacific Ocean. Accordingly this review will summarize results regarding the fundamental processes and dynamics that govern radiocesium transfer from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean published in the literature within the first four years after the FDNPP accident. The majority of radiocesium is reported to be transported in the particulate fraction, attached to fine particles. The contribution of the dissolved fraction to radiocesium migration is only relevant in base flows and is hypothesized to decline over time. Owing to the hydro-meteorological context of the Fukushima region, the most significant transfer of particulate-bound radiocesium occurs during major rainfall and runoff events (e.g. typhoons and spring snowmelt). There may be radiocesium storage within catchments in forests, floodplains and even within hillslopes that may be remobilized and contaminate downstream areas, even areas that did not receive fallout or may have been decontaminated. Overall this review demonstrates that characterizing the different mechanisms and factors driving radiocesium transfer is important. In particular, the review determined that quantifying the remaining catchment radiocesium inventory allows for a relative comparison of radiocesium transfer research from hillslope to catchment scales. Further, owing to the variety of mechanisms and factors, a transdisciplinary approach is required involving geomorphologists, hydrologists, soil and forestry scientists, and mathematical modellers to comprehensively quantify radiocesium transfers and dynamics. Characterizing radiocesium transfers from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean is necessary for ongoing decontamination and management interventions with the objective of reducing the gamma radiation exposure to the local population. PMID:26142817

  18. Conceptual design of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.; Link, H.F.; Parsons, B.K.; Parsons, J.M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. 71 refs., 41 figs., 34 tabs.

  19. Conceptual design of an Open-Cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Net Power-Producing Experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H. J.; Link, H. F.; Parsons, B. K.; Parsons, J. M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii.

  20. Learning about Renewable Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

  1. Renewable Energy Supply for Power Dominated, Energy Intense Production Processes - A Systematic Conversion Approach for the Anodizing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >D Stollenwerk, T Kuvarakul, I Kuperjans,

    2013-06-01

    European countries are highly dependent on energy imports. To lower this import dependency effectively, renewable energies will take a major role in future energy supply systems. To assist the national and inter-European efforts, extensive changes towards a renewable energy supply, especially on the company level, will be unavoidable. To conduct this conversion in the most effective way, the methodology developed in this paper can support the planning procedure. It is applied to the energy intense anodizing production process, where the electrical demand is the governing factor for the energy system layout. The differences between the classical system layout based on the current energy procurement and an approach with a detailed load-time-curve analysis, using process decomposition besides thermodynamic optimization, are discussed. The technical effects on the resulting energy systems are shown besides the resulting energy supply costs which will be determined by hourly discrete simulation.

  2. Economics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): Luis A. Vega Ph.D., National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Hawai'i

    E-print Network

    , its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper power cables, to shore stations, followed, in about 20 years, with OTEC factories deployed along

  3. Architectures and circuits for low-voltage energy conversion and applications in renewable energy and power management

    E-print Network

    Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we seek to develop smaller, less expensive, and more efficient power electronics. We also investigate emerging applications where the proper implementation of these new types of power converters can have a ...

  4. Modeling Photovoltaic Module-Level Power Electronics in the System Advisor Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Module-level power electronics, such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules, are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software. This paper extends the work completed at NREL that provided recommendations to model the performance of distributed power electronics in NREL’s popular PVWatts calculator [1], to provide similar guidelines for modeling these technologies in NREL's more complex System Advisor Model (SAM). Module-level power electronics - such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules-- are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software.

  5. Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhiche, Mike; Downie, Bruce

    2013-10-21

    Ocean wave power can be a significant source of large?scale, renewable energy for the US electrical grid. The Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) conservatively estimated that 20% of all US electricity could be generated by wave energy. Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. (OPT), with funding from private sources and the US Navy, developed the PowerBuoy? to generate renewable energy from the readily available power in ocean waves. OPT's PowerBuoy converts the energy in ocean waves to electricity using the rise and fall of waves to move the buoy up and down (mechanical stroking) which drives an electric generator. This electricity is then conditioned and transmitted ashore as high?voltage power via underwater cable. OPT's wave power generation system includes sophisticated techniques to automatically tune the system for efficient conversion of random wave energy into low cost green electricity, for disconnecting the system in large waves for hardware safety and protection, and for automatically restoring operation when wave conditions normalize. As the first utility scale wave power project in the US, the Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, OR, will consist of 10 PowerBuoys located 2.5 miles off the coast. This U.S. Department of Energy Grant funding along with funding from PNGC Power, an Oregon?based electric power cooperative, was utilized for the design completion, fabrication, assembly and factory testing of the first PowerBuoy for the Reedsport project. At this time, the design and fabrication of this first PowerBuoy and factory testing of the power take?off subsystem are complete; additionally the power take?off subsystem has been successfully integrated into the spar.

  6. Open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): Status and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, D.

    1984-08-01

    Tropical oceans with a 20 C or more temperature difference between surface and deep water represent a vast resource of renewable thermal energy. One of the methods of harnessing this resource is an open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system utilizing steam evaporated from the surface water for powering the turbine. In this paper, the state of the art of research and component development, as related to heat and mass transfer processes, power production, noncondensable gas handling, and seawater flow hydraulics, are described through an illustrated preliminary design study of a 1-MW facility.

  7. Quantifying avoided emissions from renewable generation

    E-print Network

    Gomez, Gabriel R. (Gabriel Rodriguez)

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying the reduced emissions due to renewable power integration and providing increasingly accurate emissions analysis has become more important for policy makers in the age of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and ...

  8. Model-Predictive Cascade Mitigation in Electric Power Systems With Storage and Renewables-Part II: Case-Study

    SciTech Connect

    Almassalkhi, MR; Hiskens, IA

    2015-01-01

    The novel cascade-mitigation scheme developed in Part I of this paper is implemented within a receding-horizon model predictive control (MPC) scheme with a linear controller model. This present paper illustrates the MPC strategy with a case-study that is based on the IEEE RTS-96 network, though with energy storage and renewable generation added. It is shown that the MPC strategy alleviates temperature overloads on transmission lines by rescheduling generation, energy storage, and other network elements, while taking into account ramp-rate limits and network limitations. Resilient performance is achieved despite the use of a simplified linear controller model. The MPC scheme is compared against a base-case that seeks to emulate human operator behavior.

  9. Plasma gasification of organic containing substances as a promising way of development of alternative renewable power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutberg, Ph G.; Bratsev, A. N.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Kumkova, I. I.; Popov, V. E.; Surov, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    The paper deals with perspectives of large-scale implementation of the plasma gasification process of solid organic-containing substances as a source of renewable energy. First of all, such substances as wood waste, agriculture waste, solid household waste are considered. Thanks to the process of the plasma high-temperature gasification the energy of their combustion can be completely converted into the energy of the synthesis gas combustion, which use as a fuel for the combined cycle allows electricity generation with efficiency of ~60 %. Thus, if the psychogenesis production wastes are considered, this technology enables avoiding additional emission of carbon dioxide into biosphere as for production of biomass from biosphere it is extracted the same amount of carbon dioxide as is emitted at its combustion. The report represents the realized and developing designs of plasma gasification, their advantages and deficiencies.

  10. 77 FR 50489 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION...into our nation's grid. Some renewable energy resources, such as wind...

  11. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system 

    E-print Network

    Richards, B.S.; Capão, D.P.S.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration – nanofiltration / reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating ...

  12. 76 FR 78173 - Options for Developing the Regulatory Basis for Streamlining Non-Power Reactor License Renewal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 [NRC-2011-0087...3150-AI96 Options for Developing the Regulatory Basis for Streamlining Non- Power Reactor...Emergency Preparedness AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  13. Optimal Integration of Renewable Energy Resources in Data Centers with Behind-the-Meter Renewable Generator

    E-print Network

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    1 Optimal Integration of Renewable Energy Resources in Data Centers with Behind-the-Meter Renewable-- Renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, are rapidly becoming generation technologies-temporal variations, the integration of renewable energy resources is usually very challenging. Some of the previously

  14. THORs Power Method for Hydrokinetic Devices - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Turner Hunt; Joel Rumker

    2012-08-08

    Ocean current energy represents a vast untapped source of renewable energy that exists on the outer continental shelf areas of the 5 major continents. Ocean currents are unidirectional in nature and are perpetuated by thermal and salinity sea gradients, as well as coriolis forces imparted from the earth's rotation. This report details THORs Power Method, a breakthrough power control method that can provide dramatic increases to the capacity factor over and above existing marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices employed in the extraction of energy from ocean currents. THORs Power Method represents a constant speed, variable depth operational method that continually locates the ocean current turbine at a depth at which the rated power of the generator is routinely achieved. Variable depth operation is achieved by using various vertical force effectors, including ballast tanks for variable weight, a hydrodynamic wing for variable lift or down force and drag flaps for variable vehicle drag forces.

  15. NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3: Additional tabulation of the power spectra, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-12-01

    Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At Sea Test are analyzed. Also included are the following ittems: (1) sensor factors and offsets, and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented.

  16. NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3, part 1: Tabulation of the power spectra for selected channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-11-01

    Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test was analyzed. Data presented included: (1)sensor factors and off sets and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical units to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe. The mean, root-mean-square (RMS) maximum, and minimum values at each depth are shown in each plot.

  17. Experience in Developing a Single-Phase Two Winding 5 kW Self-excited Induction Generator for Off-Grid Renewable Energy Based Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, S. S.; Singh, Bhim; Sandeep, Vuddanti

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of a novel single-phase two winding self-excited squirrel cage induction generator (SEIG) for off-grid renewable energy based power generation. The principles underlying the design process and experience with SPEED design tool are described to design a 5 kW, 50 Hz, 230 V, 4 pole single phase AC generator. All possible configurations to reduce harmonic components of induced e.m.f. are attempted for desired performance and to get an optimum design keeping in view the manufacturing constraints. The development of a prototype based on this design has been completed with the help of an industry. Typical test results on the prototype are presented to demonstrate its performance. Computed results are obtained with a design based computational procedure for performance analysis and a critical comparison is made with test results.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  19. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Environmental Effect of Renewing the Operating License of a Nuclear Power Plant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 CFR part 54 should be eliminated. Accordingly, while the Commission has not assigned a single... a Nuclear Power Plant B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Pt. 51, Subpt. A, App. B...

  1. In order to reduce emissions and enhance energy security, renewable power sources are being introduced proactively. As the fraction of

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    , because it enables vehicles to contribute to stabilizing the power grid by utilizing on-board batteries, the authors verify that this V2G-capable car is able to create a value of more than $100/kW annually

  2. EC417 --Electric Energy, Adapting to Renewable Resources Brief History of Power Systems (the great AC-DC battle)

    E-print Network

    (generation, transmission, distribution -- electric motors and other loads) · Power Plants with emphasis) and EVs along with issues related to their "charging stations"). · Future directions and the resulting in storage technology, electric transportation, and LED lighting. Text: El-Sharkawi, Electric Energy

  3. Renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use. PMID:20873681

  4. Ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, W.H.

    1983-03-17

    A brief explanation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) concept and an estimate of the amount of energy that can be produced from the ocean resource without introducing environmental concerns are presented. Use of the OTEC system to generate electric power and products which can replace fossil fuels is shown. The OTEC program status and its prospects for the future are discussed.

  5. Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C. B.; Genens, L.

    There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. Different OTEC plants are described that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor; the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs where appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed; 40 inch high density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii.

  6. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-05-15

    Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe(2+) release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. PMID:23523911

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  8. One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

    2013-08-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways: direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the accident site. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 137Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured 137Cs activities not only adjacent to the accident site, but also in a wide area in the model domain, therefore this implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Employment of improved nudging data by JCOPE2 improved both the offshore transport result and the reproducibility of 137Cs activities 30 km offshore. On the other hand, simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition into the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition into the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The consideration of inflow is important to simulate the 137Cs activity in this model region in the later period of the simulation. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99%) by the end of February 2012. The activity of directly released 137Cs, however, decreased exponentially with time and was detectable only in the coastal zone by the end of February 2012.

  9. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

    Part I: Dynamic Voltage Restorer In the present power grids, voltage sags are recognized as a serious threat and a frequently occurring power-quality problem and have costly consequence such as sensitive loads tripping and production loss. Consequently, the demand for high power quality and voltage stability becomes a pressing issue. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), as a custom power device, is more effective and direct solutions for "restoring" the quality of voltage at its load-side terminals when the quality of voltage at its source-side terminals is disturbed. In the first part of this thesis, a DVR configuration with no need of bulky dc link capacitor or energy storage is proposed. This fact causes to reduce the size of the DVR and increase the reliability of the circuit. In addition, the proposed DVR topology is based on high-frequency isolation transformer resulting in the size reduction of transformer. The proposed DVR circuit, which is suitable for both low- and medium-voltage applications, is based on dc-ac converters connected in series to split the main dc link between the inputs of dc-ac converters. This feature makes it possible to use modular dc-ac converters and utilize low-voltage components in these converters whenever it is required to use DVR in medium-voltage application. The proposed configuration is tested under different conditions of load power factor and grid voltage harmonic. It has been shown that proposed DVR can compensate the voltage sag effectively and protect the sensitive loads. Following the proposition of the DVR topology, a fundamental voltage amplitude detection method which is applicable in both single/three-phase systems for DVR applications is proposed. The advantages of proposed method include application in distorted power grid with no need of any low-pass filter, precise and reliable detection, simple computation and implementation without using a phased locked loop and lookup table. The proposed method has been verified by simulation and experimental tests under various conditions considering all possible cases such as different amounts of voltage sag depth (VSD), different amounts of point-on-wave (POW) at which voltage sag occurs, harmonic distortion, line frequency variation, and phase jump (PJ). Furthermore, the ripple amount of fundamental voltage amplitude calculated by the proposed method and its error is analyzed considering the line frequency variation together with harmonic distortion. The best and worst detection time of proposed method were measured 1ms and 8.8ms, respectively. Finally, the proposed method has been compared with other voltage sag detection methods available in literature. Part 2: Power System Modeling for Renewable Energy Integration: As power distribution systems are evolving into more complex networks, electrical engineers have to rely on software tools to perform circuit analysis. There are dozens of powerful software tools available in the market to perform the power system studies. Although their main functions are similar, there are differences in features and formatting structures to suit specific applications. This creates challenges for transferring power system circuit models data (PSCMD) between different software and rebuilding the same circuit in the second software environment. The objective of this part of thesis is to develop a Unified Platform (UP) to facilitate transferring PSCMD among different software packages and relieve the challenges of the circuit model conversion process. UP uses a commonly available spreadsheet file with a defined format, for any home software to write data to and for any destination software to read data from, via a script-based application called PSCMD transfer application. The main considerations in developing the UP are to minimize manual intervention and import a one-line diagram into the destination software or export it from the source software, with all details to allow load flow, short circuit and other analyses. In this study, ETAP, OpenDSS, and GridLab-D are considered, and PSCMD trans

  10. Fuel Savings Potential from Future In-motion Wireless Power Transfer (WPT); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Konan, A.

    2015-02-10

    This presentation discusses the fuel savings potential from future in-motion wireless power transfer. There is an extensive overlap in road usage apparent across regional vehicle population, which occurs primarily on high-capacity roads--1% of roads are used for 25% of the vehicle miles traveled. Interstates and highways make up between 2.5% and 4% of the total roads within the Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs), which represent groupings of metropolitan and/or micropolitan statistical areas. Mileage traveled on the interstates and highways ranges from 54% in California to 24% in Chicago. Road electrification could remove range restrictions of electric vehicles and increase the fuel savings of PHEVs or HEVs if implemented on a large scale. If 1% of the road miles within a geographic area are electrified, 25% of the fuel used by a 'fleet' of vehicles enabled with the technology could be displaced.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  12. 77 FR 33603 - National Oceans Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ...celebrate the myriad benefits they bring to all Americans. From tourism and fishing to international commerce and renewable energy...came.'' During National Oceans Month, let us celebrate our heritage as a seafaring Nation by instilling an ethic of good...

  13. Assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion

    E-print Network

    Muralidharan, Shylesh

    2012-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising renewable energy technology to generate electricity and has other applications such as production of freshwater, seawater air-conditioning, marine culture and chilled-soil ...

  14. 77 FR 39220 - Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (ACCRES); Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (ACCRES.... ACTION: Notice of ACCRES Charter Renewal. SUMMARY: The Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing... Secretary of Commerce has determined the renewal of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote...

  15. 76 FR 4244 - Regulation and Enforcement; Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management 30 CFR Part 285 [Docket...1010-AD71 Regulation and Enforcement; Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities...final rule to amend BOEMRE's renewable energy regulatory provisions that...

  16. Renewing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Jim

    1997-01-01

    This publication reviews works on educational reform that represent attempts to do more than merely respond in knee-jerk fashion to political pressure for reform. Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun, in "Learning Experiences in School Renewal: An Exploration of Five Successful Programs" (Eugene, Oregon: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management,…

  17. Renewable energy in Hawaii lessons learned, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, L.S.; Hubbard, H.M.; Bloyd, C.N.

    1995-12-31

    Hawaii`s extensive renewable resources, limited access to conventional fuels, and its isolated electrical grids all combine to provide an opportunity to clearly observe the development and implementation of renewable energy processes, technologies, and materials. Hawaii is distinctive in its electrical power usage since it is an island chain with isolated grid systems that range in size from less than 5 Megawatts to over 1.5 Gigawatts and also has many off grid dwellings and at least one isolated village system. However, it has been noted that lessons learned from Hawaii`s early experiences in trying to utilize renewable energy have a great deal in common with problems encountered by mainland utilities trying to do the same thing. Furthermore, conditions in Hawaii are very similar to those in many tropical and semitropical locations in the Pacific and Southeast Asia. Hence, Hawaii`s renewable energy experience is shared here in the hope that it may prove useful to others. This review is the second part of a two part series that describes the progress of renewable energy in the state of Hawaii. The steps taken in Hawaii with regards to ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), wave energy, photovoltaics (PV), solar thermal water heating, hydroelectric, and geothermal technologies over the past 20 years are reviewed. Conclusions drawn from Hawaii`s renewable energy experience are summarized in a list of lessons learned that are provided for the interest of those who may be carrying out similar efforts in other locations. 64 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Heterogeneous catalysis and the challenges of powering the planet, securing chemicals for civilised life, and clean efficient utilization of renewable feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews, first, the prospects, practices and principles of generating solar fuels. It does so with an analysis of recent progress in the light-driven emission of H2 (and other fuels) as well as O2 from water. To place this challenge in perspective, some current practices entailing the use of well-proven solid catalysts developed for fossil-based feedstocks, are described. The massive differences between proven methods of generating fuel and chemicals from non-renewable and from solar radiation are emphasized with the aid of numerous quantitative examples. Whilst it is acknowledged that a key action in reducing the liberation of greenhouse gases (GHG) is to tackle the challenge of decreasing their evolution in power generation and in the production of steel, aluminium and other bulk commodities (metals, alloys, concrete and ceramics), nevertheless much can be done to diminish the emission of CO2 (and to use it as feedstock) through the agency of new, designed solid catalysts and microalgae. Solar-thermal converters are also attractive alternatives, even though they are more likely to be used centrally rather than in small modular units like 'artificial leaves,' some of which are promising for the purposes of generating energy (and perhaps fuel) in a delocalized, modular manner. PMID:24988917

  19. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Life Cycle Management/License Renewal Program: Containment system component evaluation and program evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doroshuk, B.W.; Tilden, B.M.; Tucker, R.L.; Hostetler, D.R.; Tai, T.

    1995-03-01

    Central to the Life Cycle Management (LCM) Program for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) plant is its Integrated Plant Assessment (IPA) process. The IPA is a comprehensive, systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of age-related degradation management for the plant`s important systems, structures, and components. Components of structures identified as functionally important and within the scope of license renewal in the screening step are evaluated to determine if they are subject to aging management review. For those that are, further evaluations of aging issues are performed. At Calvert Cliffs, a detailed method and procedures for conducting component evaluations of structures have been developed and thoroughly tested. The development and application of these procedures have resolved problems that other utilities can avoid by adapting these methods to their own plants. The first report of this series contains an overview of the LCM and IPA process. This report, which is another in the series of EPRI reports on the Calvert Cliffs IPA process, describes the methodology for performing component and program evaluations for structures.

  20. Ocean energy program summary. Volume 2: Research summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, this stored energy is realized as waves, currents, and thermal salinity gradients. The purpose of the Federal Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy in a cost effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The OET Program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where the commercial sector can assess whether applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives or supplements to systems. Past studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to United States energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. Current program emphasis has shifted to open-cycle OTEC power system research because the closed-cycle OTEC system is at a more advanced stage of development and has already attracted industrial interest. During FY 1989, the OET Program focused primarily on the technical uncertainties associated with near-shore open-cycle OTEC systems ranging in size from 2 to 15 MW(sub e). Activities were performed under three major program elements: thermodynamic research and analysis, experimental verification and testing, and materials and structures research. These efforts addressed a variety of technical problems whose resolution is crucial to demonstrating the viability of open-cycle OTEC technology. This publications is one of a series of documents on the Renewable Energy programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. An overview of all the programs is available, entitled Programs in Renewable Energy.

  1. Low-level waste ocean disposal program. Annual technical progress report, June 1982-June 1983. Volume I. Summary. [Decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Marietta, M.G.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the status of the oceanographic research program being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) in support of a US Navy environmental evaluation nuclear-powered submarines. The SNL project is entitled The Low-Level Waste Ocean Disposal Program (LLWODP). The present report covers the fourth year of the project and is presented in three volumes. Volume I provides a summary of the fourth year's accomplishments and updates the project status. Volume II and Volume III contain the scientific reports by the principal investigators for the activities during the fourth year in the Pacific and Atlantic study areas. 40 references, 52 figures, 11 tables.

  2. Renewable Energy and Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Chum, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued the Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) at http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/ (May 2011 electronic version; printed form ISBN 978-1-107-60710-1, 2012). More than 130 scientists contributed to the report.* The SRREN assessed existing literature on the future potential of renewable energy for the mitigation of climate change within a portfolio of mitigation options including energy conservation and efficiency, fossil fuel switching, RE, nuclear and carbon capture and storage (CCS). It covers the six most important renewable energy technologies - bioenergy, direct solar, geothermal, hydropower, ocean and wind, as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It also takes into consideration the environmental and social consequences associated with these technologies, the cost and strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion.

  3. Surprisingly low near-inertial energy flux leaving the ocean's mixed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimac, A.; von Storch, J. S.; Eden, C.

    2014-12-01

    We present a renewed estimate of the fraction of the total Near-Inertial (NI) energy flux leaving the ocean's Mixed Layer (ML) based on simulations performed by a global high-resolution (1/10°) ocean general circulation model. The quantification of this fraction is important for understanding the global general circulation and the energetics of the ocean. At the same time NI waves that are excited at the ocean surface by winds are a major power source for deep ocean mixing. NI waves that escape the turbulent ML can propagate freely into the stratified deep ocean. When they break in the oceanic interior, they can contribute to deep mixing. The previous studies on the subject indicate that a large portion of wind-power input to NI motions is dissipated in a surface layer of fixed depth and in specific regions in the ocean. In comparison, we study in detail the spatial and temporal variability of the ocean's ML and gives an estimate on a global scale, which allows for the first time for a global quantification of the transfer of NI energy into the deep layers of the ocean. We address the following questions: What is the magnitude of the wind-power input to NI motions simulated with our high-resolution ocean model? How large is the fraction of the total wind-induced NI energy flux that leaves the ML? What are the main factors that control this fraction? The wind-power input to surface NI motions amounts to 0.35 TW, of which a fraction of about 11% i.e., 0.04 TW leaves the ML and propagates into the stratified interior of the ocean. Locally, this fraction tends to decrease with increasing depth of the ML and with increasing strength of wind stress variability, indicating the strong control of the turbulent dissipation inside the ML on the fraction. The low power input by NI waves points towards the importance of other energy sources (like the dissipation of mesoscale eddy energy) for interior mixing to sustain the global general circulation in the ocean.

  4. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Devices, Potential Navigational Hazards and Mitigation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

    2009-12-01

    On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies. A technical report addressing our findings is available on this Science and Technology Information site under the Product Title, "Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures". This product is a brochure, primarily for project developers, that summarizes important issues in that more comprehensive report, identifies locations where that report can be downloaded, and identifies points of contact for more information.

  5. Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis

    E-print Network

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis Anthony compares to price responsive demand in terms capacity gains and energy market revenues for renewable to renewable generation. I. INTRODUCTION Renewable power is emerging as a mainstream source of energy supply

  6. Ocean engineering for ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The panel on OTEC Ocean Engineering of the National Research Council was formed to assess the state of ocean engineering knowledge, technology, and practice necessary to design, construct, and operate OTEC plants. The panel concentrated its study on platforms, moorings, and foundations; the cold water pipe; and submarine cables for electric power transmission. The panel did not address the design and engineering of power plants; institutional and management issues or the commercial feasibility of OTEC; or its environmental impacts. The panel focused instead on determining the state of development of several of the ocean engineering technologies needed to design and construct a 40-MWe OTEC plant; it also examined the technical feasibility and advantages of larger and smaller plants.

  7. Renewable technologies program summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-11-01

    The renewable energy research and development program supports development of a mix of technologies that can contribute to both energy supply and improved end-use efficiency. In allocating resources, this office is concentrating on applying federal funds only where they are most effective: in sponsoring research and development (R and D) where the potential payoff is high, but which private industry cannot be expected to pursue because the results are difficult to predict or a return on investment would require an exceptionally long time to be realized. Research efforts in the following areas are summarized: active solar heating and cooling; passive and hybrid solar; photovoltaics; solar thermal; biofuels; wind; ocean energy technology; geothermal; and small-scale hydropower.

  8. Renewable energy: Renewing the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    During the past 20 years, the United States has enacted some of the world`s most comprehensive legislation to protect and preserve its environmental heritage. These regulations have spawned a $115-billion-per-year industry for {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} products and services, with more than 35,000 companies providing jobs for American workers. On the other hand, environmental regulations have placed heavy cost burdens on many U.S. businesses as they struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. How, then, can one reconcile the growing need for environmental protection with the desire for a stronger, healthier economy? Even as Congress debates the value of existing environmental legislation, new threats are appearing on the horizon. For example, extensive storm damage from Hurricane Andrew and other natural disasters has prompted members of the $650-billion insurance industry to begin studying the effects that global warming may have on future property damage claims. More and more people are realizing that the most efficient and economical way to control pollution is to avoid creating it in the first place. And that`s where renewable energy comes in. Technologies based on nonpolluting renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind can help preserve our environmental heritage without a tangled web of regulations to burden industry. Renewable energy technologies can also help the United States become a world leader in a potential $400-billion-a-year global market for environmentally friendly products.

  9. Energy Market and Economic Impacts of the Carbon Limits and Energy for America’s Renewal (CLEAR) Act and an Electric-Power Only Cap-and-Trade Program

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to a request from Senators Bingaman, Cantwell, Collins, Murkowski and Voinovich to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide technical assistance to help inform deliberations on energy and climate legislation, including an evaluation of the Carbon Limits and Energy for America’s Renewal (CLEAR) Act and several possible variants of that legislation (some of which had quite extensive components), as well as a separate electric power sector only cap and trade (EPOCT) proposal.

  10. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  11. Renewal Credit Matrix CERTIFICATE RENEWAL PLAN

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    or university. 2. State Department of Education Certificate Renewal Course All certificate renewal courses mustRenewal Credit Matrix CERTIFICATE RENEWAL PLAN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS FOR SOUTH CAROLINA EDUCATORS Educators who are not employed in a position that requires South Carolina educator certification

  12. Ocean Fertilization and Other Climate Change Mitigation Strategies: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2008-07-29

    In order to evaluate ocean fertilization in the larger context of other proposed strategies for reducing the threat of the global warming, a wide range of different climate change mitigation approaches are compared in terms of their long-term potential, stage of development, relative costs and potential risks, as well as public acceptance. This broad comparative analysis is carried out for the following climate change mitigation strategies: supply-side and end-use efficiency improvements, terrestrial and geological carbon sequestration, CO2 ocean disposal and iron fertilization, nuclear power, and renewable energy generation from biomass, passive solar, solar thermal, photovoltaics, hydroelectric and wind. In addition, because of the inherent problems of conducting an objective comparative cost-benefit analysis, two non-technological solutions to global warming are also discussed: curbing population growth and transitioning to a steady-state economy.

  13. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  14. Thermal Pollution by Nuclear Power Plants. A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 320. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    This publication includes several activities regarding the use of nuclear power plants and possible effects on the environment. The materials are designed for secondary school students and include reference materials and masters for transparencies. (RH)

  15. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  16. 76 FR 52995 - Draft License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-05: Ongoing Review of Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ...Renewal Applications for Nuclear Power Plants'' (SRP-LR...Renewal, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation...be used to ensure the effectiveness of the license renewal...consistent with how nuclear power plant licensees...

  17. China rationalizes its renewable energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Jack H.; Hui, Simone S.; Tsen, Kevin H.

    2010-04-15

    China's over-reliance on thermal power generation, especially coal-fired power stations, is well-documented. While nuclear power continues as an option to coal, China's strides in renewable energy are unprecedented. Recent amendments to the Renewable Energy Law, first promulgated in 2006, attempt to rationalize the regulatory regime governing wind, solar, hydropower and biomass projects in China, currently fraught with inadequate interconnection and tariff shock issues. (author)

  18. Ocean Terracing

    E-print Network

    Richard Cathcart; Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-09

    Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean Art is the technically possible 21-st Century terracing of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Art is applicable worldwide to places that might be practically improved by its judicious employment. Such Ocean Art may constitute an entirely unique category of solutions to coastal disaster prevention planning.

  19. US Renewable Futures in the GCAM

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.; Karas, Joseph F.; Nathan, Mayda

    2011-10-06

    This project examines renewable energy deployment in the United States using a version of the GCAM integrated assessment model with detailed a representation of renewables, the GCAM-RE. Electricity generation was modeled in four generation segments and 12-subregions. This level of regional and sectoral detail allows a more explicit representation of renewable energy generation. Wind, solar thermal power, and central solar PV plants are implemented in explicit resource classes with new intermittency parameterizations appropriate for each technology. A scenario analysis examines a range of assumptions for technology characteristics, climate policy, and long-distance transmission. We find that renewable generation levels grow over the century in all scenarios. As expected, renewable generation increases with lower renewable technology costs, more stringent climate policy, and if alternative low-carbon technology are not available. The availability of long distance transmission lowers policy costs and changes the renewable generation mix.

  20. Renewable Energy Requirement Guidance for EPACT 2005 and EO 13423

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Describes what counts toward the federal goals, the definition of "new" for renewable power/renewable energy certificate (REC) purchases, and what types of on-site projects will get double credit (Section 203 (C)).

  1. 10 CFR 2.109 - Effect of timely renewal application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Effect of timely renewal application...Section 2.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Initiated § 2.109 Effect of timely renewal application...operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  2. 10 CFR 2.109 - Effect of timely renewal application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Effect of timely renewal application...Section 2.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Initiated § 2.109 Effect of timely renewal application...operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  3. 10 CFR 2.109 - Effect of timely renewal application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Effect of timely renewal application...Section 2.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Initiated § 2.109 Effect of timely renewal application...operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  4. 10 CFR 2.109 - Effect of timely renewal application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Effect of timely renewal application...Section 2.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Initiated § 2.109 Effect of timely renewal application...operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  5. 10 CFR 2.109 - Effect of timely renewal application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Effect of timely renewal application...Section 2.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Initiated § 2.109 Effect of timely renewal application...operating license for a nuclear power plant...

  6. 10 CFR 54.31 - Issuance of a renewed license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...renewed license. 54.31 Section 54.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF OPERATING LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 54.31 Issuance of a...

  7. A Review of Barriers to and Opportunities for the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Ben W; Hadley, Stanton W; Xu, Yan

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare a summary report that examines the opportunities for and obstacles to the integration of renewable energy resources in the Southeast between now and the year 2030. The report, which is based on a review of existing literature regarding renewable resources in the Southeast, includes the following renewable energy resources: wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, biomass, and tidal. The evaluation was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Energy Foundation and is a subjective review with limited detailed analysis. However, the report offers a best estimate of the magnitude, time frame, and cost of deployment of renewable resources in the Southeast based upon the literature reviewed and reasonable engineering and economic estimates. For the purposes of this report, the Southeast is defined as the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. In addition, some aspects of the report (wind and geothermal) also consider the extended Southeast, which includes Maryland, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. A description of the existing base of renewable electricity installations in the region is given for each technology considered. Where available, the possible barriers and other considerations regarding renewable energy resources are listed in terms of availability, investment and maintenance costs, reliability, installation requirements, policies, and energy market. As stated above, the report is a comprehensive review of renewable energy resources in the southeastern region of United States based on a literature study that included information obtained from the Southern Bio-Power wiki, sources from the Energy Foundation, sources available to ORNL, and sources found during the review. The report consists of an executive summary, this introductory chapter describing report objectives, a chapter on analysis methods and the status of renewable resources, chapters devoted to each identified renewable resource, and a brief summary chapter. Chapter 2 on analysis methods and status summarizes the benefits of integrating renewable energy resources in the Southeast. The utilization of the existing fuels, both the fossil fuels and the renewable energy resources, is evaluated. The financial rewards of renewable resources are listed, which includes the amount of fuel imported from outside the Southeast to find the net benefit of local renewable generation, and both the typical and new green job opportunities that arise from renewable generation in the Southeast. With the load growth in the Southeast, the growth of transmission and fossil fuel generation may not meet the growing demands for energy. The load growth is estimated, and the benefits of renewable resources for solving local growing energy demands are evaluated. Chapters 3-7 discuss the key renewable energy resources in the Southeast. Six resources available in this region that are discussed are (1) wind, including both onshore and offshore; (2) solar, including passive, photovoltaic, and concentrating; (3) biomass energy, including switchgrass, biomass co-firing, wood, woody biomass, wood industry by-products (harvesting residues, mill waste, etc.), agricultural byproducts, landfill gas to energy and anaerobic digester gas; (4) hydro; and (5) geothermal. Because of limited development, ocean wave and tidal were not considered to be available in significant quantity before 2030 and are not presented in the final analysis. Estimates on the location of potential megawatt generation from these renewable resources in the Southeast are made. Each chapter will describe the existing base of the renewable electricity installations in the region now and, when available, the base of the existing manufacturing capacity in the region for renewable energy resources hardware and software. The possible barriers and considerations for renewable energy resources are presented.

  8. Ocean energy program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, they collect and store this energy as waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy cost effectively and in a way that does not harm the environment. The program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where industry can accurately assess whether the technology is a viable energy conversion alternative, or supplement, to current power generating systems. In past studies, DOE identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which uses the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water, as the most promising of the ocean energy technologies. As a result, the OET Program is concentrating on research that advances the OTEC technology. The program also continues to monitor and study developments in wave energy, ocean current, and salinity gradient concepts; but it is not actively developing these technologies now.

  9. Ocean energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71% of the earth's surface, they collect and store this energy as waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The purpose of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy cost-effectively and in a way that does not harm the environment. The program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where industry can accurately assess whether the technology is a viable energy conversion alternative, or supplement, to current power-generating systems. In past studies, DOE identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which uses the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water, as the most promising of the ocean energy technologies. As a result, the OET Program is concentrating on research that advances the OTEC technology. The program also continues to monitor and study developments in wave energy, ocean current, and salinity gradient concepts; but it is not actively developing these technologies now. 13 figs.

  10. 75 FR 5873 - Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From CPV Ashley Wind Power Project in North...purchase of up to 200 megawatts (MW) of renewable energy from CPV Ashley Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV), a direct...

  11. Renewable Electricity: How Do You Know You Have It?; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    When electricity is generated - either from a renewable or non-renewable power plant - the electrons added to the grid are indistinguishable. So, on what basis can a consumer of electricity claim to be using renewables? In the United States, renewable energy certificates (RECs) were developed as states passed renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and were requiring fuel mix disclosure labels. RECs are also used in the voluntary market, where customers are buying renewables to meet sustainability goals. The concept of RECs is used most widely in the United States, but international markets also have tradable renewable electricity certificates. This fact sheet reviews how to ensure that RECs are not double-counted, roles of electricity regulators, renewable generators and purchasers. It concludes with a discussion of the international use of RECs.

  12. Impact of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in the western North Pacific Ocean about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    We measured vertical distributions of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) at stations along the 149°E meridian in the western North Pacific during winter 2012, about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident. The Fukushima-derived (134)Cs activity concentration and water-column inventory were largest in the transition region between 35 and 40°N approximately due to the directed discharge of the contaminated water from the FNPP1. The bomb-derived (137)Cs activity concentration just before the FNPP1 accident was derived from the excess (137)Cs activity concentration relative to the (134)Cs activity concentration. The water-column inventory of the bomb-derived (137)Cs was largest in the subtropical region south of 35°N, which implies that the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs will also be transported from the transition region to the subtropical region in the coming decades. Mean values of the water-column inventories decay-corrected for the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and the bomb-derived (137)Cs were estimated to be 1020 ± 80 and 820 ± 120 Bq m(-2), respectively, suggesting that in winter 2012 the impact of the FNPP1 accident in the western North Pacific Ocean was nearly the same as that of nuclear weapons testing. Relationship between the water-column inventory and the activity concentration in surface water for the radiocesium is essential information for future evaluation of the total amount of Fukushima-derived radiocesium released into the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:25461523

  13. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

    2013-09-01

    Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 18 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3, and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  14. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

    2013-03-01

    Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 1.5 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 18-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 18-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 17 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3 and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 1.5 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  15. Shapes of a Renewable Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    To rely on coal and nuclear power as sources of energy is to narrow society's future options and to present numerous problems. Renewable solar energy, on the other hand, can preserve rather than reduce options. More jobs, rising self-reliance, and new equalities between nations will be the result. (RM)

  16. ECE 618 Renewable Energy II Instructor: Dr. George E. Georgiou, Physics Dept NJIT

    E-print Network

    Haimovich, Alexander

    ECE 618 ­ Renewable Energy II FMH 314 Instructor: Dr. George E. Georgiou, Physics Dept NJIT to implement renewable energy. assume knowledge of material in ECE 443 (Renewable Energy Systems with textbook "Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems" by Gilbert M. MastersWiley 2004) Textbook: "Renewable Energy

  17. 77 FR 24734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for... and information on the public session can be found online at: http://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy... Renewable Energy Programs, 381 Elden Street, HM 1328, Herndon, Virginia 20170-4817, (703) 787-1340...

  18. 78 FR 13695 - Information Collection: Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing... requirements in the regulations under ``Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...: 1010-0176. Title: 30 CFR 585, Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the...

  19. Viscosity Model for Predicting the Power Output from Ocean Salinity and Temperature Energy Conversion System (OSTEC) Part 2: Computer Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. K.; Sufiyan Abd Hamid, Ag; Dayou, Jedol; Yusoff, Rubena; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Saleh, Ejria; Chong, H. L. H.

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the computer simulation of the improved prediction model in Part 1 and compared with the classical density model. The prediction model in Part 1 is improved by incorporating the effect of fluid dynamic viscosity when there are salinity and temperature differences between two fluids, for better prediction of kinetic power output. The viscosity prediction model takes account of the water head losing causing by frictional effect and viscous dissipation which in turns provides an analytical predicted outcome. Computer simulations are presented in this paper to assess the system as the parameters of system are varied using the Viscosity Model.

  20. Ocean thermal plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Modular Ocean Thermal-Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant permits vital component research and testing and serves as operational generator for 100 megawatts of electric power. Construction permits evaporators and condensers to be tested in same environment in which they will be used, and could result in design specifications for most efficient plant facilities in future.

  1. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  2. Numerical study of ocean wave effect on offshore wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lian; Yang, Di; Meneveau, Charles

    2013-11-01

    Wind power at sea has become increasingly important in renewable energy study. For energy harvesting, winds over oceans have many advantages over winds on land, for example, larger and open surface area, faster wind speed, and more wind resource close to high population regions. On the other hand, the presence of ocean waves introduces complexities to wind turbines. There is a critical need to study the dynamical interactions among marine atmospheric boundary layer, ocean wave field, and floating turbines. In this research, we study offshore wind farm by performing large-eddy simulations for winds coupled with potential-flow-theory based simulations for broadband irregular waves, with the wind turbines represented by an actuator disk model. Our results show that windseas at different development stages result in different sea-surface roughness and have an appreciable effect on wind profile and the energy extraction rate of the turbines. If swells are present, swell-to-wind momentum and energy transfer further changes the wind field to introduce oscillations in as well as modify the mean of the wind power. DY and LS acknowledge the support of NSF-CBET-1341062. CM acknowledges the support of NSF-AGS-1045189 and NSF-OISE-1243482.

  3. Combination power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, Y.; Terayama, T.

    1983-11-29

    A combination power plant is disclosed including an ocean thermal energy conversion power plant and a steam generation power plant. Water discharged from a condenser in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant is mixed with water discharged from an evaporator in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant. The mixed water is used as cooling water for a condenser in the steam generation power plant. Part of the water discharged from the condenser in the steam generation power plant is used as heating water for the evaporator in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant.

  4. Increasing renewable energy system value through storage

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Joshua M. (Joshua Michael), 1982-

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent renewable energy sources do not always provide power at times of greatest electricity demand or highest prices. To do so reliably, energy storage is likely required. However, no single energy storage technology ...

  5. Using Renewable Energy to Pump Water 

    E-print Network

    Mecke, Michael; Enciso, Juan

    2007-06-08

    Solar and wind power can be economical and environmentally friendly ways to pump water for homes, irrigation and/or livestock water wells. This publication explains how these pumps work, the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy...

  6. Implementing renewable energy in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, W.; Stone, L.; Perez, V.B.H.; Madruga, E.

    1997-12-31

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the tightening of the US embargo, Cuba has found itself in an energy crisis of enormous magnitude. Faced with this energy crisis and its ensuing black-outs and productivity reductions, Cuba has developed a national energy plan which focuses on energy self-sufficiency and sustainability. Energy efficiency, solar energy, wind power, micro-hydro, and biomass are each included in the plan. Implementation of renewable energy projects in each of these areas has begun throughout the country with the enthusiastic support of Cubasolar, the Cuban renewable energy professional association.

  7. Ocean dynamic processes causing spatially heterogeneous distribution of sedimentary caesium-137 massively released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, H.; Morino, Y.; Furuichi, N.; Ohara, T.

    2015-08-01

    Massive amounts of anthropogenic radiocaesium 137Cs that was released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011 are widely known to have extensively migrated to Pacific oceanic sediment off of east Japan. Several recent reports have stated that the sedimentary 137Cs is now stable with a remarkably heterogeneous distribution. The present study elucidates ocean dynamic processes causing this heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution in and around the shelf off Fukushima and adjacent prefectures. We performed a numerical simulation of oceanic 137Cs behaviour for about 10 months after the accident, using a comprehensive dynamic model involving advection-diffusion transport in seawater, adsorption and desorption to and from particulate matter, sedimentation and suspension on and from the bottom, and vertical diffusion transport in the sediment. A notable simulated result was that the sedimentary 137Cs significantly accumulated in a swath just offshore of the shelf break (along the 50-100 m isobath) as in recent observations, although the seabed in the entire simulation domain was assumed to have ideal properties such as identical bulk density, uniform porosity, and aggregation of particles with a single grain diameter. This result indicated that the heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution was not necessarily a result of the spatial distribution of 137Cs sediment adsorptivity. The present simulation suggests that the shape of the swath is mainly associated with spatiotemporal variation between bottom shear stress in the shallow shelf (< 50 m depths) and that offshore of the shelf break. In a large part of the shallow shelf, the simulation indicated that strong bottom friction suspending particulate matter from the seabed frequently occurred via a periodic spring tide about every 2 weeks and via occasional strong wind. The sedimentary 137Cs thereby could hardly stay on the surface of the seabed with the result that the simulated sediment-surface 137Cs activity tended to decrease steadily for a long term after the initial 137Cs migration. By contrast, in the offshore region, neither the spring tide nor the strong wind caused bottom disturbance. Hence, the particulate matter incorporated with 137Cs, which was horizontally transported from the adjacent shallow shelf, readily settled and remained on the surface of the sediment just offshore of the shelf break. The present simulation also clearly demonstrated that the bottom disturbance influenced the sedimentary 137Cs distributions not only horizontally but also vertically. In particular, within a part of the near-shore off the nuclear power plant, the simulation indicated that large amounts of the sedimentary 137Cs were present in both upper and deeper sediments. As a result, total sedimentary 137Cs in the entire simulation domain (1.4 x 105 km2) at the end of 2011 was 3.2 x 1015 Bq, more than 10 times that in previous estimates using samples of upper sediments.

  8. The role of government in the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: Wind power in the United States, California, Denmark and Germany, 1970--2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawin, Janet Laughlin

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation seeks to determine the role of government policy in advancing the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies, and to determine if specific policies or policy types are more effective than others in achieving these ends. This study analyzes legislation, regulations, research and development (R&D) programs and their impacts on wind energy in California, the rest of the United States, Denmark and Germany, from 1970 through 2000. These countries (and state) were chosen because each has followed a very different path and has adopted wind energy at different rates. Demand for energy, particularly electricity, is rising rapidly worldwide. Renewable energy technologies could meet much of the world's future demand for electricity without the national security, environmental and social costs of conventional technologies. But renewables now play only a minor role in the electric generation systems of most countries. According to conventional economic theory, renewable energy will achieve greater market penetration once it is cost-competitive with conventional generation. This dissertation concludes, however, that government policy is the most significant causal variable in determining the development and diffusion of wind energy technology. Policy is more important for bringing wind energy to maturity than a nation's wind resource potential, wealth, relative differences in electricity prices, or existing infrastructure. Further, policy is essential for enabling a technology to succeed in the marketplace once it is cost-competitive. Policies can affect a technology's perceived, or real, costs; they can reduce risks or increase the availability and affordability of capital; appropriate and consistent policies can eliminate barriers to wind technology. To be adopted on a large scale, renewables require effective, appropriate and, above all, consistent policies that are legislated with a long-term view toward advancing a technology and an industry. Inconsistent policy is economically costly and creates cycles of boom and bust, making it impossible to build a strong domestic industry. To be effective, policy must place priority on demand creation rather than government R&D; it must create a market, establish turbine standards and siting criteria, require data collection and dissemination, facilitate grid access, establish price guarantees, and enable stakeholder participation.

  9. Marine Renewable Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Vigeant, Paul; Miller, John; Howes, Brian; McGowan, Jon G.; Baldwin, Kenneth; Grilli, Annette; Terray, Eugene

    2013-10-08

    Project Goals: The funding provided by this contract supported the following activities: A) Test Site Development; B) Seed Grant Funded Technology Development; C) Stakeholder Activities The first year of funding was dedicated to the formation of the NE MREC University Consortium which was comprised of University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (UMD) and Amherst (UMA), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), University of New Hampshire (UNH), and the University of Rhode Island (URI). The consortium worked together to encourage research and promote benefits of obtaining energy from ocean wind, waves, tides and currents. In addition, NE MREC’s goal was to fund projects aimed at potential test sites with the first year funding going to studies of the potential for tidal device testing in Muskeget Channel, at the General Sullivan Bridge in New Hampshire, and for wave device testing at the proposed National Offshore Renewable Energy Innovation Zone (NOREIZ) located off the Massachusetts coast. The project spanned 4.5 years and addressed three specific tasks that are interrelated but also served as independent investigations.

  10. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  11. 10 CFR 52.179 - Criteria for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for renewal. 52.179 Section 52.179 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.179 Criteria for renewal. The Commission may grant the renewal if the Commission determines: (a) The manufacturing...

  12. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  13. 10 CFR 52.107 - Application for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application for renewal. 52.107 Section 52.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.107 Application for renewal. The filing of an application for a renewed license must be in accordance with 10 CFR part...

  14. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term of not less than 5, nor more than...

  15. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  16. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term of not less than 5, nor more than...

  17. 10 CFR 52.179 - Criteria for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for renewal. 52.179 Section 52.179 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.179 Criteria for renewal. The Commission may grant the renewal if the...

  18. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  19. 10 CFR 52.107 - Application for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for renewal. 52.107 Section 52.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.107 Application for renewal. The filing of an application for a renewed license must be in accordance with 10 CFR part...

  20. 10 CFR 52.179 - Criteria for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for renewal. 52.179 Section 52.179 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.179 Criteria for renewal. The Commission may grant the renewal if the Commission determines: (a) The manufacturing...

  1. 10 CFR 52.179 - Criteria for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for renewal. 52.179 Section 52.179 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.179 Criteria for renewal. The Commission may grant the renewal if the...

  2. 10 CFR 52.179 - Criteria for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for renewal. 52.179 Section 52.179 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.179 Criteria for renewal. The Commission may grant the renewal if the...

  3. Renewable Energy Integration and the Impact of Carbon Regulation

    E-print Network

    Renewable Energy Integration and the Impact of Carbon Regulation on the Electric Grid Future Grid the Future Electric Energy System #12;Thrust Area 3 White Paper Renewable Energy Integration and the Impact. #12;ii Executive Summary The integration of renewable energy resources into the power grid is driven

  4. Risk-Averse Strategic Planning of HVDC Renewable Energy Grids

    E-print Network

    Krokhmal, Paul

    Risk-Averse Strategic Planning of HVDC Renewable Energy Grids Bo Sun Pavlo Krokhmal ; Yong Chen are served from renewable energy sources, such as wind farms, and the transmission network is represented with uncertainties in power demands and pro- duction of energy from renewable sources. To this end, we have

  5. Leveraging Renewable Energy in Data Centers: Present and Future

    E-print Network

    Bianchini, Ricardo

    Leveraging Renewable Energy in Data Centers: Present and Future Keynote Summary Ricardo Bianchini in powering data centers (at least par- tially) with renewable or "green" sources of energy, such as solar Keywords Renewable energy, energy-aware scheduling, data centers. 1. INTRODUCTION Data centers consume

  6. Integrating Renewable Energy Using Data Analytics Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Integrating Renewable Energy Using Data Analytics Systems: Challenges and Opportunities Andrew and intermittent nature of many renewable energy sources makes integrating them into the electric grid challenging-following loads adjust their power consumption to match the avail- able renewable energy supply. We show Internet

  7. Optimal Routing and Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Renewable Energy Networks

    E-print Network

    Sarkar, Saswati

    Optimal Routing and Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Renewable Energy Networks MHR. Khouzani-constrained wireless ad-hoc networks where nodes are powered by renewable energy sources. We take into account the fact that renewable energy harvesting processes are unpredictable and stochastic in nature ­ typically depending

  8. 10 CFR 52.59 - Criteria for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for renewal. 52.59 Section 52.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.59 Criteria for renewal. (a) The Commission shall issue a rule granting the renewal if the design, either...

  9. 10 CFR 52.31 - Criteria for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for renewal. 52.31 Section 52.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.31 Criteria for renewal. (a) The Commission shall grant the renewal if it determines that:...

  10. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard design will be for not less than 10, nor...

  11. 10 CFR 52.31 - Criteria for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for renewal. 52.31 Section 52.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.31 Criteria for renewal. (a) The Commission shall grant the renewal if it determines that: (1) The site complies with the...

  12. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10, nor more than 20 years, plus...

  13. Detailed source term estimation of atmospheric release during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kajino, Mizuo

    2014-05-01

    Temporal variations of release amounts of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident and their dispersion process are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. Here, we estimated a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data and coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations by WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN developed by the authors. New schemes for wet, dry, and fog depositions of radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (I-131, Te-132, Cs-137, and Cs-134) were incorporated into WSPEEDI-II. The deposition calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data of ocean dispersion calculations by SEA-GEARN. The reverse estimation method based on the simulation by both models assuming unit release rate (1 Bq h-1) was adopted to estimate the source term at the FNPP1 using air dose rate, and air sea surface concentrations. The results suggested that the major release of radionuclides from the FNPP1 occurred in the following periods during March 2011: afternoon on the 12th when the venting and hydrogen explosion occurred at Unit 1, morning on the 13th after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight on the 14th when several openings of SRV (steam relief valve) were conducted at Unit 2, morning and night on the 15th, and morning on the 16th. The modified WSPEEDI-II using the newly estimated source term well reproduced local and regional patterns of air dose rate and surface deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 obtained by airborne observations. Our dispersion simulations also revealed that the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPP1 were created from 15th to 16th March by complicated interactions among rainfall (wet deposition), plume movements, and phase properties (gas or particle) of I-131 and release rates associated with reactor pressure variations in Units 2 and 3.

  14. Comprehensive Ocean Drilling

    E-print Network

    Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

  15. Integrating a significant amount of wind power generation into bulk power grid is a primary task for building a cost-effective renewable portfolio and a sustainable energy infrastructure. The uncertainty

    E-print Network

    DeMara, Ronald F.

    Integrating a significant amount of wind power generation into bulk power grid is a primary task and spatial correlation of wind farm power generation have posed new challenges to power system operations. This talk will be focused on modeling the spatial correlation of wind power from farm level to grid level

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

  17. Renewable energy in Indian country

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

  18. Ocean Energy Technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The Department of Energy Ocean Energy Technology (OET) program is assessed. A summary of OET program activities during the period FY 1980 through FY 1983 documents the most significant findings of DOE-sponsored research and development in each of six program elements: Advanced Power Systems Development, Closed-Cycle Power Systems Development, Alternative Energy Systems Development, Environmental Research, Ocean Engineering, and Engineering Development. The summary is based on extensive review of technical documentation and discussions with DOE and field organization personnel. The result is a concise, comprehensive description of all significant OET activities during the period. Assessment of the current state of ocean technologies is documented through the use of matrices which relate elements of the current ocean technology WBS to a nine-level scale which defines technology status ranging from preliminary feasibility through off-the-shelf availability. These Technical Progress Matrices (TPMs) were developed for each of four ocean system configurations by integrating inputs from seven OET participating field organizations. An evaluation of the critical technical unknowns which would form the basis for future ocean energy public and private research and development activities is presented. This evaluation was accomplished using an accepted technique for group interaction and consensus formation in a meeting of knowledgeable program participants. The results of this meeting are presented in the form of forty minimum essential unknowns (MEUs). An analysis of the correlation of this list of unknowns with DOE policy and selection criteria for acceptable federally-sponsored R and D revealed significant research needs in the areas defined as the primary federal role.

  19. Renewable Energy Certificate Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gwendolyn S. Andersen

    2012-07-17

    This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

  20. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  1. Renewable energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  6. The Renewable Energy Footprint

    E-print Network

    Outka, Uma

    2011-01-01

    With the shift toward renewable energy comes the potential for staggering land impacts – many millions of acres may be consumed to meet demand for electricity and fuel over the next 20 years. To conservationists’ dismay, the more renewable energy we...

  7. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Institute #12;Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) · Renewable energy ­ ocean thermal gradient · Large! · Environmental impacts *Coastal Response Resarch Center Report, 2010 #12;OTEC development on Oahu OTEC Plants #12;OTEC Environmental Impact OTEC Warm Water Intake: ·Entrainment ·Impingement Cold water intake

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Trieu; Hand, Maureen; Baldwin, Sam F.; Wiser , Ryan; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, Paul; Arent, Doug; Porro, Gian; Sandor, Debra; Hostick, Donna J.; Milligan, Michael; DeMeo, Ed; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-04-14

    This paper highlights the key results from the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study. It is a detailed consideration of renewable electricity in the United States. The paper focuses on technical issues related to the operability of the U. S. electricity grid and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. The results indicate that the future U. S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and the further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway. The central conclusion of the analysis is that renewable electricity generation from technologies that are commercially available today, in combination with a more flexible electric system, is more than adequate to supply 80% of the total U. S. electricity generation in 2050 while meeting electricity demand on an hourly basis in every region of the United States.

  9. Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane)

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) #12;Critical Barriers Impeding RNG as a Transportation Fuel-founder of Coalition for Renewable Natural Gas · Major equity holder and manager of group of companies that cost engines. #12;Coalition for Renewable Natural Gas Non-Profit Organization (501 c 6) ­ Founded in 2011

  10. Financing renewable energy: Obstacles and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.H.

    1994-06-01

    The majority of renewable energy technology projects now being developed use long term project financing to raise capital. The financial community scrutinizes renewables more closely than some conventionally fueled electric generation facilities because it perceives renewables as risky and expensive. Renewables pay for this perceived risk through higher interest charges and other more restrictive loan covenants. Risks that are not eliminated in the power sales agreement or through some other means generally result in higher project costs during financing. In part, this situation is a product of the private placement market and project finance process in which renewable energy facilities must function. The project finance process attracts banks and institutional lenders as well as equity investors (often pension funds) who do not want to place their capital at great risk. Energy project finance exists on the basis of a secure revenue stream and a thorough understanding of electric generation technology. Renewables, like all energy projects, operating in uncertain regulatory environments are often difficult to finance. In the uncertain regulatory environment in which renewables now operate, investors and lenders are nervous about challenges to existing contracts between independent power producers and utilities. Challenges to existing contracts could foretell challenges to contracts in the future. Investors and lenders now look to state regulatory environments as an indicator of project risk. Renewable energy technology evolves quickly. Yet, often the information about technological evolution is not available to those who invest in the energy projects. Or, those who have invested in new renewable energy technology in the past have lost money and are nervous about doing so in the future - even though technology may have improved. Inadequate or unfavorable information is a barrier to the development of renewables.

  11. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study Solar Dataset (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory produced solar power production data for the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) including "real time" 5-minute interval data, "four hour ahead forecast" 60-minute interval data, and "day-ahead forecast" 60-minute interval data for the year 2006. This presentation provides a brief overview of the three solar power datasets.

  12. Public comments on the proposed 10 CFR Part 51 rule for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses and supporting documents: Review of concerns and NRC staff response. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review of public comments provided in response to the NRC`s proposed amendments to 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 51, which establish new requirements for the environmental review of applications for the renewal of operating licenses of nuclear power plants. The public comments include those submitted in writing, as well as those provided at public meetings that were held with other Federal agencies, State agencies, nuclear industry representatives, public interest groups, and the general public. This report also contains the NRC staff response to the various concerns raised, and highlights the changes made to the final rule and the supporting documents in response to these concerns.

  13. Renew Workshop on Fusion-Fission Hybrids

    E-print Network

    1 Renew Workshop on Fusion-Fission Hybrids Jeff Freidberg (MIT) Chair Phillip Finck (INL) Co and fission From universities, labs, government and industry #12;5 The Workshop (cont) First morning plenary contributed Technical findings #12;7 Status of Nuclear Power Fission View Components of nuclear power Fuel

  14. 76 FR 8962 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 285 RIN 1010-AD71 Renewable... acquisition of an Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) renewable energy lease. We are taking this action because the current regulations governing the noncompetitive acquisition of an OCS renewable energy lease initiated...

  15. 76 FR 28178 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 285 RIN 1010-AD71 Renewable... acquisition of an Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) renewable energy lease. We are taking this action because... for an OCS renewable energy lease, where BOEMRE is required to publish only a single notice. The...

  16. 77 FR 1019 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management 30 CFR Part 585 RIN 1010-AD79 Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of... for offshore renewable energy projects. DATES: Effective Date: This correction is effective on January..., fax (703) 787-1555, or email peter.meffert@boem.gov or Timothy Redding, Renewable Energy, BOEM,...

  17. 76 FR 76174 - Request for Information on the State of the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry-Auction Format...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Request for Information on the State of the Offshore Renewable Energy... auction formats which may be used to issue commercial renewable energy leases on the Outer Continental... offshore renewable energy industry, including economic matters that promote or detract from...

  18. 77 FR 52353 - Right-of-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Support Renewable Energy Development AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION...) renewable energy right-of-way (ROW) grants in order to streamline this process and increase efficiency and... product generated or produced from renewable energy, but does not constitute a project easement....

  19. Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

  20. 78 FR 33961 - National Oceans Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-13547 Filed 6-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8991 of May 31, 2013 National Oceans Month, 2013 By the President of the... long-term health of our marine ecosystems. Let us mark this month by renewing those goals,...

  1. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

    2009-12-10

    On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies, as summarized herein. The contract also required cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and two recipients of awards (Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision) in a sub-topic area to develop a protocol to identify streamlined, best-siting practices. Over the period of this contract, PCCI and our sub-consultants, David Basco, Ph.D., and Neil Rondorf of Science Applications International Corporation, met with USCG headquarters personnel, with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers headquarters and regional personnel, with U.S. Navy regional personnel and other ocean users in order to develop an understanding of existing practices for the identification of navigational impacts that might occur during construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. At these same meetings, “standard” and potential mitigation measures were discussed so that guidance could be prepared for project developers. Concurrently, PCCI reviewed navigation guidance published by the USCG and international community. This report summarizes the results of this effort, provides guidance in the form of a checklist for assessing the navigational impacts of potential marine and hydrokinetic projects, and provides guidance for improving the existing navigational guidance promulgated by the USCG in Navigation Vessel Inspection Circular 02 07. At the request of the USCG, our checklist and mitigation guidance was written in a generic nature so that it could be equally applied to offshore wind projects. PCCI teleconferenced on a monthly basis with DOE, Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision in order to share information and review work products. Although the focus of our effort was on marine and hydrokinetic technologies, as defined above, this effort drew upon earlier work by the USCG on offshore wind renewable energy installations. The guidance provided herein can be applied equally to marine and hydrokinetic technologies and to offshore wind, which are collectively referred to by the USCG as Renewable Energy Installations.

  2. US Renewable Futures in the GCAM

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S. J.; Mizrahi, A. H.; Karas, J. F.; Nathan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines renewable energy deployment in the United States using a version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) with a detailed representation of renewables; the GCAM-RE. Electricity generation was modeled in four generation segments and 12-subregions. This level of regional and sector detail allows a more explicit representation of renewable energy generation. Wind, solar thermal power, and central solar PV plants are implemented in explicit resource classes with new intermittency parameterizations appropriate for each technology. A scenario analysis examines a range of assumptions for technology characteristics, climate policy, and long distance transmission.

  3. Renewable energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  4. Renewable resources in the US electricity supply

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-05

    Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and waste) currently provide nearly 12 percent of the Nation`s electricity supply. Almost 10 of this 12 percent is provided by hydroelectric resources alone. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) together contribute more than 1 percent. All other renewable resources, including geothermal, wind, and solar, together provide less than 1 percent of the total. Many renewable resources are relative newcomers to the electric power market. In particular, electricity generation using geothermal, wind, solar, and MSW resources have had their greatest expansion in the 1980`s. This was a result of significant technological improvements, the implementation of favorable Federal and State policies, and the reaction to the increasing costs of using fossil and nuclear fuels. The use of renewable resources for electricity generation has also been encouraged as less environmentally damaging than fossil fuels. Because renewable energy is available domestically, renewable resources are viewed as more secure than imported fossil fuels. This report, Renewable Resources in the US Electricity Supply, presents descriptions of the history, current use, and forecasted future applications of renewable resources for electricity generation and of the factors that influence those applications.

  5. Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols For Tidal Power

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Michael Leroy; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin; Xue, Huijie; Johnson, Teresa R.

    2014-02-02

    The Maine Tidal Power Initiative (MTPI), an interdisciplinary group of engineers, biologists, oceanographers, and social scientists, has been conducting research to evaluate tidal energy resources and better understand the potential effects and impacts of marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) development on the environment and local community. Project efforts include: 1) resource assessment, 2) development of initial device design parameters using scale model tests, 3) baseline environmental studies and monitoring, and 4) human and community responses. This work included in-situ measurement of the environmental and social response to the pre-commercial Turbine Generator Unit (TGU®) developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) as well as considering the path forward for smaller community scale projects.

  6. Ocean Wave Energy Estimation Using Active Satellite Imagery as a Solution of Energy Scarce in Indonesia Case Study: Poteran Island's Water, Madura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadzir, Z. A.; Karondia, L. A.; Jaelani, L. M.; Sulaiman, A.; Pamungkas, A.; Koenhardono, E. S.; Sulisetyono, A.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean wave energy is one of the ORE (Ocean Renewable Energies) sources, which potential, in which this energy has several advantages over fossil energy and being one of the most researched energy in developed countries nowadays. One of the efforts for mapping ORE potential is by computing energy potential generated from ocean wave, symbolized by Watt per area unit using various methods of observation. SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) is one of the hyped and most developed Remote Sensing method used to monitor and map the ocean wave energy potential effectively and fast. SAR imagery processing can be accomplished not only in remote sensing data applications, but using Matrices processing application as well such as MATLAB that utilizing Fast Fourier Transform and Band-Pass Filtering methods undergoing Pre-Processing stage. In this research, the processing and energy estimation from ALOSPALSAR satellite imagery acquired on the 5/12/2009 was accomplished using 2 methods (i.e Magnitude and Wavelength). This resulted in 9 potential locations of ocean wave energy between 0-228 W/m2, and 7 potential locations with ranged value between 182-1317 W/m2. After getting through buffering process with value of 2 km (to facilitate the construction of power plant installation), 9 sites of location were estimated to be the most potential location of ocean wave energy generation in the ocean with average depth of 8.058 m and annual wind speed of 6.553 knot.

  7. 77 FR 15382 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Notice of Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Notice of Renewal AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (Committee). The Committee provides advice...

  8. Ocean nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    Nutrients provide the chemical life-support system for phytoplankton in the ocean. Together with the carbon fixed during photosynthesis, nutrients provide the other elements, such as N and P, needed to synthesize macromolecules to build cellular constituents such as ribosomes. The makeup of these various biochemicals, such as proteins, pigments, and nucleic acids, together determine the elemental stoichiometry of an individual phytoplankton cell. The stoichiometry of different phytoplankton species or groups will vary depending on the proportions of distinct cellular machinery, such as for growth or resource acquisition, they require for their life strategies. The uptake of nutrients by phytoplankton helps to set the primary productivity, and drives the biological pump, of the global ocean. In the case of nitrogen, the supply of nutrients is categorized as either new or regenerated. The supply of new nitrogen, such as nitrate upwelled from the ocean' interior or biological nitrogen fixation, is equal to the vertical export of particular organic matter from the upper ocean on a timescale of years. Nutrients such as silica can also play a structural role in some phytoplankton groups, such as diatoms, where they are used to synthesize a siliceous frustule that offers some mechanical protection from grazers. In this chapter, we also explore nutrient uptake kinetics, patterns in nutrient distributions in space and time, the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, the atmospheric supply of nutrients, departures from the Redfield ratio, and whether nutrient distributions and cycling will be altered in the future

  9. The Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broecker, Wallace S.

    1983-01-01

    The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

  10. Fukushima and the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesseler, Ken

    2013-04-01

    The triple disaster of the March 11, 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent radiation releases at Fukushima Dai-ichi were unprecedented events for the ocean and society. The earthquake was the fourth largest ever recorded; the tsunami resulted in over 20,000 dead or missing and destroyed entire towns; and the radiation releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants created the largest accidental release of man-made radionuclides to the oceans in history— a release that continues to this day. Compared to monitoring on land, studies of the ocean are far fewer, yet the area impacted and quantity delivered- 80% of all radioactivity released- is far greater. For oceanographers, this presents a challenge of unprecedented scope and complexity: to understand exactly how these events played out, how radiation continues to move through the marine system (including important seafood items), and, in turn, how best to communicate scientific findings that will inform public policy decisions far into the future. This presentation will provide an overview of the sources and fate of radionuclides released from Fukushima to the ocean. An emphasis will be given on the sources of cesium, its transport in waters, and fluxes associated with sinking particles and accumulation in sediments.

  11. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power estimates from the Stommel model and to help determine the size and capacity of arrays necessary to extract the maximum theoretical power, further estimates of the available power based on the distribution of the kinetic power density in the undisturbed flow was completed. This used estimates of the device spacing and scaling to sum up the total power that the devices would produce. The analysis has shown that considering extraction over a region comprised of the Florida Current portion of the Gulf Stream system, the average power dissipated ranges between 4-6 GW with a mean around 5.1 GW. This corresponds to an average of approximately 45 TWh/yr. However, if the extraction area comprises the entire portion of the Gulf Stream within 200 miles of the US coastline from Florida to North Carolina, the average power dissipated becomes 18.6 GW or 163 TWh/yr. A web based GIS interface, http://www.oceancurrentpower.gatech.edu/, was developed for dissemination of the data. The website includes GIS layers of monthly and yearly mean ocean current velocity and power density for ocean currents along the entire coastline of the United States, as well as joint and marginal probability histograms for current velocities at a horizontal resolution of 4-7 km with 10-25 bins over depth. Various tools are provided for viewing, identifying, filtering and downloading the data.

  12. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to show how cost-minimization at the more complex plant level may deviate from cost-minimization at the generating unit level.

  13. CLEAN POWER Thankstoadvanc-

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    for renewable energy are unprecedented, making this the ideal time to advance clean power for decades to come,windturbinesandbiofuelsarepoisedtobecomemajorenergysources. Newpoliciescoulddramaticallyacceleratethatevolution BY DANIEL M. KAMMEN Renewable Energy KENNBROWN #12;Noplantosubstantiallyreduce greenhouse gas warming, the U.S. and other countries must make a major commitment to de- veloping renewable energy

  14. Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States (Highlights); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This is a four-part Wind Vision project, consisting of Wind Vision Highlights, Executive Summary, a Full Report, and Appendix. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program, in close cooperation with the wind industry, led a comprehensive analysis to evaluate future pathways for the wind industry. The Wind Vision report updates and expands upon the DOE's 2008 report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, and defines the societal, environmental, and economic benefits of wind power in a scenario with wind energy supplying 10% of national end-use electricity demand by 2020, 20% by 2030, and 35% by 2050.

  15. 76 FR 58311 - Draft License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-05; Ongoing Review of Operating Experience

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Renewal Applications for Nuclear Power Plants'' (SRP-LR...be used to ensure the effectiveness of the license renewal...management programs used at nuclear power plants to meet the...

  16. 76 FR 72725 - Draft License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-05: Ongoing Review of Operating Experience

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Renewal Applications for Nuclear Power Plants'' (SRP-LR...be used to ensure the effectiveness of the license renewal...management programs used at nuclear power plants to meet the...

  17. 77 FR 31895 - Energy Northwest, Columbia Generating Station; Record of Decision and Issuance of Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ...and NGCC; (5) coal-fired power; (6) energy conservation and energy efficiency; (7) purchased power; (8...hydroelectric power; (12) ocean wave and current energy; (13) geothermal power; (14) municipal solid waste;...

  18. Nigeria`s rich resources for renewable energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ayankoya, J.O.

    1997-12-31

    It has been observed in Nigeria, that there is a correlation between the standard of living as measured by per capita GNP, and per capita energy consumption. As energy use per capita is tied to the importance of population increase it tends to drop during economic slow down. The per capita energy usage is put at 0.2 kw compared to 10 kw for USA and 4 kw for Europe respectively. Furthermore, analysis shows with the increase in population per year and a 2--5% growth in per capita GNP, require an increase of 5--8% in energy supply per year. The Country derives almost all its energy need from fossil fuels (petroleum, gas and coal), hydropower (the only renewable energy used for generating electricity at present) Wood, Animal, Human power and Wind. With the introduction of solar energy, wind energy, micro hydro power, ocean energy, geothermal energy, biomass conversion, and municipal waste energy, the generating of electricity is bound to take a new turn.

  19. Oceanic Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L. (editor)

    1981-01-01

    Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

  20. Renewable resources in the US electricity supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and waste) currently provide nearly 12 percent of the Nation's electricity supply. Almost 10 of this 12 percent is provided by hydroelectric resources alone. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) together contribute more than 1 percent. All other renewable resources, including geothermal, wind, and solar, together provide less than 1 percent of the total. Many renewable resources are relative newcomers to the electric power market. In particular, electricity generation using geothermal, wind, solar, and MSW resources have had their greatest expansion in the 1980's. This was a result of significant technological improvements, the implementation of favorable Federal and State policies, and the reaction to the increasing costs of using fossil and nuclear fuels. The use of renewable resources for electricity generation has also been encouraged as less environmentally damaging than fossil fuels. Because renewable energy is available domestically, renewable resources are viewed as more secure than imported fossil fuels. Descriptions of the history, current use, and forecasted future applications of renewable resources for electricity generation and of the factors that influence those applications are presented.

  1. Ocean thermal energy conversion: Perspective and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Anthony; Hillis, David L.

    The use of the thermal gradient between the warm surface waters and the deep cold waters of tropical oceans was first proposed by J. A. d'Arsonval in 1881 and tried unsuccessfully by George Claude in 1930. Interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and other renewable energy sources revived in the 1970s as a result of oil embargoes. At that time, the emphasis was on large floating plants miles from shore producing 250 to 400 MW for maintained grids. When the problems of such plants became better understood and the price of oil reversed its upward trend, the emphasis shifted to smaller (10 MW) shore based plants on tropical islands. Such plants would be especially attractive if they produce fresh water as a by-product. During the past 15 years, major progress has been made in converting OTEC unknowns into knowns. Mini-OTEC proved the closed cycle concept. Cost effective heat exchanger concepts were identified. An effective biofouling control technique was discovered. Aluminum was determined to be promising for OTEC heat exchangers. Heat transfer augmentation techniques were identified, which promised a reduction on heat exchanger size and cost. Fresh water was produced by an OTEC open cycle flash evaporator, using the heat energy in the seawater itself. The current R and D emphasis is on the design and construction of a test facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the open cycle process. The 10 MW shore-based, closed cycle plant can be built with today's technology; with the incorporation of a flash evaporator, it will produce fresh water as well as electrical power; both valuable commodities on many tropical islands. The open cycle process has unknowns that require solution before the technical feasibility can be demonstrated. The economic viability of either cycle depends on reducing the capital costs of OTEC plants and on future trends in the costs of conventional energy sources.

  2. Ocean thermal energy conversion: Perspective and status

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, A.; Hillis, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of the thermal gradient between the warm surface waters and the deep cold waters of tropical oceans was first proposed by J. A. d'Arsonval in 1881 and tried unsuccessfully be George Claude in 1930. Interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and other renewable energy sources revived in the 1970s as a result of oil embargoes. At that time, the emphasis was on large floating plants miles from shore producing 250--400 MW for maintained grids. When the problems of such plants became better understood and the price of oil reversed its upward trend, the emphasis shifted to smaller (10 MW) shore-based plants on tropical islands. Such plants would be especially attractive if they produce fresh water as a by-product. During the past 15 years, major progress has been made in converting OTEC unknowns into knowns. Mini-OTEC proved the closed-cycle concept. Cost-effective heat-exchanger concepts were identified. An effective biofouling control technique was discovered. Aluminum was determined to be promising for OTEC heat exchangers. Heat-transfer augmentation techniques were identified, which promised a reduction on heat-exchanger size and cost. Fresh water was produced by an OTEC open-cycle flash evaporator, using the heat energy in the seawater itself. The current R D emphasis is on the design and construction of a test facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the open-cycle process. The 10 MW shore-based, closed-cycle plant can be built with today's technology; with the incorporation of a flash evaporator, it will produce fresh water as well as electrical power -- both valuable commodities on many tropical islands. The open-cycle process has unknowns that require solution before the technical feasibility can be demonstrated. The economic viability of either cycle depends on reducing the capital costs of OTEC plants and on future trends in the costs of conventional energy sources. 7 refs.

  3. 50 CFR 216.219 - Renewal and modifications of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Gulf of Mexico § 216.219 Renewal and modifications of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal and modifications of Letters of... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  4. 50 CFR 216.219 - Renewal and modifications of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Gulf of Mexico § 216.219 Renewal and modifications of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal and modifications of Letters of... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  5. 50 CFR 216.219 - Renewal and modifications of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Gulf of Mexico § 216.219 Renewal and modifications of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal and modifications of Letters of... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  6. 50 CFR 218.37 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex § 218.37 Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS...

  7. 50 CFR 218.37 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex § 218.37 Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS...

  8. 76 FR 4244 - Regulation and Enforcement; Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management 30 CFR Part 285 RIN 1010-AD71 Regulation and Enforcement; Renewable... renewable energy regulatory provisions that pertain to noncompetitive acquisition of leases, published on November 26, 2010 (75 FR 72679), under Docket ID: BOEM-2010-0045. In the direct final rule, BOEMRE...

  9. 1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 677, Marine Renewable Energy

    E-print Network

    energy conversion (OTEC) systems: applicability, thermodynamics, design challenges; wave energy. Renewable Energy from the Ocean ­ a Guide to OTEC, W.H. Avery and C. Wu, Oxford University Press, 1994. 2. An understanding of the principles and applicability of OTEC systems. 2. An understanding of the design principles

  10. 50 CFR 216.128 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.128 Section 216.128 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of...

  11. 50 CFR 216.158 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216.158 Section 216.158 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of...

  12. Toward a Regional Geography of Renewable Electrical Energy Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    It is postulated that many types of renewable energy resources, like fossil fuels, are amenable to regional availability analysis. Among these are hydropower, geothermal, ocean temperature gradient, wind, and direct solar energy. A review of the spatial attributes of each of these types reveals areas of the United States that contain comparative…

  13. Wave Energy Conversion Overview and it's Renewable Energy Potential for the Oil and Gas Industry 

    E-print Network

    Pastor, J.; Liu, Y.; Dou, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean energy conversion has been of interest for many years. Recent developments such as concern over global warming have renewed interest in the topic. Part II provides an overview of the energy density found in ocean waves and how it is calculated...

  14. Wavelet Spectrum Analysis and Ocean Wind Waves

    E-print Network

    Wavelet Spectrum Analysis and Ocean Wind Waves Paul C. Liu Abstract. Wavelet spectrum analysis] adopted the works of John W. Tukey [22] and introduced the power spectrum analysis to ocean wave studies, Fourier spectrum analysis has been successfully and persistently used in data analysis of wind

  15. 10 CFR 54.35 - Requirements during term of renewed license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...renewed license. 54.35 Section 54.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF OPERATING LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 54.35 Requirements...

  16. Renewable Energy Economic Development

    E-print Network

    Renewable Energy Economic Development Dick Sheehy & Nate Monosoff, CH2M HILL March, 2010 #12 Thin Film Heads high volume, intense cost focus · High-Density Data Centers advanced modeling, energy;Contents 1. Who is CH2M HILL? 2. Why Do We Need Renewables? 3. Where Is The Wind Blowing? 4. Where

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  19. Renewing Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, John

    This paper describes an approach to urban renewal, called the Multi-Function Polis (MFP), which emphasizes education as a key factor in a renewal process that includes development of 21st century industries such as information technology, telecommunications, and environmental management. Focusing on Adelaide, Australia, as an example, the paper…

  20. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  2. Renewing the Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2007-01-01

    The core curriculum accompanied the development of the academic discipline with multiple names such as Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Science, and Health and Human Performance. It provides commonalties for undergraduate majors. It is timely to renew this curriculum. Renewal involves strategic reappraisals. It may stimulate change or reaffirm the…

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  4. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the TechCity East Campus Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Site in Kingston, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J. W.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the TechCity East Campus site in Kingston, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Ft. Hood Military Base Outside Killeen, Texas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative through the Region 6 contract, selected Ft. Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for possible photovoltaic (PV) system installations and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Chino Mine in Silver City, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Chino Mine site in Silver City, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Fort Ord Army Base Site in Marina, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Fort Ord Army Base (FOAB) site in Marina, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tronox Facility in Savannah, Georgia. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tronox Facility site in Savannah, Georgia, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the VAG Mine Site in Eden and Lowell, Vermont. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG) Mine site in Eden, Vermont, and Lowell, Vermont, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant Brownfield Site in Lackawanna, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant site in Lackawanna, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kerr McGee Site in Columbus, Mississippi. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kerr McGee site in Columbus, Mississippi, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Rail Yard Company Site in Perry, Iowa. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail Yard Company site in Perry, Iowa, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  19. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  1. DE-EE0000319 Final Technical Report [National Open-ocean Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Skemp, Susan

    2013-12-29

    Under the authorization provided by Section 634 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140), in 2009 FAU was awarded U.S. Congressionally Directed Program (CDP) funding through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate and develop technologies to harness the energy of the Florida Current as a source of clean, renewable, base-load power for Florida and the U.S. A second CDP award in 2010 provided additional funding in order to enhance and extend FAU’s activities. These two CDPs in 2009 and 2010 were combined into a single DOE grant, DE-EE0000319, and are the subject of this report. Subsequently, in July 2010 funding was made available under a separate contract, DE-EE0004200. Under that funding, DOE’s Wind and Water Power Program designated FAU’s state of Florida marine renewable energy (MRE) center as the Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (SNMREC). This report discusses SNMREC activities funded by the DE-EE0000319 grant, but will make reference, as appropriate, to activities that require further investigation under the follow-on grant. The concept of extracting energy from the motions of the oceans has a long history. However, implementation on large scales of the technologies to effect renewable energy recovery from waves, tides, and open-ocean currents is relatively recent. DOE’s establishment of SNMREC recognizes a significant potential for ocean current energy recovery associated with the (relatively) high-speed Florida Current, the reach of the Gulf Stream System flowing through the Straits of Florida, between the Florida Peninsula and the Bahamas Archipelago. The proximity of the very large electrical load center of southeast Florida’s metropolitan area to the resource itself makes this potential all the more attractive. As attractive as this potential energy source is, it is not without its challenges. Although the technology is conceptually simple, its design and implementation in a commercially-viable fashion presents a variety of challenges. Beyond the technology itself (and, especially, the effects on the technology of the harsh oceanic environment), it is important to consider the possible environmental impacts of commercial-scale implementation of oceanic energy extraction. Further, because such implementation represents a completely new undertaking, the human resources required do not exist, so education and training programs are critical to eventual success. This project, establishing a national open-ocean energy laboratory, was designed to address each of these three challenges in a flexible framework allowing for adaptive management as the project proceeded. In particular: ? the technology challenge, including resource assessment, evolved during the project to recognize and address the need for a national testing facility in the ocean for small-scale prototype MRE systems developed by industry; ? the environmental challenge became formalized and expanded during the permitting process for such a testing facility; and ? the human resources/societal challenges, both in terms of the need for education and training and in terms of public acceptance of MRE, stimulated a robust outreach program far beyond that originally envisioned at SNMREC. While all of these activities at SNMREC are ongoing, a number of significant milestones (in addition to the contributions listed in the appendices) were achieved under the auspices of this award. These include: ? Planning and site selection for the first-phase test facility, offshore of Dania Beach, FL, including some equipment for the facility, submission of an Interim Policy Lease Application to the U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and completion of an Environmental Assessment by BOEM and a positive Consistency Determination by the State of Florida; ? Measurements using acoustic profilers of the current structure and variability in the vicinity of the site under a variety of weather conditions, seasons and time durations; ? Design and implementation of instrument

  2. Ocean energy resources: the impact of OTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmars, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The status of OTEC technological development is summarized with emphasis on the potential impacts of OTEC power production on the ocean environment, including implications for impacts to climate. (MHR)

  3. Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program's water power research activities. Water power is the nation's largest source of clean, domestic, renewable energy. Harnessing energy from rivers, manmade waterways, and oceans to generate electricity for the nation's homes and businesses can help secure America's energy future. Water power technologies fall into two broad categories: conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Conventional hydropower facilities include run-of-the-river, storage, and pumped storage. Most conventional hydropower plants use a diversion structure, such as a dam, to capture water's potential energy via a turbine for electricity generation. Marine and hydrokinetic technologies obtain energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, free-flowing rivers, streams and ocean thermal gradients to generate electricity. The United States has abundant water power resources, enough to meet a large portion of the nation's electricity demand. Conventional hydropower generated 257 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity in 2010 and provides 6-7% of all electricity in the United States. According to preliminary estimates from the Electric Power Resource Institute (EPRI), the United States has additional water power resource potential of more than 85,000 megawatts (MW). This resource potential includes making efficiency upgrades to existing hydroelectric facilities, developing new low-impact facilities, and using abundant marine and hydrokinetic energy resources. EPRI research suggests that ocean wave and in-stream tidal energy production potential is equal to about 10% of present U.S. electricity consumption (about 400 terrawatt-hours per year). The greatest of these resources is wave energy, with the most potential in Hawaii, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwest. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Water Power Program works with industry, universities, other federal agencies, and DOE's national laboratories to promote the development and deployment of technologies capable of generating environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity from the nation's water resources.

  4. Federal Ocean Energy Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-10-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is looking for cost-effective ways to harness ocean energy to help power tomorrow's world. Federally sponsored researchers are studying methods to transform the solar heat stored in the ocean's surface waters into electricity as well as new ways to convert wave energy into mechanical energy or electricity. This report provides a summary of research completed during FY86. Four major research areas are addressed in the work covered by this report: Thermodynamic Research and Analysis addresses the process and system analyses which provide the underlying understanding of physical effects which constitute the energy conversion processes, Experimental Verification and Testing provides confirmation of the analytical projections and empirical relationships, Materials and Structural Research addresses special materials compatibility issues related to operation in the sea. Much of its focus is on concepts for the system CWP which is a major technology cost driver, and Oceanographic, Environmental, and Geotechnical Research addresss those unique design requirements imposed by construction in steep slope coastal areas.

  5. Ocean and Plume Science and Management Forum October 9, 2015

    E-print Network

    Ocean and Plume Science and Management Forum October 9, 2015 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Draft Ocean Forum meeting notes Attendees: Chair Phil Rockefeller, Patty O'Toole, Jim Ruff, Erick on developing management questions in the state of the ocean science report. Patty also discussed the relation

  6. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.

  7. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis also recommend them for ethanol fuel cells, as demonstrated in the decoration of SnO2-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes with platinum catalysts by researchers in Canada [5] Interest in solar power received an enormous boost in the early 1990s when Brian O'Regan and Michael Grätzel published work on a new way to maximise the amount of energy harvested by colloidal TiO2 films with the use of a charge-transfer dye [6]. This approach captured attention across the community due to the large current densities, exceptional stability and low cost of the devices. This design has been modified since, using arrays of nanowires, where each nanowire provides a direct pathway to the collection electrode. In [7], researchers in the US investigate how arrays of vertical nanowires with controlled aspect ratios grow in solution, and how the nanowire aspect ratio affects the performance of nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells. A collaboration of researchers in China and Australia has considered how the cell performance could be improved by maximising the interface area between the indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-glass electrode and the oxide semiconductor. To this end, they synthesized arrays of ITO nanowires and ITO/TiO2 core-shell nanowires creating a three-dimensional electrode [8]. Quantum dots have also been incorporated into solar cell devices as they have higher extinction coefficients than metal-organic dyes and their size-dependent spectral responses allow them to be tuned to optimize their performance. Until recently, molecular linkers have been required to attach the quantum dots to the electrode, creating a gap between quantum dot and electrode that is thought to diminish cell performance. Researchers in Spain and Japan have applied a new technique that allows the quantum dots to be adsorbed directly onto the electrode, yielding significant improvements to cell efficiency [9]. Organic photovoltaic devices have also attracted considerable interest as a result of their flexibility and the ability to produce them at a low cost in large scales. While maximising cell effici

  8. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.C.; Chyba, C.F.; Abshire, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  9. 10 CFR 52.177 - Application for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application for renewal. 52.177 Section 52.177 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.177 Application for renewal. (a) Not less than 12 months, nor more than 5 years before the expiration of...

  10. 10 CFR 52.177 - Application for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS...) The filing of an application for a renewed license must be in accordance with subpart A of 10 CFR part 2 and 10 CFR 52.3 and 50.30. (c) A manufacturing license, either original or renewed, for which...

  11. 10 CFR 52.177 - Application for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for renewal. 52.177 Section 52.177 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.177 Application for renewal. (a) Not less than 12 months, nor more than 5 years before the expiration of...

  12. 10 CFR 52.177 - Application for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS...) The filing of an application for a renewed license must be in accordance with subpart A of 10 CFR part 2 and 10 CFR 52.3 and 50.30. (c) A manufacturing license, either original or renewed, for which...

  13. 10 CFR 52.177 - Application for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS...) The filing of an application for a renewed license must be in accordance with subpart A of 10 CFR part 2 and 10 CFR 52.3 and 50.30. (c) A manufacturing license, either original or renewed, for which...

  14. 77 FR 50489 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY:...

  15. Towards a Policy of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources

    E-print Network

    Desbrun, Mathieu

    Grid 2020 Towards a Policy of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources September 2012 Resnick of energy. + Institute Leadership Harry Atwater, Director, Howard Hughes Professor of Applied Physics in the Resnick Insti- tute's Managing Uncertainty: Incorporating Intermittent Renewable Energy Into the Power

  16. 10 CFR 52.29 - Application for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for renewal. 52.29 Section 52.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.29 Application for renewal. (a) Not less than 12, nor more than 36 months before the expiration date stated in the early...

  17. 10 CFR 52.57 - Application for renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for renewal. 52.57 Section 52.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.57 Application for renewal. (a) Not less than 12 nor more than 36 months before the expiration of the initial...

  18. Renewable energy: economically sound, politically difficult

    SciTech Connect

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2008-06-15

    If the national electricity market were to function properly by aligning electricity costs with prices, renewable energy technologies would offer the cheapest forms of power generation. The fundamental question is whether we want an electricity market that manipulates the presence of externalities to its advantage, or one that attempts to fully internalize them. (author)

  19. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the environment with the current technology and it is preferred to go for recycling. Limited hydropower plants are already installed and there are plans for new projects. Small wind turbines found their way in the market for individuals living in the rural areas that suffer from blackouts the most to replace the fuel stand alone generators. Solar PV is still immature however projects like street lighting in the south were successfully achieved. Solar thermal power is the most suitable for water heating in and outside the residential areas. Projects to increase the efficiency like replacing lights with power saving lights and thermal insulation of buildings are funded by several organizations.

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).