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1

Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.  

PubMed

The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population. PMID:21875447

Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

2012-09-01

2

Genetic identification of horse mackerel and related species in seafood products by means of forensically informative nucleotide sequencing methodology.  

PubMed

In the present study, a methodology based on the amplification of a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b and subsequent phylogenetic analysis (FINS: forensically informative nucleotide sequencing) to genetically identify horse mackerels have been developed. This methodology makes possible the identification of more than 20 species belonging to the families Carangidae, Mullidae, and Scombridae. The main novelty of this work lies in the longest number of different horse mackerel species included and in the applicability of the developed methods to all kinds of processed products that can be found by consumers in markets around the world, including those that have undergone intensive processes of transformation, as for instance canned foods. Finally, the methods were applied to 15 commercial samples, all of them canned products. Therefore, these methods are useful for checking the fulfillment of labeling regulations for horse mackerels and horse mackerel products, verifying the correct traceability in commercial trade, and fisheries control. PMID:21332203

Lago, Fátima C; Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

2011-03-23

3

Effect of Storage Temperature on Quality of Frozen Horse-mackerel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality change of frozen horse-mackerel were studied under storage temperature at -18, -23, -30 and -40°C for 12 months. Quality were measured with K value (Freshness index of muscle, degradation ratio of ATP), amount of drip (free and expressible drip), water-holdiog capacity, weight ratio of cooking loss, organoleptic test, and histological feature of muscle. K value, a mount of free drip, w eight ratio of cooking loss, histological feature of muscle, and organoleptic test in color, form and flavor were not detected any changes during frozen storage for 12 months at various temperature. However expressible drip, water-holding capacity and score of taste in organoleptic test showed some changes after 8 or 12 months at -18 and/or -23°C, it was not serious change to-loss quality as food. Frozen horse-mackerel can store under below ~ 18°C for 12 months.

Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohtaka, Tateo

4

Larval anisakids (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) in horse mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus ) from the fish market in Granada (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) from the fish market in Granada, South Spain, were surveyed for anisakid nematodes. The fish came from fishing ports all\\u000a over the country. Larval anisakids were found in 39.4% of the fish examined. In all, 26.1% were infected with third-stage\\u000a larvae (L3s) of Anisakis simplex; 0.3%, with A. physeteris L3s; 31.1%, with Hysterothylacium aduncum L3s; and

F. J. Adroher; A. Valero; J. Ruiz-Valero; L. Iglesias

1996-01-01

5

Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

6

Headspace volatiles along with other instrumental and sensory analyses as indices of maturation of horse mackerel miso.  

PubMed

Development of aroma-active compounds during fermentation in the preparation of fermented fish-meat paste product (fish miso) from horse mackerel meat was quantitatively determined and characterized by olfactometric and organoleptic assessments. The critical ripening time was estimated by quantitative and/or qualitative analyses of volatile compounds, peptides, amino acids, product color, and total phenolics of the fish miso matrix throughout fermentation. The results confirmed that the application of koji for the fermentation of horse mackerel meat to produce fish miso significantly reduced the fishy off odor and promoted the development of highly acceptable fish miso with a nutty, cheesy, and fruity aroma. Ethyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl decanoate, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione, dimethyl trisulfide, and 3-(methylthio) propanal were identified as key odor-active compounds in fish miso prepared from horse mackerel meat. Among the volatiles, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2,3-butanedione were identified to serve as potential indicators of the maturation of fish miso. Amino acid content could also be a potential indicator of maturation of protein-rich, fermented products such as fish miso. In addition, surface color analysis of fish miso revealed a high correlation between sensory attributes and color components. Specifically, r and b values were considered potential indicators of maturation. Practical Application: Variability is a major drawback in fermented products such as fish miso and it requires establishing the optimum ripening time, defined as that providing the aroma attributes qualitatively and quantitatively mostly appreciated by consumers. We have carried out this work for comprehensive determination of the critical ripening time by applying several instrumental and sensory tools including quantitative and/or qualitative analysis of volatile compounds, peptides, amino acids, product color, and total phenolics of the fish miso matrix throughout the fermentation period. The outcome of the present study can be efficiently applied for detection of maturation in similar types of fermented product for large-scale production. PMID:21535514

Giri, Anupam; Okamoto, Akira; Okazaki, Emiko; Ohshima, Toshiaki

2010-10-01

7

Evolution of the indigenous microbiota in modified atmosphere packaged Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) identified by conventional and molecular methods.  

PubMed

A combination of conventional methods and genetic identification (PCR sequencing) was used to study the dynamics of the bacterial population during the spoilage of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) fillets. The cultivable microflora in Atlantic horse mackerel samples packaged in a modified atmosphere (48% CO2, 50% N2 and 2% O2) at refrigeration temperature (6 °C) was measured on days 1, 5 and 7 using non-selective (Long and Hammer agar) and selective media (Kligler's iron agar, STAA and MRS). The microflora was genetically characterised using partial amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 309 bacterial isolates obtained from Long and Hammer agar. At the end of the shelf life (5 days), the total viable counts (TVC) on Long and Hammer agar were not significantly different to the LAB counts on MRS agar (p>0.05). The molecular approach showed that Photobacterium, Arthrobacter, Chryseobacterium and Pseudoclavibacter (44.5% of total) dominated the microbial composition of the fish at the beginning of storage. However, Serratia, Shewanella and Yersinia dominated at the late spoilage stages (over 57.2% of the total). Carnobacterium was the most important species of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and was identified at the beginning and end of the storage period. Vibrio spp. was only found at the end of the shelf life. This research demonstrates that the microbial biodiversity in MAP Atlantic horse mackerel is enormous and the dominant species change over the storage time. The results presented here on the dominant communities in fish products will make it possible to accurately select the best preservation practices. PMID:24135667

Alfaro, Begoña; Hernandez, Igor

2013-10-15

8

Improvement of Frozen Storage Tolerance by the Addition of Sugar in Dusky Spinefoot, Lizard fish and Horse mackerel Surimi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of three different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, at 5%) were analyzed and compared against a control for frozen surimi (-25 °C) made from dusky spinefoot, lizard fish and horse mackerel, for a total storage period of 180 days. Kamaboko was prepared at defined time intervals, and its jelly strength (J.S.), water holding capacity (W.H.C.), and whiteness, and the total Ca-ATPase activity of surimi were analyzed. Present results showed that all parameters of sugar free control samples decreased faster than those of sugar added samples during frozen storage.Sugar resulted a good additive for long time surimi conservation for all the species analyzed.

Kawashima, Akane; Hamada, Yuki; Kusano, Sawa; Osako, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Nozaki, Yukinori

9

Effect of low-dose irradiation and refrigeration on the microflora, sensory characteristics and biogenic amines of Atlantic horse mackerel ( trachurus trachurus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) were gamma irradiated at 1 and 3 kGy, and stored in ice for 23 days. Quality changes during ice storage at 0±1 °C were followed by sensory analysis and the determination of total viable count, histamine, cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, agmatine, spermidine, trimethylamine and volatile basic nitrogen contents. The control lot had a sensory shelf life of

Rogério Mendes; Helena Alves Silva; Maria Leonor Nunes; José Manuel Abecassis Empis

2005-01-01

10

Physicochemical properties of natural phenolics from grapes and olive oil byproducts and their antioxidant activity in frozen horse mackerel fillets.  

PubMed

The reducing and chelating capacities and the affinity for the incorporation into the fish muscle of grape procyanidins, hydroxytyrosol, and propyl gallate were studied together with their antioxidant activity in frozen horse mackerel (Trauchurus trauchurus) fillets. Fillets were supplemented with phenolic antioxidants by (a) spraying an aqueous phenolic solution, (b) glazing with an aqueous phenolic solution, and (c) a previous washing of fillets with water plus spraying an aqueous phenolic solution. The effect of washing on the endogenous pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance of the fillets was also determined. All phenolic compounds were effective delaying lipid oxidation in the fish fillets. The order of antioxidant efficiency in spraying and glazing was propyl gallate > hydroxytyrosol > procyanidins, which was similar to the reducing power of these phenolics, but did not show any correlation with their chelating capacity and their affinity to the fish muscle. Washing the fillets with water prior to spraying phenols increased synergistically the antioxidant activity of grape procyanidins and changed the relative antioxidant efficiency to propyl gallate approximately procyanidins > hydroxytyrosol. This synergism may be a result of a better distribution of the procyanidins onto the fillet surface because of the residual water that remained on the fillets surface after washing. PMID:16417292

Pazos, Manuel; Alonso, Ana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Torres, Josep L; Medina, Isabel

2006-01-25

11

Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain)  

PubMed Central

A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 89% (95% CI 86, 92) and 1% cestoda (0, 2). The percentage of horses with strongyloid parasites was 89% (86, 92), 11% (8, 14) for Parascaris, and 3% (1, 5) for Oxyuris. The highest prevalence for ascariosis was observed in the youngest horses (<3 years), for oxyurosis in the >10 years animals, and for strongylosis in the 3–10 years ones. Females were significantly more parasitized than males. A negative correlation between the age and the egg-excretion of ascarids and strongyles was recorded. The autochthonous and the English Pure Blood horses were the most parasitized. We concluded that the infections by helminths, especially the strongyloids, are significantly common in the region, so that greater importance should be given to this situation. PMID:20721327

Francisco, I.; Arias, M.; Cortiñas, F. J.; Francisco, R.; Mochales, E.; Dacal, V.; Suárez, J. L.; Uriarte, J.; Morrondo, P.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; Díez-Baños, P.; Paz-Silva, A.

2009-01-01

12

Population Structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)  

PubMed Central

Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults (“twinning”). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management. PMID:23741381

Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

2013-01-01

13

50 CFR 648.25 - Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to...

2012-10-01

14

75 FR 37739 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Adjustment to the Loligo...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries Management Plan, which modified...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries in the Federal Register...

2010-06-30

15

75 FR 11129 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Atlantic Mackerel, Butterfish, Atlantic Bluefish, Spiny...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Council; Atlantic Mackerel, Butterfish, Atlantic Bluefish, Spiny Dogfish...plans (FMPs) for Atlantic mackerel, butterfish, Atlantic bluefish, spiny dogfish...to the FMPs for Atlantic mackerel, butterfish, Atlantic bluefish, spiny...

2010-03-10

16

50 CFR 648.22 - Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications. 648.22 Section...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.22 Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications. (a) Initial...

2012-10-01

17

77 FR 58507 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 5 AGENCY...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (MSB FMP...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish FMP, other provision of the...

2012-09-21

18

77 FR 51853 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 6 and...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 6 AGENCY...species, including Atlantic mackerel, butterfish, Atlantic bluefish, spiny...

2012-08-27

19

50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions. 648.26...for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions. (a)...

2013-10-01

20

50 CFR 648.25 - Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to...

2013-10-01

21

77 FR 7544 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment 11; Correction...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan. DATES: Effective...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery Management Plan...

2012-02-13

22

50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions. 648.26...for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions. (a)...

2012-10-01

23

Paradata for 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This record contains paradata for the resource 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'

24

Genetic structure of Indian scad mackerel Decapterus russelli: Pleistocene vicariance and secondary contact in the Central Indo-West Pacific Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major genetic breaks between the Indian and Pacific oceans have been reported for marine fishes and invertebrates. The genetic structure and history of the Indian scad mackerel, Decapterus russelli, in the Indo-Malay archipelago were investigated using the cytochrome b gene sequence as mitochondrial marker and two length-polymorphic introns as nuclear markers. The existence of two major mitochondrial lineages separated by

A Rohfritsch; P Borsa

2005-01-01

25

Acoustic backscatter by schools of adult Atlantic mackerel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of acoustic backscatter by schools of adult Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is investigated to improve biomass estimates. Previous studies involving modelled scattering from individual mackerel showed that backscattering at high frequencies is dominated by the contribution from the backbone. Accurate predictions of the scattering spectra require consideration of back- scattering from the entire skeleton, including details of the

Natalia Gorska; Rolf J. Korneliussen; Egil On

26

DESCRIPTION OF EGGS AND LARVAE OF JACK MACKEREL (Trachurus symmetricus)  

E-print Network

DESCRIPTION OF EGGS AND LARVAE OF JACK MACKEREL (Trachurus symmetricus) AND DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF LARVAE IN 1950 AND 1951 BY ELBERT H. AHLSTROM AND ORVILLE P. BALL FISHERY BULLETIN 97 UNITED in the identification of jack-mackerel eggs. The larva, on hatching, is about 2 mm. in length. The oil globnle occupies

27

75 FR 70187 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and Management...for Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish (MSB). This action proposes to modify...with no TALFF specified for squid. For butterfish, the regulations specify that a...

2010-11-17

28

76 FR 74724 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment 11 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...implementing Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This final...

2011-12-01

29

78 FR 14230 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 7 AGENCY...SUMMARY: NMFS is changing the butterfish mortality cap on the longfin squid fishery...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan. This...

2013-03-05

30

75 FR 1024 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Control Date for Loligo and Illex Squid AGENCY...proposed rulemaking for the Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish (MSB) fisheries. This rulemaking could institute...

2010-01-08

31

77 FR 40527 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2012 Trimester 2 Directed Longfin...species managed under the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The procedures for...

2012-07-10

32

76 FR 51272 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2011 Trimester 2 Directed Loligo...species managed under the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The procedures for...

2011-08-18

33

75 FR 32745 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Scoping Process AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...Management Plan (FMP) for Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) and to prepare an EIS to analyze the impacts of...

2010-06-09

34

78 FR 3346 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and Management...mackerel, and 2013 specifications for butterfish. Specifications for longfin squid and...changes to the longfin squid fishery, the butterfish mortality cap to avoid 1-2 week...

2013-01-16

35

76 FR 68642 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment 11 AGENCY: National...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan, developed...longfin squid, Illex squid, and butterfish; and the establishment of a...

2011-11-07

36

77 FR 67305 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and...revised 2012 specifications for the butterfish fishery, which is managed as...Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan....

2012-11-09

37

77 FR 23635 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and Management...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish fisheries. DATES: Effective April...interim final rule to implement 2012 butterfish fishery specifications was...

2012-04-20

38

77 FR 74159 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 7 AGENCY...SUMMARY: NMFS proposes changing the butterfish mortality cap on the longfin squid fishery...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan,. This...

2012-12-13

39

76 FR 8306 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and Management...the Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish (MSB) fisheries. Specifically, this...with no TALFF specified for squid. For butterfish, the regulations specify that a...

2011-02-14

40

77 FR 38566 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 6 AGENCY...policy for the 2012 fishing year (2012 butterfish specifications; 77 FR 16472; March...species, including Atlantic mackerel, butterfish, Atlantic bluefish, spiny...

2012-06-28

41

77 FR 69426 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and Management...mackerel, and 2013 specifications for butterfish. Specifications for longfin squid and...longfin squid fishery, as well as the butterfish mortality cap to avoid 1-2 week...

2012-11-19

42

Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridge: Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center. Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center, is a growing collection of on-line marine education resources. It provides educators with ...

43

Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus  

SciTech Connect

This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

1986-06-01

44

Composting Horse Manure  

E-print Network

Uncontrolled stockpiles of horse manure can be an unsightly, smelly and fly-infested mess. However, composting manure can eliminate the messy problems and provide a modest additional income for horse enthusiasts, operators of equine facilities...

Auvermann, Brent W.; McDonald, Lanny; Devin, Robert; Sweeten, John M.

1999-07-02

45

Jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles use jellyfish for predator avoidance and as a prey collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juveniles of carangid fishes including jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus are known to associate with jellyfishes. The function of this association behavior was studied through rearing experiments\\u000a and underwater visual observations. Association behavior of jack mackerel with moon jellyfish in experimental tanks was more\\u000a frequent in the presence compared to the absence of predators (chub mackerel Scomber japonicus). In the experimental

Reiji Masuda; Yoh Yamashita; Michiya Matsuyama

2008-01-01

46

Observations on the food and feeding of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger canagurta (Cuvier)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The study of the food and feeding of the mackerel,Rastrelliger canagurta was based on the periodical examination of stomach contents of the mackerel and the plankton of the coastal waters near Calicut\\u000a during the years 1949 and 1950. The relative importance of various food elements have been determined by thenumber and thepoints methods.\\u000a \\u000a The mackerel has been observed to feed

B. S. Bhimachar; P. C. George

1952-01-01

47

Migration and Fisheries of North East Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in Autumn and Winter  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that observed spatial variation in mackerel fisheries, extending over several hundreds of kilometers, is reflective of climate-driven changes in mackerel migration patterns. Previous studies have been unable to clearly demonstrate this link. In this paper we demonstrate correlation between temperature and mackerel migration/distribution as proxied by mackerel catch data from both scientific bottom trawl surveys and commercial fisheries. We show that mackerel aggregate and migrate distances of up to 500 km along the continental shelf edge from mid-November to early March. The path of this migration coincides with the location of the relatively warm shelf edge current and, as a consequence of this affinity, mackerel are guided towards the main spawning area in the south. Using a simulated time series of temperature of the shelf edge current we show that variations in the timing of the migration are significantly correlated to temperature fluctuations within the current. The proposed proxies for mackerel distribution were found to be significantly correlated. However, the correlations were weak and only significant during periods without substantial legislative or technical developments. Substantial caution should therefore be exercised when using such data as proxies for mackerel distribution. Our results include a new temperature record for the shelf edge current obtained by embedding the available hydrographic observations within a statistical model needed to understand the migration through large parts of the life of adult mackerel and for the management of this major international fishery. PMID:23251570

Jansen, Teunis; Campbell, Andrew; Kelly, Ciarán; Hátún, Hjálmar; Payne, Mark R.

2012-01-01

48

76 FR 13887 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery; Revision of 2011 Butterfish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine...This emergency action increases the butterfish allowable biological catch (ABC)...

2011-03-15

49

An ensemble of dissimilarity based classifiers for Mackerel gender determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mackerel is an infravalored fish captured by European fishing vessels. A manner to add value to this specie can be achieved by trying to classify it attending to its sex. Colour measurements were performed on Mackerel females and males (fresh and defrozen) extracted gonads to obtain differences between sexes. Several linear and non linear classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVM), k Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) or Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA) can been applied to this problem. However, theyare usually based on Euclidean distances that fail to reflect accurately the sample proximities. Classifiers based on non-Euclidean dissimilarities misclassify a different set of patterns. We combine different kind of dissimilarity based classifiers. The diversity is induced considering a set of complementary dissimilarities for each model. The experimental results suggest that our algorithm helps to improve classifiers based on a single dissimilarity.

Blanco, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Martinez-Maranon, I.

2014-03-01

50

Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted mackerel protein with low bitter taste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein, resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It turned out that the optimum enzyme was the `Mixed enzymes for animal proteolysis'. An enzyme dosage of 4%, a temperature of 50°, and a hydrolysis time of 300 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain high NR (84.28%) and degree of hydrolysis (DH, 16.18%) by orthogonal experiments. Glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid of MDP (defatted mackerel protein) and MDPH (defatted mackerel protein hydrolysates). Compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein, the essential amino acid chemical scores (CS) were greater than 1.0 (1.0-1.7) in MDPH, which is reflective of high nutritional value. This, coupled with the light color and slight fishy odor, indicates that MDPH would potentially have a wide range of applications such as nutritional additives, functional ingredients, and so on.

Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue

2011-03-01

51

Effects of temperature on sustained swimming performance and swimming kinematics of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus.  

PubMed

The effects of a 6 degrees C difference in water temperature on maximum sustained swimming speed, swimming energetics and swimming kinematics were measured in the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (Teleostei: Scombridae), a primarily coastal, pelagic predator that inhabits subtropical and temperate transition waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. New data for chub mackerel acclimated to 18 degrees C are compared with published data from our laboratory at 24 degrees C. Twelve individuals acclimated to each of two temperatures (15.6-26.3 cm fork length, FL, and 34-179 g at 18 degrees C; 14.0-24.7 cm FL and 26-156 g at 24 degrees C) swam at a range of speeds in a temperature-controlled Brett-type respirometer, at the respective acclimation temperature. At a given fish size, the maximum speed that S. japonicus was able to maintain for a 30-min period, while swimming steadily using slow, oxidative locomotor muscle (U(max,c)), was significantly greater at 24 than at 18 degrees C (52.5-97.5 cm s(-1) at 18 degrees C and 70-120 cm s(-1) at 24 degrees C). At a given speed and fish size, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) was significantly higher at 24 than at 18 degrees C because of a higher net cost of transport (1073-4617 J km(-1) kg(-1) at 18 degrees C and 2708-14895 J km(-1) kg(-1) at 24 degrees C). Standard metabolic rate, calculated by extrapolating the logO(2) versus swimming speed relationship to zero speed, did not vary significantly with temperature or fish mass (126.4+/-67.2 mg O(2) h(-1) kg(-1) at 18 degrees C and 143.2+/-80.3 mg O(2) h(-1) kg(-1) at 24 degrees C; means +/- S.D., N=12). Swimming kinematics was quantified from high-speed (120 Hz) video recordings analyzed with a computerized, two-dimensional motion-analysis system. At a given speed and fish size, there were no significant effects of temperature on tail-beat frequency, tail-beat amplitude or stride length, but propulsive wavelength increased significantly with temperature as a result of an increase in propulsive wave velocity. Thus, the main effects of temperature on chub mackerel swimming were increases in both U(max,c) and the net cost of swimming at 24 degrees C. Like other fishes, S. japonicus apparently must recruit more slow, oxidative muscle fibers to swim at a given sustainable speed at the lower temperature because of the reduced power output. Thus, the 24 degrees C mackerel reach a higher speed before they must recruit the fast, glycolytic fibers, thereby increasing U(max,c) at 24 degrees C. By quantifying in vivo the effects of temperature on the swimming performance of an ectothermic species that is closely related to the endothermic tunas, this study also provides evidence that maintaining the temperature of the slow, oxidative locomotor muscle at 6 degrees C or more above ambient water temperature in tunas should significantly increase sustainable swimming speeds, but also increase the energetic cost of swimming, unless cardiac output limits muscle performance. PMID:11916992

Dickson, Kathryn A; Donley, Jeanine M; Sepulveda, Chugey; Bhoopat, Lisa

2002-04-01

52

Characterisation of muscles from Frigate mackerel (Auxis thazard) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus).  

PubMed

Frigate mackerel (Auxis thazard) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) can be used as alternative sources for surimi production. However, the functionality of surimi is species-dependent. This study aimed to characterise certain chemical and physical compositions of dark and ordinary muscles from these species. Catfish, particularly ordinary muscle, was composed of higher contents of lipid and carotenoid than Frigate mackerel muscle (p<0.05) but ordinary muscle from Frigate mackerel had the highest phospholipid content (p<0.05). Both dark and ordinary muscles of Frigate mackerel had greater contents of myofibrillar proteins than had catfish muscle (p<0.05). Myosin heavy chain and actin were predominant proteins found in both muscle types of both species. Dark muscle from Frigate mackerel had the highest sarcoplasmic protein content, especially extractable myoglobin (p<0.05). Muscles from Frigate mackerel had greater content of sodium chloride than had catfish (p<0.05). The highest contents of iron, copper and selenium were found in Frigate mackerel dark muscle (p<0.05). The pH of ordinary muscle from both species was higher than that of dark muscle (p<0.05). Frigate mackerel, especilly dark muscle, exhibited the most dark-red colour, as shown by the lowest L(*) and b(*) values with the highest a(*) value and redness index (a(*)/b(*)) (p<0.05). PMID:23561125

Chaijan, Manat; Klomklao, Sappasith; Benjakul, Soottawat

2013-08-15

53

SCOMBEROMORUS BRASILIENSIS, A NEW SPECIES OF SPANISH MACKEREL FROM THE WESTERN ATLANTIC  

E-print Network

Scomberomorus-the king mackerel, S. cavalla (Cuvier), Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); and cero, S of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560. "Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington Uni- versity. Statistical tests were performed on the IBM 370-148 compu- ter4 at the George Washington University using

54

Mackerel Trypsin Purified from Defatted Viscera by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

Viscera of mackerel (Scomber sp.) were defatted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) treatment. Trypsin (SC-T) was then extracted from the defatted powder and purified by a series of chromatographies including Sephacryl S-200 and Sephadex G-50. The purified SC-T was nearly homogeneous on SDS-PAGE, and its molecular weight was estimated as approximately 24,000?Da. N-terminal twenty amino acids sequence of SC-T was IVGGYECTAHSQPHQVSLNS. The specific trypsin inhibitors, soybean trypsin inhibitor and TLCK, strongly inhibited the activities of SC-T. The pH and temperature optimums of SC-T were at around pH 8.0 and 60°C, respectively, using N?-p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester as a substrate. The SC-T was unstable below pH 5.0 and above 40°C, and it was stabilized by calcium ion. These enzymatic characteristics of SC-T were the same as those of other fish trypsins, especially spotted mackerel (S. borealis) trypsin, purified from viscera defatted by acetone. Therefore, we concluded that the SCO2 defatting process is useful as a substitute for organic solvent defatting process. PMID:22312468

Chun, Byung-Soo; Kishimura, Hideki; Nalinanon, Sitthipong; Klomklao, Sappasith; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-01-01

55

Postanesthetic Myonecrosis in Horses  

PubMed Central

Two horses died of massive myonecrosis following surgery. The hematological, biochemical and pathological changes are described and compared with those previously reported in the literature. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:7337914

Friend, S. C. E.

1981-01-01

56

Observational learning in horses  

E-print Network

OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING IN HORSES A Thesis by KATHERINE LOUISE BAER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Animal... Science OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING IN HORSES A Thesis by KATHERINE LOUISE BAER Approved as to style and content by: L7 . 5+~ (Chairma of . C mmittee) ) c r (Mem ) YiNicc CJ ~- (Membeh) (Head of Department May 1979 ABSTRACT Observational...

Baer, Katherine Louise

2012-06-07

57

Social Ecology of Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses (Equidae ) are believed to clearly demonstrate the links between ecology and social organization. Their social cognitive\\u000a abilities enable them to succeed in many different environments, including those provided for them by humans, or the ones\\u000a domestic horses encounter when escaping from their human care takers. Living in groups takes different shapes in equids. Their\\u000a aggregation and group cohesion

Konstanze Krueger

58

Metal toxicosis in horses.  

PubMed

The ubiquity and stability of metals in the environment make them unique as a pollutant or an essential dietary component. Metals are neither created nor destroyed by chemical processes but are redistributed in the environment. In combination with other elements, metal compounds and alloys are essential materials of the contemporary world. Inappropriate use or distribution in the environment leads to adverse health effects on all biologic systems, including horses. Gastrointestinal upset is a common feature of acute toxicosis with metals in general. Among the metals discussed, arsenic and inorganic mercury have a propensity to do severe damage to the gut. Deposition of cadmium on forage is the source most likely to intoxicate horses. This subchronic to chronic problem in horses is manifest as disease of the musculoskeletal system and kidneys. Iron-containing hematinics are widely used in racetrack horses and occasionally result in hepatopathy when excessive doses are administered. Lead continues to be recognized as the most significant environmental metal pollutant. Poisoning is encountered routinely in humans and animals. Of the animal species of veterinary concern, lead-poisoned horses are not a frequent encounter. Lead-intoxicated horses show signs of peripheral neuropathy (laryngeal hemiplegia), intermittent colic, and mild anemia. Acute mercury poisoning sometimes occurs from the common use of mercury-containing blistering agents, with most clinical findings related to acute renal failure. Chronic excessive intake of zinc by horses is uncommon but devastating in rapidly growing foals. The mechanism of chronic zinc toxicosis is coupled to the induced copper deficiency. The condition is a disease of cartilage in the articular and growth physes. PMID:11780284

Casteel, S W

2001-12-01

59

EFFECT OF STARVATION ON THE HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF JACK MACKEREL,  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF STARVATION ON THE HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS, LARVAE GAIL H. THEILACKER' ABSTRACT Histological and morphological criteria were, larvae. A comparison of the histological features offed and starved larvae revealed that the digestive

60

75 FR 43090 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 0907301206-0032-02] RIN 0648-XW95 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Adjustment to the Loligo Trimester 2 and 3 Quota; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

2010-07-23

61

75 FR 51683 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...announces that the directed fishery for butterfish in the Exclusive Economic Zone...

2010-08-23

62

77 FR 22678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Trimester...the longfin fishery from exceeding the butterfish mortality cap for Trimester 1. DATES...Regulations governing the longfin and butterfish fisheries are found at 50 CFR part...

2012-04-17

63

76 FR 47492 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery; Emergency Rule Extension, Revision of 2011 Butterfish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine...extends the emergency revision to the butterfish allowable biological catch...

2011-08-05

64

76 FR 39313 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...announces that the directed fishery for butterfish in the Exclusive Economic Zone...

2011-07-06

65

Spectral sensitivity of juvenile chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus ) in visible and ultraviolet light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is widely distributed all over the world, the relevance of its visual sensitivity to its ecology is not yet fully understood.\\u000a We investigated spectral sensitivity in juvenile chub mackerel in the range of ultraviolet (UV) to visible light (369–652 nm)\\u000a by electroretinogram (ERG) using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Sensitivity peaked at a wavelength of approximately 482 nm\\u000a in

Taro Matsumoto; Hiroshi Ihara; Yoshinari Ishida; Shinji Yamamoto; Osamu Murata; Yasunori Ishibashi

2010-01-01

66

Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families  

PubMed Central

Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families. PMID:24023883

Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

2013-01-01

67

Mitochondrial genome of the Mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus (Perciformes: Carangidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence was determined for the Mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus, one species of the economically important fish in Carangidae. The entire sequence of the genome was 16,544?bp in length, including the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. Overall base compositions of the sequence were 27.3% of A, 30.4% of C, 25.3% of T and 17.0% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The mitogenome of Decapterus macarellus had a quite high-sequence similarity (92.5%) with D. macrosoma, which was morphologically close to D. macarellus. The complete mitogenome sequence data of D. macarellus could provide useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetics studies. PMID:25423525

Zou, Keshu; Chen, Zuozhi; Zhang, Peng; Li, Min

2014-11-25

68

Molecular expression of opsin gene in growing juvenile mackerel ( Scomber japonicus Houttuyn)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish have developed color vision that is closely adapted to their photic environments, where both spectral sensitivity and the number of visual opsins are influenced. The mackerel used in this study is one of the most important fishery stocks in Korea. The opsin gene of the mackerel juveniles after 20 days in hatching was isolated and characterized based on the molecular study of visual photoreceptor. The full-length mackerel opsin gene was obtained by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, as well as cDNA synthesis. Sequence analysis of the opsin gene showed that it contained a 1,080 bp open reading frame encoding 360 amino acids. Based on Schiff’s base formation (S114, K119), glycosylation (E3, F37) and palmitoylation (S281, 282), the deduced amino acid sequence had a typical rod opsin. The mackerel and Gempylus serpens showed 73.7% DNA homology on opsin gene, which was higher than any other of investigated species. In the analysis of phylogenetic relationship, the genetic placement of the mackerel is closer to that of Scombroidei than Labroidei, with supporting somewhat strong bootstrap value. In the analysis of Northern and RT-PCR, the probed products were observed only in rapidly growing juveniles. These findings indicate that in mackerel opsin mRNA expression can be detected in day-20 hatching larvae. It may play an important role in stimulating growth hormone.

Kim, Eung-Oh; Yoon, Seong-Jong; Park, Kyoung-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Do, Jeung-Wan; Cho, Eun-Seob

2009-12-01

69

Characterisation of the microbiota of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).  

PubMed

In this study the microbiota of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) collected by a commercial purse seiner was examined. Fish were collected directly from the purse seine and from the Refrigerated Sea Water (RSW) transport tank after loading. The culturable microbiota and Specific Spoilage Bacteria (SSB) were quantified on Iron Agar Lyngby (IAL) and identified using commercially available Biochemical API® kits on pure cultured isolates. These kits showed to be sub-optimal in characterising the isolates, since only half of the strains were identified. The same isolates were also identified by a nucleic acid based PCR-DGGE approach, and only half of the sequences gave the same results as the API®. Characterisation by PCR-DGGE was also performed on bacterial DNA from IAL plates (bulk cell samples) and on samples where the bacterial DNA was extracted directly from fish material without any cultivation (direct DNA samples). The microbiota of Atlantic mackerel was dominated by members of the Gram-negative genera as Psychrobacter sp., Proteus sp., Photobacterium sp., Vibrio sp., Shewanella sp., Synechococcus sp., Oceanisphaerae sp., Bizonia sp., Pseudoalteromonas sp., and members of Flavobacteriaceae. Gram-positive bacteria in the genera Vagococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Mycobacterium sp., Staphylococcus sp., Mycoplasma sp. and Clostridia sp. were also found. Examination by PCR-DGGE and sequencing of the bulk cell pellet after cultivation on IAL, gave a higher number of taxa as compared to extraction and examination of bacterial DNA from fish materials without prior cultivation. This shows the benefit of combining both culture dependent and culture independent methods, when studying the microbiota of marine fish. Several Vibrio spp. were found only in gut samples collected from the purse seine, but in all samples including the skin and the gills collected from the RSW tank, indicating microbial contamination by faecal bacteria from the fish under these transport conditions. PMID:21914558

Svanevik, Cecilie Smith; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore

2011-12-01

70

[From wild horse to riding horse].  

PubMed

Over 45 million years of evolution the horse developed to a highly specialized animal in anatomy, physiology and behavior. No other animal had influenced the economic and cultural history of men to such extent. Hunting prey since the ice age, domesticated 4000 B.C. and used for thousands of years as unique animal all over the world has attained a new role today as partner in sport, as companion animal and even as cotherapeutic. The well known behavioral demands in use and keeping are still often not fulfilled. PMID:12174680

Isenbügel, E

2002-07-01

71

Hyperelastosis in the Horse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

72

Paraguayan Horse Tack  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Paraguayan cowboys use a version of the typical saddle from southern South America. The core of the saddle consists of two leather rolls that are filled with a sedge (Piri, Cyperus giganteus) for cushioning, these are laid along the horse's spine and sandwiched between several layers of wool and cot...

73

Chub mackerel gonads support colonization, survival, and proliferation of intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic germ cells.  

PubMed

The production of xenogenic gametes from large-bodied, commercially important marine fish species in closely related smaller host fish species with short generation times may enable rapid and simple seed production of the target species. As a first step toward this goal, we assessed the suitability of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, as a small-bodied recipient species for xenogenic spermatogonial transplantation. Histological observation of the early gonadal development of chub mackerel larvae and transplantation of fluorescent-labeled spermatogonia from Nibe croaker, Nibea mitsukurii, revealed that 5.3-mm chub mackerel larvae were suitable recipients for successful transplantation. Intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic spermatogonia efficiently colonized the gonads of these recipient larvae, and donor-derived Nibe croaker germ cells proliferated rapidly soon after colonization. Moreover, gonadal soma-derived growth factor (gsdf) mRNA, a gonadal somatic cell marker, was expressed in recipient-derived cells surrounding the incorporated donor-derived germ cells, suggesting that donor-derived germ cells had settled at an appropriate location in the recipient gonad. Our data show that xenogenic spermatogonial transplantation was successful in chub mackerel and that the somatic microenvironment of the chub mackerel gonad can support the colonization, survival, and proliferation of intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic germ cells derived from a donor species of a different taxonomic family. PMID:20089885

Yazawa, Ryosuke; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Higuchi, Kentaro; Yatabe, Takashi; Kabeya, Naoki; Yoshizaki, Goro

2010-05-01

74

Melanomas in Horses'  

E-print Network

In human beings a striking loss of pigment may occur in the skin and hair surrounding normal nevi, the primary sites of melanomas, cutaneous nodules of metastatic melanoma, and over the surface in the form of vitiligo in those with melanomas. It is generally assumed that vitiliginous changes are associated with.he local destruction of normal melanocytes on either an autoimmune or cytotoxic basis because of the presence of a benign nevus or a melanoma. In a report by Millikan et al. (1) on pigs with melanocytic nevi that might be melanomas, changes of pigment loss identical to that observed in some human subjects was described. Gray horses ordinarily have a high incidence of melanomas. Dark brown at birth, they probably developed melanomas after turning white and not before. There may be a human counterpart to this phenomenon. Because knowledge of the relationship of changes in hair and skin color during the course of a melanoma is likely to be important in developing a method to control the growth of a melanoma, the animal models should be investigated in detail. The Arabian horse described in this report is one animal with a high predisposition to develop a melanoma. We examined horses at the 2800-acre Al-Marah Farm in Maryland, the world's

Aaron B; Lerner; Gary W. Cage

75

Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

76

Discrimination learning in horses  

E-print Network

day. Forty massed trials in one day yielded only 17% correct on the last 10 trials. Wieckert and Barr (1966) reported 55. 17% correct responses in pigs learning a maze. Stimu'ius, Reinforcement and Prior Experiences Effects on Discrimination Lear.... Kratzer et al. (1976) reported a final performance of 73/ correct for yearling horses in maze running. Wieckert and Barr (1966) reported 55 . 2X correct for pigs ', n maze running and W ieckert et al, (1966) reported 80", . in dairy heifers learning a...

Yeates, B. F

1976-01-01

77

MACKEREL SHARK tIeurue punctatus Storer), p. 36, and PORBEAGLE (lsurus nasus Bonaterre), p. 36  

E-print Network

punctatus except that its teeth were denticulate like those of the European 1. nasus instead of smooth with denticulate teeth (p, 36). Either the two intergrade, in which case the com- mon mackerel shark of our waters to 7 days. Normal development of the eggs did not take place in water colder than 7°. Leim's most

78

GILL RAKER APPARATUS AND FOOD SELECTIVITY AMONG MACKERELS, TUNAS, AND DOLPHINS  

E-print Network

GILL RAKER APPARATUS AND FOOD SELECTIVITY AMONG MACKERELS, TUNAS, AND DOLPHINS JOHN J. MAGNUSON AND JEAN G. HEITZ' ABSTRACT Gill raker morphology and fork length were measured from 411 fish, representing regressions passing through the origin were determined relating mean gill raker gap in millimeters (first gill

79

Movements of King Mackerel, Scomberomoru5 cavalla, Tagged in Southeast Louisiana, 1983-85  

E-print Network

Movements of King Mackerel, Scomberomoru5 cavalla, Tagged in Southeast Louisiana, 1983-85 WILLIAM A. FABLE, Jr., LEE TRENT, GILBERT W. BANE, and STEVEN W. ELLSWORTH Introduction The king mackere of previous mark- William A. Fable. Jr.. and Lee Trem are with the NMFS Southeast Fisheries Center's Panama

80

Several large pelagic fishes of the suborder Scombroidei (mackerels, tunas and billfishes) have independently evolved a  

E-print Network

Xiphiidae) and the butterfly mackerel (family Scombridae) heat the brain and eyes using a specialized. In mammalian brown fat, the only other tissue described that functions primarily to provide heat, a high rate of the heater organ by enhancing the respiration rate. Specific electrodes were used to obtain simultaneous

Block, Barbara A.

81

Complete Genome Sequence of Cedecea neteri Strain SSMD04, a Bacterium Isolated from Pickled Mackerel Sashimi  

PubMed Central

We report here the complete genome sequence of C. neteri SSMD04, a strain isolated from pickled mackerel sashimi, sequenced by third-generation sequencing technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation that reports the complete genome of Cedecea neteri. PMID:25523782

Tan, Kian-Hin; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tan, Jia-Yi

2014-01-01

82

Size composition of Jack mackerel catches from the west coast of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catches of iack mackerel Trachurus declivis taken everv 2 months from the west coast of New Zealand show that this species attains lengths of approximately 11 cm and 24 cm at the completion of the first and second years of life respectively. Above these lengths, year classes overlap considerably. Juveniles were found from Westland to North Cape and were most

G. D. James

1975-01-01

83

Spatial and temporal variation in age and growth of king mackerel,  

E-print Network

-1992 Douglas A. DeVries Churchill B. Grimes Panama City Laboratory, Southeast Fisheries Science Center National Marine Fisheries SeNice. NOAA 3500 Delwood Beach Road Panama City, Florida 32408 E-mail address (for DeVries): devries@bio.fsu.edu 694 Abstract.-A total of 12,180 king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, col- lected from

84

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Finlet Kinematics in the Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus)  

E-print Network

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Finlet Kinematics in the Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) JENNIFER C hypotheses on finlet rigidity and function during steady swimming. Finlet bending and finlet planar) using two- dimensional (2-D) kinematic analysis methods to quantify the kinematics of finlets of S

Lauder, George V.

85

Ontogenetic changes in the ecological function of the association behavior between jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commensal behavior of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel) with jellyfishes has been widely observed but its ecological function is still unclear. The goal of\\u000a the present research is to examine the function of association behavior with jellyfish in the laboratory and in field observations\\u000a with an emphasis on ontogenetic changes. In the laboratory, jack mackerel juveniles (mean standard

Reiji Masuda

86

Ontogenetic changes in the ecological function of the association behavior between jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commensal behavior of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel) with jellyfishes has been widely observed but its ecological function is still unclear. The goal of\\u000a the present research is to examine the function of association behavior with jellyfish in the laboratory and in field observations\\u000a with an emphasis on ontogenetic changes. In the laboratory, jack mackerel juveniles (mean standard

Reiji Masuda

2009-01-01

87

Age and growth of chub mackerel ( Xcomber japonicus ) in the East China and Yellow Seas using sectioned otolith samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is a primary pelagic fish species, we have only limited knowledge on its key life history processes. The present work studied\\u000a the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas. Age was determined by interpreting and counting growth\\u000a rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the

Gang Li; Xinjun Chen; Bo Feng

2008-01-01

88

Characterization of the ribosomal RNA gene of Kudoa neothunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in tunas (Thunnus spp.) and Kudoa scomberi n. sp. in a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).  

PubMed

Kudoa neothunni is the first described Kudoa species having six shell valves and polar capsules, previously assigned to the genus Hexacapsula Arai and Matsumoto, 1953. Since its genetic analyses remain to be conducted, the present study characterizes the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) using two isolates from a yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with post-harvest myoliquefaction and a northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) without tissue degradation. Spores of the two isolates localized in the myofiber of trunk muscles, forming pseudocysts, and showed typical morphology of K. neothunni with six equal-sized shell valves radially arranged in apical view: spores (n?=?15) measuring 9.5-11.4 ?m in width, 7.3-8.6 ?m in suture width, 8.9-10.9 ?m in thickness, and 7.3-7.7 ?m in length; and polar capsules measuring 3.6-4.1 ?m by 1.8-2.3 ?m. In lateral view, the spores were pyramidal in shape without apical protrusions. Their 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences were essentially identical, but variations in the ITS1 (62.4 % similarity across 757-bp length), ITS2 (66.9 % similarity across 599-bp length), and 28S (99.0 % similarity across 2,245-bp length) rDNA regions existed between the two isolates. On phylogenetic trees based on the 18S or 28S rDNA sequence, K. neothunni formed a clade with Kudoa spp. with more than four shell valves and polar capsules, particularly K. grammatorcyni and K. scomberomori. Semiquadrate spores of a kudoid species with four shell valves and polar capsules were detected from minute cysts (0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm) embedded in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fished in the Sea of Japan. Morphologically, it resembled K. caudata described from a chub mackerel fished in the southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru; however, it lacked filamentous projections on the shell valves of spores. Additionally, it morphologically resembled K. thunni described from a yellowfin tuna also fished in the Pacific Ocean; spores (n?=?30) measuring 8.2-10.5 ?m in width, 7.0-8.8 ?m in thickness, and 6.1-6.8 ?m in length; and polar capsule measuring 2.5-3.4 ?m by 1.3-2.0 ?m. The similarities of the 18S and 28S rDNA sequences between these two species were 98.5 % and 96.3 %, respectively. Simultaneously, the dimensions of cysts in the trunk muscle formed by K. thunni are clearly larger than those of the present species from a chub mackerel: 1.3-2.0 mm by 1.1-1.4 mm (n?=?14) vs. 0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm (n?=?7), respectively. Thus, Kudoa scomberi n. sp. is proposed for this multivalvulid species found in the chub mackerel. PMID:23455941

Li, Ying-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2013-05-01

89

Occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) caught off Korea.  

PubMed

Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is a pelagic fish species widely distributing in the Indo-Pacific and a commercially important fish species in Korea. It is known to harbor anisakid nematodes larvae, and ingesting the raw or undercooked fish can accidentally cause human infection. In this study, we isolated the nematode larvae in 417 chub mackerel caught from 7 sampling locations around the Korean Peninsula in 2011 and 2012, and identified them by PCR-RFLP of the ITS (internal transcribed spacer) of ribosomal DNA and the direct sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA cox2 gene. The prevalence of infection was 55.4% (231/417) and the mean intensity was 7.0 (1628/231). Most of the nematodes (1523/1628; 93.6%) were found in the body cavity, while 5.5% (89/1628) were found in the gastrointestinal tract. Four different species were identified by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing. Most of the nematodes (1535/1628; 94.3%) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii, and 2.8% (46/1628) were identified as Hysterothylacium sp. A hybrid genotype (Anisakis simplex sensu stricto×A. pegreffii) and A. simplex sensu stricto were 2.5% (41/1628) and 0.4% (6/1628) of the identified nematodes, respectively. The anisakid nematode assemblage of chub mackerel in Korea was similar to that of chub mackerel from the Tsushima Current stock in Japan, in that A. pegreffii was the dominant species. Since most of the anisakid nematodes were found in the body cavity and most of them were identified as A. pegreffii or Hysterothylacium sp. by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing, chub mackerel may not greatly contribute to human anisakidosis in Korea. Alternately, A. pegreffii may be responsible for human anisakidosis in Korea, in addition to A. simplex sensu stricto. Further studies, such as the molecular diagnosis of human anisakidosis, are necessary for assessing the epidemiological role of chub mackerel in Korea. PMID:25268324

Bak, Tae-Jong; Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Kim, Jeong-Ho

2014-11-17

90

Effects of Storage Temperatures on the Quality of Frozen Sardine, Mackerel, and Saury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three Japanese coastal fish species, sardine (Sardinops melanosticta), mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and saury (Cololabis saira) was frozen under commercial condition and stored at -18, -23, -30 and -40°C for 12 months. During frozen storage the quality was measured by determining the K value (freshness index), peroxide value (POV) of fat, a mount of free drip, water-holding capacity of muscle, weight ratio of cooking loss, histological feature of frozen and thawed muscle, and organoleptic test at regular intervals (each 2 months). Storage life of frozen sardine was 6 months at -18°C and 12 months at below -23°C. On frozen mackerel it was 6 months at -18°C. 8 months at -23°C and 12 months at below -30°C. On saury it was 6 months at 18°C and 12 months at below -23°C.

Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohataka, Tateo

91

Occurrence of postmortem myoliquefactive kudoosis in Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus L., from the North Sea.  

PubMed

Members of the myxosporean genus Kudoa occur in various marine teleosts worldwide. Several species are of concern to the fishery and aquaculture industries as they may produce unsightly cysts in the fish host's musculature or are associated with postmortem myoliquefaction of the fish muscle, commonly referred to as 'soft flesh'. This study describes the occurrence and effects on a host of a Kudoa species in Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus, from the northern North Sea. Generalized postmortem myoliquefaction associated with Kudoa sp. occurred in 0.8% of the examined fish, i.e. 11 of 1339 mackerel developed 'soft flesh'. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of myoliquefaction between medium sized (400-600 g) and large mackerel (>600 g). The prevalence reached 8.9% in the latter host size group. No subclinical infections of Kudoa sp. were detected when examining fresh muscle (n = 103) and blood (n = 165) samples for spores using light microscopy. Affected mackerel developed generalized myoliquefaction after 38-56 h post-catch. No inflammatory host response was associated with the presence of plasmodia within single body muscle fibres of 'soft flesh' affected fish. Based on comparison of myxospore dimensions and analysis of the nuclear small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA, the present Kudoa species is assigned to Kudoa thyrsites. However, due to the species' apparently very wide geographical distribution and host range, its varying effect on different fish host species, together with the still unknown life cycle of Kudoa spp., the taxonomic status of K. thyrsites appears not to be fully resolved. PMID:18482379

Levsen, A; Jørgensen, A; Mo, T A

2008-08-01

92

Metazoan parasites of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Scombridae) of Visakhapatnam coast, Bay of Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metazoan parasite fauna of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta of Visakhapatnam coast, Bay of Bengal comprised 15 species including three species of Monogenea, seven species of Digenea\\u000a and five species of Crustacea. Digeneans were the dominant members in the parasite spectrum while infections with ectoparasitic\\u000a monogeneans and crustaceans were rare. The digeneans Opechona bacillaris and Lecithocladium angustiovum which occurred

R. Madhavi; T. Triveni Lakshmi

2011-01-01

93

Autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty compounds in mackerel oil: Formation of 2,4,7-decatrienals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of potentially “fishy” off flavor components, especially 2,4,7-decatrienals, in various rancid mackerel oils\\u000a has been semiquantitatively investigated using preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC)\\u000a methods. A combination of 2 GLC analyses can be directly employed for free aldehyde analysis. This GLC method is faster and\\u000a gives a better recovery than the alternative TLC proceeding

P. J. Ke; R. G. Ackman; B. A. Linke

1975-01-01

94

77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...be shown or exhibited); (2) show or exhibit a horse at a horse show, public auction, or exhibition such as a college football game or parade; (3) judge a horse show; (4) enter the show ring during the course of a horse show; (5) enter...

2012-06-07

95

Population genetic structure of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus in the Northwestern Pacific inferred from microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Marine pelagic fishes are usually characterized by subtle but complex patterns of genetic differentiation, which are influenced by both historical process and contemporary gene flow. Genetic population differentiation of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, was examined across most of its range in the Northwestern Pacific by screening variation of eight microsatellite loci. Our genetic analysis detected a weak but significant genetic structure of chub mackerel, which was characterized by areas of gene flow and isolation by distance. Consistent with previous estimates of stock structure, we found genetic discontinuity between Japan and China samples. Local-scale pattern of genetic differentiation was observed between samples from the Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea and those from the East China Sea, which we ascribed to differences in spawning time and migratory behavior. Furthermore, the observed homogeneity among collections of chub mackerel from the East and South China Seas could be the result of an interaction between biological characteristics and marine currents. The present study underlies the importance of understanding the biological significance of genetic differentiation to establish management strategies for exploited fish populations. PMID:25366174

Cheng, Jiao; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Song, Na; Gao, Tian-Xiang

2014-11-01

96

4-H Horse Project Senior Record Book  

E-print Network

Virginia 4-H Horse Project Senior Record Book (ages 14-19) Publication 406-123 Revised 2007 #12;Virginia 4-H Horse Project Senior Record Book Name ________________________________ Date of Birth you are enrolled for this project _________________________________________ 4-H Club

Liskiewicz, Maciej

97

Texas 4-H Horse Quiz Bowl Supplement  

E-print Network

: Ovum Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 16 Division: Senior C. Reproduction Question: Much of the reproductive process is regulated by which gland? Answer: Pituitary Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 16 Division: Senior C. Reproduction Question...

Howard, Jeff W.

1999-09-28

98

Eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis in seven horses.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis was diagnosed in 7 horses at The Ohio State University between 1976 and 1994. All horses had moderate-to-severe blepharospasm, chemosis, and conjunctival hyperemia; epiphora; and extensive yellow-to-white caseous mucoid discharge. Corneal ulcers associated with this disease were perilimbal and extended centrally. All ulcers were covered with a white necrotic plaque firmly attached to the underlying cornea. Other ophthalmic abnormalities were not detected. Corneal scrapings examined cytologically contained numerous eosinophils interspersed between epithelial cells, few mast cells, and neutrophils. Microbial organism were not seen. Bacterial and fungal cultures were negative for ocular pathogens. The initial diagnosis of eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis was made on the basis of clinical and cytologic findings. In 5 horses, the condition completely resolved after topical treatment with corticosteroid (0.05% dexamethasone) and triple antibiotic ointments. However, the duration of treatment was prolonged, with a mean treatment time of 64 days (range, 45 to 106 days). All corneal ulcers remained superficial, and despite the prolonged duration of treatment, none of the horses developed secondary bacterial or fungal keratitis. One horse underwent superficial keratectomy and had the shortest resolution time (14 days). PMID:8837652

Yamagata, M; Wilkie, D A; Gilger, B C

1996-10-01

99

Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses  

PubMed Central

Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses. PMID:24489393

Ohmes, Cameon M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; Beard, Laurie A.; Vander Werf, Karie A.; Bianco, Alex W.; Giger, Urs

2014-01-01

100

Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

101

Brodifacoum toxicosis in two horses.  

PubMed

Increased popularity during the past decade of brodifacoum, an anticoagulant rodenticide, has led to an increase in cases of accidental poisoning in nontarget species, including pets and farm animals. Pharmacokinetics of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides such as brodifacoum are substantially different from those of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides such as warfarin. This difference dramatically influences management of exposure in terms of duration and cost of treatment and may affect outcome. The National Poison Control Center reports that approximately 50 cases of brodifacoum exposure have occurred in horses between 1993 and 1997. To our knowledge, this report is the first complete clinical description of accidental ingestion of a potentially lethal dose of brodifacoum in horses. Early recognition of exposure to brodifacoum, subsequent treatment with adequate doses of vitamin K1, and sequential monitoring of clotting times and serum brodifacoum concentration permitted poisoning in these horses to be managed successfully. PMID:9333092

McConnico, R S; Copedge, K; Bischoff, K L

1997-10-01

102

Evaluating the efficacy of trawl exclusion zones for preserving prey fields of Steller sea lions foraging on Atka mackerel. II. Site specific estimates to evaluate availability of  

E-print Network

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Evaluating the efficacy of trawl exclusion zones for preserving prey whether Atka mackerel production inside trawl exclusion zones in 5 local areas in the Aleutian Islands in the degree to which the amount of Atka mackerel protected within trawl exclusion zones could be expected

103

A Trojan Horse in Birmingham  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

Yarker, Patrick

2014-01-01

104

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2013-07-01

105

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2010-07-01

106

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

...2014-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2014-07-01

107

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2011-07-01

108

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2012-07-01

109

Effect of body weight on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in miniature horses and quarter horses.  

PubMed

In most species, large variations in body size necessitate dose adjustments based on an allometric function of body weight. Despite the substantial disparity in body size between miniature horses and light-breed horses, there are no studies investigating appropriate dosing of any veterinary drug in miniature horses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether miniature horses should receive a different dosage of flunixin meglumine than that used typically in light-breed horses. A standard dose of flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously to eight horses of each breed, and three-compartmental analysis was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters between breed groups. The total body clearance of flunixin was 0.97 ± 0.30 mL/min/kg in miniature horses and 1.04 ± 0.27 mL/min/kg in quarter horses. There were no significant differences between miniature horses and quarter horses in total body clearance, the terminal elimination rate, area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, apparent volume of distribution at steady-state or the volume of the central compartment for flunixin (P > 0.05). Therefore, flunixin meglumine may be administered to miniature horses at the same dosage as is used in light-breed horses. PMID:23659780

Lee, C D; Maxwell, L K

2014-02-01

110

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2013-01-01

111

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2011-01-01

112

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2014-01-01

113

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2010-01-01

114

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2012-01-01

115

Managing Small-acreage Horse Farms  

E-print Network

Managing Small-acreage Horse Farms EC 1610 · November 2007 $4.50 IN CENtral aNd EastErN OrEgON #12;2 · MaNagINg sMall-aCrEagE HOrsE FarMs IN CENtral aNd EastErN OrEgON IN CENtral aNd EastErN OrEgON Managing Small-acreage Horse Farms Seven steps to a safe, efficient, environmentally friendly horse farm

Tullos, Desiree

116

Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.  

PubMed

In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

2013-11-01

117

Defining Essential Fish Habitat for Atka Mackerel with Respect to Feeding within and Adjacent to Aleutian Islands Trawl Exclusion Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution patterns of Atka mackerel Pleurogrammus monopterygius were examined, both seasonally and spatially, to identify essential feeding habitat and to add to existing knowledge of diet composition. The study focused on two local aggregations in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: one at Seguam Pass and one near Amchitka Island. At each locale, we examined the mean stomach fullness (i.e., feeding

Kimberly M. Rand; Sandra A. Lowe

2011-01-01

118

Ultrastructure of atrial and ventricular myocardium in the pike Esox lucius L. and mackerel Scomber scombrus L. (Pisces)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrial and ventricular muscle in the pike and mackerel hearts consists of narrow, branching cells. The atrial cells in the two species are similar whereas the ventricular cells differ. The sarcolemma is attached to the Z and M lines of the sarcomere. Intercalated discs are common, and the transverse parts display desmosomes and intermediate junctions. Nexuses are uncommon and only

Bjørn Midttun

1980-01-01

119

Occurrence of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto in imported Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) represents a risk for Turkish consumers.  

PubMed

Anisakid larvae are a prevalent food-borne pathogen that has been found in numerous fish species destined for human consumption. The accidental consumption of infected raw or poorly cooked fish may cause gastroenteric diseases and allergies in humans. In spite of the fact that thorough cooking or freezing kills Anisakis worms, this method does not destroy their allergenic capacity. The presence of A. simplex (s.s.) in seafood products may present a health risk for consumers. In Turkey, Atlantic mackerels are marketed as frozen and mainly imported from Norway. The aim of this study was to identify the Anisakis species found in deep-frozen whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) destined for human consumption in fish markets that imported fish from Norway to Turkey. All Anisakis larvae isolated from imported Atlantic mackerel were identified via morphology as third larvae of Anisakis Type I. The ITS region (ITS-1, 5.8S subunit, ITS-2) was amplified and digested with the restriction enzymes Hinf I and Hha I. Larvae of the genus Anisakis were identified via PCR-RFLP as belonging to Anisakis simplex (s.s.), and this was confirmed by sequencing the cox2 gene. The overall prevalence of Anisakis larvae was 25% (95% confidence limits: 13-41%), and the mean intensity was 19.1 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits: 15.3-25.5). Recognized zoonotic A. simplex (s.s.) larvae found in imported Atlantic mackerel could represent a risk. Those who consume them could acquire parasitic allergies. The results will have an important impact on public health risk assessment in that they suggest reviewing critical control points at the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmer to reduce the risk of anisakid-induced allergies among consumers. Consequently, the present study provides the first data regarding the occurrence of A. simplex (s.s.) larvae in imported Atlantic mackerel in Turkish markets. PMID:24935687

Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer

2014-08-18

120

Equine monocytic Ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever) in horses in Uruguay and southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A disease named locally as churrío or churrido equino (i.e., equine scours) has occurred for at least 100 years in Uruguay and southern Brazil in farms along both shores of the Merín lake. This report describes cases of churrido equino and provides serologic, pathologic, and DNA-based evidence indicating that the disease is in fact equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever). Results of an epidemiological investigation conducted on an endemic farm are also presented. Clinical signs in 12 horses were fever, depression, diarrhea, dehydration, and sometimes colic and distal hind limb edema. Postmortem findings of 3 horses were of acute enterocolitis. Inclusion bodies containing ehrlichial organisms were found in the cytoplasm of macrophages of the large colon of 1 horse. Eleven of the 12 horses were serologically positive to Ehrlichia risticii (indirect fluorescent antibody assay) and, of 3 paired samples, 2 showed seroconversion. Ehrlichia risticii DNA was identified by a nested polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood of an affected horse. A healthy horse inoculated with peripheral blood from an affected horse developed the disease and antibodies to E. risticii. The disease had a peak incidence in March (summer) and was statistically associated with a marshy ecosystem near the Merín lake, where large numbers of Pomacea spp. (Ampullariidae) snails were found. Incidence density was almost 8 times higher in nonnative horses than in native horses. It was concluded that the previous diarrheic disease of horses known in Uruguay and southern Brazil as churrido equino is equine monocytic ehrlichiosis. PMID:11580069

Dutra, F; Schuch, L F; Delucchi, E; Curcio, B R; Coimbra, H; Raffi, M B; Dellagostin, O; Riet-Correa, F

2001-09-01

121

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

122

Liver fluke infection in horses and ponies.  

PubMed

Thirty eight cases of Fasciola hepatica infection in horses with associated clinical signs are reported. A method of examining large amounts of faeces for fluke is described. A safe method of treatment for infected horses is given which involves oral medication with oxyclozanide at a dose rate of 15 ml/50 kg body weight. PMID:837900

Owen, J M

1977-01-01

123

Periocular neurofibrosarcoma in a horse.  

PubMed

A periocular neurofibrosarcoma was debulked and treated with intralesional cisplatin in a 5-year-old Thoroughbred mare. The horse presented with a 1-year history of a large slowly progressing subcutaneous mass over the right supraorbital process. The mass was surgically debulked, and intralesional cisplatin (1.0 mg/cm3) was injected in 3 doses at 2 weeks, 5 weeks, and 8 weeks postoperatively. No recurrence was noted over a 15-month follow-up period. Histopathology of the mass indicated neurofibrosarcoma. PMID:11906658

Strubbe, D T

2001-12-01

124

Ontogeny of anti-predator behavior in hatchery-reared jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus larvae and juveniles: patchiness formation, swimming capability, and interaction with jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory rearing and behavioral observations of larval and juvenile jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus were conducted to elucidate their life-history traits with emphasis on the interaction with the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Jack mackerel were raised from naturally spawned fertilized eggs and they attained 10.3±0.7 (mean±standard deviation) mm\\u000a in body length (BL) by 30 days post hatching (dph) and 26.6±1.8 mm

Reiji Masuda

2006-01-01

125

9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93.325 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico...

2011-01-01

126

9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93.325 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico...

2010-01-01

127

Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

128

Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.  

PubMed

Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. PMID:25376504

Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

2015-01-24

129

Development of a real-time PCR method for the identification of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).  

PubMed

A Real Time-PCR method based on TaqMan technology for the identification of Scomber scombrus has been developed. A system of specific primers and a Minor Groove Binding (MGB) TaqMan probe based on sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b region was designed. The method was successfully tested in 81 specimens of S. scombrus and related species and validated in 26 different commercial samples. An average Threshold Cycle (Ct) value of 15.3 was obtained with S. scombrus DNA. With the other species tested fluorescence signal was not detected or Ct was significantly higher (P<0.001). The efficiency of the assay was estimated to be 92.41%, with 100% specificity, and no cross reactivity was detected with any other species. These results reveal that the developed method is a rapid and efficient tool to unequivocally identify S. scombrus and may aid in the prevention of fraud or mislabelling in mackerel products. PMID:23870921

Velasco, Amaya; Sánchez, Ana; Martínez, Icíar; Santaclara, Francisco J; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Sotelo, Carmen G

2013-12-01

130

Amino acid and protein changes in tilapia and Spanish mackerel after irradiation and storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some amino acids in tilapia decreased while some others increased when subjected to doses up to 10.0 kGy. However, 10 kGy contributed to a significant reduction in all amino acids of Spanish mackerel. Variations in amino acid contents continued during post-irradiation storage with no consistant trend of increase or decrease. SDS-PAGE of protein from both fish showed 27 bands of subunits with MW < 14.0-94.0 KD. Isoelectric focusing patterns of sarcoplasmic protein of unirradiated and irradiated fish showed no charge in the number of bands, while some changes were observed in the intensities of the anodic and cathodic bands depending on isoelectric points (pIs).

Al-Kahtani, Hassan A.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Atia, Mohamed; Bajaber, Adnan S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; El-Mojaddidi, Mohamed A.

1998-01-01

131

Oceans Alive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

Rosentrater, Lynn

132

Ocean Planet: Ocean Market  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on foods, materials and medicines that comes form marine life, how these resources are harvested and processed and the impacts of fisheries. Students identify and classify consumer goods from the ocean and calculate their cost. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

133

Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.  

PubMed Central

Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses. PMID:8315368

Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

1993-01-01

134

Clostridium difficile infection in horses: a review.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is considered one of the most important causes of diarrhea and enterocolitis in horses. Foals and adult horses are equally susceptible to the infection. The highly resistant spore of C. difficile is the infectious unit of transmission, which occurs primarily via the fecal-oral route, with sources of infection including equine feces, contaminated soil, animal hospitals, and feces of other animals. Two major risk factors for the development of C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) in adult horses are hospitalization and antimicrobial treatment, although sporadically, cases of CDAD can occur in horses that have not received antimicrobials or been hospitalized. The most common antibiotics associated with CDAD in horses are erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfonamides, ?-lactam antimicrobials, clindamycin, rifampicin, and gentamicin. Clinical signs and intestinal lesions of CDAD infection are not specific and they cannot be used to distinguish infections by C. difficile from infections by other agents, such as Clostridium perfringens or Salmonella sp. The distribution of lesions throughout the intestinal tract seems to be age-dependent. Small intestine is invariably affected, and colon and cecum may or may not have lesions in foals<1-month old. Naturally acquired disease in older foals and adult horses has a more aboral distribution, affecting colon and sometimes cecum, but rarely the small intestine. Detection of toxin A, toxin B or both in intestinal contents or feces is considered the most reliable diagnostic criterion for CDAD in horses. Isolation of toxigenic strains of C. difficile from horses with intestinal disease is highly suggestive of CDAD. A better understanding of pathogenesis, reservoirs of infection, and vaccines and other methods of control is needed. Also further studies are recommended to investigate other possible predisposing factors and/or etiological agents of enteric diseases of horses. PMID:23642413

Diab, S S; Songer, G; Uzal, F A

2013-11-29

135

Horses  

MedlinePLUS

... disease can be fatal. More MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterium normally found on the skin of humans and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become ...

136

Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

2011-03-01

137

4-H Horse Project Junior Record Book  

E-print Network

Virginia 4-H Horse Project Junior Record Book (ages 9-13) Publication 406-122 Revised 2007 #12;www for this project _________________________________________ 4-H Club __________________________________ Years in 4-H personally completed this record book. 4-H Member's Signature

Liskiewicz, Maciej

138

Paraguayan Horse Tack and Ranch Hand  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Paraguayan cowboys often make their own rawhide tack. The cowboy in this picture is braiding rawhide tied to a tree. The cowboys' quarters can be seen in the background. The typical ranch horse in Paraguay is the

139

West Nile Encephalitis in Humans and Horses  

E-print Network

West Nile Encephalitis in Humans and Horses by Bruce Lawhorn* T he first outbreak in the United States of West Nile Encephalitis (WNE) occurred in August 1999 in the northeastern part of the country. The disease, characteristized...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2000-08-25

140

A Song for the Horse Nation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website accompanies an exhibition at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) George Gustav Heye Center in New York City, and presents "the epic story of the horse's influence on American Indian tribes from the 1600s to the present." Divided into five thematic sections, the exhibition draws on the riches of NMAI, using both historical objects, such as drawings, hoof ornaments, beaded bags, hide robes, and paintings, as well as new pieces by contemporary Native artists. For example, in the "Native Arts & the Horse", 1840-1900 section, visitors can see images of bridles, saddles and saddle blankets, and other clothing, along with photos of these being used and worn. The section "The Horse Nation Lives On" includes works by contemporary Native American artists, such as a painting by Jim Yellowhawk (Cheyenne River Lakota, b. 1958), Lakota Horse Mask, 2008, and beaded rawhide bags made by Jackie Bread (Piikuni, b. 1960) in 2009.

141

Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication  

PubMed Central

Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes) from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus) were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region) were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski) using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73%) already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the time depth of the domestic horse mtDNA gene pool. PMID:22082251

2011-01-01

142

Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.  

PubMed

This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

2012-09-01

143

Identification of copy number variants in horses.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds. PMID:22383489

Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazey, Kylee; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V

2012-05-01

144

Kudoa azevedoi n. sp. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) from the oocytes of the Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus (Perciformes, Carangidae) in Tunisian coasts.  

PubMed

A new species Kudoa azevedoi sp. n. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) is described in Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 (Carangidae) from fishing harbors in Tunisian coasts using spore morphology and SSU rDNA sequence data. The parasite occurs only in ovaries within oocytes of mature and immature specimens. Spores are quadrate in shape in apical view with rounded edges, having four shell valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. They are of small sizes and measure 3.5±0.41 (3-4.2)×4.5±0.44 (4-5.2) length by width. The polar capsules are pyriform in shape measuring 1.5±0.22 (1.5-2)×0.75±0.14 (0.5-1)??m. Infected oocytes are hypertrophied, whitish colored, and filled with mature spores. Plasmodia are tubular and ramified from the inner membrane toward the center of the oocyte. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences shows the highest similarity (96%) with the ovary parasite Kudoa ovivora. Some morphological details and spore dimensions support the creation of a new species in the genus Kudoa. Mean prevalence among examined females is of about 55.5%. It varies between localities and length of fish. The present myxosporea is the second Kudoa species reported in fish ovaries. PMID:23435961

Mansour, Lamjed; Thabet, Aouatef; Chourabi, Kalthoum; Harrath, Abdul Halim; Gtari, Mahr; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

2013-04-01

145

Renal papillary necrosis in horses after phenylbutazone and water deprivation.  

PubMed

Acute renal papillary necrosis occurred in five horses given normal therapeutic doses of phenylbutazone and deprived of water for 36 to 48 hours prior to euthanasia. Five horses given phenylbutazone alone and four horses subjected to water deprivation alone did not develop papillary necrosis. Urinalyses were normal prior to water deprivation, and also after water deprivation in the horses that did not receive phenylbutazone, but the water-deprived, phenylbutazone-treated horses had many red blood cells, transitional epithelial cells, and large numbers of oxalate crystals in their urine. Ulceration of the alimentary tract was seen in more than 50% of these horses. Tongue ulceration was present in one of five horses given phenylbutazone and one of five horses which had phenylbutazone and water deprivation. Ulceration of the gastric mucosa was seen in two of the five phenylbutazone-treated horses, four of five horses with phenylbutazone treatment and water deprivation, and one of four horses with water deprivation alone. Severe colonic ulceration with perforation and peritonitis was present in one horse given phenylbutazone for three months. No other significant changes in the small or large intestine were seen in the other 13 horses. PMID:6636467

Gunson, D E; Soma, L R

1983-09-01

146

Ocean Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of mammals that live in the ocean? First, you will need to use the Ocean Mammals Table 1. This website is here for you to learn about ocean mammals. Mammals 2. This website will help you learn about the different mammals that live in the ocean. Ocean Mammals 3. Here is some information about how oil spills effect animal skin in the ocean. Oil Spills 4. This link ...

Teschner, Miss

2011-04-06

147

Caecal intussusceptions in horses and the significance of Anoplocephala perfoliata.  

PubMed

A caecocaecal intussusception in a pony and a caecocolic intussusception in a horse, both infected with Anoplocephala perfoliata, are described and the relevance of tapeworms in such intestinal disease of horses is reviewed. PMID:2644733

Owen, R A; Jagger, D W; Quan-Taylor, R

1989-01-14

148

Effect of Concentrate Form on Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Horses  

E-print Network

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common amongst equine athletes of various disciplines and linked to decreased performance. Prevalence among racehorses has been reported to be over 90%, performance horses at 60%, and endurances horses...

Huth, Lindsey

2012-02-14

149

Serum hepatitis associated with commercial plasma transfusion in horses.  

PubMed

This report describes 4 fatal cases of serum hepatitis associated with the administration of commercial plasma in the horse. Serum hepatitis in the horse is characterized by acute hepatic central lobular necrosis, and it has been associated with the administration of biological products of equine origin. None of these horses had a recent history of equine biologic-origin vaccination; however, they had received 1.5-5 L of commercial plasma, and in I horse, an additional 8 L of fresh blood. Acute, severe colic unresponsive to medical therapy, lethargy, or sudden death developed in these 4 horses 41 to 60 days later. Two of the horses developed encephalopathy, confirmed in 1 horse by the presence of severe diffuse Alzheimer type II astrocytes in the brain. Although the prevalence of serum hepatitis associated with the administration of commercial plasma appears to be low in the horse, it should be considered an uncommon but potentially fatal risk factor. PMID:15715060

Aleman, Monica; Nieto, Jorge E; Carr, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Gary P

2005-01-01

150

Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms  

PubMed Central

Background Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. Methods A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. Results The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66–78%). A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1–8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec) to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. Conclusion The results show that routines for endoparasite control can be improved in many horse establishments. To increase the knowledge of equine endoparasite control and follow the recommendations for how to reduce the spread of anthelmintic resistance, a closer collaboration between parasitologists and veterinary practitioners is desirable. PMID:17897438

Lind, Eva Osterman; Rautalinko, Erik; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan

2007-01-01

151

Causative ehrlichial organisms in Potomac horse fever.  

PubMed

An ehrlichia was consistently isolated from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction of ponies that had been experimentally infected with Potomac horse fever by whole blood transfusion from naturally infected horses. The organism was propagated in a human histiocyte cell line for 3 to 5 weeks and then inoculated intravenously or intradermally into healthy adult ponies. Clinical signs of Potomac horse fever, which varied in the degree of severity, occurred 9 to 14 days post-inoculation in all of the ponies. One pony died 20 days post-inoculation. The ehrlichial organism was reisolated in the human histiocyte cell line from the blood leukocyte fraction of all of the experimental ponies on each day that samples were examined (days 9, 10, 11, 19, and 39). These organisms were identical to those originally detected in the wall of the intestine of ponies with clinically diagnosed Potomac horse fever when compared by light and electron microscopy and an immunofluorescence labeling technique. The immunofluorescent antibody titer became positive in a pony at 20 days postinjection. These results indicate that the ehrlichial organisms is the causative agent of Potomac horse fever. PMID:4030092

Rikihisa, Y; Perry, B D

1985-09-01

152

Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs  

E-print Network

Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs: an in vivo-in vitro study geldings and three male beagle dogs, following intravenous doses of racemic FPF (1 mg/kg in horses), R(-)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs), and S(+)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

African Horse-Sickness Killed-Virus Tissue Culture Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Formalized African horse-sickness (AHS) type 9 virus cultivated in monkey kidney stable (MS) cell cultures was experimentally used for immunizing horses. Inactivated vaccines prepared either from viscerotropic or neurotropic type 9 AHS virus produced antibodies in vaccinated horses. Immunity developed in all horses vaccinated with various amounts of the vaccine, and protected them from infection, when challenged 5 weeks after vaccination. PMID:4226381

Ozawa, Y.; Bahrami, S.

1966-01-01

154

Hardware Trojan Horse Detection Using Gate-Level Characterization  

E-print Network

Hardware Trojan Horse Detection Using Gate-Level Characterization Miodrag Potkonjak Ani Nahapetian Angeles, CA 90095 {miodrag, ani, tmassey}@cs.ucla.edu ABSTRACT Hardware Trojan horses (HTHs been a huge research and development effort for detecting software Trojan horses, surprisingly, HTHs

Potkonjak, Miodrag

155

Techniques and Technology Immunocontraception in Wild Horses: One Inoculation  

E-print Network

-injection, 2-year-duration PZP vaccine in free-roaming wild horses (Equus caballus) in Nevada, USA adjuvant, controlled-release vaccine contraception, Equus caballus, field study, free-roaming wild horse Protection Act in 1971, management of wild horses (Equus caballus) on public lands has proven biologically

Abraham, Nader G.

156

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Horses  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Horses Background on Lyme disease and Lyme diagnostics in horses Lyme disease is induced by the spirochete B. burgdorferi-end hosts for B. burgdorferi 1 . Not all infected horses develop clinical signs of Lyme disease. If clinical

Keinan, Alon

157

Disease features in horses with induced equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever).  

PubMed

Fifty-five horses were inoculated IV and/or SC with materials containing Ehrlichia risticii, ie, infected whole blood, buffy coat cells, or cell culture, to study clinical and hematologic features of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever). Major clinical and hematologic features of induced E risticii infection were biphasic increase in rectal temperature with peak increases of 38.9 C and 39.3 C on postinoculation days (PID) 5 and 12, respectively; depression; anorexia; decreased WBC count (maximal decrease of 47% on PID 12); and diarrhea from PID 14 to PID 18. Increased WBC count was an inconsistent feature, with a maximal increase of 51.5% on PID 20. During times of decreased and increased WBC counts, lymphocyte/neutrophil ratios remained fairly constant. However, not all horses had all clinical and hematologic features, and these features were present in different degrees among horses. Increased rectal temperature, depression, anorexia, and decreased WBC count were more consistent features, whereas diarrhea developed in 73% of the horses. Of 55 horses, 39 (71%) had all clinical and hematologic features of the disease (classic disease), whereas 16 (29%) horses did not have greater than or equal to 1 of these features (nonclassic disease). The E risticii titer in the blood (ehrlichemia) was maximum during the peak increase in rectal temperature. In 55 horses, mortality was 9%. Significant differences (P greater than 0.5) in clinical and hematologic features were not detected between horses that survived and those that died of E risticii infection. PMID:3189992

Dutta, S K; Penney, B E; Myrup, A C; Robl, M G; Rice, R M

1988-10-01

158

Canada's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview of Canadanain oceans outlines the characteristics of the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic marine ecosystems. After a brief look at Canada's ocean environments from a global perspective, additional chapters provide an overview of the physical properties, fauna and human impacts associated with Canada's oceans. For each ocean there is information on water properties, currents, tides, and the ocean floor. Ocean floor information includes descriptions of ocean basins, submarine ridges, continental shelves and sedimentation while current information includes the causes, effects, and names of the currents. There is an explanation of the cause of tides and how they affect each shoreline.

159

Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface

L. Cao; K. Caldeira

2008-01-01

160

Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention without Compromising Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

161

Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention Without Compromising Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

162

Investigating the origins of horse domestication.  

PubMed

Before the development of firearms, the horse was crucial to warfare and, before the invention of the steam engine, it was the fastest and most reliable form of land transport. It is crucial to the life of nomadic pastoralists on the Eurasian steppe and played a major role in the evolution of human society during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Understanding the human past requires knowledge of the origins and development of horse husbandry. The problem of being able to identify the early stages of horse domestication is one that many researchers have grappled with for the most part unsuccessfully. Until recently the most important criteria used had been that of increased relative abundance. That is, around 3500 BC, in some parts of Eurasia, there was an apparent increase in the proportions of horse bones and teeth found in archaeological deposits by comparison with preceding periods. However, other evidence suggests that the observed increase during the Copper Age could be explained as well, or even better, by increased hunting rather than by domestication. PMID:11314236

Levine, M A

1999-04-01

163

HORSE: a simulation of the horizon supercomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

HORSE is a program that combines the simulation of the HORIZON multiprocessor architecture with an interactive debugging environment. The models for processing elements, interconnection network, and memory modules include enough detail to allow execution time to be estimated. Debugging commands, invoked by either the user or the program, can inspect the state of computation without perturbing the sequence of future

Daniel J. Kopetzky

1988-01-01

164

Stretching Exercises for Horses: Are They Effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to present research in both animals and humans that support the use of stretching exercises in horses as a means of increasing range of motion, improving body flexibility and posture, and preventing injury by strengthening the supportive tissues. Too often veterinarians may overlook the importance of stretch exercises. This could partially be due to a lack of

Ava Frick

2010-01-01

165

Potentially Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses, Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia sp. DNA was amplified from 4 Ehrlichia-seroreactive horses from Mérida, Nicaragua. Sequencing of 16S rDNA, sodB, and groEL genes indicated that the bacterium is most likely a novel Ehrlichia species. The tick vector and the potential for canine and human infection remain unknown. PMID:25625228

O’Nion, Victoria L.; Montilla, Hernan J.; Qurollo, Barbara A.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Tornquist, Susan J.

2015-01-01

166

A Dark Horse Medium in Basic Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dark Horse (DH) board is described and discussed as one medium which may be utilized in the classroom. The DH Board holds fairly heavy three-dimensional display objects and consists of two components: a special material which serves as the display surface and an adhesive material which is fixed to objects displayed. (SC)

Eckert, Sidney W.

1974-01-01

167

Horsing Around on Saturn Robert J. Vanderbei  

E-print Network

Horsing Around on Saturn Robert J. Vanderbei Operations Research and Financial Engineering recently. In this paper, we argue that Saturn's rings and inner moons are in much more stable orbits than and show that this horseshoeing phenomenon greatly stabilizes the rings of Saturn. This paper is part

Vanderbei, Robert J.

168

SELECTING, FEEDING, AND CARING FOR LIGHT HORSES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON LIGHT HORSE BREEDS, SELECTION, NUTRITION, CARE, AND FACILITIES. TEACHERS SHOULD HAVE COMPETENCY IN GENERAL AGRICULTURE, AND STUDENTS SHOULD HAVE…

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

169

Euthanasia of horses - alternatives to the bullet  

Microsoft Academic Search

EUTHANASIA of horses is probably one of the most demanding procedures a veterinary surgeon is likely to face. There are emotive issues involved which make it akin to the euthanasia of small animals and logistics which make it akin to the euthanasia of farm animals. The safety of personnel in the vicinity is paramount and adequate restraint and facilities are

Derek Knottenbelt

1995-01-01

170

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for success- ful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo

Cesare Galli; Irina Lagutina; Roberto Duchi; Silvia Colleoni; Giovanna Lazzari

2008-01-01

171

Potentially novel ehrlichia species in horses, nicaragua.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia sp. DNA was amplified from 4 Ehrlichia-seroreactive horses from Mérida, Nicaragua. Sequencing of 16S rDNA, sodB, and groEL genes indicated that the bacterium is most likely a novel Ehrlichia species. The tick vector and the potential for canine and human infection remain unknown. PMID:25625228

O'Nion, Victoria L; Montilla, Hernan J; Qurollo, Barbara A; Maggi, Ricardo G; Hegarty, Barbara C; Tornquist, Susan J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2015-02-01

172

Hypereosinophilia in a horse with intestinal lymphosarcoma.  

PubMed Central

Paraneoplastic eosinophilia is reported in dogs, cats, and humans. Hypereosinophilia (an eosinophil count greater than 1.5 x 10(9) L) is often associated with metastasis and a poor prognosis. This report describes a case of paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in a pony. Neoplasia should be included in the differential diagnoses in a horse with eosinophilia. PMID:9360792

Duckett, W M; Matthews, H K

1997-01-01

173

Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities  

PubMed Central

The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

2014-01-01

174

Age and growth of chub mackerel ( Xcomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas using sectioned otolith samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) is a primary pelagic fish species, we have only limited knowledge on its key life history processes. The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas. Age was determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercial purse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawning ground in May 2006. The difference between the assumed birth date of 1st April and date of capture was used to adjust the age determined from counting the number of complete translucent rings. The parameters of three commonly used growth models, the von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz models, were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion ( AIC), the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model. The size-at-age and size-at-maturity values were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s, which was caused by heavy exploitation over the last few decades.

Li, Gang; Chen, Xinjun; Feng, Bo

2008-11-01

175

Purification and characterization of novel antioxidant peptides of different molecular weights from mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus protein hydrolysate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mackerel ( Pneumatophorus japonic u s) proteins were hydrolyzed by five proteases: trypsin, papain, neutrase, acid protease, and flavourzyme. The hydrolysate treated by neutrase exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the hydrolysis conditions in an effort to obtain a mackerel protein hydrolysate (MPH) with the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. The MPH was fractioned using a series of ultrafiltration membranes and five fractions, namely, MPH-I (>10 kDa), MPH-II (10-2.5 kDa), MPH-III (1-2.5 kDa), MPH-IV (0.4-1 kDa), and MPH-V (below 0.4 kDa), were obtained. DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and the lipid peroxidation inhibition capability of these fractions were evaluated. The fractions in molecular weights <2.5 kDa (MPH-III, MPH-IV, and MPH-V), which occupied 93.4% of the total fractions, showed the strongest antioxidant activity; and the antioxidant activities of the three fractions are similar to each other. Using SP Sephadex C-25 and Sephadex G-25 columns, eight fractions were obtained from the MPH (<2.5 kDa). The isolated peptide I (1 664 kDa) displayed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. Therefore, MPH is a potential source of antioxidant peptides.

Wang, Xueqin; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Chen, Zuoyuan; Li, Pengcheng

2015-01-01

176

Odor and VOC Emissions from Pan Frying of Mackerel at Three Stages: Raw, Well-Done, and Charred  

PubMed Central

Many classes of odorants and volatile organic compounds that are deleterious to our wellbeing can be emitted from diverse cooking activities. Once emitted, they can persist in our living space for varying durations. In this study, various volatile organic compounds released prior to and during the pan frying of fish (mackerel) were analyzed at three different cooking stages (stage 1 = raw (R), stage 2 = well-done (W), and stage 3 = overcooked/charred (O)). Generally, most volatile organic compounds recorded their highest concentration levels at stage 3 (O), e.g., 465 (trimethylamine) and 106 ppb (acetic acid). In contrast, at stage 2 (W), the lowest volatile organic compounds emissions were observed. The overall results of this study confirm that trimethylamine is identified as the strongest odorous compound, especially prior to cooking (stage 1 (R)) and during overcooking leading to charring (stage 3 (O)). As there is a paucity of research effort to measure odor intensities from pan frying of mackerel, this study will provide valuable information regarding the management of indoor air quality. PMID:25405596

Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Szulejko, Jan E.; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won

2014-01-01

177

Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment  

PubMed Central

Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that < 30 horses used > 25 km2 of trails in our study area. PMID:19903355

2009-01-01

178

A zoonotic genotype of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in horses.  

PubMed

This is the first report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an equid species. Feces from 195 horses from 4 locations in Colombia were examined for E. bieneusi by polymerase chain reaction. Of these, 21 horses (10.8%) were found positive for E. bieneusi . The prevalence of E. bieneusi in horses <1 yr of age was significantly higher (23.7%) than in horses >1 yr of age (2.5%). No significant differences in prevalence were observed between male (13.7%) and female horses (9%). Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the SSUrRNA locus identified 3 genotypes. Two genotypes appear to be unique to horses and were named Horse 1 and Horse 2. A third genotype, identified as genotype D, was detected in 4 horses. This genotype, previously reported to infect humans, beaver, cattle, dogs, falcons, foxes, macaques, muskrats, pigs, and raccoons, is the most ubiquitous of the E. bieneusi zoonotic genotypes. Our findings indicate that E. bieneusi from horses can be a potential source of infection for humans. PMID:19799490

Santín, Mónica; Vecino, Jesús A Cortés; Fayer, Ronald

2010-02-01

179

Small-scale patterns in distribution and feeding of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) larvae in the Celtic Sea with special regard to intra-cohort cannibalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term variability in vertical distribution and feeding of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) larvae was investigated while tracking a larval patch over a 48-h period. The patch was repeatedly sampled and a total of 12,462 mackerel larvae were caught within the upper 100 m of the water column. Physical parameters were monitored at the same time. Larval length distribution showed a mode in the 3.0 mm standard length (SL) class (mean abundance of 3.0 mm larvae $ x =75.34 per 100 m3, s=34.37). Highest densities occurred at 20-40 m depth. Larvae <5.0 mm SL were highly aggregated above the thermocline, while larvae >=5.0 mm SL were more dispersed and tended to migrate below the thermocline. Gut contents of 1,177 mackerel larvae (2.9-9.7 mm SL) were analyzed. Feeding incidence, mean number (numerical intensity) and mean dry weight (weight-based intensity) of prey items per larval gut were significantly dependent on larval size. However, while weight-based feeding intensities continued to increase with larval length, numerical intensity peaked at 4-4.9 mm SL, indicating a shift in the larval diet. While first-feeding larvae relied most heavily on copepod nauplii and eggs, larvae >=5.0 mm SL initiated piscivorous feeding. All identifiable fish larvae were Atlantic mackerel. Thus, the piscivory was cannibalism. Larval feeding incidence and numerical feeding intensities peaked during daytime and were reduced at night. Daily ration estimates for first-feeding mackerel larvae <4.0 mm SL were extremely low x$ = 1.43% body dry weight, but increased dramatically at 5.0 mm SL, i.e., at the onset of cannibalism, reaching >50% body dry weight in larva >=8.0 mm SL.

Hillgruber, Nicola; Kloppmann, Matthias

2001-03-01

180

Ocean Terracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean

Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

2007-01-01

181

Ocean Terracing  

E-print Network

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean Art is the technically possible 21-st Century terracing of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Art is applicable worldwide to places that might be practically improved by its judicious employment. Such Ocean Art may constitute an entirely unique category of solutions to coastal disaster prevention planning.

Richard Cathcart; Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-09

182

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2011-01-01

183

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2011-01-01

184

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

... 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2014-01-01

185

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

...2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2014-01-01

186

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2010-01-01

187

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2010-01-01

188

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2014-01-01

189

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2013-01-01

190

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2013-01-01

191

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2010-01-01

192

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2013-01-01

193

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2011-01-01

194

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2012-01-01

195

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2012-01-01

196

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2012-01-01

197

Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses. PMID:21851747

2010-01-01

198

Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues.  

PubMed

The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference "Twilight". In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms. PMID:24860704

Moreton, Joanna; Malla, Sunir; Aboobaker, A Aziz; Tarlinton, Rachael E; Emes, Richard D

2014-01-01

199

Intravascular neutrophilic granulocyte kinetics in horses.  

PubMed

Intravascular granulocyte kinetics in 4 healthy horses were determined with chromium-51 as the cell label. The disappearance rate of labeled granulocytes was an exponential function. Mean total blood granulocyte pool (+/- 1 SD) was 5.65 +/- 1.514 X 10(8) granulocytes/kg of body weight, of which 2.71 +/- 0.715 X 10(8) granulocytes/kg were circulating and 2.94 +/- 0.876 X 10(8) granulocytes/kg were marginated along blood vessel walls. The mean disappearance half-life (T1/2) was 10.5 +/- 1.33 hours and the mean granulocyte turnover rate was 8.84 +/- 1.495 X 10(8) granulocytes/kg/day. A granulokinetic trial performed on a horse recovering from a recent infection revealed increases in all granulokinetic measurements. PMID:7332122

Carakostas, M C; Moore, W E; Smith, J E

1981-04-01

200

Adverse Effects of Zilpaterol Administration in Horses: Three Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three healthy horses were fed the beta-adrenergic agonist feed additive zilpaterol at a dosage of 0.17 mg\\/kg body weight to study zilpaterol elimination kinetics. Soon after ingestion of zilpaterol, the horses developed skeletal muscle tremors and tachycardia. A 75 to 87.5% reduced dose of zilpaterol was fed to the horses 24 hours after the initial dose; administration was discontinued thereafter.

Sarah A. Wagner; Michelle S. Mostrom; Carolyn J. Hammer; Jennifer F. Thorson; David J. Smith

2008-01-01

201

Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.  

PubMed

Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV. PMID:25139547

Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

2014-12-01

202

Conditioning taste aversions to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in horses.  

PubMed

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) is a serious poisoning problem for horses grazing on infested rangelands in the western United States. Our objectives were to determine 1) whether lithium chloride or apomorphine would condition aversions to palatable foods, and at what doses, and 2) whether horses could be averted to fresh locoweed in a pen and grazing situation. Apomorphine was not an acceptable aversive agent because at the dose required to condition an aversion (> or = 0.17 mg/kg BW), apomorphine induced unacceptable behavioral effects. Lithium chloride given via stomach tube at 190 mg/kg BW conditioned strong and persistent aversions to palatable feeds with minor signs of distress. Pen and grazing tests were conducted in Colorado to determine if horses could be averted to fresh locoweed. Pen tests indicated that most horses (5/6) were completely averted from locoweed. Treated horses ate 34 g of fresh locoweed compared to 135 g for controls (P < 0.01) during three pen tests when offered 150 g per test. One horse (T) in the treatment group ate locoweed each time it was offered in the pen, but ate no locoweed while grazing. In the grazing trial, control horses averaged 8.6% of bites of locoweed (P < 0.01) during the grazing portion of the study, whereas treated horses averaged <0.5%. One treated horse (S) accounted for all consumption; he consumed 15% of his bites as locoweed in a grazing bout on d 2 of the field study. Thereafter, he was dosed a second time with lithium chloride and ate no locoweed in the subsequent 5 d. Three of six horses required two pairings of lithium chloride with fresh locoweed to condition a complete aversion. The results of this study indicate that horses can be averted from locoweed using lithium chloride as an aversive agent, and this may provide a management tool to reduce the risk of intoxication for horses grazing locoweed-infested rangeland. PMID:11831531

Pfister, J A; Stegelmeier, B L; Cheney, C D; Ralphs, M H; Gardner, D R

2002-01-01

203

Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome\\u000a species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever,\\u000a weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or

Aleksandro S. Da Silva; Herakles A. Garcia Perez; Márcio M. Costa; Raqueli T. França; Diego De Gasperi; Régis A. Zanette; João A. Amado; Sonia T. A. Lopes; Marta M. G. Teixeira; Silvia G. Monteiro

2011-01-01

204

Aortic-Iliac Thrombosis in a Horse  

PubMed Central

A horse with a history of chronic lameness was presented with signs of abdominal pain. A diagnosis of intestinal obstruction was initially made and treatment was ineffective. Further examination revealed an aortic obstruction in the area of the bifurcation of the iliac vessels. Postmortem results supported the clinical findings. The clinical signs of aortic-iliac thrombosis are consistent with the lameness pattern and abdominal distress. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422112

Crawford, W. H.

1982-01-01

205

Prevalence and Treatment of Tapeworms in Horses  

PubMed Central

A study was initiated to determine the prevalence of tapeworms in horses in Southern Ontario and to investigate the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate, niclosamide and mebendazole. Fecal samples were taken from 580 horses of various breeds, ages and sexes in 24 locations and Anoplocephala perfoliata was found in 13.6%. This was regarded as a minimum, the true rate being probably significantly higher and the reasons for this are discussed. A brief review of the life cycle and effects of tapeworms in horses and a comparison of two flotation techniques for the diagnosis of A. perfoliata eggs in feces is given. Pyrantel pamoate, niclosamide and mebendazole were compared for efficacy in field and critical trials. In field trials, pyrantel base and niclosamide at 6.6 and 50 mg/kg respectively were found to be effective, but in critical trials their efficacy was poor, 15 and 5.6% respectively. These anthelmintics at these dose rates caused only an elimination of the terminal egg bearing segments and were without significant effect on the entire tapeworm. When pyrantel base was administered at 13.2 and 19.8 mg/kg (twice and three times the therapeutic dose rate for nematodes respectively) the efficacy was 97.8 and 100%. It would appear that pyrantel pamoate administered at 13.2 mg pyrantel base/kg is an effective therapeutic dose for tapeworms in horses. Further dose titration studies are needed for niclosamide. Mebendazole was without effect at up to four (35.2 mg/kg) times the therapeutic dose for nematodes. PMID:487360

Slocombe, J. O. D.

1979-01-01

206

Surgical management of intussusception in the horse.  

PubMed

During a 14 year period, 27 of 310 horses undergoing laparotomy because of abdominal pain were found to have an intussusception involving the small intestine (16 cases) or caecum (11 cases). The clinical signs, operative findings and techniques adopted to overcome the obstruction are described. An evaluation of possible predisposing factors provided further evidence of the important role of the tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata in initiating intussusception involving the ileum and caecum. PMID:3758012

Edwards, G B

1986-07-01

207

Local Anesthetics as Pain Therapy in Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local Anesthetics as Pain Therapy in Horses Thomas J. Doherty MVB, MSc, and M. Reza Seddighi DVM, PhD\\u000aDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA\\u000aThis article describes the rationale behind the use of systemically administered lidocaine as an analgesic. The analgesic efficacy of intravenously administered

Seddighi Reza DVM

2010-01-01

208

Acute hemorrhage and blood transfusions in horses.  

PubMed

Treatment of acute hemorrhage in the horse involves targeted medical management and also may involve surgical stabilization. This article provides an approach to the initial stabilization and information on available topical hemostats. The practice of blood collection and transfusion is also described, with attention to new information on viability of transfused equine blood, potential negative effects of blood transfusion, and methods of cell salvage. PMID:25016500

Mudge, Margaret C

2014-08-01

209

Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was obtained at predetermined intervals for the determination of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 hours for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 ?g/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 hr*?g/mL for horses and 17.253 hr*?g/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 minutes of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. PMID:21492187

Williams, Megan M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; KuKanich, Butch

2010-01-01

210

Ileal impaction in 245 horses: 1995–2007  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify parameters that would assist in determining the probability of a successful outcome with medical management versus surgical intervention in horses with ileal impaction. Medical records of 245 horses admitted for ileal impaction were reviewed and placed into 2 groups: medical (med) and surgical (sx) treatment. Persistence of abdominal pain, gastric reflux, frequency of analgesic administration, and 1-year survival were evaluated. There were no differences in signalment, abdominal pain, or heart rate among groups; however, significantly more sx horses had peritoneal fluid abnormalities (51%) and produced gastric reflux (62%) than did med horses (38% and 15%, respectively). Eighty-nine percent of med horses required repeated analgesic administration for successful resolution. One-year survival was 91% for sx horses and 92% for med horses. Horses with ileal impaction responsive to analgesic therapy with minimal gastric reflux are likely to be managed successfully with medical treatment. Horses with persistent abdominal pain and gastric reflux are candidates for surgery. PMID:22210940

Fleming, Kelly; Mueller, P.O. Eric

2011-01-01

211

The horse as a potential reservoir of salmonella  

E-print Network

of this reservoir have not been fully appreciated. Forty (52K) of 75 horses, from which 7 different intestinal sites were sampled following euthanasia, were found to harbor salmonellae. Seventeen (42. 5yb) of the 40 horses arried more than one serotype. Four... salmonella serotypes were isolated from each of 2 horse, . Salmonella was isolated most frequently from he contents of. tne small intestine and from the cecal wall. Zn another approach to the salmonella problemy 10 horses on a broodma e farm found...

Silverthorne, Carol Ann

1978-01-01

212

Feeding and Caring for a Yearling 4-H Futurity Horse  

E-print Network

a horse that can be enjoyed for years to come. A horse is considered a yearling on January 1 of the first calendar year after its foaling date. However, in many yearling futurity projects, the horse begins training immediately after it has been... weaned. Special care must be taken with these young horses because many of them are kept in stalls and given hay and concentrate rations instead of being al- lowed to graze on grass throughout the day. They also are often subjected to forced exercise...

Antilley, Teri J.; Sigler, Dennis

2009-04-23

213

A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).  

PubMed

Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID:20492428

Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

2010-07-01

214

[The parasite fauna of the chub mackerel (Scombridae: Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1782) in the central-eastern Atlantic (Atlantic coast of the Northern Africa and the Azores Archipelago banks)].  

PubMed

The parasite fauna of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus Houtuym, 1782 was studied from the neritic areas of Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania and from the banks of the Azores Archipelago (the Great Meteor Bank, the Hyeres Bank and the Irving Bank) in 1994-2001. Twenty eight species of parasites of following group have been were found: Coccidia (1 species), Microsporidia (1), Myxosporea (4), Monogenea (4), Cestoda (5), Trematoda (5), Acanthocephala (1) and Nematoda (6). The differences between mackerel parasite fauna in the neritic areas and from of the Azores Archipelago banks were established. Peculiarities of the mackerel parasite fauna in two areas (Morocco--Western Sahara and Mauritania) corroborate the hypothesis that two populations of chub mackerel are available: "Sahara-Moroccan" and "Senegal-Mauritanian". Ontogenetic variability of parasite fauna was related to food demands of mackerel and its feeding habits in the areas Morocco and Mauritania. Kudoa histolytica has negative influence on the commercial value of S. japonicus. These parasites were localized in the muscles of mackerel from Mauritania (40%, TL = 20-25 cm). Parasites being dangerous for human health were presented by larvae of Bolbosoma sp. (occurred on the banks of the Azores Archipelago), Anisakis simplex and Contracaecum sp. (occurred in all areas investigated). PMID:15174392

Shukhgalter, O A

2004-01-01

215

Clinical trials of efficacy of praziquantel horse paste 9% against tapeworms and its safety in horses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study with horses and a few ponies naturally infected with tapeworms was to confirm in clinical trials the efficacy and safety of a praziquantel horse paste 9%. The field trials were conducted in 1997 and 1998 in Canada, France, Germany and New Zealand. A secondary aim of the study in Canada was to determine if a 24h post-treatment fecal sample provides the best estimate of the prevalence of tapeworms in horses when using a fecal examination technique. Fecal samples were taken from each of 1062 animals at least three times pre-treatment (PRT). In Canada, fecal samples were examined using the Cornell-Wisconsin centrifugal flotation technique, and in France, Germany and New Zealand using a centrifugation/flotation technique. In each trial, the animals were randomized into two treatment groups: praziquantel horse paste 9% at 1mg/kg body weight (BW) and untreated. Fecal samples were taken from each animal nine times post-treatment and over a period of 5 weeks. In Canada, a fecal sample was taken also at 24h after treatment. Personnel examining the samples were "blinded" to treatment groups. On the day of treatment, each treated animal was examined for adverse reactions to the paste 10min after treatment and then hourly for 4h. Thereafter, each animal was examined once daily for 5 weeks. In Canada, Germany and New Zealand, the only tapeworm egg found was Anoplocephala perfoliata. In France, A. perfoliata was the most common species and a few animals had A. magna and Paranoplocephala mamillana. The prevalence of A. perfoliata among animals sampled in Canada, France, Germany and New Zealand was 51.8, 34.4, 13.1 and 26.2%, respectively. A total of 248 animals were treated with the praziquantel paste and all except one accepted it readily. There were 292 animals completing the study, 219 treated and 73 untreated. In Canada, Germany and New Zealand, the efficacy of the praziquantel horse paste 9% against A. perfoliata was 100%. In France, the efficacy against A. perfoliata, A. magna and P. mamillana was 90.9, 100 and 100%, respectively. The best estimate of prevalence for A. perfoliata in a herd was derived from fecal samples taken 24h after treatment. At 24h, 22 of 23 treated horses were positive, whereas on any day pre-treatment fewer horses were positive. Adverse reactions observed were mild to moderate colic and in only two treated horses. PMID:17101225

Slocombe, J Owen D; Heine, Josef; Barutzki, Dieter; Slacek, Brigitte

2007-03-31

216

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data â both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Lightle, Kimberly; Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-10-01

217

Ocean Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Ocean Planet_ is a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition that now has a companion on-line exhibition. It covers varied topics associated with the ocean, such as the science of the ocean, the animals, people, and communities who use the ocean, and pollution problems currently endangering ocean resources. The exhibit features all of the text and a good portion of the images from the traveling exhibit. The curator of this exhibit has put together six special interest tours including Biodiversity, Women and the Sea, and Pollution. Users can also build their own special tour from a list of key words. The current list contains only four words, but is expected to grow in the future. Visitors can also consult a comprehensive list of educational materials and ocean resources.

218

Ocean FEST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean FEST family science nights feature hands-on, standards-based, ocean-themed science activities for students in grades 3-6 and their families. Our goals are to: (1) educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their communities; and (2) inspire students - especially those from underrepresented groups - to pursue careers in the ocean and earth sciences. The teacher guide provides all information (including supply lists) necessary to perform these activities in a classroom. Some supply funding is available--see Teacher Resources section for more information.

Bruno, Barbara; Hsia, Michelle; Wiener, Carlie

219

76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...to ensure that these animals are not being abused...Subjects in 9 CFR Part 11 Animal welfare, Horses...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health...

2011-05-27

220

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

221

Adverse effects of zilpaterol administration in horses: three cases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three healthy horses were fed 0.17 mg/kg body weight of the beta-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol to determine zilpaterol elimination kinetics. Shortly after treatment, each horse developed skeletal muscle tremors, tachycardia, and serological abnormalities lasting several days. A 75% to 87.5% reduced ...

222

Conditioning taste aversions to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in horses1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) is a seri- ous poisoning problem for horses grazing on infested rangelands in the western United States. Our objec- tives were to determine 1) whether lithium chloride or apomorphine would condition aversions to palatable foods, and at what doses, and 2) whether horses could be averted to fresh locoweed in a pen and grazing situa- tion. Apomorphine

J. A. Pfister; B. L. Stegelmeier; C. D. Cheney; M. H. Ralphs; D. R. Gardner

223

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses  

E-print Network

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses The NYS Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory has isolated Salmonella Group C2 from cultures submitted from 4 different horse farms in either to most antibiotics. A Salmonella newport strain (Group C2) was recently associated with the closing

Keinan, Alon

224

Sinusitis associated with nasogastric intubation in 3 horses  

PubMed Central

Sinusitis has not been reported as a complication of long-term nasogastric intubation in horses. We describe 3 horses that developed nosocomial sinusitis following abdominal surgery with associated perioperative nasogastric intubation. Sinusitis was suspected by the presence of malodorous discharge and confirmed by percussion, upper airway endoscopy, radiographs (n = 3), and bacterial culture (n = 1). PMID:24891638

Nieto, Jorge E.; Yamout, Sawsan; Dechant, Julie E.

2014-01-01

225

Equine Rabies: What Every Horse Owner Should Know  

E-print Network

1 Equine Rabies: What Every Horse Owner Should Know Amanda M. House, DVM Diplomate ACVIM (Large Animal) Assistant Professor, UF CVM Overview · What causes Rabies · Statistics and Epidemiology · How does my horse get Rabies? · Clinical Signs ofClinical Signs of Rabies · Diagnosis · Treatment

Watson, Craig A.

226

Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race  

PubMed Central

We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities. PMID:22547844

Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M.

2011-01-01

227

Dominant black in horses DP Sponenberg MC Weise  

E-print Network

Note Dominant black in horses DP Sponenberg MC Weise Department of Biosciences and Pathobiology - The existence of dominant black in horses is supported by a black stallion producing 12 black or near black and no other color of foals from bay mares, and 16 black or nearly black and no other color of foals from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

228

Degradation of azo dye with horse radish peroxidase (HRP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes are recalcitrant carcinogenic compounds and have dermal and immunological effect on human beings. Conventional methods are not effective in the treatment of azo dyes. The oxidation capability of horse radish per- oxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on direct yellow 12 dye was investigated and was found to be very effective treatment methodology. HRP was extracted from horse

VASANTHA LAXMI MADDHINNI; HIMA BINDU VURIMINDI; ANJANEYULU YERRAMILLI; Trent Lott

2006-01-01

229

Preference and demand for exercise in stabled horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operant conditioning and two choice preference tests were used to assess the motivation of horses to be released from straight and from box stalls. The motivations for food, a companion, and release into a paddock were compared when the horses had to work for each commodity at increasing fixed ratios of responses (panel presses) to reward in an equine operant

Joyce Lee; Toby Floyd; Hollis Erb; Katherine Houpt

2011-01-01

230

2004 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE BOWL ONE ON ONE  

E-print Network

including the coronary band S. AYHCLM B101 ­ 2L 18. Q. The domestic horse belongs to which species? A. Equus Caballus S. Evans, p. 13 19. Q Which region of the horse's vertebral column is the most flexible? A

New Hampshire, University of

231

A Comparative Gene Map of the Horse (Equus caballus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative gene map of the horse genome composed of 127 loci was assembled based on the new assignment of 68 equine type I loci and on data published previously. PCR primers based on consensus gene sequences conserved across mammalian species were used to amplify markers for assigning 68 equine type I loci to 27 horse synteny groups established previously

Alexandre R. Caetano; Yow-Ling Shiue; Leslie A. Lyons; Steven J. O'Brien; Thomas F. Laughlin; Ann T. Bowling; James D. Murray

1999-01-01

232

Characterization of the horse ( Equus caballus ) IGHA gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide sequences of the immunoglobulin constant heavy chain genes of the horse have been described for IGHM, IGHG and IGHE genes, but not for IGHA. Here, we provide the nucleotide sequence of the genomic IGHA gene of the horse ( Equus caballus), including its secretion region and the transmembrane exon. The equine IGHA gene shows the typical structure of a

Bettina Wagner; Irene Greiser-Wilke; Douglas F. Antczak

2003-01-01

233

Ocean Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWeb's monthly newsletter summarizing recent news, views and events concerning marine and coastal environments and wildlife. Site also features The Ocean Report, a series of ninety-second radio slots highlighting a wide range of news and issues relating to the ocean, and Give Swordfish a Break, a successful campaign that helped restore depleted North Atlantic swordfish populations.

234

and Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of electromagnetic induction within a hemispherical conducting sheet over a nonconductor and underlain by a concentric sphere of uniform conductivity is de- scribed. The theory is applied to the induction by Sq in a vast ocean. It is concluded that the electric currents induced in the ocean are considerably smaller than those estimated for a single hemispherical sheet,

TSUNEJI IIKITAKE

1961-01-01

235

Ocean Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

NASA

236

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

237

Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii Exposure among Horses in Korea.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies by ELISA in horses reared in Korea. Serum samples were collected from 2009 through 2013 from 816 horses reared in Korea. Analysis was performed using a commercial toxoplasmosis ELISA kit to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. Overall, 24 out of 816 horses (2.9%) were seropositive for T. gondii. The result was analyzed by age, gender, breed and region. Significant differences were observed according to breed and region (P<0.05). This is the first nationwide serological investigation of T. gondii in horses reared in Korea. The study results reveal that T. gondii occurs nationwide in Korean horses. PMID:25231435

Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Seo, Min-Goo; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi; Lee, Won-Ja

2014-09-18

238

Effects of turbidity on survival of larval ayu and red sea bream exposed to predation by jack mackerel and moon jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory experiments to examine the effects of turbidity on the survival of red sea bream Pagrus major and ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis larvae when exposed to either visual (jack mackerel juveniles) or tactile (moon jellyfish) predators. The experiments were\\u000a conducted in 30-l tanks with three different levels of turbidity obtained by dissolving 0, 50, or 300 ppm kaolin. Predators

Ryosuke Ohata; Reiji Masuda; Masahiro Ueno; Yuichi Fukunishi; Yoh Yamashita

2011-01-01

239

In vitro metabolic studies using homogenized horse liver in place of horse liver microsomes.  

PubMed

The study of the metabolism of drugs, in particular steroids, by both in vitro and in vivo methods has been carried out in the authors' laboratory for many years. For in vitro metabolic studies, the microsomal fraction isolated from horse liver is often used. However, the process of isolating liver microsomes is cumbersome and tedious. In addition, centrifugation at high speeds (over 100 000 g) may lead to loss of enzymes involved in phase I metabolism, which may account for the difference often observed between in vivo and in vitro results. We have therefore investigated the feasibility of using homogenized horse liver instead of liver microsomes with the aim of saving preparation time and improving the correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. Indeed, the preparation of the homogenized horse liver was very simple, needing only to homogenize the required amount of liver. Even though no further purification steps were performed before the homogenized liver was used, the cleanliness of the extracts obtained, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, was similar to that for liver microsomes. Herein, the results of the in vitro experiments carried out using homogenized horse liver for five anabolic steroids-turinabol, methenolone acetate, androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione, testosterone, and epitestosterone-are discussed. In addition to the previously reported in vitro metabolites, some additional known in vivo metabolites in the equine could also be detected. As far as we know, this is the first report of the successful use of homogenized liver in the horse for carrying out in vitro metabolism experiments. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21381223

Wong, Jenny K Y; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M

2011-06-01

240

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students discover that measurements from space can tell us the temperature of the ocean, both on an annual average and as measured on any given date. For the annual average the highest ocean temperatures are near the equator, and drop as one moves either northward or southward from the equator. Students will graph each temperature value as a function of latitude and write a linear equation that best fits the points on their graph. They can choose as data points any point at that approximate latitude because the temperature is not uniform for a certain latitude - some areas are hotter and some are cooler. They can also look at today's ocean temperatures via the link provided to see how the seasons affect whether the northern or southern oceans are warmer. Students will take ocean temperature data from a map and plot temperature versus angle from the equator.

2007-12-12

241

Effects of deep frying on proximate composition and micronutrient of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), eel (Monopterus albus) and cockle (Anadara granosa).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish. PMID:24191621

Rahman, M M; Zamri, M; Fadilla, N

2012-06-15

242

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

243

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

244

Potential of enterococci isolated from horses.  

PubMed

Faecal samples of 122 horses (from farms in Slovakia) were examined to select enterococci to study their probiotic potential for their further use as additives. Each gram of faeces contained 1.0-5.0 cfu (log 10) of enterococci. Of the 43 isolates, 25 (58.1%) were identified as Enterococcus faecium, 3 strains were (6.9%) Enterococcus mundtii and one strain was identified as E. faecalis. Fourteen isolates were not characterized further. A significant proportion of the isolates were resistant to kanamycin, vancomycin and gentamicin. Low urease activity of enterococci dominated. The values of lactic acid ranged from 0.98 to 1.91 mmol/L. Porcine fibronectectin and bovine lactoferrin were bound weakly by tested enterococci, while bovine fibrinogen was bound more strongly. Enterococci from horses did not bind bovine apotransferrin. The isolates adhered with the same ability to human as well as to canine mucus. At least one enterocin gene was detected among 16 analyzed isolates. Ent B gene was detected in all strains tested (16, 100%), followed by the genes ent A, ent P and ent L50B. Three suitable candidates-the strains of E. faecium EF 412, EF 462 and EF 491 were selected for further detail studies and possibilities to be used as additives. PMID:18508395

Lauková, Andrea; Simonová, Monika; Strompfová, Viola; Styriak, Igor; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Várady, Marián

2008-10-01

245

Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.  

PubMed

Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

2014-03-01

246

Social and spatial structure and range use by Kaimanawa wild horses (Equus caballus: Equidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured horse density, social structure, habitat use, home ranges and altitudinal micro-climates in the south-western Kaimanawa ranges east of Waiouru, New Zealand. Horse density in the Auahitotara ecological sector averaged 3.6 horses.km-2 and ranged from 0.9 to 5.2 horses.km-2 within different zones. The population's social structure was like that of other feral horse populations with an even adult sex

Wayne L. Linklater; Elissa Z. Cameron; Kevin J. Stafford; Clare J. Veltman

2000-01-01

247

Population pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in horses: preliminary analysis.  

PubMed

Population pharmacokinetic of marbofloxacin was investigated on 21 healthy and 16 diseased horses to assess interindividual variability of drug exposure. Demographic, physiologic and disease covariables were tested using mixed effects models. As a preliminary analysis, this study has demonstrated that none of the tested covariables were significant in regression models for compartmental volumes or clearance of distribution, but the clinical status of the horse (healthy/diseased) was a significant covariable (P < 0.01) for systemic clearance. Clearance had a lower mean and a higher variance for diseased horses than healthy horses, with respectively a mean of 0.209 and 0.284 L/h/kg and a coefficient of variation of 52 and 15%. Consequently, variability of AUC was greater in diseased horses. Considering an AUC/MIC ratio below 60 h as a prediction of poor efficacy, a dosage regimen of 2 mg/kg intravenous was deemed to be inadequate for 19% of diseased horses if the MIC of the bacteria was 0.1 microg/mL. However 93% of diseased horses could achieve a ratio above 125 h, predicting a very good efficacy, for the MIC(90) of Enterobacteriacae (0.027 microg/mL). PMID:15500564

Peyrou, M; Doucet, M Y; Vrins, A; Concordet, D; Schneider, M; Bousquet-Mélou, A

2004-10-01

248

Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

2014-01-01

249

Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research  

PubMed Central

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

2014-01-01

250

Oceanic Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of large-scale ocean movements to the moderation of Global Temperature is discussed. The observational requirements of physical oceanography are discussed. Satellite-based oceanographic observing systems are seen as central to oceanography in 1990's.

Chase, R.; Mcgoldrick, L.

1984-01-01

251

Future Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

252

Ocean Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy reference list has 12 kid-friendly books on marine biology. A short description is given for each title, along with author name and publisher. The list includes illustrated looks at ocean habitats, marine life, and more, hands-on activities and experiments that build kids' scientific observation skills along with their marine biology knowledge and puzzle and coloring books that offer creative ways to introduce kids to ocean life.

253

Exercise studies in horses: 1. A simple telemetry system for recording excercise ECGs in horses.  

PubMed

A robust low cost portable radiotelemetry system is described for the horse and its method of operation and advantages briefly discussed. The equipment consisted of 2 electrodes forming a bipolar lead, a transmitter, a receiver and a writing device. The sitting, application and immobilising of the electrodes was a most important factor in obtaining good quality recordings. ECGs were recorded at all paces and also while jumping and the results proved satisfactory. PMID:862606

Hill, G; Atkins, R; Littlejohn, A; Kruger, J M; Bowles, F

1977-04-01

254

Metabolic studies of turinabol in horses.  

PubMed

Turinabol (4-chloro-17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-1,4-androstadien-3-one) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid. As in the case of other anabolic steroids, it is a prohibited substance in equine sports. The metabolism of turinabol in human has been reported previously; however, little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the studies of both the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of turinabol in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting turinabol administration. For the in vitro studies, turinabol was incubated with fresh horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixture were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after trimethylsilylation. The results showed that the major biotransformation of turinabol was hydroxylation at the C6, C16 and C20 sites to give metabolites 6beta-hydroxyturinabol (M1), 20-hydroxyturinabol (M2), two stereoisomers of 6beta,16-dihydroxyturinabol (M3a, M3b) and 6beta,20-dihydroxyturinabol (M4). The metabolite 6beta-hydroxyturinabol was confirmed using an authentic reference standard. The structures of all other turinabol metabolites were tentatively identified by mass spectral interpretation. For the in vivo studies, two horses were administered orally with turinabol. Pre- and post-administration urine samples were collected for analysis. Free and conjugated metabolites were isolated using solid-phase extraction and analysed by GC-MS as described for the in vitro studies. The results revealed that turinabol was extensively metabolised and the parent drug was not detected in urine. Two metabolites detected in the in vitro studies, namely 20-hydroxyturinabol and 6beta,20-dihydroxyturinabol, these were also detected in post-administration urine samples. In addition, 17-epi-turinabol (M5) and six other metabolites (M6a-M6c and M7a-M7c), derived from D-ring hydroxylation and A-ring reduction, were also detected. Except for 17-epi-turinabol, none of these metabolites has ever been reported in any species. All in vivo metabolites were detected within 48 h after administration. PMID:17386713

Ho, E N M; Kwok, W H; Leung, D K K; Wan, T S M; Wong, A S Y

2007-03-14

255

Serum IgM concentrations in normal, fit horses and horses with lymphoma or other medical conditions.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to (1) prospectively establish serum IgM and IgG concentrations in normal, fit, adult horses over time and (2) determine the accuracy of serum IgM concentrations for diagnosing lymphoma. Serial IgM and IgG concentrations were measured with a radial immunodiffusion assay in 25 regularly exercised horses at 6-week intervals. Horses had serum IgM concentrations ranging from 50 to 242 mg/dL over 5 months, with 20% of horses having IgM < or = 60 mg/dL. The normal range for IgM in fit horses should be considered 103 +/- 40 mg/dL and a cut-point for an IgM deficiency, < or = 23 mg/dL. IgG concentrations ranged from 1,372 to 3,032 mg/dL. Retrospectively, medical records of adult horses (n = 103) admitted to the Cornell University Hospital for Animals for which serum IgM was measured were examined. Horses were categorized as "lymphoma negative" (n = 34) or "lymphoma positive" (n = 18). The sensitivity and specificity of a serum IgM concentration (< or = 60 mg/dL) for detecting equine lymphoma was 50 and 35%, respectively. At the new cut-point (< or = 23 mg/dL), the sensitivity was low at 28% and the specificity improved to 88%. The negative predictive values at various population prevalences indicate that a horse with a high serum IgM (> 23 mg/dL) is unlikely to have lymphoma, whereas the positive predictive value (70%) does not allow for reliable determination of lymphoma in a horse with serum IgM < or = 23 mg/dL. Therefore, serum IgM concentrations should not be used as a screening test for equine lymphoma. PMID:12774976

Perkins, G A; Nydam, D V; Flaminio, M J B F; Ainsworth, D M

2003-01-01

256

Effect of pretreatment on lipid oxidation and fishy odour development in protein hydrolysates from the muscle of Indian mackerel.  

PubMed

Impact of different pretreatments on chemical compositions of Indian mackerel mince was studied. Mince prepared using washing/membrane removal/alkaline solubilisation process (W-MR-Al) contained the lowest remaining myoglobin and haem iron content and also showed the lowest total lipid and phospholipid contents. When mince and W-MR-Al were hydrolysed using Alcalase for up to 120 min, a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) was found in W-MR-Al after 30 min of hydrolysis. Furthermore, hydrolysate from W-MR-Al had lower peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and non-haem iron content throughout hydrolysis period (P<0.05). When hydrolysate powder produced from mince and W-MR-Al (0-0.3%w/v) were fortified in milk, the former resulted in the lower likeness score (P<0.05) at all levels used. The addition of the latter, for up to 0.2%, had no effect on likeness of all attributes, compared with milk without fortification (P>0.05). Therefore, the appropriate pretreatment of mince yielded hydrolysate with lower fishy odour. PMID:22980831

Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee; Benjakul, Soottawat; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Maqsood, Sajid

2012-12-15

257

Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Horses and Foals  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The adrenal cortices produce a variety of steroid hormones (corticosteroids) that play vital roles in a number of physiologic processes, including: electrolyte and fluid balance; cardiovascular homeostasis; carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; immune and inflammatory responses; and sexual development and reproductive function. While permanent adrenocortical insufficiency is rare in all species, emerging evidence in both human and equine medicine suggests that transient, reversible adrenocortical dysfunction resulting in cortisol insufficiency frequently develops during critical illness. This syndrome is termed relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) or critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), and can contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality associated with the primary disease. Thus, this review will primarily cover the mechanisms, diagnosis and clinical consequences of adrenocortical insufficiency, with particular focus on our current understanding of RAI/CIRCI in horses and foals. PMID:21392651

Hart, Kelsey A.; Barton, Michelle H.

2010-01-01

258

West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in horses in Ontario: 28 cases  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in 28 horses presented to the Ontario Veterinary College Veterinary Teaching Hospital between August 20 and October 15, 2002. The age range of affected horses was 5 months to 20 years (mean 6.9 years, median 6 years). Clinical signs were highly variable. Duration of hospitalization ranged from < 1 to 12 days (mean 5 days, median 5.4 days). Overall, 16 of the 28 (57%) horses were discharged and, of the 14 from which follow-up information was available, 13 (93%) were reported to be clinically normal 4 to 6 weeks following discharge, while the other horse had markedly improved. This pathogen is emerging as an important cause of neurological disease in Canada. PMID:12839240

Weese, J. Scott; Baird, John D.; DeLay, Josepha; Kenney, Daniel G.; Staempfli, Henry R.; Viel, Laurent; Parent, Joane; Smith-Maxie, Laura; Poma, Roberto

2003-01-01

259

4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE AT THE FAR RIGHT, AND THE STORE ROOM DOOR IS AT THE NEAR RIGHT. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

260

Horse, A Probabilistic Look at a Game of Chance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a five-dice game, horse. Discusses the offensive player's strategy using the ideas of probability, such as counting outcomes, mutually exclusive events, conditional probabilities, zero sum games, and the use of computer. (YP)

Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.

1990-01-01

261

Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehy...

262

Tooth enamel biomineralization in extant horses: implications for isotopic microsampling  

E-print Network

domestic horses (Equus caballus) to document the timing of enamel mineralization in equid cheek teeth to months. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Biomineralization; Equus; Enamel; Radiography

Amundson, Ronald

263

Do Horse And Human Personalities Affect The Game Of Polo?   

E-print Network

Explorations into horse personality have only recently occurred with questionnaire inventories demonstrating to be the most effective way of rating personality in animals. Recent equine studies are based on the findings ...

Johnson, Tessa C

2009-07-03

264

The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important cause of pain, disability and economic loss in humans, and is similarly important in the horse. Recent knowledge on post-traumatic OA has suggested opportunities for early intervention, but it is difficult to identify the appropriate time of these interventions. The horse provides two useful mechanisms to answer these questions: 1) extensive experience with clinical OA in horses; and 2) use of a consistently predictable model of OA that can help study early pathobiological events, define targets for therapeutic intervention and then test these putative therapies. This paper summarises the syndromes of clinical OA in horses including pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, and details controlled studies of various treatment options using an equine model of clinical OA. PMID:23610661

McIlwraith, C. W.; Frisbie, D. D.; Kawcak, C. E.

2012-01-01

265

Removal of a nasal polyp in a standing horse.  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis and removal of a nasal polyp in a horse using standing chemical restraint and readily available equipment are described. Histopathology of the polyp and differential diagnoses are discussed. Images Figure 1. PMID:9028595

Watt, B C; Beck, B E

1997-01-01

266

An online survey of horse-owners in Great Britain  

PubMed Central

Background Contingency planning for potential equine infectious disease outbreaks relies on accurate information on horse location and movements to estimate the risk of dissemination of disease(s). An online questionnaire was used to obtain unique information linking owner and horse location to characteristics of horse movements within and outwith Great Britain (GB). Results This online survey yielded a strong response, providing more than four times the target number of respondents (1000 target respondents) living in all parts of GB. Key demographic findings of this study indicated that horses which were kept on livery yards and riding schools were likely to be found in urban environments, some distance away from the owner’s home and vaccinated against influenza and herpes virus. Survey respondents were likely to travel greater than 10 miles to attend activities such as eventing or endurance but were also likely to travel and return home within a single day (58.6%, 2063/3522). This may affect the geographical extent and speed of disease spread, if large numbers of people from disparate parts of the country are attending the same event and the disease agent is highly infectious or virulent. The greatest risk for disease introduction and spread may be represented by a small proportion of people who import or travel internationally with their horses. These respondents were likely to have foreign horse passports, which were not necessarily recorded in the National Equine Database (NED), making the location of these horses untraceable. Conclusions These results illustrate the difficulties which exist with national GB horse traceability despite the existence of the NED and the horse passport system. This study also demonstrates that an online approach could be adopted to obtain important demographic data on GB horse owners on a more routine and frequent basis to inform decisions or policy pertaining to equine disease control. This represents a reasonable alternative to collection of GB horse location and movement data given that the NED no longer exists and there is no immediate plan to replace it. PMID:24074003

2013-01-01

267

Surgical treatment of distal tarsal joint luxations in three horses.  

PubMed

The clinical signs, radiographic findings, surgical treatment, and outcome of three horses with luxation of the distal tarsal joints are reported. Two patients showed luxations of the tarsometatarsal joint whereas luxation of the proximal intertarsal joint was found in one case. Open reduction, followed by internal fixation was performed in two horses and closed reduction with a transfixation pin cast was performed in the third. The treatment in all three cases resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome. PMID:23857573

Abuja, G A; Bubeck, K A; Quinteros, D D; García-López, J M

2013-01-01

268

Evaluation of tear film proteinases in horses with ulcerative keratitis.  

PubMed

Ulcerative keratitis is a common and potentially blinding ocular disease of horses, capable of progressing to corneal perforation in as little as 24 h. This rapid stromal degeneration is mediated in part by exogenous and endogenous proteinases. We measured and compared the concentrations of two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and a serine proteinase (neutrophil elastase) present in the precorneal tear film of normal horses and horses with rapidly progressing ulcerative keratitis. Precorneal tear film samples were collected from 23 ulcerated and 21 unaffected eyes of 23 horses with unilateral ulcerative keratitis, and from 33 normal eyes of 17 control horses. MMP-2, MMP-9, and neutrophil elastase were identified by casein and gelatin zymography and quantified by computerized image analysis. Median MMP-9 levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of young control horses vs. older control horses (P = 0.005). Median MMP-2, MMP-9, and neutrophil elastase levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of ulcerated eyes when compared to age-matched normal controls (P = 0.004, P = 0.001, and P = 0.012, respectively). Median MMP-2 levels were also significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of contralateral eyes of affected horses when compared to age-matched normal controls (P = 0.004). No significant differences in median proteinase levels were detected between 'sterile' ulcers and those from which bacteria or mixed infections (bacteria and fungi) were isolated. However, median MMP-2 and neutrophil elastase levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of eyes with 'sterile' ulcers when compared with ulcerated eyes from which fungi were isolated (P < 0.05). The results of this study support the use of topical antiproteinase therapy which targets both MMPs and serine proteinases in progressive equine ulcerative keratitis. PMID:11397292

Strubbe, D.T.; Brooks, D.E.; Schultz, G.S.; Willis-Goulet, H.; Gelatt, K.N.; Andrew, S.E.; Kallberg, M.E.; MacKay, E.O.; Collante, W.R.

2000-01-01

269

Comprehension of human pointing gestures in horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty domestic horses (Equus caballus) were tested for their ability to rely on different human gesticular cues in a two-way object choice task. An experimenter\\u000a hid food under one of two bowls and after baiting, indicated the location of the food to the subjects by using one of four\\u000a different cues. Horses could locate the hidden reward on the basis

Katalin Maros; Márta Gácsi; Ádám Miklósi

2008-01-01

270

Apparent rates of increase for two feral horse herds  

SciTech Connect

Rates of increase for 2 Oregon feral horse (Equus caballus) herds were estimated from direct aerial counts to be about 20% per year. These rates can be achieved only if survival rates are high, and reproduction exceeds that normally expected from horses. A population dynamics model suggests adult survival to be the key parameter in determining rates of increase, and there is some direct evidence of high adult survival rates. Management implications are discussed.

Eberhardt, L.L. (Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, WA); Majorowicz, A.K.; Wilcox, J.A.

1982-01-01

271

Nitrogen balance in mature horses at varying levels of work  

E-print Network

NITROGEN BALANCE IN MATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1981 Major Subject: Animal Science NITROGEN BALANCE IN NATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Approved as to style and content by: (Chai an o Committee) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Head of Departmen ) December...

Freeman, David Wayne

2012-06-07

272

Origin and History of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Domestic Horses  

PubMed Central

Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA) of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754 modern horses. The sample set ranged from Alaska and North East Siberia to the Iberian Peninsula and from the Late Pleistocene to modern times. We found a panmictic Late Pleistocene horse population ranging from Alaska to the Pyrenees. Later, during the Early Holocene and the Copper Age, more or less separated sub-populations are indicated for the Eurasian steppe region and Iberia. Our data suggest multiple domestications and introgressions of females especially during the Iron Age. Although all Eurasian regions contributed to the genetic pedigree of modern breeds, most haplotypes had their roots in Eastern Europe and Siberia. We found 87 ancient haplotypes (Pleistocene to Mediaeval Times); 56 of these haplotypes were also observed in domestic horses, although thus far only 39 haplotypes have been confirmed to survive in modern breeds. Thus, at least seventeen haplotypes of early domestic horses have become extinct during the last 5,500 years. It is concluded that the large diversity of mtDNA lineages is not a product of animal breeding but, in fact, represents ancestral variability. PMID:21187961

Cieslak, Michael; Pruvost, Melanie; Benecke, Norbert; Hofreiter, Michael; Morales, Arturo; Reissmann, Monika; Ludwig, Arne

2010-01-01

273

Seasonal variations in daily rhythms of activity in athletic horses.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms reflect extensive programming of biological activity that meets and exploits the challenges and opportunities offered by the periodic nature of the environment. In the present investigation, we recorded the total activity of athletic horses kept at four different times of the year (vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumn equinox and winter solstice), to evaluate the presence of seasonal variations of daily activity rhythms. Athletic Thoroughbred horses were kept in individual boxes with paddock. Digitally integrated measure of total activity of each mare was continuously recorded by actigraphy-based data loggers. Horse total activities were not evenly distributed over the day, but they were mainly diurnal during the year. Daily activity rhythms showed clear seasonal variations, with the highest daily amount of activity during the vernal equinox and the lowest during the winter solstice. Interestingly, the amount of activity during either photophase or scotophase changed significantly throughout the year. Circadian analysis of horse activities showed that the acrophase, the estimated time at which the peak of the rhythm occurs, did not change during the year, it always occurred in the middle of the photoperiod. Analysing the time structure of long-term and continuously measured activity and feeding could be a useful method to critically evaluate athletic horse management systems in which spontaneous locomotor activity and feeding are severely limited. Circadian rhythms are present in several elements of sensory motor and psychomotor functions and these would be taken into consideration to plan the training schedules and competitions in athletic horses. PMID:22443706

Bertolucci, C; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Piccione, G

2008-07-01

274

Mitochondrial DNA lineages of Italian Giara and Sarcidano horses.  

PubMed

Giara and Sarcidano are 2 of the 15 extant native Italian horse breeds with limited dispersal capability that originated from a larger number of individuals. The 2 breeds live in two distinct isolated locations on the island of Sardinia. To determine the genetic structure and evolutionary history of these 2 Sardinian breeds, the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced and analyzed in 40 Giara and Sarcidano horses and compared with publicly available mtDNA data from 43 Old World breeds. Four different analyses, including genetic distance, analysis of molecular variance, haplotype sharing, and clustering methods, were used to study the genetic relationships between the Sardinian and other horse breeds. The analyses yielded similar results, and the FST values indicated that a high percentage of the total genetic variation was explained by between-breed differences. Consistent with their distinct phenotypes and geographic isolation, the two Sardinian breeds were shown to consist of 2 distinct gene pools that had no gene flow between them. Giara horses were clearly separated from the other breeds examined and showed traces of ancient separation from horses of other breeds that share the same mitochondrial lineage. On the other hand, the data from the Sarcidano horses fit well with variation among breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and North-West Europe: genetic relationships among Sarcidano and the other breeds are consistent with the documented history of this breed. PMID:25366719

Morelli, L; Useli, A; Sanna, D; Barbato, M; Contu, D; Pala, M; Cancedda, M; Francalacci, P

2014-01-01

275

Gasterophilus spp. infections in horses from northern and central Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain current data on the gastrointestinal myiasis of horses in the provinces of Kostanay, Akmola and Karagandy, northern and central Kazakhstan. The stomach, small intestine and rectum of 148 slaughter horses were examined for Gasterophilus spp. larvae during a 26-month study period. All horses were infected with 2nd and 3rd stage larvae (mean intensity: 803±350), and 22% of them harboured >1000 Gasterophilus spp. larvae each. Four species were identified: G. intestinalis (prevalence: 100%; mean intensity: 361±240 larvae), G. haemorrhoidalis (100%; 353±191), G. nasalis (100%; 73±36) and G. pecorum (91.2%; 18±10). Horses aged<2 years were higher infected with Gasterophilus larvae than 2-4 years old animals. Both the prevalence and extremely high intensity of Gasterophilus infections of horses in these Kazakh regions suggest respective control measurements to improve the health and performance of the animals and to increase the economic income of horse owners. PMID:25522954

Ibrayev, Baltabek; Lider, Lyudmila; Bauer, Christian

2015-01-15

276

Ocean Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Geosciences Union has been working on a number of open access journals over the past few years, and Ocean Science is just such an endeavor. The intent of the journal is to publish research articles, review papers, and short communications of all stripes. Visitors can sign up for RSS feeds, look over the "General Information" area, and also learn about their submission guidelines. In the "Online Library OS" area, visitors can view recently revised papers, complete issues, special issues, and also search past works by title or author. Also, visitors are welcome to comment on published works and they can also sign up to receive an email subscription to Ocean Science.

277

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

Osis, Vicki

278

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are presented with a satellite image of ocean temperature, and examine the map to determine whether ocean temperature is influenced by latitude. Students graph each temperature value as a function of latitude and write a linear equation that best fits the points on their graph. A student worksheet is provided. Summary background information, data and images supporting the activity are available on the Earth Update data site. To complete the activity, students will need to access the Space Update multimedia collection, which is available for download and purchase for use in the classroom.

2012-08-03

279

Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration  

PubMed Central

Background The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]). Methodology/Principal Findings Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n?=?19) received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n?=?21) received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C). These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS) scores and horse grimace scale (HGS) scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B) showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups. Conclusions The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules. PMID:24647606

Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Minero, Michela; Lebelt, Dirk; Stucke, Diana; Canali, Elisabetta; Leach, Matthew C.

2014-01-01

280

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students choose shell fragments from different species of Molluscs and calculate percent lose after soaking in different ph solutions for different periods of time. They research ocean acidification and especially local events off the Oregon coast to apply to this activity.

Bown, Jennifer

281

Ocean bowling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coach Scott Carpenter, a biology teacher at Lexington High School in Massachusetts, says that ``some [students] want to show that they can win on a football field, and some want to show that they know science better than anyone else.''His team of four sophomores and one senior proved their mettle when they won the 1998 National Ocean Science Bowl on

Randy Showstack

1998-01-01

282

Ocean bowling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coach Scott Carpenter, a biology teacher at Lexington High School in Massachusetts, says that “some [students] want to show that they can win on a football field, and some want to show that they know science better than anyone else.”His team of four sophomores and one senior proved their mettle when they won the 1998 National Ocean Science Bowl on April 27.

Showstack, Randy

283

Ocean Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) team produces high-resolution detailed imagery of significant ocean events. OSEI products typically include sea surface temperature plots and single-channel imagery of oil spills. The images are available in several different file sizes; standard (full resolution) and preview (thumbnail).

Imagery, Operational S.; Noaa

284

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

285

Ocean Currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

IF Mr. Laughton will take the trouble, to read my previous Reports with attention, he will find that I have based no argument upon my ``trough'' experiment, which I have used merely as an illustration. The argument in favour of the vertical Oceanic Circulation which I advocate rests upon the facts of Deep Sea Temperature. In my forthcoming Report, these

William B. Carpenter

1872-01-01

286

Ocean Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage, from Hyperphysics, provides a detailed explanation of how waves form in the ocean. A series of diagrams show how the water moves as a wave passes by. The site shows how a water wave's speed depends on wavelength, and how the shape of a wave depends on its amplitude. A description of why waves break on a beach is included.

Nave, Carl R.

2010-07-13

287

Ocean World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The majority of Ocean World is devoted to a series of ten reference sections: coral reefs, currents, El Nino, Fisheries, Ice Ages, icebergs, JASON-1 (a satellite), the role of the ocean in weather, satellites and ocean exploration, and waves. Each section culminates with an interactive quiz, links to sources of related real-time data, and a list of additional related links. Also available is a set of supplementary services, including a glossary, a question and answer section called Ask Dr.Bob, an index page for all of the available real-time dataset sources, primer pages on the use of internet technology, and links to three distance learning courses in oceanography offered by Texas A&M university. An additional series of link lists are broken up into Four Star Sites, General Links, and (the site author's) Bookmarks. Finally, under a teacher's introductory section to the site, instructors can access a guide to using Ocean World in the classroom, find advice on teaching oceanography in general, locate technology lab stations, and follow links to additional teaching resources.

288

Empty Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the human population affect the population of marine species? What can citizens do to sustain seafood populations? In this lesson, students will learn how pieces of the ocean food web, fish, are being removed faster than they can be replenished. Students will also learn how they can become informed consumers to promote sustainable seafood.

289

A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Methods A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. Results MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase-negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95% CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusions It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses. PMID:23620832

Mallardo, Karina; Nizza, Sandra; Fiorito, Filomena; Pagnini, Ugo; De Martino, Luisa

2013-01-01

290

Sporadic wind wave horse-shoe patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work considers three-dimensional crescent-shaped patterns often seen on water surface in natural basins and observed in wave tank experiments. The most common of these 'horse-shoe-like' patterns appear to be sporadic, i.e., emerging and disappearing spontaneously even under steady wind conditions. The paper suggests a qualitative model of these structures aimed at explaining their sporadic nature, physical mechanisms of their selection and their specific asymmetric form. First, the phenomenon of sporadic horse-shoe patterns is studied numerically using the novel algorithm of water waves simulation recently developed by the authors (Annenkov and Shrira, 1999). The simulations show that a steep gravity wave embedded into widespectrum primordial noise and subjected to small nonconservative effects typically follows the simple evolution scenario: most of the time the system can be considered as consisting of a basic wave and a single pair of oblique satellites, although the choice of this pair tends to be different at different instants. Despite the effective low-dimensionality of the multimodal system dynamics at relatively sho ' rt time spans, the role of small satellites is important: in particular, they enlarge the maxima of the developed satellites. The presence of Benjamin-Feir satellites appears to be of no qualitative importance at the timescales under consideration. The selection mechanism has been linked to the quartic resonant interactions among the oblique satellites lying in the domain of five-wave (McLean's class II) instability of the basic wave: the satellites tend to push each other out of the resonance zone due to the frequency shifts caused by the quartic interactions. Since the instability domain is narrow (of order of cube of the basic wave steepness), eventually in a generic situation only a single pair survives and attains considerable amplitude. The specific front asymmetry is found to result from the interplay of quartic and quintet interactions and non-conservative effects: the growing and grown satellites have a specific value of phase with respect to the basic wave that corresponds to downwind orientation of the convex sides of wave fronts. As soon as the phase relation is violated, the satellite's amplitude quickly decreases down to the noise level.

Annenkov, S. Yu.; Shrira, V. I.

291

Body composition and nutrient metabolism in juvenile athletic horses treated with exogenous equine somatotropin  

E-print Network

that of the control horses with a significant difference at d128 (pby d 14 in the eST treated horses, but seemed to be affected by confinement during total collections of feces and urine. Urinary nitrogen...

Sutfin, Jonathan Arthur

2000-01-01

292

Evolution, Systematics, and Phylogeography of Pleistocene Horses in the New World  

E-print Network

regarded as closely related to the Eurasian caballines, a group that includes the domestic horse (Equus caballus) and the extant wild Przewalskii horse. The stilt-legged forms have been taxonomically assigned

Rubenstein, Daniel I.

293

Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

2013-05-01

294

Cardiac arrhythmias and electrolyte disturbances in colic horses.  

PubMed

BackgroundDespite increased focus on cardiac arrhythmias in horses, the nature and prevalence is still poorly described. Case reports suggest that arrhythmias occurring secondary to systemic disease are seen more commonly in the clinic than arrhythmias caused by cardiac disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of arrhythmias in colic horses referred for hospital treatment. Associations between electrolyte disturbances and arrhythmias were also investigated.The study population consisted of eight control horses and 22 referred colic horses. A Holter electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded during the first 24 hours of admission. The ECG¿s were analysed by a software program followed by manual visual inspection. Arrhythmias registered included second degree atrioventricular (AV) blocks, supraventricular premature complexes (SVPCs), and ventricular premature complexes (VPCs). Blood was collected at admission and again between 12 and 24 hours after ECG was applied, and analysed for concentrations of potassium, sodium, ionised calcium, chloride, glucose, and L-lactate.ResultsHeart rate was 37.4¿±¿3.7 bpm in the control group, and 51.6¿±¿11.8 bpm, in the colic group, which was significantly different (P¿<¿0.0001). AV blocks and SVPCs were found in both groups, however only colic horses showed VPCs. No significant difference between the two groups was found for AV blocks, SVPCs, and VPCs (P¿=¿0.08 - 0.76). The mean levels of potassium, sodium, ionized calcium, and chloride were significantly lower in the colic group compared to the control group at admission. Mean levels of glucose and L-lactate were significantly elevated in the colic group (P¿<¿0.05).ConclusionsThis study describes prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and electrolytes concentrations in colic horses compared to healthy controls. Although we only observed VPCs in the colic horses, no significant differences between colic horses and controls were found. Despite the colic horses having electrolyte changes at admission no correlation was found between the electrolyte disturbances and cardiac arrhythmias. Although no clear conclusions can be drawn from the present study, the results indicate that relatively mild colic per se is not pro-arrhythmogenic, whereas severe colic probably are more likely to result in ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:25274423

Hesselkilde, Eva Z; Almind, Mette E; Petersen, Jesper; Flethøj, Mette; Præstegaard, Kirstine F; Buhl, Rikke

2014-10-01

295

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin tuna on their oceanic migrations. The About area is a great way to learn about the research and technology involved with this complicated endeavor. Also, visitors can check out the low-tech/accessible version of the site if they are so inclined.

296

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin tuna on their oceanic migrations. The About area is a great way to learn about the research and technology involved with this complicated endeavor. Also, visitors can check out the low-tech/accessible version of the site if they are so inclined.

2013-02-08

297

Acute phase proteins in Andalusian horses infected with Theileria equi.  

PubMed

Clinical and laboratory findings were determined in 23 Andalusian horses in southern Spain that were positive for Theileria equi by PCR, including 16 mares at pasture (group A1) and seven stabled stallions (group B1). Five healthy mares at pasture (group A2) and five stabled stallions (group B2), all of which were negative for T.?equi in Giemsa stained blood smears and by PCR, were used as controls. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, anaemia, depression and icterus (group A1), along with loss of performance or failure to train and depression (group B1). Thrombocytopoenia was evident in 5/7 horses in group B1. Lower serum iron concentrations were observed in both diseased groups compared with their respective control groups. There were no significant differences in APP concentrations between diseased and control groups; all affected horses had APP concentrations within reference limits. Serum haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were higher than the reference limits in 5/23, 3/23 and 1/23 diseased horses, respectively. It was concluded that horses with theileriosis exhibited only a mild systemic inflammatory response. PMID:25086769

Rodríguez, Rocío; Cerón, José J; Riber, Cristina; Castejón, Francisco; Gómez-Díez, Manuel; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan M; Muñoz, Ana

2014-10-01

298

Horses (Equus caballus) discriminate body odour cues from conspecifics.  

PubMed

Knowledge about social recognition and memory in animals can help us to determine appropriate management and husbandry techniques. In this study, we used a habituation-discrimination procedure to investigate the ability of horses (Equus caballus) to distinguish between the body odour samples of unfamiliar conspecifics. To pick up body odour, we rubbed material on the coat of horses and presented these unknown body odours to 16 different conspecifics of the same sex and similar age. The test consisted of two successive two-min presentations of a sample from one individual (e.g. individual 'A') and a simultaneous presentation of samples from individual 'A' and a novel individual (e.g. individual 'B') during a final third presentation. The results showed that horses, regardless of sex, decreased the time they spent investigating conspecific body odour across the initial two presentations-demonstrating habituation. In the final presentation, the results demonstrated successful discrimination of the previously experienced odour because horses investigated the novel olfactory sample ('B') significantly more than the pre-exposed sample ('A'). Taken together, these findings suggest, for the first time, that horses are able to discriminate two stimuli derived from body odours of unfamiliar conspecifics over short period of time. PMID:24305997

Péron, F; Ward, R; Burman, O

2014-07-01

299

Clostridium difficile in horses in Australia--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

During a 24 month period from 2007 to 2009, 174 faecal specimens from horses in Australia (predominantly from Western Australia) were tested for Clostridium difficile. C. difficile was isolated from 14 (23?%) of 62 diarrhoeal animals (including 10 foals) and from none of 112 healthy adult horses. These isolates were toxin profiled by PCR for toxin A, toxin B and binary toxin, and ribotyped. Ten of the equine isolates were A(+)B(+)CDT(-). Other toxin profiles detected were A(-)B(-)CDT(+) (one isolate), A(+)B(+)CDT(+) (two isolates) and A(-)B(-)CDT(-) (three isolates). There were six different ribotypes detected in the horses, ribotype 012 being the most common with six isolates. Two horses (one adult and one foal) had two strains of C. difficile isolated on different days. These strains had the same toxin profile but different ribotypes. None of the equine isolates was ribotype 078, which is A(+)B(+)CDT(+) and a significant cause of animal disease overseas. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. These results suggest that the epidemiology of C. difficile in horses in Australia is currently similar to that in other parts of the world, but requires further surveillance to monitor changes. PMID:21436371

Thean, Sara; Elliott, Briony; Riley, Thomas V

2011-08-01

300

The effect of human alpha interferon on experimentally induced equine herpesvirus-1 infection in horses  

E-print Network

horses before and after inoculation with EHV-1 48 Serum neutralizing antibody titers to EHV-1 in weanling horses before and after intranasal inoculation with EHV-1 on day 0. Antibody titers are expressed as reciprocal of endpoint dilutions 49 LIST... OF FIGURES FIGURE Temporal tracing of mean morning rectal temperatures of weanling horses before and after intranasal inoculation with EHV-1 on day 0 Page 16 Temporal tracing of mean afternoon rectal temperatures of weanling horses after intranasal...

Seahorn, Thomas Leon

1989-01-01

301

EFFECTS OF RACTOPAMINE HCL ON PHYSICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN THE HORSE  

E-print Network

on how dietary supplementation of horses with Paylean? affects physical and reproductive parameters in the horse. Members of the horse industry may find this information applicable to the current off-label administration of Paylean? in horses... appearances. Toxicological Effects As new products are introduced to alter an animal?s physiologic state, creating toxicity within that individual should be of concern. This is especially true when products are fed off-label, such as in a non...

Kriewald, Russell D.

2010-01-14

302

Epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse: the risk from animal product feeding practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discovery in 2002 of a Trichinella spiralis-infected horse in Serbia offered an opportunity to conduct needed epidemiological studies on how horses, considered herbivores, acquire a meat-borne parasite. This enigma has persisted since the first human outbreaks from infected horse meat occurred in then 1970s. The trace back of the infected horse to a farm owner was carried out. Interviews

K. D. Murrell; M. Djordjevic; K. Cuperlovic; Lj. Sofronic; M. Savic; S. Damjanovic

2004-01-01

303

Oceanic Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

Carder, K. L. (editor)

1981-01-01

304

Interactive Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collaboration of US and Canadian research institutions; it proposes an ocean observatory in the NE Pacific. A network of fiber optic cables on the Juan de Fuca plate will support sensors to monitor geological, chemical and biological events and provide shore-based researchers with real-time data. The site is intended to serve learners from K to college with web access to data, curricula and activities, as well as maps, images, videos of deep-sea environments.

2011-04-19

305

Ocean Voyagers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Voyagers is an educational outreach initiative consisting of an interdisciplinary curriculum program. It is designed to allow middle school teachers and students to gain real-world knowledge about oceanographic science, social science, maritime cultures, communication, literature, and the language arts. This site includes: integrated lesson plans on oceanographic science, maritime life and lore, technology and communications, and profiles of the Navy oceanographic survey fleet.

306

Oceanic Hotspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wilson-Morgan hypothesis that fixed mantle plumes rising from deep in Earth's mantle give rise to linear island and seamount chains like Hawaii has been a leading idea in planetary geodynamics for many decades. However, the notion that these ascending columns of buoyant mantle material are fixed relative to each other or to a fixed reference frame has been questioned because the mean regional flow of the mantle (the so-called mantle wind) would be expected to entrain them and waft them about. Lately, even more fundamental questions have been raised regarding the existence of deep mantle conduits. In fact, the subject of plumes has become quite controversial, with important implications for ideas of mantle convection, Earth's differentiation, and planetary magma budgets and cooling. The appearance of Oceanic Hotspots: Intraplate Submarine Magmatism and Tectonics is thus timely. The 14 chapters contained in this nicely produced volume reflect in part the successful Franco-German collaboration spanning more than 17 years (1986 to present) and 15 expeditions to largely uncharted and unexplored regions of the South Pacific Ocean. The editors intended to produce a comprehensive multidisciplinary overview of oceanic plumes in this region, and in this they have succeeded, with both review and research chapters. Most papers document new discoveries and contain new data and/or new and original thinking, whereas others provide a broad overview and synthesis of existing data.

Batiza, Rodey

2004-10-01

307

Introduction to Ocean Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans cover over 70% of the surface of the earth, yet many details of their workings are not fully understood. To better understand and forecast the state of the ocean, we rely on numerical ocean models. Ocean models combine observations and physics to predict the ocean temperature, salinity, and currents at any time and any place across the ocean basins. This module will discuss what goes into numerical ocean models, including model physics, coordinate systems, parameterization, initialization, and boundary conditions.

Comet

2007-08-06

308

Long-Term Retrospective Analysis of Mackerel Spawning in the North Sea: A New Time Series and Modeling Approach to CPR Data  

PubMed Central

We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock. PMID:22737221

Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Payne, Mark; Edwards, Martin; Schrum, Corinna; Pitois, Sophie

2012-01-01

309

Energetic cost of breathing, body composition, and pulmonary function in horses with recurrent airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine whether horses with naturally occurring, severe chronic recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) 1) have a greater resting energy expenditure (REE) than control horses, 2) suffer body mass depletion, and 3) have significantly decreased REE after bronchodilation and, therefore, also 4) whether increased work of breathing contributes to the cachexia seen in some horses with RAO.

Melissa R. Mazan; Edward F. Deveney; Shane DeWitt; Daniela Bedenice; Andrew Hoffman

2004-01-01

310

Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against African horse sickness virus in domestic  

E-print Network

96 camels, 81 horses, 80 dogs and 4 donkeys was carried out in Nigeria. The ani- mals had no history of antibody against AHS virus. Of these, 77 (95.1%) horse, 4 (100%) donkey, 10 (10.4%) camel and 28 (35%) dog horses in different regions was similar. The prevalence of antibody to AHS virus detected in camels

Boyer, Edmond

311

Game-theoretic analysis of an ancient Chinese horse race problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes a legendary Chinese horse race problem involving the King of Qi and General Tianji which took place more than 2000 years ago. In this problem each player owns three horses of different speed classes and must choose the sequence of horses to compete against each other. Depending on the payoffs received by the players as a result

Mingming Leng; Mahmut Parlar

2006-01-01

312

VARIATION OF SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CATTLE, HORSES AND DOGS,  

E-print Network

VARIATION OF SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CATTLE, HORSES AND DOGS, AND CAUSES cattle. A few examples will also be given concerning horses and dogs. NORMAL RANGE In biology the concept the normal ranges for dairy cattle (Swedish Red and White Breed), horses (standardbred trotters) and dogs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Management and long-term outcome of partial glossectomy in 2 horses  

PubMed Central

Records were reviewed for 2 horses with partial glossectomy, 1 traumatic and 1 elective. According to long-term follow-up by telephone, both horses had recovered well, experiencing only temporary difficulty while eating, and went on to be ridden successfully using mouth bits. Partial glossectomy, therefore, had a favorable prognosis in 2 performance horses. PMID:24587510

Lang, Hayley M.; Panizzi, Luca; Smyth, Travis T.; Plaxton, Andrea E.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Barber, Spencer M.

2014-01-01

314

Immunocontraception in Wild Horses (Equus caballus) Extends Reproductive Cycling Beyond the Normal  

E-print Network

Immunocontraception in Wild Horses (Equus caballus) Extends Reproductive Cycling Beyond the Normal if this is the case, we compiled foaling data from wild horses (Equus caballus) living on Shackleford Banks, North Horses (Equus caballus) Extends Reproductive Cycling Beyond the Normal Breeding Season. PLoS ONE 5(10): e

Rubenstein, Daniel I.

315

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii infection in domestic horses in Durango State, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses in Mexico is unknown. Therefore, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Horses were from 18 farms in 3 municipalities in the valley region of Durango State...

316

Fibroblastic tumor of the premaxilla in two horses.  

PubMed

In 2 horses with rapidly growing, locally destructive tumors of the premaxilla, there was major disruption and displacement of some incisor teeth, with radiographic evidence of disruption of the premaxilla at the base of the tumors. In horse 1, most of the tumor was removed by incising it at its base, and the tumor bed was treated cryosurgically with 3 freeze-thaw cycles, using liquid nitrogen. The area healed by 2nd intention. The tumor was found to be a benign fibroblastic tumor, possibly a fibroma. After 4 years, there has been no recurrence. Horse 2 was euthanatized on the basis of a tentative biopsy diagnosis of osteogenic sarcoma. Postmortem studies supported a diagnosis of fibrosarcoma without metastasis. PMID:6573308

Barber, S M; Clark, E G; Fretz, P B

1983-04-01

317

Proton resonance assignments of horse ferrocytochrome c  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to assign the proton resonances of horse ferrocytochrome c. Assignments were based on the main chain directed (MCD) and sequential assignment procedures. The fundamental units of the MCD approach, the main-chain NH-C{sub {alpha}}H-C{sub {beta}}H J-coupled subspin systems of each amino acid residue (NAB sets), were defined by analysis of direct and relayed coherence transfer spectra. Recognition of main-chain NOE connectivity patterns specified in the MCD algorithm them allowed NAB sets to be aligned in their proper juxtaposition within secondary structural units. The units of secondary structure were placed within the polypeptide sequence of identification of a small number of side-chain J-coupled spin systems, found by direct recognition in 2D spectra of some J-coupled spin systems and by pairwise comparisons of the J-correlated spectra of six homologous cytochromes c having a small number of known amino acid differences. The placement of a given segment in this way defines the amino acid identity of all its NAB sets. This foreknowledge allowed the vast majority of the side-chain resonances to be discerned in J-correlated spectra. Extensive confirmation of the assignments derives internally from multiple main-chain NOE connectivities and their consistency following temperature-induced changes of the chemical shifts of NOE-correlated protons. The observed patterns of main-chain NOEs provide some structural information and suggest small but potentially significant differences between the solution structure observed by NMR and that defined earlier in crystallographic studies at 2.8-{angstrom} resolution.

Wand, A.J.; Di Stefano, D.L.; Feng, Y.; Roder, H.; Englander, S.W. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-01-10

318

Proton resonance assignments of horse ferricytochrome c  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D NMR) was used to obtain extensive resonance assignments in the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of horse ferricytochrome c. Assignments were made for the main-chain and C{sub {beta}} protons of 102 residues (all except Pro-44 and Gly-84) and the majority of side-chain protons. As starting points for the assignment of the oxidized protein, a limited set of protons was initially assigned by use of 2D NMR magnetization transfer methods to correlate resonances in the oxidized form with assigned resonances in the reduced form. Given the complexity of the spectrum due to the size of this protein (104 residues) and its paramagnetic center, the initial search for side-chain spin systems in J-correlated spectra was successful only for the simplest side chains, but the majority of NH-C{sub {alpha}}H-C{sub {beta}}H subspin systems (NAB sets) could be identified at this stage. The subsequent search for sequential NOE connectivities focused on NAB sets, with use of previously assigned residues to place NOE-connected segments within the amino acid sequence. Selective proton labeling of either the slowly or the rapidly exchanging amide sites was used to simplify the spectra, and systematic work at two temperatures was used to resolve ambiguities in the 2D NMR spectra. These approaches, together with the use of magnetization transfer methods to correlate reduced and oxidized cytochrome c spectra, provide multiple cross-checks to verify assignments.

Feng, Y.; Roder, H.; Englander, S.W.; Wand, A.J.; Di Stefano, D.L. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

1989-01-10

319

A Massively Parallel Sequencing Approach Uncovers Ancient Origins and High Genetic Variability of Endangered Przewalski's Horses  

PubMed Central

The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered—two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117–0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow. PMID:21803766

Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Allison R.; Schultz, Bryant; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

2011-01-01

320

A study of Streptococcus equi in the horse  

E-print Network

of weeks or did not show complete remission of symp- toms. The seven cases plus three new horses were treated with chlortetracycline (Aureomycin) 1 gm. per os daily for five days. Complete clinical recovery was seen in six cases, but the other four... horses relapsed or did not show complete recovery. These last four cases plus ten new cases were then treated with 1 gm. chlorampheni- col succinate (Chloromycetin) I. M. followed by doses of 1-1 I/2 gm. per os daily in capsules for five days. Complete...

Evers, Warren Dean

1966-01-01

321

Introduction This project is designed for senior 4-H horse project members who have the experience, resources, and ability  

E-print Network

Introduction · This project is designed for senior 4-H horse project members who have follow-up to the Horses are Fun project. Project Requirements · Participate in a 4-H Community Club-107REVISED 2003 Virginia 4-H Horse Project Self-Determined Horse Project Prepared by Dr. Arden N. Huff

Liskiewicz, Maciej

322

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama, this site seeks to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. In this unit, students investigate ocean temperature around the world, and how it varies during the year and at different locations. This helps explain what causes seasons, and allows students to make predictions about future changes in sea and air temperatures. Students use data from the National Data Buoy Center to answer a series of questions, and complete related enrichment exercises. A downloadable teacher's guide, student guide, and necessary activity sheets are provided.

323

Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama, this site seeks to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. It contains activities pertaining to ocean currents (their properties and influence on weather and sea life). Students gather data from other websites, apply the data to answer a series of questions, and participate in related enrichment exercises. A downloadable teacher's guide, student guide, and all necessary activity sheets are included.

324

Enterocolitis caused by Ehrlichia sp. in the horse (Potomac horse fever).  

PubMed

Potomac horse fever was reproduced in 15 ponies by transfusion of whole blood originally from two natural cases and subsequently from ponies infected by the transfusions. Incubation periods varied from 9 to 15 days. Affected ponies developed varying degrees of fever, diarrhea, anorexia, depression, and leukopenia. Eleven affected ponies were killed, three died in the acute phase of the disease, and one did not show clinical signs. The most consistent post-mortem findings were fluid contents in the cecum and large colon, and areas of hyperemia (of inconstant degree and distribution) in mucosae of both small and large intestines. Multifocal areas of necrosis occurred in mucous membranes. Ehrlichial organisms were most common in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells, macrophages, and mast cells of the large colon. PMID:3750739

Cordes, D O; Perry, B D; Rikihisa, Y; Chickering, W R

1986-07-01

325

Salmonella Oranienburg isolated from horses, wild turkeys and an edible home garden fertilized with raw horse manure.  

PubMed

In July 2010, a horse from a rural farm (Farm A) in coastal Northern California was diagnosed with Salmonella Oranienburg infection following referral to a veterinary hospital for colic surgery. Environmental sampling to identify potential sources and persistence of Salmonella on the farm was conducted from August 2010 to March 2011. Salmonella was cultured using standard enrichment and selective plating. Pure colonies were confirmed by biochemical analysis, serotyped and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 204 clinical and environmental samples at Farm A were analysed, and Salmonella spp. was isolated from six of eight (75%) horses, an asymptomatic pet dog, two of seven (28.6%) water samples from horse troughs, nine of 20 (45%) manure storage pile composites, 16 of 71 (22.5%) wild turkey faeces and four of 39 (10.3%) soil samples from the family's edible home garden. Well water and garden vegetable samples and horse faecal samples from a neighbouring ranch were negative. S. Oranienburg with a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the horse clinical strain was found in all positive sample types on Farm A. The investigation illustrates the potential for widespread dissemination of Salmonella in a farm environment following equine infections. We speculate that a recent surge in the wild turkey population on the property could have introduced S. Oranienburg into the herd, although we cannot rule out the possibility wild turkeys were exposed on the farm or to other potential sources of Salmonella. Findings from the investigation indicated that raw horse manure applied as fertilizer was the most likely source of garden soil contamination. Viable S. Oranienburg persisted in garden soil for an estimated 210 days, which exceeds the 120-day standard between application and harvest currently required by the National Organic Program. The study underscores the need to educate the public about potential food safety hazards associated with using raw animal manure to fertilize edible home gardens. PMID:23425126

Jay-Russell, M T; Madigan, J E; Bengson, Y; Madigan, S; Hake, A F; Foley, J E; Byrne, B A

2014-02-01

326

Ocean Surface Currents Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary provides short definitions of the oceanographic jargon used to describe ocean surface currents. It is designed to accompany the website "Ocean Surface Currents", a reference that provides information on surface currents in the world's oceans.

327

Correlation between colic and antibody levels against Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

The importance of Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses with colic was studied in 139 horses referred for colic and 139 control horses with no signs of colic for at least three years. The serodiagnostic method of Proudman and Trees, which measures the level of A. perfoliata antibody, was used to detect A. perfoliata infection. Thirty-two horses were examined at necropsy, to determine whether the presence of A. perfoliata in the ileocaecal region was associated with the A. perfoliata antibody level. The mean A. perfoliata antibody level was significantly higher in horses with colic than in horses without colic (P < 0.001), indicating a relationship between A. perfoliata infection and colic in general. There was no relation between age and A. perfoliata antibody level. The mean A. perfoliata antibody level in 12 horses with ileocaecal disorders was significantly higher than that in control horses (P < 0.001). Of the 32 horses examined at necropsy, 7 horses with tapeworms in the ileocaecal region had a significantly higher mean A. perfoliata antibody level than the 25 horses without the parasite (P = 0.030). Lastly, examination of faeces to detect the presence of A. perfoliata infection was not useful in the present study. PMID:17649747

Boswinkel, M; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

2007-07-01

328

Breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal asynchrony in horses with chronic obstructive and inflammatory lung disease.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to show that changes in thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA) between quiet breathing and CO2-induced hyperpnoea can be used to differentiate between horses with healthy airways and those suffering from inflammatory airway disease (IAD) or recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). The level of TAA was displayed by the Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) of thoracic and abdominal signals, generated by respiratory ultrasonic plethysmography (RUP) during quiet breathing and hyperpnoea. Changes in TAA were expressed as the quotient of the PCCs (PCCQ) during normal breathing and hyperpnoea. Horses with RAO and IAD showed significant higher median PCCQ than healthy horses. Median PCCQ of horses with RAO and IAD was not significantly different. Horses affected by a pulmonary disorder showed lower TAA compared to the control group. This study suggests that TAA provides a useful parameter to differentiate horses with RAO and IAD from healthy horses. PMID:23837917

Haltmayer, E; Reiser, S; Schramel, J P; van den Hoven, R

2013-10-01

329

Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses in Sweden: prevalence, infection levels and intestinal lesions.  

PubMed

Distal ileum, caecum and proximal colon of 470 horses were examined for helminths during 1 year at an abattoir in central Sweden. The infection levels of the horse tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata, their stage of development, site of attachment and gross pathological lesions caused by the worm were recorded. Faecal samples from 395 of the horses were examined specifically for tapeworm segments and eggs in order to correlate these findings with the numbers in the alimentary canal. In total 65% of the horses were infected with A. perfoliata and the mean intensity of infection was 79 worms per infected horse with a maximum of 912. The level of infection was significantly higher in (1) 3rd and 4th than in 1st and 2nd quarter of the year; (2) older horses than in yearlings; (3) females than in males and geldings; (4) thoroughbred and cold-blooded horses than in Swedish standard breeds and ponies. The level of infection was unaffected by the usage of anthelminthics against nematodes. Of the horses examined 51% had 1-100 worms whereas 14% were infected with more than 100 worms. Of the tapeworm positive horses 72% had mixed infections with both adult and juvenile worms, 20% solely juveniles, and 8% solely adults. The severity of intestinal lesions exacerbated by increasing numbers of A. perfoliata. About 11% of the intestines examined had severe lesions, but there was no history of acute abdominal distress in any of the horses included in this study. Although the number of detectable eggs was significantly higher for horses heavily infected with A. perfoliata, the egg recovery among infected horses was only 35%. An additional field survey comprising 218 horses on 88 premises in central and southern parts of Sweden showed that the prevalence of A. perfoliata egg positive horses was the same as found on faecal examination during the abattoir survey. PMID:7502948

Nilsson, O; Ljungström, B L; Höglund, J; Lundquist, H; Uggla, A

1995-01-01

330

Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse.  

PubMed

The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43?kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5?million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2?Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72?kyr BP, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication. PMID:23803765

Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; Johnson, Philip L F; Fumagalli, Matteo; Vilstrup, Julia T; Raghavan, Maanasa; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Vogt, Josef; Szklarczyk, Damian; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vinther, Jakob; Dolocan, Andrei; Stenderup, Jesper; Velazquez, Amhed M V; Cahill, James; Rasmussen, Morten; Wang, Xiaoli; Min, Jiumeng; Zazula, Grant D; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie; Magnussen, Kim; Thompson, John F; Weinstock, Jacobo; Gregersen, Kristian; Røed, Knut H; Eisenmann, Véra; Rubin, Carl J; Miller, Donald C; Antczak, Douglas F; Bertelsen, Mads F; Brunak, Søren; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ryder, Oliver; Andersson, Leif; Mundy, John; Krogh, Anders; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Kjær, Kurt; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Olsen, Jesper V; Hofreiter, Michael; Nielsen, Rasmus; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

2013-07-01

331

TRYPANOSOMES FROM ELK AND HORSE FLIES IN NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Trypanosoma sp. was isolated from five of seven yearling elk (Cervus canadensis) at Red Rock Wildlife Area and 29 of 31 horse flies (Hybomitra laticor- nis) collected in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico. To our knowledge, this represents the first isolation of trypanosomes from elk.

ERT B. DAVIEStand; GARY G. CLARKD

332

CUTLEAF NIGHTSHADE (SOLANUM TRIFLORUMM NUTT.) TOXICITY IN HORSES AND HAMSTERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum triflorum Nutt. (cutleaf nightshade) poisoning has been associated with gastroenteritis, but poisoned horses have severe salivation, frequent urination, diarrhea and colic. The purpose of this study was to develop a small animal model of poisoning and if possible, identify the neurotoxin. ...

333

"A shape bend in the road, showing how the horses ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"A shape bend in the road, showing how the horses are hitched in 'blocking.' The remainder of the team has been hitched to the block and tackle." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. I, No. 12, December 1913, p. 553 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

334

LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSES AND IMMUNOPHENOTYPES IN HORSES WITH SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA INFECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection of horses with Sarcocystis neurona (S. neurona) is relatively widespread based on the prevalence of serum antibodies, but development of associated clinical disease is much less common. The host immune response is likely to be an important factor in determining outcome of infection with t...

335

Horse species symposium pathogenic and reproductive dysfunction in hourses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the major factors contributing to production losses in the equine industry is pathogen-associated reproductive dysfunction. Although it is difficult to place a true value on the economic losses associated with pathogen-induced reproductive dysfunction in the horse due to the varying value of ...

336

Blastomycotic osteomyelitis associated with severe lameness in a horse  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old Quarter horse gelding was presented for evaluation of severe right forelimb lameness, 2 draining tracts over the lateral aspect of the right proximal antebrachium, and weight loss. A presumptive diagnosis of blastomycotic osteomyelitis was established based on radiographs and cytology of the exudate. This diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:22654133

Méndez-Angulo, José L.; Swaab, Megan E.; Malone, Erin; Olson, Erik J.; Chalkley, Mark D.; Aird, Betsy; Ward, Christie

2011-01-01

337

Renal medullary rim sign in 2 adult quarter horses.  

PubMed Central

This report describes a renal ultrasonographic abnormality (medullary rim sign), which was identified in 2 separate cases of spontaneously occurring disease associated with chronic and acute overdosage of phenylbutazone therapy. In horses, medullary rim sign has only been documented in neonatal foals experimentally administered large doses of phenylbutazone. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9789678

Ramirez, S; Seahorn, T L; Williams, J

1998-01-01

338

Radiographic study of distal radial physeal closure in thoroughbred horses.  

PubMed

Monthly radiography was performed to study distal radial physeal closure in ten male and ten female Thoroughbred horses. The height, thoracic circumference and metacarpus circumference were also measured. Distal radial physeal closure time was sooner in females than males, and took 701 +/- 37 and 748 +/- 55 days respectively. PMID:9335091

Vulcano, L C; Mamprim, M J; Muniz, L M; Moreira, A F; Luna, S P

1997-01-01

339

Introduction Horse flies (Diptera:Tabanidae) are an economically, medically,  

E-print Network

. In blood-feeding females, uptake occurs through a pierc- ing feeding tube formed by the labrum tabanid lineages were nectar specialising Pangoniinae (long- tongued flies), with blood-feeding evolving, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 South Africa. Email: simorita@ncsu.edu Abstract. Long-tongued horse flies

Hammerton, James

340

Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Horses, Austria, 2011  

PubMed Central

An unexpectedly high infection rate (26.1%) of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was identified in a herd of 257 horses of the same breed distributed among 3 federal states in Austria. Young age (p<0.001) and male sex (p = 0.001) were positively associated with infection. PMID:23631894

Rushton, James O.; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Hubálek, Zdenek; Svobodová, Petra; Lussy, Helga

2013-01-01

341

Transportation costs and product demand: wagering on parimutuel horse racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parimutuel horse-race wagering is in many respects like any other economic good but it differs in one important way from a vast majority of them. Given the present market arrangement, this good cannot be transported to the consumer; instead the consumer must travel to the production site where the good is consumed as it is produced. Thus, transportation costs must

Mukhtar Ali; Richard Thalheimer

1997-01-01

342

Radiography of the horse : 2. Foot and pastern  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE foot and pastern of the horse must be the most frequently implicated region in terms of lameness. Recent years have seen an increase in the use of, and some confusion in the interpretation of, diagnostic (intra-articular and perineural) analgesia in this region. With this in mind, and the fact that improved ultrasonographic facilities and sporadic availability of magnetic resonance

Svend Kold; Jan Butler

2003-01-01

343

Injuries in the event horse: Training versus competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two related studies on injuries sustained by event horses during competition and during training are reported. During the cross-country phase of competition, the most common injuries were lacerations and abrasions to the carpus and stifle. Superficial digital flexor tendonitis and exertional rhabdomyolysis were significantly more common during Cours Complete Internationale (CCI) competitions compared to one-day event (ODE) competitions. The difference

Ellen R. Singer; Jane Barnes; Fiona Saxby; Jane K. Murray

2008-01-01

344

Architectural Properties of Distal Forelimb Muscles in Horses, Equus caballus  

E-print Network

were measured for nine distal forelimb muscles. Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSAArchitectural Properties of Distal Forelimb Muscles in Horses, Equus caballus Nicholas A.T. Brown,1. To accurately and noninvasively predict muscle and joint contact forces, a detailed model of musculoskeletal

Meyers, Ron

345

THE SYNCHRONIZATION OF VENTILATION AND LOCOMOTION IN HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 . Horses and some other galloping and hopping mammals link their breathing and locomotion, taking exactly one breath per stride. Three theoretical mechanisms by which the movements of locomotion might drive ventilation are considered, (i) Flexion of the lumbosacral joint and the resulting forward sweep of the pelvis pushes the viscera against the diaphragm. However, back flexion lags behind

IAIN S. YOUNG; A. J. WOAKES; P. J. BUTLER; LLOYD ANDERSON

1992-01-01

346

TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

347

Pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir and valganciclovir in the adult horse.  

PubMed

Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy, resulting from equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) infection, is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in the horse. As compared to other antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir, ganciclovir has enhanced potency against EHV-1. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir and its oral prodrug, valganciclovir, in six adult horses in a randomized cross-over design. Ganciclovir sodium was administered intravenously as a slow bolus at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg, and valganciclovir was administered orally at a dose of 1800 mg per horse. Intravenously administered ganciclovir disposition was best described by a three-compartment model with a prolonged terminal half-life of 72 ± 9 h. Following the oral administration of valganciclovir, the mean observed maximum serum ganciclovir concentration was 0.58 ± 0.37 ?g/mL, and bioavailability of ganciclovir from oral valganciclovir was 41 ± 20%. Superposition predicted that oral dosing of 1800-mg valganciclovir two times daily would fail to produce and maintain effective plasma concentrations of ganciclovir. However, superposition suggested that i.v. administration of ganciclovir at 2.5 mg/kg every 8 h for 24 h followed by maintenance dosing of 2.5 mg/kg every 12 h would maintain effective ganciclovir serum concentrations in most horses throughout the dosing interval. PMID:23301502

Carmichael, R J; Whitfield, C; Maxwell, L K

2013-10-01

348

Pricing Decisions and Insider Trading in Horse Betting Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on a theoretical model by Schnytzer, Lamers, and Makropoulou (2010) that conceptualizes fixed odds horse betting markets as implicit call option markets. We model the decision making process of a bookmaker that sets his prices under uncertainty. We extend the paper of Schnytzer et al. (2010) by relaxing some assumptions and allowing for betting at multiple time

A. SCHNYTZER; V. MAKROPOULOU; M. LAMERS

2012-01-01

349

Physical Fitness and Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity in Horse Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Within the animal kingdom, horses are among the most powerful aerobic athletic mammals. Determination of muscle respiratory capacity and control improves our knowledge of mitochondrial physiology in horses and high aerobic performance in general. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied high-resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols to study mitochondrial physiology in small (1.0–2.5 mg) permeabilized muscle fibres sampled from triceps brachii of healthy horses. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity (pmol O2•s?1•mg?1 wet weight) with combined Complex I and II (CI+II) substrate supply (malate+glutamate+succinate) increased from 77±18 in overweight horses to 103±18, 122±15, and 129±12 in untrained, trained and competitive horses (N?=?3, 8, 16, and 5, respectively). Similar to human muscle mitochondria, equine OXPHOS capacity was limited by the phosphorylation system to 0.85±0.10 (N?=?32) of electron transfer capacity, independent of fitness level. In 15 trained horses, OXPHOS capacity increased from 119±12 to 134±37 when pyruvate was included in the CI+II substrate cocktail. Relative to this maximum OXPHOS capacity, Complex I (CI)-linked OXPHOS capacities were only 50% with glutamate+malate, 64% with pyruvate+malate, and 68% with pyruvate+malate+glutamate, and ?78% with CII-linked succinate+rotenone. OXPHOS capacity with glutamate+malate increased with fitness relative to CI+II-supported ETS capacity from a flux control ratio of 0.38 to 0.40, 0.41 and 0.46 in overweight to competitive horses, whereas the CII/CI+II substrate control ratio remained constant at 0.70. Therefore, the apparent deficit of the CI- over CII-linked pathway capacity was reduced with physical fitness. Conclusions/Significance The scope of mitochondrial density-dependent OXPHOS capacity and the density-independent (qualitative) increase of CI-linked respiratory capacity with increased fitness open up new perspectives of integrative and comparative mitochondrial respiratory physiology. PMID:22529950

Lemieux, Hélène; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier

2012-01-01

350

Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. Are common in Oklahoma horses.  

PubMed

Abstract Tick infestations and infection with tick-borne agents are commonly recognized in horses in North America, but equine infection with true Ehrlichia spp. has not been described. To determine the degree to which horses in the south-central United States are naturally exposed to and infected with tick-borne disease agents, serum samples were collected at random (n=240) or from horses with active tick infestations (n=73) and tested by immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evidence of antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi. Positive samples were further evaluated by species-specific serology for antibodies reactive to E. canis and E. chaffeensis, and whole blood samples were tested by PCR for evidence of infection with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and an E. ruminantium-like organism referred to as the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were identified in 8.75% (21/240) of the randomly acquired samples and 24.7% (18/73) of the serum samples from tick-infested horses, but species-specific ELISA and PCR failed to confirm exposure to or infection with any known Ehrlichia spp. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. (5/313; 1.6%) and B. burgdorferi (3/313; 1.0%) were uncommon. These data suggest that horses in the south-central United States are likely exposed to a novel Ehrlichia sp. Further research is needed to identify the etiologic agent responsible for the serologic activity seen and to determine the clinical significance, if any, of this finding. PMID:25072984

Carmichael, Robert C; Duell, Jason R; Holbrook, Todd C; Herrin, Brian H; Leutenegger, Christian M; O'Connor, Thomas P; Little, Susan E

2014-08-01

351

Exercise training-induced hypervolemia in the horse.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if a chronic hypervolemia would accompany endurance exercise training in the horse. Six mature previously inactive horses were utilized for this study. During the 5-wk experiment, five of the horses were trained for 14 d on a treadmill ergometer at a constant treadmill speed of 5.6 km X hr-1 and a constant grade of 12.5% for graduated lengths of time. One horse was trained by lunging at a trotting pace in a round pen. Following training, plasma volume increased by 4.7 1 (29.1%, P less than 0.05). Although the rate of daily water intake did not change during the training period, 24-h urine output decreased by an average of 3.5 1 X d-1 (-24.5%, P less than 0.05). Resting glomerular filtration rate and the rate of sodium clearance were not altered by training. However, urea, potassium, and osmotic clearance were decreased by training (P less than 0.05) while free water clearance was increased (P less than 0.05). Resting plasma aldosterone and arginine vasopressin concentrations were not altered by training. Plasma potassium concentration was significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) following the 2 wk of training. These data would appear to suggest that renal control mechanisms affecting water reabsorption via the re-absorption of urea and osmotically active substances other than sodium provide the primary route for the training-induced hypervolemia seen in horses. PMID:3547008

McKeever, K H; Schurg, W A; Jarrett, S H; Convertino, V A

1987-02-01

352

Applicability of stable C and N isotope analysis in inferring the geographical origin and authentication of commercial fish (Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock).  

PubMed

Globalisation of seafood and aquaculture products and their convenient marketing worldwide, increases the possibility for the distribution of mislabelled products; thereby, underlining the need to identify their origin. Stable isotope analysis is a promising approach to identify the authenticity and traceability of seafood and aquaculture products. In this investigation, we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?(13)C and ?(15)N) of three commercial fish, viz. Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock, originating from various countries. Apart from the species-dependent variation in the isotopic values, marked differences in the ?(13)C and ?(15)N ratios were also observed with respect to the country of origin. This suggests that C and N isotopic signatures could be reliable tools to identify and trace the origin of commercial fish. PMID:25442587

Kim, Heejoong; Suresh Kumar, K; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

2015-04-01

353

Ultrasonographic evaluation of the supraspinous ligament in a series of ridden and unridden horses and horses with unrelated back pathology  

E-print Network

of the supraspinous ligament has been well described, but there are few studies that correlate ultrasonographic findings with clinical pain and/or pathology. This preliminary study aims to test the hypothesis that unridden horses (n = 13) have a significantly reduced...

Henson, Frances M D; Lamas, Luis; Knezevic, Sabina; Jeffcott, Leo B

2007-03-01

354

Protein expression profile of Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae causing horse gastric myiasis and characterization of horse immune reaction  

PubMed Central

Background Little information is available on the immunological aspect of parasitic Gasterophilus intestinalis (Diptera, Oestridae) larvae causing horse gastric myiasis. The objectives of this research were to analyze the protein content of larval crude extracts of the migrating second and third larvae (L2 and L3) of G. intestinalis in order to characterize the immune response of horses. Results The proteomic profile of L2 and L3, investigated by using one and two dimensional approaches, revealed a migration pattern specific to each larval stage. Furthermore, Western blots were performed with horse sera and with sera of Balb/c mice immunised with the larval crude extracts of L2 or L3, revealing a different immune reaction in naturally infected horses vs. artificially induced immune reaction in mice. The comparisons of the immunoblot profiles demonstrate that the stage L2 is more immunogenic than the stage L3 most likely as an effect of the highest enzymatic production of L2 while migrating through the host tissues. Fifteen proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Conclusion This work provides further information into the understanding of the interaction between G. intestinalis and their host and by contributing a novel scheme of the proteomic profile of the main larval stages. PMID:19133133

Roelfstra, Liselore; Deeg, Cornelia A; Hauck, Stefanie M; Buse, Christina; Membrez, Mathieu; Betschart, Bruno; Pfister, Kurt

2009-01-01

355

Alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity in horses: clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings.  

PubMed

The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited. PMID:23800626

Abutarbush, S M

2013-07-27

356

TARA OCEANS POLAR CIRCLE  

E-print Network

TARA OCEANS POLAR CIRCLE © C.Sardet/CNRS/Tara Oceans Arctique.dacher@cnrs-dir.fr Tara Oceans Polar Circle l Eloïse Fontaine l T 01 42 01 38 57 l eloise@taraexpeditions.org #12; Sommaire Programme Communiqué de presse Les intervenants Parcours de Tara durant Tara Oceans Polar Circle

van Tiggelen, Bart

357

Oceanic Circulation Visualizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory presents two visualizations. The first is a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has been used for studying both the ocean climate system and idealized ocean circulations; the second is animation of sea surface height and ocean eddies.

Laboratory, Geophysical F.; Noaa

358

Oceans of Energy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on the importance of ocean exploration as a way to learn how to capture, control, and distribute renewable ocean energy resources. Students begin by identifying ways the ocean can generate energy and then research one ocean energy source using the Internet. Finally, students build a Micro-Hydro Electric Generator.

NOAA Ocean Explorer

359

Indian Ocean proposed drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tentative plans for the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) are for the drilling vessel SEDCO\\/BP 471 (Eos, March 13, 1984, p. 97) to work in the Indian Ocean during all or parts of 1987 and 1988. The Indian Ocean Advisory Panel of ODP solicits letters of intent or proposals for possible scientific ocean drilling during that period. All areas within the

Joseph R. Curray

1984-01-01

360

Towards a Postural Indicator of Back Pain in Horses (Equus caballus)  

PubMed Central

Postures have long been used and proved useful to describe animals’ behaviours and emotional states, but remains difficult to assess objectively in field conditions. A recent study performed on horses using geometric morphometrics revealed important postural differences between 2 horse populations differing in management conditions (leisure horses living in social groups used for occasional “relaxed” riding/riding school horses living in individual boxes used in daily riding lessons with more constraining techniques). It was suggested that these postural differences may reflect chronic effects of riding techniques on the horses’ kinematics and muscular development. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the interest of postural measures to assess welfare in horses. This study was separated into 2 parts. First, 18 horses coming from these 2 types of populations (leisure/riding school horses) were submitted to 2 back evaluations by 1) manual examination (experienced practitioner) and 2) sEMG measures along the spine. We then measured neck roundness on 16 of these 18 horses. The results highlighted high correlations between manual and sEMG examinations over the spine. sEMG measures at the different locations were strongly correlated all over the spine. Moreover, neck postures and muscular activities were strongly correlated, horses with concave necks having higher sEMG measures both at precise locations (i.e. cervical sites) but also when comparing neck postures to the whole spine muscular activity highlighting the functioning of horses’ back as a whole. Lastly, strong differences appeared between the populations, leisure horses being evaluated as having sounder spines, exhibiting lower sEMG measures and rounder neck than the riding school horses. sEMG measures and neck “roundness” seemed therefore to be reliable indicators of back disorders, easy to evaluate in field conditions. This highlights the accuracy of using postural elements to evaluate the animals’ general state and has important implications for animals’ welfare evaluations. PMID:22970261

Lesimple, Clémence; Fureix, Carole; De Margerie, Emmanuel; Sénèque, Emilie; Menguy, Hervé; Hausberger, Martine

2012-01-01

361

Comparison of the fecal microbiota of healthy horses and horses with colitis by high throughput sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene.  

PubMed

The intestinal tract houses one of the richest and most complex microbial populations on the planet, and plays a critical role in health and a wide range of diseases. Limited studies using new sequencing technologies in horses are available. The objective of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiome of healthy horses and to compare the fecal microbiome of healthy horses to that of horses with undifferentiated colitis. A total of 195,748 sequences obtained from 6 healthy horses and 10 horses affected by undifferentiated colitis were analyzed. Firmicutes predominated (68%) among healthy horses followed by Bacteroidetes (14%) and Proteobacteria (10%). In contrast, Bacteroidetes (40%) was the most abundant phylum among horses with colitis, followed by Firmicutes (30%) and Proteobacteria (18%). Healthy horses had a significantly higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Spirochaetes while horses with colitis had significantly more Fusobacteria. Members of the Clostridia class were more abundant in healthy horses. Members of the Lachnospiraceae family were the most frequently shared among healthy individuals. The species richness reported here indicates the complexity of the equine intestinal microbiome. The predominance of Clostridia demonstrates the importance of this group of bacteria in healthy horses. The marked differences in the microbiome between healthy horses and horses with colitis indicate that colitis may be a disease of gut dysbiosis, rather than one that occurs simply through overgrowth of an individual pathogen. PMID:22859989

Costa, Marcio C; Arroyo, Luis G; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Stämpfli, Henry R; Kim, Peter T; Sturgeon, Amy; Weese, J Scott

2012-01-01

362

Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Horses and Horses with Colitis by High Throughput Sequencing of the V3-V5 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene  

PubMed Central

The intestinal tract houses one of the richest and most complex microbial populations on the planet, and plays a critical role in health and a wide range of diseases. Limited studies using new sequencing technologies in horses are available. The objective of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiome of healthy horses and to compare the fecal microbiome of healthy horses to that of horses with undifferentiated colitis. A total of 195,748 sequences obtained from 6 healthy horses and 10 horses affected by undifferentiated colitis were analyzed. Firmicutes predominated (68%) among healthy horses followed by Bacteroidetes (14%) and Proteobacteria (10%). In contrast, Bacteroidetes (40%) was the most abundant phylum among horses with colitis, followed by Firmicutes (30%) and Proteobacteria (18%). Healthy horses had a significantly higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Spirochaetes while horses with colitis had significantly more Fusobacteria. Members of the Clostridia class were more abundant in healthy horses. Members of the Lachnospiraceae family were the most frequently shared among healthy individuals. The species richness reported here indicates the complexity of the equine intestinal microbiome. The predominance of Clostridia demonstrates the importance of this group of bacteria in healthy horses. The marked differences in the microbiome between healthy horses and horses with colitis indicate that colitis may be a disease of gut dysbiosis, rather than one that occurs simply through overgrowth of an individual pathogen. PMID:22859989

Costa, Marcio C.; Arroyo, Luis G.; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Stämpfli, Henry R.; Kim, Peter T.; Sturgeon, Amy; Weese, J. Scott

2012-01-01

363

Ocean Planet: Sea Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on ocean bottom features including continental shelf, deep ocean plain, and mid-ocean ridges. Students study the discovery and mapping of seafloor features, learn to read seafloor maps, then create a map of Atlantic seafloor features. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; maps and forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

364

Continents and Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn and explore the seven continents and five oceans. 1. Explore the 7 continents and 5 oceans Continents and Oceans! 2. Play the quiz on the continents and oceans. Start at Beginner and work your way up to Expert! Continents and Oceans! 3. Look at this map and write down all your seven continents! Continents 4. Go to this website and play the game about continents. Continue playing until ...

Kneugent

2012-11-26

365

Incidence of Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses examined at an Irish abattoir.  

PubMed

The intestinal tracts of 363 horses were examined after slaughter at a horse abattoir. The presence or absence of Anoplocephala perfoliata and the sites of attachment were recorded. A total of 51 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached to the mucosa of the ileocaecal junction and/or to the caecal mucosa; 5 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached only to the mucosa of the ileocaecal junction, 24 per cent had A perfoliata attached only to the caecal mucosa and 22 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached at both sites. The degree of infestation did not appear to be influenced by the season or by the age, breed or source of origin of the horses. The lesions at the sites of attachment included congestion, oedema, ulceration, diphtheresis, mucosal thickening, eosinophil infiltration and fibroplasia. The severity of the lesions was exacerbated by increasing numbers of worms. PMID:8085308

Fogarty, U; del Piero, F; Purnell, R E; Mosurski, K R

1994-05-14

366

[New drugs for horses and production animals in 2011].  

PubMed

In 2011, three newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients for horses and food producing animals were released on the German market for veterinary drug products. Two of these new products represent different drug classes of antibiotics, the polypeptide antibiotic Bacitracin (Bacivet™) and the macrolide antibiotic Clorsulon (Levatum®). The third product represents an anticestodal antiparasitic (Tildipirosin, Zuprevo®). Furthermore, three established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients were modified to allow their application for additional species. Thus the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate is now additionally authorised for turkeys and both the macrolide antibiotic Tilmicosin and the anticoccidial drug Toltrazuril are currently available for sheep. Additionally, two veterinary drugs with a new formulation as well as a veterinary drug for horses and food producing animals with a resourceful new combination of active pharmaceutical ingredients have recently been released. PMID:23076759

Emmerich, I U

2012-10-17

367

Do Horses Expect Humans to Solve Their Problems?  

PubMed Central

Domestic animals are highly capable of detecting human cues, while wild relatives tend to perform less well (e.g., responding to pointing gestures). It is suggested that domestication may have led to the development of such cognitive skills. Here, we hypothesized that because domestic animals are so attentive and dependant to humans’ actions for resources, the counter effect may be a decline of self sufficiency, such as individual task solving. Here we show a negative correlation between the performance in a learning task (opening a chest) and the interest shown by horses toward humans, despite high motivation expressed by investigative behaviors directed at the chest. If human-directed attention reflects the development of particular skills in domestic animals, this is to our knowledge the first study highlighting a link between human-directed behaviors and impaired individual solving task skills (ability to solve a task by themselves) in horses. PMID:22936923

Lesimple, C.; Sankey, C.; Richard, M. A.; Hausberger, M.

2012-01-01

368

Changes in Serum Mineral Concentrations, Biochemical and Hematological Parameters in Horses with Pica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare hematological, some biochemical parameters, and serum trace element concentrations in\\u000a horses with or without pica. Fifteen horses with pica (group I) and another 15 healthy horses without pica (group II) were\\u000a used. The hematological parameters were not changed between the two groups. In group I, hemoglobin values were lower than\\u000a those of

Ismail Aytekin; Ali Cesur Onmaz; Serap Unubol Aypak; Vehbi Gunes; Osman Kucuk

2011-01-01

369

Effect of Trace Mineral Supplementation on Gastric Ulcers in Exercising Yearling Horses  

E-print Network

Table 2 Modified EGUC scoring system used to evaluate gastric ulcers in yearling horses ................................................................................... 34 Table 3 Number of horses assigned to each score in modified EGUC.... At the end of each period, horses were transported for 6 h, 5 d before being endoscopically examined to assign ulcer scores. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using the mixed procedure of iv SAS, with the model including fixed effects...

Hayes, Alexa Dawn

2010-10-12

370

Physiological Response of Normal Adult Horses to a Low-Residue Liquid Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe anorexic or dysphagic adult horse often requires nutritional support. Providing nutrients by the enteral route is the safest and most economic choice, but the dietary options available for use in horses are somewhat limited. The objective of this study was to compare the physiologic response of normal horses with a low-residue liquid or normal diet over a 10-day feeding

Virginia A Buechner-Maxwell; Francois Elvinger; Craig D Thatcher; Micheal J Murray; Nathanial A White; Debbie K Rooney

2003-01-01

371

Use of human-given cues by domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and four horses (Equus caballus) were tested for their ability to use human-given manual and facial cues in an object-choice task. Two of the four horses\\u000a used touch as a cue and one horse successfully used pointing. The performance of the dogs was considerably better, with 12\\u000a subjects able to use pointing as a cue,

Jean McKinley; Thomas D. Sambrook

2000-01-01

372

33. 20HORSE POWER VERTICAL BOILER WAS MANUFACTURED BY ORR & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. 20-HORSE POWER VERTICAL BOILER WAS MANUFACTURED BY ORR & SEMBOWER, FROM READING, PA. IT WAS INSTALLED IN 1929 TO REPLACE THE ORIGINAL BOILER. THE BOILER PROVIDED STEAM TO THE STEAM ENGINE. TO LUBRICATING THE DIE OF THE BRICK AUGER, AND TO THE STEAM PIPES OF THE DRYING ROOM ON THE FLOOR ABOVE. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

373

1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A SMALL WINDOW. THE 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW IS IN THE STORE ROOM. THE ROLLING DOOR WAS WIDENED, PROBABLY IN 1926, ELIMINATING THE ORIGINAL LOFT LADDER AT THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE PUBLIC RESTROOM NEAR THE LEFT EDGE OF THE VIEW DOES NOT RELATE TO THE RANGER STATION. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

374

Preliminary Pharmacokinetics of Diclazuril and Toltrazuril in the Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study suggests that diclazuril and toltrazuril are absorbed after oral administration and have longer (40-55 h) plasma half-lives. These kinetic characteristics suggest readily maintained steady-state plasma concentrations. These are useful characteristics for therapeutic agents; how- ever, therapeutic specifics for these agests in the horse remain to be determined. Authors' address: Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center and Dept.

T. Tobin; L. Dirikolu; J. D. Harkins; D. E. Granstrom; W. Carter; F. Lehner; W. A. Rees

375

A Genome Scan for Positive Selection in Thoroughbred Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thoroughbred horses have been selected for exceptional racing performance resulting in system-wide structural and functional adaptations contributing to elite athletic phenotypes. Because selection has been recent and intense in a closed population that stems from a small number of founder animals Thoroughbreds represent a unique population within which to identify genomic contributions to exercise-related traits. Employing a population genetics-based hitchhiking

Jingjing Gu; Nick Orr; Stephen D. Park; Lisa M. Katz; Galina Sulimova; David E. MacHugh; Emmeline W. Hill; Cecile Fairhead

2009-01-01

376

Luminance and chromatic discrimination in the horse ( Equus caballus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine colour vision was measured under conditions that minimised the possibility of animals using brightness cues to make chromatic discriminations. In a two-stage study, we first obtained luminance discrimination functions for achromatic targets then tested for chromatic discrimination over a range of target luminances. Horses were trained on a two-choice discrimination task. The positive stimulus was varied in luminance and\\/or

Todd Macuda; Brian Timney

1999-01-01

377

Town Club or Program Goat Horse Poultry Rabbit  

E-print Network

Dog Exploring Nature Garden- ing Goat Horse Poultry Rabbit Science & Tech Sheep Shooting Sports x x x x Canaan Cardigan Mountain Bobcats x x x x x x x x Campton North Country 4-H River Riders x x Riders x x x x Monroe Hunt Mountain x x x N. Haverhill Bob-O-Link x x x N. Haverhill Little OxBow x x N

New Hampshire, University of

378

Epidemiology of Airborne Virulent Rhodococcus equi at Horse Breeding Farms  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Noah Cohen Committee Members, Morgan Keith Chaffin Sara Lawhon Head of Department, Allen Roussel December 2011 Major Subject: Biomedical Sciences iii ABSTRACT Epidemiology of Airborne... Virulent Rhodococcus equi at Horse Breeding Farms. (December 2011) Kyle Ryan Kuskie, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Noah Cohen Rhodococcus equi causes severe pneumonia, resulting in disease and sometimes death of foals...

Kuskie, Kyle Ryan

2012-02-14

379

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol in horses following oral administration.  

PubMed

Tramadol is a synthetic opioid used in human medicine, and to a lesser extent in veterinary medicine, for the treatment of both acute and chronic pain. In humans, the analgesic effects are owing to the actions of both the parent compound and an active metabolite (M1). The goal of the current study was to extend current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 following oral administration of three doses of tramadol to horses. A total of nine healthy adult horses received a single oral administration of 3, 6, and 9 mg/kg of tramadol via nasogastric tube. Blood samples were collected at time 0 and at various times up to 96 h after drug administration. Urine samples were collected until 120 h after administration. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting data analyzed using noncompartmental analysis. For the 3, 6, and 9 mg/kg dose groups, Cmax , Tmax, and the t1/2? were 43.1, 90.7, and 218 ng/mL, 0.750, 2.0, and 1.5 h and 2.14, 2.25, and 2.39 h, respectively. While tramadol and M1 plasma concentrations within the analgesic range for humans were attained in the 3 and 6 mg/kg dose group, these concentrations were at the lower end of the analgesic range and were only transiently maintained. Furthermore, until effective analgesic plasma concentrations have been established in horses, tramadol should be cautiously recommended for control of pain in horses. No significant undesirable behavioral or physiologic effects were noted at any of the doses administered. PMID:23061925

Knych, H K; Corado, C R; McKemie, D S; Scholtz, E; Sams, R

2013-08-01

380

Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art  

PubMed Central

Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings “The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle,” depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back ?25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as “leopard” in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed. PMID:22065780

Pruvost, Melanie; Bellone, Rebecca; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; O'Connor, Terry; Reissmann, Monika; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

2011-01-01

381

Physiological responses of mature Quarter Horses to reining training when fed conventional and fat supplemented diets.  

E-print Network

??An initial experiment was conducted utilizing five mature Quarter Horses to establish baseline physiological responses to typical reining training. Heart rate and plasma lactate concentration… (more)

Rammerstorfer, Christian

2012-01-01

382

Improving Environmental Management on Small-scale Farms: Perspectives of Extension Educators and Horse Farm Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms.

Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

2015-01-01

383

Data on the prevalence of tapeworm infestations in horses in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

The prevalence of tapeworm infestations was investigated in 70 horses slaughtered in the period February 1994-July 1994. Most horses were half-breed, young (1.5-3 years), and in good condition. They were bought for slaughter by dealers on local markets, and their treatment history was therefore unknown. Tapeworm infestations were seen in 16 horses (23%). Fifteen (21%) had an infection with Anoplocephala perfoliata. One horse had a single specimen of Paranoplocephala mamillana. The average number of A. perfoliata was 45 and the highest number was 508. PMID:8903145

Borgsteede, F H; van Beek, G

1996-09-01

384

Demographics, management, and welfare of nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island  

PubMed Central

Abstract There are no detailed, representative, horse-level data about equine management practices in different parts of Canada. To help address this, the demographics, management, and welfare of 312 nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island were examined in a randomized, horse-level survey during summer 2002. Owners completed a pretested questionnaire, and a veterinarian examined each horse. Owners were experienced caregivers and the horses were generally in good condition. Areas for improvement included parasite control, dental and hoof care, and tail docking. The mean fecal egg count was 428 eggs per gram; 76% of owners never removed manure from the pasture. Sixty-two percent of horses had never had a veterinary dental examination. Many horses had hoof defects (excessively long hooves, 26.8%; hoof wall breaks, 32.0%; and white line disease, 8.5%). Many (54.9%) draft horses had docked tails. These results suggest owners might benefit their horses by receiving education in aspects of equine care. PMID:15646847

2004-01-01

385

Patterns of Horse-Rider Coordination during Endurance Race: A Dynamical System Approach  

PubMed Central

In riding, most biomechanical studies have focused on the description of the horse locomotion in unridden condition. In this study, we draw the prospect of how the basic principles established in inter-personal coordination by the theory of Coordination Dynamics may provide a conceptual and methodological framework for understanding the horse-rider coupling. The recent development of mobile technologies allows combined horse and rider recordings during long lasting natural events such as endurance races. Six international horse-rider dyads were thus recorded during a 120 km race by using two tri-axial accelerometers placed on the horses and riders, respectively. The analysis concentrated on their combined vertical displacements. The obtained shapes and angles of Lissajous plots together with values of relative phase between horse and rider displacements at lower reversal point allowed us to characterize four coordination patterns, reflecting the use of two riding techniques per horse's gait (trot and canter). The present study shows that the concepts, methods and tools of self-organizing dynamic system approach offer new directions for understanding horse-rider coordination. The identification of the horse-rider coupling patterns constitutes a firm basis to further study the coalition of multiple constraints that determine their emergence and their dynamics in endurance race. PMID:23940788

Viry, Sylvain; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Frances, Jean-Philippe; Berton, Eric; Laurent, Michel; Nicol, Caroline

2013-01-01

386

Improving Environmental Management on Small-scale Farms: Perspectives of Extension Educators and Horse Farm Operators.  

PubMed

Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms. PMID:25267522

Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

2015-01-01

387

Detection of Theileria equi in spleen and blood of asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine whether asymptomatic horses naturally infected with Theileria equi retain infected erythrocytes in the spleen and whether the presence of the hemoparasite in this organ is associated with parasitemia. We collected samples from 25 adult horses without clinical signs of any disease. From each animal, we collected whole blood samples from the jugular vein and a splenic puncture blood sample. All samples were submited to blood cell counts and detection of Theileria or Babesia. DNA extraction and PCR were performed in all samples for identification of piroplasm infection (T. equi and B. caballi). From the 25 horses evaluated for piroplasm detection by PCR, seven horses (28%) were positive in jugular vein blood but negative in splenic blood samples, five horses (20%) were positive in splenic blood samples but negative in jugular vein blood samples, and 13 horses (52%) were positive in both jugular vein and splenic blood samples. The hematological evaluation revealed anemia in 13 of 25 (52%) infected horses, lymphopenia in five (20%), neutrophilia in two (8%), neutropenia in one (4%), and thrombocytopenia in one (4%) infected horse. The present study demonstrated that several (20%) of the asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses did not show parasitemia, but show infected erythrocytes in the spleen. PMID:23666659

Ribeiro, Isabel B; Câmara, Antônio Carlos L; Bittencourt, Marta V; Marçola, Tatiana G; Paludo, Giane R; Soto-Blanco, Benito

2013-06-01

388

The effects of age, rank and neophobia on social learning in horses.  

PubMed

Social learning is said to meet the demands of complex environments in which individuals compete over resources and cooperate to share resources. Horses (Equus caballus) were thought to lack social learning skills because they feed on homogenously distributed resources with few reasons for conflict. However, the horse's social environment is complex, which raises the possibility that its capacity for social transfer of feeding behaviour has been underestimated. We conducted a social learning experiment using 30 socially kept horses of different ages. Five horses, one from each group, were chosen as demonstrators, and the remaining 25 horses were designated observers. Observers from each group were allowed to watch their group demonstrator opening a feeding apparatus. We found that young, low-ranking and more exploratory horses learned by observing older members of their own group, and the older the horse, the more slowly it appeared to learn. Social learning may be an adaptive specialisation to the social environment. Older animals may avoid the potential costs of acquiring complex and potentially disadvantageous feeding behaviours from younger group members. We argue that horses show social learning in the context of their social ecology and that research procedures must take such contexts into account. Misconceptions about the horse's sociality may have hampered earlier studies. PMID:24170136

Krueger, Konstanze; Farmer, Kate; Heinze, Jürgen

2014-05-01

389

Acute hemoperitoneum in horses: a review of 19 cases (1992-2003).  

PubMed

The medical records of 19 horses with acute hemoperitoneum were reviewed. The causes for the hemoperitoneum were idiopathic (8 horses), splenic hematoma with capsular tear (7), bleeding from the reproductive tract (3), multicentric hemangiosarcoma (1), and systemic amyloidosis (1). The affected horses were between 4 and 32 years of age (median 11.5 years). The most consistent findings on initial examination were depression, tachycardia, tachypnea, pale mucous membranes, prolonged capillary refill time, colic, and abdominal discomfort. Less common clinical signs included abdominal distention, profuse sweating, ataxia, and broad ligament mass palpated on rectal examination. Clinicopathologic abnormalities commonly detected were anemia, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypoproteinemia, hypocalcemia, azotemia, increased creatinine kinase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activity. Hemoperitoneum was diagnosed on the basis of abdominocentesis, transabdominal ultrasonography, and postmortem examination. Sixteen horses were treated, and 3 horses were euthanized at owners' request because of severe clinical signs. The treatment consisted of the administration of intravenous fluids, plasma or blood transfusion, nonsteroidal drugs, antimicrobial drugs, and antifibrinolytic and procoagulant agents. Rapid clinical deterioration was observed in 2 horses, necessitating euthanasia. The remaining 14 horses survived the abdominal bleeding (survival rate 74%) and were discharged 3-15 days (median 7.0 days) after presentation. Postmortem examination of the 6 nonsurvivors showed massive abdominal hemorrhage from splenic hematoma with capsular tear (2 horses), multicentric hemangiosarcoma with liver rupture (1), systemic amyloidosis with splenic hematoma and capsular tear (1), and bilateral ruptured ovarian hematomas (1). In one horse, no origin of the bleeding could be determined during postmortem examination. PMID:15954549

Pusterla, N; Fecteau, M E; Madigan, J E; Wilson, W D; Magdesian, K G

2005-01-01

390

Evaluation of working conditions of workers engaged in tending horses.  

PubMed

introduction. A growing interest in the horse business has resulted in the increased engagement of many people in this area, and the health problems occurring among workers create the need to search for prophylactic measures. objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the level of exposure to air pollution in a stable, and estimation of the degree of work load among workers engaged in tending horses. material and methods. The study was conducted twice, during the winter season, in a stable maintaining race horses, and in a social room. In order to evaluate workers' exposure, air samples were collected by the aspiration method. After the incubation of material, the total number of bacteria and fungi in the air was determined, as well as the number of aerobic mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, expressed as the number of colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m(3)). The measurement of total dust concentration in the air was also performed, simultaneously with the measurement of microclimatic parameters. The study of work load also covered the measurement of energy expenditure, evaluation of static physical load, and monotony of movements performed. conclusions. The stable may be considered as a workplace with considerable risk of the occurrence of unfavourable health effects. PMID:25528908

Nowakowicz-D?bek, Bo?ena; Pawlak, Halina; Wlaz?o, ?ukasz; Kuna-Broniowska, Izabela; Bis-Wencel, Hanna; Buczaj, Agnieszka; Maksym, Piotr

2014-11-26

391

Speed, pacing strategy and aerodynamic drafting in Thoroughbred horse racing  

PubMed Central

Choice of pacing strategy and the benefit of aerodynamic drafting are thought to be key determinants of racing performance. These effects have largely been analysed without reference to final outcome, in small datasets with low temporal resolution, and a focus on human swimming, cycling and running. Here, we determined the position and speed of 44 803 racehorses, once per second, in 3 357 races ranging in length from 1006 to 4225 m (50.9–292.9 seconds duration) using a validated radio tracking system. We find that aerodynamic drafting has a marked effect on horse performance, and hence racing outcome. Furthermore, we demonstrate that race length-dependent pacing strategies are correlated with the fastest racing times, with some horses reaching a maximum speed in excess of 19 m s?1. The higher speeds seen with certain pacing strategies may arise due to the nature of pack racing itself, or may be a reflection of individual capabilities, that is, corresponding to horses that perform well in roles suited to their ‘front-running’ or ‘chaser’ personality traits. PMID:22399784

Spence, Andrew J.; Thurman, Andrew S.; Maher, Michael J.; Wilson, Alan M.

2012-01-01

392

Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

393

Original article Genetic parameters of eventing horse competition in France  

E-print Network

Abstract – Genetic parameters of eventing horse competitions were estimated. About 13 000 horses, 30 000 annual results during 17 years and 110 000 starts in eventing competitions during 8 years were recorded. The measures of performance were logarithmic transformations of annual earnings, annual earnings per start, and annual earnings per place, and underlying variables responsible for ranks in each competition. Heritabilities were low (0.11 / 0.17 for annual results, 0.07 for ranks). Genetic correlations between criteria were high (greater than 0.90) except between ranks and earnings per place (0.58) or per start (0.67). Genetic correlations between ages (from 5 to 10 years old) were also high (more than 0.85) and allow selection on early performances. The genetic correlation between the results in different levels of competition (high/international and low/amateur) was near 1. Genetic correlations of eventing with other disciplines, which included partial aptitude needed for eventing, were very low for steeplechase races (0.18) and moderate with sport: jumping (0.45), dressage (0.58). The results suggest that selection on jumping performance will lead to some positive correlated response for eventing performance, but much more response could be obtained if a specific breeding objective and selection criteria were developed for eventing. horse / eventing / heritability / rank 1.

Anne Ricard; Isabelle Chanu

2000-01-01

394

Unilateral choristoma of the nictitating membrane in a horse.  

PubMed

Case Description-A 2-year-old Morgan mare was evaluated because of a corneal ulceration. Clinical Findings-An irregular, deep stromal corneal ulcer in an area of malacia was noted in the left eye. Hypopyon was present in the ventral portion of the anterior chamber with moderate aqueous flare. The nictitating membrane of the left eye had hairs originating from its leading edge that contacted the corneal surface. Treatment and Outcome-General anesthesia was induced, and a bulbar pedicle conjunctival graft was performed. The conjunctiva at the leading edge of the nictitating membrane, including the aberrant hair follicles, was excised. Microscopically, a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, sebaceous glands, and hair shafts were present, confirming a choristoma of pilosebaceous origin at the leading edge of the nictitating membrane. Six weeks after surgery, the horse had no signs of discomfort, with no regrowth of the hairs; no loss of vision was evident. Clinical Relevance-Ocular choristomas develop secondary to defective fetal cellular differentiation and are rarely reported in the equine literature. The choristoma in this horse contained ectopic hair follicles with hair growth as well as sebaceous glands. This finding emphasizes the importance of a thorough adnexal examination in horses with corneal disease. PMID:25554940

Gornik, Kara R; Pirie, Christopher G; Beamer, Gillian L

2015-01-15

395

Beyond injection: Trojan horse underdense photocathode plasma wakefield acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview on the underlying principles of the hybrid plasma wakefield acceleration scheme dubbed "Trojan Horse" acceleration is given. The concept is based on laser-controlled release of electrons directly into a particle-beam-driven plasma blowout, paving the way for controlled, shapeable electron bunches with ultralow emittance and ultrahigh brightness. Combining the virtues of a low-ionization-threshold underdense photocathode with the GV/m-scale electric fields of a practically dephasing-free beam-driven plasma blowout, this constitutes a 4th generation electron acceleration scheme. It is applicable as a beam brightness transformer for electron bunches from LWFA and PWFA systems alike. At FACET, the proof-of-concept experiment "E-210: Trojan Horse Plasma Wakefield Acceleration" has recently been approved and is in preparation. At the same time, various LWFA facilities are currently considered to host experiments aiming at stabilizing and boosting the electron bunch output quality via a trojan horse afterburner stage. Since normalized emittance and brightness can be improved by many orders of magnitude, the scheme is an ideal candidate for light sources such as free-electron-lasers and those based on Thomson scattering and betatron radiation alike.

Hidding, B.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Xi, Y.; O'Shea, B.; Andonian, G.; Schiller, D.; Barber, S.; Williams, O.; Pretzler, G.; Königstein, T.; Kleeschulte, F.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Corde, S.; White, W. W.; Muggli, P.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Lotov, K.

2012-12-01

396

West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Horses in Ukraine  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus of global importance. Over the last two decades, it has been responsible for significant numbers of cases of illness in humans and animals in many parts of the world. In Ukraine, WNV infections in humans and birds were first reported more than 25 years ago, yet the current epidemiological status is quite unclear. In this study, serum samples from over 300 equines were collected and screened in order to detect current WNV activity in Ukraine with the goal to estimate the risk of infection for humans and horses. Sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization assay (NT) to detect WNV-specific antibodies. The results clearly revealed that WNV circulates in most of the regions from which samples were obtained, shown by a WNV seroprevalence rate of 13.5% of examined horses. This is the first topical report indicating the presence of WNV infections in horses in Ukraine, and the results of this study provide evidence of a widespread WNV circulation in this country. PMID:24100889

Ziegler, Ute; Skrypnyk, Artem; Keller, Markus; Staubach, Christoph; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Damiani, Armando M.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Groschup, Martin H.

2013-01-01

397

Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation.  

PubMed

Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

2014-09-01

398

The brain of the horse: weight and cephalization quotients.  

PubMed

The horse is a common domestic animal whose anatomy has been studied since the XVI century. However, a modern neuroanatomy of this species does not exist and most of the data utilized in textbooks and reviews derive from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here, we report information on the brain of Equus caballus obtained by sampling 131 horses, including brain weight (as a whole and subdivided into its constituents), encephalization quotient (EQ), and cerebellar quotient (CQ), and comparisons with what is known about other relevant species. The mean weight of the fresh brains in our experimental series was 598.63 g (SEM ± 7.65), with a mean body weight of 514.12 kg (SEM ± 15.42). The EQ was 0.78 and the CQ was 0.841. The data we obtained indicate that the horse possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a weight similar to that of other hoofed species of like mass. However, the shape of the brain, the noteworthy folding of the neocortex, and the peculiar longitudinal distribution of the gyri suggest an evolutionary specificity at least partially separate from that of the Cetartiodactyla (even-toed mammals and cetaceans) with whom Perissodactyla (odd-toed mammals) are often grouped. PMID:24335261

Cozzi, Bruno; Povinelli, Michele; Ballarin, Cristina; Granato, Alberto

2014-01-01

399

Pharmacokinetics of pergolide after intravenous administration to horses.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of pergolide after IV administration to horses. ANIMALS 8 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Pergolide mesylate was administered IV at a dose of 20 ?g/kg (equivalent to 15.2 ?g of pergolide/kg) to each horse, and blood samples were collected over 48 hours. Pergolide concentrations in plasma were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined on the basis of noncompartmental methods. RESULTS After IV administration of pergolide, mean ± SD clearance, elimination half-life, and initial volume of distribution were 959 ± 492 mL/h/kg, 5.64 ± 2.36 hours, and 0.79 ± 0.32 L/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With an elimination half-life of approximately 6 hours, twice-daily dosing may be more appropriate than once-daily dosing to reduce peak-trough fluctuation in pergolide concentrations. Further pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of pergolide and its metabolites will be necessary to determine plasma concentrations that correlate with clinical effectiveness to determine the therapeutic range for the treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. PMID:25629913

Rendle, David I; Hughes, Kris J; Doran, Gregory S; Edwards, Scott H

2015-02-01

400

Ocean and Coastal Processes Ocean Environment Research Division  

E-print Network

Ocean and Coastal Processes Ocean Environment Research Division Dr. Jeremy T. Mathis #12;Connec;ng the Research Themes 2014 PMEL Lab Review 2 Climate Marine Ecosystems Oceans and Coastal Processes Measure, model and forecast ocean physics

401

The Ocean Literacy Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

2008-12-01

402

Anthelmintic efficacy against cyathostomins in horses in Southern England.  

PubMed

Cyathostomins are considered to be the most important group of helminths to affect equids due to their high prevalence, potential pathogenicity and ability to develop anthelmintic resistance. Their control relies almost exclusively on frequent anthelmintic use. Currently, fenbendazole (FBZ), pyrantel embonate (PYR), ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) are licensed for use in horses in the UK. With no new anthelmintics likely to be licensed in the near future, it is essential that investigations into the efficacy of current anthelmintics in different locations are performed to help inform control programmes. Here, efficacy of FBZ, PYR, IVM and MOX in horse populations in the South of England was investigated. Horses with a strongyle faecal egg count (FEC) of ?50 eggs per gram (EPG) were enrolled onto a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) study. Efficacy was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in FEC between the group mean at Day 0 and 14 days post-treatment. Efficacy was indicated when a group arithmetic faecal egg count reduction (FECR) of ?90% was recorded for FBZ and PYR, and ?95% for IVM and MOX. Between March and December 2012, 404 FECRT were performed on 12 yards examining 101, 110, 93 and 100 equids for FBZ, PYR, IVM, and MOX, respectively. FBZ resistance was identified on all yards (mean FECR range 0-65.8%). On 10 of 12 yards, PYR efficacy was >90% (91.0-99.4%) and on two yards, PYR resistance was suspected (86.8-87.2%). IVM (96.4-100%) and MOX (99.9-100%) were >95% efficacious on all yards. As the prevalence of FBZ resistance was 100%, the future use of this anthelmintic for the control of strongyles should be questioned. PYR should be used strategically to reduce reliance on the macrocyclic lactone class products. Over-dispersion of FEC between horses was observed (average k=0.21) with 80% of the strongyle eggs counted measured in 15% of horses tested, strongly supporting the application of targeted helminth control programmes in this host species. PMID:23830687

Lester, H E; Spanton, J; Stratford, C H; Bartley, D J; Morgan, E R; Hodgkinson, J E; Coumbe, K; Mair, T; Swan, B; Lemon, G; Cookson, R; Matthews, J B

2013-10-18

403

Ocean Drilling Program (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... FOR GEOSCIENCES (GEO) OCEAN SCIENCES (OCE) Ocean Drilling Program The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP ... scale, the Earth's crust beneath the ocean in order to learn more about the composition, structure ...

404

People and Oceans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

NatureScope, 1988

1988-01-01

405

Ethane ocean on Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

1983-01-01

406

Ocean Water: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how temperature, pressure, and salinity work together to determine the density of ocean water. The three density layers of the ocean are described by means of text description and a graphic illustration.

407

Harvesting the Ocean: 1. The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is the first in a series of three interdisciplinary units which focus specifically on the Pacific Ocean and its surrounding countries. The booklet, designed for lower secondary students, provides an introduction to the ocean environment such that students can understand the physical factors underlying issues raised by the other two…

Caton, Albert, Ed.; And Others

408

Association of Deficiency in Antibody Response to Vaccine and Heterogeneity of Ehrlichia risticii Strains with Potomac Horse Fever Vaccine Failure in Horses  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia risticii is the causative agent of Potomac horse fever (PHF), which continues to be an important disease of horses. Commercial inactivated whole-cell vaccines are regularly used for immunization of horses against the disease. However, PHF is occurring in large numbers of horses in spite of vaccination. In a limited study, 43 confirmed cases of PHF occurred between the 1994 and 1996 seasons; of these, 38 (89%) were in horses that had been vaccinated for the respective season, thereby clearly indicating vaccine failure. A field study of horses vaccinated with two PHF vaccines indicated a poor antibody response, as determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) titers. In a majority of horses, the final antibody titer ranged between 40 and 1,280, in spite of repeated vaccinations. None of the vaccinated horses developed in vitro neutralizing antibody in their sera. Similarly, one horse experimentally vaccinated three times with one of the vaccines showed a poor antibody response, with final IFA titers between 80 and 160. The horse did not develop in vitro neutralizing antibody or antibody against the 50/85-kDa strain-specific antigen (SSA), which is the protective antigen of the original strain, 25-D, and the variant strain of our laboratory, strain 90-12. Upon challenge infection with the 90-12 strain, the horse showed clinical signs of the disease. The horse developed neutralizing antibody and antibody to the 50/85-kDa SSA following the infection. Studies of the new E. risticii isolates from the field cases indicated that they were heterogeneous among themselves and showed differences from the 25-D and 90-12 strains as determined by IFA reactivity pattern, DNA amplification finger printing profile, and in vitro neutralization activity. Most importantly, the molecular sizes of the SSA of these isolates varied, ranging from 48 to 85 kDa. These studies suggest that the deficiency in the antibody response to the PHF vaccines and the heterogeneity of E. risticii isolates may be associated with the vaccine failure. PMID:9466767

Dutta, Sukanta K.; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Biswas, Biswajit

1998-01-01

409

FAQs About Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a FAQ in a concise, readable summary of the current state of ocean acidification knowledge to support the scientific research community and educators. It is maintained by the OCB Project Office, with oversight from the Ocean Acidification Subcommittee of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program. Featured items include a primer to offer the foundational basics of ocean acidification and its impact on humans, Earth systems and marine life.

2012-09-24

410

Specialized horse killers in Europe: Foetal horse remains in the Late Pleistocene Srbsko Chlum-Komín Cave hyena den in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic) and actualistic comparisons to modern African spotted hyenas as zebra hunters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Pleistocene spotted hyenas hunted Przewalski horses in spring to early summer, as documented by foetal horse skeleton remains of Equus ferus cf. przewalskii Poljakoff 1881, found between 3569 megamammal bones in the hyena den site Srbsko Chlum-Komín of the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). The main prey of hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) was this small horse, well distributed

Cajus G. Diedrich

2010-01-01

411

Ocean Exploration Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will familiarize students with discoveries in ocean research, including hydrothermal vents and historical shipwrecks. They will learn about the work of deep-sea explorer Robert Ballard and hypothesize about what they might find in the ocean. Students will complete their research by creating a museum exhibit about ocean exploration and by suggesting questions for future research.

412

NOAA Ocean Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Follow ocean explorations in near real-time, learn about ocean exploration technologies, observe remote marine flora and fauna in the multimedia gallery, review NOAA's 200-year history of ocean exploration, and discover additional NOAA resources in a virtual library. View current expeditions or take a look back at the archived ones. Most expeditions feature fact sheets, photographs, explorer logs, and ask an explorer.

413

Ocean Planet: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Planet is now an archival version of the 1995 Smithsonian Institution traveling exhibition which is no longer on display. This website spotlights 32 organisms to demonstrate the incredible diversity found in the oceans, images included. Over 99 percent of living space on earth is in the ocean, but we still know only a little about it.

414

The Physical Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the physical properties of the ocean (including the composition of seawater; waves, currents, and tides) and the topography of the ocean floor. Included are (1) activities on oceans, saltwater, and the sea floor; and (2) questions, and a puzzle which can be copied. (Author/RT)

NatureScope, 1988

1988-01-01

415

Ocean Explorer: Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Gallery offers an extensive selection of images, sound recordings, animations, and movies associated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's expeditions. A set of links provides access to maps, photos of ocean-dwelling organisms, sound recordings, cultural and historic illustrations, research technology such as ships and submersibles, and photos of ocean explorers themselves.

416

Ocean Literacy Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted documents include 1) 2 pdf files that align key ocean concepts to National & California Science Standards, 2) the report from the first workshop on Public Ocean Literacy, and 3) an annotated bibliography of ocean related books for the K-12 audience.

417

Ocean warning: avoid drowning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean is a popular program from the SPLASH-2 parallel benchmark suite. A complete application, as opposed to a computational kernel, Ocean is often used as a representative of a well-tuned parallel program in architectural studies. However, we find there is a danger in using Ocean to evaluate proposed enhancements that purport to either improve scalability or reduce synchronization overhead. The

Mark Heinrich; Mainak Chaudhuri

2003-01-01

418

Ocean climate research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently published report, An Ocean Climate Research Strategy [Webster, 1984] reviews ocean research that will lead to or support an ability to predict year-to-year natural variations in climate one season in advance. The study was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and is intended to guide NSF in its lead role for ocean climate research. This article summarizes

Ferris Webster

1984-01-01

419

Life in the Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on what life is like in the three major regions of the ocean: (1) the sunlit surface waters; (2) the dim mid-waters; and (3) the dark ocean depths. Five activities and three pages of ocean organisms for copying are included. (Author/RT)

NatureScope, 1988

1988-01-01

420

A technique for the collection and the study of biochemical and microbial characteristics of postprandial gastric contents from conscious horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to collect gastric contents from conscious horses via naso-gastric (NG) intubation to facilitate the study of the microbial ecosystem of the equine stomach. Six healthy Arabian horses (from 3 to 5 years old) were used according the following procedure. Two hours after the morning feeding, horses were sedated and restrained for NG intubation. A

M. Varloud; A. Roussel; P. Boisot; V. Julliand

2007-01-01

421

75 FR 31745 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Horses...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Importation of Horses, Ruminants, Swine, and Dogs; Inspection and Treatment for Screwworm...importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from regions of the world where screwworm...importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from regions of the world where...

2010-06-04

422

Dermatological and parasitological evaluation of infestations with chewing lice ( Werneckiella equi ) on horses and treatment using imidacloprid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lice infestations in horses caused by the chewing louse Werneckiella (Damalinia) equi are observed worldwide. In the present study, the efficacy of 10% imidacloprid was tested on horses naturally infested with lice. Two groups of animals received a double application of 4 ml and 8 ml Advantage 10% spot-on on day 0 and 28 either. Horses, presenting dermatological signs with negative lice

N. Mencke; K. S. Larsen; M. Eydal; H. Sigurðsson

2005-01-01

423

Use of bethanechol and metoclopramide in horses with duodenitis\\/proximal jejunitis: 13 cases (1987–1993)  

Microsoft Academic Search

All horses diagnosed with duodenitis\\/proximal jejunitis (DPJ) at the Texas Veterinary Medican Center between January 1, 1987 and July 1, 1993 were included in a retrospective study to evaluate the therapeutic and prognostic value of bethanechol and metoclopramide as gastrointestinal prokinetic drugs in horses with DPJ treated at our clinic, and to compare the clinical outcome of horses with DPJ

N. D. Cohen; N. A. Faber; G. W. Brumbaugh

1995-01-01

424

The utility of instructor evaluations, reactivity tests and plasma neuroendocrine measures in selecting horses for use in therapeutic riding  

E-print Network

A total of 103 horses (76 from therapeutic riding programs and 27 non-therapeutic riding horses from four sites) were used in this experiment. After a pretest of the methodology, surveys that determined the temperament of each horse were filled out...

Bjorge, Marsha Kay

2012-06-07

425

The demand for slot machine and pari-mutuel horse race wagering at a racetrack-casino  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article expands the limited literature on the demand for casino (racino) wagering. The focus of this article is on the interrelationship of the demands for slot machine and horse race wagering at a racino. Wagering demand models were estimated for the two racino products; slot machine gaming and pari-mutuel horse racing. Horse race and slot machine wagering both decreased

Richard Thalheimer

2011-01-01

426

The demand for slot machine and pari-mutuel horse race wagering at a racetrack-casino  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article expands the limited literature on the demand for casino (racino) wagering. The focus of this article is on the interrelationship of the demands for slot machine and horse race wagering at a racino. Wagering demand models were estimated for the two racino products; slot machine gaming and pari-mutuel horse racing. Horse race and slot machine wagering both decreased

Richard Thalheimer

2012-01-01

427

The dynamics of hoof growth of the primitive Konik horses (Equus caballus gmelini Ant.) in an annual cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual growth rate of the horny wall of the hoof was investigated in 38 horses—31 mares and seven stallions. Experimental subjects were Konik horses kept in a conservative breeding herd. The horses hooves of both limbs: the right fore limb and the right hind limb were measured and next growth rate of the horny wall was analysed at five

Hieronim Frackowiak; Marcin Komosa

2006-01-01

428

Poisonous plants affecting the central nervous system of horses in Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera pascuori was recently reported in horses in the state of Roraima. It causes chronic signs of sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, and progressive weight loss. Some animals are blind. Young horses are more affected than adults. After the end of plant consumption the anima...

429

Readability of branding symbols in horses and histomorphological alterations at the branding site.  

PubMed

Identification of horses has traditionally been facilitated by hot iron branding, but the extent by which branding symbols and numbers can be identified has not been investigated. The local pathological changes induced by branding are also unknown. This study analysed the readability of branding symbols and histomorphological alterations at the branding sites. A total of 248 horses in an equestrian championship were available for identification of symbols and numbers. A further 28 horses, euthanased for other reasons, provided histological examination of the branding site. All except one horse had evidence of histological changes at the brand site, including epidermal hyperplasia, increase of dermal collagenous fibrous tissue and loss of adnexal structures. In two foals, an ulcerative to necrotizing dermatitis was observed and interpreted as a complication of recent branding lesions. Despite the fact that hot iron branding caused lesions compatible with third degree thermal injury, it did not allow unambiguous identification of a large proportion of older horses. While the breed-specific symbol was consistently identified by three independent investigators in 84% of the horses, the double-digit branding number was read correctly by all three investigators in less than 40%. In conclusion, hot iron branding in horses causes lesions compatible with third degree thermal injury but does not always allow identification of horses. PMID:22883927

Aurich, J E; Wohlsein, P; Wulf, M; Nees, M; Baumgärtner, W; Becker-Birck, M; Aurich, C

2013-03-01

430

Effects of feral horses in Great Basin landscapes on soils and ants: Direct and indirect mechanisms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared soil-surface penetration resistance and abundance of ant mounds at 12 western Great Basin sites (composed of 19 plots) either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or having had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. Across this broad spatial domain (3.03 million ha), we minimized confounding due to abiotic factors by selecting horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During both 1997 and 1998, we found 2.2-8.4 times greater abundance of ant mounds and 3.0-15.4 times lower penetration resistance in soil surfaces at horse-removed sites. In 1998, thatched Formica ant mounds, which existed predominately at high elevations, were 3.3 times more abundant at horse-removed sites, although abundance varied widely among sites within treatments. Several types of analyses suggested that horses rather than environmental variability were the primary source of treatment differences we observed in ecosystem components. Tests of several predictions suggest that alterations occurred through not only direct effects, but also indirect effects and potentially feedback loops. Free-roaming horses as well as domestic grazers should be considered in conservation planning and land management in the Great Basin, an ecoregion that represents both an outstanding conservation opportunity and challenge.

Beever, E.A.; Herrick, J.E.

2006-01-01

431

Thermal environment in a four-horse slant-load trailer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little information has been published describing thermal conditions in horse trailers while in transit. Dry bulb temperature (Tdb), globe temperature (Tg), and relative humidity (RH) were measured in ten locations within a fully enclosed four-horse slant-load trailer with and without animals to asse...

432

PROPHYLACTIC ADMINISTRATION OF PONAZURIL REDUCES CLINICAL SIGNS AND DELAYS SEROCONVERSION IN HORSES CHALLENGED WITH SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of ponazuril to prevent or limit clinical signs of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) following infection with Sarcocystis neurona was evaluated. Eighteen horses were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: no treatment, 2.5 mg/kg ponazuril, or 5.0 mg/kg ponazuril. Horses were administered pona...

433

Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses from Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The risk of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) to horses in Mexico has not been established. Serum samples from 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico were examined for the presence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based o...

434

Difficulty of cross-country obstacles for horses competing in Three Day Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine which cross-country obstacles are more difficult for eventing horses. Jumping scores were considered in terms of the horse's reaction to novelty and to the fearfulness of novel objects which are the fences situated in novel terrain. The data concerned 11 classes of One to Four Star level (stars showing the difficulty of

Anna Stachurska; Miros?aw Pi?ta; Anne Phaff Ussing; Agnieszka Kapro?; Nina Kwieci?ska

2010-01-01

435

Prevalence and epidemiology of the major gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Perth, Western Australia.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted on the prevalence of the major gastrointestinal parasites in 140 horses necropsied in Perth, Western Australia, during 1979 to 1982. Adult Strongylus vulgaris were found in 22.5 per cent of horses and verminous arteritis in 62.9 per cent. The peak worm prevalence was in November to January (summer). S edentatus had a similar prevalence and seasonality but S equinus was not found in this survey. Draschia megastoma and Habronema muscae were found in 66.2 per cent and 35.3 per cent of horses respectively. Infection is probably acquired in summer when 8 per cent of the Musca domestica in the vicinity of the stables carried third stage spiruroid larvae. Gasterophilus intestinalis and G nasalis occurred in 36.4 per cent and 22.1 per cent of the horses respectively and 52.1 per cent of horses were infected with one or both species. The peak prevalence of G intestinalis larvae occurred in December with a trough in February-April; the peak prevalence of G nasalis was in May with a trough in November-December. Parascaris equorum was found in 9.9 per cent of the horses and in 21.3 per cent of those less than three years old. Anoplocephala perfoliata was found in 4.9 per cent of the horses and most of these were in older horses. PMID:2934246

Dunsmore, J D; Jue Sue, L P

1985-05-01

436

The use of oral endoscopy for detection of cheek teeth abnormalities in 300 horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to evaluate an endoscopic examination protocol for routine dental examination in horses. The oral cavities of 300 standing, sedated horses were examined under field and hospital conditions with a rigid endoscope using a standardised technique that included examination of the occlusal, lingual (palatal) and buccal surfaces of all cheek teeth rows. The most

Hubert Simhofer; Robert Griss; Karl Zetner

2008-01-01

437

Fungal flora of normal eyes of healthy horses from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conjunctival fungal flora of 32 adult horses with normal eyes ( n = 64) from the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil was identified in the fall of 2000 using horses of different breeds, both genders and aged 5-19 years old. The culture samples were taken from the conjunctival sac of both eyes with a sterile cotton swab

Maurílio Rosa; Liane Maria Cardozo; Jorge da Silva Pereira; Dennis E. Brooks; Ana Lucia B. Martins; Penha Sueli Silva Florido; Jussara Schwind Pedroso Stussi

2003-01-01

438

A field study to estimate the prevalence of Trypanosoma equiperdum in Mongolian horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

From May to July 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Trypanosoma equiperdum in the horse population of the central province (Tuv aimag) of Mongolia. On average, four herds were selected from each of the 29 aimag subdivisions (119 herds). From each herd, 10 horses were sampled in proportion to sex and age categories in the

Peter-Henning Clausen; Saruultuya Chuluun; Ruuragchaa Sodnomdarjaa; Matthias Greiner; Karsten Noeckler; Christian Staak; Karl-Hans Zessin; Eberhard Schein

2003-01-01

439

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a horse: A case of myenteric ganglionitis  

PubMed Central

An 11-year-old Quarter horse mare was presented for recurrent episodes of colic. A chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was diagnosed. Medical treatment and surgical resection of the colon were performed but the condition did not improve and the horse was euthanized. Histopathological examination revealed a myenteric ganglionitis of the small intestine and ascending colon. PMID:21731098

Chénier, Sonia; Macieira, Susana M.; Sylvestre, Doris; Jean, Daniel

2011-01-01

440

Outbreak of acute colitis on a horse farm associated with tetracycline-contaminated sweet feed.  

PubMed Central

Exposure of a group of horses to tetracycline-contaminated feed resulted in acute colitis and subsequent death in one horse and milder diarrhea in 3 others. The most severely affected animal demonstrated clinical and pathological findings typical of colitis X. The other herdmates responded well to administration of zinc bacitracin. PMID:10572668

Keir, A A; Stämpfli, H R; Crawford, J

1999-01-01

441

Effect of protective padding on forelimb intracompartmental muscle pressures in anesthetized horses.  

PubMed

Wick catheters were used to measure intracompartmental muscle pressures (ICMP) within the long heads of the triceps brachii and extensor carpi radialis muscles of 8 horses maintained under halothane anesthesia while their breathing was controlled by intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. Blood gas, cardiac output, and blood pressure determinations were monitored to maintain a stable plane of anesthesia. The horses were positioned in left lateral recumbency and were placed sequentially on each of 4 contact surfaces for 1 hour. The 4 surfaces used for each horse were concrete, foam rubber, air dunnage bag, and a water mattress. Hematologic and biochemical determinations were made before and 24 hours after anesthesia. All horses recovered from the anesthesia. One horse had forelimb lameness for 36 hours after anesthesia, which was clinically diagnosed as a myoneuropathy. The ICMP values were markedly elevated in the muscle bellies of the lower limb of all horses. Supporting the horse on a water mattress caused the least dramatic pressure elevation and foam caused the most. The triceps muscle and, to a lesser extent, the extensor carpi radialis muscle of the lower limb are at risk of ischemia in anesthetized horses because the ICMP may exceed the critical closing pressure of 30 mm of Hg required for capillary blood flow. PMID:3994136

Lindsay, W A; Pascoe, P J; McDonell, W N; Burgess, M L

1985-03-01

442

Effects of bites by the European adder (Vipera berus) in seven Swedish horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on seven horses of bites by the European adder (Vipera berus) are described and compared with previously available information. The clinical signs varied from local swelling and mild systemic signs to severe systemic signs, including systemic inflammatory response, severe tissue necrosis, ventricular tachycardia and dysphagia. Two of the horses were treated with ‘Zagreb’ antiserum, and three that were

K. G. Anlén

2008-01-01

443

Purification of horse radish peroxidase by metal affinity chromatography in an expanded bed system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immobilised metal chelate affinity chromatography (IMAC) in an expanded bed mode was used for the purification of horse radish peroxidase. Recovery of horse radish peroxidase varied between 85 and 72% starting from the crude homogenate. When a pure peroxidase was passed through the purification protocol a recovery of about 95% was achieved.

M. P. Nandakumar; B. Mattiasson

1999-01-01

444

COMPARISON OF THE DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE) AND NET ENERGY (NE) SYSTEMS FOR THE HORSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horse can be described as a monogastric herbivore or a non-rumi nant herbivore which is suited to the digestion and utilization of high fiber diets due to continual microbial fermentation primarily within the hindgut (cecum and colon). Domestication, and an increasing demand for horses to perform under circumstances that require energy intakes above those able to be provided by

P. A. Harris

445

Appendix 68 Bull Trout Data for Hungry Horse and South Fork of the Flathead  

E-print Network

Appendix 68 Bull Trout Data for Hungry Horse and South Fork of the Flathead Excerpt from: Environmental Assessment and Decision Notice For Bull Trout Sport Fishery Reestablishment In Hungry Horse Reservoir and South Fork Flathead River Drainage. 2003. Bull Trout Monitoring In the draft EA we provided

446

A Comparison of Daily Rhythm of Creatinine and Creatine Kinase in the Sedentary and Athlete Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to investigate the existence of a daily rhythm of creatinine or creatine kinase (CK) and the influence of physical exercise on these rhythms. Blood samples from 20 Sella Italiana horses were collected every 4 hours for 48 consecutive hours via an intravenous cannula inserted into the jugular vein. The horses were divided into two

Giuseppe Piccione; Claudia Giannetto; Francesco Fazio; Stefania Casella; Giovanni Caola

2009-01-01

447

Inbreeding and Genetic Structure in the Endangered Sorraia Horse Breed: Implications for its Conservation and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sorraia horse is a closed breed with reduced effective population size and considered in critical maintained risk status. The breed exists in 2 main breeding populations, one in Portugal and one in Germany, with a smaller population size. A set of 22 microsatellite loci was used to examine genetic diversity and structure of the Sorraia horse breed and to

CRISTINA LUIS; E. GUS COTHRAN; MARIA DO MAR OOM

2007-01-01

448

Interplay Between Environmental and Genetic Factors in Temperament\\/Personality Traits in Horses (Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to broach the question of the relative influence of different genetic and environmental factors on different temperament\\/personality traits of horses (Equus caballus). The researchers submitted 702 horses to standardized experimental tests and investigated 9 factors, either genetic or environmental. Genetic factors, such as sire or breed, seemed to influence more neophobic reactions, whereas

Martine Hausberger; Cécile Bruderer; Nathalie Le Scolan; Jean-Sébastien Pierre

2004-01-01

449

Characterization of horse ( Equus caballus ) T-cell receptor beta chain genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes encoding the horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor beta chain (TCRB) were cloned and characterized. Of 33 cDNA clones isolated from the mesenteric lymph node, 30 had functionally rearranged gene segments, and three contained germline sequences. Sixteen unique variable segments (TCRBV), 14 joining genes (TCRBJ), and two constant region genes (TCRBC) were identified. Horse TCRBV were grouped into nine families

Mark D. Schrenzel; Johanna L. Watson; David A. Ferrick

1994-01-01

450

Immunocontraception decreases group fidelity in a feral horse population during the non-breeding season  

E-print Network

. Several studies have examined the effects of PZP application to wild horses (Equus caballus (2009) 74­83 A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Accepted 9 December 2008 Keywords: Equus caballus studied. Important managerial decisions for several species, including the wild horse (Equus caballus

Rubenstein, Daniel I.

451

Whole genome sequence and analysis of the Marwari horse breed and its genetic origin  

PubMed Central

Background The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of the earliest domesticated species and has played an important role in the development of human societies over the past 5,000 years. In this study, we characterized the genome of the Marwari horse, a rare breed with unique phenotypic characteristics, including inwardly turned ear tips. It is thought to have originated from the crossbreeding of local Indian ponies with Arabian horses beginning in the 12th century. Results We generated 101 Gb (~30 × coverage) of whole genome sequences from a Marwari horse using the Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencer. The sequences were mapped to the horse reference genome at a mapping rate of ~98% and with ~95% of the genome having at least 10 × coverage. A total of 5.9 million single nucleotide variations, 0.6 million small insertions or deletions, and 2,569 copy number variation blocks were identified. We confirmed a strong Arabian and Mongolian component in the Marwari genome. Novel variants from the Marwari sequences were annotated, and were found to be enriched in olfactory functions. Additionally, we suggest a potential functional genetic variant in the TSHZ1 gene (p.Ala344>Val) associated with the inward-turning ear tip shape of the Marwari horses. Conclusions Here, we present an analysis of the Marwari horse genome. This is the first genomic data for an Asian breed, and is an invaluable resource for future studies of genetic variation associated with phenotypes and diseases in horses. PMID:25521865

2014-01-01

452

The first large scale molecular study of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of species and genotypes of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in horses is poorly known. The present study examined feces from 195 horses, 1 month to 17 years of age, in 4 locations in Colombia. Prevalence and age distribution of Giardia and Cryptosporidium were determined by PCR. All PCR p...

453

Correlations between the behavior of recreational horses, the physiological parameters and summer atmospheric conditions.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to select atmospheric factors and their values, which may disrupt the correct behavior and physiological condition of recreational horses. The studies were carried out from 1 July until 1 September on 16 Anglo-Arabian geldings. Each day, from 09.00 to 10.00 hours, the horses worked under saddle. The riders and the authors gave a qualitative behavioral assessment for each horse. Mood and willingness to work were evaluated. The quantitative assessment was called 'incorrect behavior of the horse while riding' (IBHR). The percentage time of duration and the number of occurrences of the features while riding were calculated. Heart rate, body temperature and respiratory rate were taken at 08.00 hours (resting measurement) and at 10.05 hours (post-exercise measurement). Air temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure were measured at 08.00 and 10.00 hours. The results showed that adverse changes in the behavior of recreational horses can occur if the horse is ridden when the air temperature is above 26°C and when wind speeds exceed 5.5?m/s. Such conditions may cause a reduction in the mood and willingness to work in horses. Physiological parameters like heart rate and body temperature seem to be more sensitive indicators of the horse body reaction to the weather than behavioral reactions. PMID:25488802

Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela; Zalewska, Edyta; Bocian, Krzysztof

2014-12-01

454

Horse-collar aurora: A frequent pattern of the aurora in quiet times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported here are DE 1 auroral imager observations of an auroral configuration which is given the name ''horse-collar aurora.'' The horse-collar pattern comprises the total area of auroral emissions from a single hemisphere and derives its name from the shape of the emitting area. The pattern is found in images recorded during quiet geomagnetic conditions and is possibly related to

Hones E. W. Jr; J. D. Craven; L. A. Frank; D. S. Evans; P. T. Newell

1989-01-01

455

Cluster of cases of massive hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant detection in race horses.  

PubMed

Five horses originating from 4 different California race tracks were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for necropsy and diagnostic workup. The 5 horses had a history of sudden collapse and death during exercise. In all of them, massive hemoperitoneum and hemorrhages in other cavities or organs were observed. The liver from these 5 animals and from 27 horses that had been euthanized due to catastrophic leg injuries (controls) were subjected to a rodenticide anticoagulant screen. Traces of brodifacoum, diphacinone, or bromadiolone were detected in the 5 horses with massive bleeding (5/5), and no traces of rodenticides were detected in control horses (0/27). Other frequent causes of massive hemorrhages in horses were ruled out in 4 of the cases; one of the horses had a pelvic fracture. Although only traces of anticoagulants were found in the livers of these horses and the role of these substances in the massive bleeding remains uncertain, it is speculated that exercise-related increases in blood pressure may have reduced the threshold for toxicity of these anticoagulants. PMID:25525145

Carvallo, Francisco R; Poppenga, Robert; Kinde, Hailu; Diab, Santiago S; Nyaoke, Akinyi C; Hill, Ashley E; Arthur, Rick M; Uzal, Francisco A

2015-01-01

456

Simulation and management implications of feral horse grazing on Cumberland Island, Georgia  

E-print Network

Simulation and management implications of feral horse grazing on Cumberland Island, Georgia MONICA GOIGEL TURNER Cumberiand Island National !&shore, Georgia,is inhabited by a population of feral horsea an acceptable population size of feral horses. Five-year shnulations indicated a threshold of 2,700 kg

Turner, Monica G.

457

Dynamics of ocean tides  

SciTech Connect

Ocean tide information can solve vital problems in oceanology and geophysics. Elastic properties of the Earth's crust, tidal gravity variations and deviations in trajectories of artificial satellites can be studied from the dynamics of ocean tides. This book contains mathematical models and applications on several problems related to ocean tide dynamics. The first part serves as an introduction to studies of tidal dynamics equations and the application in experimental studies. Specific problems like free oscillations and forced tidal oscillations in the oceans and the ocean-shelf system are discussed. The book deals with tidal flow in the bottom boundary layer. Data and models are presented and experimental and theoretical results are compared.

Maarchuk, G.I.; Kagan, B.A. (P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology, Moscow (SU))

1989-01-01

458

Navigating the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Navigational tools and methods of early voyagers provide the background and contrast to the satellite images and models used today. Students complete mapping activities based on historical data from Columbus and Blith. Students will also use a computer model of ocean currents to investigate the movement of objects drifting on the ocean surface. Note that this is lesson one of five on the Ocean Motion website. Each lesson investigates ocean surface circulation using satellite and model data and can be done independently. See Related URL's for links to the Ocean Motion Website which provide science background information, data resources, teacher material, student guides and a lesson matrix.

459

Noninvasive photoelastic method to show distribution of strain in the hoof wall of a living horse.  

PubMed

A photoelastic method used for materials testing in industry was adapted to show the distribution of strain through the hoof wall in the living horse. Strain was a change in length per unit length in the material of the loaded hoof wall compared with the unloaded condition. Coloured fringes appeared in the photoelastic plastic where there were differences in strain between adjacent sites (strain gradients) in the hoof. Strain distribution was observed in the shod and unshod hoof wall of the front hooves of 6 sound horses with hooves that appeared 'good' to visual inspection, and one unsound horse with hoof cracks. No significant differences in strains were apparent across the hoof walls of the sound horses when the horses were standing normally. Steep strain gradients were apparent in hooves, associated with defects such as cracks, unstable nail holes, and long toes. PMID:9354279

Davies, H M

1997-05-01

460

Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus (HeV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, was discovered in 1994, and since then, infections have occurred in 7 humans, each of whom had a strong epidemiologic link to similarly affected horses. As a consequence of these outbreaks, eradication of bat populations was discussed, despite their crucial environmental roles in pollination and reduction of the insect population. We describe the development and evaluation of a vaccine for horses with the potential for breaking the chain of HeV transmission from bats to horses to humans, thereby protecting horse, human, and environmental health. The HeV vaccine for horses is a key example of a One Health approach to the control of human disease. PMID:24572697

Pallister, Jackie; Klein, Reuben; Feng, Yan-Ru; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Frazer, Leah; Huang, Jin-An; Edwards, Nigel; Wareing, Mark; Elhay, Martin; Hashmi, Zia; Bingham, John; Yamada, Manabu; Johnson, Dayna; White, John; Foord, Adam; Heine, Hans G.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Broder, Christopher C.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2014-01-01

461

Prevalence of antibodies against Saint Louis encephalitis and Jamestown Canyon viruses in California horses.  

PubMed

Jamestown Canyon (JC) and Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses are mosquito-transmitted viruses that have long been present in California. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of these two viruses in horses prior to the introduction of West Nile (WN) virus. Approximately 15% of serum samples collected in 1998 from 425 horses on 44 equine operations horses throughout California had serum antibodies to JC virus, whereas antibodies were not detected to SLE virus. The results indicate that horses in California were commonly infected prior to 1998 with mosquito-transmitted Bunyaviruses that are identical or closely related to JC virus, but not with SLE virus. The different seroprevalence of SLE and JC viruses in horses likely reflects the unique ecology of each virus, and it is predicted that WN virus will have a wider distribution in California than closely related SLE virus. PMID:15001316

Nelson, Dana M; Gardner, Ian A; Chiles, Robert F; Balasuriya, Udeni B; Eldridge, Bruce F; Scott, Thomas W; Reisen, William K; Maclachlan, N James

2004-05-01

462

Efficacy of major anthelmintics against horse cyathostomins in France.  

PubMed

This paper reports a survey conducted in France during 2011 to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics against horse cyathostomins. A total of 40 farms and 1089 horses were screened for the presence of cyathostomins. All farms but one were positive, with an overall animal infection rate of 53.7%, ranging from 9% to 83% on individual farms. On 445 horses from 30 of these farms, a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed to evaluate the efficacy of oral formulations of fenbendazole (FBZ), pyrantel embonate (PYR), ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX). Calculation of the mean FECR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) around the mean was performed using bootstrap analysis. Resistance to FBZ was found on 17 of 18 farms investigated, with a mean reduction of 57% (95% CI: 38.5-71.2%). Suspected resistance for PYR was found on 6 of 30 farms, and confirmed on another 3 of 30 farms, with a mean reduction for PYR of 94.7% (95% CI: 88.9-98.5%). Reduced efficacy simultaneously of FBZ and PYR was found in 7 farms. Reduced efficacy of IVM was found in one animal on one farm and of MOX in one animal on another farm, and was combined with resistance against FBZ and/or PYR. These results indicate that single and multiple drug resistance and reduced efficacy in equine cyathostomins is present in France. Macrocylic lactones proved to be highly effective compounds against cyathostomins, with reduced efficacy for IVM and MOX in two farms only. These results extend present knowledge on the occurrence of drug resistant cyathostomins in Europe, and illustrate the necessity to use anthelmintics in appropriate worm control programmes. PMID:22538094

Traversa, Donato; Castagna, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Meloni, Silvana; Bartolini, Roberto; Geurden, Thomas; Pearce, Michael C; Woringer, Emmanuel; Besognet, Bruno; Milillo, Piermarino; D'Espois, Melanie

2012-09-10

463

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clemastine in healthy horses.  

PubMed

Clemastine is an H1 antagonist used in certain allergic disorders in humans and tentatively also in horses, although the pharmacology of the drug in this species has not yet been investigated. In the present study we determined basic pharmacokinetic parameters and compared the effect of the drug measured as inhibition of histamine-induced cutaneous wheal formation in six horses. The most prominent feature of drug disposition after intravenous dose of 50 microg/kg bw was a very rapid initial decline in plasma concentration, followed by a terminal phase with a half-life of 5.4 h. The volume of distribution was large, Vss = 3.8 L/kg, and the total body clearance 0.79 L/h kg. Notably, oral bioavailability was only 3.4%. There was a strong relationship between plasma concentrations and effect. The effect maximum (measured as reduction in histamine-induced cutaneous wheal formation) was 65% (compared with controls where saline was injected) and the effect duration after i.v. dose was approximately 5 h. The effect after oral dose of 200 microg/kg was minor. The results indicate that clemastine is not appropriate for oral administration to horses because of low bioavailability. When using repeated i.v. administration, the drug has to be administered at least three to four times daily to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations because of the short half-life. However, if sufficient plasma concentrations are maintained the drug is efficacious in reducing histamine-induced wheal formations. PMID:12667185

Törneke, K; Ingvast-Larsson, C; Pettersson, K; Bergvall, K; Hedeland, M; Bondesson, U; Broström, H

2003-04-01

464

Structural and molecular characterization of Kudoa quraishii n. sp. from the trunk muscle of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Perciforme, Scombridae) in Saudi Arabia coasts.  

PubMed

A new Myxozoa, Kudoa quraishii n. sp., is reported in the striated muscle of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta from the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf in Saudi Arabia. Mean prevalence of infection is about 20% and varies between localities. The parasite develops whitish and oval or rounded pseudocysts of 0.2-3 mm in the striated muscles of the body. Pseudocysts are filled with mature spores. Myxospores are quadrate in shape in apical view with rounded edges and ovoid in side view. Each spore is formed by four equal shell valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Polar capsules are pyriform in apical view and drop-like in side view. Myxospore measurements in micrometers are 6.14 (5.9-6.34) in width, 5.48 (5.3-5.71) in thickness, and 4.27 (4.1-4.42) in length. Polar capsule measurements in apical view in micrometers are 2.08 (1.88-2.28) and 1.31 (1.10-1.52) length by width. Molecular analysis based on SSU rDNA gene shows closest association with K. amamiensis and K. kenti with respectively 98 and 97.2% of similarities. PMID:24488108

Mansour, Lamjed; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Abd-Elkader, Omar H; Alwasel, Saleh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al Omar, Suliman Y

2014-04-01

465

Antibody Responses to Natural Rattlesnake Envenomation and a Rattlesnake Toxoid Vaccine in Horses  

PubMed Central

Antivenom antibody titers following administration of rattlesnake venom for antivenom production in horses are well documented; however, antivenom antibody titers following natural rattlesnake envenomation in horses are not. Antibody titers produced in response to the commercially available rattlesnake venom vaccine are also not published. Our study objectives were to measure antivenom antibody titers in rattlesnake-bitten horses and compare them to titers in horses vaccinated with the rattlesnake venom vaccine. Additionally, titers were compared in pregnant versus nonpregnant horses to assess the affect of pregnancy on vaccine response and were measured pre- and postsuckle in foals of vaccinated mares to detect passive transfer of vaccine immunoglobulins. Blood samples were collected from16 rattlesnake-bitten horses. Thirty-six horses (11 pregnant mares, 12 nonpregnant mares, 13 geldings) were vaccinated using a Crotalus atrox venom toxoid vaccine. Blood was collected before administering each vaccination and 30 days following the third vaccination. Blood was collected from foals of vaccinated mares pre- and postsuckle. All serum was assayed for anti-Crotalus atrox venom antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rattlesnake-bitten horses had higher (P = 0.001) titers than vaccinated horses. There was no significant difference between titers in vaccinated pregnant versus nonpregnant horses. One mare had a positive titer at foaling, and the foals had positive postsuckle titers. Antivenom antibody titer development was variable following natural envenomation and vaccination, and vaccine-induced titers were lower than natural envenomation titers. Further studies are required to determine if natural or vaccine antivenom antibody titers reduce the effects of envenomation. PMID:23515015

Carmichael, Robert C.; Holbrook, Todd C.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Ownby, Charlotte L.; McFarlane, Dianne; Payton, Mark E.

2013-01-01

466

Could it be colic? Horse-owner decision making and practices in response to equine colic  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about lay understanding and decision making in response to colic. Horse-owners/carers are key to identifying colic and initiating veterinary intervention. Understanding how owners think and act in relation to colic could assist veterinary surgeons in tailoring information about colic with the aim of improving colic outcomes. Methods A mixed methods approach was employed including qualitative in-depth interviews and a cross-sectional questionnaire. Qualitative data were analysed using Grounded theory to conceptualise processes involved in horse-owner management of colic. Following this, a cross-sectional survey was designed to test these concepts. Cluster analysis explored the role of the human-horse relationship upon colic management strategies. Results Fifteen horse-owners with a range of colic experience participated in the interviews. A theoretical conceptual model was developed and described how horse-owners’ recognised, assessed and responded to colic. Three main management strategies were used including ‘wait and see’, ‘lay treatments’ and ‘seek veterinary assistance’. Actions in response to colic were moderated by owners’ experience of colic and interpretation of the severity of colic signs. A postal questionnaire gathered data from 673 horse-owners from the North-West of the UK. The majority (605, 89.9%) of respondents were female. Cluster analysis revealed 5 meaningful groups of horse-owners based upon assessment of questionnaire items on the human-horse relationship. These groups included 2 professional and 3 amateur owner typologies. There were differences in the responses to some questionnaire items among the identified groups. Conclusions This study describes lay understanding and management of colic among a population of horse-owners from the North-West of the UK. The information may serve as a basis upon which to tailor existing programmes designed to educate owners about colic management strategies, and may inform veterinarians’ interactions with horse-owners. PMID:25238026

2014-01-01

467

Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

As visual attention is an intrinsic part of social relationships, and because relationships are built on a succession of interactions, their establishment involves learning and attention. The emotional, rewarding or punishing, content can modulate selective attention. In horses, the use of positive/negative reinforcement during training determines short and long-term human-horse relationships. In a recent study in horses, where either food or withers' grooming were used as a reward, it appeared that only the food-rewarded horses learned the task and show better relationship with humans. In the present study, we hypothesized that this differential effect of grooming/food rewards on learning performances could be due to attentional processes. Monitoring, gazes and behaviors directed towards the trainer revealed that the use of a food reward (FR) as positive reinforcement increased horses' selective attention towards their trainer. Conversely, horses trained with grooming reward (GR) expressed more inattentive responses and did not show a decrease of "agitated" behavior. However, individual plotting of attention vs. rate of learning performances revealed a complex pattern. Thus, while all FR horses showed a "window" of attention related to faster learning performances, GR horses' pattern followed an almost normal curve where the extreme animals (i.e., highest and lowest attention) had the slowest learning performances. On the other hand, learning was influenced by attention: at the end of training, the more attentive horses had also better learning performances. This study, based on horses, contributes to the general debate on the place of attentional processes at the interface of emotion and cognition and opens new lines of thought about individual sensitivities (only individuals can tell what an appropriate reward is), attentional processes and learning. PMID:24592244

Rochais, C; Henry, S; Sankey, C; Nassur, F; Góracka-Bruzda, A; Hausberger, M

2014-01-01

468

Landscape-Scale Factors Affecting Feral Horse Habitat Use During Summer Within The Rocky Mountain Foothills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health.

Girard, Tisa L.; Bork, Edward W.; Neilsen, Scott E.; Alexander, Mike J.

2013-02-01

469

Tapeworms as a cause of intestinal disease in horses.  

PubMed

Until recently, the equine tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata was difficult to diagnose and considered to be of questionable pathogenicity. Here, Chris Proudman and Sandy Trees describe recent advances in the immunodiagnosis of this parasite that have facilitated epidemiological studies. These studies suggest that A. perfoliata may be an important cause of intestinal disease in the horse and demonstrate a dose-response relationship between infection intensity and risk of disease. If tapeworm infection is a risk factor for ileocaecal colic, the identification and treatment of infected individuals would be a rational approach to disease prevention. PMID:10322338

Proudman, C J; Trees, A J

1999-04-01

470

Ventricular Defibrillation of a 341 kg Horse Using Precordial Electrodes  

PubMed Central

Using a specially constructed 5000 watt-second defibrillator, trans-chest ventricular defibrillation was achieved in a 341 kg horse. Minimum peak electrical current flow used to defibrillate was 280 amperes; maximum peak current was 300 amperes. Circulatory support by external cardiac compression was necessary for a 25 minute period after defibrillation. Resumption of cardiac function was achieved only after intravenous administration of epinephine, calcium chloride and dexamethazone. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest animal in which electrical ventricular defibrillation has been reported. PMID:17647603

Tacker, W. A.; Geddes, L. A.; Rosborough, J. P.; Moore, A. G.

1973-01-01

471

Lactose as a “Trojan Horse” for Quantum Dot Cell Transport**  

PubMed Central

A series of glycan-coated quantum dots were prepared to probe the effect of glycan presentation in intracellular localization in HeLa and SV40 epithelial cells. We show that glycan density mostly impacts on cell toxicity, whereas glycan type affects the cell uptake and intracellular localization. Moreover, we show that lactose can act as a “Trojan horse” on bi-functionalized QDs to help intracellular delivery of other non-internalizable glycan moieties and largely avoid the endosomal/lysosomal degradative pathway. PMID:24311369

Benito-Alifonso, David; Tremel, Shirley; Hou, Bo; Lockyear, Harriet; Mantell, Judith; Fermin, David J; Verkade, Paul; Berry, Monica; Galan, M Carmen

2014-01-01

472

Cottonseed Meal in Rations of Horses and Mules.  

E-print Network

LIBRAR A&M EGE. CAMPUS. E98-6000-L180 AS A6RICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. R. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS - - BULLETIN NO. 492 AUGUST, 1934 DIVISION OF RANGE ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Cottonseed Meal in Rations of Horses.... W. Huckabee, B. S., Soil Surveyor Range Animal Husbandry: Botany: J. M. Jones. A. M. Chief V. L. Cory, M. S., Acting Chief B. L. Wxrmick, Ph. D., Breeding Investiga. Swine Husbandry: S. P. Davis. Wool Grader Fred Hale, M. S., Chief J. H. Jones...

Williams, R. H.; Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Jones, John H.

1934-01-01

473

Infectious Anaemia of the Horse: A Preliminary Report.  

E-print Network

reaction occurred in March, lasting three days; and anothel in July, lasting forty days. We must regard these as relapses, as therc was no other source of infection known to us. On November 4th, 1908, which was about twelve and one-half months after... the slow chronic type of thc disease. Relapses of mild fever occurred in June and July and a severe one in August, which reduced the animal's vitality so much that it declined rapidly and died October l2th, 153 days after infection. Horse Notic No. 6...

Francis, M. (Mark); Marsteller, R. P. (Ross Perry)

1908-01-01

474

Where are the horses? With the sheep or cows? Uncertain host location, vector-feeding preferences and the risk of African horse sickness transmission in Great Britain  

PubMed Central

Understanding the influence of non-susceptible hosts on vector-borne disease transmission is an important epidemiological problem. However, investigation of its impact can be complicated by uncertainty in the location of the hosts. Estimating the risk of transmission of African horse sickness (AHS) in Great Britain (GB), a virus transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, provides an insightful example because: (i) the patterns of risk are expected to be influenced by the presence of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts (cattle and sheep) and (ii) incomplete information on the spatial distribution of horses is available because the GB National Equine Database records owner, rather than horse, locations. Here, we combine land-use data with available horse owner distributions and, using a Bayesian approach, infer a realistic distribution for the location of horses. We estimate the risk of an outbreak of AHS in GB, using the basic reproduction number (R0), and demonstrate that mapping owner addresses as a proxy for horse location significantly underestimates the risk. We clarify the role of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts by showing that the risk of disease in the presence of many hosts (susceptible and non-susceptible) can be ultimately reduced to two fundamental factors: first, the abundance of vectors and how this depends on host density, and, second, the differential feeding preference of vectors among animal species. PMID:23594817

Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Robin, Charlotte A.; Newton, J. Richard; Gubbins, Simon; Wood, James L. N.

2013-01-01

475

Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge  

PubMed Central

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR ?/?) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field. PMID:24837765

Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

2014-01-01

476

OceanLink: OceanInfo Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of the OceanLink site offers learning resources prepared by OceanLink (a youth outreach program of the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre) on a variety of marine science topics, including marine life (seals, fish, invertebrates, and others), underwater acoustics, tides, biodiversity and food webs, and many others. The brief guides and explorations are well illustrated and are followed by reference lists, often including links to online resources for further exploration.

477

Using ocean observing systems to promote lifelong ocean education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coming ocean observing system provides an unprecedented opportunity to change both the public perception of our ocean, and to inspire, captivate and motivate our children, our young adults and our peers to pursue careers allied with the ocean and to become stewards of our Planet's ocean. Within this context educators participating in the Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks Workshop

B. W. Meeson

2005-01-01

478

Vectors and vector-borne diseases of horses.  

PubMed

Most diseases of horses with zoonotic importance are transmitted by arthropods. The vectors belong to two very distantly related groups, the chelicerate Ixodidae (Acari = ticks) and the hexapod Diptera (true flies). Almost all relevant species are predestined for transmitting pathogens by their blood-sucking habits. Especially species of Diptera, one of the megadiverse orders of holometabolan insects (ca. 150.000 spp.), affect the health status and performance of horses during the grazing period in summer. The severity of pathological effect depends on the pathogen, but also on the group of vectors and the intensity of the infection or infestation. Dipteran species but also blood-sucking representatives of Acari (Ixodidae) can damage their hosts by sucking blood, causing myiasis, allergy, paralysis and intoxication, and also transmit various bacterial, viral, parasitic, spirochetal and rickettsial diseases to animals and also humans. The aim of this review was to provide extensive information on the infectious diseases transmitted by members of the two arthropod lineages (Ixodidae, Diptera) and a systematic overview of the vectors. For each taxon, usually on the ordinal, family, and genus level a short characterisation is given, allowing non-entomologists easy identification. Additionally, the biology of the relevant species (or genera) is outlined briefly. PMID:23054414

Onmaz, A C; Beutel, R G; Schneeberg, K; Pavaloiu, A N; Komarek, A; van den Hoven, R

2013-03-01

479

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous dexmedetomidine in the horse.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to describe the pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamics of intravenous dexmedetomidine in horses. Eight adult horses received 5 ?g/kg dexmedetomidine IV. Blood samples were collected before and for 10 h after drug administration to determine dexmedetomidine plasma concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Data from one outlier were excluded from the statistical summary. Behavioral and physiological responses were recorded before and for 6 h after dexmedetomidine administration. Dexmedetomidine concentrations decreased rapidly (elimination half-life of 8.03 ± 0.84 min). Time of last detection varied from 30 to 60 min. Bradycardia was noted at 4 and 10 min after drug administration (26 ± 8 and 29 ± 8 beats/min respectively). Head height decreased by 70% at 4 and 10 min and gradually returned to baseline. Ability to ambulate was decreased for 60 min following drug administration, and mechanical nociceptive threshold was increased during 30 min. Blood glucose peaked at 30 min (134 ± 24 mg/dL) and borborygmi were decreased for the first hour after dexmedetomidine administration. Dexmedetomidine was quickly eliminated as indicated by the rapid decrease in plasma concentrations. Physiological, behavioral, and analgesic effects observed after dexmedetomidine administration were of short duration. PMID:25066475

Rezende, M L; Grimsrud, K N; Stanley, S D; Steffey, E P; Mama, K R

2015-02-01

480

Moxidectin: a review of chemistry, pharmacokinetics and use in horses  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the current knowledge of the use of moxidectin (MOX) in horses, including its mode of action, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, efficacy, safety and resistance profile. Moxidectin is a second generation macrocyclic lactone (ML) with potent endectocide activity. It is used for parasite control in horses in an oral gel formulation. The principal mode of action of MOX and of other MLs is binding to gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) and glutamate-gated chloride channels. Moxidectin is different from other MLs in that it is a poor substrate for P-glycoproteins (P-gps) and therefore less susceptible to elimination from parasite cells through this mechanism. Due to its unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics, MOX provides broad distribution into tissues, long half-life, significant residual antiparasitic activity, and high efficacy against encysted cyathostomin larvae. These characteristics allow for high efficacy and longer treatment interval against all important nematodes, when compared to other equine anthelmintics. A combination of MOX with praziquantel provides expanded spectrum of activity by adding activity against cestodes. Appropriate use of MOX allows for the development of strategic anthelmintic programmes that are different from those with conventional anthelmintics. Fewer treatments are required over a period of time, and therefore impose less frequent selection pressure for resistance. PMID:19778466

Cobb, Rami; Boeckh, Albert

2009-01-01

481

California Energy Commission: Ocean Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This California Energy Commission website discusses how electrical power can be generated from tidal power, wave power, ocean thermal energy conversion, ocean currents, ocean winds, salinity gradients, and other ocean phenomena. Users can learn how different areas of the ocean vary in their potential energy production. The site presents the history of ocean energy production and the issues associated with permitting an ocean wave-energy conversion facility. Users can find links to ocean energy education and to companies and research groups involved with ocean energy development.

482

Jason: An Ocean Odyssey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video describes NASA's Jason mission, a joint U.S.-France oceanography mission, launched in 2001, to monitor global ocean circulation, discover the tie between the oceans and atmosphere, improve global climate predictions and monitor events such as El Nino conditions and ocean eddies. Jason-1 is a follow-on mission to NASA's TOPEX/Poseidon mission. The video was produced before launch, so descriptions are in the future tense. Length: 9:00.

2001-01-01

483

America's Oceans in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The reprinted resource warns that without reform, our daily actions will increasingly jeopardize American oceans, which are already suffering from: coastal development and expansion, depletion of fisheries and other marine life, degradation from pollution and runoff, invasive species and other human-induced hazards. The resource is an abridged reprint of the executive summary of America's Living Oceans: Charting a Course for Sea Change by the Pew Oceans Commission.

Pew Oceans Commission (Pew Oceans Commission;)

2003-06-01

484

Oceans for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive website is for teachers who want to integrate ocean topics into the classroom. The site provides resources that can be used to instruct students on the importance of the oceans, and includes topics such as hurricanes, the Hawaiian Islands, polar bears and tsunamis. There is also a forum available to help teachers learn about ocean science and technology. A classroom companion provides lesson plans, maps, photos, videos and more.

Ednet, Oceans F.; Society, National G.

485

Introduction to Ocean Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will create a diagram of the ocean zones and determine what organisms live in each zone. Learners will draw the appropriate scale to demark meters (and conversion to feet) from 0-6000m and draw the zones that correspond to the geological structures of the ocean basin. Finally, learners will use their critical thinking skills to determine where in the ocean each organism lives and place the organism in the habitat that is within the limitations for survival.

West, Cosee

2012-01-01

486

Are Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula synonymous? A horse infection challenge.  

PubMed

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a debilitating neurologic disease of the horse. The causative agent. Sarcocystis neurona, has been suggested to be synonymous with Sarcocystis falcatula, implying a role for birds as intermediate hosts. To test this hypothesis, opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were fed muscles containing S. falcatula sarcocysts from naturally infected brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). Ten horses were tested extensively to ensure no previous exposure to S. neurona and were quarantined for 14 days, and then 5 of the horses were each administered 10(6) S. falcatula sporocysts collected from laboratory opossums. Over a 12-wk period, 4 challenged horses remained clinically normal and all tests for S. neurona antibody and DNA in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were negative. Rechallenge of the 4 seronegative horses had identical results. Although 1 horse developed EPM, presence of S. neurona antibody prior to challenge strongly indicated that infection occurred before sporocyst administration. Viability of sporocysts was confirmed by observing excystation in equine bile in vitro and by successful infection of naive brown-headed cowbirds. These data suggest that S. falcatula and S. neurona are not synonymous. One defining distinction is the apparent inability of S. falcatula to infect horses, in contrast to S. neurona, which was named when cultured from equine spinal cord. PMID:10219313

Cutler, T J; MacKay, R J; Ginn, P E; Greiner, E C; Porter, R; Yowell, C A; Dame, J B

1999-04-01

487

The association between Anoplocephala perfoliata and colic in Swedish horses--a case control study.  

PubMed

A case-control study was performed to investigate the association between colic of all types in Swedish horses and infection with the equine tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata. Colic cases were defined by clinical signs consistent with the presence of abdominal pain, and the control horses had no signs of colic within the last year but attended a clinic for other reasons. Blood and fecal samples were collected by veterinarian from 67 horses with signs of colic and 67 control horses. The sera were analyzed using serodiagnostic assay anti-12/13 kDa IgG(T) ELISA. The fecal samples, 30 g from each horse, were analyzed with a modified sugar salt flotation method with a density of 1.280. A significant association was found between the presence of A. perfoliata eggs in feces and colic with a 16 times higher risk of colic if eggs had been observed in fecal samples. However, there was no significant association between colic and the median OD-values in the serological diagnosis, nor when recommended cut-offs were used. The study concludes that A. perfoliata is a risk factor for colic in Swedish horses and it suggests that the modified flotation method can be used as a diagnostic tool for identifying horses at risk. PMID:23993633

Back, H; Nyman, A; Osterman Lind, E

2013-11-01

488

Prevalence of non-strongyle gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were found. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyloides westeri (64.4%) and Parascaris equorum (28.8%) followed by Habronema muscae (22.2%). Trichostrongylus axei and Oxyuris equi were less common at (11.1%) and (8.8%), respectively. Habronema megastoma and Setaria equine were found in two horses only (4.4%). Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae were recovered from 39 horses (86.6%) and Gasterophilus nasalis larvae were found in 17 horses (37.7%). Season had a significant effect on the prevalence of P. equorum and G. nasalis, while age of horses had a significant effect only on the prevalence of P. equorum. The husbandry in Saudi Arabia appears to be conductive to parasites transmitted in stables or by insects rather than in pasture. PMID:23961139

AL Anazi, Abdullah D.; Alyousif, Mohamed S.

2011-01-01

489

Ultrasound-guided atlanto-occipital puncture for cerebrospinal fluid analysis on the standing horse.  

PubMed

The atlanto-occipital site (AO) is convenient for retrieving an adequate volume and quality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the diagnosis of neurological disease in horses. However, general anaesthesia is not always possible for horses displaying severe neurological signs, or for economical reasons. The objectives of the present work were to determine the feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided CSF puncture at the AO site on the standing horse. Seven horses (six healthy and one mildly ataxic) were sedated with acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg bodyweight intravenously or 0.04 mg/kg bodyweight intramuscularly) and detomidine (0.01 mg/kg bodyweight intravenously), and placed in stocks or in a recovery stall with the head kept on a headstand. Puncture was performed by ultrasonographic guidance with a parasagittal technique, as previously described, using a 20 g, 3.5 inch spinal needle. In all horses, no adverse reaction was observed when crossing the dura mater and 20 ml of CSF was rapidly retrieved without any blood contamination. Ultrasound-guided CSF puncture can be performed easily at the AO site on a healthy standing horse. Regarding the potential risk of this procedure, safety measures and close observation are essential. Further studies on a larger amount of ataxic horses are also required before considering this technique as an alternative option for CSF puncture. PMID:24225443

Depecker, M; Bizon-Mercier, C; Couroucé-Malblanc, A

2014-01-11

490

The potential reservoir role of donkeys and horses in zoonotic fascioliasis in Gharbia Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

No doubt, fascioliasis tops all the zoonotic helminthes worldwide. In Egypt, human fascioliasis is increasing. The incidence and prevalence of fascioliasis in the Egyptian farm animals are well documented. However, none in Egypt has focused on the potential role of other domestic farm animals. A preliminary coprologic examination of donkeys and horses was done in eight centers of Gharbia governorate. The overall rate of infection in donkeys was 3.03%, in horses was 1.5%, and in mules 0.0%. Horses 2/74 (2.70%) and 1/26 (3.86%) were infected in Zefta and El Mahala El Kobra centers respectively. None of the horses was infected in other six centers. On the other hand, donkeys showed infection rates of 4.6%, 7.6% and 9.09% in the centers of Santa, Zefta and El Mahala El Kobra respectively. So, fascioliasis infected donkeys and horses were in Zefta and El Mahala El Kobra respectively. The latter center was the relatively highly infected one, followed by Zefta and lastly Santa (donkeys only). According to the population density of donkeys and horses in Gharbia governorate, donkeys represent the 41h rank in number. So, donkeys and to a very less extend, horses should be considered within the preventive and control measures of zoonotic fascioliasis. PMID:12214933

Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Tosson A; Gawish, Nabil I; Antonios, Thanaa N; Abdel Gawad, Abdel Gawad E

2002-08-01

491

Mitochondrial genomes from modern horses reveal the major haplogroups that underwent domestication.  

PubMed

Archaeological and genetic evidence concerning the time and mode of wild horse (Equus ferus) domestication is still debated. High levels of genetic diversity in horse mtDNA have been detected when analyzing the control region; recurrent mutations, however, tend to blur the structure of the phylogenetic tree. Here, we brought the horse mtDNA phylogeny to the highest level of molecular resolution by analyzing 83 mitochondrial genomes from modern horses across Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas. Our data reveal 18 major haplogroups (A-R) with radiation times that are mostly confined to the Neolithic and later periods and place the root of the phylogeny corresponding to the Ancestral Mare Mitogenome at ~130-160 thousand years ago. All haplogroups were detected in modern horses from Asia, but F was only found in E. przewalskii--the only remaining wild horse. Therefore, a wide range of matrilineal lineages from the extinct E. ferus underwent domestication in the Eurasian steppes during the Eneolithic period and were transmitted to modern E. caballus breeds. Importantly, now that the major horse haplogroups have been defined, each with diagnostic mutational motifs (in both the coding and control regions), these haplotypes could be easily used to (i) classify well-preserved ancient remains, (ii) (re)assess the haplogroup variation of modern breeds, including Thoroughbreds, and (iii) evaluate the possible role of mtDNA backgrounds in racehorse performance. PMID:22308342

Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Soares, Pedro; Lancioni, Hovirag; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Nergadze, Solomon G; Carossa, Valeria; Santagostino, Marco; Capomaccio, Stefano; Felicetti, Michela; Al-Achkar, Walid; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Houshmand, Massoud; Woodward, Scott R; Semino, Ornella; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Giulotto, Elena; Pereira, Luísa; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Torroni, Antonio

2012-02-14

492

The effect of environmental factors on sister chromatid exchange incidence in domestic horse (Equus caballus) chromosomes.  

PubMed

The SCE test is often used as a sensitive and reliable technique in the biomonitoring of genotoxicity of mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. This study analysed the frequency of sister chromatid exchange in domestic horse chromosomes depending on the habitat and age of the analysed horses. The chromosome preparations were obtained from an in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes stained using the FPG technique. Both the habitat and the age significantly influence SCE frequency. A higher SCE incidence was observed in horses that lived in a large urban agglomeration than in those from the country. Also, a higher SCE incidence was identified in the group of horses above 6 years of age in comparison with the younger ones. Additionally, the frequency of SCEs in the first, second and third chromosomes and the X sex chromosome were analysed in detail. More exposed to the effect of environmental pollutants, the horses from the urban environment developed more double and triple SCEs in comparison with the village horses. The urban horses also developed quadruple SCEs, in addition to the less frequent exchanges. PMID:24279169

Wójcik, Ewa; Smalec, Elzbieta

2013-01-01

493

Effectiveness of Ivermectin Paste for Removal of Nematodes in the Horse  

PubMed Central

Thirteen Standardbred horses, two to five years of age, were treated with ivermectin paste per os at 200 ?g/kg of body weight and 13 were untreated. Two weeks after treatment, previously untreated horses were given the paste. Fecal samples were collected from all horses at the time of treatment and periodically thereafter up to 14 weeks and were examined for nematode eggs using the Cornell-McMaster dilution and the Cornell-Wisconsin double centrifugation procedures. All horses consumed the paste readily and had no signs of toxicosis. Strongyle eggs were found in the feces of all horses before treatment but not at two to three weeks after treatment. At five to six weeks after treatment only two horses had eggs in the feces. At eight, ten, 12 and 14 weeks after treatment 27, 69, 88 and 100% of the horses examined, respectively, had a few strongyle eggs but these were no greater than 18% of that of the pretreatment samples. Ivermectin oral paste, therefore, appeared to be highly effective against both adult and immature strongyles. PMID:17422461

Slocombe, J. O. D.; Cote, J. F.

1984-01-01

494

Quantifying Equid Behavior - A Research Ethogram for Free-Roaming Feral Horses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Feral horses (Equus caballus) are globally distributed in free-roaming populations on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide range of habitats including forest, grassland, desert, and montane environments. The largest populations occur in Australia and North America and have been the subject of scientific study for decades, yet guidelines and ethograms for feral horse behavioral research are largely absent in the scientific literature. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center conducted research on the influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on feral horse behavior from 2003-2006 in three discrete populations in the American west. These populations were the Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range in Colorado, McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area in Wyoming, and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range in Montana; the research effort included over 1,800 hours of behavioral observations of 317 adult free-roaming feral horses. An ethogram was developed during the course of this study to facilitate accurate scientific data collection on feral horse behavior, which is often challenging to quantify. By developing this set of discrete behavioral definitions and a set of strict research protocols, scientists were better able to address both applied questions, such as behavioral changes related to fertility control, and theoretical questions, such as understanding networks and dominance hierarchies within social groups of equids.

Ransom, Jason I.; Cade, Brian S.

2009-01-01

495

World Ocean Circulation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

Clarke, R. Allyn

1992-01-01

496

OceanCareers.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webite, sponsored by COSEE (Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence) and the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center, can help in finding an ocean related career or job. Well-organized pages provide information about colleges, professional societies, scholarships, internships, and current job offerings in the field of oceanography and ocean occupations. This site would be useful for high school or college students interested in pursuing a career in any way related to the ocean. These resources will also be helpful for career counselors, employers looking for training materials, and people seeking a career change.

2009-09-29

497

Global Ocean Phytoplankton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phytoplankton are free-floating algae that grow in the euphotic zone of the upper ocean, converting carbon dioxide, sunlight, and available nutrients into organic carbon through photosynthesis. Despite their microscopic size, these photoautotrophs are responsible for roughly half the net primary production on Earth (NPP; gross primary production minus respiration), fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels our global ocean ecosystems. Phytoplankton thus play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, and their growth patterns are highly sensitive to environmental changes such as increased ocean temperatures that stratify the water column and prohibit the transfer of cold, nutrient richwaters to the upper ocean euphotic zone.

Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

2013-01-01