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1

Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.  

PubMed

The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population. PMID:21875447

Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

2012-09-01

2

Stock assessment and management implications of horse mackerel ( Trachurus japonicus) in Korean waters, based on the relationships between recruitment and the ocean environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents an example of horse mackerel ( Trachurus japonicus) stock to demonstrate that marine environmental factors are important in stock assessment for the new Korean Total Allowable Catch (TAC)-based fisheries management system. The estimated survival rate ( S) of horse mackerel ranged from 0.25 to 0.36. The instantaneous coefficient of natural mortality ( M) was 0.48/year, and the age at first capture was 0.83 year. Annual biomass of horse mackerel in Korean waters was estimated by a biomass-based cohort analysis using annual catch in weight at age during 1965-1995. Yield-per-recruit and spawning biomass-per-recruit were estimated under various harvest strategies at Fmax, F0.1, F30% and F40%. A method for estimating acceptable biological catch (ABC) is proposed for dealing with the large differences in the quality and quantity of information and data available. Using recruitment of horse mackerel estimated from various spawner-recruitment relationship models combined with salinity, volume transport, and zooplankton biomass as environmental factors, the ABC under the best information available was estimated to range from 3100 to 3800 mt.

Zhang, Chang Ik; Lee, Jae Bong

3

Sardine and horse mackerel recruitment and upwelling off Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of preliminary investigations on the possible relationships between coastal upwelling variability observed with satellite remote sensing, and sardine and horse mackerel recruitment dynamics in the west coast of Portugal are presented. The analysis of a sardine-recruitment time-series for the period 1976-1998 shows that there has been a decreasing trend since 1983 (with the exceptions of 1991 and 1992),

A. Miguel; P. Santos; Maria de Fatima Borges; Steve Groom

2001-01-01

4

Properties of Gelatin Film from Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) Scale.  

PubMed

Optimal conditions for extracting gelatin and preparing gelatin film from horse mackerel scale, such as extraction temperature and time, as well as the protein concentration of film-forming solutions were investigated. Yields of extracted gelatin at 70 °C, 80 °C, and 90 °C for 15 min to 3 h were 1.08% to 3.45%, depending on the extraction conditions. Among the various extraction times and temperatures, the film from gelatin extracted at 70 °C for 1 h showed the highest tensile strength and elongation at break. Horse mackerel scale gelatin film showed the greatly low water vapor permeability (WVP) compared with mammalian or fish gelatin films, maybe due to its containing a slightly higher level of hydrophobic amino acids (total 653 residues per 1000 residues) than that of mammalian, cold-water fish and warm-water fish gelatins. Gelatin films from different preparation conditions showed excellent UV barrier properties at wavelength of 200 nm, although the films were transparent at visible wavelength. As a consequence, it can be suggested that gelatin film from horse mackerel scale extracted at 70 °C for 1 h can be applied to food packaging material due to its lowest WVP value and excellent UV barrier properties. PMID:25716323

Le, Thuy; Maki, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kigen; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

2015-04-01

5

Morphological variation of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Iberian and North African Atlantic: implications for stock identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current delimitation of the Atlanto-Iberian stock of horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758), is based on scant biological evidence. Here, the location of the southern boundary of this stock is investigated through the analysis of several morphometric and meristic characteristics. A total of 384 horse mackerel were sampled from three areas off the Portuguese, one off the Spanish (Gulf

Alberto G. Murta

2000-01-01

6

Seasonal variation in the chemical composition of horse-mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical analysis was performed on samples of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus L.) caught monthly off the Portuguese coast throughout a period of one year (May 1997-April 1998). In the period between August and January the amount of total lipids present was recorded showing a minimum in February. Protein content remained fairly constant during the whole one-year period. Seasonal variation of

Narcisa M. Bandarra; Irineu Batista; Maria L. Nunes; José M. Empis

2001-01-01

7

Effect of Storage Temperature on Quality of Frozen Horse-mackerel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality change of frozen horse-mackerel were studied under storage temperature at -18, -23, -30 and -40°C for 12 months. Quality were measured with K value (Freshness index of muscle, degradation ratio of ATP), amount of drip (free and expressible drip), water-holdiog capacity, weight ratio of cooking loss, organoleptic test, and histological feature of muscle. K value, a mount of free drip, w eight ratio of cooking loss, histological feature of muscle, and organoleptic test in color, form and flavor were not detected any changes during frozen storage for 12 months at various temperature. However expressible drip, water-holding capacity and score of taste in organoleptic test showed some changes after 8 or 12 months at -18 and/or -23°C, it was not serious change to-loss quality as food. Frozen horse-mackerel can store under below ~ 18°C for 12 months.

Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohtaka, Tateo

8

Larval anisakids (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) in horse mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus ) from the fish market in Granada (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) from the fish market in Granada, South Spain, were surveyed for anisakid nematodes. The fish came from fishing ports all\\u000a over the country. Larval anisakids were found in 39.4% of the fish examined. In all, 26.1% were infected with third-stage\\u000a larvae (L3s) of Anisakis simplex; 0.3%, with A. physeteris L3s; 31.1%, with Hysterothylacium aduncum L3s; and

F. J. Adroher; A. Valero; J. Ruiz-Valero; L. Iglesias

1996-01-01

9

Alkali and Acid Solubilization Effects on Rheological Properties of Horse Mackerel Muscle Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of the acid (Type A) and alkali (Type B) solubilization of muscle proteins in the viscoelastic properties of surimi and surimi gels made from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) muscle were evaluated. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that surimi from method B presents higher viscoelastic moduli, lowest values of phase angle and minimum viscoelastic moduli dependence with frequency than surimi A. These results show a high inicial protein aggregation in surimi B, that could explain the greater firmness and hardness of this sample, showing a more compact network structure. From static and dynamic tests, gel developed from alkali solubilization resulted in higher gel strength and more rigid network than that from acidic pH, despite the incial protein aggregation of surimi B its protein keeps better gelation capacity. The less structural quality of GA gel is likely due to the more lipid content on the surimi as compared to alkali treatment.

Campo-Deaño, L.; Tovar, C. A.

2008-07-01

10

Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from the skin protein hydrolysate of two marine fishes, horse mackerel ( Magalaspis cordyla ) and croaker ( Otolithes ruber )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, two peptides with antioxidant properties were purified from skin protein hydrolysates of horse mackerel\\u000a (Magalaspis cordyla) and croaker (Otolithes ruber) by consecutive chromatographic fractionations including ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. By\\u000a electron spray ionization double mass spectrometry (ESI-MS\\/MS), the sequence of the peptide from the skin protein hydrolysate\\u000a of horse mackerel was identified to

N. S. Sampath Kumar; R. A. Nazeer; R. Jaiganesh

11

Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

12

Improvement of Frozen Storage Tolerance by the Addition of Sugar in Dusky Spinefoot, Lizard fish and Horse mackerel Surimi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of three different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, at 5%) were analyzed and compared against a control for frozen surimi (-25 °C) made from dusky spinefoot, lizard fish and horse mackerel, for a total storage period of 180 days. Kamaboko was prepared at defined time intervals, and its jelly strength (J.S.), water holding capacity (W.H.C.), and whiteness, and the total Ca-ATPase activity of surimi were analyzed. Present results showed that all parameters of sugar free control samples decreased faster than those of sugar added samples during frozen storage.Sugar resulted a good additive for long time surimi conservation for all the species analyzed.

Kawashima, Akane; Hamada, Yuki; Kusano, Sawa; Osako, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Nozaki, Yukinori

13

Defining the starvation potential and the influence on RNA/DNA ratios in horse mackerel ( Trachurus mediterraneus) larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Larval survival potentially affects recruitment strongly. Variability in larval growth rates, primarily caused by variable nutritional situations, is one of the factors that can influence larval survival rates. RNA/DNA ratio as well as protein content was analyzed in wild-caught laboratory-grown and in wild-caught horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus in relation to feeding and starvation. For this purpose, field-caught genoblast eggs were incubated and the hatched larvae were reared under different feeding regimes: fed control, unfed control, starved either for 1, 2 or 3 days, on feeding restrictions. The whole-body RNA/DNA ratio and the daily protein growth rate were individually analyzed. In all larvae eye pigmentation, mouth opening and subsequently first feeding started on the third day after hatching. All larvae in the unfed group died on day 8. The survival rate during the first 3 days in delayed feeding groups was higher than that of the unfed group. Overall, growth curves from feeding-delayed larvae indicated that fish fed after up to 3 days starvation were capable of complete recovery with the critical RNA/DNA ratio of 1.05 ± 0.08. According to this value, approximately 10 % of the field-caught larvae were starving. Therefore, the RNA/DNA ratio is an easy tool to assess the nutritional status in horse mackerel larvae caught in the field with a high precision rate.

Yandi, Ilhan; Altinok, Ilhan

2015-03-01

14

Quality changes of the Mediterranean horse mackerel ( Trachurus mediterraneus) during chilled storage: The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pelagic fishes represent the main Mediterranean fisheries in terms of quantity. However, waste and spoilage of pelagic fish are substantial for a variety of reasons, such as their high perishability and the lack or inadequate supply of ice and freezing facilities. In this work, fresh Mediterranean horse mackerel ( Trachurus mediterraneus) were irradiated at 1 and 2 kGy and stored in ice for 18 days. Quality changes during storage were followed by the determination of microbial counts, trimethylamine (TMA) and volatile basic nitrogen contents. Similarly, lipid composition and sensory analysis were carried out. Irradiation treatment was effective in reducing total bacterial counts throughout storage. Total basic volatile nitrogen content (TVB-N) and TMA levels increased in all lots with storage time, their concentrations being significantly reduced by irradiation, even when the lower level (1 kGy) was used. According to the quality index method, the control lot had a sensory shelf-life of 4 days, whereas those of the irradiated lots were extended by 5 days. Also, low-dose irradiation had no adverse effect on the nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of Mediterranean horse mackerel. In the same way, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values increased with irradiation during the first day, but these values were lower at the end of storage, compared to the control. Results confirm the practical advantages of using ? irradiation as an additional process to chilled storage to enhance the microbiological quality and to extend the shelf-life of small pelagic species.

Mbarki, Raouf; Sadok, Saloua; Barkallah, Insaf

2009-04-01

15

Quantitative risk assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in finfish: a model of raw horse mackerel consumption in Japan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of implemented control measures to reduce illness induced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) in horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), seafood that is commonly consumed raw in Japan. On the basis of currently available experimental and survey data, we constructed a quantitative risk model of V. parahaemolyticus in horse mackerel from harvest to consumption. In particular, the following factors were evaluated: bacterial growth at all stages, effects of washing the fish body and storage water, and bacterial transfer from the fish surface, gills, and intestine to fillets during preparation. New parameters of the beta-Poisson dose-response model were determined from all human feeding trials, some of which have been used for risk assessment by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). The probability of illness caused by V. parahaemolyticus was estimated using both the USFDA dose-response parameters and our parameters for each selected pathway of scenario alternatives: washing whole fish at landing, storage in contaminated water, high temperature during transportation, and washing fish during preparation. The last scenario (washing fish during preparation) was the most effective for reducing the risk of illness by about a factor of 10 compared to no washing at this stage. Risk of illness increased by 50% by exposure to increased temperature during transportation, according to our assumptions of duration and temperature. The other two scenarios did not significantly affect risk. The choice of dose-response parameters was not critical for evaluation of control measures. PMID:20626688

Iwahori, Jun'ichiro; Yamamoto, Akio; Suzuki, Hodaka; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Motoyama, Keiko; Sawada, Mikiko; Matsushita, Tomoki; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Osaka, Ken; Toyofuku, Hajime; Kasuga, Fumiko

2010-12-01

16

Effect of frozen storage on the quality of whole fish and fillets of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and mediterranean hake (Merluccius mediterraneus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole fish and fillets of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and mediterranean hake (Merluccius mediterraneus) were assessed for quality (physical, chemical and sensory attributes) changes throughout 12 months of frozen storage at\\u000a ?18?°C. The pH, expressible water (EXW), quantities of trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylamine (DMA), formaldehyde (FA), the total\\u000a volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) the thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), peroxide value (PV) and

Stamatia Simeonidou; Alexander Govaris; Kyriakos Vareltzis

1997-01-01

17

Fatty acid composition of lipid-rich myctophids and mackerel icefish ( Champsocephalus gunnari ) - Southern Ocean food-web implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid content, fatty acid composition and calorific value of seven species of mesopelagic deep-sea fish of the family Myctophidae and the mackerel icefish, Champsocephalus gunnari, important in the diet of Southern Ocean marine predators, are presented. Fish were sampled at the Kerguelen Plateau (KP) and Macquarie Ridge (MR) in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean respectively,

Mary-Anne Lea; Peter D. Nichols; Gareth Wilson

2002-01-01

18

Standardization of CPUE for Chilean jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi) from Chinese trawl fleets in the high seas of the Southeast Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to the standardization of catch per unit effort (CPUE) for Chilean jack mackerel from Chinese factory trawl fishing fleets in the Southeast Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2010 by removing the operational, environmental, spatial and temporal impacts. A total of 9 factors were selected to build the GLM and GAM, i.e., Year, Month, Vessel, La Niña and El Niño events (ELE), Latitude, Longitude, Sea surface temperature (SST), SST anomaly (SSTA), Nino3.4 index and an interaction term between Longitude and Latitude. The first 5 factors were significant components in the GLM, which in combination explained 27.34% of the total variance in nominal CPUE. In the stepwise GAM, all factors explained 30.78% of the total variance, with Month, Year and Vessel as the main factors influencing CPUE. The higher CPUE occurred during the period April to July at a SST range of 12-15°C and a SSTA range of 0.2-1.0°C. The CPUE was significantly higher in normal years compared with that in La Niña and El Niño years. The abundance of Chilean jack mackerel declined during 2001 and 2010, with an increase in 2007. This work provided the relative abundance index of Chilean jack mackerel for stock assessment by standardizing catch and effort data of Chinese trawl fisheries and examined the influence of temporal, spatial, environmental and fisheries operational factors on Chilean jack mackerel CPUE.

Li, Gang; Zou, Xiaorong; Chen, Xinjun; Zhou, Yinqi; Zhang, Min

2013-09-01

19

Horses  

MedlinePLUS

... SLEV , and VEE are viruses carried by wild birds and transmitted by mosquitoes to horses and humans. ... WNV) West Nile virus (WNV) is carried by birds and transmitted by mosquitos. People, birds, and horses ...

20

ATLANTIC MACKEREL FISHERY, 1804-1965  

E-print Network

2 ATLANTIC MACKEREL FISHERY, 1804-1965 i The mackerel, Scomber scombrus, has a streamlined body FISHERIES, H. E . Crowther, Director ATLANTIC MACKEREL FISHERY, 1804 - 1965 By DWIGHT L. HOY and GEORGE M .........·.··....·. Atlantic mackerel catch, 1804- 1965 Atlantic mackerel catch, by statistical regions , 1871 - 1965

21

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in three pelagic fish species from Atlantic Ocean: inter-specific and inter-season comparisons and assessment of potential public health risks.  

PubMed

The concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in three commercially valuable fish species (sardine, Sardina pilchardus; chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus; and horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus) from the Atlantic Ocean. Specimens were collected seasonally during 2007-2009. Only low molecular weight PAHs were detected, namely, naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene and phenanthrene. Chub mackerel (1.80-19.90?g/kgww) revealed to be significantly more contaminated than horse mackerel (2.73-10.0?g/kgww) and sardine (2.29-14.18?g/kgww). Inter-specific and inter-season comparisons of PAHs bioaccumulation were statistically assessed. The more relevant statistical correlations were observed between PAH amounts and total fat content (significant positive relationships, p?0.05), and season (sardine displayed higher amounts in autumn-winter while the mackerel species showed globally the inverse behavior). The health risks by consumption of these species were assessed and shown to present no threat to public health concerning PAH intakes. PMID:22079181

Ramalhosa, Maria João; Paíga, Paula; Morais, Simone; Ramos, Sandra; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz Prior Pinto

2012-02-01

22

Analytical correction for oversampled Atlantic mackerel  

E-print Network

Analytical correction for oversampled Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus eggs collected on the calculated abunqance of mackerel eggs is analyzed. An ana- lytical correction for this bias is de- rived and applied to empirical data from a mackerel egg survey held in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1990

23

Horse chestnut  

MedlinePLUS

Horse chestnut is a plant. Its seed, bark, flower, and leaves are used to make medicine. Horse ... upset, and itching. Pollen from the horse chestnut flower can cause allergic reactions. Rectal (suppository) use of ...

24

THE 1978 SPRING RECREATIONAL CATCH OF ATLANTIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER SCOMBRUS,  

E-print Network

THE 1978 SPRING RECREATIONAL CATCH OF ATLANTIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER SCOMBRUS, OFF THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC REGION Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus, season- ally migrate through the Middle Atlantic region of Atlantic mackerel in New Jersey in 1975 was

25

Growth and Mortality of King Mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla  

E-print Network

Growth and Mortality of King Mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla Tagged in the Southeastern United and Atlantic king mackerel groups. Table 1 Number of king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla tag releases off Total 6416 2594 2674 809 Methods King mackerel captured by hook- and-line were marked with internal

26

Mackerel are packed at Gloucester, Mass., and Portland, Me., on . the Atlantic Coast. The mackerel canning industry of the Pacific  

E-print Network

MACKEREL Mackerel are packed at Gloucester, Mass., and Portland, Me., on . the Atlantic Coast. The mackerel canning industry of the Pacific Coast is confined to the southern California area, with San Pedro as the most important center. Mackerel are also packed to some extent at San Diego and in small amounts

27

Horse Chestnut  

MedlinePLUS

... For centuries, horse chestnut seeds, leaves, bark, and flowers were used for a variety of conditions and ... or unprocessed horse chestnut seeds, leaves, bark, or flowers. They contain esculin, which is poisonous. When properly ...

28

Horse Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Horse racing, the so-called "sport of kings," has captivated fans for centuries. One reason is the grace and agility of the horses themselves -- when they're running at top speed, they look as if they're flying down the track. In this Science Update, you'll hear how studying horses may help engineers improve human flight in air and space.

Science Update

2003-05-27

29

The jack mackerel fishery and El Niño 1997 98 effects off Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The jack mackerel fishery is one of the most important resources on the South Eastern Pacific Ocean off Chile, with landings higher than 3 million tonnes between 1990 and 1996. During 1997-1998, remarkable changes occurred in the length structure of jack mackerel catches, as juveniles (<26 cm FL) dominated the fishing grounds. That was attributed to the environmental effects of the 1997-98 El Niño on the feeding grounds of the jack mackerel off central-southern Chile. Anomalous sea surface temperatures were first detected in June 1997 and persisted into 1998. The response of the incidence of juveniles lagged one year after the ENSO phenomenon affected central-southern Chile, whereas there was a direct relationship between the proportion of juveniles and the intrusion of the 15°C isotherm towards the south. This isotherm reached its most southerly distribution in 1997-98, as a consequence of the El Niño. Jack mackerel is an oceanic and highly migrating species, so we propose that El Niño conditions affected the migratory pathway of the juveniles. It is postulated that the restoration of the nursery habitat north of 30°S may be delayed by more than 3-4 years. New juveniles will dominate in northern areas in the short-term, whereas the juveniles that migrated to southern areas during 1997-1999 are not expected to return back north. At present, the real situation of the stock is far from certain, but we think that environmental impacts associated to the El Niño can not be overlooked when planning the management of the jack mackerel fishery.

Arcos, Dagoberto F.; Cubillos, Luis A.; P. Núñez, Sergio

30

AGE, GROWTH, AND MORTALITY OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM  

E-print Network

AGE, GROWTH, AND MORTALITY OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED. growth, and mortality of king mackerel. Scombernmorllscamlla, from the southeastern United States were from 0.32 to 0.42, The length-weight relations of king mackerel were for males: W = 0,8064 X 10""/}9m

31

Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus mon-opterygius) is a hexagrammid fish  

E-print Network

571 Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus mon- opterygius) is a hexagrammid fish that inhabits the temperate trawl fishery (Lowe et al., 2006). Atka mackerel is a demersal spawner and males pro- vide parental care are important factors in the management of Atka mackerel populations. The male brooding phase of the re

32

Seasonal variation in fat content of mackerel (Scomberscombrus L.) caught  

E-print Network

Seasonal variation in fat content of mackerel (Scomberscombrus L.) caught in the western English RESEARCH TECHNICAL REPORT NUMBER 91 Seasonal variation in fat content of mackerel (Scomberscombrus L feature among pelagic fish and are known by those working in the field also to be true for mackerel

33

MATURATION AND INDUCED SPAWNING OF CAPTIVE PACIFIC MACKEREL, SCOMBERJAPONICUS  

E-print Network

MATURATION AND INDUCED SPAWNING OF CAPTIVE PACIFIC MACKEREL, SCOMBERJAPONICUS RODERICK LEONGl AB~TRACT Pacific mackerel, Scomber japonicu8, became sexually mature under laboratory conditions and were induced light 8 h dark. Mackerel caught near the end ofthe spawning season redeveloped their gonads more rapidly

34

STARVATIONINDUCED MORTALITY OF YOUNG SEACAUGHT JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS,  

E-print Network

STARVATION·INDUCED MORTALITY OF YOUNG SEA·CAUGHT JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS, DETERMINED WITH HISmWGICAL AND MORPHOWGICAL METHODS GAIL H. 1'HEILACKER' ABSTRACf Young jack mackerel, Trackurll8 8!f for sea-caught jack mackerel were determined by using histological and mor· phological criteria

35

JACK MACKEREL EGGS PACIFIC COAST, 1951-5  

E-print Network

JACK MACKEREL EGGS PACIFIC COAST, 1951-5 SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT- FISHERIES No. 263 UNITED STATES Report--Fisheries No. 263 Washington, D. C, July 1958 #12;JACK MACKEREL EGGS, PACIFIC COAST, 1951-54 By David A. Farris CONTENTS Page Area covered 2 Methods of sampling 2 The stages of jack mackerel egg

36

Paradata for 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This record contains paradata for the resource 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'

37

Causes of mortality in young jack mackerel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted with the purpose of partitioning jack mackerel Trachurus symmetricus larval mortality into portions due to starvation and to predation. Field collections were made to determine larval condition, growth, net retention and production; laboratory experiments were conducted to determine growth and body shrinkage due to preservation treatment. Age-specific starvation and total mortality rates were estimated

Roger P. Hewitt; Gail H. Theilacker; Nancy C. H. Lo

1985-01-01

38

Evidence for distinct stocks of king mackerel,  

E-print Network

. Johnson William A. Fable Jr. Churchill B. Grimes Lee Trent Southeast Fisheries Science Center National) to 6,133 t (Collins and Trent, 19821). Because king mackerel are pres- ently managed in the southeastern U.S. (represented by more than eight states and two regional fish- ery management council jurisdic

39

Population structure of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).  

PubMed

Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults ("twinning"). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management. PMID:23741381

Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

2013-01-01

40

Population Structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)  

PubMed Central

Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults (“twinning”). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management. PMID:23741381

Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

2013-01-01

41

50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted....

2013-10-01

42

50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted....

2014-10-01

43

77 FR 23635 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications...Specifications for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish fisheries. DATES: Effective...measures for the Atlantic mackerel and squid fisheries, and the interim final...

2012-04-20

44

50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession...

2012-10-01

45

50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession...

2013-10-01

46

50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession...

2014-10-01

47

77 FR 67305 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications...managed as part of the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan...Page 67306

2012-11-09

48

NOAA Form 88-129 (8/94) OMB No. 0648-0013, exp. 8/31/2004 MONTHLY DEALER REPORT OF KING AND SPANISH MACKEREL  

E-print Network

MACKEREL LANDINGS FOR THE COASTAL MIGRATORY PELAGIC RESOURCES ___________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ KING MACKEREL SPANISH MACKEREL GEAR Round Wt. Gutted Wt. Round Wt. Gutted Wt. Hook & Line ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ Gill Net ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ No King or Spanish Mackerel were purchased

49

Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridge: Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center. Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center, is a growing collection of on-line marine education resources. It provides educators with ...

50

Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Ocean habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can find out about Deep Ocean or Open Ocean! Ocean Life is a great website that tells about different parts of the ocean and about animals that live there. Ugie! You can start your mission to find out about Killer Whales by going to Orca or Killer Whales. Jakhia! You can start your mission to find ...

Ms. Ryan

2013-02-12

51

75 FR 3873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas for vessels...

2010-01-25

52

75 FR 53606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas by vessels...

2010-09-01

53

Metal-catalyzed oxidation in mackerel skin and meat lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic effects of added copper, zinc, and iron compounds have been investigated in the oxidation of lipids in mackerel skin\\u000a and meat at 60 C using a simple weight gain method. Inorganic Fe(II) and Cu(II) were found to be strong catalysts in mackerel\\u000a lipid oxidation. The meat lipids were particularly sensitive to oxidation in the presence of Fe(II) and Cu(II)

P. J. Ke; R. G. Ackman

1976-01-01

54

Phylogenetic Systematics of the Scomberomorus regalis (Teleostei: Scombridae) Species Group: Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels  

E-print Network

: Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels Heidi M. Banford; Eldredge Bermingham; Bruce B (Teleostei: Scombridae) Species Group: Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels

Bermingham, Eldredge

55

Composting Horse Manure  

E-print Network

Uncontrolled stockpiles of horse manure can be an unsightly, smelly and fly-infested mess. However, composting manure can eliminate the messy problems and provide a modest additional income for horse enthusiasts, operators of equine facilities...

Auvermann, Brent W.; McDonald, Lanny; Devin, Robert; Sweeten, John M.

1999-07-02

56

75 FR 37739 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Adjustment...Fishing Year (FY) Trimester 2 and 3 Loligo squid quotas. This action complies with the...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries Management...

2010-06-30

57

76 FR 39313 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish...fishing for the species managed under the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The...

2011-07-06

58

75 FR 51683 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish...fishing for the species managed under the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The...

2010-08-23

59

EFFECTS OF THE MENHADEN AND MACKEREL FISHERIES UPON THE FISH SUPPLY  

E-print Network

= = EFFECTS OF THE MENHADEN AND MACKEREL FISHERIES UPON THE FISH SUPPLY J- By Woo C. Kendall and movements of menhaden and mackerel, - __- __- __- h _ 283 Spawning migrations of the mackereli c , , n n n - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . 287 Spawning of menhaden

60

A LABORATORY STUDY OF PARTICULATE AND FILTER FEEDING OF THE PACIFIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER JAPON/CUS  

E-print Network

A LABORATORY STUDY OF PARTICULATE AND FILTER FEEDING OF THE PACIFIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER JAPONI capacity. The results suggest that the mackerel utilizes only the larger of the planktonic crusta- ceans indicate that the mackerel could not obtain its daily nutritional requirement, estimated to be 8

61

To be cited as: Borsa P. 2003. Genetic structure of round scad mackerel Decapterus macrosoma (Carangidae)  

E-print Network

To be cited as: Borsa P. 2003. ­ Genetic structure of round scad mackerel Decapterus macrosoma scad mackerel Decapterus macrosoma (Carangidae) in the Indo-Malay archipelago P. Borsa ( ) Institut de mackerel sampled in 1995-1998 were analysed for genetic variation using mitochondrial and nuclear

Boyer, Edmond

62

SPAWNING AND FECUNDITY OF ATLANTIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER SCOMBRUS, IN THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC BIGHT  

E-print Network

SPAWNING AND FECUNDITY OF ATLANTIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER SCOMBRUS, IN THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC BIGHT WALLACE W. MORSE 1 ABSTRACT Collections ofAtlantic mackerel, Scomber BcombruB, were made during spring 1977 to fork length, gutted weight, and age. The Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus Lin- naeus, is a schooling

63

The king mackerel (Scomberomorus ca-valla),a westernAtlantic member of the  

E-print Network

684 The king mackerel (Scomberomorus ca- valla),a westernAtlantic member of the family ScombridaeVries and Grimes, 1997). King mackerel sup- port valuable commercial and recre- ational fisheries by quota was implemented in the 1985­86 fishing year. The current management regime for king mackerel

64

THE SOUTHERN SPRING MACKEREL FISHERY OF THE UNITED STATES. By HUGH M. SMITH.  

E-print Network

THE SOUTHERN SPRING MACKEREL FISHERY OF THE UNITED STATES. By HUGH M. SMITH. The southern spring mackerel fishery of the United States if'! important from aev- eral standpoints, and of late has been than the regular fishery for mackerel carried on during the summer and fall months, it- has

65

THE UTILITY AND METHODS OF MACKEREL PROPAGATION. By J. PERCY MOORE.  

E-print Network

THE UTILITY AND METHODS OF MACKEREL PROPAGATION. By J. PERCY MOORE. The esteem in which the mackerel is commonly held as a food-fish and the great importance of its pursuit and capture to a large to be the possibilities and limitations of the method when applied to the mackerel. Tile subject may be stated as two

66

King Mackerel, Scomberomorus caval/a, Mark-Recapture Studies Off Florida's East Coast  

E-print Network

King Mackerel, Scomberomorus caval/a, Mark-Recapture Studies Off Florida's East Coast H. CHARLES SCHAEFER and WILLIAM A. FABLE, JR. Introduction King mackerel, Scomberomorus cav alla, is a coastal mackerel had exceeded H. Charles Schaefer is with the Statistics Office, Coastal Resources Division

67

NORTH PACIFIC RESEARCH BOARD PROJECT FINAL REPORT Reproductive Ecology of Atka Mackerel Pleurogrammus monopterygius in Alaska  

E-print Network

1 NORTH PACIFIC RESEARCH BOARD PROJECT FINAL REPORT Reproductive Ecology of Atka Mackerel's permission. #12;66 CHAPTER 3: ATKA MACKEREL MATING SYSTEM Genetic assessment of the mating system and patterns of egg cannibalism in Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius Michael F. Canino 1 , Ingrid B

68

Observations From a Preservation and Processing Study on Atka Mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius  

E-print Network

Observations From a Preservation and Processing Study on Atka Mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius other species including Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monop- terygius (Fig. I), of the greenling family (Hexagrammidae). Although less abundant than other species, Atka mackerel are nonetheless an im- portant resource

69

these tests were conducted during March-April when juvenile mackerels are rare in the coastal  

E-print Network

these tests were conducted during March-April when juvenile mackerels are rare in the coastal waters of South Carolina. In 1986 we collected juvenile mackerels during July through October. Because- gion. Based on the occurrence of early larval stages, spawning of both mackerels in the South Atlantic

70

40.-NOTES ON THE IRISH MACKEREL FISHERIES. BY REV. WILLIAM SPOTSWOOD GREEN,  

E-print Network

40.-NOTES ON THE IRISH MACKEREL FISHERIES. BY REV. WILLIAM SPOTSWOOD GREEN, Inspector of Irid fish can wander from the shores of one country to the other. The mackerel (&comber scombrus), owing previous to the date named. In 1892 I shot a train of mackerel nets 10 miles outside the Arran Islands off

71

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Aleutian Islands Atka Mackerel  

E-print Network

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Aleutian Islands Atka Mackerel mackerel and Pacific cod fisheries. The western distinct population segment (WDPS) of Steller sea lion is declining. Atka mackerel and Pacific cod are principal prey species for Steller sea lions in the Aleutian

72

REPRODUCTIVE BIOWGY OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTIVE BIOWGY OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES biology ofking mackerel, Scomberomon18 cawJla, was studied from specimens collected off Texas, Louisiana examined from 1,163 females and 595 males obtained in 1977-78. Spawning was prolonged. Most'king mackerel

73

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Finlet Kinematics in the Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus)  

E-print Network

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Finlet Kinematics in the Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) JENNIFER C of the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, were examined using three-dimensional measurement techniques to test produced by the tail of swimming mackerel. Introduction Finlets are small non-retractable fins

Lauder, George V.

74

Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus  

SciTech Connect

This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

1986-06-01

75

Horse Genome Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's in a horse? As it turns out, what's in a horse is quite important, and the Horse Genome Project at the University of Kentucky is currently defining the genome of this animal. The Project is a cooperative international effort which involves some 100 scientists working in 20 countries. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can make their way through five sections, including "The People", "The Horses", "Genomics 101", and "Applications of Genome Study". "The Horses" area is a good place to start, as it gives an overview of the animals being used in the project. In "Genomics 101", interested parties will find an overview of some basic terms used in the field, such as gene, allele, and mutation. The "Applications of Genome Study" area focuses in on how their work will be used to benefit the health and welfare of horses.

76

Horse Gaits Flipbooks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the gait of horses by constructing flipbooks with British photographer Eadweard Muybridge's famous photographs. Learners print out three flipbooks that showcase horses walking, trotting, and galloping. Learners will explore how many hooves leave the ground at the same time when the horse trots, walks, or gallops. This activity can also be used as part of a larger unit on animation or film.

American Museum of Natural History

2012-06-26

77

Schooling mackerel and herring choose neighbours of similar size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish schooling in a submerged sea-cage swam next to neighbours of similar size. Between 57 and 74 fish were used. Extensive three-dimensional data showed the neighbour size effect for two different species, herring and mackerel, during both day and night. These experiments, covering sizes which coexist in the wild, are the first demonstration of the neighbour size choice in fish

T. J. Pitcher; A. E. Magurran; J. I. Edwards

1985-01-01

78

Characterisation of the microbiota of Atlantic mackerel ( Scomber scombrus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the microbiota of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) collected by a commercial purse seiner was examined. Fish were collected directly from the purse seine and from the Refrigerated Sea Water (RSW) transport tank after loading. The culturable microbiota and Specific Spoilage Bacteria (SSB) were quantified on Iron Agar Lyngby (IAL) and identified using commercially available Biochemical API® kits

Cecilie Smith Svanevik; Bjørn Tore Lunestad

2011-01-01

79

FOOD FISH FACTS Sp4nlSh Mackerel  

E-print Network

of a large family of fish that include the tunas and other mackerels. All of these fish, although vary- ing are dark blue on the upper part, paling until a lmost silvery on the belly. Many small yellowish or olive fins are spiny and are hardly separated. The first dorsal fin is long and trIangular and the front one

80

DESCRIPTION OF EGGS AND LARVAE OF JACK MACKEREL (Trachurus symmetricus)  

E-print Network

- bryonic, larval. and earl~' juvenile stages. The egg is about 1 mm. in diameter, has a single large oil in the identification of jack-mackerel eggs. The larva, on hatching, is about 2 mm. in length. The oil globnle occupies a forward position in the yolk sac. Pigment is mostly confined to the dorsal and ventral margins of the body

81

Horse Nutrition and Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

82

Observations on the food and feeding of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger canagurta (Cuvier)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The study of the food and feeding of the mackerel,Rastrelliger canagurta was based on the periodical examination of stomach contents of the mackerel and the plankton of the coastal waters near Calicut\\u000a during the years 1949 and 1950. The relative importance of various food elements have been determined by thenumber and thepoints methods.\\u000a \\u000a The mackerel has been observed to feed

B. S. Bhimachar; P. C. George

1952-01-01

83

Jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles use jellyfish for predator avoidance and as a prey collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juveniles of carangid fishes including jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus are known to associate with jellyfishes. The function of this association behavior was studied through rearing experiments\\u000a and underwater visual observations. Association behavior of jack mackerel with moon jellyfish in experimental tanks was more\\u000a frequent in the presence compared to the absence of predators (chub mackerel Scomber japonicus). In the experimental

Reiji Masuda; Yoh Yamashita; Michiya Matsuyama

2008-01-01

84

Migration and Fisheries of North East Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in Autumn and Winter  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that observed spatial variation in mackerel fisheries, extending over several hundreds of kilometers, is reflective of climate-driven changes in mackerel migration patterns. Previous studies have been unable to clearly demonstrate this link. In this paper we demonstrate correlation between temperature and mackerel migration/distribution as proxied by mackerel catch data from both scientific bottom trawl surveys and commercial fisheries. We show that mackerel aggregate and migrate distances of up to 500 km along the continental shelf edge from mid-November to early March. The path of this migration coincides with the location of the relatively warm shelf edge current and, as a consequence of this affinity, mackerel are guided towards the main spawning area in the south. Using a simulated time series of temperature of the shelf edge current we show that variations in the timing of the migration are significantly correlated to temperature fluctuations within the current. The proposed proxies for mackerel distribution were found to be significantly correlated. However, the correlations were weak and only significant during periods without substantial legislative or technical developments. Substantial caution should therefore be exercised when using such data as proxies for mackerel distribution. Our results include a new temperature record for the shelf edge current obtained by embedding the available hydrographic observations within a statistical model needed to understand the migration through large parts of the life of adult mackerel and for the management of this major international fishery. PMID:23251570

Jansen, Teunis; Campbell, Andrew; Kelly, Ciarán; Hátún, Hjálmar; Payne, Mark R.

2012-01-01

85

An ensemble of dissimilarity based classifiers for Mackerel gender determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mackerel is an infravalored fish captured by European fishing vessels. A manner to add value to this specie can be achieved by trying to classify it attending to its sex. Colour measurements were performed on Mackerel females and males (fresh and defrozen) extracted gonads to obtain differences between sexes. Several linear and non linear classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVM), k Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) or Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA) can been applied to this problem. However, theyare usually based on Euclidean distances that fail to reflect accurately the sample proximities. Classifiers based on non-Euclidean dissimilarities misclassify a different set of patterns. We combine different kind of dissimilarity based classifiers. The diversity is induced considering a set of complementary dissimilarities for each model. The experimental results suggest that our algorithm helps to improve classifiers based on a single dissimilarity.

Blanco, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Martinez-Maranon, I.

2014-03-01

86

Evaluation of oregano antioxidant activity in mackerel oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry oregano was tested for its antioxidant activity in mackerel oil stored at 40 °C in the dark. Its effectiveness at 0.5% level was comparable to that of 200 ppm BHA and 0.5% (w\\/w) dry rosemary and stronger to that of red chillies and bay leaf which did not improve the stability of the fish oil. Oregano at 1% (w\\/w)

M. Tsimidou; E. Papavergou; D. Boskou

1995-01-01

87

Biomagnifications of mercury and methylmercury in tuna and mackerel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater may be contaminated by harmful substances, including toxic elements released by human activities. The present study\\u000a evaluates the total mercury and methylmercury concentrations and their correlations to fish body size in longtail tuna and\\u000a short-bodied mackerel from Chendring, Kuantan, at east coast and Kuala Perlis at west costs of Peninsular Malaysia during\\u000a May to November 2007. Total mercury and

P. Hajeb; S. Jinap; I. Ahmad

2010-01-01

88

Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted mackerel protein with low bitter taste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein, resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It turned out that the optimum enzyme was the `Mixed enzymes for animal proteolysis'. An enzyme dosage of 4%, a temperature of 50°, and a hydrolysis time of 300 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain high NR (84.28%) and degree of hydrolysis (DH, 16.18%) by orthogonal experiments. Glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid of MDP (defatted mackerel protein) and MDPH (defatted mackerel protein hydrolysates). Compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein, the essential amino acid chemical scores (CS) were greater than 1.0 (1.0-1.7) in MDPH, which is reflective of high nutritional value. This, coupled with the light color and slight fishy odor, indicates that MDPH would potentially have a wide range of applications such as nutritional additives, functional ingredients, and so on.

Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue

2011-03-01

89

Observational learning in horses  

E-print Network

that the horse' s value is determined by the extent of the animal's ability to perform. The horse's ability to learn has been demonstrated experimentally in various discrimination tasks (Dixon, 1970; Fiske, 1976; Gardner, 1937a; Gardner, 1937b; Rensch, 1957... and brightness cues (Fiske, 1976; Gardner, 1937a; Gardner, 1937b; Warren and Warren, 1962), or by sensory modalities as stimuli (Yeates, 1977). A decrease in errors during ac- quisition of a discrimination task is evidence of learning set forma- tion...

Baer, Katherine Louise

1979-01-01

90

STARVATION-INDUCED MORTALITY OF YOUNG SEA-CAUGHT JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS, DETERMINED WITH HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young jack mackerel, 'Il-aehurus symmetricus, living offshore are starving while those living nearshore are healthy. These results for sea-caught jack mackerel were determined by using histological and mor- phological criteria that reliably diagnosed the viability of laboratory-raised jack mackerel. Both the histological and morphological indices indicated that 350 km offshore about 70% of the first-feeding jack mackerel were starving. In

GAIL H. THEILACKER

1986-01-01

91

Ethmoidal hematoma in nine horses.  

PubMed

Ethmoidal hematoma was diagnosed in 9 horses by results of physical examination, endoscopy, radiography, and histologic examination of tissues. The horses had stertorous breathing (n = 4) or intermittently sanguineous nasal discharge (n = 7). All horses underwent sinusotomy and extirpation of the lesion. At reexamination 15 to 104 months after surgery (mean, 61 months), 3 horses had recurrence of ethmoidal hematoma, and 1 horse had ethmoidal hematoma involving the contralateral ethmoturbinates. One of the horses with recurrence of ethmoidal hematoma also developed a contralateral lesion; both lesions recurred and additional surgeries were performed. PMID:2211311

Specht, T E; Colahan, P T; Nixon, A J; Brown, M P; Turner, T A; Peyton, L C; Schneider, R K

1990-09-01

92

75 FR 8547 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...opening and closing dates of the Atka mackerel directed fisheries within the harvest...the 2010 A season HLA limits of Atka mackerel in areas 542 and 543 of the Bering...

2010-02-25

93

78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

2013-10-30

94

75 FR 6129 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...the 2010 A season allocation of Atka mackerel in these areas allocated to vessels...

2010-02-08

95

78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...is opening directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in the CAI by vessels participating...

2013-07-15

96

75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY...assignments for the 2010 A season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA...trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register...

2010-01-20

97

75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian District of the...the 2010 A season allocation of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

2010-03-26

98

78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...the A season allowance of the 2013 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in...

2013-05-03

99

75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY...assignments for the 2010 B season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA...trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register...

2010-08-13

100

75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...is opening directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas specified for...

2010-10-21

101

77 FR 26212 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...the A season allowance of the 2012 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in...

2012-05-03

102

77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

2012-07-03

103

To be cited as: Rohfritsch A., Borsa P. 2005. Genetic structure of Indian scad mackerel Decapterus russelli: Pleistocene  

E-print Network

1 To be cited as: Rohfritsch A., Borsa P. 2005. ­ Genetic structure of Indian scad mackerel. Heredity 95, 315-322. Genetic structure of Indian scad mackerel Decapterus russelli: Pleistocene vicariance title: Genetic structure of Indian scad mackerel hal-00554479,version1-10Jan2011 Author manuscript

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

75 FR 4491 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...is opening directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas specified for...

2010-01-28

105

78 FR 35771 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

2013-06-14

106

76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic Fishery...control future access to the king and Spanish mackerel components of the coastal migratory...of September 17, 2010, for king and Spanish mackerel. The Council requested a...

2011-01-31

107

16. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the Yankee Horse Railroad ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the Yankee Horse Railroad trestle looking north. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

108

77 FR 7544 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment 11; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...language in the final rule for Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish...Background The final rule for Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and...

2012-02-13

109

76 FR 74724 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This...Background A final rule for Amendment 11 to the MSB FMP was published in the Federal Register...mackerel program have been approved under the MSB Amendment 10 Family of Forms (OMB...

2011-12-01

110

SCOMBEROMORUS BRASILIENSIS, A NEW SPECIES OF SPANISH MACKEREL FROM THE WESTERN ATLANTIC  

E-print Network

Scomberomorus-the king mackerel, S. cavalla (Cuvier), Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); and cero, S of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560. "Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington Uni- versity. Statistical tests were performed on the IBM 370-148 compu- ter4 at the George Washington University using

111

50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions...

2014-10-01

112

50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions...

2013-10-01

113

50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions...

2010-10-01

114

50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions...

2011-10-01

115

50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions...

2012-10-01

116

Welfare in horse breeding.  

PubMed

Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, P

2015-04-25

117

Estimation of Temperature Range for Cryo Cutting of Frozen Mackerel using DSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frozen mackerel flesh was subjected to measurement of its fracture stress (bending energy) in a low temperature range. The optimum conditions for low temperature cutting, "cryo cutting," were estimated from the results of enthalpy changes measured by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). There were two enthalpy changes for gross transition on the DSC chart for mackerel, one was at -63°C to -77°C and the other at -96°C to -112°C. Thus we estimated that mackerel was able to cut by bending below -63°C and that there would be a great decrease in bending energy occurring at around -77°C and -112°C. In testing, there were indeed two great decreases of bending energy for the test pieces of mackerel that had been frozen at -40°C, one was at -70°C to -90°C and the other was at -100°C to -120°C. Therefore, the test pieces of mackerel could be cut by bending at -70°C. The results showed that the DSC measurement of mackerel flesh gave a good estimation of the appropriate cutting temperature of mackerel.

Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

118

Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR surveys, egg surveys and commercial landings from Danish coastal fisheries in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and inner Danish waters. The three independent sources of data all show that there is a significant relationship between the timing of spawning and sea surface temperature. Large mackerel are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management and monitoring. An increase in temperature is likely to affect the timing and magnitude of the growth, recruitment and migration of North Sea mackerel with subsequent impacts on its sustainable exploitation.

Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

2011-01-01

119

Freeze Branding Horses  

E-print Network

, simpli- f_ied drawing of one hair shaft with its color (pigment) producing follicle (CF) and its growth follicle (GF), both shown below the skin. Doug Householder 1 , Gary Webb 2 , Sam Wigington 3 and Jason Bruemmer 4 Freeze Branding Horses Figure 1. Hair...

Householder, Doug; Webb, Gary; Wigington, Sam; Bruemmer, Jason

2001-06-29

120

Paraguayan Horse Tack  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Paraguayan cowboys use a version of the typical saddle from southern South America. The core of the saddle consists of two leather rolls that are filled with a sedge (Piri, Cyperus giganteus) for cushioning, these are laid along the horse's spine and sandwiched between several layers of wool and cot...

121

Hyperelastosis in the Horse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

122

Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families  

PubMed Central

Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families. PMID:24023883

Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

2013-01-01

123

50 CFR 648.22 - Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Mackerel, and Butterfish Monitoring Committee will review fishery...with such reviews. (vi) River herring and shad catch cap. The Monitoring Committee shall provide recommendations...regarding a cap on the catch of river herring (alewife and...

2014-10-01

124

77 FR 58507 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 5 AGENCY: National Marine...NMFS proposes regulations to implement Framework Adjustment 5 to the Atlantic Mackerel...Fishery Management Council, including the Framework Document, are available from:...

2012-09-21

125

77 FR 74159 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 7 AGENCY: National Marine...from a catch cap to a discard cap in Framework Adjustment 7 to the Atlantic Mackerel...Fishery Management Council, including the Framework Document, the Regulatory Impact...

2012-12-13

126

78 FR 14230 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 7 AGENCY: National Marine...discard cap as a result of its approval of Framework Adjustment 7 to the Atlantic Mackerel...Management Council (Council), including the Framework Document for Framework Adjustment...

2013-03-05

127

76 FR 13887 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery; Revision of 2011 Butterfish...in the Final 2011 Specifications for the MSB Fishery Management Plan (FMP) (76 FR...butterfish ABC in the proposed rule for 2011 MSB Specifications in November 2010....

2011-03-15

128

77 FR 16472 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) resource. DATES: This rule is effective...addition to specifications for each of the MSB species, the Council recommended adjusting...September 15, 2011. A proposed rule for 2012 MSB specifications and management measures...

2012-03-21

129

75 FR 5537 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish (MSB). Specifically, this action maintains...the utilization and conservation of the MSB resource. DATES: Effective March 5, 2010...Management Council (Council) recommended 2010 MSB specifications. The recommended...

2010-02-03

130

EFFECT OF STARVATION ON THE HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF JACK MACKEREL,  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF STARVATION ON THE HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS, LARVAE GAIL H. THEILACKER' ABSTRACT Histological and morphological criteria were, larvae. A comparison of the histological features offed and starved larvae revealed that the digestive

131

77 FR 22678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Trimester 1 Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...closure of the directed fishery for longfin squid (longfin) in the Exclusive Economic...

2012-04-17

132

76 FR 51272 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2011 Trimester 2 Directed Loligo Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...that 90 percent of the Trimester 2 Loligo squid (Loligo) quota is projected to be...

2011-08-18

133

77 FR 40527 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2012 Trimester 2 Directed Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...that 90 percent of the Trimester 2 longfin squid (longfin) quota is projected to be...

2012-07-10

134

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (8 tetranucleotide and 2 dinucleotide) and 3 imperfect repeats (2 tetranucleotide and 1 dinucleo...

135

Spectral sensitivity of juvenile chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus ) in visible and ultraviolet light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is widely distributed all over the world, the relevance of its visual sensitivity to its ecology is not yet fully understood.\\u000a We investigated spectral sensitivity in juvenile chub mackerel in the range of ultraviolet (UV) to visible light (369–652 nm)\\u000a by electroretinogram (ERG) using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Sensitivity peaked at a wavelength of approximately 482 nm\\u000a in

Taro Matsumoto; Hiroshi Ihara; Yoshinari Ishida; Shinji Yamamoto; Osamu Murata; Yasunori Ishibashi

2010-01-01

136

Mitochondrial genome of the Mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus (Perciformes: Carangidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence was determined for the Mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus, one species of the economically important fish in Carangidae. The entire sequence of the genome was 16,544?bp in length, including the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. Overall base compositions of the sequence were 27.3% of A, 30.4% of C, 25.3% of T and 17.0% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The mitogenome of Decapterus macarellus had a quite high-sequence similarity (92.5%) with D. macrosoma, which was morphologically close to D. macarellus. The complete mitogenome sequence data of D. macarellus could provide useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetics studies. PMID:25423525

Zou, Keshu; Chen, Zuozhi; Zhang, Peng; Li, Min

2014-11-25

137

Discrimination learning in horses  

E-print Network

of individual dif- ferences between sheep. Liddell and Anderson (1931) found conditioned leg re iexes were established most rapidly in the pig followed in order by the goat, sheep and rabbit. Koniukhora (1957) demonstrated that reflexes in pigs devel- oped.... liaze learning in quarter horses. J. Anim. Sci. (Personal Communication). Kudryavtzev, A. A. 1962. Higher nervcus activity and the physiology of the senses in lactating cows. 16th International Dairy Con- gress (Copeniiagen, Denmark). Liddell, H, S...

Yeates, B. F

1976-01-01

138

Molecular expression of opsin gene in growing juvenile mackerel ( Scomber japonicus Houttuyn)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish have developed color vision that is closely adapted to their photic environments, where both spectral sensitivity and the number of visual opsins are influenced. The mackerel used in this study is one of the most important fishery stocks in Korea. The opsin gene of the mackerel juveniles after 20 days in hatching was isolated and characterized based on the molecular study of visual photoreceptor. The full-length mackerel opsin gene was obtained by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, as well as cDNA synthesis. Sequence analysis of the opsin gene showed that it contained a 1,080 bp open reading frame encoding 360 amino acids. Based on Schiff’s base formation (S114, K119), glycosylation (E3, F37) and palmitoylation (S281, 282), the deduced amino acid sequence had a typical rod opsin. The mackerel and Gempylus serpens showed 73.7% DNA homology on opsin gene, which was higher than any other of investigated species. In the analysis of phylogenetic relationship, the genetic placement of the mackerel is closer to that of Scombroidei than Labroidei, with supporting somewhat strong bootstrap value. In the analysis of Northern and RT-PCR, the probed products were observed only in rapidly growing juveniles. These findings indicate that in mackerel opsin mRNA expression can be detected in day-20 hatching larvae. It may play an important role in stimulating growth hormone.

Kim, Eung-Oh; Yoon, Seong-Jong; Park, Kyoung-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Do, Jeung-Wan; Cho, Eun-Seob

2009-12-01

139

Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

140

76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...primarily used in the training of Tennessee Walking Horses, racking horses, and related breeds. Although a gait similar...requires the DQP to reinspect all Tennessee Walking Horses or racking horses tyed first in their class or event at any horse...

2011-05-27

141

Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Do You Have Horse Sense!  

E-print Network

for K-3 Youth Do You Have Horse Sense! Experience / What to Do Ask the children if they know how horsesVirginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Do You Have Horse Sense! Do You Have Horse Sense! www to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs

Liskiewicz, Maciej

142

NOAA Form 88-129 (8/94) OMB No. 0648-0013, exp. 8/31/2004 WEEKLY DEALER REPORT OF SPANISH MACKEREL LANDINGS  

E-print Network

NOAA Form 88-129 (8/94) OMB No. 0648-0013, exp. 8/31/2004 WEEKLY DEALER REPORT OF SPANISH MACKEREL ___________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ SPANISH MACKEREL GEAR ROUND Wt. GUTTED Wt. Hook & Line ___________ ___________ Gill Net ___________ ___________ No Spanish Mackerel were purchased during the reporting period. Submitted by: Name (please print

143

Effect of salting and smoking-method on the keeping quality of chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus): biochemical and sensory attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of salting and smoking method on the keeping quality of chub mackerel was studied over a period of 30 days. Quality assessment was based on sensory analysis and biochemical indices determination. The effect of salting on the preservation of non-smoked chub mackerel packaged and stored under the same conditions as the smoked samples was also studied. The two

Antonios E. Goulas; Michael G. Kontominas

2005-01-01

144

76 FR 65975 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...subarea and Eastern Aleutian district (BS/EAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island...The 2011 TAC of Atka mackerel, in the BS/EAI, allocated to vessels participating...directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the BS/EAI by vessels participating in the...

2011-10-25

145

78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...subarea and Eastern Aleutian district (BS/EAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...The 2013 TAC of Atka mackerel, in the BS/EAI, allocated to vessels participating...directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the BS/EAI by vessels participating in the...

2013-10-30

146

77 FR 61300 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Atka Mackerel in the Bering...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...subarea and Eastern Aleutian district (BS/EAI) of to the Amendment 80 cooperatives...679. The 2012 Atka mackerel ICA for the BS/EAI is 1,000 metric tons (mt) and...570 mt of the Atka mackerel ICA for the BS/EAI will not be harvested....

2012-10-09

147

Proposed amendment language for the allocation of Atka mackerel to vessels using jig gear -Amendment 34 to the Fishery  

E-print Network

Proposed amendment language for the allocation of Atka mackerel to vessels using jig gear implemented on [insert date] allocates Atka mackerel to vessels using jig gear. Annually, up to 2 percent will be allocated to vessels using jig gear in this area. 2. In section 14.4.9 Gear allocations, a new paragraph 14

148

Biomechanical analysis of horse shoeing.  

PubMed

Most of the principles of farriery have been derived from practical experience and traditional skills of individual farriers. To date, there has been little done in the way of good science and few publications have appeared to advance the discipline. Therefore, opinions or policies on horse shoeing vary greatly between farriers and members of the veterinary profession. The aim of this workshop was to present the latest information on biomechanical analysis of horse shoeing as it relates to modern day farriery and could have direct benefits for the future of shoeing in performance horses. PMID:10659332

Aoki, O

1999-07-01

149

Mercury levels of small fishes: influence of size and catch area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we assessed small fishes as potential feed fishes with the lowest mercury levels. The mercury levels\\u000a of four small pelagic fishes and a benthic fish from the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, i.e., spotted chub mackerel Scomber australasicus, chub mackerel Scomber japonicus, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus, round scad Decapterus punctatus, and bastard halibut Paralichthys

Wen Jye Mok; MokManabu Seoka; Yasuyuki Tsukamasa; Ken-ichi Kawasaki; Masashi Ando

150

Fungal diseases of horses.  

PubMed

Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

2013-11-29

151

Disease transmission in horses.  

PubMed

Bacterial, viral and protozoal infections may cause severe reproductive losses. The present paper reviews the risk factors, clinical signs and preventive measures for the most important venereal or potential sexually transmitted diseases in horses. The stallion and use of semen for artificial insemination represent major risk factors for the transmission of bacterial contaminants of the penis, including Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, known to cause endometritis and infertility in the mare. The role of the stallion in disease transmission is also due to the non-clinical manifestation of diseases such as contagious equine metritis and equine viral arteritis. Dourine has been eradicated from many countries, but continues to be a problem in other areas of the globe. Strategies for the prevention of introduction and transmission of diseases in breeding operation are discussed. PMID:16837034

Samper, Juan C; Tibary, Ahmed

2006-08-01

152

Phylogeography and demographic history of Gotocotyla sawara (Monogenea: Gotocotylidae) on Japanese Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius) along the Coast of China.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that the northwestern Pacific Ocean is an ideal system in which to study and understand the roles of the Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and ocean currents in shaping phylogeographic patterns of species, but most of these investigations have been concerned with vertebrates, and only a few have focused on invertebrates. In the present study, we examined the genetic population structure and historic demography of a platyhelminth species, Gotocotyla sawara (Monogenea, Gotocotylidae), a gill parasite of Japanese Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus niphonius , along the coast of China. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene for 169 individuals and the internal transcribed spacers for 24 individuals were sequenced from specimens representing 8 populations of this parasite along the coast of China. High levels of COI haplotype diversity (0.9994) and nucleotide diversity (0.015805) were detected for G. sawara. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no phylogeographical pattern for G. sawara in the sample area. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed no significant differences at all hierarchical levels, and pairwise FST analysis demonstrated a high rate of gene flow of this parasite among different populations in coastal Chinese waters. Moreover, the exact test of differentiation supported the null hypothesis that G. sawara along the coast of China constitutes a panmictic population. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution revealed that G. sawara underwent population expansion in the late Pleistocene era. Recent range expansion after the last glacial maximum and insufficient time to attain migration-drift equilibrium may account in part for the lack of genetic structure in the geographic areas considered in this study. Dispersal of parasite eggs and larvae along ocean currents, coupled with the long-distance migrations of host fishes, could also be responsible for genetic homogeneity of this parasite. It is also possible that other hosts of this monogean, such as the ridged-eye flounder, Pleruonichthys cornutus, may contribute to the genetic mixing of Gotocotyla sawara populations. PMID:23899268

Shi, Su-Fen; Li, Min; Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Chao-Ping; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Brown, Christopher L; Yang, Ting-Bao

2014-02-01

153

The physical basis of reflective communication between fish, with special reference to the horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus  

PubMed Central

Some properties of reflecting structures in the external surfaces of Trachurus trachurus and some other fish are described. These are related to the hypothesis that such structures are useful, especially to schooling fish, for communicating information on relative positions, orientations, and movements between neighbours. In addition to the silvery layers on the main body surfaces, there are: (a) highly silvered patches on the tail, the pectoral fins and the jaws which, in the sea, will become much brighter or darker with any movement such as a tailbeat or mouth opening which changes their orientations in the ambient lightfield, and (b) structures such as the dorsal lateral line which, in the sea, will only appear bright from certain directions. To us, the colours of the ventral flanks change from bright red to blue with direction orientations and have special reflectivity curves close to those predicted by A.F. Huxley for interference reflectors which are 'ideal' ?/4 stacks of guanine crystals and cytoplasm. The wavebands best reflected by such platelets move to shorter wavelengths with increasing angle of incidence, also in accord with these equations. At normal incidence, the outer layer of platelets reflects maximally for far-red light which penetrates only a short distance in the sea. Such layers can, however, be useful at oblique angles where they reflect maximally in the yellow and blue. The inner layer of reflectors reflects very strongly in the blue at normal incidence, but reflects in the ultra-violet at oblique angles. Some theoretical studies are made on the ways in which the patterns of reflectivity by single and superposed layers of ?/4 stacks could signal a fish's movements or its position relative to its neighbours.

Rowe, D. M.; Denton, E. J.

1997-01-01

154

A regime shift in the North Sea circa 1988 linked to changes in the North Sea horse mackerel fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 1987, Phytoplankton Colour (a visual estimate of chlorophyll) measured on samples taken by the continuous plankton recorder (CPR) in the North Sea increased substantially, both in level and seasonal extent, compared to earlier years since 1946. Many species of phytoplankton and zooplankton showed marked changes in abundance at about the same time. These events coincided with a large increase

Philip C. Reid; Maria de Fatima Borges; Einar Svendsen

2001-01-01

155

American Museum of Natural History: The Horse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online exhibit that accompanied "The Horse" at American Museum of Natural History is quite informative and useful. Visitors who are not necessarily that interested in horses, may just be won over by this beautiful and educational online exhibit. The "Evolution of Horses" link explains how horses evolved from being multi-toed to single-toed, and how horses as small as a dog, and larger horses, coexisted. Visitors will find the "Horses and Hunters" link dispels the myth about the hunting tactic of Ice Age people that involved corralling the horses to the edge of a cliff and forcing them to jump off to their deaths. Visitors shouldn't miss the subcategories of "Horses and Hunters", as there is much information here, along with great photos of European cave paintings depicting horses. Horses appear more often than any other animal in European cave paintings. The "Epilogue" shows the influence of horses around the world, by showing toy horses from Afghanistan, India, Japan, Italy, Canada, and North America.

156

79 FR 3071 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...general applicability and legal effect, most of which...APHIS-2011-0030] RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring...shoe. Hollow shoes or artificial extensions filled with...should be assessed when a horse is found to be in violation...Part 11 Animal welfare, Horses, Reporting and recordkeeping...amendment: PART 11--HORSE PROTECTION...

2014-01-17

157

77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...be shown or exhibited); (2) show or exhibit a horse at a horse show, public auction, or exhibition such as a college football game or parade; (3) judge a horse show; (4) enter the show ring during the course of a horse show; (5) enter...

2012-06-07

158

Complete Genome Sequence of Cedecea neteri Strain SSMD04, a Bacterium Isolated from Pickled Mackerel Sashimi.  

PubMed

We report here the complete genome sequence of C. neteri SSMD04, a strain isolated from pickled mackerel sashimi, sequenced by third-generation sequencing technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation that reports the complete genome of Cedecea neteri. PMID:25523782

Chan, Kok-Gan; Tan, Kian-Hin; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tan, Jia-Yi

2014-01-01

159

RECENT INCREASED ABUNDANCE AND POTENTIAL PRODUCTIVITY OF PAC1 FIC MACKEREL (SCOMBER JAPONICUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohort analysis (VPA) of recent Pacific mackerel catches off southern California and northern Baja California shows that total biomass (age I+) in- creased sharply beginning in 1977. The increase fol- lowed a period of extreme depletion, and continued for several years, reaching a peak of 300,000 to 500,000 MT in 1982. Abundance decreased substan- tially in 1983 and 1984 because

ALEC D MACCALL; RICHARD D METHOT

1985-01-01

160

EFFECT OF STARVATION ON THE HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS, LARVAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological and morphological criteria were developed to assess the nutritional condition of laboratory-reared jack mackerel, Trachurus symmetricus, larvae. A comparison of the histological features of fed and starved larvae revealed that the digestive tract and its associated glands were the first tissues to be affected by starvation. The extent of cellular deterioration increased with time of starvation. To classify larval

GAIL H. THEILACKER

161

GILL RAKER APPARATUS AND FOOD SELECTIVITY AMONG MACKERELS, TUNAS, AND DOLPHINS  

E-print Network

GILL RAKER APPARATUS AND FOOD SELECTIVITY AMONG MACKERELS, TUNAS, AND DOLPHINS JOHN J. MAGNUSON AND JEAN G. HEITZ' ABSTRACT Gill raker morphology and fork length were measured from 411 fish, representing regressions passing through the origin were determined relating mean gill raker gap in millimeters (first gill

162

75 FR 1024 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish (MSB) fisheries. This rulemaking could institute...fishery and to initiate an amendment to the MSB Fishery Management Plan (FMP), which...control date in the upcoming amendment to the MSB FMP. Reaffirming the squid control...

2010-01-08

163

75 FR 28762 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) was published...inches (12.7 cm) that was enacted in the MSB specifications and management measures for...published implementing Amendment 10 to the MSB FMP (Amendment 10). Amendment 10...

2010-05-24

164

Optimal Annual Changes in Harvests from Multicohort Fish Stocks: The Case of Western Mackerel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimising model is developed to determine the .sequence of total allowable catches of western mackerel which would result in the maximum present value of the stream of annual rents. It is found that the optimal steady state fishing mortality would be one half to one third of recent levels. For the base formulation of the model the optimal plan

John O. S. Kennedy

1992-01-01

165

78 FR 53404 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...measure would help prevent overfishing, promote the long-term health and stability of the mackerel and longfin squid resources...uniformly to all vessels under the Closed Area I requirements, inequality among the fleet is not an issue for the Closed Area I...

2013-08-29

166

76 FR 8306 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...have included information about the 14 bilateral research priorities that emerged from...mackerel is the subject of U.S./Canada Bilateral Fisheries Consultations and is not the...Trimester II and III, but will limit the transfer of quota such that the Trimester II...

2011-02-14

167

Abundance of King Mackerel, Scomberomorus caval/a, in the Southeastern United States Based on  

E-print Network

on CPUE Data From Charterboats, 1982-85 LEE TRENT, BARBARA JAYNE PALKO, MARK L. WILLIAMS, and HAROLD A Councils (1983, 1985). Basic to the for mulation and use of the mackerel FMP are various commercial charterboats in 5 areas in 1982 (Williams, Brusher, and Trent, 1984: Brusher et a!., 1984), from 100 boats

168

75 FR 43090 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Adjustment...fishing year (FY) Trimester 2 and 3 Loligo squid quotas. The rule contained a numerical...adjusting the FY 2010 Trimester 2 and 3 Loligo squid quotas. The temporary rule correctly...

2010-07-23

169

Movements of King Mackerel, Scomberomoru5 cavalla, Tagged in Southeast Louisiana, 1983-85  

E-print Network

Movements of King Mackerel, Scomberomoru5 cavalla, Tagged in Southeast Louisiana, 1983-85 WILLIAM A. FABLE, Jr., LEE TRENT, GILBERT W. BANE, and STEVEN W. ELLSWORTH Introduction The king mackere of previous mark- William A. Fable. Jr.. and Lee Trem are with the NMFS Southeast Fisheries Center's Panama

170

Complete Genome Sequence of Cedecea neteri Strain SSMD04, a Bacterium Isolated from Pickled Mackerel Sashimi  

PubMed Central

We report here the complete genome sequence of C. neteri SSMD04, a strain isolated from pickled mackerel sashimi, sequenced by third-generation sequencing technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation that reports the complete genome of Cedecea neteri. PMID:25523782

Tan, Kian-Hin; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tan, Jia-Yi

2014-01-01

171

Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.  

PubMed

During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

Wobeser, Bruce K

2015-04-01

172

Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses.  

PubMed

Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses. PMID:24489393

Ohmes, Cameon M; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Vander Werf, Karie A; Bianco, Alex W; Giger, Urs

2014-02-01

173

The importance of social relationships in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral horses are social animals, which have to rely on survival strategies centered on the formation of cohesive social bonds within their bands. Many problems in the husbandry of social animals such as horses, are due to the fact that the limits of their adaptive abilities are exceeded. Evidence suggests that the fundamental social characteristics of domestic horses have remained

M. C. van Dierendonck

2006-01-01

174

Serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic.  

PubMed

Few studies have evaluated cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. In humans with septic shock, high cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of death. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum total cortisol concentrations (STCCs) in horses with colic to those without colic, and to assess whether the STCC relates to the pathological nature or outcome of the disease. STCCs were determined at presentation in horses with colic and in systemically healthy 'control' horses. Horses with colic were grouped based on clinical and clinico-pathological parameters at admission, treatment, lesion type and location, and outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed using two different outcome measures: (a) whether the horse had colic or not (yes vs. no), and (b) horse STCC (?200?nmol/L vs.?<200?nmol/L). Horses were more likely to have colic if they presented with high STCCs (?200?nmol/L compared with <200?nmol/L). Horses with colic and with STCCs??200nmol/L were more likely to have moderate or severe colic signs (compared with mild colic) and heart rates?>45 beats per min (compared with ?45 beats per min). It was concluded that colic in horses is associated with elevated STCCs, and increased STCC in horses with colic appears to relate to the severity of the disease. STCCs may provide additional decision-making and prognostic information in horses with colic but further studies are required to avoid misinterpretations associated with the wide variation in STCCs. PMID:24986316

Mair, T S; Sherlock, C E; Boden, L A

2014-09-01

175

Dominant curly coat in horses DP Sponenberg  

E-print Network

with a dominant gene causing curly coat in horses, although a separate previously documented recessive gene a recessive gene in Percheron horses (Blakeslee et al, 1943). A further report concerning curliness of Lokai for curliness also exists. The symbol Crd for dominant curliness is suggested for the dominant gene. horse

Boyer, Edmond

176

Progressive ethmoidal haematoma in horses.  

PubMed

Progressive ethmoidal haematoma was diagnosed in 12 Thoroughbreds, 1 part- Arab and 1 stock horse. Ages ranged from 3 to 18 years and both males and females were affected. Diagnosis was based on history, clinical signs, endoscopic and radiographic findings, and was confirmed histologically in 10 cases. Eleven (78%) of the lesions were unilateral and 3 (22%) were bilateral. Two horses were euthanased on diagnosis, 4 were treated conservatively. Of the latter, 3 were euthanased 6 to 24 months after diagnosis, due to progression of the lesions, while 1 case resolved completely within 13 months. Eight horses were treated by surgical excision of the lesion. Three died in the post-operative period, 3 were euthanased within 48 months after recurrence of the condition, and 2 had no recurrence within 60 and 72 months, respectively. PMID:1586315

Laing, J A; Hutchins, D R

1992-03-01

177

Mature, Senior and Geriatric Horses: Management, Care and Use  

E-print Network

horses. The Horse?s Mouth ? Equine Dentistry At least once a year, every horse?s mouth should be examined by an equine practitioner or a qualified equine dentist, who will initiate needed corrective procedures. Such dental exams should start before.... Dental problems that may particularly plague older horses include: ? Bit problems ? During dental exams, owners rou- tinely may be asked about older horses? responses to bit placement and bit pressure while being ridden. Such problems may be related...

Martin, M. T.; Scrutchfield, W. L.; Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

2005-04-18

178

Texas 4-H Horse Project Teaching Outlines  

E-print Network

Minimizing Weaning Stress in Foals 131 Psychological Principles for Training Young Foals 137 Physiology and Management of the Stallion 143 Preservation of Stallion Semen 149 Aging Horses by Teeth 155 Minimizing Equine Internal Parasite Problems 161 Buying... for more than 1 month. 3. Feed concentrates and hay by weight, not by volume; concentrates differ in weights. 4. Never feed more than 0.75 percent of the horse?s body weight at any one feeding. F. Manage the horse?s eating behavior. 1. Space multiple...

Howard, Jeff W.; Johnson, Ken; Mason, Vanessa; Mitchell, Julianne

2000-06-15

179

Purification, reactivity with IgE and cDNA cloning of parvalbumin as the major allergen of mackerels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of mackerels (Scomber japonicus, S. australasicus and S. scombrus) are widely consumed and considered to be most frequently involved in incidents of IgE-mediated fish allergy in Japan. In this study, parvalbumin, a possible candidate for the major allergen, was purified from the white muscle of three species of mackerels by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and reverse-phase HPLC

Y. Hamada; H. Tanaka; S. Ishizaki; M. Ishida; Y. Nagashima; K. Shiomi

2003-01-01

180

An Overview of the New Zealand Jack Mackerel Fishery: Catch Composition, Catch Trends, Seasonality and Length-Frequency Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Zealand jack mackerel fishery targets three species, Trachurus declivis, T. novaezelandiae and T. murphyi. First catches were documented in 1946, but the targeted fishery, assumed to be T. declivis, started in the mid-1960s, with annual catches increasing to 20,000 t by the time jack mackerels were included in the New Zealand Quota Management System in 1986-87. In 1986

Andrew Penney; Paul Taylor

181

Ontogenetic changes in the ecological function of the association behavior between jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commensal behavior of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel) with jellyfishes has been widely observed but its ecological function is still unclear. The goal of\\u000a the present research is to examine the function of association behavior with jellyfish in the laboratory and in field observations\\u000a with an emphasis on ontogenetic changes. In the laboratory, jack mackerel juveniles (mean standard

Reiji Masuda

2009-01-01

182

Ontogenetic changes in the ecological function of the association behavior between jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commensal behavior of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel) with jellyfishes has been widely observed but its ecological function is still unclear. The goal of\\u000a the present research is to examine the function of association behavior with jellyfish in the laboratory and in field observations\\u000a with an emphasis on ontogenetic changes. In the laboratory, jack mackerel juveniles (mean standard

Reiji Masuda

183

Horse traction in Victorian London  

Microsoft Academic Search

ork horses have not received the attention they deserve in studies of transport history. Nor did contemporary descriptions of life pay much attention to them, for, like the cars that line the streets today, they were too ubiquitous and too much a part of everyday experience to be worth writing about. Traffic congestion, the loud clatter of horseshoes and iron-

Ralph Turvey

184

A Trojan Horse in Birmingham  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

Yarker, Patrick

2014-01-01

185

Cattle Tyrant Perched on Horse  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Cattle tyrant perched on horse near Asuncion Bay, Paraguay. Cattle tyrants feed on parasitic arthropods on mammals, an example of mutualism. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Palm Savanna, Pas...

186

A review of the human–horse relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a long history of human–horse relationship, horse-related incidents and accidents do occur amongst professional and non professional horse handlers. Recent studies show that their occurrence depend more on the frequency and amount of interactions with horses than on the level of competency, suggesting a strong need for specific research and training of individuals working with horses. In the present

Martine Hausberger; Hélène Roche; Séverine Henry; E. Kathalijne Visser

2008-01-01

187

61 FR 52236 - Importation of Horses from CEM Countries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...approved to receive such horses in accordance with...section; (ii) The horses are accompanied at...collected from each horse within 30 days prior...collection of semen for artificial insemination in the...While in transit, the horse must be moved in either...other stalls containing horses, either by an empty...purposes (including artificial......

1996-10-07

188

61 FR 28073 - Importation of Horses From CEM Countries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...approved to receive such horses in accordance with...section; (ii) The horses are accompanied at...collected from each horse within 30 days prior...collection of semen for artificial insemination in the...While in transit, the horse must be moved in either...other stalls containing horses, either by an empty...purposes (including artificial......

1996-06-04

189

9 CFR 91.25 - Space requirements for animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...through a tropical area, 9 the space required for each...into or through such area, the space required for...rate of 3 such pens for each 100 head loaded, except as provided...for horses on ocean vessels. Space for horses in pens...

2013-01-01

190

9 CFR 91.25 - Space requirements for animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...through a tropical area, 9 the space required for each...into or through such area, the space required for...rate of 3 such pens for each 100 head loaded, except as provided...for horses on ocean vessels. Space for horses in pens...

2014-01-01

191

Effects of Storage Temperatures on the Quality of Frozen Sardine, Mackerel, and Saury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three Japanese coastal fish species, sardine (Sardinops melanosticta), mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and saury (Cololabis saira) was frozen under commercial condition and stored at -18, -23, -30 and -40°C for 12 months. During frozen storage the quality was measured by determining the K value (freshness index), peroxide value (POV) of fat, a mount of free drip, water-holding capacity of muscle, weight ratio of cooking loss, histological feature of frozen and thawed muscle, and organoleptic test at regular intervals (each 2 months). Storage life of frozen sardine was 6 months at -18°C and 12 months at below -23°C. On frozen mackerel it was 6 months at -18°C. 8 months at -23°C and 12 months at below -30°C. On saury it was 6 months at 18°C and 12 months at below -23°C.

Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohataka, Tateo

192

Autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty compounds in mackerel oil: Formation of 2,4,7-decatrienals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of potentially “fishy” off flavor components, especially 2,4,7-decatrienals, in various rancid mackerel oils\\u000a has been semiquantitatively investigated using preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC)\\u000a methods. A combination of 2 GLC analyses can be directly employed for free aldehyde analysis. This GLC method is faster and\\u000a gives a better recovery than the alternative TLC proceeding

P. J. Ke; R. G. Ackman; B. A. Linke

1975-01-01

193

Occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria in salted mackerel in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-three samples of salted mackerel sold in retail markets and supermarkets in Taiwan were tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. The numbers of aerobic plate count (APC) in all samples were below the Taiwanese regulatory level of 6.47logcfu\\/g. The levels of pH, salt content, and total coliform in all samples ranged from 5.7 to 6.4, 5.0

Yung-Hsiang Tsai; Chueh-Yueh Lin; Shiou-Chung Chang; Hwi-Chang Chen; Hsien-Feng Kung; Cheng-I Wei; Deng-Fwu Hwang

2005-01-01

194

Involvement of cathepsins B and L in the post-mortem autolysis of mackerel muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular distributions of catheptic enzymes (cathepsins) in white muscle of mackerel were investigated using differential centrifugation. The enzymes included cathepsin B, cathepsin L, ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and cathepsin D (a lysosomal marker), and alkaline phosphatase (a microsomal marker). The highest relative specific activities of each of the cathepsins and ?-N-acet-ylglucosaminidase were in the lysosomal fraction, and the highest relative specific activity

Takahiko Aoki; Ryuji Ueno

1997-01-01

195

Oxidative stability of sardine and mackerel lipids with reference to synergism between phospholipids and ?-tocopherol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between oxidative stability and the compositions of sardine and mackerel lipids were investigated in view of\\u000a possible synergism between phospholipids and?-tocopherol (?-Toc). The total lipids extracted from viscera were highly susceptible to autoxidation, compared with lipids of white and\\u000a red muscles and of skin. This seemed to be due to lower concentrations of?-Toc and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the tissue,

Toshiaki Ohshima; Yasuo Fujita; Chiaki Koizumi

1993-01-01

196

Effect of essential oils treatment on the frozen storage stability of chub mackerel fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bay leaf (BLO), thyme (TO), rosemary (RO), black seed (BSO), sage (SO), grape seed (GSO), flaxseed (FSO) and\\u000a lemon (LO) essential oil from vegetable extracted on lipid oxidation and some other quality parameter of frozen chub mackerel\\u000a during frozen storage at ?20°C were examined over a period of 11 months. Taste, odour, texture and overall acceptability of\\u000a control

Nuray Erkan; Gözde Bilen

2010-01-01

197

Population genetic structure of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus in the Northwestern Pacific inferred from microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Marine pelagic fishes are usually characterized by subtle but complex patterns of genetic differentiation, which are influenced by both historical process and contemporary gene flow. Genetic population differentiation of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, was examined across most of its range in the Northwestern Pacific by screening variation of eight microsatellite loci. Our genetic analysis detected a weak but significant genetic structure of chub mackerel, which was characterized by areas of gene flow and isolation by distance. Consistent with previous estimates of stock structure, we found genetic discontinuity between Japan and China samples. Local-scale pattern of genetic differentiation was observed between samples from the Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea and those from the East China Sea, which we ascribed to differences in spawning time and migratory behavior. Furthermore, the observed homogeneity among collections of chub mackerel from the East and South China Seas could be the result of an interaction between biological characteristics and marine currents. The present study underlies the importance of understanding the biological significance of genetic differentiation to establish management strategies for exploited fish populations. PMID:25366174

Cheng, Jiao; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Song, Na; Gao, Tian-Xiang

2015-02-01

198

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2011-07-01

199

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2010-07-01

200

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2014-07-01

201

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2012-07-01

202

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2013-07-01

203

Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome  

PubMed Central

We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

2014-01-01

204

Feeding Young Horses For Sound Development  

E-print Network

. However, horse owners should be alert for mold or insects in hay. Even slightly moldy hay should not be fed. Alfalfa hay can contain blister beetles, which produce cantharidin, a compound highly toxic to horses. Before purchasing alfalfa hay, horse... owners should ask hay producers whether steps were taken to avoid blister beetles. Blister beetles can be found in other hays, but they are found more often in alfalfa than in other roughage sources. Young foals nurse up to 70 times daily, indicating...

Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

2005-05-25

205

Copy number variation in the horse genome.  

PubMed

We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G; Lear, Teri L; Adelson, David L; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Raudsepp, Terje

2014-10-01

206

Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Puzzling Horse Parts!  

E-print Network

and interactions with horses require you to know what the parts of the horse are, where they're located, and how to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs Program, Virginia State, Petersburg. Publication 380-109 Knowing the parts of the horse and how

Liskiewicz, Maciej

207

Thiamin supplementation for exercising horses  

E-print Network

detected in either fecal thiamin concen- tration or total fecal thiamin excretion. Horses receiving treatment III did have significantly higher (P? ~ 05) amounts of thiamin unaccounted for in feces and urine. Mean heart and respiration rates were... exercise challenge. No treatment effect on heart rate was detected. Barborka et al. (1943) also found decreased work output in trained subjects fed diets containing . 65 mg thiamin/day. ", /ork output was measured on an electrodynamic brake bicycle...

Topliff, Donald Ray

1981-01-01

208

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2010-01-01

209

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2011-01-01

210

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2012-01-01

211

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2014-01-01

212

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2013-01-01

213

Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.  

PubMed

Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

2012-05-01

214

Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.  

PubMed

In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

2013-11-01

215

Evaluating the efficacy of trawl exclusion zones for preserving prey fields of Steller sea lions foraging on Atka mackerel. II. Site specific estimates to evaluate availability of  

E-print Network

fields of Steller sea lions foraging on Atka mackerel. II. Site specific estimates to evaluate availability of Atka mackerel production for sea lion consumption Ivonne Ortiz1,2 and Elizabeth Logerwell1 1 was sufficient to support energetic requirements of Steller sea lions foraging. The sites studied were Seguam

216

Postanaesthetic cerebral necrosis in five horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

After being anaesthetised for between one hour 40 minutes and seven hours, five adult horses developed acute neurological signs and extensive cerebrocortical necrosis. Four of them had had abdominal surgery for colic and one had had repeated orthopaedic interventions. Between five hours and seven days after the surgery, all five horses suddenly developed severe signs of a predominantly prosencephalic disturbance:

J. S. McKay; D. F. Kelly; M. Senior; R. S. Jones; T. W. Forest; A. de Lahunta; B. A. Summers

2002-01-01

217

Feeding value of pastures for horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding value of fresh pasture grazed in situ is determined by animal performance or productivity and could be relatively easily established for growing and lactating horses. Despite this, there is a lack of published information on the relative feeding value of different pastures and forages grazed by horses in New Zealand and the world. In addition, for adult breeding

SO Hoskin; EK Gee

2004-01-01

218

Influenza in horses, birds, and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza is a common and sometimes fatal disease of horses, humans, birds, and swine. In horses, recent advances in vaccination technology, coupled with new diagnostic tests and new information about the course of the disease, allows veterinarians to better diagnose, treat, and control this disease. Avian influenza has been prominent in the news with outbreaks in poultry in Asia and

Jonathan M. Naylor; Charles S. Rhodes; David G. Wilson

219

THE HORSE AND THE ARYAN DEBATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence or absence of the horse in the Indus-Sarasvati civilization has been a bone of contention for decades, especially in the context of the Aryan invasion theory. The argument is familiar: the Rig-Veda uses the word ashva over 200 times, ergo the Vedic society must have been full of horses, ergo the Harappan civilization, from which the noble animal

Michel Danino

220

Market Efficiency in Finnish Harness Horse Racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the efficiency of betting markets in harness horse racing during the transition from on-track betting to Internet gambling. In order to test the market efficiency hypotheses, an alternative testing approach to other grouping methods is introduced. The betting market efficiency is tested by using a database accumulated from the Finnish harness horse racing. The results imply that

Niko Suhonen

2011-01-01

221

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

222

Acceptability of Teff Hay by Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teff (Eragrostis tef) is a productive warm season annual grass. Because teff is relatively new to the horse industry in the US, horses unaccustomed to teff hay were used in two sets of two-choice preference tests comparing teff to alfalfa hay or teff to timothy hay. A second experiment used mature mares to compare voluntary dry matter intake of teff

Shawna McCown; Mieke Brummer; Susan Hayes; Gene Olson; S. Ray Smith; Laurie Lawrence

223

Alogomyces tanneri gen. et sp. nov., a chytrid in Lobulomycetales from horse manure.  

PubMed

The order Lobulomycetales contains chytrids from soil, freshwater and marine habitats; environmental DNA sampling has indicated that representatives of this order might be found in deep ocean localities. We describe Alogomyces tanneri as the first lobulomycetalean chytrid isolated from horse manure; A. tanneri is also the first species in the order to possess a rumposome in its zoospore. This species widens the range of habitats, ultrastructural variation and thallus morphology for Lobulomycetales. PMID:21828216

Simmons, D Rabern; Letcher, Peter M; Powell, Martha J; Longcore, Joyce E

2012-01-01

224

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.  

PubMed

Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

Weese, J Scott

2004-12-01

225

Laryngeal reinnervation in the horse.  

PubMed

Left laryngeal hemiplegia is a frustrating condition for the equine athlete and equine veterinarian. Treatment for the past 30 years has centered on the prosthetic laryngoplasty ("tie-back") with or without ventriculectomy. Laryngeal reinnervation has been used successfully in people and has been shown experimentally to benefit affected horses. This article reviews equine laryngeal reinnervation using the nerve muscle pedicle graft and describes the surgical technique, its complications, and the follow-up in 146 cases treated over the past 10 years. Also discussed is ongoing research into stimulation studies to improve the success of equine laryngeal reinnervation. PMID:12747668

Fulton, Ian C; Stick, John A; Derksen, Fredrik J

2003-04-01

226

Feeding the Arena Performance Horse  

E-print Network

be improved by adding fat to a high-carbohydrate diet. With proper adaptation time, fat supplementa- tion can influence the amount of stored muscle energy in the form of muscle glycogen, which is the fuel supply for anaerobic work. A horse must take in energy.... Grain feeds provide carbohydrates that can be either used directly as glucose or stored in the mus- cles and liver in the form of glycogen, to be used during all-out exercise performance. Ideally, cereal grains should be processed so the starches in them...

Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Scott, Brett D.

2003-11-04

227

Periocular neurofibrosarcoma in a horse.  

PubMed

A periocular neurofibrosarcoma was debulked and treated with intralesional cisplatin in a 5-year-old Thoroughbred mare. The horse presented with a 1-year history of a large slowly progressing subcutaneous mass over the right supraorbital process. The mass was surgically debulked, and intralesional cisplatin (1.0 mg/cm3) was injected in 3 doses at 2 weeks, 5 weeks, and 8 weeks postoperatively. No recurrence was noted over a 15-month follow-up period. Histopathology of the mass indicated neurofibrosarcoma. PMID:11906658

Strubbe, D T

2001-12-01

228

The daily catch: Flight altitude and diving behavior of northern gannets feeding on Atlantic mackerel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predators utilize a variety of behavioral techniques to capture elusive prey. Behavioral flexibility is essential among generalist predators that pursue a diversity of prey types, and capture efficiency is expected to be intense during the breeding season for parents that engage in self- and offspring-provisioning. We studied the foraging behavior of parental northern gannets in the northwestern Atlantic (Gulf of St. Lawrence) when they were feeding on Atlantic mackerel almost exclusively. Data-loggers recorded short (mean duration: 6.3 s), high speed (inferred vertical speeds of up to 54.0 m*s- 1, equivalent to 194 km*h- 1), and shallow dives (mean depth: 4.2 m; maximum: 9.2 m). Dives tended to occur in bouts, varying between 0.3 and 4.6 per hour (mean = 1.6). During foraging, overall flight heights ranged from 0 to 70 m, with no clear preferences for height. Most plunge-dives were initiated at flight altitudes of 11-60 m (mean ± SE = 37.1 ± 2.8 m; range 3-105 m except for 1 of 162 dives that was initiated at the sea surface). Dive depth and flight altitude at plunge-dive initiation were positively and significantly correlated, though it appears that low flight altitudes were sufficient to reach dive depths at which mackerel were present. Almost all dives were V-shaped indicating that a high acceleration attack is the most effective strategy for gannets feeding on large rapid-swimming prey such as mackerel that owing to thermal preferences does not occur below the thermocline and are thus well available and essentially trapped in the water depths exploited by northern gannets.

Garthe, Stefan; Guse, Nils; Montevecchi, William A.; Rail, Jean-François; Grégoire, François

2014-01-01

229

EXOTICPEST ALERT Horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Desch. & Dem.  

E-print Network

EXOTICPEST ALERT Horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Desch. & Dem. (Lepidoptera in the premature defoliation of many horse chestnut trees. Horse chestnuts are widely used in prominent amenity, becoming less frequent northwards. Occasionally a horse chestnut tree is seen with its leaflets browned

230

Aldosterone plasma concentration in horses with heart valve insufficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans and small animals, heart disease can lead to an increase in aldosterone, and the aldosterone level correlates with the severity of the heart disease. In horses similar interactions may be possible and may lead to an increase in aldosterone in horses with heart valve insufficiencies.In a prospective clinical trial eight healthy horses (control group) and 40 horses with

Heidrun Gehlen; Till Sundermann; Karl Rohn; Peter Stadler

2008-01-01

231

Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

232

Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.  

PubMed

Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. PMID:25376504

Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

2015-01-24

233

Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.  

PubMed

Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human. PMID:15458726

Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary

2004-11-01

234

Pheochromocytoma in the Horse and Measurement of Norepinephrine Levels in Horses  

PubMed Central

Ten cases of pheochromocytoma in horses were obtained from the literature and a computer search of medical records. The clinical, laboratory and pathological features of pheochromocytoma in horses were reviewed. Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine secreting tumor which tends to occur in older horses without breed or sex predisposition. It is usually unilateral adrenal medullary in location and benign. Malignancy was present in one horse. The most common clinical signs were sweating, tachycardia, tachypnea, muscle tremor and anxiety; however the tumor may be asymptomatic. Clinical signs were nonspecific and could be confused with other diseases, especially abdominal pain. Hyperglycemia is a consistent finding. Venous norepinephrine levels were measured in normal horses. Norepinephrine measurements may prove to be a diagnostic aid in horses with pheochromocytoma. PMID:17422350

Yovich, J. V.; Horney, F. D.; Hardee, G. E.

1984-01-01

235

Ocean Planet: Ocean Market  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on foods, materials and medicines that comes form marine life, how these resources are harvested and processed and the impacts of fisheries. Students identify and classify consumer goods from the ocean and calculate their cost. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

236

Oceans Alive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

Lynn Rosentrater

237

Levels of heavy metals in canned bonito, sardines, and mackerel produced in Turkey.  

PubMed

Concentrations of selected metals were determined using ICP-MS in canned bonito, sardines and mackerel commercialized in Turkey. Thirty samples and two different brands were sampled for each fish species. The minimum and maximum concentrations of trace metals in canned bonito, sardines and mackerel were found as 0.000-34.742, 0.000-89.015, 0.000-28.725 mg/kg for iron, 2.388-26.620, 10.930-41.340, 4.778-29.270 mg/kg for zinc, 0.331-1.548, 0.599-2.242, 0.336-2.884 mg/kg for copper, 0.000-0.065, 0.000-0.113, 0.000-0.115 mg/kg for cadmium, 0.000-0.190, 0.000-0.158, 0.000-0.385 mg/kg for tin, 0.000-0.111, 0.000-0.223, 0.000-0.208 mg/kg for mercury and 0.000-3.046, 0.000-2.875, 0.000-3.529 mg/kg for lead, respectively. These levels are similar those found in other studies. Although the samples have concentrations within permissible limits for Zn, Cu, Sn and Hg, some of them contained Fe, Cd and Pb above these limits. Periodical controls of metals in canned fish are essential both to protect human health and to provide data on this subject. PMID:21120704

Mol, Suhendan

2011-11-01

238

Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - 15 Steps to Minimizing Theft of Horses and Equipment  

E-print Network

of horses, trucks, trailers, saddles and other tack. Horses and equipment are sto- len from barns, farms, pastures, boarding and training facilities, competitive events?even from backyards. Tracking stolen horses can be dif_f_icult because theft re- ports..., expensive headstalls and other valuable items. While it will not prevent theft, locking the tack room does deter it by increasing the time a thief must be on your property. Make horse and livestock trailers inac- cessible, hide them from view and be able...

Gibbs, Pete G.

2003-09-26

239

Ultrastructure of atrial and ventricular myocardium in the pike Esox lucius L. and mackerel Scomber scombrus L. (Pisces)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrial and ventricular muscle in the pike and mackerel hearts consists of narrow, branching cells. The atrial cells in the two species are similar whereas the ventricular cells differ. The sarcolemma is attached to the Z and M lines of the sarcomere. Intercalated discs are common, and the transverse parts display desmosomes and intermediate junctions. Nexuses are uncommon and only

Bjørn Midttun

1980-01-01

240

FAST CONTINUOUS SWIMMING OF TWO PELAGIC PREDATORS, SAITHE (POLLACHIUS VIRENS) AND MACKEREL (SCOMBER SCOMBRUS): A KINEMATIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Straight, forward, unrestrained swimming behaviour, with periodic lateral oscillations of body and tailfin, was described and compared for saithe and mackerel. A method was developed for kinematic analysis of forward motion, lateral displacements and body curvature, based on a Fourier-series approach. The dimensionless kinematic quantities showed relatively small varia- tions over large ranges of swimming speeds. The speed range

J. J. VIDELER; F. HESS

241

Free amino acids and peptides as related to antioxidant properties in protein hydrolysates of mackerel ( Scomber austriasicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mackerel (Scomber austriasicus) hydrolysates were prepared by an autolytic process and accelerated hydrolysis with a commercial enzyme, Protease N. Changes in the levels and compositions of free amino acids and small peptides during hydrolysis were investigated to find out their relationships with antioxidant activities. Increased levels of free amino acids, anserine, carnosine and other peptides of the hydrolysates obtained with

Hui-Chun Wu; Hua-Ming Chen; Chyuan-Yuan Shiau

2003-01-01

242

76 FR 10780 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...subarea and Eastern Aleutian district (BS/EAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island...allowance of the 2011 Atka mackerel TAC, in the BS/ EAI, allocated to vessels participating...BSAI trawl limited access fishery in the BS/EAI. After the effective dates of...

2011-02-28

243

Abundance of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, in the Southeastern United States Based on Charterboat CPUE Data, 1982-85  

E-print Network

on Charterboat CPUE Data, 1982-85 BARBARA JAYNE PALKO, LEE TRENT, and HAROLD A. BRUSHER Introduction The Spanish commercial and recreational fisheries in the U.S. south Atlantic and Gulf of Mex ico (Trent and Anthony, 1979 Fishery Management Councils (1983, 1985). Basic to the formulation and use of the mackerel FMP are various

244

"Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

2013-01-01

245

A Song for the Horse Nation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website accompanies an exhibition at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) George Gustav Heye Center in New York City, and presents "the epic story of the horse's influence on American Indian tribes from the 1600s to the present." Divided into five thematic sections, the exhibition draws on the riches of NMAI, using both historical objects, such as drawings, hoof ornaments, beaded bags, hide robes, and paintings, as well as new pieces by contemporary Native artists. For example, in the "Native Arts & the Horse", 1840-1900 section, visitors can see images of bridles, saddles and saddle blankets, and other clothing, along with photos of these being used and worn. The section "The Horse Nation Lives On" includes works by contemporary Native American artists, such as a painting by Jim Yellowhawk (Cheyenne River Lakota, b. 1958), Lakota Horse Mask, 2008, and beaded rawhide bags made by Jackie Bread (Piikuni, b. 1960) in 2009.

246

Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in horses.  

PubMed

Fecal samples were collected to establish the apparent prevalence of Clostridium difficile shedding in Standardbred and Thoroughbred racehorses housed at 4 racetracks and 2 breeding facilities, and in horses admitted to a referral large animal clinic. Forty-one (7.59%) of 540 racetrack horses, seven (5.83%) of 120 breeding farm horses, and four (4.88%) out of 82 horses admitted to the referral clinic were culture-positive for C. difficile. An overall fecal culture prevalence of 7.01% for C. difficile was identified in 742 fecal samples. PCR-ribotyping and toxin gene identification was performed and seventeen 17 PCR-ribotypes were identified among the 52 C. difficile isolates. PMID:21570780

Medina-Torres, Carlos E; Weese, J Scott; Staempfli, Henry R

2011-08-26

247

Paraguayan Horse Tack and Ranch Hand  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Paraguayan cowboys often make their own rawhide tack. The cowboy in this picture is braiding rawhide tied to a tree. The cowboys' quarters can be seen in the background. The typical ranch horse in Paraguay is the

248

Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

McIntosh, Phyllis

2014-01-01

249

Discrimination reversal learning in yearling horses  

E-print Network

species studied include opposums (James, 1960), rats (Dufort, 1953& Greenway, 1975& Khavari, 1967), prairie dogs (Cain, 1975) and bats (Ellins, 1971) ~ All mammalian species have demonstrated progressive reduction in trials and errors to learning... differences in learning ability of horses would provide very useful information for producers and trainers in assessing an individual animal's ultimate potential. Thorough knowledge of the learning mechanism in the horse would aid in the development...

Fiske, Jeanna Chastain

1976-01-01

250

9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

2012-01-01

251

9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

2014-01-01

252

9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

2010-01-01

253

9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

2011-01-01

254

9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

2013-01-01

255

9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section 93.320...Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central...

2014-01-01

256

9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section 93.320...Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central...

2011-01-01

257

9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section 93.320...Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central...

2012-01-01

258

Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.  

PubMed

While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse. PMID:25226963

Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

2014-01-01

259

Diversity in horse enthusiasts with respect to horse welfare: an explorative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reduced level of welfare of horses is related to management factors, such as low forage feeding, short feeding time, social isolation and lack of unrestrained exercise. It has been assumed that welfare problems can be reduced and\\/or partly prevented by improving the knowledge and skills of horse enthusiasts. It has also been assumed that to improve the provision of

E. K. Visser; E. E. C. van Wijk-Jansen

260

HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907  

E-print Network

can increase its heart rate 5-6 times resting levels, both advantages for emergency situations. When have a tremendous capacity for exercise and activity for long periods of time and quickly recover from exercise when they are healthy and fit. The spleen of the horse can hold new red blood cells and the horse

261

Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Horses Wear Clothes, Too!  

E-print Network

to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs-3 Learner Outcomes 1. Identify equipment used for different types of work with horses. 2. Explain how different tack allows horses to do different jobs. Science Standard(s): Life Science

Liskiewicz, Maciej

262

Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth A Horse of a Different Color!  

E-print Network

Magazines or books with examples of horse colors and markings How many markings can you identify? #12 Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State, Petersburg. Publication 380-104 How do you tell the difference between horses? If you go into a herd, how do you know which one you're looking for? Introduction

Liskiewicz, Maciej

263

Ontogeny of anti-predator behavior in hatchery-reared jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus larvae and juveniles: patchiness formation, swimming capability, and interaction with jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory rearing and behavioral observations of larval and juvenile jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus were conducted to elucidate their life-history traits with emphasis on the interaction with the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Jack mackerel were raised from naturally spawned fertilized eggs and they attained 10.3±0.7 (mean±standard deviation) mm\\u000a in body length (BL) by 30 days post hatching (dph) and 26.6±1.8 mm

Reiji Masuda

2006-01-01

264

[Molecular genetic studies of the "Einsiedler" horse population].  

PubMed

In this study it was investigated whether the "Einsiedler" warmblood horse, a historically old horse population from central Switzerland (Abbey of Einsiedeln), is distinguishable from micellaneous horse breeds, using molecular genetic techniques. The breeding history of Einsiedler horses is characterised by systematic line breeding through the dams. Therefore, two Einsiedler dam lines (N = 28), going back to the middle of the 19th century according to pedigree entries, were the focus of the survey. Random samples of diverse warmblood horse populations, but also samples from more distinct types of horse breeds, served as comparison populations (N = 52). Variation in the mitochondrial genome appeared to be only partially informative to demarcate the studied horses, as horses of distinct breeds may share identical mtDNA sequence fragments. Both dam lines revealed haplotypes commonly found in Iberian horse breeds. This is to take as an indication on the genetic origin of Einsiedler horses. Furthermore, the Klima dam line held a homologous mtDNA sequence fragment with E. ferus przewalskii. Therefore, this seems to be a phylogenetically old haplotype. The analysis of microsatellite loci revealed that horses from the two Einsiedler dam lines were in fact distinguishable from more distinct types of horses, but not from closely related European warmblood horse breeds and English thoroughbred. PMID:15929600

Riggenbach, Ch; Stranzinger, G; Poncet, P A; Glowatzki, M L; Muntwyler, J; Gaillard, C; Rieder, S

2005-05-01

265

Amino acid and protein changes in tilapia and Spanish mackerel after irradiation and storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some amino acids in tilapia decreased while some others increased when subjected to doses up to 10.0 kGy. However, 10 kGy contributed to a significant reduction in all amino acids of Spanish mackerel. Variations in amino acid contents continued during post-irradiation storage with no consistant trend of increase or decrease. SDS-PAGE of protein from both fish showed 27 bands of subunits with MW < 14.0-94.0 KD. Isoelectric focusing patterns of sarcoplasmic protein of unirradiated and irradiated fish showed no charge in the number of bands, while some changes were observed in the intensities of the anodic and cathodic bands depending on isoelectric points (pIs).

Al-Kahtani, Hassan A.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Atia, Mohamed; Bajaber, Adnan S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; El-Mojaddidi, Mohamed A.

1998-01-01

266

Ocean Circulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses ocean circulation. First it explains what ocean currents are and what causes them. Then it explains other aspects of the global conveyor belt such as gyres and ocean-atmosphere interactions.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

2011-08-09

267

Effect of Concentrate Form on Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Horses  

E-print Network

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common amongst equine athletes of various disciplines and linked to decreased performance. Prevalence among racehorses has been reported to be over 90%, performance horses at 60%, and endurances horses...

Huth, Lindsey

2012-02-14

268

15. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the trail crossing the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the trail crossing the Yankee Horse Railroad bed. Facing south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

269

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...custody of or responsibility for any horse detained by APHIS for further examination, testing, or the taking of evidence...walking, grooming, etc., for such detained horse: Provided...application, or injection of any drugs or other medication for...

2014-01-01

270

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...custody of or responsibility for any horse detained by APHIS for further examination, testing, or the taking of evidence...walking, grooming, etc., for such detained horse: Provided...application, or injection of any drugs or other medication for...

2011-01-01

271

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...custody of or responsibility for any horse detained by APHIS for further examination, testing, or the taking of evidence...walking, grooming, etc., for such detained horse: Provided...application, or injection of any drugs or other medication for...

2012-01-01

272

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...custody of or responsibility for any horse detained by APHIS for further examination, testing, or the taking of evidence...walking, grooming, etc., for such detained horse: Provided...application, or injection of any drugs or other medication for...

2013-01-01

273

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...custody of or responsibility for any horse detained by APHIS for further examination, testing, or the taking of evidence...walking, grooming, etc., for such detained horse: Provided...application, or injection of any drugs or other medication for...

2010-01-01

274

Article original Exercise-related parameters of horses competing  

E-print Network

Article original Exercise-related parameters of horses competing in show jumping events ranging — The present study investigated cardiovascular, metabolic and hematological respons- es in 14 horses participating in show jumping competitions. In order to compare physiological re- sponses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Activity of group-transported horses during onboard rest stops  

E-print Network

Activity of group-transported horses was evaluated during onboard rest stops to determine if horses derive meaningful rest. A single-deck semi-trailer separated into three compartments was used for all shipments. In Experiment One, twelve video...

Keen, Heidi A.

2007-04-25

276

Ocean Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of mammals that live in the ocean? First, you will need to use the Ocean Mammals Table 1. This website is here for you to learn about ocean mammals. Mammals 2. This website will help you learn about the different mammals that live in the ocean. Ocean Mammals 3. Here is some information about how oil spills effect animal skin in the ocean. Oil Spills 4. This link ...

Miss Teschner

2011-04-06

277

Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs  

E-print Network

Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs: an in vivo-in vitro study geldings and three male beagle dogs, following intravenous doses of racemic FPF (1 mg/kg in horses), R(-)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs), and S(+)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.  

PubMed

In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all. PMID:22767092

Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

2012-12-01

279

Histamine inhalation challenge in normal horses and in horses with small airway disease.  

PubMed Central

A histamine inhalation challenge (HIC) procedure was developed to assess hyperreactive states in horses. Following clinical evaluation, percutaneous lung biopsies were performed on nine light breed mares aged 6 to 15 years. Five horses, with normal small airways, were classified as group A and four subjects with small airway disease (SAD) lesions formed group B. Pulmonary mechanics parameters were monitored following an aerosol of 0.9% saline and every 5 min for up to 30 min after HIC with 0.5% w/v of histamine diphosphate, administered through a face mask for 2.5 min. Tidal volume (VT) and airflow (V) values were obtained with a pneumotachograph. Transpulmonary pressure (delta Ppl) was measured by the esophageal balloon catheter method. Dynamic compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (RL), end expiratory work of breathing (EEW) and respiratory rate (f) were calculated by a pulmonary mechanics computer. Group A horses had increases in RL, and decreases in Cdyn whereas horses in group B were hyperreactive and showed greater changes in EEW, Cdyn, and delta Ppl but with a relatively lower variation of RL. One horse in clinical remission from SAD, but with a high biopsy score (group B), and one clinically normal horse belonging to group A showed marked hyperreactivity as shown by increases in EEW, maximum change in delta Ppl and RL and decreases in Cdyn. These results suggest that the HIC described can be used as a method to investigate airway hyperreactivity and SAD in horses. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1889039

Doucet, M Y; Vrins, A A; Ford-Hutchinson, A W

1991-01-01

280

FIELD STUDY OF HOOF WALL PROBLEMS IN UNSHOD WORKING HORSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 100 native breed unshod working horses was examined for hoof wall problems. The diagnosis of hoof wall defects was performed by close visual observation and via physical examina- tion. The location, extent and types of defects were then determined and recorded. Out of 100 horses, 124 hoof wall defects were noted in ninety working horses. The number

A. S. BIGHAM; A. N. TABATABAEI

281

75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INFORMATION CONTACT: Ramona DeLorme, Wild Horse and Burro Administrative...authority of 43 CFR part 1784, the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and...p.m.) 2:45 p.m.--Animal Welfare 3:35...

2010-05-13

282

A zoonotic genotype of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is the first report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an equid species. Feces from 195 horses from four locations in Colombia were examined for E. bieneusi by PCR. Of these, 21 horses (10.8 percent) were found positive for E. bieneusi. The prevalence of E. bieneusi in horses <1 yr of age was signif...

283

body condition score Evaluating your miniature horse's body  

E-print Network

is the mainstay of a horse's diet, but horses may also need a grain mix (concentrate) to supplement their energy requirements as well as help balance for other nutrients such as protein, vitamins and minerals. When selecting horse tends to get fat, try a supplement that is designed to balance nutrients for the forage you

284

Orthopaedic Health, Conformation and Longevity in Riding Horses  

E-print Network

Lina Jönsson Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal Breeding a central role for animal welfare, sport performance and horse owner economy. Routine registration of health of health and conformation at the Riding Horse Quality Test (RHQT) of 8238 tested 4-5-year-old horses

285

Impacts of feral horse use on rangelands and riparian areas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feral (wild) horse impacts on rangelands and riparian areas are largely unknown. The impacts of feral horses are often indistinguishable from domestic livestock impacts because livestock grazing occurs across most horse herd management areas. However, the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge has a lar...

286

Impacts of feral horse use on rangelands and riparian areas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feral (wild) horse impacts on rangelands and riparian areas are largely unknown. The impacts of feral horses are often indistinguishable from domestic livestock impacts because livestock grazing occurs across most horse herd management areas. However, the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge has a large...

287

Standing enucleation in the horse: A report of 5 cases  

PubMed Central

Enucleation was performed in 5 horses under local anesthesia and sedation with the horse standing. Minimal hemorrhage occurred during the surgical procedure, and there were no other reported complications. Standing enucleation is a surgery that is safe to perform in horses. PMID:17542371

Hewes, Christina A.; Keoughan, G. Curry; Gutierrez–Nibeyro, Santiago

2007-01-01

288

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO ENCEPHALITOZOON CUNICULI IN HORSES IN BRAZIL.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Encephalitozoon cuniculi has been associated with natural cases of abortion and still-birth in horses. However, little is known abut the prevalence of this parasite in horses. We examined serva from 559 horses from Brazil for antibodies to E. cuniculi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody ...

289

Short communication Toxicokinetics of ergovaline in the horse after  

E-print Network

Short communication Toxicokinetics of ergovaline in the horse after an intravenous administration in four gelding horses. Plasma ergovaline concentrations were measured by high performance liquid. According to the toxicological data previously reported in the horse, and in spite of the very low dose

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Comparison of Sarcocystis neurona isolates derived from horse neural tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis neurona is a protozoan parasite that can cause neurological deficits in infected horses. The route of transmission is by fecal–oral transfer of sporocysts from opossums. However, the species identity and the lifecycle are not completely known. In this study, Sarcocystis merozoites from eight isolates obtained from Michigan horses were compared to S. neurona from a California horse (UCD1), Sarcocystis

L. S Mansfield; H. C Schott; A. J Murphy; M. G Rossano; S. M Tanhauser; J. S Patterson; K Nelson; S. L Ewart; J. V Marteniuk; D. D Bowman; J. B Kaneene

2001-01-01

291

Monensin poisoning in horses — an international incident  

PubMed Central

Several hundred Michigan horses were accidentally exposed to varying levels of monensin. Severity of effects was proportional to the level of feed contamination; sudden death resulted on at least two premises. Acute signs of cardiovascular impairment occurred on one premises having received feed containing over 200 grams of monensin per tonne. Gross and histological postmortem lesions consisted of acute myocardial necrosis. Although only circumstantially confirmed, investigations led to the suspicion that the source of poisoning was a ration formulation error in a feedmill in southwestern Ontario. Concern over possible undetected heart damage in exposed horses led to clinical monitoring on one farm over a period of several months. Electrocardiographic and serum enzyme monitoring were used soon after the incident to implicate exposure in some horses; they were poor prognostic indicators. Applicable legislation, the cooperative role of government departments, and legal implications relative to potential prosecution and lawsuits arising from sale of contaminated feed between Canada and the USA are summarized. PMID:17423238

Doonan, Gordon R.; Brown, Christopher M.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Brooks, David B.; Ulmanis, Eugene G.; Slanker, Michael R.

1989-01-01

292

An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

2015-02-01

293

Immunoreactive changes in pituitary FSH and LH cells during seasonal reproductive and spawning cycles of female chub mackerel Scomber japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological functions of pituitary gonadotropins (GtHs) are well established in higher vertebrates, whereas those in\\u000a teleosts are still poorly understood. To describe the role of GtHs during gonadal development of female chub mackerel Scomber japonicus, changes in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells were investigated immunohistochemically\\u000a during the seasonal reproductive and spawning cycles. FSH and LH cells

Mitsuo Nyuji; Tetsuro Shiraishi; Sethu Selvaraj; Vu Van In; Hajime Kitano; Akihiko Yamaguchi; Kumiko Okamoto; Shizumasa Onoue; Akio Shimizu; Michiya Matsuyama

294

Y-Chromosome Analysis in Retuertas Horses  

PubMed Central

Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects. PMID:23741439

Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vega-Pla, José Luis; Backström, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

2013-01-01

295

Y-chromosome analysis in Retuertas horses.  

PubMed

Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects. PMID:23741439

Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vega-Pla, José Luis; Backström, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

2013-01-01

296

Identification and Inhibition of Histamine-Forming Bacteria in Blue Scad (Decapterus maruadsi) and Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus).  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the differences in histamine accumulation between blue scad and chub mackerel and methods of inhibiting histamine-forming bacteria and controlling histamine accumulation in fish. The free histidine contents in blue scad and chub mackerel were 1.45 and 2.75 mg/g, respectively. The histamine-forming bacteria isolated from them were identified as Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter braakii, and Enterobacter aerogenes using 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the VITEK 2 Compact system, and MALDI-TOF MS. The histamine-producing capacities of C. freundii, C. braakii, and E. aerogenes were 470, 1,057, and 4,213 mg/liter, respectively, after culture at 37°C for 48 h. Among the different antimicrobials and preservatives tested, potassium sorbate and sodium diacetate effectively inhibited the histamine-forming bacteria and their histamine production. After chub mackerel was dipped into 0.5% potassium sorbate or sodium diacetate, its histamine content increased more slowly at room temperature. Therefore, a potassium sorbate or sodium diacetate dipping treatment could effectively control histamine accumulation in fish. PMID:25710155

Hu, Jia-Wei; Cao, Min-Jie; Guo, Shun-Cai; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Su, Wen-Jin; Liu, Guang-Ming

2015-02-01

297

Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

2011-03-01

298

Canada's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview of Canadanain oceans outlines the characteristics of the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic marine ecosystems. After a brief look at Canada's ocean environments from a global perspective, additional chapters provide an overview of the physical properties, fauna and human impacts associated with Canada's oceans. For each ocean there is information on water properties, currents, tides, and the ocean floor. Ocean floor information includes descriptions of ocean basins, submarine ridges, continental shelves and sedimentation while current information includes the causes, effects, and names of the currents. There is an explanation of the cause of tides and how they affect each shoreline.

299

Horseless Horse Projects I don't own a horse, but . . .  

E-print Network

Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, age at least two horse films or video tapes. Name them. F. Give at least two visual presentations or speeches

Liskiewicz, Maciej

300

Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered. PMID:15595214

Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

2004-01-01

301

Hydrodynamics of caudal fin locomotion by chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus (Scombridae).  

PubMed

As members of the derived teleost fish clade Scombridae, mackerel exhibit high-performance aquatic locomotion via oscillation of the homocercal forked caudal fin. We present the first quantitative flow visualization of the wake of a scombrid fish, chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (20-26 cm fork length, FL), swimming steadily in a recirculating flow tank at cruising speeds of 1.2 and 2.2FL s(-1). Thrust was calculated from wake measurements made separately in the horizontal (frontal) plane and vertical (parasagittal) planes using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and compared with drag measurements obtained by towing the same specimens of S. japonicus post mortem. Patterns of flow indicated that the wake consisted of a series of linked elliptical vortex rings, each with central jet flow. The length of the minor axis (height) of the vortex rings was approximately equal to caudal fin span; the length of the major ring axis was dependent on swimming speed and was up to twice the magnitude of ring height. Profiles of wake velocity components were similar to theoretical profiles of vortex rings. Lift, thrust and lateral forces were calculated from DPIV measurements. At 1.2FL s(-1), lift forces measured relative to the X axis were low in magnitude (-1+/-1 mN, mean +/- S.D., N=20) but oriented at a mean angle of 6 degrees to the body axis. Reaction forces tend to rotate the fish about its center of mass, tipping the head down. Thus, the homocercal caudal fin of S. japonicus functions asymmetrically in the vertical plane. Pitching moments may be balanced anteriorly via lift generation by the pectoral fins. Thrust estimates for the two smallest fish based on DPIV analysis were not significantly different from drag measurements made by towing those same animals. At a speed of 1.2FL s(-1), thrust magnitude was 11+/-6 mN (mean +/- S.D, N=40). Lateral force magnitudes were approximately double thrust magnitudes (22+/-6 mN, mean +/- S.D., N=20), resulting in a mean mechanical performance ratio (thrust/total force) of 0.32 at 1.2FL s(-1). An increase in speed by a factor of 1.8 resulted in a mean increase in thrust by a factor of 4.4, a mean increase in lateral forces by a factor of 3, no change in the magnitude of lift produced and an increase in mean mechanical performance to 0.42. The relatively high lateral forces generated during swimming may be a necessary consequence of force production via propagated waves of bending. PMID:12042330

Nauen, Jennifer C; Lauder, George V

2002-06-01

302

Original article Chromosome analysis of horse oocytes  

E-print Network

Original article Chromosome analysis of horse oocytes cultured in vitro* WA King1 M Desjardins2 KP%) and fixed for chromosome analysis. To determine the time required for nuclear maturation, oocytes were fixed of culture and MII was reached by 24 h. To examine the chromosome features, an additional 113 oocyte- cumulus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

Theory of the Trojan-Horse Method  

E-print Network

The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-form distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two-body and three-body cross sections becomes very transparent. Applications of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed. It is of special interest that electron screening corrections are negligible due...

Baur, G; Baur, Gerhard; Typel, Stefan

2004-01-01

304

Theory of the Trojan-Horse Method  

E-print Network

The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S-factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-form distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two-body and three-body cross sections becomes very transparent. The appearing Trojan-Horse integrals are studied in detail.

Typel, S

2003-01-01

305

The pharmacokinetics of glycopyrrolate in Standardbred horses.  

PubMed

The disposition of plasma glycopyrrolate (GLY) is characterized by a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model after a 1-mg bolus intravenous dose to Standardbred horses. The median (range) plasma clearance (Clp), volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1 ), volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss), and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-inf ) were 16.7 (13.6-21.7) mL/min/kg, 0.167 (0.103-0.215) L/kg, 3.69 (0.640-38.73) L/kg, and 2.58 (2.28-2.88) ng*h/mL, respectively. Renal clearance of GLY was characterized by a median (range) of 2.65 (1.92-3.59) mL/min/kg and represented approximately 11.3-24.7% of the total plasma clearance. As a result of these studies, we conclude that the majority of GLY is cleared through hepatic mechanisms because of the limited extent of renal clearance of GLY and absence of plasma esterase activity on GLY metabolism. Although the disposition of GLY after intravenous administration to Standardbred horses was similar to that in Thoroughbred horses, differences in some pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were evident. Such differences could be attributed to breed differences or study conditions. The research could provide valuable data to support regulatory guidelines for GLY in Standardbred horses. PMID:24325462

Rumpler, M J; Colahan, P; Sams, R A

2014-06-01

306

Investigating the origins of horse domestication.  

PubMed

Before the development of firearms, the horse was crucial to warfare and, before the invention of the steam engine, it was the fastest and most reliable form of land transport. It is crucial to the life of nomadic pastoralists on the Eurasian steppe and played a major role in the evolution of human society during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Understanding the human past requires knowledge of the origins and development of horse husbandry. The problem of being able to identify the early stages of horse domestication is one that many researchers have grappled with for the most part unsuccessfully. Until recently the most important criteria used had been that of increased relative abundance. That is, around 3500 BC, in some parts of Eurasia, there was an apparent increase in the proportions of horse bones and teeth found in archaeological deposits by comparison with preceding periods. However, other evidence suggests that the observed increase during the Copper Age could be explained as well, or even better, by increased hunting rather than by domestication. PMID:11314236

Levine, M A

1999-04-01

307

Potentially Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses, Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia sp. DNA was amplified from 4 Ehrlichia-seroreactive horses from Mérida, Nicaragua. Sequencing of 16S rDNA, sodB, and groEL genes indicated that the bacterium is most likely a novel Ehrlichia species. The tick vector and the potential for canine and human infection remain unknown. PMID:25625228

O’Nion, Victoria L.; Montilla, Hernan J.; Qurollo, Barbara A.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Tornquist, Susan J.

2015-01-01

308

Intrathoracic pulsion diverticulum in a horse.  

PubMed

This is a report of a 12-year-old Swedish Warmblood gelding with a ruptured esophageal pulsion diverticulum associated with atypical clinical signs of colic and septic peritonitis on presentation. The location of this diverticulum at the hiatus was unique and was most likely responsible for the unusual presentation of this horse. PMID:23024389

Yamout, Sawsan Z; Magdesian, K Gary; Tokarz, Debra A; le Jeune, Sarah S

2012-04-01

309

Use of a 3-D dispersion model for calculation of distribution of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities.  

PubMed

The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m³). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority--80%-90%--detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

2014-04-01

310

Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities  

PubMed Central

The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

2014-01-01

311

Microvascular circulation of the cecum in horses.  

PubMed

The microvascular circulation of the cecum was studied in 15 adult horses, using microangiography and light microscopy combined with gross studies and scanning electron microscopy of vascular replicas. After heparinization, the horses were euthanatized and the cecum was transected at the cecocolic junction. Blood was flushed free of the circulation with isotonic NaCl and the cecal lumen was slightly distended. In 6 horses, the vascular system was injected with a modified radiopaque medium and evaluated radiographically. Sections evaluated radiographically were also prepared for histologic examination by standard methods. Eight horses were injected with 1 of 2 types of plastics and studied grossly or by scanning electron microscopy. In 1 additional horse, the lateral and medial arteries were injected with different colored plastic for gross studies. The lateral and medial cecal arteries appear to supply the respective areas of the cecum with minimal mixing of the 2 circulations. The major vascular supply to the cecal apex appeared to be through the medial cecal artery. Both the lateral and medial cecal arteries gave rise to cecal retia, which formed a mesh-like network around the respective veins. Vessels from these retia supplied the cecal tissue and the cecal lymph nodes. The continuation of the retia was through long terminal arteries that coursed around the circumference in the submucosa, forming an extensive submucosal plexus. This plexus supplied both the mucosa, and the tunica muscularis and serosa. Vessels within the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the muscularis externa ran parallel to the muscle fibers, and consequently, perpendicular to each other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1952348

Dart, A J; Snyder, J R; Julian, D; Hinds, D M

1991-09-01

312

Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse

Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

2011-01-01

313

CHARMM: The Biomolecular Simulation Program B. R. BROOKS,1* C. L. BROOKS III,2,3* A. D. MACKERELL, Jr.,4* L. NILSSON,5* R. J. PETRELLA,6,7* B. ROUX,8* Y. WON,9*  

E-print Network

CHARMM: The Biomolecular Simulation Program B. R. BROOKS,1* C. L. BROOKS III,2,3* A. D. MACKERELL-mail: brbrooks@helix.nih.gov or C. L. Brooks III; e-mail: brookscl@umich.edu or A. D. MacKerell, Jr.; e

Caflisch, Amedeo

314

Production and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysate from Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel).  

PubMed

Fishery waste and by-products are valuable sources of raw material for recovery of antioxidant and bioactive peptides. Due to the increased demand for protein hydrolysates with antioxidative properties by various sectors of consumable food, health care and pharmaceutical industries, the present study focused in the production of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic digestion from the backbone of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluated its antioxidant potential. The observed results of the degree of hydrolysis suggest that the rapid phase of proteolytic cleavage was occurred in the first 60 minutes of incubation and during this period, the rate of hydrolysis was found to be increased with increasing ratio of enzyme to substrate concentration. The result of the antioxidant properties clearly indicates that the 1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging efficacy of FPH was similar to that of synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The FPH also exhibited significant reducing power ability and great potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in equivalence with that of synthetic and natural antioxidants such as BHT and ?-tocopherol respectively. The overall findings of the study reveal that, FPH produced by tryptic digestion has considerable amount of bioactive peptides with potent antioxidant properties. The synthesized FPH is a good candidate for further development into a commercial food additive. PMID:25176365

Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

2014-09-01

315

Assessment of size-dependent mercury distribution in King Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla  

SciTech Connect

The assessment of health risks from fish contamination and the issuance of advisories require accurate characterizations of the actual contaminant concentrations in fish of every relevant size. Such characterizations should not only contain statistical measures of location and variation, but provide a complete parameterization of the contaminant distribution for each given size class. This paper proposes two methods for determining such distributions from scatter diagrams of contaminant concentration versus fish length and illustrates them with an analysis of mercury contaminant in king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla. The first method consists of fitting contamination data with a family of S-distributions. This family shows trends in its defining parameter values, and these trends provide a comprehensive characterization of the measured contaminant concentrations. Each S-distribution has a rather simple mathematical structure from which one readily obtains secondary characteristics like quantiles, which are necessary for advanced simulation purposes. The second method takes into account that contaminant accumulation is the outcome of a metabolic process. When this process is modeled as a system of differential equations, it can be reformulated in such a way that it describes how the contaminant distribution changes over a given period of time. The resulting distributions have a more complicated structure than those obtained with the first method, but they allow them to bridge the gap between individual metabolic accumulation processes and trends in populations.

Voit, E.O. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States). Dept. of Biometry and Epidemiology; Balthis, W.L. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States). Dept. of Biometry and Epidemiology]|[National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States). Southeast Fisheries Science Center

1994-12-31

316

Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment  

PubMed Central

Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that < 30 horses used > 25 km2 of trails in our study area. PMID:19903355

2009-01-01

317

Emerging outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus in adult horses.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe clinical, hematological and fecal PCR results from 161 horses involved in outbreaks associated with ECoV. The outbreaks happened at four separate boarding facilities between November 2011 and April 2012 in the States of CA, TX, WI and MA. Following the molecular detection of ECoV in the feces from the initial index cases, the remaining herdmates were closely observed for the development of clinical signs. Fecal samples were collected from sick and healthy horses for the PCR detection of ECoV. All four outbreaks involved primarily adult horses. Fifty-nine horses developed clinical signs with 12-16 sick horses per outbreak. The main clinical signs reported were anorexia, lethargy and fever. Four horses from 3 different outbreaks were euthanized or died due to rapid progression of clinical signs. The cause of death could not be determined with necropsy evaluation in 2 horses, while septicemia secondary to gastrointestinal translocation was suspected in 2 horses. Blood work was available from 10 horses with clinical disease and common hematological abnormalities were leucopenia due to neutropenia and/or lymphopenia. Feces were available for ECoV testing by real-time PCR from 44 and 96 sick and healthy horses, respectively. 38/44 (86%) horses with abnormal clinical signs tested PCR positive for ECoV, while 89/96 (93%) healthy horses tested PCR negative for ECoV. The overall agreement between clinical status and PCR detection of ECoV was 91%. The study results suggest that ECoV is associated with self-limiting clinical and hematological abnormalities in adult horses. PMID:23123176

Pusterla, N; Mapes, S; Wademan, C; White, A; Ball, R; Sapp, K; Burns, P; Ormond, C; Butterworth, K; Bartol, J; Magdesian, K G

2013-02-22

318

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration  

E-print Network

Atlantic Mackerel Fishery New Limited Access Permit System New Vessel Permits Required as ofMarch 1, 2012 mackerel. This program was developed by the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council in Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (Amendment 11). In order to fish for

319

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

320

Ocean Terracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean

Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

2007-01-01

321

Ocean Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Portal is a high-level directory of Ocean Data and Information related web sites. The object of the site is to help scientists and other ocean experts in locating data and information. Sites are listed in a directory with headings that include information, data, scientific topics, agencies and societies, among others.

IOC/IODE Marine Data Training Team

322

43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lands within areas occupied by wild horses and burros may allow wild horses or burros to use these lands. Individuals who maintain wild free-roaming horses and burros...estimate of the number of such animals so maintained. Individuals...

2013-10-01

323

43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...lands within areas occupied by wild horses and burros may allow wild horses or burros to use these lands. Individuals who maintain wild free-roaming horses and burros...estimate of the number of such animals so maintained. Individuals...

2014-10-01

324

77 FR 58863 - Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and...Nation's public lands. The Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...Work Groups (Comprehensive Animal Welfare Program;...

2012-09-24

325

78 FR 8187 - Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and...Nation's public lands. The Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...Work Groups (Comprehensive Animal Welfare Program;...

2013-02-05

326

43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...lands within areas occupied by wild horses and burros may allow wild horses or burros to use these lands. Individuals who maintain wild free-roaming horses and burros...estimate of the number of such animals so maintained. Individuals...

2011-10-01

327

77 FR 16063 - Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and...Nation's public lands. The Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...Updates Director's Challenge Wild Horse and Burro Strategy and...a.m. Break Comprehensive Animal Welfare Program Litigation...

2012-03-19

328

43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...lands within areas occupied by wild horses and burros may allow wild horses or burros to use these lands. Individuals who maintain wild free-roaming horses and burros...estimate of the number of such animals so maintained. Individuals...

2012-10-01

329

Gastric ulcer syndrome in exercising horses fed different types of hay  

E-print Network

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is highly prevalent in horses and most commonly found in racing and performance horses. This condition may negatively impact the health and athletic performance of affected horses (Vatistas et al. 1999). Proton...

Lybbert, Travis Craig

2009-05-15

330

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2012-01-01

331

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2011-01-01

332

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2012-01-01

333

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2013-01-01

334

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2014-01-01

335

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2010-01-01

336

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2014-01-01

337

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2010-01-01

338

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2011-01-01

339

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2011-01-01

340

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2012-01-01

341

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2013-01-01

342

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2014-01-01

343

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2013-01-01

344

75 FR 35078 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Natural Resource Management; Wild Horse...with special knowledge of equine behavior...Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management and the issues...Experience or knowledge of horses or...training and management). 11....

2010-06-21

345

Immunodiffusion test for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses.  

PubMed Central

A practical, sensitive, and specific immunodiffusion test was developed for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses. Culture filtrates, a soluble cell mass, and trypsinized Pythium sp. antigens were evaluated against prepared rabbit anti-Pythium sp. serum and pythiosis horse case sera. The culture filtrate antigens demonstrated the greatest capacity for detecting precipitins and the greatest stability during storage. In contrast, the trypsinized antigens had the weakest capability for detecting multiple precipitins and the poorest stability. The 13 sera from horses with proven active pythiosis were positive in immunodiffusion tests with the culture filtrate antigens. Each serum contained from three to six precipitins. Treated horses lost precipitins, and some became antibody negative. No false-positive reactions were noted in tests with sera from normal horses and humans or with sera from a variety of heterologous horse and human infections. Images PMID:3086368

Mendoza, L; Kaufman, L; Standard, P G

1986-01-01

346

Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity.  

PubMed

In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino. PMID:23271940

Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Oscar

2012-12-01

347

Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity  

PubMed Central

In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino. PMID:23271940

Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Óscar

2012-01-01

348

Ocean Terracing  

E-print Network

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean Art is the technically possible 21-st Century terracing of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Art is applicable worldwide to places that might be practically improved by its judicious employment. Such Ocean Art may constitute an entirely unique category of solutions to coastal disaster prevention planning.

Richard Cathcart; Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-09

349

Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome\\u000a species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever,\\u000a weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or

Aleksandro S. Da Silva; Herakles A. Garcia Perez; Márcio M. Costa; Raqueli T. França; Diego De Gasperi; Régis A. Zanette; João A. Amado; Sonia T. A. Lopes; Marta M. G. Teixeira; Silvia G. Monteiro

2011-01-01

350

Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.  

PubMed

Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV. PMID:25139547

Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

2014-12-01

351

Aortic-Iliac Thrombosis in a Horse  

PubMed Central

A horse with a history of chronic lameness was presented with signs of abdominal pain. A diagnosis of intestinal obstruction was initially made and treatment was ineffective. Further examination revealed an aortic obstruction in the area of the bifurcation of the iliac vessels. Postmortem results supported the clinical findings. The clinical signs of aortic-iliac thrombosis are consistent with the lameness pattern and abdominal distress. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422112

Crawford, W. H.

1982-01-01

352

Post-glacial population expansion of the Monterey Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus concolor in the Gulf of California.  

PubMed

The level of genetic homogeneity and demographic history of the Monterey Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus concolor was assessed by analyses using sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA-control region of samples from the two oceanographic regions of the Gulf of California in order to define the stock structure for this exploited vulnerable species. The data were consistent with a single homogeneous population and revealed the hallmark of fluctuations in population size; these fluctuations appear to have occurred during glacial events of the middle to late Pleistocene, which may in turn be related to the colonization and expansion of S. concolor populations in the gulf. PMID:25583211

Domínguez-López, M; Díaz-Jaimes, P; Uribe-Alcocer, M; Quiñonez-Velázquez, C

2015-03-01

353

Identification, characterization, and expression profiles of two subtypes of kisspeptin receptors in a scombroid fish (chub mackerel).  

PubMed

The kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1R) is a cognate receptor for kisspeptin (Kiss), and this Kiss-Kiss1R system has been shown to regulate seasonal reproduction in vertebrates. Our previous study found the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses both kiss1 and kiss2 and exhibits sexually dimorphic changes during the seasonal reproductive cycle. The present study cloned two subtypes of kissr from the chub mackerel brain, and their signal transduction pathways to Kiss1 and Kiss2 were characterized in a mammalian cell line. Results of identification showed that kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs encode 369 and 378 deduced amino acids, respectively, and share 52% similarity in amino acid sequences. In vitro functional analysis revealed that chub mackerel Kiss receptor signals are also preferentially transduced via the protein kinase C (PKC) rather than protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Synthetic chub mackerel Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 peptides showed the highest potency for the activation of KissR1 and KissR2, respectively, stronger than their corresponding Kiss-10 peptides. Tissue distribution analyses indicated that both genes are highly expressed in the brain and that only kissr2 mRNA is expressed in the pituitary of both sexes. Unexpectedly, both kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs were detected only in the testes. Seasonal expression changes showed higher expression levels of both kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs in the brain of females during the early vitellogenic period; however, no significant differences were found in the brain of males. Pituitary kissr2 mRNA levels showed no significant variations. In the testes, the kissr1 mRNA expression level increased dramatically at spermiation compared with the immature and post-spawning periods. However, kissr2 mRNA levels in the testes did not vary significantly at different testicular stages. These results suggest that both kissr1 and kissr2 likely participate in the seasonal ovarian development of females, and thus in males, we propose a paracrine or autocrine role for kissr1 in testicular development. PMID:23932907

Ohga, Hirofumi; Fujinaga, Yoichiro; Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2013-11-01

354

Population Statistics and Biological Traits of Endangered Kiso Horse  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to clarify the current status of endangered Kiso horse, population statistics and biological traits, in order to take a step for the conservation by scientific approach. We surveyed 125 Kiso horses (86.2% of the whole breed), analyzed the construction of the population, and calculated the coefficient of inbreeding and effective population size. Moreover, we confirmed coat color variations and the traditional traits of the Kiso horse, and measured their height at the withers and chest circumference to clarify their physical characteristics. The population pyramid of the horses was stationary or contractive, suggesting a reduction of the population in the near future. The effective population size of the horse (47.9) suggested that the diversity was much less than their census size, and the high coefficient of inbreeding, 0.11 ± 0.07 on average, suggested that the horses were surely inbred. The horses had only 4 coat colors; bay, dark bay, buckskin dun, and chestnut, and 116 horses (92.8%) were bayish color, suggesting the fixation in their coat color. Moreover, the majority of them had dorsal stripe (83 horses; 66.4%), and the average heights at withers(131.9 ± 4.4 cm) and chest circumference (167.1 ± 10.1 cm) were not significantly different between males and females. PMID:24833989

TAKASU, Masaki; HIRAMATSU, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; HASEGAWA, Telhisa; MAEDA, Masami; KUSUDA, Satoshi; DOI, Osamu; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

2012-01-01

355

Laryngeal hemiplegia in draft horses. A review of 27 cases.  

PubMed

Case records of 27 draft horses with laryngeal hemiplegia were reviewed. Twenty-one horses were treated by ventriculectomy with or without prosthetic laryngoplasty, and 17 owners were contacted to determine the results. Fifteen horses improved after surgery and were able to perform to the owners' expectations. Performance improved significantly and hospitalization was shorter after ventriculectomy alone. Results of this study indicate that the clinical signs of exercise intolerance and excessive inspiratory noise associated with left laryngeal hemiplegia in draft horses can be treated successfully by ventriculectomy without prosthetic laryngoplasty. PMID:2264284

Bohanon, T C; Beard, W L; Robertson, J T

1990-01-01

356

Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

2005-01-01

357

Impaired instrumental choice in crib-biting horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

Horses displaying an oral stereotypy were tested on an instrumental choice paradigm to examine differences in learning from non-stereotypic counterparts. Stereotypic horses are known to have dysfunction of the dorsomedial striatum, and lesion studies have shown that this region may mediate response-outcome learning. The paradigm was specifically applied in order to examine learning that requires maintenance of response-outcome judgements. The non-stereotypic horses learned, over three sessions, to choose a more immediate reinforcer, whereas the stereotypic horses failed to do so. This suggests an initial behavioural correlate for dorsomedial striatum dysregulation in the stereotypy phenotype. PMID:18430476

Parker, Matthew; Redhead, Edward S; Goodwin, Deborah; McBride, Sebastian D

2008-08-01

358

Summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis) poisoning in three horses.  

PubMed

Three horses died as a result of eating grass hay containing summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis L.), a plant containing cardenolides similar to oleander and foxglove. A 9-year-old thoroughbred gelding, a 20-year-old appaloosa gelding, and a 5-year-old quarter horse gelding initially presented with signs of colic 24-48 hours after first exposure to the hay. Gastrointestinal gaseous distension was the primary finding on clinical examination of all three horses. Two horses became moribund and were euthanatized 1 day after first showing clinical signs, and the third horse was euthanatized after 4 days of medical therapy. Endocardial hemorrhage and gaseous distension of the gastrointestinal tract were the only necropsy findings in the first two horses. On microscopic examination, both horses had scattered foci of mild, acute myocardial necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation associated with endocardial and epicardial hemorrhage. The third horse that survived for 4 days had multifocal to coalescing, irregular foci of acute, subacute, and chronic myocardial degeneration and necrosis. A. aestivalis (pheasant's eye, summer adonis) was identified in the hay. Strophanthidin, the aglycone of several cardenolides present in Adonis spp., was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry in gastrointestinal contents from all three horses. Although Adonis spp. contain cardiac glycosides, cardiac lesions have not previously been described in livestock associated with consumption of adonis, and this is the first report of adonis toxicosis in North America. PMID:15133169

Woods, L W; Filigenzi, M S; Booth, M C; Rodger, L D; Arnold, J S; Puschner, B

2004-05-01

359

Pharmacokinetics of valacyclovir in the adult horse.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks of equine herpes virus type-1 infections have stimulated renewed interest in the use of effective antiherpetic drugs in horses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of valacyclovir (VCV), the prodrug of acyclovir (ACV), in horses. Six adult horses were used in a randomized cross-over design. Treatments consisted of 10 mg/kg ACV infused intravenously, 5 g (7.7-11.7 mg/kg) VCV delivered intragastrically (IG) and 15 g (22.7-34.1 mg/kg) VCV administered IG. Serum samples were obtained at predetermined times for acyclovir assay using high-performance liquid chromatography. Following the administration of 5 g VCV, the mean observed maximum serum ACV concentration (C(max)) was 1.45 +/- 0.38 (SD) microg/mL, at 0.74 +/- 0.43 h. At a dose of 15 g VCV, the mean C(max) was 5.26 +/- 2.82 microg/mL, at 1 +/- 0.27 h. The mean bioavailability of ACV from oral VCV was 60 +/- 12% after 5 g of VCV and 48 +/- 12% after 15 g VCV, and did not differ significantly between dose rates (P > 0.05). Superposition suggested that a loading dose of 27 mg/kg VCV every 8 h for 2 days, followed by a maintenance dose of 18 mg/kg every 12 h, will maintain effective serum ACV concentrations. PMID:18638291

Maxwell, L K; Bentz, B G; Bourne, D W A; Erkert, R S

2008-08-01

360

Trojan Horse particle invariance in fusion reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trojan Horse method plays an important part for the measurement of several charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest. In order to better understand its cornerstones and the related applications to different astrophysical scenarios several tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary reactions d(d,p)t, 6,7Li(p,?)3,4He was therefore tested using the appropriate quasi free break- ups, respectively. In the first cases results from 6Li and 3He break up were used, while for the lithium fusion reactions break-ups of 2H and 3He were compared. The astrophysical S(E)-factors for the different processes were then extracted in the framework of the PlaneWave Approximation applied to the different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement between data coming from different break-up schemes confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present cases. Moreover the astrophysical implications of the results will also be discussed in details.

Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleril, C.; Bertulani, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

2015-01-01

361

Stimulus discrimination by horses under scotopic conditions.  

PubMed

Scotopic vision in horses (Equus caballus) was investigated using behavioral measurements for the first time. Four horses were tested for the ability to make simple visual discriminations of geometric figures (circles and triangles) under various brightness levels within an enclosed building. Measurements of brightness ranging from 10.37 to 24.12 magnitudes per square arcsecond (mag/arcsec(2); in candelas per square meter-7.70 to 2.43E-05cd/m(2)) were taken using a Sky Quality Meter. These values approximated outdoor conditions ranging from twilight in open country to a dark moonless night in dense forest. The horses were able to solve the discrimination problems in all brightness settings up to 23.77mag/arcsec(2) (3.35E-05cd/m(2)). Moreover, they easily navigated their way around obstacles located within the testing area in extremely dim light (>23.50mag/arcsec(2); 4.30E-05cd/m(2)), which were in conditions too dark for the human experimenters to see. These findings support physiological data that reveal a rod-dominated visual system as well as observations of equine activity at night. PMID:19389464

Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

2009-09-01

362

Differential outcome effect in the horse.  

PubMed Central

Three horses were trained with a discrimination task in which the color (blue or yellow) of a center panel signaled the correct (left or right) response (lever press). Reinforcing outcomes for the two correct color-position combinations (blue-left and yellow-right) were varied across phases. Discrimination performance was better when the combinations were differentially reinforced by two types of food (chopped carrot pieces and a solid food pellet) than when the combinations were randomly reinforced by these outcomes or when there was a common reinforcer for each of the correct combinations. However, the discrimination performance established by the differential outcome procedure was still 80% to 90% correct, and an analysis of two-trial sequences revealed that the stimulus color of the preceding trial interfered with discrimination performance on a given trial. Our demonstration of the differential outcome effect in the horse and its further analysis might contribute to more efficient control of equine behavior in the laboratory as well as in horse sports. PMID:11029025

Miyashita, Y; Nakajima, S; Imada, H

2000-01-01

363

Australian bat lyssavirus infection in two horses.  

PubMed

In May 2013, the first cases of Australian bat lyssavirus infections in domestic animals were identified in Australia. Two horses (filly-H1 and gelding-H2) were infected with the Yellow-bellied sheathtail bat (YBST) variant of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). The horses presented with neurological signs, pyrexia and progressing ataxia. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) were detected in some Purkinje neurons in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the brain of one of the two infected horses (H2) by histological examination. A morphological diagnosis of sub-acute moderate non-suppurative, predominantly angiocentric, meningo-encephalomyelitis of viral aetiology was made. The presumptive diagnosis of ABLV infection was confirmed by the positive testing of the affected brain tissue from (H2) in a range of laboratory tests including fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real-time PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Retrospective testing of the oral swab from (H1) in the real-time PCR also returned a positive result. The FAT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an abundance of ABLV antigen throughout the examined brain sections. ABLV was isolated from the brain (H2) and oral swab/saliva (H1) in the neuroblastoma cell line (MNA). Alignment of the genome sequence revealed a 97.7% identity with the YBST ABLV strain. PMID:25195190

Shinwari, Mustaghfira Wafa; Annand, Edward J; Driver, Luke; Warrilow, David; Harrower, Bruce; Allcock, Richard J N; Pukallus, Dennis; Harper, Jennifer; Bingham, John; Kung, Nina; Diallo, Ibrahim S

2014-10-10

364

Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis  

PubMed Central

Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species. PMID:23803176

2013-01-01

365

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data – both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Kimberly Lightle

366

Ocean Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Ocean Planet_ is a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition that now has a companion on-line exhibition. It covers varied topics associated with the ocean, such as the science of the ocean, the animals, people, and communities who use the ocean, and pollution problems currently endangering ocean resources. The exhibit features all of the text and a good portion of the images from the traveling exhibit. The curator of this exhibit has put together six special interest tours including Biodiversity, Women and the Sea, and Pollution. Users can also build their own special tour from a list of key words. The current list contains only four words, but is expected to grow in the future. Visitors can also consult a comprehensive list of educational materials and ocean resources.

367

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Ms. Cole

2011-04-07

368

Odor and VOC Emissions from Pan Frying of Mackerel at Three Stages: Raw, Well-Done, and Charred  

PubMed Central

Many classes of odorants and volatile organic compounds that are deleterious to our wellbeing can be emitted from diverse cooking activities. Once emitted, they can persist in our living space for varying durations. In this study, various volatile organic compounds released prior to and during the pan frying of fish (mackerel) were analyzed at three different cooking stages (stage 1 = raw (R), stage 2 = well-done (W), and stage 3 = overcooked/charred (O)). Generally, most volatile organic compounds recorded their highest concentration levels at stage 3 (O), e.g., 465 (trimethylamine) and 106 ppb (acetic acid). In contrast, at stage 2 (W), the lowest volatile organic compounds emissions were observed. The overall results of this study confirm that trimethylamine is identified as the strongest odorous compound, especially prior to cooking (stage 1 (R)) and during overcooking leading to charring (stage 3 (O)). As there is a paucity of research effort to measure odor intensities from pan frying of mackerel, this study will provide valuable information regarding the management of indoor air quality. PMID:25405596

Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Szulejko, Jan E.; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won

2014-01-01

369

Age and growth of chub mackerel ( Xcomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas using sectioned otolith samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) is a primary pelagic fish species, we have only limited knowledge on its key life history processes. The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas. Age was determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercial purse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawning ground in May 2006. The difference between the assumed birth date of 1st April and date of capture was used to adjust the age determined from counting the number of complete translucent rings. The parameters of three commonly used growth models, the von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz models, were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion ( AIC), the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model. The size-at-age and size-at-maturity values were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s, which was caused by heavy exploitation over the last few decades.

Li, Gang; Chen, Xinjun; Feng, Bo

2008-11-01

370

Purification and characterization of novel antioxidant peptides of different molecular weights from mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus protein hydrolysate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mackerel ( Pneumatophorus japonic u s) proteins were hydrolyzed by five proteases: trypsin, papain, neutrase, acid protease, and flavourzyme. The hydrolysate treated by neutrase exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the hydrolysis conditions in an effort to obtain a mackerel protein hydrolysate (MPH) with the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. The MPH was fractioned using a series of ultrafiltration membranes and five fractions, namely, MPH-I (>10 kDa), MPH-II (10-2.5 kDa), MPH-III (1-2.5 kDa), MPH-IV (0.4-1 kDa), and MPH-V (below 0.4 kDa), were obtained. DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and the lipid peroxidation inhibition capability of these fractions were evaluated. The fractions in molecular weights <2.5 kDa (MPH-III, MPH-IV, and MPH-V), which occupied 93.4% of the total fractions, showed the strongest antioxidant activity; and the antioxidant activities of the three fractions are similar to each other. Using SP Sephadex C-25 and Sephadex G-25 columns, eight fractions were obtained from the MPH (<2.5 kDa). The isolated peptide I (1 664 kDa) displayed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. Therefore, MPH is a potential source of antioxidant peptides.

Wang, Xueqin; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Chen, Zuoyuan; Li, Pengcheng

2015-01-01

371

Ocean FEST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean FEST family science nights feature hands-on, standards-based, ocean-themed science activities for students in grades 3-6 and their families. Our goals are to: (1) educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their communities; and (2) inspire students - especially those from underrepresented groups - to pursue careers in the ocean and earth sciences. The teacher guide provides all information (including supply lists) necessary to perform these activities in a classroom. Some supply funding is available--see Teacher Resources section for more information.

Barbara Bruno

372

The influence of dietary mackerel oil on the condition of organs and on blood lipid composition in the young growing pig1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding experiment was carried out in which piglets were fed a diet enriched with either mackerel oil or olive oil. The oil consumption amounted to about 100 g per animal per day. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of feeding high amounts of fish oil rich in polyunsaturated and long-chain monoenoic acids in order to

A. Ruiter; A. W. Jongbloed; C. M. van Gent; L. H. J. C. Danse; S. H. M. Metz

373

HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907  

E-print Network

$7 per square foot of floor space as the absolute minimum cost to build an enclosed barn for horses have fewer problems with respiratory diseases and more normal bone development when they are housed percent of their body weight per day. As an animal that evolved as a nibbler and grazer, it is best

374

West Nile virus Epidemic in Horses, Tuscany Region, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late summer of 1998, veterinary authorities in Tuscany, Italy, received reports of cases of neuro- logic disease among horses residing in a large wetland area located in the provinces of Florence and Pis- toia. West Nile virus was isolated from two of the six horses that died or were euthanized. A retrospective epidemiologic study identified 14 clinical neurologic

Gian Luca Autorino; Antonio Battisti; Vincent Deubel; Giancarlo Ferrari; Riccardo Forletta; Armando Giovannini; Rossella Lelli; Severine Murri; Maria Teresa Scicluna

375

2004 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE BOWL ONE ON ONE  

E-print Network

of the protective boots that fit over the coronet band and bulbs of the heel? A. Bell boots S. IDET, p. 26 2. Q including the coronary band S. AYHCLM B101 ­ 2L 18. Q. The domestic horse belongs to which species? A. Equus and is characterized by movements of the horse's flanks in synchrony with each heart beat? A: Thumps (Diaphragmatic

New Hampshire, University of

376

Rapid PCR detection of Salmonella in horse faecal samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting Salmonella in faeces of horses and assessed on samples from horses admitted to a veterinary hospital. Direct detection was achieved by amplification of part of ompC after extraction of DNA from faeces using a spin column method to reduce the amount of inhibitory substances in samples. An internal positive

P Amavisit; G. F Browning; D Lightfoot; S Church; G. A Anderson; K. G Whithear; P. F Markham

2001-01-01

377

Emergency evacuation of horses -A Madison County, Kentucky survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information was collected by interview from 26 farms (about 10% of the estimated number of premises with horses) in 1987. The information was then analysed. The survey points out that emergency plans should address the unique needs of horse owners. Although most respondents indicated they would leave an evacuation zone, some, if given the time, would either evacuate some animals

R D Linnabary; New John C. Jr; B M Vogt; C Griffiths-Davies; L Williams

1993-01-01

378

Horse Soleus Muscle: Postural Sensor or Vestigial Structure?  

E-print Network

Horse Soleus Muscle: Postural Sensor or Vestigial Structure? RON A. MEYERS1 AND JOHN W. HERMANSON2, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York ABSTRACT The soleus muscle of horses-oxidative fibers, we hypothesized that the soleus muscle could have a significant role in proprio- ceptive function

Meyers, Ron

379

A changing pattern of injuries to horse riders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe the demographics and nature of injuries occurring on or around horses, to examine the nature of protective clothing in relation to these injuries, and to compare our data with previously published work in this area.Methods: Patients were identified using the term “sports injury–horse riding” from the departmental database for one calendar year from February 2000. Data were

P S Moss; A Wan; M R Whitlock

2002-01-01

380

Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest proportion of the world's horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and com - petition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order

Michela Minero; Elisabetta Canali

2010-01-01

381

Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunecontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of the PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to being using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption processa?|

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

2004-01-01

382

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome in adult horses: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, gastric ulceration has been recognised as a common, possibly performance-limiting disease of adult horses. Here, we aim to provide the reader with a useful review of recent literature covering all aspects of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in adult horses. The anatomy and physiology of the stomach, with particular reference to secretion of acid and mu- cosal

RJW Bell; TD Mogg

2007-01-01

383

Adaptation to a fat-supplemented diet by cutting horses  

E-print Network

, there was an increase (Pglycogen storage from d 0 to d 28, however, values on a given d were not different from values when the horses were fed C. There was no increase in muscle glycogen over time when horses were fed C. On d 7, 14 and 28, muscle...

Julen, Tiffany Rochele

1994-01-01

384

Thoroughbred Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database: HSDB  

PubMed Central

Genetics is important for breeding and selection of horses but there is a lack of well-established horse-related browsers or databases. In order to better understand horses, more variants and other integrated information are needed. Thus, we construct a horse genomic variants database including expression and other information. Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database (HSDB) (http://snugenome2.snu.ac.kr/HSDB) provides the number of unexplored genomic variants still remaining to be identified in the horse genome including rare variants by using population genome sequences of eighteen horses and RNA-seq of four horses. The identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were confirmed by comparing them with SNP chip data and variants of RNA-seq, which showed a concordance level of 99.02% and 96.6%, respectively. Moreover, the database provides the genomic variants with their corresponding transcriptional profiles from the same individuals to help understand the functional aspects of these variants. The database will contribute to genetic improvement and breeding strategies of Thoroughbreds. PMID:25178365

Lee, Joon-Ho; Lee, Taeheon; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Cho, Byung-Wook; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Do, Kyoung-Tag; Sung, Samsun; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Park, Kyung-Do

2014-01-01

385

Magnetic resonance imaging features of sinonasal disorders in horses.  

PubMed

Diseases of paranasal sinuses and nasal passages in horses can be a diagnostic challenge because of the complex anatomy of the head and limitations of many diagnostic modalities. Our hypothesis was that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging would provide excellent anatomical detail and soft tissue resolution, and would be accurate in the diagnosis of diseases of the paranasal sinuses and nasal passages in horses. Fourteen horses were imaged. Inclusion criteria were lesions located to the sinuses or nasal passages that underwent MR imaging and subsequent surgical intervention and/or histopathologic examination. A low field, 0.3 tesla open magnet was used. Sequences in the standard protocol were fast spin echo T2 sagittal and transverse, spin echo T1 transverse, short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) dorsal, gradient echo 3D T1 MPR dorsal (plain and contrast enhanced), spin echo T1 fatsat (contrast enhanced). Mean scan time to complete the examination was 53 min (range 39-99 min). Lesions identified were primary or secondary sinusitis (six horses), paranasal sinus cyst (four horses), progressive ethmoid hematoma (two horses), and neoplasia (two horses). The most useful sequences were fast spin echo T2 transverse and sagittal, STIR dorsal and FE3D MPR (survey and contrast enhanced). Fluid accumulation, mucosal thickening, presence of encapsulated contents, bone deformation, and thickening were common findings observed in MR imaging. In selected horses, magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool in diagnosing lesions of the paranasal sinuses and nasal passages. PMID:22994147

Tessier, Caroline; Brühschwein, Andreas; Lang, Johann; Konar, Martin; Wilke, Markus; Brehm, Walter; Kircher, Patrick

2013-01-01

386

Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Background In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Findings Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. Conclusions This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered. PMID:24180621

2013-01-01

387

Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race  

PubMed Central

We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities. PMID:22547844

Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M.

2011-01-01

388

Adverse effects of zilpaterol administration in horses: three cases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three healthy horses were fed 0.17 mg/kg body weight of the beta-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol to determine zilpaterol elimination kinetics. Shortly after treatment, each horse developed skeletal muscle tremors, tachycardia, and serological abnormalities lasting several days. A 75% to 87.5% reduced ...

389

Moxidectin: a review of chemistry, pharmacokinetics and use in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the current knowledge of the use of moxidectin (MOX) in horses, including its mode of action, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, efficacy, safety and resistance profile. Moxidectin is a second generation macrocyclic lactone (ML) with potent endectocide activity. It is used for parasite control in horses in an oral gel formulation. The principal mode of action of MOX

Rami Cobb; Albert Boeckh

2009-01-01

390

The toxicity of Datura stramonium (thorn apple) to horses.  

PubMed

Meal contaminated by Datura stramonium seeds at the rate of 0.5% by weight was fed to two horses. Both horses showed clinical signs of depression, anorexia, weight loss, rapid heart and respiration rates, mydriasis, polyuria, polydipsia and diarrhoea. Both recovered with treatment. Maize screenings contaminated by the seeds had been used in the manufacture of the meal. PMID:16031044

Williams, S; Scott, P

1984-04-01

391

Job Title: Ranch Hand Name: Howard Owens' Cutting Horses  

E-print Network

Job Title: Ranch Hand Name: Howard Owens' Cutting Horses Openings: 1 Time: 2-3 hours a day, 7 days a week Salary: $200/month Start Date: Immediately Supervisor: Howard Owens Description: Job entails daily cleaning of horse stalls, keeping grass mowed, and odd jobs around the ranch. Approximately 2 to 3 hours

Behmer, Spencer T.

392

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

393

Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for pre- vention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed. A vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was later suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neuro-

Robert P. Franklin; Hailu Kinde; Michele T. Jay; Laura D. Kramer; Emily-Gene N. Green; Robert E. Chiles; Eileen Ostlund; Stan Husted; Jonathan Smith; Michael D. Parker

2002-01-01

394

17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE MESA DAM -5/15/27FLOATING 2-YD. ELECTRICALLY-OPERATED CLAM-SHELL DERRICK UNLOADING GRAVEL SCOWS' May 15, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

395

Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii exposure among horses in Korea.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies by ELISA in horses reared in Korea. Serum samples were collected from 2009 through 2013 from 816 horses reared in Korea. Analysis was performed using a commercial toxoplasmosis ELISA kit to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. Overall, 24 out of 816 horses (2.9%) were seropositive for T. gondii. The result was analyzed by age, gender, breed and region. Significant differences were observed according to breed and region (P<0.05). This is the first nationwide serological investigation of T. gondii in horses reared in Korea. The study results reveal that T. gondii occurs nationwide in Korean horses. PMID:25649954

Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Seo, Min-Goo; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi; Lee, Won-Ja

2014-12-01

396

Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii Exposure among Horses in Korea  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies by ELISA in horses reared in Korea. Serum samples were collected from 2009 through 2013 from 816 horses reared in Korea. Analysis was performed using a commercial toxoplasmosis ELISA kit to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. Overall, 24 out of 816 horses (2.9%) were seropositive for T. gondii. The result was analyzed by age, gender, breed and region. Significant differences were observed according to breed and region (P<0.05). This is the first nationwide serological investigation of T. gondii in horses reared in Korea. The study results reveal that T. gondii occurs nationwide in Korean horses. PMID:25649954

LEE, Seung-Hun; LEE, Sang-Eun; SEO, Min-Goo; GOO, Youn-Kyoung; CHO, Kwang-Hyun; CHO, Gil-Jae; KWON, Oh-Deog; KWAK, Dongmi; LEE, Won-Ja

2014-01-01

397

Ocean Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

NASA

398

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

NBC Learn

2010-10-07

399

Bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses  

PubMed Central

Background Oral lesions related to the use of the bit and bridle are reported to be common findings in horses worldwide and represent an important animal welfare issue. In order to provide an overview of bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses, a field examination of the rostral part of the oral cavity was performed in 424 competition horses coming to the two major national horse events in Iceland in 2012. Records from repeated examination of 77 horses prior to the finals were used to assess potential risk factors. Results Mild lesions were recorded in 152 horses (36%) prior to the preliminary rounds. They were most often located in the commissures of the lips and the adjacent buccal mucosa (n?=?111). Severe lesions were found in 32 (8%) horses. For 77 horses examined prior to the finals, the frequency of findings in the area of the mandibular interdental space (bars of the mandible) had increased from 8% to 31% (P?horses. The type of bits used influenced both the location and the severity of the lesions. The use of curb bits with a port was found to be a decisive risk factor for lesions on the bars of the mandible, most of which were regarded as severe. The results also raised questions about the head and neck carriage demanded for the competition horses. PMID:25116656

2014-01-01

400

Comparison of Sarcocystis neurona isolates derived from horse neural tissue.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis neurona is a protozoan parasite that can cause neurological deficits in infected horses. The route of transmission is by fecal-oral transfer of sporocysts from opossums. However, the species identity and the lifecycle are not completely known. In this study, Sarcocystis merozoites from eight isolates obtained from Michigan horses were compared to S. neurona from a California horse (UCD1), Sarcocystis from a grackle (Cornell), and five Sarcocystis isolates from feral opossums from Michigan. Comparisons were made using several techniques. SDS-PAGE analysis with silver staining showed that Sarcocystis spp. from the eight horses appeared the same, but different from the grackle isolate. One Michigan horse isolate (MIH6) had two bands at 72 and 25kDa that were more prominent than the UCD1 isolate and other Michigan horse isolates. Western blot analysis showed that merozoites of eight of eight equine-derived isolates, and the UCD1 S. neurona isolate had similar bands when developed with serum or CSF of an infected horse. Major bands were seen at 60, 44, 30, and 16kDa. In the grackle (Cornell) isolate, bands were seen at 60, 44, 29, and 16kDa. DNA from merozoites of each of the eight equine-derived isolates and the grackle-derived isolate produced a 334bp PCR product (Tanhauser et al., 1999). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of these horse isolates showed banding patterns characteristic for S. neurona. The grackle (Cornell) isolate had an RFLP banding pattern characteristic of other S. falcatula species. Finally, electron microscopy examining multiple merozoites of each of these eight horse isolates showed similar morphology, which differed from the grackle (Cornell) isolate. We conclude that the eight Michigan horse isolates are S. neurona species and the grackle isolate is an S. falcatula species. PMID:11223197

Mansfield, L S; Schott, H C; Murphy, A J; Rossano, M G; Tanhauser, S M; Patterson, J S; Nelson, K; Ewart, S L; Marteniuk, J V; Bowman, D D; Kaneene, J B

2001-02-26

401

Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals. PMID:25320481

Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

2014-12-01

402

Habitat Suitability Model for Bighorn Sheep and Wild Horses in Bighorn Canyon and the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range  

E-print Network

winters, predation, and other stochastic events cause stress in wild animals, larger goals for Ne (e.g. Ne1 Habitat Suitability Model for Bighorn Sheep and Wild Horses in Bighorn Canyon and the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range October 6, 2003 Gary Wockner1 , Francis Singer2 , Kate Schoenecker2 1 Natural

MacDonald, Lee

403

The force and contact stress on the navicular bone during trot locomotion in sound horses and horses with navicular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Mechanical overload due to poor conformation or shoeing has been suggested to contribute to the development of navicular disease. While studies have determined the compressive force exerted on the navicular bone in normal horses, this has not been reported for horses with navicular disease. Also, the force has not been converted to stress by correction for contact area. In

A. M. WILSON; M. P. McGUIGAN; L. FOURACRE; L. MacMAHON

2010-01-01

404

Cutaneous pythiosis in a nontravelled California horse.  

PubMed

An 18-year-old Arabian mare was examined with a large mass on the left hind pastern and fetlock. The mare was located in the Central Valley of northern California, and had never been out of the state. Routine histopathological processing and examination of biopsy samples from the mass showed several hyphal organisms that were delineated with a silver stain. Using immunohistochemistry the organism was diagnosed as Pythium insidiosum. The owner declined debulking surgery, and despite treatment with an immunotherapeutic vaccine, the horse's condition deteriorated leading to euthanasia. PMID:18699814

White, Stephen D; Ghoddusi, Majid; Grooters, Amy M; Jones, Kathryn

2008-12-01

405

A Trojan Horse for Parkinson's Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathogenic mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are common genetic causes of late-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Initial studies indicated that the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 is associated with LRRK2-mediated PD pathogenesis. However, LRRK2 kinase activity may be dispensable for neuron survival and may not be required for its protective activity against neurotoxicity. Thus, the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 appears to be a Trojan horse for PD, and inhibition of its kinase activity could potentially be therapeutically beneficial.

Youren Tong (Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital REV)

2010-04-06

406

Small-scale patterns in distribution and feeding of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) larvae in the Celtic Sea with special regard to intra-cohort cannibalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term variability in vertical distribution and feeding of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) larvae was investigated while tracking a larval patch over a 48-h period. The patch was repeatedly sampled and a total of 12,462 mackerel larvae were caught within the upper 100 m of the water column. Physical parameters were monitored at the same time. Larval length distribution showed a mode in the 3.0 mm standard length (SL) class (mean abundance of 3.0 mm larvae $ x =75.34 per 100 m3, s=34.37). Highest densities occurred at 20-40 m depth. Larvae <5.0 mm SL were highly aggregated above the thermocline, while larvae >=5.0 mm SL were more dispersed and tended to migrate below the thermocline. Gut contents of 1,177 mackerel larvae (2.9-9.7 mm SL) were analyzed. Feeding incidence, mean number (numerical intensity) and mean dry weight (weight-based intensity) of prey items per larval gut were significantly dependent on larval size. However, while weight-based feeding intensities continued to increase with larval length, numerical intensity peaked at 4-4.9 mm SL, indicating a shift in the larval diet. While first-feeding larvae relied most heavily on copepod nauplii and eggs, larvae >=5.0 mm SL initiated piscivorous feeding. All identifiable fish larvae were Atlantic mackerel. Thus, the piscivory was cannibalism. Larval feeding incidence and numerical feeding intensities peaked during daytime and were reduced at night. Daily ration estimates for first-feeding mackerel larvae <4.0 mm SL were extremely low x$ = 1.43% body dry weight, but increased dramatically at 5.0 mm SL, i.e., at the onset of cannibalism, reaching >50% body dry weight in larva >=8.0 mm SL.

Hillgruber, Nicola; Kloppmann, Matthias

2001-03-01

407

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students discover that measurements from space can tell us the temperature of the ocean, both on an annual average and as measured on any given date. For the annual average the highest ocean temperatures are near the equator, and drop as one moves either northward or southward from the equator. Students will graph each temperature value as a function of latitude and write a linear equation that best fits the points on their graph. They can choose as data points any point at that approximate latitude because the temperature is not uniform for a certain latitude - some areas are hotter and some are cooler. They can also look at today's ocean temperatures via the link provided to see how the seasons affect whether the northern or southern oceans are warmer. Students will take ocean temperature data from a map and plot temperature versus angle from the equator.

408

Ecological Impacts: Oceans Under-studied Oceans  

E-print Network

(more predators) Effects of Fish Capture & Handling #12;Chemistry of Ocean Acidification #12;High certainty: ocean acidification #12;Carbonate Life Forms in the Ocean #12;Ocean Acidification and Corals

Schweik, Charles M.

409

9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from...

2010-01-01

410

THE IMPACT OF REGIONAL CLIMATE ON THE EVOLUTION OF MAMMALS: A CASE STUDY USING FOSSIL HORSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the classic examples of faunal turnover in the fossil record is the Miocene transition from faunas dominated by anchitheriine horses with low-crowned molar teeth to faunas with hipparionine horses characterized by high-crowned teeth. The spread of hipparionine horses is associated with increased seasonality and the expansion of open habitats. It is generally accepted that anchitheriine horses did not

Jussi T. Eronen; Alistair R. Evans; Mikael Fortelius; Jukka Jernvall

2009-01-01

411

Immunoconversion against Sarcocystis neurona in normal and dexamethasone-treated horses challenged with S. neurona sporocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a common neurologic disease of horses in the Americas usually caused by Sarcocystis neurona. To date, the disease has not been induced in horses using characterized sporocysts from Didelphis virginiana, the definitive host. S. neurona sporocysts from 15 naturally infected opossums were fed to horses seronegative for antibodies against S. neurona. Eight horses were given 5×105

Tim J. Cutler; Robert J. MacKay; Pamela E. Ginn; Karen Gillis; Susan M. Tanhauser; Erin V. LeRay; John B. Dame; Ellis C. Greiner

2001-01-01

412

Infection of Immunodeficient Horses with Sarcocystis neurona Does Not Result in Neurologic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neuroviru- lence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were

Debra C. Sellon; Donald P. Knowles; Ellis C. Greiner; Maureen T. Long; Melissa T. Hines; Tressa Hochstatter; Ahmed Tibary; John B. Dame

2004-01-01

413

Ocular findings in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA ...

414

Genetic variation in the feral horses of the Namib Desert, Namibia.  

PubMed

Genetic variation at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 30 horses from a feral herd from the Namib Desert of Namibia, Africa. The observed genetic variability was extremely low compared with that found in domestic horse breeds. The low variation was most probably a result of recent small population size and a small founding population size. Genetic comparison of the Namib horses, which were of unknown origins, to domestic horse breeds, showed that the Namib horses had the highest genetic similarity to Arabian type horses, although they did not closely resemble this type of horse in conformation. PMID:11563711

Cothran, E G; van Dyk, E; van der Merwe, F J

2001-03-01

415

Thermal stability studies of hyperimmune horse antivenoms.  

PubMed

Ampoules of horse antivenoms raised against Bothrops spp and Crotalus durissus (final product) produced by Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED) were fractionated on the molecular filtration chromatography (SUPEROSE 12) and the expected MW species of F(ab')2 fragments were observed. It has been known that high temperatures promote aggregation and formation of protein precipitates. Phenol is used in preparations of antivenoms as preservative; however, as thus is a hydrophobic substance, it can also induce an increase in protein denaturation. Sorbitol and glycerol were used as osmolyte (natural substance or organic compound capable of stabilizing proteins) and decreased the formation of protein precipitates in solutions of antibodies; as judged by a spectrophotometric assay (280 nm), by nephelometry or when tested by the ELISA. In 1.0 M concentration, the sorbitol presented the best results when compared with glycerol. Circular Dichroism (CD) was used to study the spectra of antibodies in the presence of PBS, glycerol or sorbitol. Up to 1.0 M concentration of the osmolyte, there is no significant perturbation of the antibodies spectra in the amide region, in control samples not incubated (kept at room temperature with no phenol added) or incubated at 62 degrees C in presence of phenol. Nephelometry and gel SDS-PAGE techniques were used in assays that demonstrated the effects of phenol (denaturing) and the osmolytes (stabilizing) in horse antivenoms in high temperatures. PMID:9920478

Rodrigues-Silva, R; Antunes, G F; Velarde, D T; Santoro, M M

1999-01-01

416

Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.  

PubMed

Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

2014-03-01

417

Occurrence and prevalence of fish-borne Anisakis larvae in the spotted mackerel Scomber australasicus from Taiwanese waters.  

PubMed

Anisakid nematodes have been found in a variety of marine fishes throughout the world and they are known to cause anisakiasis in human hosts. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in spotted mackerel caught from Taiwanese waters where fish represents an important food sources. Anisakis third-stage larvae (L3, n=502) were isolated from 250 spotted mackerel Scomber australasicus. Anisakis L3 larvae were divided morphologically into two types, Anisakis type I larvae had a longer ventriculus and mucron while type II larvae had a shorter ventriculus and no mucron. Anisakis species were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA and direct sequencing. A simple molecular taxonomic key, utilizing RFLP by two restriction enzymes HinfI and HhaI, enabled the differentiation of the genus Anisakis. The prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of Anisakis nematodes recorded for the total specimens were 72.8%, 2.8 (1-15) and 2.0 (0-15), respectively. Anisakis pegreffii was determined to be the dominant species (prevalence=57.2%) and important agent of human anisakiasis. A recombinant genotype (Anisakis simplex sensu stricto×A. pegreffii) was identified as the subdominant species (25.3%) followed by Anisakis typica (10%), Anisakis physeteris (4.0%), Anisakis paggiae (3.0%) and Anisakis brevispiculata (0.5%). The topology of the maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining trees show two well supported clades: one includes the species of A. pegreffii and the other includes A. paggiae, A. physeteris and A. brevispiculata, while A. typica has basal position to all other Anisakis spp. analyzed. This study advances our knowledge of the prevalence of different Anisakis spp. in the spotted mackerel from Taiwanese waters, which is helpful for monitoring the fish populations throughout a diverse array of aquatic ecosystems. More importantly, we provide the concise characterization of multiple Anisakis spp. by PCR-RFLP, which could also be applicable for the rapid diagnosis of human anisakiasis. PMID:25733490

Chen, Hui-Yu; Shih, Hsiu-Hui

2015-05-01

418

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

419

Serologic prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in horses slaughtered for food in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from 1788 horses slaughtered for food in North America were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified direct agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were found by the MAT in 124 (6.9%) of 1788 sera; the titers were 1:20 (69 horses), 1:40 (37 horses), 1:80 (9 horses), and ?1:160 (9 horses). A total of 339

J. P Dubey; P Thulliez; S Romand; O. C. H Kwok; S. K Shen; H. R Gamble

1999-01-01

420

Silicone ocular prosthesis in horses: 11 cases (1983-1987).  

PubMed

Horses experience a number of ophthalmic diseases and injuries that may result in loss of function of the eye. In the treatment of end-stage ophthalmic disease or injury that precludes salvage of the eye, the use of an inert, silicone prosthetic implant is a cosmetic alternative to simple enucleation. Eleven horses treated either by enucleation and insertion of an intraorbital prosthesis (n = 9) or by evisceration and insertion of an intraocular prosthesis (n = 2) were evaluated for postoperative complications and for long-term cosmetic results. Of the 11 horses treated, complication rate was low; during hospitalization, 1 horse with an intraorbital implant developed a localized incisional infection that resolved in response to antimicrobial therapy. Nine horses were available for follow-up evaluation. Cosmetic appearance was rated as excellent in 5 horses and good in 4 horses. Insertion of an intraocular implant had the best cosmetic result. Complications were not reported by any owner or caretaker. Routine use of intraorbital and intraocular implants is encouraged because of their modest cost and ease of insertion. PMID:2753804

Provost, P J; Ortenburger, A I; Caron, J P

1989-06-15

421

A Comparative Gene Map of the Horse (Equus caballus)  

PubMed Central

A comparative gene map of the horse genome composed of 127 loci was assembled based on the new assignment of 68 equine type I loci and on data published previously. PCR primers based on consensus gene sequences conserved across mammalian species were used to amplify markers for assigning 68 equine type I loci to 27 horse synteny groups established previously with a horse-mouse somatic cell hybrid panel (SCHP, UC Davis). This increased the number of coding genes mapped to the horse genome by over 2-fold and allowed refinements of the comparative mapping data available for this species. In conjunction with 57 previous assignments of type I loci to the horse genome map, these data have allowed us to confirm the assignment of 24 equine synteny groups to their respective chromosomes, to provisionally assign nine synteny groups to chromosomes, and to further refine the genetic composition established with Zoo-FISH of two horse chromosomes. The equine type I markers developed in this study provide an important resource for the future development of the horse linkage and physical genome maps. PMID:10613847

Caetano, Alexandre R.; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Lyons, Leslie A.; O'Brien, Steven J.; Laughlin, Thomas F.; Bowling, Ann T.; Murray, James D.

1999-01-01

422

Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

2014-01-01

423

Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research  

PubMed Central

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

2014-01-01

424

Future Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

425

Control of Strongylidae in horses by pasture rotation and chemotherapy  

E-print Network

stndy were to determine: 1. The length of ths props?eat period and its imper tents in the control of strongyles in horses. Tha effect of pastnre rotation as a means of controlling strongylosis in horses. S. The efficacy and tonicity of certain... of the larvae survival. AHTEgLM TNT X C EVAI Qk'T ZQN The efficiency and tonicity of various chemicals uss4 ss anthslmintics in the treatment of strongylas were determined by using horses with a heavy pretreatment in~ faction as svidsnce4 by egg per gram...

Sharp, Marvin Lafayette

1964-01-01

426

Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.  

PubMed

Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds. PMID:23706190

Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E

2013-08-01

427

Comparing Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A variety of classroom activities and lessons that compare the world's oceans. Activities included: The Gulf of Maine, Satellite Comparisons, Design a Fish, What Migrations, Incredible Feasting of Whales, Paddle to the Sea, and Ocean Soundings. Discover why weather at identical latitudes is not always the same, learn the different ways whales eat, and find out the temperature difference between the Gulf Stream and surrounding water. Links to other Aquarium modules.

428

Improvement of moistness and texture of high omega-3 fatty acid mackerel nuggets by inclusion of moisture-releasing ingredients.  

PubMed

In developing mince-based nugget products using mackerel, an abundant, underutilized, high omega-3 fatty acid species, attention was given to moistness and texture improvement with moisture-releasing ingredients. Three basic approaches were used: added water level variation (0 to 35%), varying added water-moisture-releasing vegetable combination (28/0, 21/7, 14/14, 7/21, 0/28), and varying milk-water combination (0/21, 7/14, 14/7, 21/0). Main ingredients of nugget included mackerel mince, mild cheddar cheese, and hydrated textured soy protein concentrate. The formulated products were molded, lightly battered, flash fried, and frozen until tested. Frozen nuggets were cooked to 65 degrees C and subjected to the Instron texture analysis (compressive force CF at 70% deformation, expressible fluid EF) and sensory analysis (firmness F, moistness M, overall desirability OD). The 28% added water, 7% moisture-releasing vegetable at 21% water, and 14:7 and 21:0 milk-water combinations were preferred (P < 0.05). Among the vegetables, onion and mushroom were preferred. Positive correlations were M-OD (r= 0.82), EF-OD (r= 0.54), and EF-M (r= 0.49), and negative correlations were F-OD (r=-0.83) and CF-OD (r=-0.34). Milk was more effective than water in rendering moistness and tender texture. The vegetable was effective in forming and making the cooked product moist with less liquid added by holding moisture release during forming and liquid cells after cooking. During warming under the lamps, the least decreases in sensory score, compressive force, and expressible fluid were observed in nuggets made with vegetable and milk. PMID:17995852

Lee, K H; Joaquin, H; Lee, C M

2007-03-01

429

Molecular characterization, tissue distribution, and mRNA expression profiles of two Kiss genes in the adult male and female chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) during different gonadal stages.  

PubMed

Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, have emerged as key modulators of reproduction in mammals. In contrast to the placental mammals, some teleosts express two Kiss genes, Kiss1 and Kiss2. In the present study, full-length cDNAs of Kiss1 and Kiss2 in the chub mackerel were cloned and sequenced. Chub mackerel Kiss1 and Kiss2 cDNAs encode 105 and 123 amino acids, respectively. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of chub mackerel Kiss1 and Kiss2 with those of other vertebrate species showed a high degree of conservation only in the kisspeptin-10 region (Kp-10). The Kp-10 of chub mackerel Kiss1 (YNFNSFGLRY) and Kiss2 (FNFNPFGLRF) showed variations at three amino acids. Tissue distribution analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the Kiss1 and Kiss2 transcripts were expressed in different tissues of adult chub mackerel. In addition, their levels in the adipose tissue exhibited sexually dimorphic expression. Further, to have a basic understanding on the involvement of Kiss1 and Kiss2 in the seasonal gonadal development, their relative mRNA expression profiles in the brain, pituitary, and gonads at different gonadal stages were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Kiss1 and Kiss2 levels in the brain showed a differential expression profile between male and female fish. In males, Kiss1 and Kiss2 levels gradually decreased from the immature stage to spermiation and reached a minimal level during the post-spawning period. In contrast, Kiss1 levels in the brain of females did not vary significantly among the different gonadal stages. However, Kiss2 levels fluctuated as that of males, gradually declining from the immature stage to the post-spawning period. The pituitary Kiss1 levels did not show significant fluctuations. However, Kiss1 levels in the gonads were highly elevated during spermiation and late vitellogenesis compared to the immature and post-spawning period. These results suggest the possible involvement of two Kiss genes in the brain and Kiss1 in the gonads of chub mackerel during seasonal gonadal development. PMID:20691652

Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Fujinaga, Yoichiro; Ohga, Hirofumi; Yoneda, Michio; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Shimizu, Akio; Matsuyama, Michiya

2010-10-01

430

Species distributions from English Celtic Sea  

E-print Network

and older) 24 7.6 Hake (1-group) 26 7.7 Horse mackerel (2-group and older) 28 7.8 Horse mackerel (1-group) 30 7.9 Megrim 32 7.10 Mackerel (2-group and older) 34 7.11 Mackerel (1-group) 36 7.12 Four The original objectives of this series of surveys were to investigate the distribution and biology of mackerel

431

Needlestick and infection with horse vaccine  

PubMed Central

This report describes a case of accidental needlestick injury involving a live equine vaccination, Equilis StrepE. A vet presented herself to the Emergency Department having accidentally injected herself with an equine vaccination. Her left thumb (injury site) was inflamed and had lymphangitis progressing proximally along her left arm. Her inflammatory markers were not raised. The swelling, erythma and lymphangitis had improved markedly with intravenous antibiotics. She had no sequelae at follow-up. Equilis StrepE is a vaccine for submucosal administration containing a modified live avirulent strain of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (Strain TW). Group C streptococci infections are pathogenic in horses and uncommon in humans. A search of the literature revealed no prior case report of similar adverse reaction to this vaccine. The vaccine may have harmful effect on human health, if injected accidentally but more evidence needs to be collected. PMID:22767480

Thompson, Robin N; McNicholl, Brian P

2010-01-01

432

Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehy...

433

9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2010-01-01

434

9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2014-01-01

435

9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2011-01-01

436

9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2011-01-01

437

9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2012-01-01

438

9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2014-01-01

439

9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2010-01-01

440

15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

441

6. Horse camp looking W. Great Smoky Mountains National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Horse camp looking W. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

442

The genetics of skeletal muscle disorders in horses.  

PubMed

Horses are remarkable athletes and a fascinating species in which to study the genetic bases of athletic performance, skeletal muscle biology, and neuromuscular disease. Genetic selection in horses has resulted in many breeds that possess anatomical, physiological, and metabolic variations linked to speed, power, and endurance that are beginning to be defined at the molecular level. Along with the concentration of positive traits, equine breeding programs have also inadvertently concentrated heritable muscle diseases for which mutations impacting electrical conduction, muscle contraction, and energy metabolism within and across breeds have been characterized. The study of heritable muscle diseases in horses has provided exciting insights into the normal structure and function of muscle and important diagnostic tools for veterinarians. Results empower breeders and breed associations to make difficult decisions about how to use this information to improve the overall health and well-being of horses. PMID:25387114

Mickelson, James R; Valberg, Stephanie J

2015-02-16

443

I don't own a horse, but . . . . . . . . Directions  

E-print Network

, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, age, veteran status, national origin, disability, or political was most informative or interesting in the book. E. View at least one horse film or video tape. Name

Liskiewicz, Maciej

444

27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...terms of viticultural significance. (b) Approved Maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Horse Heaven...Geological Survey (USGS) 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Umatilla Quadrangle,...

2010-04-01

445

Hematological and Biochemical Reference Values for the Endangered Kiso Horse  

PubMed Central

To establish blood and biochemical references for the endangered Kiso horse, blood samples were collected from 111 adult Kiso horses, 74.5% of the existing breed. The samples were analyzed for 23 hematological and biochemical parameters to determine their means and standard deviations (SD). We compared the mean ± 2SD with the reference values cited in one of the most commonly used veterinary textbooks in Japan. The hematology of Kiso horses is characterized by lower erythrocyte count and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. In addition, their serum biochemistry showed lower levels of aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and ?-glutamyl transferase. Whether these propensities are attributed to breed-specific factors or are acquired factors remains unclear. Nevertheless, this study provides useful diagnostic indices for the endangered Kiso horse. PMID:24834006

TAKASU, Masaki; NAGATANI, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; MAEDA, Masami; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

2013-01-01

446

Review article Adaptive strategies of African horse sickness virus  

E-print Network

............................................................................................ 6 3. Adaptation for transmission from host to vector ................................................................... 9 5. Adaptation for transmission from vector to hostReview article Adaptive strategies of African horse sickness virus to facilitate vector

Boyer, Edmond

447

Epidemiology of Airborne Virulent Rhodococcus equi at Horse Breeding Farms  

E-print Network

Rhodococcus equi causes severe pneumonia, resulting in disease and sometimes death of foals. Infection is thought to occur by inhalation of dust contaminated with virulent R equi. A recent study of 3 horse breeding farms in Ireland found airborne...

Kuskie, Kyle Ryan

2012-02-14

448

4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE AT THE FAR RIGHT, AND THE STORE ROOM DOOR IS AT THE NEAR RIGHT. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

449

The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important cause of pain, disability and economic loss in humans, and is similarly important in the horse. Recent knowledge on post-traumatic OA has suggested opportunities for early intervention, but it is difficult to identify the appropriate time of these interventions. The horse provides two useful mechanisms to answer these questions: 1) extensive experience with clinical OA in horses; and 2) use of a consistently predictable model of OA that can help study early pathobiological events, define targets for therapeutic intervention and then test these putative therapies. This paper summarises the syndromes of clinical OA in horses including pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, and details controlled studies of various treatment options using an equine model of clinical OA. PMID:23610661

McIlwraith, C. W.; Frisbie, D. D.; Kawcak, C. E.

2012-01-01

450

Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California  

PubMed Central

A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified. PMID:11927026

Kinde, Hailu; Jay, Michele T.; Kramer, Laura D.; Green, Emily-Gene N.; Chiles, Robert E.; Ostlund, Eileen; Husted, Stan; Smith, Jonathan; Parker, Michael D.

2002-01-01

451

Outbreak of trichinosis in France associated with eating horse meat.  

PubMed

The investigation of a trichinosis outbreak in Auvergne, France identified 23 cases in 12 households living in two cities-Clermont-Ferrand and Montluçon-between 15 February and 7 March 1991. One patient required intensive care, 15 had major symptoms, and seven had minor or no symptoms. Two case control studies demonstrated a significant (p < 0.01) association between eating horse meat and acute trichinosis. Veterinary services found that three supermarkets where the patients had bought horse meat during the suspected period had been supplied by a single wholesaler. The analysis of the wholesaler's records revealed that the implicated horse meat had been imported from a slaughterhouse in the United States. This outbreak occurred despite a requirement in France for all meat from horses slaughtered in France and in countries exporting meat to France to be examined systematically for trichinella. PMID:9175309

Laurichesse, H; Cambon, M; Perre, D; Ancelle, T; Mora, M; Hubert, B; Beytout, J; Rey, M

1997-05-01

452

9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the horse and its accompanying equipment to be disinfected as a precautionary measure against the introduction of foot-and-mouth disease or any other disease dangerous to the livestock of the United States. [61 FR 52245, Oct. 7,...

2010-01-01

453

Plasma Citrulline Levels in Horses at Risk of Acute Laminitis  

E-print Network

Laminitis is a painful and irreversible disease in horses in which the soft tissue structures of the foot, called the laminae (connecting the coffin bone to the hoof wall), lose blood flow and deteriorate. Without the support of these laminae...

Jackson, Amy Lynn

2013-04-10

454

Infection of Immunodeficient Horses with Sarcocystis neurona Does Not Result in Neurologic Disease  

PubMed Central

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neurovirulence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were infected orally with 5 × 105 sporocysts of S. neurona. Four IC horses and one SCID horse were infected intravenously (i.v.) with 5 × 108 merozoites of the WSU-1 isolate of S. neurona. Despite prolonged parasitemia and persistent infection of visceral tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and spleen) as demonstrated by PCR and culture, SCID horses did not develop neurologic signs after oral or i.v. infection. S. neurona was undetectable in the neuronal tissues of SCID horses by either PCR, immunohistochemistry, or culture. In contrast, although parasitemia was undetectable in orally infected IC horses and of only short duration in i.v. infected IC horses, four of six IC horses developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was detectable by PCR and/or culture of neural tissue but not visceral tissue of IC horses with neurologic disease. Infected SCID horses are unable to clear S. neurona from visceral tissues, but the infection does not result in neurologic signs; in contrast, IC horses rapidly control parasitemia and infection of visceral tissues but frequently experience neuroinvasion and exhibit clinical signs of neurologic disease. PMID:15539518

Sellon, Debra C.; Knowles, Donald P.; Greiner, Ellis C.; Long, Maureen T.; Hines, Melissa T.; Hochstatter, Tressa; Tibary, Ahmed; Dame, John B.

2004-01-01

455

Infection of immunodeficient horses with Sarcocystis neurona does not result in neurologic disease.  

PubMed

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neurovirulence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were infected orally with 5 x 10(5) sporocysts of S. neurona. Four IC horses and one SCID horse were infected intravenously (i.v.) with 5 x 10(8) merozoites of the WSU-1 isolate of S. neurona. Despite prolonged parasitemia and persistent infection of visceral tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and spleen) as demonstrated by PCR and culture, SCID horses did not develop neurologic signs after oral or i.v. infection. S. neurona was undetectable in the neuronal tissues of SCID horses by either PCR, immunohistochemistry, or culture. In contrast, although parasitemia was undetectable in orally infected IC horses and of only short duration in i.v. infected IC horses, four of six IC horses developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was detectable by PCR and/or culture of neural tissue but not visceral tissue of IC horses with neurologic disease. Infected SCID horses are unable to clear S. neurona from visceral tissues, but the infection does not result in neurologic signs; in contrast, IC horses rapidly control parasitemia and infection of visceral tissues but frequently experience neuroinvasion and exhibit clinical signs of neurologic disease. PMID:15539518

Sellon, Debra C; Knowles, Donald P; Greiner, Ellis C; Long, Maureen T; Hines, Melissa T; Hochstatter, Tressa; Tibary, Ahmed; Dame, John B

2004-11-01

456

Crystallization and preliminary diffraction data for horse heart metmyoglobin.  

PubMed

Reddish-brown crystals of metmyoglobin from horse heart have been obtained by both the hanging drop and batch crystallization methods in the space group P2(1), having a = 64.3 A, b = 28.9 A and c = 35.9 A, with beta = 107.1 degree. Morphologically similar crystal forms have been obtained for three derivatives of horse heart myoglobin having modified heme prosthetic groups. PMID:3586021

Sherwood, C; Mauk, A G; Brayer, G D

1987-01-01

457

Wild Horse Protection Policies: Environmental and Animal Ethics in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild horse protection policies in the United States and the Netherlands reflect ethical claims and scientific arguments, often cast as opposing positions favoring the integrity of self-sustaining ecosystems versus the welfare of individual animals. Neither holistic eco-centric, nor individualistic bio-centric ethical claims provide guidance to public sector practitioners who care for wild horses removed from U.S. public rangelands and living

Christine M. Reed

2008-01-01

458

Nitrogen balance in mature horses at varying levels of work  

E-print Network

NITROGEN BALANCE IN MATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1981 Major Subject: Animal Science NITROGEN BALANCE IN NATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Approved as to style and content by: (Chai an o Committee) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Head of Departmen ) December...

Freeman, David Wayne

1981-01-01

459

On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses.  

PubMed

The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The results suggest that a prior claim that the extinction of horses preceded the arrival of humans cannot be made with confidence. PMID:16651534

Solow, Andrew R; Roberts, David L; Robbirt, Karen M

2006-05-01

460

The effect of colic on oxygen extraction in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood oxygen transport and oxygen extraction were assessed in horses with colic. A gravity score (GS) ranging from 1 to 3 was attributed to each colic case with healthy horses used as controls. Jugular venous and carotid arterial blood samples were collected and concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, inorganic phosphate and chloride were determined. pH and partial pressures of carbon

C. Cambier; M. Wierinckx; S. Grulke; T. Clerbaux; D. Serteyn; B. Detry; M.-P. Liardet; A. Frans; P. Gustin

2008-01-01

461

Ocean Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waves observed in the ocean are extremely irregular and, from a physics standpoint, it seems impossible to describe this chaotic situation. Scientists can describe the situation by means of a stochastic approach. This book describes the stochastic method for ocean wave analysis. This method provides a route to predicting the characteristics of random ocean waves--information vital for the design and safe operation of ships and ocean structures. Assuming a basic knowledge of probability theory, the book begins with a chapter describing the essential elements of wind-generated random seas from the stochastic point of view. The following three chapters introduce spectral analysis techniques, probabilistic predictions of wave amplitudes, wave height and periodicity. A further four chapters discuss sea severity, extreme sea state, the directional wave energy spreading in random seas and special wave events such as wave breaking and group phenomena. Finally the stochastic properties of non-Gaussian waves are presented. Useful appendices and an extensive reference list are included. Examples of practical applications of the theories presented can be found throughout the text. This book will be suitable as a text for graduate students of naval, ocean and coastal engineering. It will also serve as a useful reference for research scientists and engineers working in this field.

Ochi, Michel K.

2005-07-01

462

Ocean Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waves observed in the ocean are extremely irregular and, from a physics standpoint, it seems impossible to describe this chaotic situation. Scientists can describe the situation by means of a stochastic approach. This book describes the stochastic method for ocean wave analysis. This method provides a route to predicting the characteristics of random ocean waves--information vital for the design and safe operation of ships and ocean structures. Assuming a basic knowledge of probability theory, the book begins with a chapter describing the essential elements of wind-generated random seas from the stochastic point of view. The following three chapters introduce spectral analysis techniques, probabilistic predictions of wave amplitudes, wave height and periodicity. A further four chapters discuss sea severity, extreme sea state, the directional wave energy spreading in random seas and special wave events such as wave breaking and group phenomena. Finally the stochastic properties of non-Gaussian waves are presented. Useful appendices and an extensive reference list are included. Examples of practical applications of the theories presented can be found throughout the text. This book will be suitable as a text for graduate students of naval, ocean and coastal engineering. It will also serve as a useful reference for research scientists and engineers working in this field.

Ochi, Michel K.

1998-03-01

463

Mitochondrial DNA lineages of Italian Giara and Sarcidano horses.  

PubMed

Giara and Sarcidano are 2 of the 15 extant native Italian horse breeds with limited dispersal capability that originated from a larger number of individuals. The 2 breeds live in two distinct isolated locations on the island of Sardinia. To determine the genetic structure and evolutionary history of these 2 Sardinian breeds, the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced and analyzed in 40 Giara and Sarcidano horses and compared with publicly available mtDNA data from 43 Old World breeds. Four different analyses, including genetic distance, analysis of molecular variance, haplotype sharing, and clustering methods, were used to study the genetic relationships between the Sardinian and other horse breeds. The analyses yielded similar results, and the FST values indicated that a high percentage of the total genetic variation was explained by between-breed differences. Consistent with their distinct phenotypes and geographic isolation, the two Sardinian breeds were shown to consist of 2 distinct gene pools that had no gene flow between them. Giara horses were clearly separated from the other breeds examined and showed traces of ancient separation from horses of other breeds that share the same mitochondrial lineage. On the other hand, the data from the Sarcidano horses fit well with variation among breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and North-West Europe: genetic relationships among Sarcidano and the other breeds are consistent with the documented history of this breed. PMID:25366719

Morelli, L; Useli, A; Sanna, D; Barbato, M; Contu, D; Pala, M; Cancedda, M; Francalacci, P

2014-01-01

464

Four Loci Explain 83% of Size Variation in the Horse  

PubMed Central

Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS) that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication. PMID:22808074

Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Hoffman, Gabriel E.; Allen, Jeremy J.; Chu, Erin; Gu, Esther; Chandler, Alyssa M.; Loredo, Ariel I.; Bellone, Rebecca R.; Mezey, Jason G.; Brooks, Samantha A.; Sutter, Nathan B.

2012-01-01

465

Outcome of treatment in 23 horses with progressive ethmoidal haematoma.  

PubMed

This paper describes the outcome of treatment in 23 horses with an ethmoidal haematoma. In 22 cases a diagnosis could be made by endoscopic means alone but in 1 horse the lesion was confined to the maxillary sinus and a diagnosis was made only at surgery. One horse was destroyed at the owner's request but the other 22 underwent radical excision of the lesion via a facial flap approach under general anaesthesia. Post-operative haemorrhage was controlled by nasal packing with a gauze bandage and this was removed between the 2nd and 4th post-operative day. One horse died from encephalitis the day after surgery. Other complications included facial wound dehiscence, sequestration and suture periostitis. Of 21 horses followed up post-operatively there was definite recurrence of lesion in 2 cases and possibly a third. However, in 18 horses there was no evidence of recurrence (follow up times were 2 to 85 months). It is suggested that radical excision of the lesion provides an effective means of treatment. PMID:1459061

Greet, T R

1992-11-01

466

Analysis of MHC class I genes across horse MHC haplotypes  

PubMed Central

The genomic sequences of 15 horse Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I genes and a collection of MHC class I homozygous horses of five different haplotypes were used to investigate the genomic structure and polymorphism of the equine MHC. A combination of conserved and locus-specific primers was used to amplify horse MHC class I genes with classical and non-classical characteristics. Multiple clones from each haplotype identified three to five classical sequences per homozygous animal, and two to three non-classical sequences. Phylogenetic analysis was applied to these sequences and groups were identified which appear to be allelic series, but some sequences were left ungrouped. Sequences determined from MHC class I heterozygous horses and previously described MHC class I sequences were then added, representing a total of ten horse MHC haplotypes. These results were consistent with those obtained from the MHC homozygous horses alone, and 30 classical sequences were assigned to four previously confirmed loci and three new provisional loci. The non-classical genes had few alleles and the classical genes had higher levels of allelic polymorphism. Alleles for two classical loci with the expected pattern of polymorphism were found in the majority of haplotypes tested, but alleles at two other commonly detected loci had more variation outside of the hypervariable region than within. Our data indicate that the equine Major Histocompatibility Complex is characterized by variation in the complement of class I genes expressed in different haplotypes in addition to the expected allelic polymorphism within loci. PMID:20099063

Tallmadge, Rebecca L.; Campbell, Julie A.; Miller, Donald C.; Antczak, Douglas F.

2010-01-01

467

Old World first appearance datum of “Hipparion” horses: Late Miocene large-mammal dispersal and global events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetobiochronological dating of the late Miocene hipparionine horses (“Hipparion”) in the western Mediterranean places its first appearance datum (FAD) in the circum-Mediterranean region at the Chron C5r, at a minimum age of 11.1 Ma. This date challenges some of the widely accepted datings of this bioevent in western Eurasia and is relevant to the discussion of the mode and tempo of “Hipparion” dispersal. The migration of the “Hipparion” North American ancestor is related to the glacioeustatic sea-level lowstand of the supercycle TB3.1 (early Tortonian) and to the concurrent deep-sea hiatus NH4 and oceanic ?18O isotopic event Mi5. The “Hipparion” dispersal was a conspicuous, worldwide, on-land bioevent that was coeval with major late Miocene oceanic and high-latitude paleoclimatic global changes.

Garcés, Miguel; Cabrera, Lluís; Agustí, Jordi; Parés, Josep Maria

1997-01-01

468

IHH gene polymorphism among three horse breeds and its application for association test in horses with osteochondrosis.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphism of IHH gene were investigated in Angloarabian, Polish Coldblood and Polish Halfbred horses with the inclusion of a group of Polish Halfbreds affected by osteochondrosis. IHH is a good candidate gene for association study of developmental disorders mainly affecting skeleton development. DNA sequence spanning IHH gene annotated in the horse genome and its putative promoter were investigated using SANGER sequencing. Analysis of genetic variability at polymorphic sites in the IHH gene body and the promoter region confirmed genetic differences between warmblood and coldblood horse breeds. A test for allelic and genotypic association at particular SNP sites revealed no association with osteochondrosis in investigated group of Polish Halfbreds. It was concluded that participation of different warmblood breeds in pedigrees of Polish Halfbreds make it difficult to search for genetic variants being associated with this complex disorder in this breed. IHH gene polymorphism investigated among three different horse populations would be valuable for further studies on equine bone developmental disorders. PMID:23865964

Zabek, T; Golonka, P; Fornal, A; Semik, E

2013-06-01

469

36 CFR 222.26 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.26 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

2012-07-01

470

36 CFR 222.66 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.66 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

2013-07-01

471

36 CFR 222.66 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.66 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

2014-07-01

472

36 CFR 222.26 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.26 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

2010-07-01

473

Fatty alcohols in capelin, herring and mackerel oils and muscle lipids: II. A comparison of fatty acids from wax esters with those of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acids recovered from the triglycerides and wax esters of common northwest Atlantic copepods are compared with the\\u000a fatty acids of wax esters recovered intact from certain fish skin and body lipid, and from commercial fish oils. The fish\\u000a species, herring, capelin and mackerel, all feed on copepods, and many resemblances of the copepod lipid fatty acids to those

W. N. Ratnayake; R. G. Ackman

1979-01-01

474

Fatty alcohols in capelin, herring and mackerel oils and muscle lipids: I. Fatty alcohol details linking dietary copepod fat with certain fish depot fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the shorter chain (C14-C18) minor fatty alcohols in copepods, fish body lipids, and commercial fish oils are all qualitatively present, and quantitatively\\u000a similar in proportions to acids found in the depot fats of capelin and mackerel, and in some herring. Although these fatty\\u000a acids can be formed de novo in fish, copepod alcohols offer an alternative

W. N. Ratnayake; R. G. Ackman

1979-01-01

475

Mackerel skin lipids as an unsaturated fat model system for the determination of antioxidative potency of TBHQ and other antioxidant compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  A comparative study on the activity of antioxidation of butylhydroxy anisole, (BHA), butylhydroxy toluene (BHT),tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), ?-tocopherol, and tempeh oil has been investigated by using the readily oxidizable mackerel skin\\u000a lipids as the tested model system. The oxidation rate of the tested lipids was mainly followed by measuring the weight gain,\\u000a but some peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and

P. J. Ke; D. M. Nash; R. G. Ackman

1977-01-01

476

mRNA levels of kisspeptins, kisspeptin receptors, and GnRH1 in the brain of chub mackerel during puberty.  

PubMed

Kisspeptin (Kiss) and its cognate receptor (Kiss1R), implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH secretion in mammals, have been proposed to be the key factors in regulating puberty. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of puberty in fish are poorly understood. The chub mackerel Scomber japonicus expresses two forms of Kiss (kiss1 and kiss2) and two Kiss receptor (kissr1 and kissr2) genes in the brain, which exhibit sexually dimorphic changes during the seasonal reproductive cycle. This indicates that the kisspeptin system plays an important role in gonadal recrudescence of chub mackerel; however, the involvement of the kisspeptin system in the pubertal process has not been identified. In the present study, we examined the mRNA expression of kiss1, kiss2, kissr1, kissr2, and gnrh1 (hypophysiotropic form) in the brain of a chub mackerel during puberty. In male fish, kiss2, kissr1 and kissr2 levels increased significantly at 14weeks post-hatch (wph), synchronously with an increase in type A spermatogonial populations in the testis; kiss2 and gnrh1 levels significantly increased at 22wph, just before the onset of meiosis in the testes. In female fish, kiss2 increased significantly at 14wph, synchronously with an increase in the number of perinucleolar oocytes in the ovary; kiss1 and kiss2 levels significantly increased concomitantly with an increase in the kissr1, kissr2, and gnrh1 levels at 24wph, just before the onset of vitellogenesis in oocytes. The present results suggest positive involvement of the kisspeptin-GnRH system in the pubertal process in the captive reared chub mackerel. PMID:25250485

Ohga, Hirofumi; Adachi, Hayato; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kodama, Ryoko; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Selvaraj, Sethu; Kato, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2015-01-01

477

Ocean Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean spray consists of small water droplets ejected from the ocean surface following surface breaking wave events. These drops get transported in the marine atmospheric boundary layer, in which they exchange momentum and heat with the atmosphere. Small spray droplets are transported over large distances and can remain in the atmosphere for several days, where they will scatter radiation; evaporate entirely, leaving behind sea salt; participate in the aerosol chemical cycle; and act as cloud condensation nuclei. Large droplets remain close to the ocean surface and affect the air-sea fluxes of momentum and enthalpy, thereby enhancing the intensity of tropical cyclones. This review summarizes recent progress and the emerging consensus about the number flux and implications of small sea spray droplets. I also summarize shortcomings in our understanding of the impact of large spray droplets on the meteorology of storm systems.

Veron, Fabrice

2015-01-01

478

Arctic Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

479

Ocean Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site offers a review of the surface circulation of Earth's ocean and classroom investigations appropriate for various disciplines at the high school level. Articles and video interviews about ocean current research, interactive data visualizes, news articles, simplified models, teacher and student guides are included. This site highlights use on-line satellite data of Earth for understanding patterns of ocean surface currents and how they relate to human exploration, commerce, science, weather/climate, and pollution. The interdisciplinary investigations included are classroom-ready, aiming to help high school students practice science, mathematics and writing skills in accordance to national standards. The topics covered also align with the traditional high school curriculum. Each investigation is keyed to the stages of the 5 E's teacher/learning model.

2007-01-01

480

Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration  

PubMed Central

Background The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]). Methodology/Principal Findings Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n?=?19) received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n?=?21) received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C). These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS) scores and horse grimace scale (HGS) scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B) showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups. Conclusions The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules. PMID:24647606

Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Minero, Michela; Lebelt, Dirk; Stucke, Diana; Canali, Elisabetta; Leach, Matthew C.

2014-01-01

481

Understanding Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on oceans currents and their effects. Students do a lab activity to show that temperature is what causes ocean currents. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

Mary Cahill

482

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

Vicki Osis

483

Does the timing of the spawning migration change for the southern component of the Northeast Atlantic Mackerel ( Scomber scombrus, L. 1758)? An approximation using fishery analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part of the Northeast Atlantic mackerel population migrates towards the southern spawning area (Cantábrian Sea) at the end of winter. In this seasonal handline fishery targeting mackerel, the most important in the study area that targets this species, the timing of the peak of catches has shifted forward (later) in recent years. This paper presents results pointing to the likelihood that this shift is due to a change in the timing of the spawning migration to the southern area of the Northeast Atlantic mackerel population. Three types of fleet have been identified within this fishery, and in all of them there is a forward shift in time in effort exerted. Moreover, a new model has been defined for the standardization of catch per unit effort (CPUE). The fishing season appears to have shifted forward by 29 days between 2000 and 2006. Nevertheless, changes have been detected neither in the exploitation pattern nor in the duration of the fishing season during the period studied. A shift on this scale has important consequences for the management of the resource, the fleets that exploit it and the resource assessment survey designs that will have to be adapted to this new scenario.

Punzón, Antonio; Villamor, Begoña

2009-05-01

484

A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Methods A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. Results MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase-negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95% CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusions It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses. PMID:23620832

Mallardo, Karina; Nizza, Sandra; Fiorito, Filomena; Pagnini, Ugo; De Martino, Luisa

2013-01-01

485

Influence of Equine Conformation on Rider Oscillation and Evaluation of Horses for Therapeutic Riding  

PubMed Central

To obtain basic knowledge about selecting horses for therapeutic riding, the influence of equine conformation on rider oscillation and relationships between these factors and the evaluation on horses as the therapeutic riding were studied. Thirty-five riding horses were used. Equine conformation was estimated by 24 indices. Rider oscillation was measured by an accelerometer fixed at the rider’s waist. The spatial position of the oscillation was estimated by a double integration of the acceleration. Horses were evaluated for therapeutic riding by a Riding for the Disabled Association instructor as a rider. Evaluations were on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest score for 27 items. Horses were classified into 4 groups: the short and narrow (SN), short and wide (SW), tall and narrow (TN), and tall and wide (TW). The frequencies of rider oscillation both at walk and trot were higher (P<0.01), and the vertical (P<0.01) and longitudinal (P<0.05) amplitudes at trot were smaller, on short horses than on tall horses. The vertical amplitude at walk was smaller (P<0.05) and the lateral amplitude at trot was larger (P<0.01) on wide horses than on narrow horses. Short horses could be used for the rider who requires side walkers. Wide horses could be used for relieving muscular tension and for the rider who could not maintain good balance on the horse. Short and wide horses should be suitable for therapeutic riding. PMID:24833950

MATSUURA, Akihiro; OHTA, Emiko; UEDA, Koichiro; NAKATSUJI, Hiroki; KONDO, Seiji

2008-01-01

486

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

487

Empty Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the human population affect the population of marine species? What can citizens do to sustain seafood populations? In this lesson, students will learn how pieces of the ocean food web, fish, are being removed faster than they can be replenished. Students will also learn how they can become informed consumers to promote sustainable seafood.

488

Ocean Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) team produces high-resolution detailed imagery of significant ocean events. OSEI products typically include sea surface temperature plots and single-channel imagery of oil spills. The images are available in several different file sizes; standard (full resolution) and preview (thumbnail).

Operational Signifcant Event Imagery

489

Ocean World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The majority of Ocean World is devoted to a series of ten reference sections: coral reefs, currents, El Nino, Fisheries, Ice Ages, icebergs, JASON-1 (a satellite), the role of the ocean in weather, satellites and ocean exploration, and waves. Each section culminates with an interactive quiz, links to sources of related real-time data, and a list of additional related links. Also available is a set of supplementary services, including a glossary, a question and answer section called Ask Dr.Bob, an index page for all of the available real-time dataset sources, primer pages on the use of internet technology, and links to three distance learning courses in oceanography offered by Texas A&M university. An additional series of link lists are broken up into Four Star Sites, General Links, and (the site author's) Bookmarks. Finally, under a teacher's introductory section to the site, instructors can access a guide to using Ocean World in the classroom, find advice on teaching oceanography in general, locate technology lab stations, and follow links to additional teaching resources.

490

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students choose shell fragments from different species of Molluscs and calculate percent lose after soaking in different ph solutions for different periods of time. They research ocean acidification and especially local events off the Oregon coast to apply to this activity.

Jennifer Bown

491

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum. PMID:22935132

2012-01-01

492

Rabies in horses: 21 cases (1970-1990).  

PubMed

The records of 21 horses with rabies were reviewed. Results of fluorescent antibody testing for rabies antigen in brain tissue were positive in each case. According to the histories, 5 of the horses had been vaccinated for rabies between 4 to 24 months prior to the onset of the clinical signs. Bite wounds were not observed on any of the horses, and exposure to a suspected rabid animal was witnessed in only 5 cases. Clinical signs of disease at the time of initial examination included ataxia and paresis of the hindquarters (9/21, 43%), lameness (5/21, 24%), recumbency (3/21, 14%), pharyngeal paralysis (2/21, 10%), and colic (2/21, 10%). The major clinical signs observed over the course of hospitalization included recumbency (21/21; 100%), hyperesthesia (17/21; 81%), loss of tail and anal sphincter tone (12/21; 57%), fever (11/21; 52%), and ataxia and paresis of the hindquarters (11/21; 52%). Mean survival time after the onset of clinical signs was 4.47 days (range, 1 to 7 days). Supportive treatment, given to 9 horses, had no effect on survival time and did not correlate with the detection of negri bodies at necropsy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from 6 horses and was determined to be abnormal in 5. The most common abnormality was a slightly high total cell count (5/6), with a predominance of lymphocytes (4/6). The CSF total protein concentration was high in only 2 horses. At necropsy, there was gross evidence of diffuse brain edema, meningeal congestion, and focal areas of hemorrhage in 5 horses (24%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1607322

Green, S L; Smith, L L; Vernau, W; Beacock, S M

1992-04-15

493

Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.  

PubMed

Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students. PMID:22767090

Ralston, Sarah L

2012-12-01

494

Prevalence and species of ticks on horses in central Oklahoma.  

PubMed

Ticks are common on horses, but there is a dearth of contemporary data on infestation prevalence, predominant species, and tick-borne disease agents important in this host. To determine the species of ticks most common on horses and the prevalence of equine exposure to and infection with tick-borne disease agents, ticks and blood samples were collected from 73 horses during May, June, and July of 2010. Adult ticks were identified to species, and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi were identified using indirect fluorescence antibody assay, a commercial point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or both. In total, 1,721 ticks were recovered at the majority (85%) of equid examinations. Amblyomma americanum (L.) was the most common tick collected (1,598 out of 1,721; 92.9%) followed by Dermacentor variabilis (Say, 1821) (85 out of 1,721; 4.9%) and Amblyomma maculatum Koch, 1844 (36 out of 1,721; 2.1%); single specimens of Ixodes scapularis Say, 1821 and Dermacentor albipictus (Packard, 1869) were also identified. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were found in 18 out of 73 (24.7%) of horses tested, and were more commonly identified in horses with moderate or high tick infestations than those with low tick infestations (P < 0.001). These data support A. americanum as the most common tick species infesting horses in central Oklahoma from May through July and suggest horses are also commonly exposed to an Ehrlichia sp. PMID:24843940

Duell, Jason R; Carmichael, Robert; Herrin, Brian H; Holbrook, Todd C; Talley, Justin; Little, Susan E

2013-11-01

495

76 FR 78692 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Wild Horse and Burro...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Council's wild horse and burro management subcommittee will meet as indicated...work on issues associated with management of wild horses and burros on...through the BLM, on a variety of planning and management issues associated with...

2011-12-19

496

Body composition and nutrient metabolism in juvenile athletic horses treated with exogenous equine somatotropin  

E-print Network

Twenty-nine long-yearling horses completed 128 days of conventional race training. Horses were assigned by age to treatment groups; fifteen were injected daily with exogenous equine somatotropin, while fourteen received saline injections...

Sutfin, Jonathan Arthur

2000-01-01

497

Selection and Use of Hay and Processed Roughage in Horse Feeding  

E-print Network

Roughage, fed on a regular basis, helps a horse's digestive system function properly and meets some percentage of the horse's daily nutrient requirements. Proper selection of roughage, avoiding inferior quality foodstuffs, and daily roughage intake...

Gibbs, Pete G.

2005-04-15

498

9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses...importation from regions of Central America or of the West Indies, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

2014-01-01

499

9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses...importation from regions of Central America or of the West Indies, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

2013-01-01

500

9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses...importation from regions of Central America or of the West Indies, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

2012-01-01