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1

Validation of Ageing Techniques on Otoliths of Horse Mackerel ('Trachurus trachurus L.').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Except in young fish, age determination in the horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus L.) presented considerable difficulties. At the Horse Mackerel Age Determination Workshop in Lowestoft (UK) in 1987 ten otolith readers participated. Nine used the same and...

A. Eltink C. J. Kuiter

1989-01-01

2

Effect of Storage Temperature on Quality of Frozen Horse-mackerel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality change of frozen horse-mackerel were studied under storage temperature at -18, -23, -30 and -40°C for 12 months. Quality were measured with K value (Freshness index of muscle, degradation ratio of ATP), amount of drip (free and expressible drip), water-holdiog capacity, weight ratio of cooking loss, organoleptic test, and histological feature of muscle. K value, a mount of free drip, w eight ratio of cooking loss, histological feature of muscle, and organoleptic test in color, form and flavor were not detected any changes during frozen storage for 12 months at various temperature. However expressible drip, water-holding capacity and score of taste in organoleptic test showed some changes after 8 or 12 months at -18 and/or -23°C, it was not serious change to-loss quality as food. Frozen horse-mackerel can store under below ~ 18°C for 12 months.

Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohtaka, Tateo

3

Amino Acid and Vitamin Composition of Raw and Cooked Horse Mackerel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid, vitamin (A, E, B1, B2, B3 and B6), and proximate composition were determined in raw and cooked horse mackerel. The changes in amino acid, vitamin, and proximate\\u000a content were found to be significant for all cooking methods (frying, grilling, and steaming). Cooking did in general significantly\\u000a increase the contents of essential, semi-essential, and other amino acids compared to

Nuray Erkan; Arif Selçuk; Özkan Özden

2010-01-01

4

Alkali and Acid Solubilization Effects on Rheological Properties of Horse Mackerel Muscle Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of the acid (Type A) and alkali (Type B) solubilization of muscle proteins in the viscoelastic properties of surimi and surimi gels made from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) muscle were evaluated. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that surimi from method B presents higher viscoelastic moduli, lowest values of phase angle and minimum viscoelastic moduli dependence with frequency than surimi A. These results show a high inicial protein aggregation in surimi B, that could explain the greater firmness and hardness of this sample, showing a more compact network structure. From static and dynamic tests, gel developed from alkali solubilization resulted in higher gel strength and more rigid network than that from acidic pH, despite the incial protein aggregation of surimi B its protein keeps better gelation capacity. The less structural quality of GA gel is likely due to the more lipid content on the surimi as compared to alkali treatment.

Campo-Deaño, L.; Tovar, C. A.

2008-07-01

5

Purification and biochemical characterization of antioxidant peptide from horse mackerel (Magalaspis cordyla) viscera protein.  

PubMed

In the present study, a peptide having high antioxidant properties was isolated from horse mackerel viscera protein, Magalaspis cordyla. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion was employed to obtain potential protein hydrolysate and was subjected to consecutive chromatographic methods using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) connected to diethyl amino ethyl (DEAE) anion exchange column and Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column. The activity of the fractions was tested against DPPH and hydroxyl radicals and the isolated peptide showed 89.2 and 59.1 percentage of scavenging. The amino acid sequence of purified peptide was determined using ESI-MS/MS as Ala-Cys-Phe-Leu (518.5 Da), it exhibited high activity against polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation than that of natural antioxidant, ?-tocopherol. PMID:21640151

Sampath Kumar, N S; Nazeer, R A; Jaiganesh, R

2011-07-01

6

Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from the skin protein hydrolysate of two marine fishes, horse mackerel ( Magalaspis cordyla ) and croaker ( Otolithes ruber )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, two peptides with antioxidant properties were purified from skin protein hydrolysates of horse mackerel\\u000a (Magalaspis cordyla) and croaker (Otolithes ruber) by consecutive chromatographic fractionations including ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. By\\u000a electron spray ionization double mass spectrometry (ESI-MS\\/MS), the sequence of the peptide from the skin protein hydrolysate\\u000a of horse mackerel was identified to

N. S. Sampath Kumar; R. A. Nazeer; R. Jaiganesh

7

Headspace volatiles along with other instrumental and sensory analyses as indices of maturation of horse mackerel miso.  

PubMed

Development of aroma-active compounds during fermentation in the preparation of fermented fish-meat paste product (fish miso) from horse mackerel meat was quantitatively determined and characterized by olfactometric and organoleptic assessments. The critical ripening time was estimated by quantitative and/or qualitative analyses of volatile compounds, peptides, amino acids, product color, and total phenolics of the fish miso matrix throughout fermentation. The results confirmed that the application of koji for the fermentation of horse mackerel meat to produce fish miso significantly reduced the fishy off odor and promoted the development of highly acceptable fish miso with a nutty, cheesy, and fruity aroma. Ethyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl decanoate, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione, dimethyl trisulfide, and 3-(methylthio) propanal were identified as key odor-active compounds in fish miso prepared from horse mackerel meat. Among the volatiles, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2,3-butanedione were identified to serve as potential indicators of the maturation of fish miso. Amino acid content could also be a potential indicator of maturation of protein-rich, fermented products such as fish miso. In addition, surface color analysis of fish miso revealed a high correlation between sensory attributes and color components. Specifically, r and b values were considered potential indicators of maturation. Practical Application: Variability is a major drawback in fermented products such as fish miso and it requires establishing the optimum ripening time, defined as that providing the aroma attributes qualitatively and quantitatively mostly appreciated by consumers. We have carried out this work for comprehensive determination of the critical ripening time by applying several instrumental and sensory tools including quantitative and/or qualitative analysis of volatile compounds, peptides, amino acids, product color, and total phenolics of the fish miso matrix throughout the fermentation period. The outcome of the present study can be efficiently applied for detection of maturation in similar types of fermented product for large-scale production. PMID:21535514

Giri, Anupam; Okamoto, Akira; Okazaki, Emiko; Ohshima, Toshiaki

2010-10-01

8

Improvement of Frozen Storage Tolerance by the Addition of Sugar in Dusky Spinefoot, Lizard fish and Horse mackerel Surimi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of three different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, at 5%) were analyzed and compared against a control for frozen surimi (-25 °C) made from dusky spinefoot, lizard fish and horse mackerel, for a total storage period of 180 days. Kamaboko was prepared at defined time intervals, and its jelly strength (J.S.), water holding capacity (W.H.C.), and whiteness, and the total Ca-ATPase activity of surimi were analyzed. Present results showed that all parameters of sugar free control samples decreased faster than those of sugar added samples during frozen storage.Sugar resulted a good additive for long time surimi conservation for all the species analyzed.

Kawashima, Akane; Hamada, Yuki; Kusano, Sawa; Osako, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Nozaki, Yukinori

9

Fatty acid composition of lipid-rich myctophids and mackerel icefish ( Champsocephalus gunnari ) - Southern Ocean food-web implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid content, fatty acid composition and calorific value of seven species of mesopelagic deep-sea fish of the family Myctophidae and the mackerel icefish, Champsocephalus gunnari, important in the diet of Southern Ocean marine predators, are presented. Fish were sampled at the Kerguelen Plateau (KP) and Macquarie Ridge (MR) in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean respectively,

Mary-Anne Lea; Peter D. Nichols; Gareth Wilson

2002-01-01

10

Effect of frozen storage on the quality of whole fish and fillets of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and mediterranean hake (Merluccius mediterraneus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole fish and fillets of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and mediterranean hake (Merluccius mediterraneus) were assessed for quality (physical, chemical and sensory attributes) changes throughout 12 months of frozen storage at\\u000a ?18?°C. The pH, expressible water (EXW), quantities of trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylamine (DMA), formaldehyde (FA), the total\\u000a volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) the thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), peroxide value (PV) and

Stamatia Simeonidou; Alexander Govaris; Kyriakos Vareltzis

1997-01-01

11

Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from the skin protein hydrolysate of two marine fishes, horse mackerel (Magalaspis cordyla) and croaker (Otolithes ruber).  

PubMed

In the current study, two peptides with antioxidant properties were purified from skin protein hydrolysates of horse mackerel (Magalaspis cordyla) and croaker (Otolithes ruber) by consecutive chromatographic fractionations including ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. By electron spray ionization double mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), the sequence of the peptide from the skin protein hydrolysate of horse mackerel was identified to be Asn-His-Arg-Tyr-Asp-Arg (856 Da) and that of croaker to be Gly-Asn-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ala-Cys-Arg-His-Ala (1101.5 Da). The antioxidant activity of these peptides was tested by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry using 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH·) and hydroxyl (OH·) radical scavenging assays. Both peptides exhibited higher activity against polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation than the natural antioxidant ?-tocopherol. These results suggest that the two peptides isolated from the skin protein hydrolysates of horse mackerel and croaker are potent antioxidants and may be effectively used as food additives and as pharmaceutical agents. PMID:21384132

Sampath Kumar, N S; Nazeer, R A; Jaiganesh, R

2012-05-01

12

Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain).  

PubMed

A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 89% (95% CI 86, 92) and 1% cestoda (0, 2). The percentage of horses with strongyloid parasites was 89% (86, 92), 11% (8, 14) for Parascaris, and 3% (1, 5) for Oxyuris. The highest prevalence for ascariosis was observed in the youngest horses (<3 years), for oxyurosis in the >10 years animals, and for strongylosis in the 3-10 years ones. Females were significantly more parasitized than males. A negative correlation between the age and the egg-excretion of ascarids and strongyles was recorded. The autochthonous and the English Pure Blood horses were the most parasitized. We concluded that the infections by helminths, especially the strongyloids, are significantly common in the region, so that greater importance should be given to this situation. PMID:20721327

Francisco, I; Arias, M; Cortiñas, F J; Francisco, R; Mochales, E; Dacal, V; Suárez, J L; Uriarte, J; Morrondo, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Díez-Baños, P; Paz-Silva, A

2009-01-01

13

Population structure of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).  

PubMed

Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults ("twinning"). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management. PMID:23741381

Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

2013-01-01

14

Fishery-Independent Recruitment Indices for King and Spanish Mackerels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether the abundance of age-0 mackerels in a fishery-independent trawl survey could be used to predict abundance at age 1 for king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla and Spanish mackerel S. maculatus. After deletion of inappropriate length-classes and partitioning by season, depth, and stratum, subsets of the data set were compared to landings data and stock assessment results from the

Mark R. Collins; Patrick J. Harris; Philip P. Maier

1998-01-01

15

Fossil Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Equidae have an extensive fossil record spanning the past 58 million years, and the evolution of the horse has frequently been used as a classic example of long-term evolution. In recent years, however, there have been many important discoveries of fossil horses, and these, in conjunction with such new methods as cladistics, and techniques such as precise geochronology,

Bruce J. MacFadden

1994-01-01

16

Fossil Horses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The family Equidae have an extensive fossil record spanning the past 58 million years, and the evolution of the horse has frequently been used as a classic example of long-term evolution. In recent years, however, there have been many important discoveries of fossil horses, and these, in conjunction with such new methods as cladistics, and techniques such as precise geochronology, have allowed us to achieve a much greater understanding of the evolution and biology of this important group. This book synthesizes the large body of data and research relevant to an understanding of fossil horses from several disciplines including biology, geology and paleontology. Using horses as the central theme, the author weaves together in the text such topics as modern geochronology, paleobiogeography, climate change, evolution and extinction, functional morphology, and population biology during the Cenozoic period. This book will be exciting reading for researchers and graduate students in vertebrate paleontology, evolution, and zoology.

MacFadden, Bruce J.

1994-06-01

17

Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus  

SciTech Connect

This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

1986-06-01

18

Mathematics and Your Horse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is designed to help middle school students care for a real or imaginary horse while they review basic mathematics skills. Sections in this unit include: (1) "Statistics of Your Horse"; (2) "A Home for Your Horse"; (3) "Feeding Your Horse"; (4) "Equipping Your Horse"; (5) "Showing at Halter"; (6) "Working Hunter"; (7) "Open Jumping"; (8)…

Barkley, Cathy A.

19

Observations on Purse-seined King Mackerel ('Scomberomorus cavalla') and Spanish Mackerel ('Scomberomorus maculatus'), March 1983-March 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concerns about over exploitation of fishery resources by purse seines were raised by Moe in 1967. Approximately 100,000 pounds of king mackerel were caught in the winter of 1965-66, and about 44,000 pounds were caught the following winter with purse seine...

W. A. Fable E. L. Nakamura

1986-01-01

20

Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Ocean habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can find out about Deep Ocean or Open Ocean! Ocean Life is a great website that tells about different parts of the ocean and about animals that live there. Ugie! You can start your mission to find out about Killer Whales by going to Orca or Killer Whales. Jakhia! You can start your mission to find ...

Ryan, Ms.

2013-02-12

21

Migration and Fisheries of North East Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in Autumn and Winter  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that observed spatial variation in mackerel fisheries, extending over several hundreds of kilometers, is reflective of climate-driven changes in mackerel migration patterns. Previous studies have been unable to clearly demonstrate this link. In this paper we demonstrate correlation between temperature and mackerel migration/distribution as proxied by mackerel catch data from both scientific bottom trawl surveys and commercial fisheries. We show that mackerel aggregate and migrate distances of up to 500 km along the continental shelf edge from mid-November to early March. The path of this migration coincides with the location of the relatively warm shelf edge current and, as a consequence of this affinity, mackerel are guided towards the main spawning area in the south. Using a simulated time series of temperature of the shelf edge current we show that variations in the timing of the migration are significantly correlated to temperature fluctuations within the current. The proposed proxies for mackerel distribution were found to be significantly correlated. However, the correlations were weak and only significant during periods without substantial legislative or technical developments. Substantial caution should therefore be exercised when using such data as proxies for mackerel distribution. Our results include a new temperature record for the shelf edge current obtained by embedding the available hydrographic observations within a statistical model needed to understand the migration through large parts of the life of adult mackerel and for the management of this major international fishery.

Jansen, Teunis; Campbell, Andrew; Kelly, Ciaran; Hatun, Hjalmar; Payne, Mark R.

2012-01-01

22

An ensemble of dissimilarity based classifiers for Mackerel gender determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mackerel is an infravalored fish captured by European fishing vessels. A manner to add value to this specie can be achieved by trying to classify it attending to its sex. Colour measurements were performed on Mackerel females and males (fresh and defrozen) extracted gonads to obtain differences between sexes. Several linear and non linear classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVM), k Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) or Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA) can been applied to this problem. However, theyare usually based on Euclidean distances that fail to reflect accurately the sample proximities. Classifiers based on non-Euclidean dissimilarities misclassify a different set of patterns. We combine different kind of dissimilarity based classifiers. The diversity is induced considering a set of complementary dissimilarities for each model. The experimental results suggest that our algorithm helps to improve classifiers based on a single dissimilarity.

Blanco, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Martinez-Maranon, I.

2014-03-01

23

50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west coast subzone. 622.372 Section 622.372 Wildlife...for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west coast subzone. (a) Except for applications...

2013-10-01

24

78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...mackerel in the Bering Sea subarea and Eastern Aleutian district (BS/EAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI) by...

2013-10-30

25

78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI) by...

2013-10-30

26

75 FR 53606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI) by...

2010-09-01

27

75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine...directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI) by...

2010-03-26

28

76 FR 10780 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...mackerel in the Bering Sea subarea and Eastern Aleutian district (BS/EAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island management area (BSAI) by...

2011-02-28

29

75 FR 3873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI)...

2010-01-25

30

75 FR 6129 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI) by...

2010-02-08

31

78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fully use the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in the CAI by vessels...July 8, 2013, NMFS has determined that TAC of Atka mackerel in the CAI for vessels...D), and to fully utilize the 2013 TAC of Atka mackerel in the BSAI, NMFS is...

2013-07-15

32

76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic Fishery...control future access to the king and Spanish mackerel components of the coastal migratory...of September 17, 2010, for king and Spanish mackerel. The Council requested a...

2011-01-31

33

Genetic Assessment of the Mating System and Patterns of Egg Cannibalism in Atka Mackerel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mating system and patterns of gender-specific egg cannibalism in Atka mackerel Pleurogrammus monopterygius were examined through genetic parentage analysis of embryos in egg clutches produced in captive and wild populations. Like other hexagrammid fishes, Atka mackerel exhibit polygynandry, which is characterized by serial matings by both genders within a breeding season. Most matings in captivity were pairings of females

M. F. Canino; I. B. Spies; J. L. Guthridge; M. M. Hollowed

2010-01-01

34

Characterisation of muscles from Frigate mackerel (Auxis thazard) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus).  

PubMed

Frigate mackerel (Auxis thazard) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) can be used as alternative sources for surimi production. However, the functionality of surimi is species-dependent. This study aimed to characterise certain chemical and physical compositions of dark and ordinary muscles from these species. Catfish, particularly ordinary muscle, was composed of higher contents of lipid and carotenoid than Frigate mackerel muscle (p<0.05) but ordinary muscle from Frigate mackerel had the highest phospholipid content (p<0.05). Both dark and ordinary muscles of Frigate mackerel had greater contents of myofibrillar proteins than had catfish muscle (p<0.05). Myosin heavy chain and actin were predominant proteins found in both muscle types of both species. Dark muscle from Frigate mackerel had the highest sarcoplasmic protein content, especially extractable myoglobin (p<0.05). Muscles from Frigate mackerel had greater content of sodium chloride than had catfish (p<0.05). The highest contents of iron, copper and selenium were found in Frigate mackerel dark muscle (p<0.05). The pH of ordinary muscle from both species was higher than that of dark muscle (p<0.05). Frigate mackerel, especilly dark muscle, exhibited the most dark-red colour, as shown by the lowest L(*) and b(*) values with the highest a(*) value and redness index (a(*)/b(*)) (p<0.05). PMID:23561125

Chaijan, Manat; Klomklao, Sappasith; Benjakul, Soottawat

2013-08-15

35

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis.  

PubMed

Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (eight tetranucleotide and two dinucleotide) and three imperfect repeats (two tetranucleotide and one dinucleotide). An additional five microsatellites, isolated originally from two congeneric species (S. cavalla and S. niphonius), were characterized in S. brasiliensis. Serra Spanish mackerel support artisanal fisheries along the Caribbean and Atlantic coasts of Central and South America, from Belize to Brazil. PMID:21564761

Renshaw, Mark A; Douglas, Kory C; Rexroad Iii, Caird E; Jobity, Ann Marie C; Gold, John R

2009-05-01

36

Characterisation of the microbiota of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).  

PubMed

In this study the microbiota of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) collected by a commercial purse seiner was examined. Fish were collected directly from the purse seine and from the Refrigerated Sea Water (RSW) transport tank after loading. The culturable microbiota and Specific Spoilage Bacteria (SSB) were quantified on Iron Agar Lyngby (IAL) and identified using commercially available Biochemical API® kits on pure cultured isolates. These kits showed to be sub-optimal in characterising the isolates, since only half of the strains were identified. The same isolates were also identified by a nucleic acid based PCR-DGGE approach, and only half of the sequences gave the same results as the API®. Characterisation by PCR-DGGE was also performed on bacterial DNA from IAL plates (bulk cell samples) and on samples where the bacterial DNA was extracted directly from fish material without any cultivation (direct DNA samples). The microbiota of Atlantic mackerel was dominated by members of the Gram-negative genera as Psychrobacter sp., Proteus sp., Photobacterium sp., Vibrio sp., Shewanella sp., Synechococcus sp., Oceanisphaerae sp., Bizonia sp., Pseudoalteromonas sp., and members of Flavobacteriaceae. Gram-positive bacteria in the genera Vagococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Mycobacterium sp., Staphylococcus sp., Mycoplasma sp. and Clostridia sp. were also found. Examination by PCR-DGGE and sequencing of the bulk cell pellet after cultivation on IAL, gave a higher number of taxa as compared to extraction and examination of bacterial DNA from fish materials without prior cultivation. This shows the benefit of combining both culture dependent and culture independent methods, when studying the microbiota of marine fish. Several Vibrio spp. were found only in gut samples collected from the purse seine, but in all samples including the skin and the gills collected from the RSW tank, indicating microbial contamination by faecal bacteria from the fish under these transport conditions. PMID:21914558

Svanevik, Cecilie Smith; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore

2011-12-01

37

Molecular expression of opsin gene in growing juvenile mackerel ( Scomber japonicus Houttuyn)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish have developed color vision that is closely adapted to their photic environments, where both spectral sensitivity and the number of visual opsins are influenced. The mackerel used in this study is one of the most important fishery stocks in Korea. The opsin gene of the mackerel juveniles after 20 days in hatching was isolated and characterized based on the molecular study of visual photoreceptor. The full-length mackerel opsin gene was obtained by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, as well as cDNA synthesis. Sequence analysis of the opsin gene showed that it contained a 1,080 bp open reading frame encoding 360 amino acids. Based on Schiff’s base formation (S114, K119), glycosylation (E3, F37) and palmitoylation (S281, 282), the deduced amino acid sequence had a typical rod opsin. The mackerel and Gempylus serpens showed 73.7% DNA homology on opsin gene, which was higher than any other of investigated species. In the analysis of phylogenetic relationship, the genetic placement of the mackerel is closer to that of Scombroidei than Labroidei, with supporting somewhat strong bootstrap value. In the analysis of Northern and RT-PCR, the probed products were observed only in rapidly growing juveniles. These findings indicate that in mackerel opsin mRNA expression can be detected in day-20 hatching larvae. It may play an important role in stimulating growth hormone.

Kim, Eung-Oh; Yoon, Seong-Jong; Park, Kyoung-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Do, Jeung-Wan; Cho, Eun-Seob

2009-12-01

38

Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families  

PubMed Central

Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families.

Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

2013-01-01

39

Theme Unit. Horse Sense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses

Flagg, Ann

1999-01-01

40

Chub mackerel gonads support colonization, survival, and proliferation of intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic germ cells.  

PubMed

The production of xenogenic gametes from large-bodied, commercially important marine fish species in closely related smaller host fish species with short generation times may enable rapid and simple seed production of the target species. As a first step toward this goal, we assessed the suitability of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, as a small-bodied recipient species for xenogenic spermatogonial transplantation. Histological observation of the early gonadal development of chub mackerel larvae and transplantation of fluorescent-labeled spermatogonia from Nibe croaker, Nibea mitsukurii, revealed that 5.3-mm chub mackerel larvae were suitable recipients for successful transplantation. Intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic spermatogonia efficiently colonized the gonads of these recipient larvae, and donor-derived Nibe croaker germ cells proliferated rapidly soon after colonization. Moreover, gonadal soma-derived growth factor (gsdf) mRNA, a gonadal somatic cell marker, was expressed in recipient-derived cells surrounding the incorporated donor-derived germ cells, suggesting that donor-derived germ cells had settled at an appropriate location in the recipient gonad. Our data show that xenogenic spermatogonial transplantation was successful in chub mackerel and that the somatic microenvironment of the chub mackerel gonad can support the colonization, survival, and proliferation of intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic germ cells derived from a donor species of a different taxonomic family. PMID:20089885

Yazawa, Ryosuke; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Higuchi, Kentaro; Yatabe, Takashi; Kabeya, Naoki; Yoshizaki, Goro

2010-05-01

41

77 FR 61300 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Atka Mackerel in the Bering...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS is reallocating the projected unused amount of the 2012 Atka mackerel incidental catch allowance (ICA) for the Bering Sea subarea and Eastern Aleutian district (BS/EAI) of to the Amendment 80 cooperatives in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to allow the 2012 total allowable catch of Atka mackerel to be fully...

2012-10-09

42

78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...season allowance of the 2013 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in the CAI allocated to vessels participating in the BSAI trawl...CFR part 679. The A season allowance of the 2013 Atka mackerel TAC, in the CAI, allocated to vessels participating in the...

2013-05-03

43

77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels participating...at subpart H of 50 CFR part 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2012 TAC of Atka mackerel, in the CAI, allocated to vessels...

2012-07-03

44

Hoof Comfort for Horses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called 'Power Pads,' which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads...

2002-01-01

45

Postanesthetic Myonecrosis in Horses  

PubMed Central

Two horses died of massive myonecrosis following surgery. The hematological, biochemical and pathological changes are described and compared with those previously reported in the literature. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.

Friend, S. C. E.

1981-01-01

46

16. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the Yankee Horse Railroad ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the Yankee Horse Railroad trestle looking north. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

47

Assessing fitness in endurance horses  

PubMed Central

A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels.

Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

2012-01-01

48

Assessing fitness in endurance horses.  

PubMed

A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

2012-03-01

49

Multiple cohorts of juvenile jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus in waters along the Tsushima Warm Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jack mackerel, Trachurus japonicus, has a prolonged spawning season and widely spread spawning grounds. The population in the coastal waters of Japan seems to be composed of several cohorts spawned seasonally from different waters. To understand its population structure along the Tsushima Warm Current, we analysed hatchdates and growth histories of fish from Kunda Bay, the southern, central and

Yu Kanaji; Yoshiro Watanabe; Tomohiko Kawamura; Songguang Xie; Yoh Yamashita; Chiyuki Sassa; Youichi Tsukamoto

2009-01-01

50

EXPLOITATION AND RECRUITMENT OF PACIFIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER JAPONICUS, IN THE NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific mackerel stock discussed in this paper originally extended from the Gulf of Alaska to Punta Eugenia, Baja California and the fishery has been centered in southern California and northern Baja. The fishery, biological knowledge, and current status of the resource were recently reviewed by Blunt and Parrish (1969) and Kramer (1969) has prepared a synopsis of this species

RICHARD H. PARRISH

51

A YRELMINARY STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGY OF ICED CHUB MACKEREL IN THAILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial flora of newly caught chub mackerel and the subsequent changes occurring during storage in ice up to 5, 10 and 15 days are described. Organisms of the genus Pseudomonas represent up to 100 percent of the flora in the later stages of spoilage. Coryneforms were usually present and in one case contributed 60 percent of the total flora.

K. Tipkong

52

Lexical Representation of Schwa Words: Two Mackerels, but Only One Salami  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the lexical representations underlying the production of English schwa words. Two types of schwa words were compared: words with a schwa in poststress position (e.g., mack"e"rel), whose schwa and reduced variants differ in a categorical way, and words with a schwa in prestress position (e.g., s"a"lami), whose…

Burki, Audrey; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2012-01-01

53

Training Methods and Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of horse care and handling are based upon convenience and traditional practices. Many of these methods of management and practice do not take into account the natural behaviour of horses. This is despite the belief that although domestic horses are probably more docile, stronger, faster growing and faster moving than their ancestors, they are unlikely to have lost

N. Waran; P. McGreevy; R. Casey

54

African horse sickness.  

PubMed

African horse sickness (AHS) is a reportable, noncontagious, arthropod-borne viral disease that results in severe cardiovascular and pulmonary illness in horses. AHS is caused by the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV), which is transmitted primarily by Culicoides imicola in Africa; potential vectors outside of Africa include Culicoides variipennis and biting flies in the genera Stomoxys and Tabanus. Infection with AHSV has a high mortality rate. Quick and accurate diagnosis can help prevent the spread of AHS. AHS has not been reported in the Western Hemisphere but could have devastating consequences if introduced into the United States. This article reviews the clinical signs, pathologic changes, diagnostic challenges, and treatment options associated with AHS. PMID:23705175

Stern, Adam W

2011-08-01

55

Besnoitiosis in a horse.  

PubMed

Besnoitiosis was confirmed in a pony which presented with inspiratory dyspnoea, scleroderma and ventral oedema. Numerous cysts were visible in the sclerae. Histological examination of the skin confirmed the presence of numerous cysts. The parasite could not be transmitted by subcutaneous injection of homogenised skin from the infected horse to rabbits and a horse. Ultrastructural morphology of the crescent-shaped bradyzoites was not compatable with Besnoitia besnoiti or B. jellisoni and it is proposed that the infection was caused by B. bennetti. PMID:8410950

van Heerden, J; Els, H J; Raubenheimer, E J; Williams, J H

1993-06-01

56

Ageing Arab horses by their dentition.  

PubMed

The dentition of 170 Arab horses of known ages was examined and compared with the dental characteristics of trotter horses and Belgian draft horses of the same ages. The results indicated that inaccuracies in the determination of the age of horses by their dentition may result, at least partly, from differences between the breeds of horse involved because there were some major differences between the three breeds examined. These differences increased as the horses' true age increased. In general, the rate of dental wear was slower in the Arab horses than in trotter horses and Belgian draft horses. PMID:9670444

Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H; Van Loon, G

1998-06-13

57

Inhaled anesthetics in horses.  

PubMed

Inhaled agents represent an important and useful class of drugs for equine anesthesia. This article reviews the ether-type anesthetics in contemporary use, their uptake and elimination, their mechanisms of action, and their desirable and undesirable effects in horses. PMID:23498046

Brosnan, Robert J

2013-04-01

58

Cantharidin toxicosis in horses.  

PubMed

Cantharidin toxicosis in horses has become an increasing problem in certain regions of the United States. Toxicosis occurs when horses ingest alfalfa hay or products that are contaminated with "blister" beetles. Clinical signs may vary from depression to severe shock and death, depending upon the amount of toxin ingested. The most frequently observed signs include varying degrees of abdominal pain, anorexia, depression, and signs suggestive of oral irritation. Many horses make frequent attempts to void urine. Less commonly observed signs include synchronous diaphragmatic flutter and erosions of the oral mucosal surfaces. Clinical laboratory abnormalities suggestive of cantharidin toxicosis include persistent hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, development of hypoproteinemia, microscopic hematuria, and mild azotemia with inappropriate urine specific gravity. Chemical analysis for cantharidin is accomplished by evaluation of urine or stomach contents. Treatment of cantharidin toxicosis is symptomatic, but must include removal of toxin source. Gastrointestinal protectants, laxative, intravenous fluids, analgesics, diuretics, calcium gluconate, and magnesium are all included in the treatment regimen. Early and vigorous therapy is imperative if it is to be successful. In horses that remain alive for several days, persistence of elevated heart and respiratory rates and increasing serum creatine kinase concentration are associated with a deteriorating condition. Prevention is aimed at timely harvesting of alfalfa hay. Hay fields should be inspected for the presence of beetle clusters before harvesting. Involved areas of the field should not be harvested. PMID:2685272

Schmitz, D G

1989-01-01

59

[Intersexuality in horses].  

PubMed

Intersexuality is a rare congenital anomaly of horses. Diagnosis of intersexuality is difficult because there are usually no specific changes in the reproductive tract visible. During a period of five years, ten patients with reduced fertility or suspected intersexuality respectively were investigated using cytogenetic, molecular genetic, histopathological and endocrinological methods. In one case a 64,XX/63,X0 mosaicism was found. In six cases male pseudohermaphroditism was verified. These patients showed a male karyotype, testes and rudimentary parts of a female reproductive tract were present. One horse was suspected to be a male pseudohermaphrodite but the gonads were not examined. One horse was suspected to be affected by an XX-sex several syndrome and in one case a SRY-negative XY-sex reversal syndrome was most likely. In the case of an XX-sex reversal syndrome, there is a female chromosomal constitution, an uterus and cranial parts of the vagina are present but also testes tissue and possibly an enlarged penis like clitoris. Here an XX-sex reversal syndrome was suspected but not confirmed as it was not possible to examine the gonads and verify tissue from testes. Therefore a pseudohermaphroditismus femininus could not be excluded. In cases of XY-sex reversal syndrome the patients show a male chromosomal constitution, parts of a female reproductive tract but no testes tissue is present. For the horse described here, a deletion of the SRY gene was the most likely cause for the XY-sex reversal syndrome. PMID:17341020

Kuiper, H; Distl, O

2007-02-01

60

The physical basis of reflective communication between fish, with special reference to the horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus  

PubMed Central

Some properties of reflecting structures in the external surfaces of Trachurus trachurus and some other fish are described. These are related to the hypothesis that such structures are useful, especially to schooling fish, for communicating information on relative positions, orientations, and movements between neighbours. In addition to the silvery layers on the main body surfaces, there are: (a) highly silvered patches on the tail, the pectoral fins and the jaws which, in the sea, will become much brighter or darker with any movement such as a tailbeat or mouth opening which changes their orientations in the ambient lightfield, and (b) structures such as the dorsal lateral line which, in the sea, will only appear bright from certain directions. To us, the colours of the ventral flanks change from bright red to blue with direction orientations and have special reflectivity curves close to those predicted by A.F. Huxley for interference reflectors which are 'ideal' ?/4 stacks of guanine crystals and cytoplasm. The wavebands best reflected by such platelets move to shorter wavelengths with increasing angle of incidence, also in accord with these equations. At normal incidence, the outer layer of platelets reflects maximally for far-red light which penetrates only a short distance in the sea. Such layers can, however, be useful at oblique angles where they reflect maximally in the yellow and blue. The inner layer of reflectors reflects very strongly in the blue at normal incidence, but reflects in the ultra-violet at oblique angles. Some theoretical studies are made on the ways in which the patterns of reflectivity by single and superposed layers of ?/4 stacks could signal a fish's movements or its position relative to its neighbours.

Rowe, D. M.; Denton, E. J.

1997-01-01

61

Characterization of the ribosomal RNA gene of Kudoa neothunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in tunas (Thunnus spp.) and Kudoa scomberi n. sp. in a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).  

PubMed

Kudoa neothunni is the first described Kudoa species having six shell valves and polar capsules, previously assigned to the genus Hexacapsula Arai and Matsumoto, 1953. Since its genetic analyses remain to be conducted, the present study characterizes the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) using two isolates from a yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with post-harvest myoliquefaction and a northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) without tissue degradation. Spores of the two isolates localized in the myofiber of trunk muscles, forming pseudocysts, and showed typical morphology of K. neothunni with six equal-sized shell valves radially arranged in apical view: spores (n?=?15) measuring 9.5-11.4 ?m in width, 7.3-8.6 ?m in suture width, 8.9-10.9 ?m in thickness, and 7.3-7.7 ?m in length; and polar capsules measuring 3.6-4.1 ?m by 1.8-2.3 ?m. In lateral view, the spores were pyramidal in shape without apical protrusions. Their 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences were essentially identical, but variations in the ITS1 (62.4 % similarity across 757-bp length), ITS2 (66.9 % similarity across 599-bp length), and 28S (99.0 % similarity across 2,245-bp length) rDNA regions existed between the two isolates. On phylogenetic trees based on the 18S or 28S rDNA sequence, K. neothunni formed a clade with Kudoa spp. with more than four shell valves and polar capsules, particularly K. grammatorcyni and K. scomberomori. Semiquadrate spores of a kudoid species with four shell valves and polar capsules were detected from minute cysts (0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm) embedded in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fished in the Sea of Japan. Morphologically, it resembled K. caudata described from a chub mackerel fished in the southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru; however, it lacked filamentous projections on the shell valves of spores. Additionally, it morphologically resembled K. thunni described from a yellowfin tuna also fished in the Pacific Ocean; spores (n?=?30) measuring 8.2-10.5 ?m in width, 7.0-8.8 ?m in thickness, and 6.1-6.8 ?m in length; and polar capsule measuring 2.5-3.4 ?m by 1.3-2.0 ?m. The similarities of the 18S and 28S rDNA sequences between these two species were 98.5 % and 96.3 %, respectively. Simultaneously, the dimensions of cysts in the trunk muscle formed by K. thunni are clearly larger than those of the present species from a chub mackerel: 1.3-2.0 mm by 1.1-1.4 mm (n?=?14) vs. 0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm (n?=?7), respectively. Thus, Kudoa scomberi n. sp. is proposed for this multivalvulid species found in the chub mackerel. PMID:23455941

Li, Ying-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2013-05-01

62

Effects of Storage Temperatures on the Quality of Frozen Sardine, Mackerel, and Saury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three Japanese coastal fish species, sardine (Sardinops melanosticta), mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and saury (Cololabis saira) was frozen under commercial condition and stored at -18, -23, -30 and -40°C for 12 months. During frozen storage the quality was measured by determining the K value (freshness index), peroxide value (POV) of fat, a mount of free drip, water-holding capacity of muscle, weight ratio of cooking loss, histological feature of frozen and thawed muscle, and organoleptic test at regular intervals (each 2 months). Storage life of frozen sardine was 6 months at -18°C and 12 months at below -23°C. On frozen mackerel it was 6 months at -18°C. 8 months at -23°C and 12 months at below -30°C. On saury it was 6 months at 18°C and 12 months at below -23°C.

Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohataka, Tateo

63

Preparation of silage from Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus maculatus) and its evaluation in broiler diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to prepare silage from whole Spanish mackerel, which is one of the cheapest commercial fish, and an under-utilized species found on both the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Chemical and biochemical changes during the silage process: pH, total nitrogen (TN), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), lipid oxidation, and trimethylamine (TMA) generated were monitored. The

Héctor Santana-Delgado; Ernesto Avila; Angela Sotelo

2008-01-01

64

Autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty compounds in mackerel oil: Formation of 2,4,7-decatrienals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of potentially “fishy” off flavor components, especially 2,4,7-decatrienals, in various rancid mackerel oils\\u000a has been semiquantitatively investigated using preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC)\\u000a methods. A combination of 2 GLC analyses can be directly employed for free aldehyde analysis. This GLC method is faster and\\u000a gives a better recovery than the alternative TLC proceeding

P. J. Ke; R. G. Ackman; B. A. Linke

1975-01-01

65

Effect of essential oils treatment on the frozen storage stability of chub mackerel fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bay leaf (BLO), thyme (TO), rosemary (RO), black seed (BSO), sage (SO), grape seed (GSO), flaxseed (FSO) and\\u000a lemon (LO) essential oil from vegetable extracted on lipid oxidation and some other quality parameter of frozen chub mackerel\\u000a during frozen storage at ?20°C were examined over a period of 11 months. Taste, odour, texture and overall acceptability of\\u000a control

Nuray Erkan; Gözde Bilen

2010-01-01

66

Effect of Various Processing Methods on Quality of Mackerel ( Scomber scombrus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of combinations of processes (hot smoking, marinating, vacuum packing and seasoning with dill (Anethum graveolens) on the quality parameters of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) stored at 4 °C were investigated in terms of sensory, chemical (total volatile basic nitrogen [TVB-N], thiobarbituric acid\\u000a [TBA], peroxide value [PV], free fatty acids [FFA]) and microbiological parameters (total viable count [TVC], coliform, Escherichia coli,

Yesim Ozogul; Esra Balikci

67

Training Methods and Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of horse care and handling are based upon convenience and traditional practices. Many of these methods of management\\u000a and practice do not take into account the natural behaviour of horses. This is despite the belief that although domestic horses\\u000a are probably more docile, stronger, faster growing and faster moving than their ancestors, they are unlikely to have lost

N. Waran; P. McGreevy; R. Casey

68

Steroidogenic and maturation-inducing potency of native gonadotropic hormones in female chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus  

PubMed Central

Background The gonadotropins (GtHs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are produced in the pituitary gland and regulates gametogenesis through production of gonadal steroids. However, respective roles of two GtHs in the teleosts are still incompletely characterized due to technical difficulties in the purification of native GtHs. Methods Native FSH and LH were purified from the pituitaries of adult chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus by anion-exchange chromatography and immunoblotting using specific antisera. The steroidogenic potency of the intact chub mackerel FSH (cmFSH) and LH (cmLH) were evaluated in mid- and late-vitellogenic stage follicles by measuring the level of gonadal steroids, estradiol-17beta (?2) and 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P). In addition, we evaluated the maturation-inducing potency of the GtHs on same stage follicles. Results Both cmFSH and cmLH significantly stimulated E2 production in mid-vitellogenic stage follicles. In contrast, only LH significantly stimulated the production of 17,20beta-P in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Similarly, cmLH induced final oocyte maturation (FOM) in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Conclusions Present results indicate that both FSH and LH may regulate vitellogenic processes, whereas only LH initiates FOM in chub mackerel.

2012-01-01

69

Gel strengthening effect of wood extract on surimi produced from mackerel stored in ice.  

PubMed

The effect of ethanolic kiam wood extract (EKWE) and commercial tannin (CT) on the gel properties of surimi produced from mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) stored in ice for different times (0 to 12 d) was studied. During 12 d of iced storage, pH, total volatile base (TVB), trimethylamine (TMA), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide contents as well as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) of mackerel mince increased while myosin heavy chain (MHC) band intensity decreased continuously (P < 0.05). The result suggested that deterioration, protein degradation, and lipid oxidation proceeded with increasing storage time. For corresponding surimi, TVB and TMA were almost removed and TBARS and TCA soluble peptide contents were decreased. Conversely, MHC became more concentrated. Decreases in gel-forming ability of surimi were observed when fish used as raw material were stored in ice for a longer time, regardless of EKWE or CT addition. Whiteness of surimi gel decreased and expressible moisture increased especially when the storage time increased. However, superior breaking force and deformation of surimi gel with 0.15% EKWE or 0.30% CT added, compared to those of the control gel were observed during the first 6 d of the storage. Thereafter, EKWE and CT had no gel enhancing effect on surimi. Therefore, freshness was a crucial factor determining gel enhancing ability of EKWE or CT toward mackerel surimi. PMID:19799658

Balange, A K; Benjakul, S; Maqsood, S

2009-10-01

70

ENERGY METABOLISM IN LIGHT HORSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Q UALITATIVE information regarding en- ergy metabolism of the equine is lacking. Feeding standards have been recommended for light horses; however, these were derived pri- marily from extrapolation of data collected from other classes of livestock, mainly sheep and cattle. Although the horse is classified as a herbivore, certain anatomic characteristics of this species suggest that the nutritional requirements must

G. R. WOODEN; K. L. KNOX; C. L. WILD

2010-01-01

71

Extractive components of fish sauces from waste of the frigate mackerel surimi processing and a comparison with those of several asian fish sauces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractive components of a fish sauce (WS) prepared from wastes of frigate mackerel, which was processed into surimi, was compared with those of a fish sauce (MS) prepared in the same manner from the minced meat of frigate mackerel, and several Asian fish sauces (nampla, nuoc mam, patis and yeesui). Comparisons of free amino acids and bound amino acids were

Yasuhiro Funatsu; Ken-ichi Kawasaki; Shiro Konagaya

2004-01-01

72

Salmonella shed by horses with colic.  

PubMed

Salmonella was isolated from 13 of 100 colicky horses admitted to a referral hospital. Seven horses were shedding the microorganism at or soon after hospital admission. A unique serotype was introduced into the hospital by a horse not shedding Salmonella at admission. It was concluded that 8 horses were infected before admission. Whether the remaining 5 horses were infected before or after admission could not be determined. Salmonella senftenberg was the most commonly isolated serotype from colicky horses and from horses with salmonellosis that were not colicky on hospital admission during the survey period. This organism was rarely isolated at the hospital before initiation of this survey. PMID:4030461

Palmer, J E; Benson, C E; Whitlock, R H

1985-08-01

73

Horse Hoof Protectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

2004-01-01

74

The daily catch: Flight altitude and diving behavior of northern gannets feeding on Atlantic mackerel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predators utilize a variety of behavioral techniques to capture elusive prey. Behavioral flexibility is essential among generalist predators that pursue a diversity of prey types, and capture efficiency is expected to be intense during the breeding season for parents that engage in self- and offspring-provisioning. We studied the foraging behavior of parental northern gannets in the northwestern Atlantic (Gulf of St. Lawrence) when they were feeding on Atlantic mackerel almost exclusively. Data-loggers recorded short (mean duration: 6.3 s), high speed (inferred vertical speeds of up to 54.0 m*s- 1, equivalent to 194 km*h- 1), and shallow dives (mean depth: 4.2 m; maximum: 9.2 m). Dives tended to occur in bouts, varying between 0.3 and 4.6 per hour (mean = 1.6). During foraging, overall flight heights ranged from 0 to 70 m, with no clear preferences for height. Most plunge-dives were initiated at flight altitudes of 11-60 m (mean ± SE = 37.1 ± 2.8 m; range 3-105 m except for 1 of 162 dives that was initiated at the sea surface). Dive depth and flight altitude at plunge-dive initiation were positively and significantly correlated, though it appears that low flight altitudes were sufficient to reach dive depths at which mackerel were present. Almost all dives were V-shaped indicating that a high acceleration attack is the most effective strategy for gannets feeding on large rapid-swimming prey such as mackerel that owing to thermal preferences does not occur below the thermocline and are thus well available and essentially trapped in the water depths exploited by northern gannets.

Garthe, Stefan; Guse, Nils; Montevecchi, William A.; Rail, Jean-François; Grégoire, François

2014-01-01

75

Standing ophthalmic surgeries in horses.  

PubMed

Standing ophthalmic surgery without general anesthesia allows for several routine ophthalmic procedures including eyelid lacerations and enucleations to be performed in the horse, but does contain increased risk of causing tissue damage arising from the inability to eliminate eye and head movements. Heavy sedation and local nerve blocks of the involved motor and sensory nerves are essential in achieving a good outcome from ophthalmic surgery in the nonanesthetized horse. The inability to use an operating microscope in standing surgery in horses prevents performing precise corneal and intraocular microsurgeries. PMID:24680208

de Linde Henriksen, Michala; Brooks, Dennis E

2014-04-01

76

Reserpine toxicosis in a horse.  

PubMed

A single injection of reserpine in an adult horse was believed to induce toxicosis for several days. Clinical signs included erratic, colic-like behavior followed by depression, bradycardia, miosis, ptosis, and paraphimosis. Diarrhea was not observed and may have been due to the effect of xylazine given with the reserpine. The horse was supported with IV fluids and intensive nursing care. Gradual improvement was noted 72 hours after the horse received the drug. Qualitative analysis via high-performance liquid chromatography was positive for reserpine. Methamphetamine is the recommended antidote but was not used in this case. PMID:3997654

Lloyd, K C; Harrison, I; Tulleners, E

1985-05-01

77

African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.  

PubMed

To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation. PMID:22612775

Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J

2013-01-01

78

Artificially dehydrated lucerne for horses.  

PubMed

Artificially dehydrated lucerne produced in the United Kingdom has been shown to be a better source of nutrients for horses than grass hay. Horses eat more lucerne when it is pelleted, and the processing has little effect on its nutritive value. Lucerne does not appear to contain any antinutritional factors of significance to horses. Lucerne contains readily available calcium and protein and can thus be used as a cereal-balancer or to upgrade poor quality roughages. Because lucerne is a good source of digestible nutrients it has therapeutic applications, including the correction of electrolyte imbalances and hoof horn problems, and it can be used for intragastric nutrition and for feeding old horses. PMID:7846834

Cuddeford, D

1994-10-29

79

My Kingdom for a Horse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

King, Judith

2004-01-01

80

Impact of microbial transglutaminase on gelling properties of Indian mackerel fish protein isolates.  

PubMed

Impacts of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) (0-0.6 units/g sample) on gel properties of Indian mackerel unwashed mince, surimi and protein isolates with and without prewashing were studied. Generally, lower myoglobin and lipid contents were found in protein isolate with and without prewashing, compared to those of unwashed mince and surimi (P<0.05). Protein isolate had the decreased Ca(2+)-ATPase and protein solubility, indicating protein denaturation. When MTGase was incorporated, breaking force and deformation of all gels markedly increased, especially as MTGase levels increased (P<0.05). At the same MTGase level, gel from protein isolate with prewashing exhibited the highest breaking force and deformation (P<0.05). The addition of MTGase could lower the expressible moisture content of most gels. No change in whiteness of gel was observed with the addition of MTGase (P>0.05), but gel from protein isolate gels had decreased whiteness as MTGase at high level was added. The microstructure of protein isolate gels without prewashing showed a similar network to unwashed mince gels, whilst a similar network was observed between surimi gel and gel from protein isolate with prewashing. Nevertheless, a larger void was noticeable in gels from protein isolates. All gels incorporated with MTGase (0.6 units/g) showed a slightly denser network than those without MTGase. Thus, gel with improved properties could be obtained from protein isolate from Indian mackerel with added MTGase. PMID:23122146

Chanarat, Sochaya; Benjakul, Soottawat

2013-01-15

81

Comparison between gelatines extracted from mackerel and blue whiting bones after different pre-treatments.  

PubMed

Gelatines were extracted from mackerel and blue whiting bones after chemical or enzymatic pre-treatments and their functional properties (solubility, foaming and emulsifying properties) were analysed. The pre-treatment significantly (p<0.05) affected the composition and the functional properties of the extracted gelatines. The amino acid analyses showed that chemically pre-treated bone gelatines had higher imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline) contents compared to those extracted after the enzymatic pre-treatment, for both fish species. It was observed that all gelatines had higher solubility at low pH with a maximum value observed at pH 2. A significant effect of ionic strength was observed. Increasing the NaCl concentration to more than 1% resulted in a significant decrease of the solubility. Mackerel bone gelatines showed lower foaming capacity (FC) and higher foaming stability (FS) than blue whiting bone gelatines. Increasing the concentration of gelatine decreased the emulsifying activity index (EAI) but increased the stability index (ESI). The use of enzymes in the pre-treatment process gave gelatines with significantly (p<0.05) higher EAI and ESI. PMID:23561116

Khiari, Zied; Rico, Daniel; Martin-Diana, Ana Belen; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

2013-08-15

82

Effects of Some Antioxidants and EDTA on the Development of Rancidity in Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) During Frozen Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) were treated with antioxidant solutions containing BHA and BHT (Tenox 4); BHA, BHT, PG, citric acid, and propylene glycol (Tenox 6); Tenox 4 plus EDTA; Tenox 6 plus EDTA; Ca(Na)2EDTA; (Na)2EDTA; (CA)2EDTA; and (N...

R. N. Farragut

1972-01-01

83

"Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

2013-01-01

84

Microbial activity inhibition in chilled mackerel (Scomber scombrus) by employment of an organic acid-icing system.  

PubMed

The present study concerns Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) traded as a chilled product. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of including a mixture of organic acids (citric, ascorbic, and lactic) in the icing medium employed during the fish chilled storage. To this end and according to preliminary trials results, an aqueous solution including 0.050% (w/v) of each acid was employed as icing medium; its effect on the microbial activity development in mackerel muscle was monitored for up to 13 d of chilled storage and compared to a counterpart-fish batch kept under traditional water ice considered as control. Results indicated a lower bacterial growth in mackerel muscle subjected to storage in the organic acid-icing system by comparison with control fish. Thus, statistically-significant (P < 0.05) differences between both batches for all 6 microbial groups investigated (aerobes, anaerobes, psychrotrophes, Enterobacteriaceae, lipolytics, and proteolytics) and for 2 chemical indices related to microbial activity development (total volatile bases and trimethylamine) were obtained. The surface wash caused by the melting of the ice during storage and the subsequent antimicrobial effect of such acids on skin microflora of the fish can be invoked as the main reasons for the limited bacterial growth found in the corresponding mackerel muscle. PMID:22510040

Sanjuás-Rey, Minia; Gallardo, José M; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Aubourg, Santiago P

2012-05-01

85

Observations of Near-Bottom Currents with Low-Cost SeaHorse Tilt Current Meters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SeaHorse TCM is a low-cost, easy to use, robust current meter based on the drag principle. Use of a large number of low-cost instruments would result in a new high spatial resolution view of the processes and to improve the ocean state prediction. The...

V. A. Sheremet

2010-01-01

86

Observations of Near-Bottom Currents with Low-Cost SeaHorse Tilt Current Meters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SeaHorse TCM is a low-cost, easy to use, robust current meter based on the drag principle. Use of a large number of low-cost instruments would result in a new high spatial resolution view of the processes and to improve the ocean state prediction. The...

V. A. Sheremet

2009-01-01

87

Observations of Near-Bottom Currents With Low-Cost SeaHorse Tilt Current Meters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SeaHorse TCM is a low-cost, easy to use, robust current meter based on the drag principle. Use of a large number of low-cost instruments would result in a new high spatial resolution view of the processes and to improve the ocean state prediction. The...

V. A. Sheremet

2009-01-01

88

Occurrence of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto in imported Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) represents a risk for Turkish consumers.  

PubMed

Anisakid larvae are a prevalent food-borne pathogen that has been found in numerous fish species destined for human consumption. The accidental consumption of infected raw or poorly cooked fish may cause gastroenteric diseases and allergies in humans. In spite of the fact that thorough cooking or freezing kills Anisakis worms, this method does not destroy their allergenic capacity. The presence of A. simplex (s.s.) in seafood products may present a health risk for consumers. In Turkey, Atlantic mackerels are marketed as frozen and mainly imported from Norway. The aim of this study was to identify the Anisakis species found in deep-frozen whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) destined for human consumption in fish markets that imported fish from Norway to Turkey. All Anisakis larvae isolated from imported Atlantic mackerel were identified via morphology as third larvae of Anisakis Type I. The ITS region (ITS-1, 5.8S subunit, ITS-2) was amplified and digested with the restriction enzymes Hinf I and Hha I. Larvae of the genus Anisakis were identified via PCR-RFLP as belonging to Anisakis simplex (s.s.), and this was confirmed by sequencing the cox2 gene. The overall prevalence of Anisakis larvae was 25% (95% confidence limits: 13-41%), and the mean intensity was 19.1 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits: 15.3-25.5). Recognized zoonotic A. simplex (s.s.) larvae found in imported Atlantic mackerel could represent a risk. Those who consume them could acquire parasitic allergies. The results will have an important impact on public health risk assessment in that they suggest reviewing critical control points at the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmer to reduce the risk of anisakid-induced allergies among consumers. Consequently, the present study provides the first data regarding the occurrence of A. simplex (s.s.) larvae in imported Atlantic mackerel in Turkish markets. PMID:24935687

Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer

2014-08-18

89

Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads.  

PubMed

The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe patterns of motor coordination between horse and rider across the equine gaits of walk, rising trot, sitting trot and canter. Eighteen female (N=18; mean age±SD: 37.57±13.04) Dutch horse-rider combinations were recruited to participate in the study. Horse-rider coordination was recorded using two tri-axial wireless accelerometers during a standard ridden protocol. Multiple measures of horse-rider coordination were calculated to investigate the relationship between the horse and rider, while the unpredictability of the acceleration-time series of the horse and rider during task performance were determined separately by means of approximate entropy analysis. The kinematic variables of horse-rider correlation, mean relative phase, mean standard deviation of the relative phase, approximate entropy rider, approximate entropy horse and spectral edge frequency at 95% of the power in the 0-10 Hz frequency band were examined using multiple correlational analyses and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Findings showed significantly different coordination dynamics between equine gaits, with the gait of canter allowing for the highest levels of horse-rider synchronicity. It may be concluded that accelerometers are a valuable tool to map distinct coordination patterns of horse-rider combinations. PMID:23290116

Wolframm, Inga A; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J

2013-02-01

90

Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses  

PubMed Central

Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses.

Ohmes, Cameon M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; Beard, Laurie A.; Vander Werf, Karie A.; Bianco, Alex W.; Giger, Urs

2014-01-01

91

Amino acid and protein changes in tilapia and Spanish mackerel after irradiation and storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some amino acids in tilapia decreased while some others increased when subjected to doses up to 10.0 kGy. However, 10 kGy contributed to a significant reduction in all amino acids of Spanish mackerel. Variations in amino acid contents continued during post-irradiation storage with no consistant trend of increase or decrease. SDS-PAGE of protein from both fish showed 27 bands of subunits with MW < 14.0-94.0 KD. Isoelectric focusing patterns of sarcoplasmic protein of unirradiated and irradiated fish showed no charge in the number of bands, while some changes were observed in the intensities of the anodic and cathodic bands depending on isoelectric points (pIs).

Al-Kahtani, Hassan A.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Atia, Mohamed; Bajaber, Adnan S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; El-Mojaddidi, Mohamed A.

1998-01-01

92

Horner's syndrome in ten horses  

PubMed Central

Ten cases of equine Horner's syndrome were reviewed. None of the clinical signs in this series were transient (<48 hours). Sweating and ptosis were consistently observed by the attending clinician in over half of the affected horses. Enophthalmos and prolapse of the third eyelid were not reported consistently. The average duration of the clinical signs was 4.94 months and ranged from 14 days to 15 months. Eight of the ten horses developed associated complications, some of which affected performance. Airway obstruction and impedance of passage of a fiberoptic endoscope due to nasal mucosal edema occurred in five horses. Facial paralysis (4/10) and laryngeal hemiplegia (2/10), which are not direct features of Horner's syndrome, were also observed.

Green, Sherril L.; Cochrane, Susan M.; Smith-Maxie, Laura

1992-01-01

93

Blister beetle poisoning in horses.  

PubMed

Case records of 21 horses with acute illness following ingestion of hay containing dead striped blister beetles (Epicauta spp) were selected for review. Abdominal pain, fever, depression, frequent urination, shock, and, occasionally, synchronous diaphragmatic flutter characterized clinical illness. Hematologic findings included hemoconcentration, neutrophilic leukocytosis, and hypocalcemia. Hematuria and low urine specific gravity were abnormal urinalysis results. Sloughing of the epithelium of the esophageal part of the stomach, hemorrhagic and ulcerative cystitis, enterocolitis, and myocardial necrosis were important post-mortem findings. Signs and lesions in 5 horses experimentally poisoned were similar to those of the natural disease. The findings were regarded as sufficiently characteristic of blister beetle poisoning to be useful in differential diagnosis but were not constant in all cases. Therefore, when blister beetle poisoning is suspected, access of affected horses to hay containing striped blister beetles should be demonstrated. PMID:670055

Schoeb, T R; Panciera, R J

1978-07-01

94

Phylogeography and historical demography of the Pacific Sierra mackerel (Scomberomorus sierra) in the Eastern Pacific  

PubMed Central

Background Testing connectivity among populations of exploited marine fish is a main concern for the development of conservation strategies. Even though marine species are often considered to display low levels of population structure, barriers to dispersal found in the marine realm may restrict gene flow and cause genetic divergence of populations. The Pacific Sierra mackerel (Scomberomorus sierra) is a pelagic fish species distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the eastern Pacific. Seasonal spawning in different areas across the species range, as well as a limited dispersal, may result in a population genetic structure. Identification of genetically discrete units is important in the proper conservation of the fishery. Results Samples collected from the Eastern Pacific, including the areas of main abundance of the species, presented high levels of mtDNA genetic diversity and a highly significant divergence. At least two genetically discrete groups were detected in the northern (Sinaloa) and central areas (Oaxaca and Chiapas) of the species range, exhibiting slight genetic differences with respect to the samples collected in the southern region (Peru), together with a "chaotic genetic patchiness" pattern of differentiation and no evidence of isolation by distance. Historical demographic parameters supported the occurrence of past population expansions, whereas the divergence times between populations coincided with the occurrence of glacial maxima some 220 000 years ago. Conclusions The population genetic structure detected for the Pacific Sierra mackerel is associated with a limited dispersal between the main abundance areas that are usually linked to the spawning sites of the species. Population expansions have coincided with glacial-interglacial episodes in the Pleistocene, but they may also be related to the increase in the SST and with upwelling areas in the EEP since the early Pleistocene.

2010-01-01

95

Suspected tremetol poisoning in horses.  

PubMed

Of 10 horses in a heavily overgrazed pasture, 4 died within 1 week. Clinical signs included muscle tremors, ataxia, reluctance to walk, heavy sweating, and myoglobinuria. Serum creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were high. Histopathologic findings were nonspecific. On the basis of clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, nonspecific histopathologic findings, the condition of the pasture, the identification of numerous white snakeroot plants from which trematone was extracted, and evidence that these plants had been heavily browsed, it was believed that the horses died from ingestion of Eupatorium rugosum. PMID:6542560

Olson, C T; Keller, W C; Gerken, D F; Reed, S M

1984-11-01

96

Urethrorectal fistula in a horse.  

PubMed Central

Anomalies of the urethra are uncommon. Urethrorectal fistula in horses has only been reported in foals and only in conjunction with other congenital anomalies. This report describes the diagnosis, surgical management, and possible etiologies of a unique case of urethrorectal fistula in a mature gelding.

Cruz, A M; Barber, S M; Kaestner, S B; Townsend, H G

1999-01-01

97

Syringohydromyelia in horses: 3 cases  

PubMed Central

Syringomyelia and hydromyelia are cavitary lesions of the spinal cord that may be acquired or congenital. These lesions are not frequently reported in large animal species. The presenting complaints, clinical, gross pathological, and histopathologic findings of 2 cases of syringomyelia and 1 case of hydromyelia in horses are described.

Sponseller, Brett A.; Sponseller, Beatrice T.; Alcott, Cody J.; Kline, Karen; Hostetter, Jesse; Reinertson, Eric L.; Fales-Williams, Amanda

2011-01-01

98

Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

2011-03-01

99

[Plasma gastrin levels in horses with colic].  

PubMed

The plasma gastrin levels in fasted horses (21.1 +/- 15.6 pg/ml), in horses with spasmodic colic (7.3 +/- 5.4 pg/ml) and in horses with impaction of the left ventral large colon and/or pelvic flexure (11.4 +/- 3.1 pg/ml) were not significantly different. The plasma gastrin concentrations of horses with strangulation obstruction of the small intestine, large colon displacement or adynamic ileus, and which had no gastric reflux, were 12.9 +/- 8.7 pg/ml and did not differ from fasted gastrin levels. Horses which had 5-10 litres of stomach content reflux had a higher mean gastrin level (32.2 +/- 22.6 pg/ml) (range 8.7-83.0) than the fasted horses. The mean plasma gastrin level (69.0 +/- 32.2 pg/ml) (range 27.0-122.0 pg/ml) in horses which had gastric reflux and 11-20 litres of stomach content outflow through the nasogastric tube were significantly higher (P less than 0.0004) than in fasted horses or in horses with spasmodic colic, impaction of the left ventral large colon or in horses from which no gastric reflux could be obtained. PMID:1412432

Schusser, G F; Obermayer-Pietsch, B

1992-08-01

100

[Stomach ulcers in the horse--clinical and gastroscopic findings in 12 horses (1989-1990)].  

PubMed

Twelve horses with clinical symptoms of a gastric disorder were studied by gastroscopy. Symptoms of gastric disorders were periprandial colic, bruxism, ructus and reflux. Preliminary to gastroscopy the horses were fasted for 24 h. Access to water was not restricted. The gastroscopy could be conducted easily using a fiberscope 2.5 m in length and 11 mm in outer diameter. While ulcers were present in the squamous fundus of all horses only one horse showed ulceration of the glandular fundus. Solitary ulcers near the margo plicatus were found in horses with mild clinical symptoms. In contrast, diffuse gastroesophageal ulceration was accompanied by severe clinical symptoms. Four horses were affected by an acute gastroesophageal ulceration with gastric reflux and subsequent aspiration pneumonia. Two of those horses suffered from acute gastric ulceration 3-4 days following laparatomy. All horses were treated with cimetidine (5 mg/kg bwt/q.i.d.) until clinical symptoms ceased. PMID:1948986

Dieckmann, M; Deegen, E

1991-08-01

101

Phosphorus bioavailability in diets for growing horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of phosphorus (P) metabolism was carried out using 12 month old Brasileiro de Hipismo breed of horses to determine the P bioavailability available from feeds commonly fed to horses in Brazil. Five different diets were formulated to contain approximately equivalent levels of crude protein and digestible energy, as well as to supply at least 22 g P\\/horse\\/day (NRC, 1989). All

A. A. M. A. Oliveira; C. E. Furtado; D. M. S. S. Vitti; F. D. Resende; S. L. S Cabral Filho; H. Tosi; B. Winkler

2008-01-01

102

Development of observational learning during school formation in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.  

PubMed

We assessed whether the development of observational learning in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles corresponds with that of their schooling behaviour. Schooling behaviour was quantitatively analyzed by nearest neighbour distance and separation angle in two size classes of fish, 20-mm and 40-mm in body length. Observer and non-observer fish with matching sizes were conditioned to pellets by temporarily stopping aeration. Observer fish were provided with five observation trials of other individuals feeding near an air stone when aeration was stopped. After the observation trial, fish were conditioned to pellets with the stop of aeration, and then the learning process was evaluated by the increase in the association with the feeding area when aeration was stopped. In 20-mm fish, which were at an immature stage of schooling behaviour, there was no difference in the learning process between observer and non-observer fish. In contrast, 40-mm fish were confirmed to have a well-developed schooling behaviour, and the observer learnt the feeding area more efficiently than the non-observer. This study provides evidence that observational learning develops along with the development of the social interaction. PMID:24220796

Takahashi, Kohji; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

2014-03-01

103

Assessment of size-dependent mercury distribution in King Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla  

SciTech Connect

The assessment of health risks from fish contamination and the issuance of advisories require accurate characterizations of the actual contaminant concentrations in fish of every relevant size. Such characterizations should not only contain statistical measures of location and variation, but provide a complete parameterization of the contaminant distribution for each given size class. This paper proposes two methods for determining such distributions from scatter diagrams of contaminant concentration versus fish length and illustrates them with an analysis of mercury contaminant in king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla. The first method consists of fitting contamination data with a family of S-distributions. This family shows trends in its defining parameter values, and these trends provide a comprehensive characterization of the measured contaminant concentrations. Each S-distribution has a rather simple mathematical structure from which one readily obtains secondary characteristics like quantiles, which are necessary for advanced simulation purposes. The second method takes into account that contaminant accumulation is the outcome of a metabolic process. When this process is modeled as a system of differential equations, it can be reformulated in such a way that it describes how the contaminant distribution changes over a given period of time. The resulting distributions have a more complicated structure than those obtained with the first method, but they allow them to bridge the gap between individual metabolic accumulation processes and trends in populations.

Voit, E.O. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States). Dept. of Biometry and Epidemiology; Balthis, W.L. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States). Dept. of Biometry and Epidemiology]|[National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States). Southeast Fisheries Science Center

1994-12-31

104

Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.  

PubMed

In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

2013-11-01

105

Ocean Planet: Ocean Market  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on foods, materials and medicines that comes form marine life, how these resources are harvested and processed and the impacts of fisheries. Students identify and classify consumer goods from the ocean and calculate their cost. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

2012-07-19

106

Oceans Alive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

Rosentrater, Lynn

107

Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11). Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype), whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype). It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber and localized areas of atrophy in the peripheral retina were seen. Conclusions The MCOA syndrome is segregating with the PMEL17 mutation in the Icelandic Horse population. This needs to be taken into consideration in breeding decisions and highlights the fact that MCOA syndrome is present in a breed that are more ancient and not closely related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed.

2011-01-01

108

Photic headshaking in the horse: 7 cases.  

PubMed

Seven horses with headshaking are described. No physical abnormalities were detected in any of the cases. Six of these horses had onset of clinical signs in the spring. The role of light was assessed by application of a blindfold or dark grey lens to the eyes, covering the eyes with a face mask and observing the horse in total darkness outdoors. Cessation of headshaking was observed with blindfolding (5/5 horses), night darkness outdoors (4/4 horses) and use of grey lenses (2/3 horses). Outdoor behaviour suggested efforts to avoid light in 4/4 cases. The photic sneeze in man is suggested as a putative mechanism for equine headshaking. Five of 7 horses had improvement with cyproheptadine treatment (0.3 mg/kg bwt b.i.d.). Headshaking developed within 2 calendar weeks of the same date for 3 consecutive years in one horse. Neuropharmacological alterations associated with photoperiod mechanisms leading to optic trigeminal summation are suggested as possible reasons for spring onset of headshaking. PMID:8536668

Madigan, J E; Kortz, G; Murphy, C; Rodger, L

1995-07-01

109

Exercise and the height of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heights of 89 horses were measured at the withers before and after half a furlong of trotting exercise. The mean (+\\/- sd) height increase after exercise was 1.75 +\\/- 0.86 cm and the horses returned to their resting height within seven minutes. There was no linear relationship between gain in height and pre-exercise height.

AA Hodges; AG Harrison; CM Wathes

1986-01-01

110

Identification, characterization, and expression profiles of two subtypes of kisspeptin receptors in a scombroid fish (chub mackerel).  

PubMed

The kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1R) is a cognate receptor for kisspeptin (Kiss), and this Kiss-Kiss1R system has been shown to regulate seasonal reproduction in vertebrates. Our previous study found the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses both kiss1 and kiss2 and exhibits sexually dimorphic changes during the seasonal reproductive cycle. The present study cloned two subtypes of kissr from the chub mackerel brain, and their signal transduction pathways to Kiss1 and Kiss2 were characterized in a mammalian cell line. Results of identification showed that kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs encode 369 and 378 deduced amino acids, respectively, and share 52% similarity in amino acid sequences. In vitro functional analysis revealed that chub mackerel Kiss receptor signals are also preferentially transduced via the protein kinase C (PKC) rather than protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Synthetic chub mackerel Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 peptides showed the highest potency for the activation of KissR1 and KissR2, respectively, stronger than their corresponding Kiss-10 peptides. Tissue distribution analyses indicated that both genes are highly expressed in the brain and that only kissr2 mRNA is expressed in the pituitary of both sexes. Unexpectedly, both kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs were detected only in the testes. Seasonal expression changes showed higher expression levels of both kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs in the brain of females during the early vitellogenic period; however, no significant differences were found in the brain of males. Pituitary kissr2 mRNA levels showed no significant variations. In the testes, the kissr1 mRNA expression level increased dramatically at spermiation compared with the immature and post-spawning periods. However, kissr2 mRNA levels in the testes did not vary significantly at different testicular stages. These results suggest that both kissr1 and kissr2 likely participate in the seasonal ovarian development of females, and thus in males, we propose a paracrine or autocrine role for kissr1 in testicular development. PMID:23932907

Ohga, Hirofumi; Fujinaga, Yoichiro; Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2013-11-01

111

Kudoa azevedoi n. sp. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) from the oocytes of the Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus (Perciformes, Carangidae) in Tunisian coasts.  

PubMed

A new species Kudoa azevedoi sp. n. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) is described in Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 (Carangidae) from fishing harbors in Tunisian coasts using spore morphology and SSU rDNA sequence data. The parasite occurs only in ovaries within oocytes of mature and immature specimens. Spores are quadrate in shape in apical view with rounded edges, having four shell valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. They are of small sizes and measure 3.5±0.41 (3-4.2)×4.5±0.44 (4-5.2) length by width. The polar capsules are pyriform in shape measuring 1.5±0.22 (1.5-2)×0.75±0.14 (0.5-1)??m. Infected oocytes are hypertrophied, whitish colored, and filled with mature spores. Plasmodia are tubular and ramified from the inner membrane toward the center of the oocyte. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences shows the highest similarity (96%) with the ovary parasite Kudoa ovivora. Some morphological details and spore dimensions support the creation of a new species in the genus Kudoa. Mean prevalence among examined females is of about 55.5%. It varies between localities and length of fish. The present myxosporea is the second Kudoa species reported in fish ovaries. PMID:23435961

Mansour, Lamjed; Thabet, Aouatef; Chourabi, Kalthoum; Harrath, Abdul Halim; Gtari, Mahr; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

2013-04-01

112

Genetic characterisation of the Uruguayan Creole horse and analysis of relationships among horse breeds.  

PubMed

The genetic variability within the Uruguayan Creole horse and its relationship to a group of geographically or historically related breeds (Spanish Pure-bred, Barb, Quarter horse, Paso Fino, Peruvian Paso, Arabian and Thoroughbred horse), was evaluated using 25 loci (seven of blood groups, nine of protein polymorphisms and nine microsatellites) analyzed on a total of 145 Uruguayan Creole horses. In this study, blood group and protein polymorphism variants that are considered to be breed markers of Spanish Pure-bred and Barb horses were detected in the Creole breed. Conversely, some microsatellites and protein polymorphisms alleles were found uniquely in the Creole horse. American horse breeds together with Barb and Arabian horses clearly formed a separate cluster from the Spanish pure-bred and Thoroughbred breeds, as shown by an UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's standard genetic distance. Data in this study provided evidence for considerable genetic variation within Uruguayan Creole horses and of a distinctive breed profile. Both traits were most likely inherited from the XVIth century Spanish horses, more closely related to Barb than to Spanish Pure-bred. PMID:12002640

Kelly, L; Postiglioni, A; De Andrés, D F; Vega-Plá, J L; Gagliardi, R; Biagetti, R; Franco, J

2002-02-01

113

Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.  

PubMed Central

Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses.

Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

1993-01-01

114

Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.  

PubMed

In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods. PMID:24290612

Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

2014-02-01

115

Hepatic sarcocystosis in a horse.  

PubMed

Hepatic sarcocystosis was diagnosed in a horse in association with refractory bacterial osteomyelitis and plasma cell tumor of the maxilla and hepatic salmonellosis. Gross lesions included pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal effusions, hepatomegaly, gastric ulceration, colonic edema, and proliferative tissues filling 2 maxillary dental alveoli. Histologically, liver was characterized by severe suppurative, necrotizing, periportal hepatitis, and severe periacinar necrosis. Hepatocytes frequently contained protozoal schizonts in various stages of development. In mature schizonts, merozoites were often arranged radially around a central residual body, consistent with asexual division by endopolygeny. Ultrastructural features of merozoites included an apical conoid and polar ring, anterior micronemes, central nuclei, and absence of rhoptries. These protozoa did not react to antisera raised against Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii, or Hammondia hammondi. The microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics and immunoreactivity of this organism are consistent with a Sarcocystis sp. other than S. neurona. This is the first report of Sarcocystis-associated hepatitis in a horse. The life cycle of this organism and source of infection are unknown. PMID:10577737

Davis, C R; Barr, B C; Pascoe, J R; Olander, H J; Dubey, J P

1999-10-01

116

Genetics of swayback in American Saddlebred horses.  

PubMed

Extreme lordosis, also called swayback, lowback or softback, can occur as a congenital trait or as a degenerative trait associated with ageing. In this study, the hereditary aspect of congenital swayback was investigated using whole genome association studies of 20 affected and 20 unaffected American Saddlebred (ASB) Horses for 48,165 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A statistically significant association was identified on ECA20 (corrected P=0.017) for SNP BIEC2-532523. Of the 20 affected horses, 17 were homozygous for this SNP when compared to seven homozygotes among the unaffected horses, suggesting a major gene with a recessive mode of inheritance. The result was confirmed by testing an additional 13 affected horses and 166 unaffected horses using 35 SNPs in this region of ECA20 (corrected P=0.036). Combined results for 33 affected horses and 287 non-affected horses allowed identification of a region of homozygosity defined by four SNPs in the region. Based on the haplotype defined by these SNPs, 80% of the 33 affected horses were homozygous, 21% heterozygous and 9% did not possess the haplotype. Among the non-affected horses, 15% were homozygous, 47% heterozygous and 38% did not possess the haplotype. The differences between the two groups were highly significant (P<0.00001). The region defined by this haplotype includes 53 known and predicted genes. Exons from three candidate genes, TRERF1, RUNX2 and CNPY3 were sequenced without finding distinguishing SNPs. The mutation responsible for swayback may lie in other genes or in regulatory regions outside exons. This information can be used by breeders to reduce the occurrence of swayback among their livestock. This condition may serve as a model for investigation of congenital skeletal deformities in other species. PMID:21070278

Cook, D; Gallagher, P C; Bailey, E

2010-12-01

117

Ocean Circulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses ocean circulation. First it explains what ocean currents are and what causes them. Then it explains other aspects of the global conveyor belt such as gyres and ocean-atmosphere interactions.

Administration, National O.

2011-08-09

118

Gastric ulcers in horses: a comparison of endoscopic findings in horses with and without clinical signs.  

PubMed

Gastroendoscopic examinations were performed on 187 horses, ranging from one to 24 years. Eighty-seven horses had clinical problems including chronic, recurrent colic for seven or more days (25), one or more episodes of colic within the previous seven days (13), or acute colic (10), diminished appetite (53), poor bodily condition (40), and/or chronic diarrhoea (9). One hundred horses that had no signs of gastrointestinal problems were examined as part of a gastroendoscopic survey. Lesions observed in the squamous fundus, squamous mucosa adjacent to the margo plicatus along the greater curvature, glandular fundus, and the squamous mucosa along the lesser curvature were scored on a scale of 0-4, with 0 representing no lesions and 4 representing the most severe lesions. The mean endoscopic scores for the squamous fundus, margo plicatus and lesser curvature were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in horses with clinical signs than those without signs. This was because of the greater number of horses with lesions in the symptomatic group (80/87) compared to those without signs (52/100), and the greater severity of lesions in the horses with clinical signs. Of the horses, 74 were in race training. There was a significantly (P < 0.01) greater prevalence and severity of lesions at all sites except the glandular fundus in horses in training compared to those not in training, and in the horses in training with clinical signs (n = 37) compared to those in training without clinical signs (n = 37). PMID:9118110

Murray, M J; Grodinsky, C; Anderson, C W; Radue, P F; Schmidt, G R

1989-06-01

119

Ocean Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of mammals that live in the ocean? First, you will need to use the Ocean Mammals Table 1. This website is here for you to learn about ocean mammals. Mammals 2. This website will help you learn about the different mammals that live in the ocean. Ocean Mammals 3. Here is some information about how oil spills effect animal skin in the ocean. Oil Spills 4. This link ...

Teschner, Miss

2011-04-06

120

50 CFR 622.378 - Seasonal closures of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...622.378 Section 622.378 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND...

2013-10-01

121

Massive pulmonary thromboembolism in six horses.  

PubMed

This report involves 6 cases in which medical records and post mortem findings were reviewed leading to the diagnosis of massive pulmonary thromboembolism (MPTE). All horses were mature and MPTE has not been recognised previously as a sequel to generalised systemic illness in mature horses. The clinical data and pathological findings of the cases are reported and the authors conclude that MPTE is an uncommon but important complication of medical and surgical disorders in mature horses. In 3 of the cases, the condition was nonfatal suggesting that some horses having developed PTE survive and the condition may not be recognised in such cases. The incidence of the condition might be higher than supposed. PMID:18482899

Norman, T E; Chaffin, M K; Perris, E E; Edwards, J F; David, J B; Cohen, N D; Reuss, S

2008-07-01

122

Inhibitory Effects of Brown Algae Extracts on Histamine Production in Mackerel Muscle via Inhibition of Growth and Histidine Decarboxylase Activity of Morganella morganii.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle. First, antimicrobial activities of brown algae extracts against Morganella morganii were investigated using a disk diffusion method. An ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (ECEE) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ECEE was 2 mg/ml. Furthermore, the brown algae extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit crude histidine decarboxylase (HDC) of M. morganii. The ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (EBEE) and ECEE exhibited significant inhibitory activities (19.82% and 33.79%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. To obtain the phlorotannin dieckol, ECEE and EBEE were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and HPLC. Dieckol exhibited substantial inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.61 mg/ml, and exhibited competitive inhibition. These extracts were also tested on mackerel muscle. The viable cell counts and histamine production in mackerel muscle inoculated with M. morganii treated with ?2.5 MIC of ECEE (weight basis) were highly inhibited compared with the untreated sample. Furthermore, treatment of crude HDCinoculated mackerel muscle with 0.5% ECEE and 0.5% EBEE (weight basis), which exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against crude HDC, reduced the overall histamine production by 46.29% and 56.89%, respectively, compared with the untreated sample. Thus, these inhibitory effects of ECEE and EBEE should be helpful in enhancing the safety of mackerel by suppressing histamine production in this fish species. PMID:24394193

Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri; Cho, Ji Young; Ahn, Dong Hyun

2014-04-28

123

Inertial properties of Dutch Warmblood horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete set of three-dimensional inertial properties (mass, density, contre of mass, inertial tensor) was determined in 26 segments of six Dutch Warmblood horses. The measurements were performed with frozen segments similar to the procedure described by Lephart (1984, J. Biomechanics17, 537–543). Based on these data linear regression models were developed for the estimation of inertial properties in living horses.The

H. H. F. Buchner; H. H. C. M. Savelberg; H. C. Schamhardt; A. Barneveld

1997-01-01

124

Contested Realities: Feral Horses in Outback Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to 1980, feral horse numbers in the Northern Territory of Australia were thought to be low, between 40,000 and 60,000. Based on research done by an American geographer, these estimates should have been critically scrutinized by Australian scientists. They were, however, accepted uncritically. Then in the early 1980s, helicopter censuses showed that the feral horse population was more than

Richard Symanski

1994-01-01

125

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in working horses.  

PubMed

Fecal samples for detection of gastrointestinal parasites were collected from 221 working horses from September 2002 to May 2003 from 14 villages in Urmia, North West of Iran. Fecal samples of 46 horses (20.8%) were negative for parasite eggs or oocysts. One hundred and seventy five positive horses (48.9%) were infected with a single parasite type and 49 (22.2%) and 18 (8.1%) of horses had multiple infections with two and three parasites, respectively. The highest prevalence and intensity rate belonged to small strongyles. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites eggs and oocyst in the positive horses were: strongyles 72.9%, Oxyuris equi 22.6%, Parascaris equorum 12.2%, Anoplocephalidae 6.3%, Fasciola spp. 3.2% and Eimeria leuckarti 0.5%. Larval identification showed that small strongyle larvae were most frequent (97.6%) followed by Strongylus edentatus (22.6%), S. equinus (18.5%) and S. vulgaris (6.5%). This study suggests that the high rate of infection with gastrointestinal parasites could contribute to low performance and life expectancy of working horses in the region. PMID:20731187

Tavassoli, M; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Esmaeili-Sani, S

2010-01-01

126

Extension Large Colon Resection in 12 Horses  

PubMed Central

Extensive resection (50-75%) of the large colon was performed in 12 horses. Indications for resection were: loss of viability due to large colon volvulus (seven), thromboembolic episode (three), impairment of flow of ingesta due to adhesions (one), or congenital abnormalities (one). The time required to correct the primary cause of abdominal pain and complete the resection ranged from 2.5 to 4.75 hours. Three horses had severe musculoskeletal problems postoperatively and were euthanized in the recovery stall. Four other horses were euthanized early in the postoperative period because of: further large colon infarction (two), ileus (one), or small intestinal problems (one). Five horses survived with no apparent nutritional or metabolic problems during two to three weeks of hospitalization. Clinical data were obtained from these horses from nine months to eighteen months postoperatively and revealed no clinical or clinicopathological abnormalities in four of them; the fifth horse exhibited diarrhea and weight loss four months postoperatively but responded to diet change.

Arighi, Mimi; Ducharme, Norman G.; Horney, F. Donald.; Livesey, Michael A.

1987-01-01

127

Ocean Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Talk provides a glimpse of oceanography and an awareness of the importance of the sea to our environment and our own well-being. There are scientific explanations of ocean bottom features, the properties of seawater, underwater sound, sea ice, ocean currents, tides, waves, and tsunamis. A history of marine exploration and descriptions of the Earth's oceans are also provided.

128

WAR HORSE and IRON HORSE at Camp Shelby: data collection and associated processing results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following paper describes a recent data collection exercise in which the WAR HORSE visible-near-infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor and IRON HORSE short-wave-infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor were employed in the collection of wide-area hyperspectral data sets. A preliminary analysis of the data has been performed and results are discussed.

Stellman, Christopher M.; Olchowski, Frederick M.; Hazel, Geoffrey G.; Allman, E. C.; Surratt, M. L.

2003-09-01

129

15. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the trail crossing the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the trail crossing the Yankee Horse Railroad bed. Facing south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

130

Functional analysis of kisspeptin peptides in adult immature chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) using an intracerebroventricular administration method.  

PubMed

In vertebrates (including teleosts), the pivotal hierarchical factor in the control of gonadotropin secretion is the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide, which regulates the release of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Recently, kisspeptins encoded by the Kiss1 gene have been shown to act as upstream endogenous regulators of GnRH neurons in mammals. The chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses two kiss genes (kiss1 and kiss2) that show sexually dimorphic expression profiles during the seasonal gonadal cycle. In the present study, we evaluated the biological potency of kisspeptin peptides to induce transcriptional changes in gnrh1 (hypophysiotropic GnRH form in this species), fsh? and lh? during the immature stage of adult chub mackerel (2+ years old). Synthetic Kiss1 pentadecapeptide (Kiss1-15) or Kiss2 dodecapeptide (Kiss2-12) at a dose of 100 ng were administered into the intracerebroventricular (ICV) region, and brains were sampled at 6 and 12 h post-injection. In female fish, gnrh1 levels decreased in the presence of both kisspeptin peptides at 12 h post-injection. No significant variation was observed in male fish. In contrast, ICV administration of Kiss2-12 (but not Kiss1-15) significantly increased fsh? and lh? mRNAs at 12 h post-injection compared to a saline injected control in both sexes. These results suggested that synthetic Kiss2-12 could induce transcriptional changes in gnrh1 and gths. PMID:24412259

Ohga, Hirofumi; Selvaraj, Sethu; Adachi, Hayato; Imanaga, Yui; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2014-02-21

131

Parasitism between Anisakis simplex (Nematoda: Anisakidae) third-stage larvae and the spotted mackerel Scomber australasicus with regard to the application of stock identification.  

PubMed

The nematode fauna of 369 spotted mackerel of the species Scomber australasicus, collected off the northeastern Taiwanese coast of the northwestern Pacific, was investigated monthly from April 2004 to March 2005. The following nematode species were recorded: Anisakis simplex complex, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Porrocaecum decipiens and Raphidascaris trichiuri. The seasonal variation in the infection with A. simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied throughout the 12 months. The prevalence of A. simplex L3 recorded for total fish samples was 93.6%, varying between 86.7 and 100%. There was an increase in the abundance of this nematode in spring, with the peak occurring in April. To reveal whether intrinsic factors of the spotted mackerel host contributed to infection with this nematode, fish were grouped according to their body weight, age and gonad development (reported as gonadoosomatic index, GSI), respectively, and infection parameters (i.e., prevalence, abundance and intensity) were analyzed. Results showed that abundance was significantly higher in both larger (>450 g) and older (>3 years old) fish. The gonad development of the host fish was not correlated with the intensity of the larval infection in both female and male fish. Two distinct Anisakis species were identified by PCR-RFLP, namely A. pegreffii and a recombinant genotype of A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto. These species occurred with frequencies of 97% and 3%, respectively. The usefulness of using parasites as biomarkers for spotted mackerel stock identification around Taiwanese waters was confirmed herein. A second group of 58 spotted mackerel were obtained from the coastal waters off southwestern Taiwan. In addition to the two species, A. pegreffii and the recombinant one, which were found with frequencies of 63% and 9%, respectively, an additional Anisakis species A. typica was identified with a frequency of 28% from these fish. Two spotted mackerel stocks could thus be identified based on their infrastructure of Anisakis species community and their frequency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of stock identification of spotted mackerel using endoparasite biomarkers. PMID:21211909

Chou, Yi-Ying; Wang, Chun-Shun; Chen, Hui-Guan; Chen, Hui-Yu; Chen, Shiu-Nan; Shih, Hsiu-Hui

2011-05-11

132

Ocean Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the intent to publicize information on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) major ocean exploration efforts, the Ocean Explorer Website provides a platform to follow such explorations in near real-time, learn about ocean exploration technologies, observe remote marine areas through multimedia technology, and review NOAA's 200-year history of ocean exploration. Additional NOAA resources in the Library include related links, historical books and documents, expedition reports, and journal articles significant to NOAA's historical and current ocean exploration activities. The Calendar and Projects sections provide, respectively, a descriptive schedule of upcoming explorations and information on related activities and events.

133

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...Provisions Articles Exported for Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported...

2014-04-01

134

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...Provisions Articles Exported for Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported...

2012-04-01

135

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...Provisions Articles Exported for Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported...

2010-04-01

136

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...Provisions Articles Exported for Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported...

2013-04-01

137

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...Provisions Articles Exported for Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported...

2009-04-01

138

Comparison of Sarcocystis neurona isolates derived from horse neural tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis neurona is a protozoan parasite that can cause neurological deficits in infected horses. The route of transmission is by fecal–oral transfer of sporocysts from opossums. However, the species identity and the lifecycle are not completely known. In this study, Sarcocystis merozoites from eight isolates obtained from Michigan horses were compared to S. neurona from a California horse (UCD1), Sarcocystis

L. S Mansfield; H. C Schott; A. J Murphy; M. G Rossano; S. M Tanhauser; J. S Patterson; K Nelson; S. L Ewart; J. V Marteniuk; D. D Bowman; J. B Kaneene

2001-01-01

139

9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93.317 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

2009-01-01

140

9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93.317 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

2010-01-01

141

Illness in horses following spraying with amitraz.  

PubMed

Sickness occurred in 3 of 4 horses within 24 h of being sprayed with an 0.025% w/v aqueous suspension of amitraz. The latter consisted of a portion of an amitraz aqueous suspension made up some 3 weeks previously, to which some freshly prepared spray fluid had been added. It seemed likely that the amitraz in the older solution had broken down to the highly toxic N-3, 5- dimethylphenyl N-methyl formamadine derivative and that this was in fact the main cause of the untoward effects observed. The horses displayed typical clinical signs of tranquillisation, depression, ataxia, muscular incoordination and impaction colic lasting up to 6 days. Subcutaneous oedema of the face occurred in one horse. The syndrome was accompanied by mild dehydration and acidosis. All horses survived after persistent symptomatic treatment including the giving of intravenous fluids, enemas, analgesics every 3 h, multiple doses of paraffin oil per os and dexamethasone intravenously. Following the eventual relief of constipation the horses scoured profusely for 24 h before their condition returned to normal. PMID:6508668

Auer, D E; Seawright, A A; Pollitt, C C; Williams, G

1984-08-01

142

Ocean tides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

Hendershott, M. C.

1975-01-01

143

[The study of horse chestnut leaf parameters].  

PubMed

In order to prepare the new remedy--the tincture of leafs of horse-chestnut, we studied technological parameters of the vegetal material. With the purpose of definition of optimal conditions of extraction of operating substance from vegetative raw materials, calculation of norm of raw material charge and extractive by development technological regulations, and also for management for process of extracting have been studied some technological properties of horse-chestnut. In the course of experimental works, there were specified relative density, bulk weight and volume weight; porosity, free volume of a layer of a raw material, rate of water absorption. The results of studies are used in development of technology of tincture of horse-chestnut leaves. PMID:17261894

Goletiani, K; Bashura, A; Polovko, N; Bashura, A; Tsagareishvili, G

2006-12-01

144

Occurrence of Borrelia lusitaniae infection in horses.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infection in horses exposed to heavy tick infestations. Blood samples of 98 healthy horses from 5 stud farms were examined by SNAP(®) 4D× and PCR to detect antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. and Borrelia DNA, respectively. Ten samples (15.3%) were antibody positive and 5 samples (5.1%) were both antibody and PCR positive. Sequence analysis showed the highest homology with the B. lusitaniae genospecies. No differences were found between sexes and stud farms, while age was significantly related to seropositivity (p<0.05). Our data confirms the presence of B. lusitaniae infection in horses, previously not clearly demonstrated. PMID:22789679

Veronesi, Fabrizia; Laus, Fulvio; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Tesei, Beniamino; Piergili Fioretti, Daniela; Genchi, Claudio

2012-12-01

145

Monensin poisoning in horses -- an international incident  

PubMed Central

Several hundred Michigan horses were accidentally exposed to varying levels of monensin. Severity of effects was proportional to the level of feed contamination; sudden death resulted on at least two premises. Acute signs of cardiovascular impairment occurred on one premises having received feed containing over 200 grams of monensin per tonne. Gross and histological postmortem lesions consisted of acute myocardial necrosis. Although only circumstantially confirmed, investigations led to the suspicion that the source of poisoning was a ration formulation error in a feedmill in southwestern Ontario. Concern over possible undetected heart damage in exposed horses led to clinical monitoring on one farm over a period of several months. Electrocardiographic and serum enzyme monitoring were used soon after the incident to implicate exposure in some horses; they were poor prognostic indicators. Applicable legislation, the cooperative role of government departments, and legal implications relative to potential prosecution and lawsuits arising from sale of contaminated feed between Canada and the USA are summarized.

Doonan, Gordon R.; Brown, Christopher M.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Brooks, David B.; Ulmanis, Eugene G.; Slanker, Michael R.

1989-01-01

146

Skeletal atavism in a miniature horse.  

PubMed

An 8-month-old miniature horse filly was presented for evaluation of severe rotational and angular limb deformities of the thoracic and pelvic limbs. On radiographic examination, complete ulnas and fibulas were identified. These findings are consistent with a condition previously described as a form of atavism. The term atavism is used to describe the reappearance of a trait or character that was seen in all earlier evolutionary specimens of a particular species, but has not been seen in recent ancestors. The atavistic traits of complete ulnas and fibulas have previously been described in Welsh and Shetland Ponies, all of which had severe rotational and angular limb deformities. In this horse, bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the medial trochlear ridge of the talii were also identified. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the atavistic traits of complete ulnas and fibulas seen in the miniature horse. PMID:15373256

Tyson, Reid; Graham, John P; Colahan, Patrick T; Berry, Clifford R

2004-01-01

147

Ocean Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Portal is a high-level directory of Ocean Data and Information related web sites. The object of the site is to help scientists and other ocean experts in locating data and information. Sites are listed in a directory with headings that include information, data, scientific topics, agencies and societies, among others.

Team, Ioc/iode M.; Oceanportal.org

148

Y-Chromosome Analysis in Retuertas Horses  

PubMed Central

Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects.

Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Backstrom, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

2013-01-01

149

Environmental assessment of the Atlantic mackerel ( Scomber scombrus ) season in the Basque Country. Increasing the timeline delimitation in fishery LCA studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts linked to fish extraction on a temporal basis, in order\\u000a to analyze the effect that stock abundance variations may have on reporting environmental burdens. Inventory data for the\\u000a North-East Atlantic Mackerel (NEAM) fishing season were collected over an 8-year period and used to carry out a life cycle\\u000a assessment

Saioa Ramos; Ian Vázquez-Rowe; Iñaki Artetxe; Maria Teresa Moreira; Gumersindo Feijoo; Jaime Zufía

150

Effect of freeze-chilling, in comparison with fresh, chilling and freezing, on some quality parameters of raw whiting, mackerel and salmon portions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeze-chilling involves freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. It offers logistic benefits for fish packers as it enables packaged fillets to be held frozen and then released into the chill chain as required. Trials with whiting, mackerel and salmon fillets\\/portions indicated no difference in odour scores (raw samples) between freeze-chilled and chilled samples; however, freeze-chilled salmon

John D. Fagan; T. Ronan Gormley; Mary U?? Mhuircheartaigh

2003-01-01

151

Mackerel skin lipids as an unsaturated fat model system for the determination of antioxidative potency of TBHQ and other antioxidant compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  A comparative study on the activity of antioxidation of butylhydroxy anisole, (BHA), butylhydroxy toluene (BHT),tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), ?-tocopherol, and tempeh oil has been investigated by using the readily oxidizable mackerel skin\\u000a lipids as the tested model system. The oxidation rate of the tested lipids was mainly followed by measuring the weight gain,\\u000a but some peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and

P. J. Ke; D. M. Nash; R. G. Ackman

1977-01-01

152

Effects of deep frying on proximate composition and micronutrient of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), eel (Monopterus albus) and cockle (Anadara granosa).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish. PMID:24191621

Rahman, M M; Zamri, M; Fadilla, N

2012-06-15

153

Endotoxin and biogenic amine levels in Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and Mediterranean hake (Merluccius merluccius) stored at 22 degrees C.  

PubMed

Whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and Mediterranean hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Croatian Adriatic were stored at 22 degrees C and changes in histamine, putrescine, tyramine and cadaverine levels were monitored in relation to bacterial endotoxin. After 12 h, histamine levels in sardine were above the legal limit of 50 mg kg(-1), set by the US Food and Drug Administration, and an increase in putrescine content preceded the increase in histamine. After 24 h, histamine contents in mackerel and sardine reached 1090 +/- 101 and 577 +/- 275 mg kg(-1), respectively, which exceeded the toxic threshold of 500 mg kg(-1). At the same time, the putrescine content was also high in both fish (353-420 mg kg(-1)). The time-course of endotoxin production was similar in all fish species stored at 22 degrees C. A high correlation was found between endotoxin and histamine, and between endotoxin and putrescine in mackerel and sardine. On the other hand, high endotoxin levels in hake, after 24 h, were associated with the low histamine and putrescine content (40-60 mg kg(-1)). PMID:19680909

Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena; Varnai, Veda Marija; Orct, Tatjana; Vukusic, Jelena; Kipcic, Dubravka

2009-03-01

154

European domestic horses originated in two holocene refugia.  

PubMed

The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both. PMID:21479181

Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim A; Cañon, Javier; Cothran, Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Glowatzki-Mullis, Marie-Louise; Hunt, Harriet; Luís, Cristina; do Mar Oom, Maria; Yupanqui, Isabel Tupac; Z?bek, Tomasz; Manica, Andrea

2011-01-01

155

European Domestic Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia  

PubMed Central

The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both.

Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim A.; Canon, Javier; Cothran, Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Glowatzki-Mullis, Marie-Louise; Hunt, Harriet; Luis, Cristina; do Mar Oom, Maria; Yupanqui, Isabel Tupac; Zabek, Tomasz; Manica, Andrea

2011-01-01

156

Ageing draft and trotter horses by their dentition.  

PubMed

The accuracy of ageing horses by their dentition was assessed by comparing the dental features with the known dates of birth of 212 trotter horses and 189 Belgian draft horses. The horses ranged in age from two to 25 years. In both breeds it was observed that the shedding of the incisors and the appearance of the dental stars were the most reliable features for age determination. In young animals, the dental configuration was similar in both breeds. With increasing age the incisor teeth of draft horses were more liable to abrasion than those of trotter horses. The sequential changes in appearance of the permanent incisors occurred earlier in draft horses than in trotters. PMID:9248018

Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H; Van Loon, G

1997-07-01

157

Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities  

PubMed Central

The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution.

Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

2014-01-01

158

Use of a 3-D dispersion model for calculation of distribution of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities.  

PubMed

The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m³). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority--80%-90%--detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

2014-04-01

159

A Study of Horse Racing in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expansion of horse racing in California would serve to benefit horsemen through an increase in purse opportunities, facilitate the maximization of state revenues by increasing the size of the handle on which license fees are based, and provide for indi...

R. M. Bell R. L. Harris B. P. Donnelly

1977-01-01

160

Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of dantrolene in horses.  

PubMed

Dantrolene is a skeletal muscle relaxant used commonly in performance horses to prevent exertional rhabdomyolysis. The goal of the study reported here was to begin to characterize cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of dantrolene in the horse and describe the pharmacokinetics of the compound, formulated as a capsule or a compounded paste formulation, following oral administration. Dantrolene is rapidly metabolized to 5-hydroxydantrolene both in vivo and in vitro. Preliminary work with equine liver microsomes suggest that two enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of dantrolene, as evidenced by two distinct K(m) values, one at high and one at low substrate concentrations. For the pharmacokinetic portion of the study, a randomized, balanced 2-way crossover design was employed wherein eight healthy horses received a single oral dose of either capsules or paste followed by a 4 week washout period prior to administration of the second formulation to the same horse. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (prior to drug administration) and at various times up to 96 h postdrug administration. Plasma samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and data analyzed using both noncompartmental and compartmental analysis. Peak plasma concentrations were 28.9 ± 21.6 and 37.8 ± 12.8 ng/mL for capsules and paste, respectively and occurred at 3.8 h for both formulations. Dantrolene and its major metabolite were both below the limit of detection in both plasma and urine by 168 h postadministration. PMID:21492188

DiMaio Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; Taylor, A; Moeller, B C; Stanley, S D

2011-06-01

161

Polyomavirus-associated nephritis in 2 horses.  

PubMed

Polyomaviruses produce latent and asymptomatic infections in many species, but productive and lytic infections are rare. In immunocompromised humans, polyomaviruses can cause tubulointerstitial nephritis, demyelination, or meningoencephalitis in the central nervous system and interstitial pneumonia. This report describes 2 Standardbred horses with tubular necrosis and tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with productive equine polyomavirus infection that resembles BK polyomavirus nephropathy in immunocompromised humans. PMID:23381926

Jennings, S H; Wise, A G; Nickeleit, V; Maes, R K; Cianciolo, R E; Del Piero, F; Law, J M; Kim, Y; McCalla, A C; Breuhaus, B A; Roberts, M C; Linder, K E

2013-09-01

162

Do Horses Have a Concept of Person?  

PubMed Central

Background Animals' ability for cross-modal recognition has recently received much interest. Captive or domestic animals seem able to perceive cues of human attention and appear to have a multisensory perception of humans. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we used a task where horses have to remain immobile under a vocal order to test whether they are sensitive to the attentional state of the experimenter, but also whether they behave and respond differently to the familiar order when tested by a familiar or an unknown person. Horses' response varied according to the person's attentional state when the order was given by an unknown person: obedience levels were higher when the person giving the order was looking at the horse than when he was not attentive. More interesting is the finding that whatever the condition, horses monitored much more and for longer times the unknown person, as if they were surprised to hear the familiar order given by an unknown voice. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that recognition of humans may lie in a global, integrated, multisensory representation of specific individuals, that includes visual and vocal identity, but also expectations on the individual's behaviour in a familiar situation.

Sankey, Carol; Henry, Severine; Andre, Nicolas; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Hausberger, Martine

2011-01-01

163

Intrathoracic pulsion diverticulum in a horse  

PubMed Central

This is a report of a 12-year-old Swedish Warmblood gelding with a ruptured esophageal pulsion diverticulum associated with atypical clinical signs of colic and septic peritonitis on presentation. The location of this diverticulum at the hiatus was unique and was most likely responsible for the unusual presentation of this horse.

Yamout, Sawsan Z.; Magdesian, K. Gary; Tokarz, Debra A.; le Jeune, Sarah S.

2012-01-01

164

Horse Training and Management: Program of Excellence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on Lamar Community College's Horse Training and Management (HTM) program assesses the quality of the educational experience provided by the program, the quality of the faculty and students, institutional financial commitment to the program, contribution of the HTM program to state and local economic development, and external funding…

Lane, Marvin

165

A Dark Horse Medium in Basic Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dark Horse (DH) board is described and discussed as one medium which may be utilized in the classroom. The DH Board holds fairly heavy three-dimensional display objects and consists of two components: a special material which serves as the display surface and an adhesive material which is fixed to objects displayed. (SC)

Eckert, Sidney W.

1974-01-01

166

The pharmacokinetics of glycopyrrolate in Standardbred horses.  

PubMed

The disposition of plasma glycopyrrolate (GLY) is characterized by a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model after a 1-mg bolus intravenous dose to Standardbred horses. The median (range) plasma clearance (Clp), volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1 ), volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss), and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-inf ) were 16.7 (13.6-21.7) mL/min/kg, 0.167 (0.103-0.215) L/kg, 3.69 (0.640-38.73) L/kg, and 2.58 (2.28-2.88) ng*h/mL, respectively. Renal clearance of GLY was characterized by a median (range) of 2.65 (1.92-3.59) mL/min/kg and represented approximately 11.3-24.7% of the total plasma clearance. As a result of these studies, we conclude that the majority of GLY is cleared through hepatic mechanisms because of the limited extent of renal clearance of GLY and absence of plasma esterase activity on GLY metabolism. Although the disposition of GLY after intravenous administration to Standardbred horses was similar to that in Thoroughbred horses, differences in some pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were evident. Such differences could be attributed to breed differences or study conditions. The research could provide valuable data to support regulatory guidelines for GLY in Standardbred horses. PMID:24325462

Rumpler, M J; Colahan, P; Sams, R A

2014-06-01

167

Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

Symington, Ashley

2012-01-01

168

Laryngeal rhinosporidiosis in a Belgian warmblood horse.  

PubMed

In Belgium and even in northern Europe Rhinosporidium seeberi has not been reported in autochtonous people or animals. In this paper, the authors report the first observation of laryngeal masses, caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, in a Belgian Warmblood horse. Moreover, laryngeal rhinosporidiosis is extremely rare since this localisation is only described in four human cases. PMID:18454748

Nollet, H; Vercauteren, G; Martens, A; Vanschandevijl, K; Schauvliege, S; Gasthuys, F; Ducatelle, R; Deprez, P

2008-06-01

169

Clinical assessment of gas exchange in mature horses.  

PubMed

There are limited methods of assessing pulmonary function in horses at rest. We developed clinical techniques to measure gas exchange efficiency in horses and evaluated 3 groups of horses that were 1) asymptomatic based on auscultation with rebreathing, transtracheal aspirate cytology, and thoracic radiographs (n = 6), 2) asymptomatic at rest but symptomatic with rebreathing (n = 11) and 3) symptomatic at rest (n = 9). Blood samples were obtained from the transverse facial artery and jugular vein. Maximal end-tidal CO2 tension (PETCO2) was measured by an infrared capnograph through a facemask. Alveolar O2 tension, dead space fraction (V(D)/V(T)), and physiological shunt fraction (Q(S)/Q(T)) were calculated using standard formulae. Arterial O2 tension in Group 1 horses (mean +/-s.d.103+/-3 mmHg) was significantly higher than in Group 2 or Group 3 horses. Q(S)/Q(T) in Group 1 horses (0.37+/-0.98%) was significantly lower than in Group 2 and Group 3 horses. Mean +/-s.d.V(D)/V(T) in Group 1 horses (-18.2+/-3.1) was significantly lower than Group 3 horses but not Group 2 horses. PMID:9758096

Davis, M S; Murray, M J; Donaldson, L L

1998-09-01

170

Gastric ulceration in horses: 91 cases (1987-1990).  

PubMed

Gastroendoscopy was performed on 111 horses (1 to 22 years old) that had signs of abdominal discomfort of variable duration and severity. At least 1 episode of colic had been observed within 48 hours of examination in 31 horses. Recurrent episodes of colic were observed in 28 horses within 2 to 10 days of examination, 31 horses within 11 to 30 days, 12 horses within 31 to 60 days, and in 9 horses at more than 60 days after the initial examination. Gastric ulceration was found in 91 of 111 horses examined. Other abnormalities involving the gastrointestinal tract or other abdominal viscera were not found on examination in 57 of 91 horses with gastric ulcers. The most frequent concurrent abnormalities found in the remaining 34 horses with gastric ulcers were impaction of the large colon (n = 6), colonic tympany (n = 6), peritonitis (n = 6), gastric impaction (n = 4), ileocecal intussusception (n = 3), small-colon impaction (n = 4), and proximal enteritis (n = 2). Thirteen horses with gastric ulceration underwent abdominal surgery, and in 5 horses, lesions were not found at surgery. Gastric ulceration was determined to be the primary cause of colic in 31 horses on the basis of the lack of other abnormalities, clinical response to treatment with histamine type-2 receptor (H2) antagonists, and confirmation of improvement or resolution of gastric ulceration via endoscopy. Gastric ulceration was the suspected cause of colic in 26 other horses on the basis of the lack of other abnormalities, severity of lesions, and clinical response to treatment with H2 antagonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1644631

Murray, M J

1992-07-01

171

Emerging outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus in adult horses.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe clinical, hematological and fecal PCR results from 161 horses involved in outbreaks associated with ECoV. The outbreaks happened at four separate boarding facilities between November 2011 and April 2012 in the States of CA, TX, WI and MA. Following the molecular detection of ECoV in the feces from the initial index cases, the remaining herdmates were closely observed for the development of clinical signs. Fecal samples were collected from sick and healthy horses for the PCR detection of ECoV. All four outbreaks involved primarily adult horses. Fifty-nine horses developed clinical signs with 12-16 sick horses per outbreak. The main clinical signs reported were anorexia, lethargy and fever. Four horses from 3 different outbreaks were euthanized or died due to rapid progression of clinical signs. The cause of death could not be determined with necropsy evaluation in 2 horses, while septicemia secondary to gastrointestinal translocation was suspected in 2 horses. Blood work was available from 10 horses with clinical disease and common hematological abnormalities were leucopenia due to neutropenia and/or lymphopenia. Feces were available for ECoV testing by real-time PCR from 44 and 96 sick and healthy horses, respectively. 38/44 (86%) horses with abnormal clinical signs tested PCR positive for ECoV, while 89/96 (93%) healthy horses tested PCR negative for ECoV. The overall agreement between clinical status and PCR detection of ECoV was 91%. The study results suggest that ECoV is associated with self-limiting clinical and hematological abnormalities in adult horses. PMID:23123176

Pusterla, N; Mapes, S; Wademan, C; White, A; Ball, R; Sapp, K; Burns, P; Ormond, C; Butterworth, K; Bartol, J; Magdesian, K G

2013-02-22

172

Effect of pretreatment on lipid oxidation and fishy odour development in protein hydrolysates from the muscle of Indian mackerel.  

PubMed

Impact of different pretreatments on chemical compositions of Indian mackerel mince was studied. Mince prepared using washing/membrane removal/alkaline solubilisation process (W-MR-Al) contained the lowest remaining myoglobin and haem iron content and also showed the lowest total lipid and phospholipid contents. When mince and W-MR-Al were hydrolysed using Alcalase for up to 120 min, a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) was found in W-MR-Al after 30 min of hydrolysis. Furthermore, hydrolysate from W-MR-Al had lower peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and non-haem iron content throughout hydrolysis period (P<0.05). When hydrolysate powder produced from mince and W-MR-Al (0-0.3%w/v) were fortified in milk, the former resulted in the lower likeness score (P<0.05) at all levels used. The addition of the latter, for up to 0.2%, had no effect on likeness of all attributes, compared with milk without fortification (P>0.05). Therefore, the appropriate pretreatment of mince yielded hydrolysate with lower fishy odour. PMID:22980831

Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee; Benjakul, Soottawat; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Maqsood, Sajid

2012-12-15

173

75 FR 35078 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Natural Resource Management; Wild Horse...with special knowledge of equine behavior...Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management and the issues...Experience or knowledge of horses or...training and management). 11....

2010-06-21

174

33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. 147.843 Section...147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi Canyon 778 (MC...

2010-07-01

175

33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. 147.843 Section...147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi Canyon 778 (MC...

2009-07-01

176

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2010-01-01

177

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2009-01-01

178

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2010-01-01

179

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2009-01-01

180

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2010-01-01

181

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2009-01-01

182

Ocean geography for ocean science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanding needs for ocean resources, together with the design and diffusion of new kinds of deep-ocean and coastal management\\u000a patterns, have changed profoundly in the transition from modern to post-modern society. As a result, the scientific approach\\u000a to the ocean has also undergone profound changes, which have marked the epistemology of disciplines, their logical backgrounds\\u000a and methods. This process

Adalberto Vallega

1999-01-01

183

Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses.

2010-01-01

184

Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues  

PubMed Central

The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

Malla, Sunir; Aboobaker, A. Aziz; Tarlinton, Rachael E.; Emes, Richard D.

2014-01-01

185

Isolation and identification of African horse sickness virus during an outbreak in Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

An outbreak of African horse sickness involving two horse stables in Lagos, Nigeria, was investigated. Inoculation of blood from infected horses into suckling albino mice resulted in isolation of a virus which was identified as African horse sickness virus by the complement fixation test. The clinical, pathological and epizootiological findings (reported elsewhere) were consistent with African horse sickness. Potential threats of the epidemic to international horse trade are briefly highlighted. PMID:8219337

Oladosu, L A; Olayeye, O D; Baba, S S; Omilabu, S A

1993-09-01

186

Arctic Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that...

C. L. Parkinson

2000-01-01

187

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

188

Ocean Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

Nasa

189

Ocean eddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and empirical data for three classes of ocean eddies are summarized: 1) gigantic anticyclonic gyres; 2) meanders, rings, and synoptic eddies in the open ocean; and, 3) mesoscale eddies (lenses of foreign waters and rotating cells of forced convection). A number of new results obtained in the last few years are reported: linear and nonlinear instability of gigantic

A S Monin; G M Zhikharev

1990-01-01

190

Experimental Infection of Horses With West Nile virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 iso- lates. Postinfection, uninfected female

Michel L. Bunning; Richard A. Bowen; C. Bruce Cropp; Kevin G. Sullivan; Brent S. Davis; Nicholas Komar; Marvin S. Godsey; Dale Baker; Danielle L. Hettler; Derek A. Holmes; Brad J. Biggerstaff; Carl J. Mitchell

2002-01-01

191

Ocean Acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans play a central role in the maintenance of life on Earth. Oceans provide extensive ecosystems for marine animals and plants covering two-thirds of the Earth's surface, are essential sources of food, economic activity, and biodiversity, and are central to the global biogeochemical cycles. The oceans are the largest reservoir of carbon in the Planet, and absorb approximately one-third of the carbon emissions that are released to the Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities. Since the beginning of industrialization, humans have been responsible for the increase in one greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), from approximately 280 parts per million (ppm) at the end of the nineteenth century to the current levels of 390ppm. As well as affecting the surface ocean pH, and the organisms living at the ocean surface, these increases in CO2 are causing global mean surface temperatures to rise.

Iglesias-Rodriguez, Maria Debora

192

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students discover that measurements from space can tell us the temperature of the ocean, both on an annual average and as measured on any given date. For the annual average the highest ocean temperatures are near the equator, and drop as one moves either northward or southward from the equator. Students will graph each temperature value as a function of latitude and write a linear equation that best fits the points on their graph. They can choose as data points any point at that approximate latitude because the temperature is not uniform for a certain latitude - some areas are hotter and some are cooler. They can also look at today's ocean temperatures via the link provided to see how the seasons affect whether the northern or southern oceans are warmer. Students will take ocean temperature data from a map and plot temperature versus angle from the equator.

193

Dental wear in horses in relation to the microhardness of enamel and dentine.  

PubMed

The microhardness of enamel, primary dentine and secondary dentine was determined in the incisor teeth of 39 horses of three different breeds, trotter horses, Belgian draft horses and Arab horses. Using a microhardness tester fitted with a Knoop diamond indenter, the overall Knoop Hardness Number was determined for each tissue, and the influence of breed and age on the hardness were evaluated. Enamel and secondary dentine were significantly harder in Arab horses than in trotters and Belgian draft horses, but there were no significant differences between draft horses and trotter horses in the hardness of their enamel and dentine. PMID:10371014

Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Verbeeck, R; Ysebaert, M T; Lauwers, H

1999-05-15

194

Actinomyces species as a cause of abscesses in nine horses.  

PubMed

The characteristics, history, clinical signs, treatment and outcome of nine horses with abscesses caused by Actinomyces species were reviewed. dna sequencing was used to determine the species of one of the isolates. The horses were one to 11 years of age, and the abscesses were most commonly located in the submandibular and retropharyngeal regions. The bacterium was usually cultured as the sole isolate and the horses were most often affected in the autumn. Most of the abscesses were treated with antimicrobials and drainage, but some of them recurred. The horses with submandibular abscesses had residual scar tissue that in some cases did not resolve. PMID:18178933

Fielding, C L; Magdesian, K G; Morgan, R A; Ruby, R E; Sprayberry, K A

2008-01-01

195

Foreign body obstruction of the small colon in six horses.  

PubMed

Six horses, which had a foreign body obstruction of the small colon showed abdominal pain of progressing severity and intestinal tympany. On rectal examination the caecum and large colon were distended with ingesta and gas but the obstructing mass could be palpated in only 3 cases. All horses had elevated indirect blood pressure and in 3 there was also fluid distension of the stomach. Only one horse had known access to foreign material in the diet, but a further 3 were related to an exceptionally dry climate period. Five of the 6 horses recovered following surgery. PMID:428366

Gay, C C; Speirs, V C; Christie, B A; Smyth, B; Parry, B

1979-01-01

196

Population Statistics and Biological Traits of Endangered Kiso Horse  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to clarify the current status of endangered Kiso horse, population statistics and biological traits, in order to take a step for the conservation by scientific approach. We surveyed 125 Kiso horses (86.2% of the whole breed), analyzed the construction of the population, and calculated the coefficient of inbreeding and effective population size. Moreover, we confirmed coat color variations and the traditional traits of the Kiso horse, and measured their height at the withers and chest circumference to clarify their physical characteristics. The population pyramid of the horses was stationary or contractive, suggesting a reduction of the population in the near future. The effective population size of the horse (47.9) suggested that the diversity was much less than their census size, and the high coefficient of inbreeding, 0.11 ± 0.07 on average, suggested that the horses were surely inbred. The horses had only 4 coat colors; bay, dark bay, buckskin dun, and chestnut, and 116 horses (92.8%) were bayish color, suggesting the fixation in their coat color. Moreover, the majority of them had dorsal stripe (83 horses; 66.4%), and the average heights at withers(131.9 ± 4.4 cm) and chest circumference (167.1 ± 10.1 cm) were not significantly different between males and females.

TAKASU, Masaki; HIRAMATSU, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; HASEGAWA, Telhisa; MAEDA, Masami; KUSUDA, Satoshi; DOI, Osamu; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

2012-01-01

197

Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

2005-01-01

198

Horse flies (Tabanidae) of Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

The horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 62 species belonging to ten genera. The present study adds eight new records for the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina. These new records are Chrysops flavipes Meigen, Hybomitra tropica (Linnaeus), Tabanus darimonti Leclercq, Tabanus eggeri Schiner, Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, Tabanus shannonellus Kröber, Haematopota bigoti Gobert, and Haematopota subcylindrica Pandellé. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian group (28), followed by the Mediterranean group with 17 species, the South European group with 13 species, the Afro-Eurasian arid group and the European group with two species each. This paper presents the first comprehensive collection data on the horse fly fauna of this part of the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:19263857

Mikuska, Alma; Krcmar, Stjepan; Mikuska, József

2008-12-01

199

Horse chestnut:a multidisciplinary clinical review.  

PubMed

Horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE) is widely used in Europe for the management of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Although traditionally recommended for a variety of medical conditions, CVI is the only indication for which there is strong supportive scientific evidence. Review of the literature reveals 14 randomized controlled trials, of which seven are methodologically of high quality, albeit limited by small sample sizes and short durations. These studies support the superiority of HCSE over placebo, and suggest equivalence to compression stockings and to oral oxerutins. In the future, a longer and adequately powered randomized trial is warranted to compare HCSE to standard of care, and to further assess safety and long-term efficacy. There are no data to suggest that horse chestnut flower, raw seed, branch bark, or leaf are effective for any indication, and it is recommended that these products not be used, as they are known to be toxic when ingested. PMID:15277109

Tiffany, Natasha; Boon, Heather; Ulbricht, Catherine; Basch, Ethan; Bent, Steve; Barrette, E P; Smith, Michael; Sollars, David; Dennehy, Cathi E; Szapary, Philippe

2002-01-01

200

Observations on headshaking in the horse.  

PubMed

The clinical records of 100 cases of headshaking in horses were reviewed. Possible causes of the abnormal behaviour were identified in 11 animals; these included ear mite infestation, otitis interna, cranial nerve dysfunction, cervical injury, ocular disease, guttural pouch mycosis, dental periapical osteitis and suspected vasomotor rhinitis. However, in only two of these could it be shown that correction of the abnormality led to elimination of the headshaking. The additional clinical signs exhibited by the other idiopathic cases of headshaking included evidence of nasal irritation, sneezing and snorting, nasal discharge, coughing and excessive lacrimation. Many of these horses also showed a marked seasonal pattern with respect to the onset of the disease and the recurrence of signs in subsequent years. The clinical presentation of idiopathic headshakers and the seasonal incidence of the signs closely resemble allergic rhinitis in man. PMID:3622462

Lane, J G; Mair, T S

1987-07-01

201

Hemangiopericytoma in the eyelid of a horse.  

PubMed

Hemangiopericytoma (HP) is a well-recognized neoplasm arising from vascular pericytes that has been reported only in the dog and man. In this study, we describe a 14-year-old female Arabian horse that was presented for surgical excision of a 2-cm-diameter expansile subcuticular mass in the right lower eyelid. Histologically, the mass consisted of loosely arranged interlacing streams and storiform bundles of spindle cells that often formed distinct whorls around a central capillary and bundles of collagen (Antoni A-like pattern). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong diffuse cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for vimentin and focal immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin, whereas neoplastic cells did not stain for Factor VIII-related antigen, Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), or S100. On the basis of histomorphology and immunohistochemical reactivity, the present tumor was diagnosed as HP. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a HP in a horse. PMID:16847005

Serena, A; Joiner, K S; Schumacher, J

2006-07-01

202

(PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

1995-01-01

203

Nutrition Assessment of HorseRacing Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers, however, the literature is sparse pertaining\\u000a to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of “making weight” causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy\\u000a practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education\\u000a was expressed to Cooperative

Nancy CotugnaO; O. Sue Snider; Jennifer Windish

2011-01-01

204

Thermal stability studies of hyperimmune horse antivenoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ampoules of horse antivenoms raised against Bothrops spp and Crotalus durissus (final product) produced by Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED) were fractionated on the molecular filtration chromatography (SUPEROSE 12) and the expected MW species of F(ab')2 fragments were observed.It has been known that high temperatures promote aggregation and formation of protein precipitates. Phenol is used in preparations of antivenoms as preservative;

R. Rodrigues-Silva; G. F. C. Antunes; D. T. Velarde; M. M. Santoro

1999-01-01

205

Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic relationships and population structure of 8 horse breeds in the Czech and Slovak Republics were investigated using\\u000a classification methods for breed discrimination. To demonstrate genetic differences among these breeds, we used genetic information\\u000a — genotype data of microsatellite markers and classification algorithms — to perform a probabilistic prediction of an individual’s\\u000a breed. In total, 932 unrelated animals were genotyped

M. Burócziová; J. ?íha

2009-01-01

206

Scintigraphical evaluation of alveolar clearance in horses.  

PubMed

This study proposed a standardized method for measuring alveolar epithelium membrane permeability in the horse. The normal rate of clearance (%.min-1) from lung into blood of nebulized 99mTc-DTPA has been established for healthy horses (Group A) compared with values obtained with horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; Group B). The 99mTc-DTPA clearance was measured in the caudoventral (R1) and in the half caudal (R2) parts of the left lung during different time intervals. The two regions aimed to define the influence of the airways on measured clearance (R2 contained proportionally more conducting airways than R1). It was concluded that a comparison of groups of subjects may be performed in R2 and on data collected during a 20 min period. The normal clearance rate in R2 was 1.80 +/- 0.46%.min-1 (T1/2R2 = 40.99 +/- 12.45 min) in Group A. In Group B, a significantly faster 99mTc-DTPA transfer rate was found (4.17 +/- 0.83%.min-1 or T1/2R2 = 17.17 +/- 3.38min). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) suggested that the increased permeability measured in Group B could be the result of lung inflammatory responses. Our results have demonstrated the ability of the 99mTc-DTPA clearance test to detect alveolar epithelial damage in horses. Furthermore, we were able to show that a regional analysis of the alveolar-capillary barrier integrity may be performed satisfactorily in the equine patient. PMID:9691851

Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Duvivier, D H; Lambert, P; Art, T; Lekeux, P

1998-07-01

207

A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab)  

PubMed Central

Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

2010-01-01

208

A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).  

PubMed

Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID:20492428

Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

2010-07-01

209

Iberian origins of New World horse breeds.  

PubMed

Fossil records, archaeological proofs, and historical documents report that horses persisted continuously in the Iberian Peninsula since the Pleistocene and were taken to the American continent (New World) in the 15th century. To investigate the variation within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Iberian and New World horse breeds, to analyze their relationships, and to test the historical origin of New World horses, a total of 153 samples, representing 30 Iberian and New World breeds, were analyzed by sequencing mtDNA control region fragments. Fifty-four haplotypes were found and assigned to seven haplogroups. Reduced levels of variation found for the Menorquina, Sorraia, and Sulphur Mustang breeds are consistent with experienced bottlenecks or limited number of founders. For all diversity indices, Iberian breeds showed higher diversity values than South American and North American breeds. Although, the results show that the Iberian and New World breeds stem from multiple origins, we present a set of genetic data revealing a high frequency of Iberian haplotypes in New World breeds, which is consistent with historical documentation. PMID:16489143

Luís, Cristina; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Cothran, E Gus; Oom, Maria do Mar

2006-01-01

210

Stimulus discrimination by horses under scotopic conditions.  

PubMed

Scotopic vision in horses (Equus caballus) was investigated using behavioral measurements for the first time. Four horses were tested for the ability to make simple visual discriminations of geometric figures (circles and triangles) under various brightness levels within an enclosed building. Measurements of brightness ranging from 10.37 to 24.12 magnitudes per square arcsecond (mag/arcsec(2); in candelas per square meter-7.70 to 2.43E-05cd/m(2)) were taken using a Sky Quality Meter. These values approximated outdoor conditions ranging from twilight in open country to a dark moonless night in dense forest. The horses were able to solve the discrimination problems in all brightness settings up to 23.77mag/arcsec(2) (3.35E-05cd/m(2)). Moreover, they easily navigated their way around obstacles located within the testing area in extremely dim light (>23.50mag/arcsec(2); 4.30E-05cd/m(2)), which were in conditions too dark for the human experimenters to see. These findings support physiological data that reveal a rod-dominated visual system as well as observations of equine activity at night. PMID:19389464

Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

2009-09-01

211

Earth's Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides a good introduction to the structure of the ocean. Included are excellent graphics and text about patterns of ocean salinity and temperature with depth, as well as surface currents, deep ocean circulation and even the water cycle. Extensive in-text links provide the means for users to explore the content in an open-ended fashion, although some might find the lack of any obvious top-level navigation to be disorienting.

2008-01-01

212

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

213

Ocean Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an overview of ocean surface circulation. Satellite and model data allows high school students to investigate circulation patterns, navigation, associated weather and climate, natural hazards and marine resources. There are five lessons affiliated with this site; the teacher and student guides to each can be accessed directly from the home page. (Note that these lessons are cataloged individually.) Other links provide information on background, impact, gathering data, researchers, data resources and a glossary. There are also online quizzes on the home page on navigation, coriolis force, satellites, ocean warming, energy balance, and ocean gyres.

214

Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis  

PubMed Central

Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species.

2013-01-01

215

Characterization, localization, and stage-dependent gene expression of gonadotropin receptors in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) ovarian follicles.  

PubMed

The pituitary gonadotropins (GtHs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), are key regulators of gametogenesis in teleosts. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms by which GtHs regulate asynchronous oocyte development in multiple-spawning marine fishes. We cloned cDNAs encoding GtH receptors (FSHR and LHR) from chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). FSH and LH were purified by anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and concanavalinA-agarose. When expressed in mammalian cells, FSHR and LHR responded strongly to their own ligands. By separating LH into two subunits by the use of reverse-phase chromatography, we found that the beta-subunit is responsible for signal transduction and the alpha-subunit may be important for holding hormone-receptor complex. In situ hybridization showed that only fshr was expressed in prefollicle and granulosa cells in oocytes at the perinucleolus and cortical alveolus stages, suggesting that FSH is involved in the primary and early secondary growth of oocytes. In ovarian follicles during vitellogenesis, both fshr and lhr were expressed in granulosa and thecal cells, and lhr was strongly expressed during germinal vesicle migration (GVM). Real-time PCR analysis of stage-dependent fshr and lhr expression showed that fshr expression was high in ovarian follicles throughout vitellogenesis and decreased during GVM, whereas lhr expression was low in early vitellogenesis, but increased markedly in the late phase of vitellogenesis, remaining high during GVM. These findings suggest that switching of the expression of FSHR to LHR controls the effects of FSH and/or LH on vitellogenesis and final oocyte maturation via steroid production in granulosa and thecal cells. PMID:23636810

Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kitano, Hajime; Shimizu, Akio; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2013-06-01

216

Future Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

217

Ocean Acre.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume reverberation resulting from the deep scattering layers (DSL) is an important source of interference to acoustic systems in large areas of the world's oceans. Much is unknown about how volume reverberation varies, diurnally, seasonally, and geograp...

1970-01-01

218

Ocean Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website offers a review of the surface circulation of Earth's ocean and classroom investigations appropriate for various disciplines at the high school level. Articles and video interviews about ocean current research, interactive data visualizes, news articles, simplified models, teacher and student guides will create resources for diverse audiences who are impacted by ocean surface currents. This site highlights use of data derived from the on-line satellite data of Earth for understanding patterns of ocean surface currents and how they relate to issues of human exploration, commerce, science, weather/climate, and pollution. Classroom-ready, interdisciplinary investigation swill help high school students practice science, mathematics and writing skills matched to national standards and will be keyed to topics covered in the traditional high school curriculum. Each investigation is keyed to the stages of the 5 E's teacher/learning model.

Tweedie, Sara

2010-09-17

219

Comparing Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A variety of classroom activities and lessons that compare the world's oceans. Activities included: The Gulf of Maine, Satellite Comparisons, Design a Fish, What Migrations, Incredible Feasting of Whales, Paddle to the Sea, and Ocean Soundings. Discover why weather at identical latitudes is not always the same, learn the different ways whales eat, and find out the temperature difference between the Gulf Stream and surrounding water. Links to other Aquarium modules.

220

Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Background In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Findings Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. Conclusions This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered.

2013-01-01

221

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

222

Skeletal Growth Rates of Weanling and Yearling Thoroughbred Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to deter- mine normal rates of growth of different skeletal segments in the Thoroughbred horse. Growth of body weight and eight skeletal segments (wither height, hip height, body length, knee to pastern length, hock to pastern length, shoulder to pastern length, width of chest, depth of girth) were monitored in 106 horses (60 colts, 46 fillies)

Kent N. Thompson

2010-01-01

223

Actinomyces species as a cause of abscesses in nine horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics, history, clinical signs, treatment and outcome of nine horses with abscesses caused by Actinomyces species were reviewed. dna sequencing was used to determine the species of one of the isolates. The horses were one to 11 years of age, and the abscesses were most commonly located in the submandibular and retropharyngeal regions. The bacterium was usually cultured as

C. L. Fielding; K. G. Magdesian; R. A. Morgan; R. E. Ruby; K. A. Sprayberry

2008-01-01

224

Systematics and distribution of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan.  

PubMed

The horse fly fauna of Jordan consists of 24 species belonging to seven genera. The present study adds two new records; Tabanus unifasciatus and Tabanus lunatus. Keys and illustrations for the horse flies of Jordan are presented based on examined materials. Distribution and geographic ranges for each species is also given. PMID:16007956

Al-Talafha, H; Amr, Z S; Baker, M Abu; Bader, A Katbeh

2005-06-01

225

HorseRace Polls and Audience Issue Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media critics often complain about too much coverage of “horse-race” polls. A common assumption sustaining this criticism is that such coverage competes with issue coverage. We propose the opposite, that horse-race polls might increase voters' attention to other election messages, including issue information, which in turn leads to a better understanding of public policies. To test these competing theories, we

Xinshu Zhao; Glen L. Bleske

1998-01-01

226

Caudal vena cava thrombosis-like syndrome in a horse  

PubMed Central

A 9-year-old Quarter horse was presented for chronic refractory pneumonia. On necropsy, an hepatic abscess, caudal vena cava thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, and embolic pneumonia were identified. Similar lesions have been reported in cattle as caudal vena cava thrombosis syndrome, however this syndrome has not previously been reported in horses.

Schoster, Angelika; Anderson, Maureen E.C.

2010-01-01

227

Tansy ragwort poisoning in a horse in southern Ontario.  

PubMed Central

Bizarre behavior, apparent lameness, and colic were noticed in 1 of 3 horses on a pasture overgrown by weeds during a drought. Liver failure and hepatoencephalopathy were diagnosed, caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis associated with consumption of tansy ragwort. The horse made a full recovery when removed from the pasture.

de Lanux-Van Gorder, V

2000-01-01

228

Suspected systemic calcinosis and calciphylaxis in 5 horses  

PubMed Central

Five horses were presented with signs of myopathy along with systemic malaise, hyperfibrinogenemia, hyperphosphatemia, and an elevated calcium phosphorus product (Ca*P). Postmortem findings were consistent with systemic calcinosis, a syndrome of calcium deposition in the tissue of organs including lungs, kidneys, muscle, and heart that has not been previously described in horses.

Tan, Jean-Yin; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Sebastian, Manu M.; Davis, Gordon D.; Kelly, Jenny R.; Goehring, Lutz S.; Harland, Malte M.; Kuebelbeck, K. Leann; Waldridge, Bryan M.; Newton, Joseph C.; Reimer, Johanna M.

2010-01-01

229

5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ARE AT CENTER AND CONCRETE TOWER LINES. AGGREGATE OPERATION IS VISIBLE ABOVE CONSTRUCTION SITE July 22, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

230

36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16 Section 2.16 Parks...RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as...

2013-07-01

231

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section 1002.16 Parks...RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as...

2013-07-01

232

Economics of using horse manure and MSW as primary fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of removing horse manure, which in the past was sold to mushroom growers as compost, has placed a serious financial drain on many race track facilities. Additionally, energy costs have risen rapidly in the past several years due to increased fuel costs and time-of-day pricing schemes utilized in various states. Communities which must dispose of the horse manure

M. C. Lints; R. M. Desmond; B. V. Karlekar; R. C. Kholman

1982-01-01

233

Influence of horse stable environment on human airways  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions

Lena Elfman; Miia Riihimäki; John Pringle; Robert Wålinder

2009-01-01

234

Complete Genome Sequence of a Polyomavirus Isolated from Horses  

PubMed Central

A polyomavirus was isolated from the eyes of horses, and the sequence was determined. A nearly identical VP1 sequence was amplified from the kidney of another animal. We report the complete genome sequence of the first polyomavirus to be isolated from a horse. Analysis shows it to be most closely related overall to human and nonhuman primate polyomaviruses.

Wise, Annabel G.; Maes, Roger K.

2012-01-01

235

Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunecontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of the PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to being using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption processa?|

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

2004-01-01

236

17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE MESA DAM -5/15/27FLOATING 2-YD. ELECTRICALLY-OPERATED CLAM-SHELL DERRICK UNLOADING GRAVEL SCOWS' May 15, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

237

76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...to ensure that these animals are not being abused...Subjects in 9 CFR Part 11 Animal welfare, Horses...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health...

2011-05-27

238

Disorders of sexual development in the domestic horse, Equus caballus.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of sexual development causing infertility in horses have been investigated since the early 1970's. Conventional cytogenetic analysis by karyotyping has been the primary tool used to investigate these horses. Abnormalities have a broad range, from a phenotypically normal mare with gonadal dysgenesis to a horse with ambiguous external genitalia and internal male and female organs. Cytogenetic analysis can determine genetic sex but cannot identify mutations or deletions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. Molecular technologies have been developed to confirm cytogenetic results and to aid in identifying the genetic causes of abnormal sex determination in horses. In this paper, we review the historical development of methods used to understand abnormal sexual development in the horse as well as summarize cases reported over the last 40-50 years. PMID:22095202

Lear, T L; McGee, R B

2012-01-01

239

Infection of Immunodeficient Horses with Sarcocystis neurona Does Not Result in Neurologic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neuroviru- lence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were

Debra C. Sellon; Donald P. Knowles; Ellis C. Greiner; Maureen T. Long; Melissa T. Hines; Tressa Hochstatter; Ahmed Tibary; John B. Dame

2004-01-01

240

Stirrup forces during horse riding: A comparison between sitting and rising trot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries of horses might be related to the force the rider exerts on the horse. To better understand the loading of the horse by a rider, a sensor was developed to measure the force exerted by the rider on the stirrups. In the study, five horses and 23 riders participated. Stirrup forces measured in sitting trot and rising trot were

Femke E. van Beek; Patricia de Cocq; Mark Timmerman; Mees Muller

2012-01-01

241

ACCEPTABILITY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF DRIED CITRUS PULP BY HORSES 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two acceptability trials with eight mature horses were used to compare coarse grain con- centrates containing 0 or 30% dried citrus pulp in place of oats. All of the horses consumed the control concentrate readily and two of the eight horses consumed the concentrate contain- ing dried citrus pulp. Six horses refused the citrus pulp concentrate, consuming only 8.6%

E. A. Ott; J. P. Feaster; Sandi Lieb

2010-01-01

242

Immunoconversion against Sarcocystis neurona in normal and dexamethasone-treated horses challenged with S. neurona sporocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a common neurologic disease of horses in the Americas usually caused by Sarcocystis neurona. To date, the disease has not been induced in horses using characterized sporocysts from Didelphis virginiana, the definitive host. S. neurona sporocysts from 15 naturally infected opossums were fed to horses seronegative for antibodies against S. neurona. Eight horses were given 5×105

Tim J. Cutler; Robert J. MacKay; Pamela E. Ginn; Karen Gillis; Susan M. Tanhauser; Erin V. LeRay; John B. Dame; Ellis C. Greiner

2001-01-01

243

9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section 93.320...CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America...

2009-01-01

244

Nuchal crest avulsion fracture in 2 horses: a cause of headshaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical records of 2 Thoroughbred horses that developed headshaking after blunt trauma to the occipital region are reviewed. The history, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic methods, diagnosis and treatment were recorded in each case. Both horses displayed head- shaking, while one horse repeatedly lifted its upper lip and pawed excessively at the ground. In both horses, diagnostic imaging of the

A Voigt; M N Saulez; C M Donnellan

2009-01-01

245

Reservoir performance in Ordovician Red River Formation, Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields, Bowman County, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contiguous Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields produce oil from the Ordovician Red River Formation's 'D' zone (equal to the 'C' Burrowed Member). These fields produce from dolomite reservoirs at depths of about 9000 ft (3000 m) in the southern Williston basin on the northeastern flank of the southern end of the Cedar Creek anticline. Gentle (>1°) northeast

M. W. Longman; T. G. Fertal; J. R. Stell

1992-01-01

246

Population structure of the Trakehner Horse breed.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the population structure of the Trakehner Horse breed. A total of 13 793 pedigree records were used for analysing the active breeding population and their ancestors dating back to 1950. Ancestors that were born before 1950 were called as base animals. The average generation interval was calculated as 10.2 years. The effective population size (Ne) was estimated by the increase in average year-wise inbreeding coefficient and average coancestry, respectively. Two methods were applied to estimate the effective population size: 1. Numerator-relationship-matrix (NRM), which did not consider missing ancestries. 2. Uncertain-parentage-matrix (UPM), which considered a probabilistic correction for unknown ancestors. There were no major differences between these two methods with respect to the rate of increase in inbreeding although the global levels using the UPM method were observed to be higher. Estimates for the inbreeding coefficients and the average coancestries varied little between both methods. The estimates of the effective population size per generation based on the rate of inbreeding ranged from 169 (NRM) to 150 (UPM) and 158 (NRM) to 144 (UPM) calculated by the average coancestry. From the early 1990s onwards, a strong increase in the rate of inbreeding was observed. This may be due to an increasing variance of the family size of sires and may be interpreted as a consequence of the growing use of artificial insemination. Analysing coancestries within and between the centrally managed regional breeding societies in Germany further revealed the Trakehner horse breed to be a genetically fragmented population with a main partition corresponding to formerly divided East and West Germany. The average rate of gene contributions (Thoroughbred (xx), Arab Horse breed (ox)) to the defined actual breeding population was calculated to be 22.3% xx-genes and 11.7% ox-genes. PMID:22444167

Teegen, R; Edel, C; Thaller, G

2009-01-01

247

Wrist loading patterns during pommel horse exercises.  

PubMed

Gymnastics is a sport which involves substantial periods of upper extremity support as well as frequent impacts to the wrist. Not surprisingly, wrist pain is a common finding in gymnasts. Of all events, the pommel horse is the most painful. In order to study the forces of wrist impact, a standard pommel horse was instrumented with a specially designed load cell to record the resultant force of the hand on the pommel during a series of basic skills performed by a group of seventeen elite male gymnasts. The highest mean peak forces were recorded during the front scissors and flair exercises (1.5 BW) with peaks of up to 2.0 BW for some gymnasts. The mean peak force for hip circles at the center or end of the horse was 1.1 BW. The mean overall loading rate (initial contact to first loading peak) ranged from 5.2 BWs-1 (hip circles) to 10.6 BW s-1 (flairs). However, many recordings displayed localized initial loading spikes which occurred during 'hard' landings on the pommel. When front scissors were performed in an aggressive manner, the initial loading spikes averaged 1.0 BW in magnitude (maximum 1.8 BW) with an average rise time of 8.2 ms; calculated localized loading rates averaged 129 BW s-1 (maximum 219 BW s-1). These loading parameters are comparable to those encountered at heel strike during running. These impact forces and loading rates are remarkably high for an upper extremity joint not normally exposed to weight-bearing loads, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of wrist injuries in gymnastics. PMID:2229083

Markolf, K L; Shapiro, M S; Mandelbaum, B R; Teurlings, L

1990-01-01

248

Latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse  

PubMed Central

A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. Despite intensive supportive therapy the horse's condition continued to deteriorate and the decision was made for humane euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings supported the clinical diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia.

2010-01-01

249

Cholelith causing duodenal obstruction in a horse.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old Appaloosa stallion was referred for evaluation of colic. At admission, the heart rate, capillary refill time, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were high. Fifteen liters of reflux was obtained by nasogastric intubation. Palpation of an abdominal mass per rectum elicited signs of pain. At exploratory laparotomy, a mass was palpated in the ascending portion of the duodenum. The small intestine ruptured at the site of obstruction during manipulation. The horse was euthanatized. A large cholelith was the cause of the duodenal obstruction. At necropsy, multiple choleliths of various sizes were found in the pancreatic and common bile ducts and in the stomach. PMID:1399780

Laverty, S; Pascoe, J R; Williams, J W; Funk, K A

1992-09-01

250

Vacuolar myopathy in an adult Warmblood horse.  

PubMed

Histopathological interpretation of semimembranosus muscle samples from an adult Warmblood mare with clinical signs suggestive of exertional rhabdomyolysis and intermittent mild elevations in muscle enzyme activities revealed abundant sarcoplasmic vacuoles in all fibre-types containing fine, apparently proteinaceous debris. Vacuolar contents stained lightly with PAS, but did not appear to contain amylopectate, lipid or acid phosphatase and their periphery was unstained with dystrophin immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy revealed that vacuoles were not membrane bound. No vacuoles were detected in muscle samples evaluated at post mortem following 4 months of rest. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a presumed primary vacuolar myopathy in a horse. PMID:23623568

Massey, C A; Walmsley, G L; Gliddon, T P; Piercy, R J

2013-06-01

251

Trema micrantha toxicity in horses in Brazil.  

PubMed

After ingesting green leaves of T. micrantha, 2 horses showed apathy, locomotor deficit, blindness, recumbency, paddling, coma and death. The main gross findings were scattered haemorrhages, enhanced lobular pattern of the liver, and cerebral oedema. Histological changes included disseminated haemorrhages, massive hepatocellular necrosis, neuronal degeneration, Alzheimer type II astrocytes and cerebral perivascular oedema. Clinicopathological findings which were comparable with those observed in Trema micrantha poisoned ruminants, associated with epidemiological evidence suggested the diagnosis.Trema micrantha poisoning should be evaluated as a possible cause in the diagnosis of equine hepatopathy and occasional secondary encephalopathy. PMID:20636784

Bandarra, P M; Pavarini, S P; Raymundo, D L; Corrêa, A M R; Pedroso, P M O; Driemeier, D

2010-07-01

252

Cutaneous pythiosis in a nontravelled California horse.  

PubMed

An 18-year-old Arabian mare was examined with a large mass on the left hind pastern and fetlock. The mare was located in the Central Valley of northern California, and had never been out of the state. Routine histopathological processing and examination of biopsy samples from the mass showed several hyphal organisms that were delineated with a silver stain. Using immunohistochemistry the organism was diagnosed as Pythium insidiosum. The owner declined debulking surgery, and despite treatment with an immunotherapeutic vaccine, the horse's condition deteriorated leading to euthanasia. PMID:18699814

White, Stephen D; Ghoddusi, Majid; Grooters, Amy M; Jones, Kathryn

2008-12-01

253

Trichinella britovi and Trichinella spiralis mixed infection in a horse from Poland.  

PubMed

Trichinella infections in horses continue to represent a health problem and, despite the rarity of infection, it is necessary to continue to control properly horse meat. In 2008, a 10-year-old horse imported from Poland to Italy for consumption found to have been positive at the digestion test. Both Trichinella britovi and Trichinella spiralis larvae in a proportion of 4:1 were detected in the horse muscles. This is the first report of a mixed Trichinella species infection in a horse. The epidemiological investigation revealed that the infected horse originated from a small farm about 120km from Warsaw and the horse owner had bought the horse at a horse market. The findings suggest that the horse was fed more than once with infected meat. PMID:19217211

Liciardi, M; Marucci, G; Addis, G; Ludovisi, A; Gomez Morales, M A; Deiana, B; Cabaj, W; Pozio, E

2009-05-12

254

Ocean data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is keeping pace with the emerging information society by offering a host of oceanographic information and charts via a new automated fax service. Scientists, fishermen, students, sailors, and mariners will now be able to dial a 24-hour service—900-28-CHART—to obtain 15 different analysis charts that detail sea surface temperatures and surface current speed and direction, for example. The analyses will be available at both high and low resolution for various regions of the coastal United States, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The charge will be $1.50 per minute, with charts taking 2-4 min to transmit. NOAA's Ocean Products Center will also offer technical assistance to interpret the fax charts. A staff oceanographer may be reached by calling 900-288-HELP between 2:30 and 4:30 p.m. EST, Monday through Friday. The charge is $3.00 a minute.

255

Arctic Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

256

Analysis of clinical and perioperative findings in 576 horses subjected to surgical treatment of colic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colic was treated surgically in 576 horses (545 individuals). Twenty-seven horses were subjected to surgery twice and two horses three times during the period of this study. A total of 371 horses (64.4%) were discharged from the hospital, 205 animals (35.6%) died or were euthanised; 16 of them died during anaesthesia, 102 horses were subjected to euthanasia during surgery, 24

J. Mezerova; Z. Zert; R. Kabes; L. Ottova

257

Visual laterality in the domestic horse ( Equus caballus ) interacting with humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most horses have a side on which they are easier to handle and a direction they favour when working on a circle, and recent\\u000a studies have suggested a correlation between emotion and visual laterality when horses observe inanimate objects. As such\\u000a lateralisation could provide important clues regarding the horse’s cognitive processes, we investigated whether horses also\\u000a show laterality in association

Kate Farmer; Konstanze Krueger; Richard W. Byrne

2010-01-01

258

Understanding Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on oceans currents and their effects. Students do a lab activity to show that temperature is what causes ocean currents. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

Cahill, Mary

259

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

Osis, Vicki

260

Ocean Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Geosciences Union has been working on a number of open access journals over the past few years, and Ocean Science is just such an endeavor. The intent of the journal is to publish research articles, review papers, and short communications of all stripes. Visitors can sign up for RSS feeds, look over the "General Information" area, and also learn about their submission guidelines. In the "Online Library OS" area, visitors can view recently revised papers, complete issues, special issues, and also search past works by title or author. Also, visitors are welcome to comment on published works and they can also sign up to receive an email subscription to Ocean Science.

261

Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research  

PubMed Central

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle.

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisa, Lenka; Fisakova Nyvltova, Miriam; Bajer, Ales; Petr, Libor; Kocar, Petr; Kocarova, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybnicek, Michal; Suvova, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrcik, Hanus

2014-01-01

262

Measurement of Horse Allergen (Equ cx) in Schools  

PubMed Central

Background. The presence of horse allergen in public places is not well-known, unlike for instance cat and dog allergens, which have been studied extensively. The aim was to investigate the presence of horse allergen in schools and to what extent the influence of number of children with regular horse contact have on indoor allergen levels. Methods. Petri dishes were used to collect airborne dust samples during one week in classrooms. In some cases, vacuumed dust samples were also collected. All samples were extracted, frozen and analysed for Equ cx content shortly after sampling, and some were re-analysed six years later with a more sensitive ELISA assay. Results. Horse allergen levels were significantly higher in classrooms, in which many children had horse contact, regardless of sampling method. Allergen levels in extracts from Petri dish samples, which had been kept frozen, dropped about 53% over a six-year period. Conclusion. Horse allergen was present in classrooms and levels were higher in classrooms where many children had regular horse contact in their leisure time. This suggests that transfer of allergens takes place via contaminated clothing. Measures should be taken to minimize possible transfer and deposition of allergens in pet-free environments, such as schools.

Merritt, Anne-Sophie; Emenius, Gunnel; Elfman, Lena; Smedje, Greta

2011-01-01

263

Weighted boots influence performance in show-jumping horses.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of weighted boots on horses (n=6) jumping a 1.25 m oxer fence. The horses had similar training experience and were assigned to two groups of three subjects (groups G1 and G2). All horses performed 10 jumping efforts: G1 horses made attempts 1-5 without boots and 6-10 with boots; G2 made attempts 1-5 with boots and 6-10 without boots. Data were available via sagittal plane S-VHS recordings and t test analyses focussed on limb-placement dimensions. There were no differences among performances of the horses in the horizontal plane, but there were significant differences in the vertical plane. All horses achieved significantly greater hindlimb elevation with the weighted boots (1.60 m) compared with no boots (1.46 m; P<0.05). Although not measured directly, the significantly greater elevation during the jump stride flight phase appears to be a consequence of increased kinetic energy associated with the horses' hindlimbs. PMID:19375964

Murphy, Jack

2009-07-01

264

Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

2014-01-01

265

Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.  

PubMed

Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

2014-03-01

266

The fibrous tapetum of the horse eye.  

PubMed

The tapetum lucidum is a light-reflective tissue in the eyes of many animals. Many ungulates have a fibrous tapetum. The horse has one of the largest eyes of any living animal and also has excellent vision in low-light environments. This study aimed to clarify the macroscopic tapetal shape, relationship between the tapetal thickness and the degree of pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), spatial relationship between the visual streak and the tapetum, and wavelength of the light reflected from the tapetum in the horse. Macroscopically, weak light revealed the tapetum as a horizontal band located dorsal to and away from the optic disc. The tapetum expanded dorsally as the illumination increased. The tapetal tissue consisted of lamellae of collagen fibrils running parallel to the retinal surface; these spread over almost the entire ocular fundus and were thicker in the horizontal band dorsal to the disc. Only the horizontal band of the tapetum was covered by unpigmented RPE, suggesting that this band reflects light and is responsible for mesopic and scotopic vision. The visual streak was located in the ventral part of the horizontal band, ventral to the thickest part of the tapetum. The wavelength of the light reflected from the horizontal band of the tapetum was estimated from the diameter and interfibrous distance of the collagen fibrils to be approximately 468?nm. Therefore, the light reflected from the tapetum should be more effectively absorbed by rods than by cones, and should not interfere with photopic vision. PMID:24102505

Shinozaki, Aya; Takagi, Satoshi; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Uehara, Masato

2013-11-01

267

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

268

Ocean Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) team produces high-resolution detailed imagery of significant ocean events. OSEI products typically include sea surface temperature plots and single-channel imagery of oil spills. The images are available in several different file sizes; standard (full resolution) and preview (thumbnail).

Imagery, Operational S.; Noaa

269

Ocean World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The majority of Ocean World is devoted to a series of ten reference sections: coral reefs, currents, El Nino, Fisheries, Ice Ages, icebergs, JASON-1 (a satellite), the role of the ocean in weather, satellites and ocean exploration, and waves. Each section culminates with an interactive quiz, links to sources of related real-time data, and a list of additional related links. Also available is a set of supplementary services, including a glossary, a question and answer section called Ask Dr.Bob, an index page for all of the available real-time dataset sources, primer pages on the use of internet technology, and links to three distance learning courses in oceanography offered by Texas A&M university. An additional series of link lists are broken up into Four Star Sites, General Links, and (the site author's) Bookmarks. Finally, under a teacher's introductory section to the site, instructors can access a guide to using Ocean World in the classroom, find advice on teaching oceanography in general, locate technology lab stations, and follow links to additional teaching resources.

270

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students choose shell fragments from different species of Molluscs and calculate percent lose after soaking in different ph solutions for different periods of time. They research ocean acidification and especially local events off the Oregon coast to apply to this activity.

Bown, Jennifer

271

Ocean's resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resources of the oceans may be broadly grouped as tangible or material, and intangible. The tangible resources group includes petroleum and related substances, such as sulfur; many other minerals, involving partically all of the elements; the biological resources, in which the greatest investments of marine industry to date have been made and where the vast potentials for the future

1968-01-01

272

Empty Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the human population affect the population of marine species? What can citizens do to sustain seafood populations? In this lesson, students will learn how pieces of the ocean food web, fish, are being removed faster than they can be replenished. Students will also learn how they can become informed consumers to promote sustainable seafood.

273

Ocean bowling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coach Scott Carpenter, a biology teacher at Lexington High School in Massachusetts, says that “some [students] want to show that they can win on a football field, and some want to show that they know science better than anyone else.”His team of four sophomores and one senior proved their mettle when they won the 1998 National Ocean Science Bowl on April 27.

Showstack, Randy

274

39. VIEW OF HORSE AND ESCAPE STEPS ON ARIZONA CANAL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. VIEW OF HORSE AND ESCAPE STEPS ON ARIZONA CANAL, LOOKING NORTH ON THE SALT RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION Photographer: James Eastwood, June 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

275

Hematological and Biochemical Reference Values for the Endangered Kiso Horse  

PubMed Central

To establish blood and biochemical references for the endangered Kiso horse, blood samples were collected from 111 adult Kiso horses, 74.5% of the existing breed. The samples were analyzed for 23 hematological and biochemical parameters to determine their means and standard deviations (SD). We compared the mean ± 2SD with the reference values cited in one of the most commonly used veterinary textbooks in Japan. The hematology of Kiso horses is characterized by lower erythrocyte count and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. In addition, their serum biochemistry showed lower levels of aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and ?-glutamyl transferase. Whether these propensities are attributed to breed-specific factors or are acquired factors remains unclear. Nevertheless, this study provides useful diagnostic indices for the endangered Kiso horse.

TAKASU, Masaki; NAGATANI, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; MAEDA, Masami; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

2013-01-01

276

Removal of a nasal polyp in a standing horse.  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis and removal of a nasal polyp in a horse using standing chemical restraint and readily available equipment are described. Histopathology of the polyp and differential diagnoses are discussed. Images Figure 1.

Watt, B C; Beck, B E

1997-01-01

277

Cell Therapy for Tendon Repair in Horses: An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crovace, A., Lacitignola, L., De siena, R., Rossi, G. and Francioso, E., 2007. Cell therapy for tendon repair in horses: An\\u000a experimental study. Veterinary Research Communications, 31(Suppl. 1), 281–283

A. Crovace; L. Lacitignola; R. De siena; G. Rossi; E. Francioso

2007-01-01

278

Management of Wild Horses by Fertility Control: The Assateague Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was initiated in 1986 with the global of managing the Assateague wild horses using fertility control. Initial experiments with steroid hormones designed to reduce sperm counts in stallions and to prevent ovilation in mares did not show promise. I...

J. F. Kirkpatrick

1995-01-01

279

The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important cause of pain, disability and economic loss in humans, and is similarly important in the horse. Recent knowledge on post-traumatic OA has suggested opportunities for early intervention, but it is difficult to identify the appropriate time of these interventions. The horse provides two useful mechanisms to answer these questions: 1) extensive experience with clinical OA in horses; and 2) use of a consistently predictable model of OA that can help study early pathobiological events, define targets for therapeutic intervention and then test these putative therapies. This paper summarises the syndromes of clinical OA in horses including pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, and details controlled studies of various treatment options using an equine model of clinical OA.

McIlwraith, C. W.; Frisbie, D. D.; Kawcak, C. E.

2012-01-01

280

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

281

15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

282

Acinar cell carcinoma of exocrine pancreas in two horses.  

PubMed

Two horses were presented with non-specific clinical signs of several weeks' duration and were humanely destroyed due to a poor prognosis. At necropsy examination, both horses had multiple small, white nodules replacing pancreatic tissue and involving the serosal surface of the abdominal cavity, the liver and the lung. Microscopically, neoplastic cells were organized in acini and contained abundant (case 1) or sparse (horse 2) intracytoplasmic zymogen granules. Immunohistochemically, both tumours expressed amylase and pan-cytokeratin, but not insulin or neuron-specific enolase. In case 2, a low percentage of neoplastic cells expressed glucagon and synaptophysin. The presence of zymogen granules was confirmed in both cases by electron microscopy and occasional fibrillary or glucagon granules were observed in cases 1 and 2, respectively. A diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma was established in both horses. PMID:24572625

de Brot, S; Junge, H; Hilbe, M

2014-05-01

283

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin tuna on their oceanic migrations. The About area is a great way to learn about the research and technology involved with this complicated endeavor. Also, visitors can check out the low-tech/accessible version of the site if they are so inclined.

284

Ocean Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of Earth-size planets covered completely by a water envelope (water planets) has long fascinated scientists and the general public alike (Kuchner 2003; Leger et al. 2004). Sometimes referred to as "ocean planets", stemming from the implicit assumption of Habitable Zone (HZ) temperatures and a liquid water surface, water planets are a much broader class. Here we present a general approach to computing surface and atmospheric conditions on water planets in the HZ.

Kaltenegger, Lisa; Sasselov, Dimitar

2013-04-01

285

Ocean Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This online resource guide focuses on earth/physical science including volcanic island formation and tsunamis; life science concepts including ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; science in personal and social perspectives including pollution, endangered species and conservation; and related careers.

Lefever, Mary

2009-08-01

286

Ocean Voyagers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Voyagers is an educational outreach initiative consisting of an interdisciplinary curriculum program. It is designed to allow middle school teachers and students to gain real-world knowledge about oceanographic science, social science, maritime cultures, communication, literature, and the language arts. This site includes: integrated lesson plans on oceanographic science, maritime life and lore, technology and communications, and profiles of the Navy oceanographic survey fleet.

287

Oceans '88  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings discuss the following papers: Solid waste disposal crisis; Plastics in Ocean; Continental shelf environmental research; Seafood technology advancements; Gulf of Mexico chemosynthetic petroleum seep communities; Water reuse on onshore mariculture and processing facilities; Oil and gas industry conflicts on the outer continental shelf; Cumulative environmental effects of the oil and gas leasing program; Oil and gas exploration; and Oil and gas resource management; Aids to navigation systems and equipment; and Surveillance experiments.

Not Available

1988-01-01

288

Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

1999-05-01

289

Latex hypersensitivity in a horse farmer.  

PubMed

Latex immediate hypersensitivity has been documented in 28% to 67% of spina bifida patients, 2.6%-16.9% of health care workers and at least 1% of the general population. Additionally, it has been confirmed in food-sensitive individuals sensitive to cross-reacting foods such as chestnut, avocado, banana, and passion fruits. Recently it has been observed even in low risk populations that are defined by absence of the conventional risk factors of atopy and exposure. We report the first documented case of latex allergy in a horse farmer who had the joint factors of atopy and exposure. This case exemplifies the paramount importance of screening all patients with a careful history first and appropriate testing for latex allergy when possible. PMID:8934800

Randolph, C; Fraser, B

1996-01-01

290

Needlestick and infection with horse vaccine.  

PubMed

This report describes a case of accidental needlestick injury involving a live equine vaccination, Equilis StrepE. A vet presented herself to the Emergency Department having accidentally injected herself with an equine vaccination. Her left thumb (injury site) was inflamed and had lymphangitis progressing proximally along her left arm. Her inflammatory markers were not raised. The swelling, erythma and lymphangitis had improved markedly with intravenous antibiotics. She had no sequelae at follow-up. Equilis StrepE is a vaccine for submucosal administration containing a modified live avirulent strain of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (Strain TW). Group C streptococci infections are pathogenic in horses and uncommon in humans. A search of the literature revealed no prior case report of similar adverse reaction to this vaccine. The vaccine may have harmful effect on human health, if injected accidentally but more evidence needs to be collected. PMID:22767480

Thompson, Robin N; McNicholl, Brian P

2010-01-01

291

Does Work Affect Personality? A Study in Horses  

PubMed Central

It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as “interpersonal” conflicts or “suppressed emotions”. An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to work characteristics when evaluating personalities.

Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

2011-01-01

292

Does work affect personality? A study in horses.  

PubMed

It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to work characteristics when evaluating personalities. PMID:21347405

Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

2011-01-01

293

Origin and History of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Domestic Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA) of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754

Michael Cieslak; Melanie Pruvost; Norbert Benecke; Michael Hofreiter; Arturo Morales; Monika Reissmann; Arne Ludwig; Manfred Kayser

2010-01-01

294

Gastrojejunostomy for management of acute proximal enteritis in a horse.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old Arabian stallion was treated medically 6 days for proximal enteritis. On the sixth day, exploratory celiotomy verified the diagnosis and ruled out other intraluminal and extraluminal gastrointestinal tract obstructions. A gastrojejunostomy was performed. The horse had trouble maintaining and gaining weight in the first year after surgery, but 8 years after surgery, the owner reported that the horse was doing well. PMID:8163421

Gillis, J P; Taylor, T S; Puckett, M J

1994-02-15

295

Chemotherapy of surra in horses and mules with diminazene aceturate  

Microsoft Academic Search

During June–July 2000, an outbreak of surra occurred on an equine breeding farm in Khonkaen Province, Thailand. Forty-two percent of pregnant mares aborted or gave stillbirth and 40% (19\\/47) of horses and 10% (1\\/10) of mules died from surra. In August 2000 Trypanosoma evansi were detected in the remaining animals (28 horses and nine mules) on the farm by blood

D Tuntasuvan; W Jarabrum; N Viseshakul; K Mohkaew; S Borisutsuwan; A Theeraphan; N Kongkanjana

2003-01-01

296

On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses.  

PubMed

The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The results suggest that a prior claim that the extinction of horses preceded the arrival of humans cannot be made with confidence. PMID:16651534

Solow, Andrew R; Roberts, David L; Robbirt, Karen M

2006-05-01

297

Four Loci Explain 83% of Size Variation in the Horse  

PubMed Central

Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS) that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Hoffman, Gabriel E.; Allen, Jeremy J.; Chu, Erin; Gu, Esther; Chandler, Alyssa M.; Loredo, Ariel I.; Bellone, Rebecca R.; Mezey, Jason G.; Brooks, Samantha A.; Sutter, Nathan B.

2012-01-01

298

Gastric rupture in horses: 50 cases (1979-1987).  

PubMed

A computer-based search was conducted of medical and necropsy records of horses admitted to the teaching hospital from Jan 1, 1979, to Dec 31, 1987, to obtain the records of all horses admitted to the hospital for colic and subsequently found to have gastric rupture. Fifty cases of gastric rupture were found. The records were reviewed to obtain data regarding peritoneal fluid analysis. Cell counts of these samples were often erroneous because debris and clumps of bacteria were counted when most WBC were lysed. A cross-sectional study of gastric rupture cases versus all other colic cases regarding season of admission revealed that there was no association between season and the occurrence of gastric rupture. There was also no increased risk associated with age, gender, breed, and the occurrence of gastric rupture. One hundred colic cases, matched with the gastric rupture cases by year of admission, were randomly selected via a table of random numbers. A questionnaire regarding age, breed, gender, use of the horse, housing, diet, water source, deworming schedule, and medical history was completed from the medical records and phone conversations with the horse owners. The results indicated that horses on a diet of grass hay or grass/alfalfa hay only or those that drank water from a bucket, stream, or pond were at increased risk for having gastric rupture. In contrast, horses fed grain had a reduced risk. PMID:2298661

Kiper, M L; Traub-Dargatz, J; Curtis, C R

1990-01-15

299

[Horse chestnut--remedy for chronic venous insufficiency].  

PubMed

Horse- chestnut seed extract is widely used throughout Europe, and has been used to treat a variety of medical conditions. The most common indication is currently chronic venous insufficiency, for which conventional therapy includes use of compression stockings. Horse chestnut seed extract is generally well tolerated; the most common side effects are gastrointestinal disturbances, dizziness and calf-muscle spasms. Clinical trials have shown that horse- chestnut seed extract and placebo are associated with similar side effects Horse- chestnut may interact with anticoagulants and antidiabetics, and caution is advised in patients taking these drugs. A number of clinical trials have shown that horse- chestnut seed extract may be beneficial to patients with mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency. However, inadequate randomization, short duration and use of different end-points in these trials makes it difficult to conclude regarding effectiveness and safety, especially in long-term use. Horse- chestnut seed extract appears to be a short-term treatment option in patients with mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency, but more rigorous trials are required to confirm the efficacy of this treatment. PMID:19247403

Methlie, Camilla Borthen; Schjøtt, Jan

2009-02-26

300

Prevalence of tick borne pathogens in horses from Italy.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne diseases, equine piroplasmosis, equine granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme borreliosis in Central Italy, blood samples from 300 horses were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi using the IFAT. The blood samples were also subjected to PCR assays in order to detect pathogen DNA. A total of 78 (26.0%) and 123 (41.0%) horses were found to be seropositive for B. caballi and T. equi, respectively, while 41 (13. 4%) and 21 (7.0%) horses were, respectively, seropositive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi. Seropositivity for more than one agent was detected in 76 horses using IFAT. The most common association observed was between T. equi and B. caballi (14.7%). In addition, 54 horses (18.0%) were found to be positive for one or more tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) using PCR testing. Among these, 28 (9.3%) harbored single infections, while 26 (8.7%) were found to be co-infected with two or more pathogens. The correlation (K value) between IFAT and PCR results was 0.32 for T. equi, 0.34 for B. caballi, 0.62 for B. burgdorferi and 0.48 for A. phagocytophilum, reflecting an unprecedented degree of multiple exposures to TBPs in horses. PMID:23328633

Laus, Fulvio; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Paggi, Emanuele; Cerquetella, Matteo; Hyatt, Doreene; Tesei, Beniamino; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili

2013-01-01

301

Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever, weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or vulva. The diagnosis of T. vivax was confirmed in four horses by morphological parameters of trypomastigotes in blood smears and species-specific PCR. All T. vivax-infected animals showed anemia, and most showed increased levels of beta-1, beta-2, and gamma globulins. Horses were treated with diminazene aceturate, but cure was not achieved, and the disease relapsed after therapy. These findings demonstrated that Brazilian T. vivax isolates, which were already reported infecting cattle, buffaloes, goats, and sheep, can be highly pathogenic for horses, causing severe disease and even death of the animals due to the recurrence of the infection. PMID:20820805

Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Garcia Perez, Herakles A; Costa, Márcio M; França, Raqueli T; De Gasperi, Diego; Zanette, Régis A; Amado, João A; Lopes, Sonia T A; Teixeira, Marta M G; Monteiro, Silvia G

2011-01-01

302

[The epidemiology of gasterophilosis of horses in Switzerland].  

PubMed

Between March 1988 and December 1989, 198 gastrointestinal tracts from slaughtered horses from different areas of Switzerland have been analysed for the presence and the frequency of Gasterophilus spp. During the same period--always between July and November--200 horses from selected areas of Western Switzerland have been checked for the presence of eggs and their subsequent developmental stages in order to investigate further clinical and biological aspects of this infection. The evaluation has been performed according to origin, age, sex, colour of the horse and seasonal pattern of the cases and the various larval stages, respectively. The prevalence of Gasterophilus spp. amounts to 64.6%, showing a marked seasonal distribution. Only Gasterophilus intestinalis has been detected and the Western part of Switzerland appears to be considerably more contaminated than the other areas of the country. The reasons are discussed. It is possible that an intensive horse-traffic at the border is partly responsible. Horses with a dark coat are more often parasitized whereas no difference occurs with regard to age and sex. The observed high prevalence of this parasite infection in the Swiss horse population confirms that gasterophilosis has to be taken into serious consideration and prophylactic measures might be indicated. PMID:1771404

Brocard, P; Pfister, K

1991-01-01

303

IHH gene polymorphism among three horse breeds and its application for association test in horses with osteochondrosis.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphism of IHH gene were investigated in Angloarabian, Polish Coldblood and Polish Halfbred horses with the inclusion of a group of Polish Halfbreds affected by osteochondrosis. IHH is a good candidate gene for association study of developmental disorders mainly affecting skeleton development. DNA sequence spanning IHH gene annotated in the horse genome and its putative promoter were investigated using SANGER sequencing. Analysis of genetic variability at polymorphic sites in the IHH gene body and the promoter region confirmed genetic differences between warmblood and coldblood horse breeds. A test for allelic and genotypic association at particular SNP sites revealed no association with osteochondrosis in investigated group of Polish Halfbreds. It was concluded that participation of different warmblood breeds in pedigrees of Polish Halfbreds make it difficult to search for genetic variants being associated with this complex disorder in this breed. IHH gene polymorphism investigated among three different horse populations would be valuable for further studies on equine bone developmental disorders. PMID:23865964

Zabek, T; Golonka, P; Fornal, A; Semik, E

2013-06-01

304

Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)  

PubMed Central

Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction.

2014-01-01

305

Influence of Equine Conformation on Rider Oscillation and Evaluation of Horses for Therapeutic Riding  

PubMed Central

To obtain basic knowledge about selecting horses for therapeutic riding, the influence of equine conformation on rider oscillation and relationships between these factors and the evaluation on horses as the therapeutic riding were studied. Thirty-five riding horses were used. Equine conformation was estimated by 24 indices. Rider oscillation was measured by an accelerometer fixed at the rider’s waist. The spatial position of the oscillation was estimated by a double integration of the acceleration. Horses were evaluated for therapeutic riding by a Riding for the Disabled Association instructor as a rider. Evaluations were on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest score for 27 items. Horses were classified into 4 groups: the short and narrow (SN), short and wide (SW), tall and narrow (TN), and tall and wide (TW). The frequencies of rider oscillation both at walk and trot were higher (P<0.01), and the vertical (P<0.01) and longitudinal (P<0.05) amplitudes at trot were smaller, on short horses than on tall horses. The vertical amplitude at walk was smaller (P<0.05) and the lateral amplitude at trot was larger (P<0.01) on wide horses than on narrow horses. Short horses could be used for the rider who requires side walkers. Wide horses could be used for relieving muscular tension and for the rider who could not maintain good balance on the horse. Short and wide horses should be suitable for therapeutic riding.

MATSUURA, Akihiro; OHTA, Emiko; UEDA, Koichiro; NAKATSUJI, Hiroki; KONDO, Seiji

2008-01-01

306

Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama, this site seeks to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. It contains activities pertaining to ocean currents (their properties and influence on weather and sea life). Students gather data from other websites, apply the data to answer a series of questions, and participate in related enrichment exercises. A downloadable teacher's guide, student guide, and all necessary activity sheets are included.

307

Hendra Virus and Horse Owners - Risk Perception and Management  

PubMed Central

Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus), commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63%) had seen their state’s Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn’t done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk-management scenarios.

Kung, Nina; McLaughlin, Amanda; Taylor, Melanie; Moloney, Barbara; Wright, Therese; Field, Hume

2013-01-01

308

Horse (Equus caballus) whinnies: a source of social information.  

PubMed

Many animal species that rely mainly on calls to communicate produce individual acoustic structures, but we wondered whether individuals of species better known as visual communicants, with small vocal repertoires, would also exhibit individual distinctiveness in calls. Moreover, theoretical advances concerning the evolution of social intelligence are usually based on primate species data, but relatively little is known about the social cognitive capacities of non-primate mammals. However, some non-primate species demonstrate auditory recognition of social categories and possess mental representation of their social network. Horses (Equus caballus) form stable social networks and although they display a large range of visual signals, they also use long-distance whinny calls to maintain contact. Here, we investigated the potential existence of individual acoustic signatures in whinny calls and the ability of horses to discriminate by ear individuals varying in their degree of familiarity. Our analysis of the acoustic structure of whinnies of 30 adult domestic horses (ten stallions, ten geldings, ten mares) revealed that some of the frequency and temporal parameters carried reliable information about the caller's sex, body size and identity. However, no correlations with age were found. Playback experiments evaluated the behavioural significance of this variability. Twelve horses heard either control white noise or whinnies emitted by group members, familiar neighbours or unfamiliar horses. While control sounds did not induce any particular response, horses discriminated the social category of the callers and reacted with a sound-specific behaviour (vigilance and attraction varied with familiarity). Our results support the existence of social knowledge in horses and suggest a process of vocal coding/decoding of information. PMID:19449192

Lemasson, Alban; Boutin, Anaïs; Boivin, Sarah; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Hausberger, Martine

2009-09-01

309

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum.

2012-01-01

310

78 FR 39768 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...qualify you to serve on the Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros: (Equine health, training, and management); 12. Experience in working with disparate...

2013-07-02

311

77 FR 37705 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...qualify you to serve on the Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros (Equine health, training, and management); 12. Experience in working with disparate...

2012-06-22

312

78 FR 59058 - Second Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...qualify you to serve on the Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros: Equine health, training, and management; 12. Experience in working with disparate...

2013-09-25

313

76 FR 48174 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management and the issues facing the BLM; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros: (equine health, training and management); 12. Experience in...

2011-08-08

314

Leptospirosis in the Phillipines. VII. Serologic and Isolation Studies on Horses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of 12 horses showed 8 with agglutination titers of 1:100 or greater. The serological evidence of leptospirosis is corroborated by the isolation of leptospira australis from one horse. (Author)

E. R. Carlos C. C. Tsai W. D. Kundin R. H. Watten G. S. Irving

1971-01-01

315

Horse Welfare: Action Needed to Address Unintended Consequences from Cessation of Domestic Slaughter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since fiscal year 2006, Congress has annually prohibited the use of federal funds to inspect horses destined for food, effectively prohibiting domestic slaughter. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for overseeing the welfare of horse...

2011-01-01

316

Scintigraphic detection of equine orthopedic infection using Tc-HMPAO labeled leukocytes in 14 horses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 99mTc-HMPAO leukocyte scintigraphy (LS) by means of a retrospective review of its use in 14 horses that were evaluated for orthopedic infection as a cause of lameness. A total of 17 LS exams were performed in 14 horses. LS studies were positive in 10 of 14 horses. A bacterial infection was confirmed with cytology or culture in 9 of 10 positive horses. Negative LS studies occurred in 4 of 14 horses. Necropsy confirmed the lack of infection in 2 of the 4 horses. Other clinical data and a favorable clinical outcome supported a negative study in the other 2 horses. No false negative or false positive studies were identified. It may be concluded that HMPAO-LS is an effective tool for the diagnosis of orthopedic infection in horses. PMID:10955500

Long, C D; Galuppo, L D; Waters, N K; Hornof, W J

2000-01-01

317

Ocean Systems. Program Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program summary describes each of the DOE's Ocean Systems Program projects funded during FY 1978 (October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978) and reflects their status as of September 30, 1978. The Ocean Systems Program includes ocean thermal energy ...

1979-01-01

318

Analysis of therapeutic results and complications after colic surgery in 434 horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the total number of 434 horses that underwent colic surgery, small intestine was operated in 195 (44.9%) patients, caecum in 10 (2.3%) horses, large colon surgery was performed in 196 (45.2%) cases and small colon surgery in 14 (3.2%) horses. In 12 patients (2.8%) two different parts of the gastrointestinal tract were affected simultaneously, one horse suffered from

J. Mezerova; Z. Zert; R. Kabes; L. Ottova

319

Behavioural and physiological responses to an acute stressor in crib-biting and control horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of eleven pairs of crib-biting and non-crib-biting horses (controls) to an arousal-inducing stimulus were studied. Video-observation of the horses revealed that crib-biting horses spent between 10.4 and 64.7% of their stabling time performing the stereotypy. During the first 2 days of an experimental period, the horses were conditioned to receive food from a special bucket. On the third

I. Bachmann; P. Bernasconi; R. Herrmann; M. A. Weishaupt; M. Stauffacher

2003-01-01

320

Human Direct Actions May Alter Animal Welfare, a Study on Horses (Equus caballus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBack pain is the cause of bad welfare in humans and animals. Although vertebral problems are regularly reported on riding horses, these problems are not always identified nor noticed enough to prevent these horses to be used for work.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsNineteen horses from two riding centres were submitted to chiropractic examinations performed by an experienced chiropractor and both horses' and riders'

Clémence Lesimple; Carole Fureix; Hervé Menguy; Martine Hausberger; Georges Chapouthier

2010-01-01

321

Immunophysiological responses of horses to a 12-hour rest during 24 hours of road transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight mature horses were assigned to one of two equal groups to evaluate two treatments consisting of either 24 hours of continuous road transport (24T) or two 12-hour periods of transport separated by off-loading, resting and feeding the horses for 12 hours (12\\/12T). A subset of six horses from each group served as controls for the other group. The horses

C. L. Stull; J. Morrow; B. A. Aldridge; J. L. Stott; J. J. McGlone

2008-01-01

322

Ocean Engineering for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The panel on OTEC Ocean Engineering of the National Research Council was formed to assess the state of ocean engineering knowledge, technology, and practice necessary to design, construct, and operate OTEC plants. The panel concentrated its study on platf...

1982-01-01

323

The genetic structure of Spanish Celtic horse breeds inferred from microsatellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partition of the genetic variability, genetic structure and relationships among seven Span- ish Celtic horse breeds were studied using PCR amplification of 13 microsatellites on 481 ran- dom individuals. In addition, 60 thoroughbred horses were included. The average observed heterozygosity and the mean number of alleles were higher for the Atlantic horse breeds than for the Balearic Islands breeds. Only

J Canon; M L Checa; C Carleos; J L Vega-Pla; M Vallejo; S Dunner

2000-01-01

324

Evaluation of two vaccines for the treatment of pythiosis insidiosi in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two vaccines to treat pythiosis insidiosi in horses were evaluated in 71 Costa Rican horses between 1982 to 1988. One vaccine used a cell-mass (CMV) as antigen and the other a soluble concentrated antigen (SCAV). Both vaccines cured horses infected with Pythium insidiosum (p value ~ 14%). The age of lesions prior to vaccination was important in the response of

Leonel Mendoza; Jaime Villalobos; Carlos E. Calleja; Alejandro Solis

1992-01-01

325

Heart Rate Variability in Horses Engaged in Equine-Assisted Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a recent surge in using horses to treat mental and emotional human health issues, the consequences of horse-assisted interventions on the stress response of horses have not been well documented. Assessment of the autonomic nervous system and its regulation of cardiovascular function has been used as an indicator of acute and chronic stress in human beings

Ellen Kaye Gehrke; Ann Baldwin; Patric M. Schiltz

2011-01-01

326

Corralling Your Camp Horse Program: Reviewing Your Policies and Procedures and Creating a Written Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camps offering horse programs need to have written policies and procedures to ensure quality control and risk minimization. Basic elements of a horse program manual include routine care of horses; general guidelines relating to participants, program, and staff; and emergency plans. Four information resources are presented. (TD)

Glunt, Jim

2000-01-01

327

Some Men's Daughters: Teaching D. H. Lawrence's "The Horse Dealer's Daughter."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Horse Dealer's Daughter" is usually taught as being about love's redeeming power. Usual interpretations of this story, however, ignore its title. It is also about a woman who discovers and uses her sexual power. To begin discussion, students are asked how many have ridden a horse and whether they have ever bought or sold a horse at auction.…

Mallett, Sandra-Lynne J.

328

Nutritional composition, processing, and utilization of horse gram and moth bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse gram and moth bean are the unexploited legumes of the tropics and subtropics grown mostly under dry?land agriculture. The chemical composition is comparable with commonly cultivated legumes. Like other legumes, these are deficient in methionine and tryptophan. Horse gram is an excellent source of iron and molybdenum. Comparatively, horse gram seeds have higher trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin activities and

S. S. Kadam; D. K. Salunkhe; Joseph A. Maga

1985-01-01

329

Seasonal dynamics of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on horses in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural tick infestations were assessed every 14 days on horses over a 2-year period. Amblyomma cajennense adult ticks were counted individually, without detachment from the horses. Larvae and nymphs of A. cajennense were collected using a rubber scraper that scratched engorged immature ticks from the host. Adult females of Anocentor nitens larger than 4mm length were counted on the horses.

Marcelo B Labruna; Nobuko Kasai; Fernando Ferreira; João L. H Faccini; Solange M Gennari

2002-01-01

330

Strongyle egg shedding consistency in horses on farms using selective therapy in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of horses that shed the same number of strongyle eggs over time can lead to the optimization of parasite control strategies. This study evaluated shedding of strongyle eggs in 424 horses on 10 farms when a selective anthelmintic treatment regime was used over a 3-year period. Faecal egg counts were performed twice yearly, and horses exceeding 200eggs per gram

M. K. Nielsen; N. Haaning; S. N. Olsen

2006-01-01

331

The use of age-clustered pooled faecal samples for monitoring worm control in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed on two horse farms to evaluate the use of age-clustered pooled faecal samples for monitoring worm control in horses. In total 109 horses, 57 on farm A and 52 on farm B, were monitored at weekly intervals between 6 and 14 weeks after ivermectin treatment.This was performed through pooled faecal samples of pools of up to

M. Eysker; J. Bakker; M. van den Berg; D. C. K. van Doorn; H. W. Ploeger

2008-01-01

332

Shedding consistency of strongyle-type eggs in dutch boarding horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faeces of 484 horses were sampled twice with an interval of 6 weeks while anthelmintic therapy was halted. Faecal eggs counts revealed that 267 (55.2%) horses had consistently low numbers of eggs per gram faeces (EPG) (EPG 100). Horses with consistently high EPGs were more often mares with access to pasture, aged less than 6 or more than 23 years,

D. D. V. Dopfer; C. M. Kerssens; Y. G. M. Meijer; J. H. Boersema; M. Eysker

2004-01-01

333

STUDIES OF GENETIC VARIATION AT THE KIT LOCUS AND WHITE SPOTTING PATTERNS IN THE HORSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous different white spotting patterns in the horse, including two of particular interest tobiano and sabino. In the mouse, genetic variation in the gene KIT causes many white spotting patterns. Due to the phenotypic similarity among white spotting patterns in horses and mice, KIT was investigated as the cause of the tobiano and sabino spotting patterns in horses.

Samantha Ann Brooks

2006-01-01

334

Arytenoid mucosal injury in young Thoroughbred horses — investigation of a proposed aetiology and clinical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine whether trauma to the larynx caused by nasotracheal intubation induced mucosal ulceration of the arytenoid cartilages of adult horses, and to determine the incidence of such ulceration in yearling Thoroughbred horses and its effect on athletic performance.METHODS: Laryngeal trauma was induced in a group of 21 adult horses by introduction of a nasogastric tube into the trachea

RL Smith; NR Perkins; EC Firth; BH Anderson

2006-01-01

335

Strategic Analysis of the U.S. Quarter Horse Industry, Emphasizing California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Quarter Horse is the most popular breed of horse in California, as well as nationwide. This breed has shaped agricultural history and has had a major impact on the agricultural economy because. The objective of this report is to provide strategic information about the U.S. quarter horse industry, with an emphasis on California. This report provides information on

Jon C. Phillips; Flynnie Kolb; Chelsea Bicknell

2011-01-01

336

Clinical and therapeutic studies on mange in horses.  

PubMed

At Kafr El-Sheikh province, Egypt, out of 117 examined drafting horses, mites were detected in 20 (17.09%) horses. The recovered mites were 14 Chorioptes, four Psoroptes and two Sarcoptes whereas mites were not detected in four cases clinically showed typical mange lesions. Interestingly, neither the age nor the sex of the examined horses had a clear influence on the prevalence of the infection. Clinical signs observed in mange infested horses were in the form of irregular skin lesions, severe itching and sometimes biting of affected skin areas and decrease feed consumption. The skin lesions mainly start as erythematous area followed by developing of papules and crust formation. Skin scratches as a result of traumatized lesions usually occurred. Hair was lost on the affected parts developing irregular alopecic areas. Distribution of the lesions was varied according to the type of mite. Chorioptic mite was detected in para-anal fold, distal portion of legs and tail lesions, Psoroptic mite was detected in withers, mane, shoulder and flank lesions whereas Sarcoptic mite was isolated mainly from lesions on the head and neck. Complete clinical and parasitological cure for mite infestation were obtained within 2 weeks in both moxidectin and ivermectin treated groups with 100% recovery rate. Our results indicated that moxidectin oral gel is effective and good alternative for the treatment of chorioptic mange in horse to avoid drug resistance that may develop as a result of the intensive use of ivermectin alone for long periods. PMID:16782277

Osman, S A; Hanafy, A; Amer, S E

2006-10-10

337

Cardiac troponin I concentrations in horses with colic.  

PubMed

Objective-To determine prevalence of myocardial injury in horses with colic on the basis of high concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), frequency of cardiac arrhythmias within the first 24 to 48 hours after hospital admission or surgery because of colic, and associations between high cTnI concentrations and cardiac arrhythmias, clinical course, and outcome (survival to discharge from hospital vs nonsurvival [death or euthanasia]). Design-Prospective observational study. Animals-111 horses with colic. Procedures-Blood was drawn at admission and 12 and 24 hours after admission if horses were treated medically or 12 and 24 hours after surgery if treated surgically. A 24-hour ambulatory ECG was recorded beginning the morning after admission in medically treated cases or after surgery and evaluated for arrhythmias. Clinical and clinicopathologic data and outcome were obtained. Associations between cTnI concentrations and other variables were determined. Results-An abnormal cTnI concentration (? 0.10 ng/mL) at admission was significantly associated with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias, outcome, and surgical treatment. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The data suggested that horses with colic and high cTnI concentrations at admission were more likely to have ventricular arrhythmias and have a less favorable prognosis for recovery. High cTnI concentrations in horses with colic were suggestive of myocardial damage. PMID:24941396

Díaz, Olga M Seco; Durando, Mary M; Birks, Eric K; Reef, Virginia B

2014-07-01

338

Production of embryos by assisted reproduction in the horse.  

PubMed

In vitro embryo production is not yet successful in the horse, largely due to low rates of fertilization in vitro. However, methods to produce embryos from isolated oocytes have been developed. Oocytes may be recovered from living mares by aspiration of the dominant preovulatory follicle by trans-abdominal puncture, and from both preovulatory and immature follicles by trans-vaginal ultrasound-guided puncture. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes to the oviducts of bred recipient mares has resulted in good pregnancy rates (75-85%). Little work has been done on transfer of horse oocytes matured in vitro. Recovery rates of immature oocytes from mares in vivo are lower than those for cattle. In addition, work on oocytes recovered from horse ovaries post-mortem has shown that horse oocytes from smaller (< 20 mm diameter) viable follicles may not yet be meiotically competent. Methods for in vitro fertilization and for obtaining adequate numbers of competent immature oocytes from the mare must be developed before in vitro embryo production can become a useful clinical and research procedure in the horse. PMID:10732117

Hinrichs, K

1998-01-01

339

Horses (Equus caballus) discriminate body odour cues from conspecifics.  

PubMed

Knowledge about social recognition and memory in animals can help us to determine appropriate management and husbandry techniques. In this study, we used a habituation-discrimination procedure to investigate the ability of horses (Equus caballus) to distinguish between the body odour samples of unfamiliar conspecifics. To pick up body odour, we rubbed material on the coat of horses and presented these unknown body odours to 16 different conspecifics of the same sex and similar age. The test consisted of two successive two-min presentations of a sample from one individual (e.g. individual 'A') and a simultaneous presentation of samples from individual 'A' and a novel individual (e.g. individual 'B') during a final third presentation. The results showed that horses, regardless of sex, decreased the time they spent investigating conspecific body odour across the initial two presentations-demonstrating habituation. In the final presentation, the results demonstrated successful discrimination of the previously experienced odour because horses investigated the novel olfactory sample ('B') significantly more than the pre-exposed sample ('A'). Taken together, these findings suggest, for the first time, that horses are able to discriminate two stimuli derived from body odours of unfamiliar conspecifics over short period of time. PMID:24305997

Péron, F; Ward, R; Burman, O

2014-07-01

340

[The horse as an aid in therapy].  

PubMed

Physiotherapy on the back of the moved horse has two important dimensions: 1) The somatotropic effect regards mainly spasticity, ataxia, the vertebral column, the basis of the pelvis and the skin. 2) A general psychotherapeutic and psychohygienic effect is created by joy, change and new impetus in rehabilitation and by the emotional contact with the "comrade animal". Or unit was the first to introduce hippotherapy with adults in Austria. There is specially good experience with the spastic atactic component in multiple sclerosis. However other diagnosis as well showed good profit, such as stroke, etc. Some good effects in cephalaea patients indicate transition to riding as a medical pedagogic instrument with further transitions to psychosomatic patients. We want to proceed in this direction. Well organized hippotherapy is cheaper than the hydrotherapy (being current almost everywhere. Therefore opposition against the valuable hippotherapy by reasons of economics should be ruled out. Today's medicine goes farther and farther away from natural possibilities (slogan: "overtechnologized"). We see in hippotherapy an important counterweight in the sense of a valuable methodology towards holistic therapy especially in rehabilitation. PMID:1763515

Barolin, G S; Samborski, R

1991-01-01

341

Assisted reproduction techniques in the horse.  

PubMed

This paper reviews current equine assisted reproduction techniques. Embryo transfer is the most common equine ART, but is still limited by the inability to superovulate mares effectively. Immature oocytes may be recovered by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of immature follicles, or from ovaries postmortem, and can be effectively matured in vitro. Notably, the in vivo-matured oocyte may be easily recovered from the stimulated preovulatory follicle. Standard IVF is still not repeatable in the horse; however, embryos and foals can be produced by surgical transfer of mature oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares or via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Currently, ICSI and in vitro embryo culture are routinely performed by only a few laboratories, but reported blastocyst development rates approach those found after bovine IVF (i.e. 25%-35%). Nuclear transfer can be relatively efficient (up to 26% live foal rate per transferred embryo), but few laboratories are working in this area. Equine blastocysts may be biopsied via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after biopsy, and accurate genetic analysis. Equine expanded blastocysts may be vitrified after collapsing them via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after warming and transfer. Many of these recently developed techniques are now in clinical use. PMID:23244831

Hinrichs, Katrin

2012-01-01

342

Toxicoinfectious botulism in foals and adult horses.  

PubMed

Toxicoinfectious botulism was proved to be the cause of a neuromuscular paralytic syndrome in foals and adult horses. In eight successive cases, Clostridium botulinum type B was isolated at necropsy. Foals were either found dead without premonitory signs of illness or, most often, they had signs of progressive and symmetric motor paralysis. Stilted gait, muscular tremors, and the inability to stand longer than 4 to 5 minutes were the salient clinical signs. Other clinical manifestations included dysphagia, constipation, mydriasis, and frequent urination. As the disease progressed, dyspnea with extension of the head and neck, tachycardia, and respiratory arrest occurred. Death occurred most often 24 to 72 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The most consistent postmortem findings were congestion and edema of the lungs and excessive pericardial fluid, which contained free-floating strands of fibrin. Gastric ulcers, foci of necrosis in the liver, abscesses in the navel and lungs, and wounds of the skin and muscle were predisposing sites for development of toxicoinfectious botulism. PMID:6988376

Swerczek, T W

1980-02-01

343

Corneal invasion by hemangiosarcoma in a horse.  

PubMed

A 15-year-old gray Arabian gelding presented for evaluation of a lateral limbal mass extending across approximately 30% of the cornea. Grossly, the raised mass appeared nonpigmented, smooth, and irregular in shape, with an area of central necrosis and serosanguinous discharge. The mass was removed via lamellar keratectomy and histopathologic evaluation revealed features characteristic of hemangiosarcoma (HSA), including irregular vascular channels lined by a plump spindle cell population. Immunohistochemistry results showed that the neoplastic cells lining the vascular channels present diffuse and strong cytoplasmic reaction with von Willebrand Factor and the perivascular spindle cells exhibit moderate cytoplasmic reaction for smooth muscle actin. A lack of cytokeratin staining definitively excluded a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell carcinoma. Smooth muscle actin staining of the perivascular cells adjacent to the neoplastic endothelial cells is not a feature commonly described in HSA and has not been reported in previous cases of equine HSA. The horse remained in good health 21 months postkeratectomy and has exceeded the survival time of previously documented equine ocular HSA cases where more extreme surgical excision was performed. PMID:21521445

Pinn, Toby L; Cushing, Tim; Valentino, Lorie Moore; Koch, Seth A

2011-05-01

344

Planet Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will be taken into consideration, for instance, the value of the pH, using universal indicator paper, color, through visual evaluation and the temperature with the help of a thermometer. There will be also registered some existent chemical parameters as chloride, alkalinity, total hardness (Ca2+ and Mg2+), nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate. Two methods will be used for analysis, the titration and the kit of semi-quantitative chemical analyses. This kit is composed by biocompatible substances, which means they are not harmful for the environment and can be disposed of by domestic sewage systems. The results will be subsequently analyzed bearing in mind the maximum and recommended standards values for each one of the parameters. After this, the results achieved will be discussed. I believe this project contains characteristics that will be of interest to our students, thus enabling them to participate actively and effectively develop their knowledge and enhance their scientific curiosity.

Afonso, Isabel

2014-05-01

345

A preliminary study of the effects of handling type on horses' emotional reactivity and the human-horse relationship.  

PubMed

Handling is a crucial component of the human-horse relationship. Here, we report data from an experiment conducted to assess and compare the effect of two training methods. Two groups of six Welsh mares were trained during four sessions of 50 min, one handled with traditional exercises (halter leading, grooming/brushing, lifting feet, lunging and pseudo-saddling (using only girth and saddle pad) and the second group with natural horsemanship exercises (desensitization, yielding to body pressure, lunging and free-lunging). Emotional reactivity (ER) and the human-horse relationship (HHR) were assessed both prior to and following handling. A social isolation test, a neophobia test and a bridge test were used to assess ER. HHR was assessed through test of spontaneous approach to, and forced approach by, an unknown human. Horses' ER decreased after both types of handling as indicated by decreases in the occurrence of whinnying during stressful situations. Head movement (jerk/shake) was the most sensitive variable to handling type. In the spontaneous approach tests, horses in the traditional handling group showed higher latencies to approach a motionless person after handling than did the natural horsemanship group. Our study suggests that natural horsemanship exercises could be more efficient than traditional exercises for improving horses' HHR. PMID:19591910

Fureix, Carole; Pagès, Magali; Bon, Richard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel; Kuntz, Philippe; Gonzalez, Georges

2009-10-01

346

[New drugs for horses and production animals in 2010].  

PubMed

In 2010, three new active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for horses and food-producing animals. These were gamithromycin (Zactran®), a new macrolide antibiotic, Monepantel (Zolvix®), a broad spectrum anthelmintic with a novel mechanism, and Pergolide (Prascend®), the first dopamine receptor agonist for animals. Two substances have been approved for additional species. The tetracycline antibiotic doxycycline is now also authorized for turkeys and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug firocoxib from the group of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors is now available for horses. Furthermore, four new preparations with an interesting new pharmaceutical form, one drug with a new formulation and two drugs, which are interesting because of other criteria, were added to the market for horses and food producing animals. PMID:22167083

Emmerich, I U

2011-01-01

347

The horse as a modality for occupational therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of a horse as a therapeutic activity in the treatment of persons with physical disabilities. Occupational therapists have traditionally used goal-directed activities for treatment to achieve for patient gains in functional independence, both in specific dysfunctions and in the holistic manner of the patient interacting with the environment. The motivation of the patient to partake actively in the therapy is seen as a significant factor in the outcome of treatment. Hippotherapy involves the active participation of the patient in specifically prescribed activities with goal-directed results. The horse and the riding ring provide a non-traditional setting which can increase motivation of the patient and be ideal for the development of perceptual-motor coordination and sensory integration. The effective treatment of physical dysfunction using a horse to facilitate positive functional changes in patients will be discussed. PMID:23952118

Engel, B T

1984-01-01

348

Meperidine prolongs lidocaine caudal epidural anaesthesia in the horse.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of caudal epidural administration of meperidine (MP), lidocaine (LD), and a combination of the two (MPLD) in six mature saddle horses. Horses were randomly assigned to receive three treatments (MP 0.3 mg/kg; LD 0.2 mg/kg; and MPLD: MP 0.3 mg/kg and LD 0.2 mg/kg), with at least 1 week between treatments. Drugs were injected into the epidural space between the first and second coccygeal areas in conscious standing horses. Analgesia, ataxia, sedation, cardiovascular and respiratory effects, and rectal temperature were recorded at different intervals before (baseline) and after administration. Epidural administration of MPLD resulted in a longer duration of analgesia of the tail, perineum, and upper hind limb regions than did administration of MP or LD alone. PMID:17892957

Derossi, Rafael; Medeiros, Ulisses; de Almeida, Ricardo G; Righetto, Fernando R; Frazílio, Fabrício O

2008-11-01

349

Physical and chemical characterization of horse serum carboxylesterase  

SciTech Connect

The serine carboxylesterase from horse serum was characterized by amino acid composition, peptide mapping, molecular and subunit weights, C- and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and partial sequencing of the amino acids around the essential serine residue at the active site. A protocol was developed for using reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography to obtain homogeneous preparation of horse serum carboxylesterase. In addition, a number of kinetic properties were determined, including the substrate specificity, effect of pH, and activation energies. The horse serum carboxylesterase was characterized by unusually low turnover numbers with substrates commonly used with serine carboxylesterases. A variety of criteria were used to confirm the low turnover numbers and the concomitant high concentration of the esterase in the serum. These included reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, disc-gel electrophoresis, and labelling with (/sup 14/C) diisopropylphosphofluoridate.

Torres, J.L.

1987-01-01

350

Antiinflammatory effect of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.  

PubMed

The antiinflammatory effects of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds were examined in vivo and in vitro. The extract of this seed (HCSE) inhibited croton oil-induced swelling of the mouse concha. HCSE inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) -1 and -2 activities, but had no effect on 15-lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 activities. Inhibition of COX-2 occurred at a lower concentration of HCSE than for COX-1. Japanese horse chestnut seeds contain coumarins and saponins, but these chemicals did not inhibit COX activities. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory effect of Japanese horse chestnut seeds is caused, at least partly, by the inhibition of COX. The inhibitor of COX in this seed may be a chemical(s) other than coumarins and saponins. PMID:16757892

Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Suzuki, Tadahiko; Kobayashi, Haruo; Tsuda, Shuji

2006-05-01

351

Salmonellosis in hospitalized horses: seasonality and case fatality rates.  

PubMed

Salmonellosis was studied during an 11-year period (July 1971 through June 1982) in 245 hospitalized horses. Ten years' data (207 cases) were analyzed in a time series study. Peak seasonality of the disease was from June through September. The cycle curve revealed 3 major outbreaks, with no apparent periodicity. Eighteen Salmonella serotypes caused clinical salmonellosis in horses, but 84% of the cases and 90% of the deaths were caused by 5 serotypes: Salmonella typhimurium, S typhimurium var copenhagen, S anatum, S kottbus, and S saint-paul. Overall, the case fatality rate was 44.9%. Excluding mixed infections, horses infected with S typhimurium and S typhimurium var copenhagen, had a significantly higher (P less than 0.001) case fatality rate (60.4%) than those infected with other Salmonella serotypes (32.3%). PMID:3700212

Carter, J D; Hird, D W; Farver, T B; Hjerpe, C A

1986-01-15

352

Genome-wide detection of copy number variations among diverse horse breeds by array CGH.  

PubMed

Recent studies have found that copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in human and animal genomes. CNVs are a significant source of genetic variation, and have been shown to be associated with phenotypic diversity. However, the effect of CNVs on genetic variation in horses is not well understood. In the present study, CNVs in 6 different breeds of mare horses, Mongolia horse, Abaga horse, Hequ horse and Kazakh horse (all plateau breeds) and Debao pony and Thoroughbred, were determined using aCGH. In total, seven hundred CNVs were identified ranging in size from 6.1 Kb to 0.57 Mb across all autosomes, with an average size of 43.08 Kb and a median size of 15.11 Kb. By merging overlapping CNVs, we found a total of three hundred and fifty-three CNV regions (CNVRs). The length of the CNVRs ranged from 6.1 Kb to 1.45 Mb with average and median sizes of 38.49 Kb and 13.1 Kb. Collectively, 13.59 Mb of copy number variation was identified among the horses investigated and accounted for approximately 0.61% of the horse genome sequence. Five hundred and eighteen annotated genes were affected by CNVs, which corresponded to about 2.26% of all horse genes. Through the gene ontology (GO), genetic pathway analysis and comparison of CNV genes among different breeds, we found evidence that CNVs involving 7 genes may be related to the adaptation to severe environment of these plateau horses. This study is the first report of copy number variations in Chinese horses, which indicates that CNVs are ubiquitous in the horse genome and influence many biological processes of the horse. These results will be helpful not only in mapping the horse whole-genome CNVs, but also to further research for the adaption to the high altitude severe environment for plateau horses. PMID:24497987

Wang, Wei; Wang, Shenyuan; Hou, Chenglin; Xing, Yanping; Cao, Junwei; Wu, Kaifeng; Liu, Chunxia; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yanru; Zhou, Huanmin

2014-01-01

353

A Massively Parallel Sequencing Approach Uncovers Ancient Origins and High Genetic Variability of Endangered Przewalski's Horses  

PubMed Central

The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered—two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117–0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow.

Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Allison R.; Schultz, Bryant; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

2011-01-01

354

Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I projected costs for several contraceptive treatments that could be used by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage 4 wild horse (Equus caballus) populations. Potential management alternatives included existing roundup and selective removal methods combined with contraceptives of different duration and effectiveness. I projected costs for a 20-year economic life using the WinEquus?? wild horse population model and state-by-state cost estimates reflecting BLM's operational expenses. Findings revealed that 1) currently available 2-year contraceptives in most situations are capable of reducing variable operating costs by 15%, 2) experimental 3-year contraceptives may be capable of reducing costs by 18%, and 3) combining contraceptives with modest changes to herd sex ratio (e.g., 55-60% M) could trim costs by 30%. Predicted savings can increase when contraception is applied in conjunction with a removal policy that targets horses aged 0-4 years instead of 0-5 years. However, reductions in herd size result in greater variation in annual operating expenses. Because the horse program's variable operating costs make up about half of the total program costs (which include other fixed costs), contraceptive application and management can only reduce total costs by 14%, saving about $6.1 million per year. None of the contraceptive options I examined eliminated the need for long-term holding facilities over the 20-year period simulated, but the number of horses held may be reduced by about 17% with contraceptive treatment. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the oldest age adoptable and per-day holding costs. The BLM will experience significant cost savings as carefully designed contraceptive programs become widespread in the wild horse herds it manages.

Bartholow, J.

2007-01-01

355

Review of furosemide in horse racing: its effects and regulation.  

PubMed

Furosemide has been used empirically and has been legally approved for many years by the US racing industry for the control of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) or bleeding. Its use in horses for this purpose is highly controversial and has been criticized by organizations outside and inside of the racing industry. This review concentrates on its renal and extra-renal actions and the possible relationship of these actions to the modification of EIPH and changes in performance of horses. The existing literature references suggest that furosemide has the potential of increasing performance in horses without significantly changing the bleeding status. The pulmonary capillary transmural pressure in the exercising horse is estimated to be over 100 mmHg. The pressure reduction produced by the administration of furosemide is not of sufficient magnitude to reduce transmural pressures within the capillaries to a level where pressures resulting in rupture of the capillaries, and thus haemorrhage, would be completely prevented. This is substantiated by clinical observations that the administration of furosemide to horses with EIPH may reduce haemorrhage but does not completely stop it. The unanswered question is whether the improvement of racing times which have been shown in a number of studies are due to the reduction in bleeding or to other actions of furosemide. This review also discusses the difficulties encountered in furosemide regulation, in view of its diuretic actions and potential for the reduction in the ability of forensic laboratories to detect drugs and medications administered to a horse within days or hours before a race. Interactions between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and furosemide have also been examined, and the results suggest that the effects of prior administration of NSAID may partially mitigate the renal and extra-renal effects which may contribute to the effects of furosemide on EIPH. PMID:9673965

Soma, L R; Uboh, C E

1998-06-01

356

Nuchal crest avulsion fracture in 2 horses: a cause of headshaking.  

PubMed

The medical records of 2 Thoroughbred horses that developed headshaking after blunt trauma to the occipital region are reviewed. The history, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic methods, diagnosis and treatment were recorded in each case. Both horses displayed headshaking, while one horse repeatedly lifted its upper lip and pawed excessively at the ground. In both horses, diagnostic imaging of the occipital region revealed avulsion fragments of the nuchal crest and a nuchal desmitis in association with hyperfibrinogenaemia. The presence of an avulsion fragment of the nuchal crest with associated nuchal desmitis should be considered in horses presenting with headshaking and may respond favourably to conservative therapy. PMID:19831275

Voigt, A; Saulez, M N; Donnellan, C M

2009-06-01

357

[New drugs for horses and production animals in 2012].  

PubMed

In 2012, two newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients for horses and food producing animals were released on the German market for veterinary drug products. Those are the parenterally applicable first generation cephalosporin Cefalonium (Cepravin®) and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Suxibuzone (Danilon®). Furthermore, one established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredient is applicable to additional species: The anticoccidial Amprolium (Eimeryl®) has again been authorized for chicken and turkeys. Additionally, two veterinary drugs with a new formulation as well as three products with a new strength and one product with a new indication have recently been released to the veterinary drugs market for horses and food producing animals. PMID:23959620

Emmerich, I U

2013-01-01

358

Analysis of horse-related injuries in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors affecting the nature, characteristics, severity and outcome of\\u000a horseback and horse care injuries in paediatric patients and to create guidelines for injury prevention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   Detailed clinical records of 265 children sustained horse-riding related injuries have been analysed. Questionnaires were\\u000a mailed to provide follow-up information for patients who have been treated

Katalin Kiss; Paul Swatek; Imre Lénárt; Johannes Mayr; Barbara Schmidt; András Pintér; Michael E. Höllwarth

2008-01-01

359

Ocean Color Climate Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual ocean color missions have finite lifetimes, so it is critical to produce a consistent time series across ocean color missions if we are to address fundamental questions of Earth science importance, especially how the ocean biogeochemical system is changing. Developing Ocean Color Climate Records (OCCR's), which meet the definitions of the National Research Council has been a challenge. Consistent

W. Gregg

2007-01-01

360

Oceanic Circulation Visualizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory presents two visualizations. The first is a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has been used for studying both the ocean climate system and idealized ocean circulations; the second is animation of sea surface height and ocean eddies.

Laboratory, Geophysical F.; Noaa

361

Oceans of Energy⨠ 

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on the importance of ocean exploration as a way to learn how to capture, control, and distribute renewable ocean energy resources. Students begin by identifying ways the ocean can generate energy and then research one ocean energy source using the Internet. Finally, students build a Micro-Hydro Electric Generator.

Explorer, Noaa O.

362

A Study on the Presence of Ferritin-binding Proteins in Fetal Horse Plasma  

PubMed Central

In mammal circulation, ferritin-binding proteins (FBPs) are thought to be involved in clearance of circulating ferritin after complex formation with it through receptor-mediated uptake. However, there is no report on fetal FBP in fetal circulation. Although iron concentrations of fetal horse plasma were higher than those of adult horse plasma, plasma ferritin concentrations and ferritin-binding activities were found to be significantly lower in fetus than in adult. FBPs were purified from fetal or adult horse plasma on horse spleen ferritin-Sepharose 4B affinity column. Partially affinity-purified fetal horse plasma FBPs were mainly separated into 65 and 41 kDa bands in addition to minor bands with higher molecular masses ranged from 102 to 140 kDa on SDS-PAGE under reducing condition. The adult horse plasma FBPs were separated into 74, 54 and 28 kDa bands, and the 74 and 54 kDa bands reacted with antibodies specific for horse IgM and IgG heavy chains, respectively, by immunoblotting analyses. On the other hand, no antibodies to horse immunoglobulin classes detected any bands in fetal horse plasma FBPs. The affinity-purified adult and fetal horse plasma FBPs did not contain fibrinogen as a plasma specific FBP, probably due to its lower affinity to the ligand ferritin. These results demonstrate the presence of FBPs which are different from adult horse plasma FBPs including anti-ferritin autoantibodies in fetal plasma.

HASHIMOTO, Masafumi; NAMBO, Yasuo; KONDO, Takashi; WATANABE, Kiyotaka; ORINO, Koichi

2011-01-01

363

Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience  

PubMed Central

Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the “amateurs”, the “experienced” and the “experts”. Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the “amateur” group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside “measureable” qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the “amateur” group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses.

GILLE, Claudia; KAYSER, Maike; SPILLER, Achim

2011-01-01

364

Evaluation of FOXC2 as a candidate gene for chronic progressive lymphedema in draft horses.  

PubMed

Chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL) is a debilitating condition identified in Clydesdales, Shires and Belgian draft horses and results in progressive swelling of the lower legs associated with the development of thick skin folds, ulcerations, fibrosis and marked hyperkeratosis. The result is severe discomfort and recurrent secondary infection, often requiring euthanasia. Due to the delayed onset, many horses are bred prior to diagnosis. CPL has only been documented in three related draft horse breeds, suggesting a genetic cause. Determining the molecular basis would enable owners to test horses prior to breeding and facilitate the elimination of CPL. Mutations in the FOXC2 gene cause a comparable condition in humans, lymphedema-distichiasis. This gene was sequenced in affected and unaffected draft horses and a control horse. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in unaffected draft horses and the control horse, indicating that they were not associated with CPL. A fifth SNP was seen in a single affected draft horse and the control horse. Since it was not seen in all affected draft horses, this SNP is not associated with the CPL phenotype. PMID:16884936

Young, Amy E; Bower, Leslie P; Affolter, Verena K; De Cock, Hilde E V; Ferraro, Gregory L; Bannasch, Danika L

2007-09-01

365

Salmonella Oranienburg isolated from horses, wild turkeys and an edible home garden fertilized with raw horse manure.  

PubMed

In July 2010, a horse from a rural farm (Farm A) in coastal Northern California was diagnosed with Salmonella Oranienburg infection following referral to a veterinary hospital for colic surgery. Environmental sampling to identify potential sources and persistence of Salmonella on the farm was conducted from August 2010 to March 2011. Salmonella was cultured using standard enrichment and selective plating. Pure colonies were confirmed by biochemical analysis, serotyped and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 204 clinical and environmental samples at Farm A were analysed, and Salmonella spp. was isolated from six of eight (75%) horses, an asymptomatic pet dog, two of seven (28.6%) water samples from horse troughs, nine of 20 (45%) manure storage pile composites, 16 of 71 (22.5%) wild turkey faeces and four of 39 (10.3%) soil samples from the family's edible home garden. Well water and garden vegetable samples and horse faecal samples from a neighbouring ranch were negative. S. Oranienburg with a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the horse clinical strain was found in all positive sample types on Farm A. The investigation illustrates the potential for widespread dissemination of Salmonella in a farm environment following equine infections. We speculate that a recent surge in the wild turkey population on the property could have introduced S. Oranienburg into the herd, although we cannot rule out the possibility wild turkeys were exposed on the farm or to other potential sources of Salmonella. Findings from the investigation indicated that raw horse manure applied as fertilizer was the most likely source of garden soil contamination. Viable S. Oranienburg persisted in garden soil for an estimated 210 days, which exceeds the 120-day standard between application and harvest currently required by the National Organic Program. The study underscores the need to educate the public about potential food safety hazards associated with using raw animal manure to fertilize edible home gardens. PMID:23425126

Jay-Russell, M T; Madigan, J E; Bengson, Y; Madigan, S; Hake, A F; Foley, J E; Byrne, B A

2014-02-01

366

Could adults be used to improve social skills of young horses, Equus caballus?  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of the introduction of foreign adults on the behavior of young horses. First, we observed the behavior of 1- and 2-year-old domestic horses housed in same-age and same-sex groups (a standard housing system, but different from a natural situation). Then, two same-sex adults were introduced into each experimental group. Observations made before, during and after an introduction indicated that young horses reared in homogeneous groups of young had different behaviors compared to other domestic horses reared under more socially natural conditions. After the introduction of adults, young horses expressed new behaviors, preferential social associations emerged, positive social behavior increased and agonistic interactions decreased. These results have important implications both for understanding the influence that adults may have on the behavior of young horses, and in terms of husbandry, indicating the importance of keeping young horses with adults, although further studies are still necessary. PMID:18393282

Bourjade, Marie; Moulinot, Maïc; Henry, Séverine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Hausberger, Martine

2008-05-01

367

Multiplexed LC-MS/MS analysis of horse plasma proteins to study doping in sport.  

PubMed

The development of protein biomarkers for the indirect detection of doping in horse is a potential solution to doping threats such as gene and protein doping. A method for biomarker candidate discovery in horse plasma is presented using targeted analysis of proteotypic peptides from horse proteins. These peptides were first identified in a novel list of the abundant proteins in horse plasma. To monitor these peptides, an LC-MS/MS method using multiple reaction monitoring was developed to study the quantity of 49 proteins in horse plasma in a single run. The method was optimised and validated, and then applied to a population of race-horses to study protein variance within a population. The method was finally applied to longitudinal time courses of horse plasma collected after administration of an anabolic steroid to demonstrate utility for hypothesis-driven discovery of doping biomarker candidates. PMID:19526555

Barton, Chris; Beck, Paul; Kay, Richard; Teale, Phil; Roberts, Jane

2009-06-01

368

Anorectal lymphadenopathy causing colic, perirectal abscesses, or both in five young horses.  

PubMed

Enlarged anorectal lymph nodes can cause colic in young horses by obstructing the caudal aspect of the rectum. Dyschezia and clinical signs consistent with abdominal pain were the predominant reasons for evaluation of the 5 young (3 to 15 month old) horses of this report. Digital transrectal palpation revealed a firm mass obstructing the caudal aspect of the rectum in each horse. Results of cytologic evaluation of the masses revealed a lymphoid population of cells in 4 of 5 horses. These nodes regressed over time or became abscesses and drained into the rectum. In 1 horse, detection of a mature abscess and concomitant dysuria necessitated immediate surgical drainage of the mass; however, the other 4 horses were successfully managed medically, thereby avoiding risks associated with surgery of the perirectal area. Anorectal lymphadenopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young horses with colic. PMID:9074684

Magee, A A; Ragle, C A; Hines, M T; Madigan, J E; Booth, L C

1997-03-15

369

Effect of exercise on concentrations of immunoreactive endothelin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of normal horses and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major cause of loss of performance in the horse. The role of endothelin (ET), a potent bronchoconstrictive and vasoactive peptide, is currently being investigated in asthma and other obstructive respiratory diseases in man. We have previously found elevated systemic and pulmonary endothelin levels in horses during exacerbation of COPD. In the present study, our aim was to examine possible variations in ET concentrations occurring during exercise in COPD horses. We compared the effects of intense treadmill exercise on the recovery of endothelin (ET) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as in arterial and venous blood, in a group of 5 healthy horses and a group of 5 COPD horses studied alternately in remission and while symptomatic. We also investigated the possible correlations between ET levels and pulmonary function tests during the study. While exercise did not affect the ET levels recovered in BALF among controls, it caused a significant increase (P = 0.02) among symptomatic COPD horses. During remission, wide variations of ET levels among horses, at rest and during exercise, made any significant interpretation difficult. No correlation could be found between exercise-induced changes in ET concentrations and pulmonary function tests or changes in arterial oxygen tension with exercise. We conclude that exercise appears to affect the release of ET by the airways in COPD horses, in contrast to healthy horses. It is still unclear, however, whether these differences relate to adjustments of lung function during exercise. PMID:10659230

Benamou, A E; Art, T; Marlin, D J; Roberts, C A; Lekeux, P

1999-07-01

370

Biogenic amines, amino acids and microflora changes in Indian mackerel (Rastrellinger kanagurta) stored at ambient (25-29 °C) and ice temperature (0 °C).  

PubMed

Biogenic amines formation in Indian mackerel of tropical region was investigated during storage at ambient (25-29 °C) and ice temperature (0 °C) in relation with changes of amino acids content and amines forming bacteria. All amines increased significantly during storage at two temperatures except for spermidine and spermine. Histamine concentration of 363.5 ppm was detected after 16 h stored at ambient temperature. Aerobic plate count of fish stored at ambient temperature reached 6.98 log CFU g(-1) after 16 h, close to the upper limit (7 log CFU g(-1)) suggested by International Commission on the Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). However, proper icing procedure retarded the formation of histamine effectively, resulting only 8.31 ppm after 16 days of ice storage. Aerobic plate count of 5.99 and 7.72 log CFU g(-1) were recorded for fish stored in ice after 16 days and ambient temperature after 20 h, respectively. Histamine exhibited high correlation with histidine (r(2)?= -0.963, P??0.05). As storage time progressed, the amines forming bacteria grew significantly except for that stored in ice. PMID:24876644

Chong, Cheong Yew; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Bakar, Jamilah; Zaman, Muhammad Zukhrufuz

2014-06-01

371

TRYPANOSOMES FROM ELK AND HORSE FLIES IN NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Trypanosoma sp. was isolated from five of seven yearling elk (Cervus canadensis) at Red Rock Wildlife Area and 29 of 31 horse flies (Hybomitra laticor- nis) collected in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico. To our knowledge, this represents the first isolation of trypanosomes from elk.

ERT B. DAVIEStand; GARY G. CLARKD

372

Lessons Learned: The 'Pale Horse' Bioterrorism Response Exercise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In August 2002, the city of San Antonio, Texas, and the Fort Sam Houston Army Post (located within the city) conducted Pale Horse, one of the most ambitious, city-based, large-scale, tabletop bioterrorism response exercises to date. The exercise used sign...

D. Jarrett

2003-01-01

373

Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders  

PubMed Central

Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia.

MUNOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJON, Francisco

2010-01-01

374

General anesthesia in horses on fluid and electrolyte therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to update the community of veterinarians performing general anesthesia in horses on fluid therapy. The rationale behind intraoperative fluid therapy, fluid dynamics, and various fluid options (crystalloids, hypertonic saline, colloids) is discussed. Additionally, electrolytes (calcium, potassium, and sodium) are included in the discussion in relation to general anesthesia and intraoperative fluid management. PMID:23498051

Snyder, Lindsey B C; Wendt-Hornickle, Erin

2013-04-01

375

RED CLOUD AND CRAZY HORSE: WARRIORS DOWN DIFFERENT PATHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only miles from the town of Custer, South Dakota, named after the Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer who died at the hands of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians at the Battle of Little Big Horn, stands a tall, handsome face etched into the stone of the Black Hills. The face is of a man named Crazy Horse, ironically one of the

Dylan F. Huisken

376

Pollination: Rotting smell of dead-horse arum florets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deceit by resource mimicry has evolved as a pollination strategy in several plant species and is particularly elaborate in a plant known as dead-horse arum (Helicodiceros muscivorus; Araceae: Aroideae), which may fool flies into pollinating it by emitting a smell like a dead animal - an important oviposition resource for these insects. Here we confirm that the composition of volatiles

Marcus C. Stensmyr; Isabella Urru; Ignazio Collu; Malin Celander; Bill S. Hansson; Anna-Maria Angioy

2002-01-01

377

TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

378

Methods, Applications and Limitations of Gait Analysis in Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 30 years, the increase in interest in horses for racing and riding activities has stimulated scientific research in equine locomotion. This paper presents a review of the measurement methods and their applications used to assess equine locomotion. After describing gaits and velocity-related changes in stride variables, the current applications of gait analysis are presented. The economic consequences

E. BARREY

1999-01-01

379

Stallion harassment and the mating system of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral horse, Equus caballus, breeding groups, called bands, usually include one but sometimes up to five stallions. We found that mares were loyal to single-stallion (SS) or multistallion (MS) bands or were social dispersers (maverick mares, Mv). The spacing and social behaviour of mares and stallions in single- and multistallion bands was measured. Indices of mare well-being were also measured

Wayne L. Linklater; Elissa Z. Cameron; Edward O. Minot; Kevin J. Stafford

1999-01-01

380

Report to Congress on the Depreciation of Horses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tax Reform Act of 1986, required the Treasury to establish an office to study the depreciation of all depreciable assets, and when appropriate, to assign or modify the existing class lives of assets. The report discusses the depreciation of horses. Th...

L. Dworin

1990-01-01

381

Assessing the rider's seat and horse's behavior: difficulties and perspectives.  

PubMed

A correct seat and position are the basis for a good performance in horseback riding. This study aimed to measure deviations from the correct seat, test a seat improvement program (dismounted exercises), and investigate whether horse behavior was affected by the rider's seat. Five experienced trainers defined 16 seat deviations and scored the occurrence in 20 riders in a dressage test. Half the riders then carried out an individual training program; after 9 weeks, riders were again scored. The study took no video or heart-rate recordings of horses and riders. Panel members did not agree on the deviations in the rider's seat; the study detected no differences-with the exception of improvement of backward-tilted pelvis-between the groups. Horse behavior, classified as "evasive," increased; horse heart rate decreased in the experimental group. Heart rates of riders in both groups decreased. Seven of 9 riders in the experimental group had the impression that the exercises improved their riding performance. There is a clear need to develop a robust system that allows trainers to objectively evaluate the rider's seat. PMID:18569215

Blokhuis, Mari Zetterqvist; Aronsson, Agneta; Hartmann, Elke; Van Reenen, Cornelis G; Keeling, Linda

2008-01-01

382

Training-induced changes in clotting parameters of athletic horses  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen (Fb) concentrations in horses to assess potential adaptive response to training. Fifteen clinically healthy horses were enrolled in the present study and equally divided into three groups. Group A completed an intense training program, group B participated in a light training program, and group C included sedentary horses. After 5 weeks, group B was subjected to the same training program completed by group A and renamed group B1. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture from each animal at rest and analyzed within 2 h after sampling. A two-way ANOVA for repeated measures showed a significant effect of training (p < 0.05) on Fb concentrations in group B1 alone during the first week after changing the training program. Our findings demonstrated that Fb is a parameter susceptible to training. Fb plasma levels increase with a more intense training program. However, Fb plasma levels decreased after the first week and returned to basel levels, suggesting that the horses had adapted to the new training program.

Bazzano, Marilena; Giannetto, Claudia; Marafioti, Simona; Fazio, Francesco

2014-01-01

383

Obstructive pulmonary disease in 18 horses at summer pasture.  

PubMed

The clinical features of 18 cases of summer pasture associated obstructive pulmonary disease were reviewed. The horses had signs of obstructive pulmonary disease (expiratory dyspnoea, wheezing and crackling lung sounds and coughing) during the spring, summer or autumn while they were kept permanently at grass with no access to hay or straw, for at least two consecutive years. In nine cases there was a seasonal incidence with the disease occurring during April and May. Eleven of the horses were affected by bouts of severe dyspnoea. Eleven of the horses also suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and two were affected by idiopathic headshaking. Endoscopy revealed evidence of lower airway inflammation, and a cytological examination of tracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed a neutrophilia. Moving the horses into a stable controlled the clinical disease effectively in only two of the 16 cases. Oral clenbuterol was effective in only seven of 15 cases. Systemic dexamethasone or oral prednisolone, in combination with clenbuterol, was the most effective treatment. PMID:8650894

Mair, T S

1996-01-27

384

Obstructive pulmonary disease in 18 horses at summer pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical features of 18 cases of summer pasture associated obstructive pulmonary disease were reviewed. The horses had signs of obstructive pulmonary disease (expiratory dyspnoea, wheezing and crackling lung sounds and coughing) during the spring, summer or autumn while they were kept permanently at grass with no access to hay or straw, for at least two consecutive years. In nine

T. S. Mair

1996-01-01

385

Blastomycotic osteomyelitis associated with severe lameness in a horse  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old Quarter horse gelding was presented for evaluation of severe right forelimb lameness, 2 draining tracts over the lateral aspect of the right proximal antebrachium, and weight loss. A presumptive diagnosis of blastomycotic osteomyelitis was established based on radiographs and cytology of the exudate. This diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy.

Mendez-Angulo, Jose L.; Swaab, Megan E.; Malone, Erin; Olson, Erik J.; Chalkley, Mark D.; Aird, Betsy; Ward, Christie

2011-01-01

386

On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The

Andrew R. Solow; David L. Roberts; Karen M. Robbirt

2006-01-01

387

On the Pleistocene Extinctions of Alaskan Mammoths and Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The

Andrew R. Solow; David L. Roberts; Karen M. Robbirt

2006-01-01

388

Multifocal myositis associated with Sarcocystis sp in a horse.  

PubMed

Multifocal myositis was diagnosed in a 7-year-old Quarter Horse gelding on the basis of history and findings on physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, electromyography, and microscopic examination of frozen sections of muscle biopsy specimens. Histologic examination of the muscle specimen revealed multifocal accumulations of histiocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells, with attendant myofiber degeneration and necrosis. Parasitic cysts with morphologic characteristics of Sarcocystis sp were found in regions of myocyte degeneration and necrosis, and in regions of normal muscle. Based on a tentative diagnosis of Sarcocystis sp-induced myositis, the horse was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and pyrimethamine for 28 days, phenylbutazone for 5 days, and paddock rest for 30 days. At the end of treatment, the horse had gained 35 kg, its appetite had returned to normal, and muscle mass was returning to normal. Sarcocystis fayeri is the only Sarcocystis sp reported in equine muscle in the United States and is rarely associated with acute myositis or muscle atrophy. The development of clinical signs in this horse could have been the result of an underlying immunosuppression or infection with a particularly pathogenic strain or large infective dose of S fayeri. PMID:7730127

Traub-Dargatz, J L; Schlipf, J W; Granstrom, D E; Ingram, J T; Shelton, G D; Getzy, D M; Lappin, M R; Baker, D C

1994-12-01

389

Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

Robbins, Lisa

2012-01-01

390

Models of the Ocean: Which Ocean?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physics actually represented in an ocean model depend on each model’s resolution and its parameterization of subgridscale\\u000a effects. This chapter is a review of parameterizations used in ocean models, focussing on operational ocean forecasting systems\\u000a for the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. This review is limited to z-coordinate models. A detailed presentation of the physics underlying each parameterization is out

Anne Marie Treguier

391

Physical Fitness and Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity in Horse Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Within the animal kingdom, horses are among the most powerful aerobic athletic mammals. Determination of muscle respiratory capacity and control improves our knowledge of mitochondrial physiology in horses and high aerobic performance in general. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied high-resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols to study mitochondrial physiology in small (1.0–2.5 mg) permeabilized muscle fibres sampled from triceps brachii of healthy horses. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity (pmol O2•s?1•mg?1 wet weight) with combined Complex I and II (CI+II) substrate supply (malate+glutamate+succinate) increased from 77±18 in overweight horses to 103±18, 122±15, and 129±12 in untrained, trained and competitive horses (N?=?3, 8, 16, and 5, respectively). Similar to human muscle mitochondria, equine OXPHOS capacity was limited by the phosphorylation system to 0.85±0.10 (N?=?32) of electron transfer capacity, independent of fitness level. In 15 trained horses, OXPHOS capacity increased from 119±12 to 134±37 when pyruvate was included in the CI+II substrate cocktail. Relative to this maximum OXPHOS capacity, Complex I (CI)-linked OXPHOS capacities were only 50% with glutamate+malate, 64% with pyruvate+malate, and 68% with pyruvate+malate+glutamate, and ?78% with CII-linked succinate+rotenone. OXPHOS capacity with glutamate+malate increased with fitness relative to CI+II-supported ETS capacity from a flux control ratio of 0.38 to 0.40, 0.41 and 0.46 in overweight to competitive horses, whereas the CII/CI+II substrate control ratio remained constant at 0.70. Therefore, the apparent deficit of the CI- over CII-linked pathway capacity was reduced with physical fitness. Conclusions/Significance The scope of mitochondrial density-dependent OXPHOS capacity and the density-independent (qualitative) increase of CI-linked respiratory capacity with increased fitness open up new perspectives of integrative and comparative mitochondrial respiratory physiology.

Lemieux, Helene; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier

2012-01-01

392

78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast...on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City...Street and 33rd Street over the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In...

2013-05-31

393

77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast...on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. This action...host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In...

2012-04-16

394

Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioural effects in the horse.  

PubMed

Hordenine is an alkaloid occurring naturally in grains, sprouting barley, and certain grasses. It is occasionally found in post race urine samples, and therefore we investigated its pharmacological actions in the horse. Hordenine (2.0 mg/kg bodyweight [bwt]) was administered by rapid intravenous (iv) injection to 10 horses. Typically, dosed horses showed a flehmen response and defecated within 60 secs. All horses showed substantial respiratory distress. Respiratory rates increased about 250 per cent and heart rates were approximately double that of resting values. All animals broke out in a sweat shortly after iv injection, but basal body temperature was not affected. These effects were transient, and the animals appeared normal within 30 mins of dosing. Treated horses were tested in a variable interval responding apparatus 30 mins after dosing and no residual stimulation or depressant effects of hordenine were apparent. Animals dosed orally with 2.0 mg/kg bwt of hordenine showed no changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, basal body temperature or behaviour. After iv injection of hordenine, (2.0 mg/kg bwt) plasma reached a maximum value of about 1.0 micrograms/ml, and declined thereafter in a biexponential fashion. Kinetics of plasma concentration satisfied the concept of a two compartment open system, with an alpha-phase half-life of about 3 mins, and a beta-phase half-life of about 35 mins. Total urinary concentrations of hordenine (free and conjugated) peaked at about 400 micrograms/ml, and then declined exponentially to background levels by 24 h after dosing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2269269

Frank, M; Weckman, T J; Wood, T; Woods, W E; Tai, C L; Chang, S L; Ewing, A; Blake, J W; Tobin, T

1990-11-01

395

Antibodies Reactive to Ehrlichia spp. Are Common in Oklahoma Horses.  

PubMed

Abstract Tick infestations and infection with tick-borne agents are commonly recognized in horses in North America, but equine infection with true Ehrlichia spp. has not been described. To determine the degree to which horses in the south-central United States are naturally exposed to and infected with tick-borne disease agents, serum samples were collected at random (n=240) or from horses with active tick infestations (n=73) and tested by immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evidence of antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi. Positive samples were further evaluated by species-specific serology for antibodies reactive to E. canis and E. chaffeensis, and whole blood samples were tested by PCR for evidence of infection with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and an E. ruminantium-like organism referred to as the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were identified in 8.75% (21/240) of the randomly acquired samples and 24.7% (18/73) of the serum samples from tick-infested horses, but species-specific ELISA and PCR failed to confirm exposure to or infection with any known Ehrlichia spp. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. (5/313; 1.6%) and B. burgdorferi (3/313; 1.0%) were uncommon. These data suggest that horses in the south-central United States are likely exposed to a novel Ehrlichia sp. Further research is needed to identify the etiologic agent responsible for the serologic activity seen and to determine the clinical significance, if any, of this finding. PMID:25072984

Carmichael, Robert C; Duell, Jason R; Holbrook, Todd C; Herrin, Brian H; Leutenegger, Christian M; O'Connor, Thomas P; Little, Susan E

2014-08-01

396

Effects of clopidogrel on horses with experimentally induced endotoxemia.  

PubMed

Objective-To evaluate the effects of clopidogrel on clinical and clinicopathologic variables in healthy horses with experimentally induced endotoxemia. Animals-12 adult mares. Procedures-Horses were assigned with a randomization procedure to receive clopidogrel (4 mg/kg, once, then 2 mg/kg, q 24 h; n = 6) or a placebo (6) through a nasogastric tube. After 72 hours of treatment, horses received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 30 ng/kg, IV). Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, CBC variables, plasma fibrinogen concentration, serum tumor necrosis factor-? concentration, plasma von Willebrand factor concentration, and measures of platelet activation (including ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and closure times, thrombelastography variables, and results of flow cytometric detection of platelet membrane P-selectin, phosphatidylserine, and microparticles) were determined at various times before and after LPS administration by investigators unaware of the treatment groups. Statistical analyses were performed with repeated-measures ANOVA. Results-4 of 6 clopidogrel-treated horses had significant decreases in ADP-induced platelet aggregation before and after LPS administration. Heart rate increased significantly after LPS administration only for the placebo group. No significant differences were detected between groups for CBC variables, closure time, and plasma concentration of fibrinogen or serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-?, and no clinically relevant differences were detected for other hemostatic variables. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In this study, administration of LPS did not induce platelet hyperreactivity in horses on the basis of measures of platelet adhesion, aggregation, degranulation, and procoagulant activity. Administration of clopidogrel was associated with variable platelet antiaggregatory activity and attenuated some clinical signs of endotoxemia. PMID:25061708

Watts, Ashlee E; Ness, Sally L; Divers, Thomas J; Fubini, Susan L; Frye, Amelia H; Stokol, Tracy; Cummings, Kevin J; Brooks, Marjory B

2014-08-01

397

Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Horses and Horses with Colitis by High Throughput Sequencing of the V3-V5 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene  

PubMed Central

The intestinal tract houses one of the richest and most complex microbial populations on the planet, and plays a critical role in health and a wide range of diseases. Limited studies using new sequencing technologies in horses are available. The objective of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiome of healthy horses and to compare the fecal microbiome of healthy horses to that of horses with undifferentiated colitis. A total of 195,748 sequences obtained from 6 healthy horses and 10 horses affected by undifferentiated colitis were analyzed. Firmicutes predominated (68%) among healthy horses followed by Bacteroidetes (14%) and Proteobacteria (10%). In contrast, Bacteroidetes (40%) was the most abundant phylum among horses with colitis, followed by Firmicutes (30%) and Proteobacteria (18%). Healthy horses had a significantly higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Spirochaetes while horses with colitis had significantly more Fusobacteria. Members of the Clostridia class were more abundant in healthy horses. Members of the Lachnospiraceae family were the most frequently shared among healthy individuals. The species richness reported here indicates the complexity of the equine intestinal microbiome. The predominance of Clostridia demonstrates the importance of this group of bacteria in healthy horses. The marked differences in the microbiome between healthy horses and horses with colitis indicate that colitis may be a disease of gut dysbiosis, rather than one that occurs simply through overgrowth of an individual pathogen.

Costa, Marcio C.; Arroyo, Luis G.; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Stampfli, Henry R.; Kim, Peter T.; Sturgeon, Amy; Weese, J. Scott

2012-01-01

398

Alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity in horses: clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings.  

PubMed

The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited. PMID:23800626

Abutarbush, S M

2013-07-27

399

The selenium and vitamin E status of horses in Prince Edward Island  

PubMed Central

Serum selenium (Se), vitamin E, and resting thyroid hormone concentrations were measured in 201 horses in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Selenium concentrations were either marginal (0.0053 to 0.1200 ppm) or deficient (< 0.0053 ppm) in 79% of horses based on current reference ranges for Se in serum. Aged and young adult pleasure horses had a higher prevalence of inadequate Se concentrations compared to racehorses and broodmares (82% and 97% versus 45% and 72%, respectively). Overall, 13% of horses had inadequate (< 200 ?g/dL) serum vitamin E concentrations; most of these were young pleasure horses. No horses were hypothyroid and, contrary to findings in other species, there was a positive relationship between serum thyroxine and Se concentrations (P < 0.05). We conclude that Se deficiency is widespread in PEI horse populations, especially in pleasure horses, and vitamin E deficiency is more common in young pleasure horses. Micronutrient supplementation practices employed by PEI horse owners appear inadequate to ensure sufficiency.

Muirhead, Tammy L.; Wichtel, Jeffrey J.; Stryhn, Henrik; McClure, J. Trenton

2010-01-01

400

Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to Pythium insidiosum in horses with pythiosis.  

PubMed Central

Reactions to Pythium insidiosum by sera from horses with active pythiosis were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Five strains of P. insidiosum were grown in nutrient broth and then sonicated. After centrifugation, supernatant antigens were separated by SDS-PAGE. An exoantigen of Conidiobolus coronatus was also tested. Bands with molecular weights between 97,000 and 14,000 were identified by Coomassie blue and silver staining. After being transferred to nitrocellulose, the antigens were reacted against sera from six horses with pythiosis, sera from four horses cured a year earlier by vaccination, and sera from five healthy horses. The sera from horses with pythiosis recognized at least 20 antigens in all strains. Three antigens with molecular weights of 32,000, 30,000, and 28,000 appeared to be immunodominant and specific. Sera from horses cured by immunotherapy showed only five very weak bands, three of them the 32,000-molecular-weight (32K), 30K, and 28K antigens. No bands were observed with sera from healthy horses or sera from horses with a variety of other infections. Sera from horses with pythiosis cross-reacted with the 44K antigen of C. coronatus. The immunodominant antigens described here may be useful for diagnostic purposes and in immunotherapy for this oomycotic infection in horses. Images

Mendoza, L; Nicholson, V; Prescott, J F

1992-01-01

401

Immune response to Sarcocystis neurona infection in naturally infected horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.  

PubMed

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is one of the most common neurologic diseases of horses in the United States. The primary etiologic agent is Sarcocystis neurona. Currently, there is limited knowledge regarding the protective or pathophysiologic immune response to S. neurona infection or the subsequent development of EPM. The objectives of this study were to determine whether S. neurona infected horses with clinical signs of EPM had altered or suppressed immune responses compared to neurologically normal horses and if blood sample storage would influence these findings. Twenty clinically normal horses and 22 horses with EPM, diagnosed by the presence of S. neurona specific antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal (CSF) and clinical signs, were evaluated for differences in the immune cell subsets and function. Our results demonstrated that naturally infected horses had significantly (P<0.05) higher percentages of CD4 T-lymphocytes and neutrophils (PMN) in separated peripheral blood leukocytes than clinically normal horses. Leukocytes from naturally infected EPM horses had significantly lower proliferation responses, as measured by thymidine incorporation, to a non-antigen specific mitogen than did clinically normal horses (P<0.05). Currently, studies are in progress to determine the role of CD4 T cells in disease and protection against S. neurona in horses, as well as to determine the mechanism associated with suppressed in vitro proliferation responses. Finally, overnight storage of blood samples appears to alter T lymphocyte phenotypes and viability among leukocytes. PMID:16563631

Yang, Jibing; Ellison, Siobhan; Gogal, Robert; Norton, Heather; Lindsay, David S; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Witonsky, Sharon

2006-06-15

402

Towards a Postural Indicator of Back Pain in Horses (Equus caballus)  

PubMed Central

Postures have long been used and proved useful to describe animals’ behaviours and emotional states, but remains difficult to assess objectively in field conditions. A recent study performed on horses using geometric morphometrics revealed important postural differences between 2 horse populations differing in management conditions (leisure horses living in social groups used for occasional “relaxed” riding/riding school horses living in individual boxes used in daily riding lessons with more constraining techniques). It was suggested that these postural differences may reflect chronic effects of riding techniques on the horses’ kinematics and muscular development. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the interest of postural measures to assess welfare in horses. This study was separated into 2 parts. First, 18 horses coming from these 2 types of populations (leisure/riding school horses) were submitted to 2 back evaluations by 1) manual examination (experienced practitioner) and 2) sEMG measures along the spine. We then measured neck roundness on 16 of these 18 horses. The results highlighted high correlations between manual and sEMG examinations over the spine. sEMG measures at the different locations were strongly correlated all over the spine. Moreover, neck postures and muscular activities were strongly correlated, horses with concave necks having higher sEMG measures both at precise locations (i.e. cervical sites) but also when comparing neck postures to the whole spine muscular activity highlighting the functioning of horses’ back as a whole. Lastly, strong differences appeared between the populations, leisure horses being evaluated as having sounder spines, exhibiting lower sEMG measures and rounder neck than the riding school horses. sEMG measures and neck “roundness” seemed therefore to be reliable indicators of back disorders, easy to evaluate in field conditions. This highlights the accuracy of using postural elements to evaluate the animals’ general state and has important implications for animals’ welfare evaluations.

Lesimple, Clemence; Fureix, Carole; De Margerie, Emmanuel; Seneque, Emilie; Menguy, Herve; Hausberger, Martine

2012-01-01

403

Towards a postural indicator of back pain in horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

Postures have long been used and proved useful to describe animals' behaviours and emotional states, but remains difficult to assess objectively in field conditions. A recent study performed on horses using geometric morphometrics revealed important postural differences between 2 horse populations differing in management conditions (leisure horses living in social groups used for occasional "relaxed" riding/riding school horses living in individual boxes used in daily riding lessons with more constraining techniques). It was suggested that these postural differences may reflect chronic effects of riding techniques on the horses' kinematics and muscular development. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the interest of postural measures to assess welfare in horses. This study was separated into 2 parts. First, 18 horses coming from these 2 types of populations (leisure/riding school horses) were submitted to 2 back evaluations by 1) manual examination (experienced practitioner) and 2) sEMG measures along the spine. We then measured neck roundness on 16 of these 18 horses. The results highlighted high correlations between manual and sEMG examinations over the spine. sEMG measures at the different locations were strongly correlated all over the spine. Moreover, neck postures and muscular activities were strongly correlated, horses with concave necks having higher sEMG measures both at precise locations (i.e. cervical sites) but also when comparing neck postures to the whole spine muscular activity highlighting the functioning of horses' back as a whole. Lastly, strong differences appeared between the populations, leisure horses being evaluated as having sounder spines, exhibiting lower sEMG measures and rounder neck than the riding school horses. sEMG measures and neck "roundness" seemed therefore to be reliable indicators of back disorders, easy to evaluate in field conditions. This highlights the accuracy of using postural elements to evaluate the animals' general state and has important implications for animals' welfare evaluations. PMID:22970261

Lesimple, Clémence; Fureix, Carole; De Margerie, Emmanuel; Sénèque, Emilie; Menguy, Hervé; Hausberger, Martine

2012-01-01

404

The Ocean Literacy Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

2008-12-01

405

California Ocean Comminicators Alliance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Program and the State of California Resources Agency have recognized a need for a statewide public awareness campaign on ocean issues and have identified the California Ocean Communicators Alliance as the lead resource for helping design and launch the campaign. The goal of the campaign is to raise awareness of ocean issues throughout the State of California by targeting all Californians. The campaign will be launched during the California and the World Ocean 2006 Conference, September 17- 20, 2006. The California Ocean Communicators Alliance represents over 100 organizations and 200 communications professionals from ocean-related industries, research and education organizations, and agencies that work daily with ocean messages and communicate those messages to millions of Californians. The goal of the Ocean Communicators Alliance is to increase public ocean awareness in California by working together on message agreement, cooperation in communicating those messages, and projects geared towards raising public ocean awareness. The tools for bringing the alliance together are the California Ocean Communicators Newsletter and the California Ocean Communicators Workshops. This presentation will highlight the results of the workshops, including common messaging and developing the California Public Ocean Awareness Campaign.

Culberg, C.

2006-12-01

406

Ocean Planet: Rough Planet Earth without Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

407

People and Oceans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

NatureScope, 1988

1988-01-01

408

Ocean Water: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how temperature, pressure, and salinity work together to determine the density of ocean water. The three density layers of the ocean are described by means of text description and a graphic illustration.

409

Arctic Ocean Studies Progress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic stratigraphy has been established as a viable tool for Arctic Ocean Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits. This has given data on sedimentation rates, as well. Foraminifera have allowed interpretation of broad ecologic conditions of Arctic Ocean and ...

D. L. Clark

1973-01-01

410

Monitoring Global Ocean Carbon Inventories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword by OOSDP chairman; Preface by Author; Significance of a Changing Oceanic Carbon Inventory; The Case for Monitoring Ocean Carbon Inventories; Ocean Carbon Monitoring Approaches (Air-Sea Fluxes, CO(sub 2) Transport within the Ocean, Inven...

D. W. R. Wallace

1995-01-01

411

Ocean Drilling Program (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... FOR GEOSCIENCES (GEO) OCEAN SCIENCES (OCE) Ocean Drilling Program The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP ... scale, the Earth's crust beneath the ocean in order to learn more about the composition, structure ...

412

FAQs About Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a FAQ in a concise, readable summary of the current state of ocean acidification knowledge to support the scientific research community and educators. It is maintained by the OCB Project Office, with oversight from the Ocean Acidification Subcommittee of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program. Featured items include a primer to offer the foundational basics of ocean acidification and its impact on humans, Earth systems and marine life.

2012-09-24

413

A clinincal evaluation of abdominal paracentesis in the horse.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the usefulness of abdominal paracentesis as a diagnostic aid in abdominal disease in the horse and in particular considers whether or not it can be effectively utilised as an indication for surgical intervention in cases of colic. The results are based upon peritoneal fluid samples collected from 20 normal horses and from 20 cases of colic and peritonitis. Peritoneal fluid was collected from standing horses by inserting a bovine teat cannula into the horses abdomen through the linea alba after desensitisation of the skin on the ventral midline with local anaesthetic. Usually, from 3-5 ml of fluid could be collected from a normal horse. This was either clear or cloudy white or yellow in colour and contained 3310 +/- 703 leucocytes/ml consisting of 63.81% neutrophils, 1.4 +/- 1.3% monocytes, 13.5 +/- 4.3% mesothelial cells and 21.25% +/- 6.2% lymphocytes. Protein content was 1.29 +/- .4g/100ml. Changes in the volume, colour, cellular constituents and protein content of fluid, characterised abdominal disease. In cases of colic, discolouration of the abdominal fluid was found to be the most consistent, reliable and useful indication of bowel necrosis. This in turn indicated the need for urgent surgical intervention rather than conservative treatment. Discolouration commenced early in the course of the disease even while the segment of bowel involved was still viable. Increased volume of fluid, elevated leucocyte count (statistically significant at the 5% level), increased neutrophil percentage and elevated protein levels were less useful criteria for determining the integrity of the bowel. Similar changes from the normal were also found in cases of peritonitis. Here, however, microscopic examination of cells in a smear of the fluid was more useful, as phagocytosis and abnormal cell types indicating infection or inflammation could be seen readily, and a diagnosis based upon these findings. It was concluded that abdominal paracentesis, although no substitute for thorough clinical examination, was a valuable diagnostic aid for abdominal conditions of the horse. PMID:985238

Swanwick, R A; Wilkinson, J S

1976-03-01

414

Life in the Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on what life is like in the three major regions of the ocean: (1) the sunlit surface waters; (2) the dim mid-waters; and (3) the dark ocean depths. Five activities and three pages of ocean organisms for copying are included. (Author/RT)

NatureScope, 1988

1988-01-01

415

NOAA Ocean Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Follow ocean explorations in near real-time, learn about ocean exploration technologies, observe remote marine flora and fauna in the multimedia gallery, review NOAA's 200-year history of ocean exploration, and discover additional NOAA resources in a virtual library. View current expeditions or take a look back at the archived ones. Most expeditions feature fact sheets, photographs, explorer logs, and ask an explorer.

416

Ocean Drilling Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The ODP conducts basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. There are also links to photographs, core data, and educational material on the site.

Program, Ocean D.; Texas A&M University

417

The Physical Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the physical properties of the ocean (including the composition of seawater; waves, currents, and tides) and the topography of the ocean floor. Included are (1) activities on oceans, saltwater, and the sea floor; and (2) questions, and a puzzle which can be copied. (Author/RT)

NatureScope, 1988

1988-01-01

418

Ocean Salmon Fishery Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

California ocean salmon fisheries are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) under the federal Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. This chapter describes the ocean fisheries impacting California Central Valley (CV) chinook stocks, the federal regulatory process that is followed in managing these ocean fisheries, and discusses alternative management mea- sures for protecting valuable natural resources. The CV

L. B. Boydstun

419

Seeking Europa's Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galileo spacecraft data suggest that a global ocean exists beneath the frozen ice surface Jupiter's moon Europa. Since the early 1970s, planetary scientists have used theoretical and observational arguments to deliberate the existence of an ocean within Europa and other large icy satellites. Galileo magnetometry data indicates an induced magnetic field at Europa, implying a salt water ocean. A paucity

Robert T. Pappalardo

2010-01-01

420

Association of phenylbutazone usage with horses bought for slaughter: A public health risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-seven million pounds of horsemeat derived from American horses were sent abroad for human consumption last year. Horses are not raised as food animals in the United States and, mechanisms to ensure the removal of horses treated with banned substances from the food chain are inadequate at best. Phenylbutazone (PBZ) is the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in

Nicholas Dodman; Nicolas Blondeau; Ann M. Marini

2010-01-01

421

Responses to training and standardised exercise test in the athlete horse: changes in blood gas profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the relationship between blood gas profile and athletic performance after a specific training programme,\\u000a six clinically healthy Italian saddle horses were used. Each animal was subjected to an adaptation period constituted by horse\\u000a walker exercise, followed by a training programme for 3 months. In the last day of each month, all horses were subjected to\\u000a a standardized

Stefania Casella; Daniela Alberghina; Claudia Giannetto; Giuseppe Piccione

422

Owners' perceptions of the health and performance of Pony Club horses in Australia.  

PubMed

Pony Club is one of the leading junior equestrian organisations in the world, and was established to teach young people the many aspects of horsemanship. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the health and performance of Pony Club horses from the perspective of their owners. In-depth interviews were conducted with Pony Club members at two sites in Australia, and topics relating to participants' background with horses, horse attributes valued by participants, horse health and performance, and Pony Club-related matters. The in-depth interviews were taped, transcribed and analysed, by describing the themes and issues recorded in the dialogue and conducting cross-case analysis (finding similarities and dissimilarities between participants with respect to each of the above-mentioned topics). A total of 32 interviews were conducted. The participants' background with horses varied greatly. The horse attributes valued by > or =59% of participants included temperament, size, ability and suitability for riders. A range of issues relating to health and performance were important to > or =53% of participants, including horse temperament, nutrition, internal parasites, lameness and foot-care, and colic. Soundness and preventive health measures were rarely mentioned (< or =16% of participants). Friends or knowledgeable horse people were identified as the first point of contact for horse-health matters, and veterinarians were only used as a last resort or for serious problems. Members of Pony Club learned about their horses by trial and error. Optimal performance was described as a horse that was willing to do as the rider asked. Poor performance was usually the result of the horse misbehaving, and could include a resistance to rider commands, pigrooting and bucking. PMID:15099721

Buckley, Petra; Dunn, Tony; More, Simon J

2004-04-30

423

Acute diarrhea in horses of the Potomac River area: examination for clostridial toxins.  

PubMed

Fecal specimens from horses in Montgomery County, Md, and in Fairfax and Loudoun counties, Va, were examined for Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin and for C difficile cytotoxin (92 and 108 specimens, respectively). The toxins were found in feces from horses that had experienced an acute diarrhea syndrome and from clinically normal horses. The toxins did not appear to be primary determinants of the diarrhea syndrome, although they may have contributed to the spectrum of clinical entities observed. PMID:6469842

Ehrich, M; Perry, B D; Troutt, H F; Dellers, R W; Magnusson, R A

1984-08-15

424

Molecular characterization and mutational screening of the PRKAG3 gene in the horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PRKAG3 gene encodes a muscle-specific isoform of the regulatory =? subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A major part of the coding PRKAG3 sequence was isolated from horse muscle cDNA using reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis. Horse-specific primers were used to amplify genomic fragments containing 12 exons. Comparative sequence analysis of horse, pig, mouse, human, Fugu, and zebrafish was performed to

H. B. Park; S. Marklund; J. T. Jeon; J. R. Mickelson; S. J. Valberg; K. Sandberg; L. Andersson

2003-01-01

425

Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in horses from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from 76 horses from Argentina were examined for antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 27 (35.5%) of 76 horses using immunoblots with culture derived merozoites as antigen. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 10 (13.1%) of 76 horses by using the modified agglutination test with formalin-fixed tachyzoites and

J. P. Dubey; M. C. Venturini; L. Venturini; J. McKinney; M. Pecoraro

1999-01-01

426

Expression levels of LCORL are associated with body size in horses.  

PubMed

Body size is an important characteristic for horses of various breeds and essential for the classification of ponies concerning the limit value of 148 cm (58.27 inches) height at the withers. Genome-wide association analyses revealed the highest associated quantitative trait locus for height at the withers on horse chromosome (ECA) 3 upstream of the candidate gene LCORL. Using 214 Hanoverian horses genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 BeadChip and 42 different horse breeds across all size ranges, we confirmed the highly associated single nucleotide polymorphism BIEC2-808543 (-log(10)P?=?8.3) and the adjacent gene LCORL as the most promising candidate for body size. We investigated the relative expression levels of LCORL and its two neighbouring genes NCAPG and DCAF16 using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We could demonstrate a significant association of the relative LCORL expression levels with the size of the horses and the BIEC2-808543 genotypes within and across horse breeds. In heterozygous C/T-horses expression levels of LCORL were significantly decreased by 40% and in homozygous C/C-horses by 56% relative to the smaller T/T-horses. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that this SNP T>C mutation is disrupting a putative binding site of the transcription factor TFIID which is important for the transcription process of genes involved in skeletal bone development. Thus, our findings suggest that expression levels of LCORL play a key role for body size within and across horse breeds and regulation of the expression of LCORL is associated with genetic variants of BIEC2-808543. This is the first functional study for a body size regulating polymorphism in horses and a further step to unravel the mechanisms for understanding the genetic regulation of body size in horses. PMID:23418579

Metzger, Julia; Schrimpf, Rahel; Philipp, Ute; Distl, Ottmar

2013-01-01

427

Use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone vaccine in headshaking horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine in the treatment of headshaking in horses. Fifteen geldings received two doses of the GnRH vaccine four weeks apart. Serum was collected before and after vaccination to measure concentrations of luteinising hormone (LH) (10 horses) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (six horses). Owners recorded the

K. J. Pickles; J. Berger; R. Davies; J. Roser; J. E. Madigan

2011-01-01

428

Airway response of horses with COPD to dry powder inhalation of ipratropium bromide.  

PubMed

To determine the effects of the dry powder inhalation (DPI) of ipratropium bromide (ipratropium) on the airways of health horses and the dose-response curve in horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by means of pulmonary function tests, five healthy horses were first studied. Ipratropium (2400 micrograms ipratropium horse-1) was contained in gelatine capsules and administered using a dry powder device connected to an adapted face mask. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before inhalation and 15 and 60 min after inhalation. No modification of pulmonary function was observed. The airway response to ipratropium DPI was then determined in six horses suffering from COPD. To induce airway obstruction, the horses were bedded on straw and fed hay. When the maximal change in pleural pressure during tidal breathing exceeded 1.96 kPa, pulmonary function tests were recorded before DPI, and 15 and 60 min post-inhalation. Placebo (six capsules horse-1) or ipratropium (600, 1200 and 2400 micrograms horse-1) was administered in a randomized order to each horse using the dry powder device and the adapted face mask. Neither ipratropium nor placebo DPI affected respiratory frequency (f) or tidal volume (VT). Inhalation of 600 micrograms ipratropium horse-1 resulted in a delayed decrease of total pulmonary resistance (RL) whereas dynamic compliance (Cdyn) was improved (although not significantly) at both times of measurement when compared with values following placebo inhalation. Simultaneous decreased RL and increased Cdyn, was observed within 15 min after DPI of 1200 micrograms ipratropium horse-1 and persisted for the 1 h duration of the experiment. Doubling the dose also improved pulmonary function but not significantly more than following inhalation of 1200 micrograms ipratropium. No systemic side effects were observed in either group of horses. PMID:9308401

Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Art, T; Lekeux, P

1997-09-01

429

Effects of mosapride on motility of the small intestine and caecum in normal horses after jejunocaecostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prokinetic effects of mosapride with non-invasive assessment of myoelectrical activity in the small intestine and caecum of healthy horses after jejunocaecostomy. Six horses underwent celiotomy and jejunocaecostomy, and were treated with mosapride (treated group) at 1.5 mg\\/kg per osos once daily for 5 days after surgery. The other six horses

Kouichi Okamura; Naoki Sasaki; Takuya Kikuchi; Aya Murata; Inhyung Lee; Haruo Yamada; Hisashi Inokuma

2009-01-01

430

Blood glutathione peroxidase activity in horses in relation to muscular dystrophy and selenium nutrition.  

PubMed

The activity of glutathione peroxidase, a selenium containing enzyme, was measured in the blood of horses to determine its usefulness as an indicator of selenium status. In 15 horses the enzyme activity was positively related to the blood selenium concentration (P less than .001, r-0.98) over the range of enzyme activities of 8.2 to 140 units (mumoles NADP-oxidised/min/gHb) and selenium concentrations of 0.24 to 2.74 mumol/l. In a group of 8 horses which 2 foals had died with lesions of muscular dystrophy the enzyme activity increased from a mean of 11.8 units before treatment with selenium to 34.5 units after 2 intravenous injections of sodium selenite given one month apart. Another group of 8 horses grazing paddocks adjacent to this affected group did not receive any selenium treatment and had a mean enzyme activity of 11.9 units. Blood glutathione peroxidase activity was measured in 50 pasture-fed horses and 180 stall-fed horses. The range of activities found (7 to 158 units) indicated that selenium intake in horses varied widely between localities. All pasture-fed horses grazing areas where muscular dystrophy had occurred in foals had low activities (less than 20 units). In stall-fed horses the enzyme activity was influenced by selenium treatment, and horses which had been treated usually had higher activities than horses in the same stable with no history of selenium treatment. It was concluded that blood glutathione peroxidase is a suitable indicator of selenium status in horses. PMID:655982

Caple, I W; Edwards, S J; Forsyth, W M; Whiteley, P; Selth, R H; Fulton, L J

1978-02-01

431

Larval cyathostomiasis as a cause of death in two regularly dewormed horses.  

PubMed

Two horses were presented with complaints of chronic weight loss and subcutaneous oedema, one of them presenting diarrhoea. Both animals were grazed with other unaffected horses, all of them being regularly dewormed. Blood chemistry revealed hypoalbuminaemia and a low albumin-globulin ratio. Faecal egg counts were negative and no cyathostome larvae could be found in the faeces. Neither of these horses could be saved, despite intensive treatment. Postmortem examination revealed severe typhlitis and colitis due to numerous inhibited cyathostome larvae. PMID:8578904

Van Loon, G; Deprez, P; Muylle, E; Sustronck, B

1995-07-01

432

Dynamics of ocean tides  

SciTech Connect

Ocean tide information can solve vital problems in oceanology and geophysics. Elastic properties of the Earth's crust, tidal gravity variations and deviations in trajectories of artificial satellites can be studied from the dynamics of ocean tides. This book contains mathematical models and applications on several problems related to ocean tide dynamics. The first part serves as an introduction to studies of tidal dynamics equations and the application in experimental studies. Specific problems like free oscillations and forced tidal oscillations in the oceans and the ocean-shelf system are discussed. The book deals with tidal flow in the bottom boundary layer. Data and models are presented and experimental and theoretical results are compared.

Maarchuk, G.I.; Kagan, B.A. (P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology, Moscow (SU))

1989-01-01

433

Navigating the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Navigational tools and methods of early voyagers provide the background and contrast to the satellite images and models used today. Students complete mapping activities based on historical data from Columbus and Blith. Students will also use a computer model of ocean currents to investigate the movement of objects drifting on the ocean surface. Note that this is lesson one of five on the Ocean Motion website. Each lesson investigates ocean surface circulation using satellite and model data and can be done independently. See Related URL's for links to the Ocean Motion Website which provide science background information, data resources, teacher material, student guides and a lesson matrix.

434

Prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi in horses in Israel evaluated by serology and reverse dot blot.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma evansi is the cause of surra in horses, camels and other domestic animals. Following the first outbreak of surra in horses and camels in Israel in 2006, a survey of the prevalence of the parasite in the Israeli horse population was conducted using serology, PCR followed by the reverse dot blot (RDB) technique and blood smear microscopy. In total, 614 horses from 7 regions were sampled. The CATT/T. evansi kit was used for serology for all the horses. Horses from the Arava and Dead Sea region, where the first outbreak occurred, were sampled again one year later and both samples were subjected to serology and the RDB technique. The country wide seroprevalence was 4.6% (28/614). The seroprevalence in the Arava and Dead Sea region was 6.5% (9/139) in the first sampling compared with 4.1% (5/122) in the second, whereas the prevalence of RDB-positivity was 18.7% (26/139) in the first sampling and only 0.8% (1/122) in the second. All horses were asymptomatic except for one horse from the Arava and Dead Sea region that demonstrated clinical signs of surra combined with positive serology and RDB. The results of this study indicated that surra is prevalent in most regions of the country and thus should be considered an important differential diagnosis in horses and other domestic animals in Israel with chronic weight loss, edema or neurological signs. PMID:22578964

Berlin, Dalia; Nasereddin, Abed; Azmi, Kifaya; Ereqat, Suheir; Abdeen, Ziad; Eyal, Osnat; Baneth, Gad

2012-12-01

435

Association of phenylbutazone usage with horses bought for slaughter: a public health risk.  

PubMed

Sixty-seven million pounds of horsemeat derived from American horses were sent abroad for human consumption last year. Horses are not raised as food animals in the United States, and mechanisms to ensure the removal of horses treated with banned substances from the food chain are inadequate at best. Phenylbutazone (PBZ) is the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in equine practice. Thoroughbred (TB) race horses like other horse breeds are slaughtered for human consumption. Phenylbutazone is banned for use in any animal intended for human consumption because it causes serious and lethal idiosyncratic adverse effects in humans. The number of horses that have received phenylbutazone prior to being sent to slaughter for human consumption is unknown but its presence in some is highly likely. We identified eighteen TB race horses that were given PBZ on race day and sent for intended slaughter by matching their registered name to their race track drug record over a five year period. Sixteen rescued TB race horses were given PBZ on race day. Thus, PBZ residues may be present in some horsemeat derived from American horses. The permissive allowance of such horsemeat used for human consumption poses a serious public health risk. PMID:20176071

Dodman, Nicholas; Blondeau, Nicolas; Marini, Ann M

2010-05-01

436

Patterns of Horse-Rider Coordination during Endurance Race: A Dynamical System Approach  

PubMed Central

In riding, most biomechanical studies have focused on the description of the horse locomotion in unridden condition. In this study, we draw the prospect of how the basic principles established in inter-personal coordination by the theory of Coordination Dynamics may provide a conceptual and methodological framework for understanding the horse-rider coupling. The recent development of mobile technologies allows combined horse and rider recordings during long lasting natural events such as endurance races. Six international horse-rider dyads were thus recorded during a 120 km race by using two tri-axial accelerometers placed on the horses and riders, respectively. The analysis concentrated on their combined vertical displacements. The obtained shapes and angles of Lissajous plots together with values of relative phase between horse and rider displacements at lower reversal point allowed us to characterize four coordination patterns, reflecting the use of two riding techniques per horse's gait (trot and canter). The present study shows that the concepts, methods and tools of self-organizing dynamic system approach offer new directions for understanding horse-rider coordination. The identification of the horse-rider coupling patterns constitutes a firm basis to further study the coalition of multiple constraints that determine their emergence and their dynamics in endurance race.

Viry, Sylvain; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Frances, Jean-Philippe; Berton, Eric; Laurent, Michel; Nicol, Caroline

2013-01-01

437

Human Direct Actions May Alter Animal Welfare, a Study on Horses (Equus caballus)  

PubMed Central

Background Back pain is the cause of bad welfare in humans and animals. Although vertebral problems are regularly reported on riding horses, these problems are not always identified nor noticed enough to prevent these horses to be used for work. Methodology/Principal Findings Nineteen horses from two riding centres were submitted to chiropractic examinations performed by an experienced chiropractor and both horses' and riders' postures were observed during a riding lesson. The results show that 74% of horses were severely affected by vertebral problems, while only 26% were mildly or not affected. The degree of vertebral problems identified at rest was statistically correlated with horses' attitudes at work (neck height and curve), and horses' attitudes at work were clearly correlated with riders' positions. Clear differences appeared between schools concerning both riders' and horses' postures, and the analysis of the teachers' speech content and duration highlighted differences in the attention devoted to the riders' position. Conclusion/Significance These findings are to our knowledge the first to underline the impact of riding on horses' back problems and the importance of teaching proper balance to beginner riders in order to increase animals' welfare.

Lesimple, Clemence; Fureix, Carole; Menguy, Herve; Hausberger, Martine

2010-01-01

438

A demographic survey of unwanted horses in Ireland 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Background The Irish Horse Industry expanded during the Celtic Tiger boom years, then contracted in the current economic recession. High value horses were traditionally controlled through sale at public auction, private sales and sales to dealers; these are now also being reduced by decreases in production (> 40%), and increases in retirement, re-homing, euthanasia and disposal through Category 2 plants and abattoirs. The absence or banning of horse abattoirs has been shown to have very significant welfare social and economic consequences in the USA. This study described the currently available data on the demographics of unwanted horses in Ireland from 2005 to 2010. Results The majority of horses euthanised by practicing veterinarians are destroyed on medical grounds but the number euthanised at the request of welfare groups and the state, as well as welfare related calls and the number of horses involved in these calls and subsequent visits is increasing reflecting the increasing involvement of the veterinary profession in equine welfare. Welfare groups have limited resources and do not have a tradition of recording data, but they too have reported increasing calls, visits and numbers of horses per visit. Welfare groups provide significant service to equine welfare and the community. Local Authorities report similar trends. Over 300 horses were found dead or required immediate or subsequent euthanasia following welfare group and local authority visits in 2010, which is of national concern. The majority of local authority interfaces with unwanted horses are with urban (60%) rather than rural (40%) horses. Mortality figures are poor indicators of non-fatal neglect. More horses were admitted into the care of local authorities than welfare groups, reflecting significant state and taxpayer investment in the control of low value horses. Category 2 plants and abattoirs represent a significant state investment in licensing and control in the national interest. Abattoirs provide an increasingly important and essential service for the disposal of unwanted horses. Despite the increase in unwanted horses, Ireland is a minority contributor to the EU slaughter total. Conclusions There is a need for annual demographic data compilation and review of the numbers of unwanted horses and ponies within the horse industry to assist policy makers and legislators.

2012-01-01

439

Phylogenetic relationships of the Hucul horse from Romania inferred from mitochondrial D-loop variation.  

PubMed

The existence of the Hucul horse on Romanian territory has been documented from the very distant past; today Hucul is a unique breed that is part of the FAO Program for the Preservation of Animal Genetic Resources. We compared Hucul with several primitive European and Asiatic breeds in order to elucidate the origin of these horses. We analyzed a 683-bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop fragment in a population of Hucul horses and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from other primitive breeds, including Exmoor, Icelandic Pony, Sorraia, Przewalski Horse, Mongolian Wild Horse, Konik, and Shetland Pony, as well as with Arabian, Akhal Teke and Caspian Pony. The sequences were truncated to 247 bp to accommodate short sequence data for the other species. Eighty horses were analyzed; 35 polymorphic sites representing 33 haplotypes were observed. The mean percentage of polymorphic sites was 14.2% for this mtDNA fragment. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Kimura two-parameter distances and the Network 3.111 software was used for phylogenetic analysis. The Hucul horse was classified separately from all other primitive breeds. It is possible that the Hucul horse is not part of the pony class, as it segregated apart from all primitive pony breeds. We found multiple origins in the maternal lineage of domestic horse breeds and demonstrated the uniqueness of the Hucul breed; its origins remain unclear. PMID:22057995

Georgescu, S E; Manea, M A; Dudu, A; Costache, M

2011-01-01

440

Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype  

PubMed Central

Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3?M bp) and Mongolian horse (2?M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsonian translocation event through the wild horse's chromosomes 23 and 24, which contained sequences that were highly homologous with those on the domestic horse's chromosome 5. The four main types of rearrangement, insertion of unknown origin, inserted duplication, inversion, and relocation, are not evenly distributed on all the chromosomes, and some chromosomes, such as the X chromosome, contain more rearrangements than others, and the number of inversions is far less than the number of insertions and relocations in the horse genome. Furthermore, we discovered the percentages of LINE_L1 and LTR_ERV1 are significantly increased in rearrangement regions. The analysis results of the two representative Equus species genomes improved our knowledge of Equus chromosome rearrangement and karyotype evolution.

Huang, Jinlong; Zhao, Yiping; Shiraigol, Wunierfu; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Ye, Weixing; Daidiikhuu, Dorjsuren; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Burenqiqige; Zhao, Qinan; Gao, Yahan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Li, Anaer; Zhang, Yuhong; Han, Haige; Bai, Haitang; Bao, Yanqing; Zhao, Lele; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Zhao, Wenjing; Sun, Zikui; Zhang, Yan; Meng, He; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

2014-01-01

441

Morphological and biochemical changes in the blood of horses naturally infected with Gasterophilus sp. larvae.  

PubMed

Gasterophilus sp. constitute a group of specific parasites, which larval forms are found in horses and other phylogenetically related species--donkeys, mules and zebras. Their invasion is associated with marked fluctuations of hematological and biochemical blood parameters, including the activity of many enzymes and the electrolyte concentration. The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in selected biochemical and morphological blood parameters of horses infected with botfly larvae. The experimental group was formed of horses infested by Gasterophilus sp. larvae whereas the control group consisted of noninfested horses. The study was performed in two periods: at the beginning and at the most advanced invasion. Significant differences between horses at early and late stage of invasion were found in terms of erythrocyte parameters. Mean red and white blood cell counts and mean hemoglobin concentration were lower in horses with late invasion compared to those with the invasion at its early stage. The values of all the aforementioned erythrocyte parameters remained within the reference limits for both groups of horses. Moreover, both in horses infected with botfly larvae and in those from the control group, biochemical parameters studied did not exceed the respective reference limits. Our results suggest that larvae of botfly which colonize the gastrointestinal tract have relatively insignificant influence on the basic hematological and biochemical parameters of horse blood. PMID:20731178

Pawlas-Opiela, M; So?tysiak, Z; Gorczykowski, M

2010-01-01

442

An equine chromosome 3 inversion is associated with the tobiano spotting pattern in German horse breeds.  

PubMed

The tobiano white-spotting pattern is one of several known depigmentation phenotypes in horses and is desired by many horse breeders and owners. The tobiano spotting phenotype is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Horses that are heterozygous or homozygous for the tobiano allele (To) are phenotypically indistinguishable. A SNP associated with To had previously been identified in intron 13 of the equine KIT gene and was used for an indirect gene test. The test was useful in several horse breeds. However, genotyping this sequence variant in the Lewitzer horse breed revealed that 14% of horses with the tobiano pattern did not show the polymorphism in intron 13 and consequently the test was not useful to identify putative homozygotes for To within this breed. Speculations were raised that an independent mutation might cause the tobiano spotting pattern in this breed. Recently, the putative causative mutation for To was described as a large chromosomal inversion on equine chromosome 3. One of the inversion breakpoints is approximately 70 kb downstream of the KIT gene and probably disrupts a regulatory element of the KIT gene. We obtained genotypes for the intron 13 SNP and the chromosomal inversion for 204 tobiano spotted horses and 24 control animals of several breeds. The genotyping data confirmed that the chromosomal inversion was perfectly associated with the To allele in all investigated horses. Therefore, the new test is suitable to discriminate heterozygous To/+ and homozygous To/To horses in the investigated breeds. PMID:18410476

Haase, B; Jude, R; Brooks, S A; Leeb, T

2008-06-01

443

Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art  

PubMed Central

Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings “The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle,” depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back ?25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as “leopard” in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed.

Pruvost, Melanie; Bellone, Rebecca; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; O'Connor, Terry; Reissmann, Monika; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

2011-01-01

444

Preliminary list of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) of Serbia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Thirty six species of horse flies (Tabanidae) were previously known from Serbia (Europe). The present faunistic study of horse flies (Tabanidae) has resulted in the recording of the 4 new species Atylotus fulvus (Meigen, 1804); Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1880; Tabanus unifasciatus Loew, 1858; and Heptatoma pellucens (Fabricius, 1776), in the fauna of Serbia. The genus Heptatoma Meigen, 1803 is cited for the first time in the fauna of Serbia. 40 species are currently known from Serbia, belonging to nine genera. The fauna can be considered relatively poorly studied. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian type of fauna 23, followed by the South European group with 8 species, the Mediterranean group with 6 species, European group with 2 species and Central European group with 1 species.

Krcmar, Stjepan

2011-01-01

445

Preliminary list of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) of Serbia.  

PubMed

Thirty six species of horse flies (Tabanidae) were previously known from Serbia (Europe). The present faunistic study of horse flies (Tabanidae) has resulted in the recording of the 4 new species Atylotus fulvus (Meigen, 1804); Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1880; Tabanus unifasciatus Loew, 1858; and Heptatoma pellucens (Fabricius, 1776), in the fauna of Serbia. The genus Heptatoma Meigen, 1803 is cited for the first time in the fauna of Serbia. 40 species are currently known from Serbia, belonging to nine genera. The fauna can be considered relatively poorly studied. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian type of fauna 23, followed by the South European group with 8 species, the Mediterranean group with 6 species, European group with 2 species and Central European group with 1 species. PMID:21998507

Kr?mar, Stjepan

2011-01-01

446

Laterality of horses associated with emotionality in novel situations.  

PubMed

We have established that lateral biases are characteristic of visual behaviour in 65 horses. Two breeds, Trotters and French Saddlebreds aged 2 to 3, were tested on a novel object test. The main finding was a significant correlation between emotionality index and the eye preferred to view the novel stimulus: the higher the emotionality, the more likely that the horse looked with its left eye. The less emotive French Saddlebreds, however, tended to glance at the object using the right eye, a tendency that was not found in the Trotters, although the emotive index was the same for both breeds. The youngest French Saddlebreds did not show this trend. These results are discussed in relation to the different training practices for the breeds and broader findings on lateralisation in different species. PMID:16754236

Larose, Claire; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Hausberger, Martine; Rogers, Lesley J

2006-07-01

447

Do horses expect humans to solve their problems?  

PubMed

Domestic animals are highly capable of detecting human cues, while wild relatives tend to perform less well (e.g., responding to pointing gestures). It is suggested that domestication may have led to the development of such cognitive skills. Here, we hypothesized that because domestic animals are so attentive and dependant to humans' actions for resources, the counter effect may be a decline of self sufficiency, such as individual task solving. Here we show a negative correlation between the performance in a learning task (opening a chest) and the interest shown by horses toward humans, despite high motivation expressed by investigative behaviors directed at the chest. If human-directed attention reflects the development of particular skills in domestic animals, this is to our knowledge the first study highlighting a link between human-directed behaviors and impaired individual solving task skills (ability to solve a task by themselves) in horses. PMID:22936923

Lesimple, C; Sankey, C; Richard, M A; Hausberger, M

2012-01-01

448

Do Horses Expect Humans to Solve Their Problems?  

PubMed Central

Domestic animals are highly capable of detecting human cues, while wild relatives tend to perform less well (e.g., responding to pointing gestures). It is suggested that domestication may have led to the development of such cognitive skills. Here, we hypothesized that because domestic animals are so attentive and dependant to humans’ actions for resources, the counter effect may be a decline of self sufficiency, such as individual task solving. Here we show a negative correlation between the performance in a learning task (opening a chest) and the interest shown by horses toward humans, despite high motivation expressed by investigative behaviors directed at the chest. If human-directed attention reflects the development of particular skills in domestic animals, this is to our knowledge the first study highlighting a link between human-directed behaviors and impaired individual solving task skills (ability to solve a task by themselves) in horses.

Lesimple, C.; Sankey, C.; Richard, M. A.; Hausberger, M.

2012-01-01

449

[New drugs for horses and production animals in 2011].  

PubMed

In 2011, three newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients for horses and food producing animals were released on the German market for veterinary drug products. Two of these new products represent different drug classes of antibiotics, the polypeptide antibiotic Bacitracin (Bacivet™) and the macrolide antibiotic Clorsulon (Levatum®). The third product represents an anticestodal antiparasitic (Tildipirosin, Zuprevo®). Furthermore, three established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients were modified to allow their application for additional species. Thus the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate is now additionally authorised for turkeys and both the macrolide antibiotic Tilmicosin and the anticoccidial drug Toltrazuril are currently available for sheep. Additionally, two veterinary drugs with a new formulation as well as a veterinary drug for horses and food producing animals with a resourceful new combination of active pharmaceutical ingredients have recently been released. PMID:23076759

Emmerich, I U

2012-10-17

450

Indigenous West Nile virus infections in horses in Albania.  

PubMed

Serum samples collected from 167 equines of 12 districts in Albania were tested for West Nile virus-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assay, using WNV lineage 1 and 2. In addition, 95 bird serum samples from Albania and 29 horse samples from Kosovo were tested in ELISA. An overall seroprevalence rate of 22% was found in horses from Albania, whereas no specific antibodies were found in the equine samples from Kosovo and the bird samples. This is the first report indicating WNV infections in animals in Albania, and the first reported seroprevalence study conducted for Kosovo. These results provide evidence for widespread infections of WNV in Albania. PMID:24589101

Berxholi, K; Ziegler, U; Rexhepi, A; Schmidt, K; Mertens, M; Korro, K; Cuko, A; Angenvoort, J; Groschup, M H

2013-11-01

451

76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast...a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City...vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners from the...

2011-05-31

452

75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast...a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City...vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners and the...

2010-04-13

453

Uterine adenocarcinoma in a Przewalski's wild horse (Equus ferus przewalskii).  

PubMed

A 25-yr-old, nulliparous, female Przewalski's wild horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) with a history of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and recent onset of serosanguinous vaginal discharge was euthanized after a period of lethargy and inappetance. Postmortem examination confirmed an infiltrative uterine adenocarcinoma, which is an uncommon neoplasia in equids. Reproductive disease is significant in this species as they are considered endangered by IUCN. Reproductive soundness and success are paramount to conservation efforts. PMID:25000717

Thompson, Rachel; Armién, Aníbal G; Rasmussen, James M; Wolf, Tiffany M

2014-06-01

454

A Primary Male Autosomal Linkage Map of the Horse Genome  

PubMed Central

A primary male autosomal linkage map of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) has been developed by segregation analysis of 140 genetic markers within eight half-sib families. The family material comprised four Standardbred trotters and four Icelandic horses, with a total of 263 offspring. The marker set included 121 microsatellite markers, eight protein polymorphisms, five RFLPs, three blood group polymorphisms, two PCR–RFLPs, and one single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). One hundred markers were arranged into 25 linkage groups, 22 of which could be assigned physically to 18 different chromosomes (ECA1, ECA2, ECA3, ECA4, ECA5, ECA6, ECA7, ECA9, ECA10, ECA11, ECA13, ECA15, ECA16, ECA18, ECA19, ECA21, ECA22, and ECA30). The average distance between linked markers was 12.6 cM and the longest linkage group measured 103 cM. The total map distance contained within linkage groups was 679 cM. If the distances covered outside the ends of linkage groups and by unlinked markers were included, it was estimated that the marker set covered at least 1500 cM, that is, at least 50% of the genome. A comparison of the relationship between genetic and physical distances in anchored linkage groups gave ratios of 0.5–0.8 cM per Mb of DNA. This would suggest that the total male recombinational distance in the horse is 2000 cM; this value is lower than that suggested by chiasma counts. The present map should provide an important framework for future genome mapping in the horse.

Lindgren, Gabriella; Sandberg, Kaj; Persson, Helena; Marklund, Stefan; Breen, Matthew; Sandgren, Bjorn; Carlsten, Johan; Ellegren, Hans

1998-01-01

455

Production of embryos by assisted reproduction in the horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro embryo production is not yet successful in the horse, largely due to low rates of fertilization in vitro. However, methods to produce embryos from isolated oocytes have been developed. Oocytes may be recovered from living mares by aspiration of the dominant preovulatory follicle by trans-abdominal puncture, and from both preovulatory and immature follicles by trans-vaginal ultrasound-guided puncture. Transfer

K. Hinrichs

1998-01-01

456

Power law distribution of dividends in horse races  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discovered that the distribution of dividends in Korean horse races follows a power law. A simple model of betting is proposed, which reproduces the observed distribution. The model provides a mechanism to arrive at the true underlying winning probabilities, which are initially unknown, in a self-organized collective fashion, through the dynamic process of betting. Numerical simulations yield excellent agreement with the empirical data.

Park, K.; Domany, E.

2001-02-01

457

Cadmium, zinc and copper in horse kidney metallothionein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadium, zinc, and copper were determined in kidney cortex samples and in protein fractions obtained from 20 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in kidneys ranged from 0.01 to 1.46 mmole\\/kg. Zinc concentrations in kidneys increased with increasing cadmium concentrations. At low concentrations of cadmium the increase of zinc was almost equimolar with the increase in cadmium, but at higher concentrations

M. Nordberg; C. G. Elinder; B. Rahnster

1979-01-01

458

Detection of testosterone, nandrolone and precursors in horse hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing interest among several horse-breeder associations has initiated the development of a screening procedure to test for\\u000a anabolic agents in hair, which has the advantage over blood and urine specimens of allowing long-term detection. An analytical\\u000a method was established to monitor in tails or manes several anabolic substances available as veterinary medicines or as so-called\\u000a nutritional supplements (clenbuterol, different esters

P. Anielski; D. Thieme; A. Schlupp; J. Grosse; F. Ellendorff; R. K. Mueller

2005-01-01

459

Prevalence of latent alpha-herpesviruses in Thoroughbred racing horses.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to detect and characterize latent equine herpes virus (EHV)-1 and -4 from the submandibular (SMLN) and bronchial lymph (BLN) nodes, as well as from the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of 70 racing Thoroughbred horses submitted for necropsy following sustaining serious musculoskeletal injuries while racing. A combination of nucleic acid precipitation and pre-amplification steps was used to increase analytical sensitivity. Tissues were deemed positive for latent EHV-1 and/or -4 infection when found PCR positive for the corresponding glycoprotein B (gB) gene in the absence of detectable late structural protein gene (gB gene) mRNA. The EHV-1 genotype was also determined using a discriminatory real-time PCR assay targeting the DNA polymerase gene (ORF 30). Eighteen (25.7%) and 58 (82.8%) horses were PCR positive for the gB gene of EHV-1 and -4, respectively, in at least one of the three tissues sampled. Twelve horses were dually infected with EHV-1 and -4, two carried a latent neurotropic strain of EHV-1, six carried a non-neurotropic genotype of EHV-1 and 10 were dually infected with neurotropic and non-neurotropic EHV-1. The distribution of latent EHV-1 and -4 infection varied in the samples, with the TG found to be most commonly infected. Overall, non-neurotropic strains were more frequently detected than neurotropic strains, supporting the general consensus that non-neurotropic strains are more prevalent in horse populations, and hence the uncommon occurrence of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy. PMID:22405721

Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha; David Wilson, W

2012-08-01

460

Latherin: A Surfactant Protein of Horse Sweat and Saliva  

PubMed Central

Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass), and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and associated tissues of mammals. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (?1 mg ml?1), and therefore probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a waterproofed pelt. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that this detergent-like activity is associated with the formation of a dense protein layer, about 10 Å thick, at the air-water interface. However, biophysical characterization (circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry) in solution shows that latherin behaves like a typical globular protein, although with unusual intrinsic fluorescence characteristics, suggesting that significant conformational change or unfolding of the protein is required for assembly of the air-water interfacial layer. RT-PCR screening revealed latherin transcripts in horse skin and salivary gland but in no other tissues. Recombinant latherin produced in bacteria was also found to be the target of IgE antibody from horse-allergic subjects. Equids therefore may have adapted an oral/salivary mucosal protein for two purposes peculiar to their lifestyle, namely their need for rapid and efficient heat dissipation and their specialisation for masticating and processing large quantities of dry food material.

Beeley, John G.; Bovell, Douglas L.; Lu, Jian R.; Zhao, Xiubo; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

2009-01-01