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1

Effect of Storage Temperature on Quality of Frozen Horse-mackerel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality change of frozen horse-mackerel were studied under storage temperature at -18, -23, -30 and -40°C for 12 months. Quality were measured with K value (Freshness index of muscle, degradation ratio of ATP), amount of drip (free and expressible drip), water-holdiog capacity, weight ratio of cooking loss, organoleptic test, and histological feature of muscle. K value, a mount of free drip, w eight ratio of cooking loss, histological feature of muscle, and organoleptic test in color, form and flavor were not detected any changes during frozen storage for 12 months at various temperature. However expressible drip, water-holding capacity and score of taste in organoleptic test showed some changes after 8 or 12 months at -18 and/or -23°C, it was not serious change to-loss quality as food. Frozen horse-mackerel can store under below ~ 18°C for 12 months.

Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohtaka, Tateo

2

Genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region among horse mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus) from the Atlantic and Mediterranean areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus is a pelagic fish from the Carangidae family that is distributed in waters of Nororiental Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea. This species is of special interest due to its Atlantic–Mediterranean distribution and because of the possible effect of past and present day restrictions to gene flow between these seas. Although pelagic marine fishes generally show

Angel S. Comesaña; Andrés Sanjuan

2008-01-01

3

Evolution of the indigenous microbiota in modified atmosphere packaged Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) identified by conventional and molecular methods.  

PubMed

A combination of conventional methods and genetic identification (PCR sequencing) was used to study the dynamics of the bacterial population during the spoilage of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) fillets. The cultivable microflora in Atlantic horse mackerel samples packaged in a modified atmosphere (48% CO2, 50% N2 and 2% O2) at refrigeration temperature (6 °C) was measured on days 1, 5 and 7 using non-selective (Long and Hammer agar) and selective media (Kligler's iron agar, STAA and MRS). The microflora was genetically characterised using partial amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 309 bacterial isolates obtained from Long and Hammer agar. At the end of the shelf life (5 days), the total viable counts (TVC) on Long and Hammer agar were not significantly different to the LAB counts on MRS agar (p>0.05). The molecular approach showed that Photobacterium, Arthrobacter, Chryseobacterium and Pseudoclavibacter (44.5% of total) dominated the microbial composition of the fish at the beginning of storage. However, Serratia, Shewanella and Yersinia dominated at the late spoilage stages (over 57.2% of the total). Carnobacterium was the most important species of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and was identified at the beginning and end of the storage period. Vibrio spp. was only found at the end of the shelf life. This research demonstrates that the microbial biodiversity in MAP Atlantic horse mackerel is enormous and the dominant species change over the storage time. The results presented here on the dominant communities in fish products will make it possible to accurately select the best preservation practices. PMID:24135667

Alfaro, Begoña; Hernandez, Igor

2013-10-15

4

Improvement of Frozen Storage Tolerance by the Addition of Sugar in Dusky Spinefoot, Lizard fish and Horse mackerel Surimi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of three different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, at 5%) were analyzed and compared against a control for frozen surimi (-25 °C) made from dusky spinefoot, lizard fish and horse mackerel, for a total storage period of 180 days. Kamaboko was prepared at defined time intervals, and its jelly strength (J.S.), water holding capacity (W.H.C.), and whiteness, and the total Ca-ATPase activity of surimi were analyzed. Present results showed that all parameters of sugar free control samples decreased faster than those of sugar added samples during frozen storage.Sugar resulted a good additive for long time surimi conservation for all the species analyzed.

Kawashima, Akane; Hamada, Yuki; Kusano, Sawa; Osako, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Nozaki, Yukinori

5

75 FR 11129 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Atlantic Mackerel, Butterfish, Atlantic Bluefish, Spiny...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mackerel, Butterfish, Atlantic Bluefish, Spiny...Surfclam, and Ocean Quahog Annual Catch...mackerel, butterfish, Atlantic bluefish, spiny...surfclams, and ocean quahogs. This supplemental...mackerel, butterfish, Atlantic bluefish, spiny...surfclams, and ocean quahogs to...

2010-03-10

6

Standardization of CPUE for Chilean jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi) from Chinese trawl fleets in the high seas of the Southeast Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to the standardization of catch per unit effort (CPUE) for Chilean jack mackerel from Chinese factory trawl fishing fleets in the Southeast Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2010 by removing the operational, environmental, spatial and temporal impacts. A total of 9 factors were selected to build the GLM and GAM, i.e., Year, Month, Vessel, La Niña and El Niño events (ELE), Latitude, Longitude, Sea surface temperature (SST), SST anomaly (SSTA), Nino3.4 index and an interaction term between Longitude and Latitude. The first 5 factors were significant components in the GLM, which in combination explained 27.34% of the total variance in nominal CPUE. In the stepwise GAM, all factors explained 30.78% of the total variance, with Month, Year and Vessel as the main factors influencing CPUE. The higher CPUE occurred during the period April to July at a SST range of 12-15°C and a SSTA range of 0.2-1.0°C. The CPUE was significantly higher in normal years compared with that in La Niña and El Niño years. The abundance of Chilean jack mackerel declined during 2001 and 2010, with an increase in 2007. This work provided the relative abundance index of Chilean jack mackerel for stock assessment by standardizing catch and effort data of Chinese trawl fisheries and examined the influence of temporal, spatial, environmental and fisheries operational factors on Chilean jack mackerel CPUE.

Li, Gang; Zou, Xiaorong; Chen, Xinjun; Zhou, Yinqi; Zhang, Min

2013-09-01

7

Changes in body condition and fatty acid composition of wild Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus, Steindachner, 1868) associated to sea cage fish farms.  

PubMed

Net-cage fish farms attract a great number of wild fishes, altering their behaviour and possibly their physiology. Wild Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus), sampled from populations aggregated around two Mediterranean fish farms and from two natural control populations, were analyzed for differences in body condition, stomach content and fatty acid composition. Pellets used to feed caged fish in both farms were also analyzed to identify their relationship with the fatty acid composition of tissue of wild fish. T. mediterraneus aggregated around the farms throughout the year although large seasonal changes in abundance and biomass occurred. Wild fish aggregated at farms mainly ate food pellets while control fish fed principally on juvenile fish and cephalopods. Wild fish that fed around the cages had a significantly higher body fat content than the control fish (7.30+/-1.8% and 2.36+/-0.7%, respectively). The fatty acid composition also differed between farm-associated and control fish, principally because of the significantly increased levels of linoleic (C18:2omega6) and oleic (C18:1omega9) acids and decreased docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6omega3) in farm-associated fish. The increased condition of wild fish associated with farms could increase the spawning ability of coastal fish populations, if wild fish are protected from fishing while they are present at farms. The fatty acids compositions could also serve as biomarkers to infer the influence of a fish farm on the local fish community, helping to better describe the environmental impact of fish farming. PMID:17095083

Fernandez-Jover, Damian; Jimenez, Jose Angel Lopez; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Casalduero, Francisca Gimenez; Lopez, Francisco Javier Martinez; Dempster, Tim

2007-02-01

8

Mackerel from the northern indian ocean and the red sea are scomber australasicus , not scomber japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population ofScomber from the Red Sea and northern Indian Ocean (gulfs of Aden and Oman) is identified asS. australasicus rather thanS. japonicus based on having 30–33 vs. 26–29 interneural bones under the first and second dorsal fins and the combination of interneural\\u000a bone counts of 16–20 under the first dorsal fin (vs. 13–16) and first dorsal fin spine counts

Erin A. Baker; Bruce B. Collette

1998-01-01

9

King mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) are large coastal pelagic  

E-print Network

Massachu- setts to Brazil in the western Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea (Mc of Mexico (GOM) and in the Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic) off the southeastern United States. King mackerel) and Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic). Separate migra- tory groups, or stocks, migrate from eastern GOM

10

75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 0810141351-9087-02] RIN 0648-XT86 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

2010-01-20

11

75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY14 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

2010-08-13

12

Population Structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)  

PubMed Central

Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults (“twinning”). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management. PMID:23741381

Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

2013-01-01

13

77 FR 23635 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications...Specifications for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish fisheries. DATES: Effective...measures for the Atlantic mackerel and squid fisheries, and the interim final...

2012-04-20

14

77 FR 58507 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework...Adjustment 5 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan...consistent with the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish FMP, other...

2012-09-21

15

50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession...

2013-10-01

16

50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession...

2012-10-01

17

77 FR 7544 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment...Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan...Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery...

2012-02-13

18

Acoustic backscatter by schools of adult Atlantic mackerel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of acoustic backscatter by schools of adult Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is investigated to improve biomass estimates. Previous studies involving modelled scattering from individual mackerel showed that backscattering at high frequencies is dominated by the contribution from the backbone. Accurate predictions of the scattering spectra require consideration of back- scattering from the entire skeleton, including details of the

Natalia Gorska; Rolf J. Korneliussen; Egil On

19

Genetic structure of Indian scad mackerel Decapterus russelli: Pleistocene vicariance and secondary contact in the Central Indo-West Pacific Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major genetic breaks between the Indian and Pacific oceans have been reported for marine fishes and invertebrates. The genetic structure and history of the Indian scad mackerel, Decapterus russelli, in the Indo-Malay archipelago were investigated using the cytochrome b gene sequence as mitochondrial marker and two length-polymorphic introns as nuclear markers. The existence of two major mitochondrial lineages separated by

A Rohfritsch; P Borsa

2005-01-01

20

Horse Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Horse racing, the so-called "sport of kings," has captivated fans for centuries. One reason is the grace and agility of the horses themselves -- when they're running at top speed, they look as if they're flying down the track. In this Science Update, you'll hear how studying horses may help engineers improve human flight in air and space.

Science Update;

2003-05-27

21

76 FR 47492 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery; Emergency Rule...mortality cap in the Loligo (Doryteuthis) squid fishery, based on the most recent and...Specifications for Atlantic mackerel, Loligo squid, and Illex squid also remain...

2011-08-05

22

77 FR 51853 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework...the risk policy, do not apply to longfin squid or Illex squid; these species are...

2012-08-27

23

75 FR 51683 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish...fishing for the species managed under the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The...

2010-08-23

24

76 FR 74724 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment 11 AGENCY: National...regulations implementing Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery Management Plan (FMP)....

2011-12-01

25

75 FR 32745 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Scoping Process...Management Plan (FMP) for Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) and to prepare...implementation of catch share systems for the squid fisheries; the need for additional...

2010-06-09

26

78 FR 14230 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework...butterfish mortality cap on the longfin squid fishery from a catch cap to a discard cap...Adjustment 7 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management...

2013-03-05

27

77 FR 74159 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework...butterfish mortality cap on the longfin squid fishery from a catch cap to a discard cap...Adjustment 7 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management...

2012-12-13

28

Horse Chestnut  

MedlinePLUS

... cautions, and resources for more information. Horse chestnut trees are native to the Balkan Peninsula (for example, ... be confused with the Ohio or California buckeye trees, which are related but not the same species. ...

29

Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridge: Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center. Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center, is a growing collection of on-line marine education resources. It provides educators with ...

30

Growth and Mortality of King Mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla  

E-print Network

by 32°03.0'N lat. Location and month of release/Migratory group Ft. Pierce, FL Florida Keys Jupiter, FL mackerel tag returns that did not show negative growth (based on reported length) were grouped into 30-day-at-Iarge were deter- mined for each 30-day period. Use of means within blocks eliminated the unequal weighting

31

Migration and Fisheries of North East Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in Autumn and Winter  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that observed spatial variation in mackerel fisheries, extending over several hundreds of kilometers, is reflective of climate-driven changes in mackerel migration patterns. Previous studies have been unable to clearly demonstrate this link. In this paper we demonstrate correlation between temperature and mackerel migration/distribution as proxied by mackerel catch data from both scientific bottom trawl surveys and commercial fisheries. We show that mackerel aggregate and migrate distances of up to 500 km along the continental shelf edge from mid-November to early March. The path of this migration coincides with the location of the relatively warm shelf edge current and, as a consequence of this affinity, mackerel are guided towards the main spawning area in the south. Using a simulated time series of temperature of the shelf edge current we show that variations in the timing of the migration are significantly correlated to temperature fluctuations within the current. The proposed proxies for mackerel distribution were found to be significantly correlated. However, the correlations were weak and only significant during periods without substantial legislative or technical developments. Substantial caution should therefore be exercised when using such data as proxies for mackerel distribution. Our results include a new temperature record for the shelf edge current obtained by embedding the available hydrographic observations within a statistical model needed to understand the migration through large parts of the life of adult mackerel and for the management of this major international fishery. PMID:23251570

Jansen, Teunis; Campbell, Andrew; Kelly, Ciaran; Hatun, Hjalmar; Payne, Mark R.

2012-01-01

32

Trojan Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A Trojan horse is a common type of rogue software. Such a program hides in a computer and has some malicious function. In\\u000a contrast to viruses and worms, Trojans do not replicate. This chapter summarizes the main features of Trojans and also discusses\\u000a how to modify a compiler in a devious way, to make it plant Trojans in programs that

David Salomon

33

Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted mackerel protein with low bitter taste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein,\\u000a resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high\\u000a nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It\\u000a turned out that the optimum enzyme was

Hu Hou; Bafang Li; Xue Zhao

2011-01-01

34

Evaluation of oregano antioxidant activity in mackerel oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry oregano was tested for its antioxidant activity in mackerel oil stored at 40 °C in the dark. Its effectiveness at 0.5% level was comparable to that of 200 ppm BHA and 0.5% (w\\/w) dry rosemary and stronger to that of red chillies and bay leaf which did not improve the stability of the fish oil. Oregano at 1% (w\\/w)

M. Tsimidou; E. Papavergou; D. Boskou

1995-01-01

35

78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fully use the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in the CAI by vessels...July 8, 2013, NMFS has determined that TAC of Atka mackerel in the CAI for vessels...D), and to fully utilize the 2013 TAC of Atka mackerel in the BSAI, NMFS is...

2013-07-15

36

50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions...

2011-10-01

37

50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions...

2012-10-01

38

50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions...

2013-10-01

39

50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions...

2010-10-01

40

Characterisation of muscles from Frigate mackerel (Auxis thazard) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus).  

PubMed

Frigate mackerel (Auxis thazard) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) can be used as alternative sources for surimi production. However, the functionality of surimi is species-dependent. This study aimed to characterise certain chemical and physical compositions of dark and ordinary muscles from these species. Catfish, particularly ordinary muscle, was composed of higher contents of lipid and carotenoid than Frigate mackerel muscle (p<0.05) but ordinary muscle from Frigate mackerel had the highest phospholipid content (p<0.05). Both dark and ordinary muscles of Frigate mackerel had greater contents of myofibrillar proteins than had catfish muscle (p<0.05). Myosin heavy chain and actin were predominant proteins found in both muscle types of both species. Dark muscle from Frigate mackerel had the highest sarcoplasmic protein content, especially extractable myoglobin (p<0.05). Muscles from Frigate mackerel had greater content of sodium chloride than had catfish (p<0.05). The highest contents of iron, copper and selenium were found in Frigate mackerel dark muscle (p<0.05). The pH of ordinary muscle from both species was higher than that of dark muscle (p<0.05). Frigate mackerel, especilly dark muscle, exhibited the most dark-red colour, as shown by the lowest L(*) and b(*) values with the highest a(*) value and redness index (a(*)/b(*)) (p<0.05). PMID:23561125

Chaijan, Manat; Klomklao, Sappasith; Benjakul, Soottawat

2013-08-15

41

Freeze Branding Horses  

E-print Network

Freeze branding of horses has many advantages. It is safe, economical, simple to do and relatively painless. It can be done on horses of any age and does not damage the horse's hide. This publication gives complete, step-by-step instructions...

Householder, Doug; Webb, Gary; Wigington, Sam; Bruemmer, Jason

2001-06-29

42

76 FR 51272 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2011 Trimester 2 Directed Loligo Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...that 90 percent of the Trimester 2 Loligo squid (Loligo) quota is projected to be...

2011-08-18

43

77 FR 40527 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2012 Trimester 2 Directed Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...that 90 percent of the Trimester 2 longfin squid (longfin) quota is projected to be...

2012-07-10

44

77 FR 22678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Trimester 1 Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...closure of the directed fishery for longfin squid (longfin) in the Exclusive Economic...

2012-04-17

45

77 FR 38566 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 6...including the risk policy, do not apply to longfin squid or Illex squid; these species are exempt from these requirements...

2012-06-28

46

Characterisation of the microbiota of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).  

PubMed

In this study the microbiota of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) collected by a commercial purse seiner was examined. Fish were collected directly from the purse seine and from the Refrigerated Sea Water (RSW) transport tank after loading. The culturable microbiota and Specific Spoilage Bacteria (SSB) were quantified on Iron Agar Lyngby (IAL) and identified using commercially available Biochemical API® kits on pure cultured isolates. These kits showed to be sub-optimal in characterising the isolates, since only half of the strains were identified. The same isolates were also identified by a nucleic acid based PCR-DGGE approach, and only half of the sequences gave the same results as the API®. Characterisation by PCR-DGGE was also performed on bacterial DNA from IAL plates (bulk cell samples) and on samples where the bacterial DNA was extracted directly from fish material without any cultivation (direct DNA samples). The microbiota of Atlantic mackerel was dominated by members of the Gram-negative genera as Psychrobacter sp., Proteus sp., Photobacterium sp., Vibrio sp., Shewanella sp., Synechococcus sp., Oceanisphaerae sp., Bizonia sp., Pseudoalteromonas sp., and members of Flavobacteriaceae. Gram-positive bacteria in the genera Vagococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Mycobacterium sp., Staphylococcus sp., Mycoplasma sp. and Clostridia sp. were also found. Examination by PCR-DGGE and sequencing of the bulk cell pellet after cultivation on IAL, gave a higher number of taxa as compared to extraction and examination of bacterial DNA from fish materials without prior cultivation. This shows the benefit of combining both culture dependent and culture independent methods, when studying the microbiota of marine fish. Several Vibrio spp. were found only in gut samples collected from the purse seine, but in all samples including the skin and the gills collected from the RSW tank, indicating microbial contamination by faecal bacteria from the fish under these transport conditions. PMID:21914558

Svanevik, Cecilie Smith; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore

2011-12-01

47

Horse Genome Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's in a horse? As it turns out, what's in a horse is quite important, and the Horse Genome Project at the University of Kentucky is currently defining the genome of this animal. The Project is a cooperative international effort which involves some 100 scientists working in 20 countries. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can make their way through five sections, including "The People", "The Horses", "Genomics 101", and "Applications of Genome Study". "The Horses" area is a good place to start, as it gives an overview of the animals being used in the project. In "Genomics 101", interested parties will find an overview of some basic terms used in the field, such as gene, allele, and mutation. The "Applications of Genome Study" area focuses in on how their work will be used to benefit the health and welfare of horses.

48

77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels participating...at subpart H of 50 CFR part 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2012 TAC of Atka mackerel, in the CAI, allocated to vessels...

2012-07-03

49

76 FR 74060 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF)--Ocean Transportation Intermediary...contact the Office of Transportation Intermediaries...OFF License. Sea Freight Logistics, Inc...License. White Horse Logistics,...

2011-11-30

50

NATURE: Horse and Rider  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to the recent PBS NATURE documentary "Horse and Rider," which "explores a fascinating partnership between animal and human." Click on For Teachers on the main Web page to find an interdisciplinary lesson plan for grades 9-12. The lesson, titled Creating the "Perfect" Horse, has students study horse biology and behavior, explore the reasons why different horse breeds were developed, and analyze research findings to determine if breeding an all-purpose horse is practical or even possible. The lesson plan provides downloadable worksheets, and the main Web page contains some fun special features, including video clips. This site is also reviewed in the September 19, 2003 NSDL Life Sciences Report.

51

ANTIPROTEINS IN HORSE SERA  

PubMed Central

1. Two horses were injected subcutaneously with alum-precipitated rabbit serum albumin. 2. The resulting antibody resembled diphtheria antitoxin and anti-egg albumin in the horse in giving a sharp zone of flocculation with antigen, in being water-soluble, in reactivity toward an anti-antibody rabbit serum, and in its electrophoretic properties. 3. The effect of continued immunization, and of variation in volume and temperature on the reactivity of the antibody are discussed. 4. Intravenous injection of the same antigen into horses did not give rise to detectable amounts of antibody of the same type. PMID:19871668

Treffers, Henry P.; Heidelberger, Michael; Freund, Jules

1947-01-01

52

Hoof Comfort for Horses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

2002-01-01

53

PRICES, MARKETING MARGINS, AND STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN THE KING MACKEREL MARKETING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age-old conflict between producers and trucked to buyers, primarily by independent market middlemen in the food industry has truckers. A primary survey of Florida Atlantic surfaced in the finfish industry with respect to Coast wholesale fish dealers showed that 65 market prices, producer prices, and marketing percent of the king mackerel was shipped to margins. Unrest among fishermen (producers)

Fred J. Prochaska

1978-01-01

54

these tests were conducted during March-April when juvenile mackerels are rare in the coastal  

E-print Network

, and areas fished. However, our catch rates suggest that the impact of tongue nets on mackerel stocks may, Scomberomorus cavallo, in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. In E. L. Nakamura and H. R. Bullis

55

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in smoked Atlantic mackerel and Baltic sprats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic mackerel and Baltic sprats are rich sources of n?3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA). Literature data point to an influence of the properties of the raw material, storage conditions, and processing parameters of hot- and cold-smoking on the stability of these acids. The effects of industrial smoking in an automatic smokehouse in controlled, mild conditions at core

Andrzej Sto?yhwo; Ilona Ko?odziejska; Zdzis?aw E. Sikorski

2006-01-01

56

Discrimination learning in horses  

E-print Network

foot preference to initiate the walk and 235 showed lead preference at the gallop. However, gei ral preferences between r'. ght or left for all behaviors were inconsistent. Grzimek (1968) also trained horses to select the correct goal box... foot preference to initiate the walk and 235 showed lead preference at the gallop. However, gei ral preferences between r'. ght or left for all behaviors were inconsistent. Grzimek (1968) also trained horses to select the correct goal box...

Yeates, B. F

2012-06-07

57

Observational learning in horses  

E-print Network

OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING IN HORSES A Thesis by KATHERINE LOUISE BAER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Animal... Science OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING IN HORSES A Thesis by KATHERINE LOUISE BAER Approved as to style and content by: L7 . 5+~ (Chairma of . C mmittee) ) c r (Mem ) YiNicc CJ ~- (Membeh) (Head of Department May 1979 ABSTRACT Observational...

Baer, Katherine Louise

2012-06-07

58

Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus mon-opterygius) is distributed along the  

E-print Network

Assessment and Conservation Engineering Division 7600 Sand Point Way NE Seattle, Washington 98115 2 Alaska SeaLife Center 301 Railway Avenue Seward, Alaska 99664 3 School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences

59

78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the directed fishing closure of the Atka mackerel...2013. James P. Burgess, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR...

2013-05-03

60

Pneumocephalus in five horses.  

PubMed

Pneumocephalus is occasionally encountered in horses but poorly described in the literature. The study aimed to describe historical, clinical and diagnostic imaging findings and outcome in horses to increase the awareness and recognition of the condition amongst equine practitioners, allowing appropriate management of these cases. Cases of pneumocephalus from 4 participating institutions were identified and case details extracted from the medical records. Five cases of pneumocephalus were identified. Head trauma with suspected or confirmed fractures of the sinuses was the underlying cause in 4 cases, while the remaining horse was thought to have developed pneumocephalus secondary to sinusitis or trauma. Diagnosis was established radiographically in 4 cases and by computed tomography in a fifth. Gas was noted between the cranial vault and the brain, in the lateral ventricles, in the brain parenchyma and within the cranial cervical canal. The gas accumulation resolved gradually in all horses and did not appear independently to result in neurological compromise. Long-term outcome was available for 3 cases, 2 of which were ultimately subjected to euthanasia due to neurological deficits. Pneumocephalus is a possible consequence of head trauma or sinusitis in horses; although the finding is frequently incidental, it has the potential to develop into a life-threatening complication. Imaging the complete skull and cranial cervical spine is important to allow identification and appropriate management of these cases. The use of computed tomography enables easier identification and localisation of the gas accumulation within the central nervous system. PMID:23094967

Dunkel, B; Corley, K T T; Johnson, A L; Witte, T H; Leitch, M; Marr, C M; Weller, R

2013-05-01

61

Artificially dehydrated lucerne for horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificially dehydrated lucerne produced in the United Kingdom has been shown to be a better source of nutrients for horses than grass hay. Horses eat more lucerne when it is pelleted, and the processing has little effect on its nutritive value. Lucerne does not appear to contain any antinutritional factors of significance to horses. Lucerne contains readily available calcium and

D Cuddeford

1994-01-01

62

Feeding the Arena Performance Horse  

E-print Network

..............................................................................8 Vitamins ............................................................................8 Minerals ............................................................................11 How to feed for best performance............12 Balanced rations...; The Texas A&M University System. a73 Workloads required of timed-event horses, hunters, jumpers and many cattle-working events can be characterized as ?moderate? work. These horses may require 50 percent more energy than idle horses. a73 Workloads required...

Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Scott, Brett D.

2003-11-04

63

Effects of Storage Temperatures on the Quality of Frozen Sardine, Mackerel, and Saury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three Japanese coastal fish species, sardine (Sardinops melanosticta), mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and saury (Cololabis saira) was frozen under commercial condition and stored at -18, -23, -30 and -40°C for 12 months. During frozen storage the quality was measured by determining the K value (freshness index), peroxide value (POV) of fat, a mount of free drip, water-holding capacity of muscle, weight ratio of cooking loss, histological feature of frozen and thawed muscle, and organoleptic test at regular intervals (each 2 months). Storage life of frozen sardine was 6 months at -18°C and 12 months at below -23°C. On frozen mackerel it was 6 months at -18°C. 8 months at -23°C and 12 months at below -30°C. On saury it was 6 months at 18°C and 12 months at below -23°C.

Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohataka, Tateo

64

Effect of Various Processing Methods on Quality of Mackerel ( Scomber scombrus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of combinations of processes (hot smoking, marinating, vacuum packing and seasoning with dill (Anethum graveolens) on the quality parameters of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) stored at 4 °C were investigated in terms of sensory, chemical (total volatile basic nitrogen [TVB-N], thiobarbituric acid\\u000a [TBA], peroxide value [PV], free fatty acids [FFA]) and microbiological parameters (total viable count [TVC], coliform, Escherichia coli,

Yesim Ozogul; Esra Balikci

65

Autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty compounds in mackerel oil: Formation of 2,4,7-decatrienals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of potentially “fishy” off flavor components, especially 2,4,7-decatrienals, in various rancid mackerel oils\\u000a has been semiquantitatively investigated using preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC)\\u000a methods. A combination of 2 GLC analyses can be directly employed for free aldehyde analysis. This GLC method is faster and\\u000a gives a better recovery than the alternative TLC proceeding

P. J. Ke; R. G. Ackman; B. A. Linke

1975-01-01

66

An Intermediate Moisture Product from Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) Using Salt Curing, Fermentation, and Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermediate moisture products were prepared from mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) using salt curing in 20% or saturated brine for 20 hr and fermentation with an inoculum level of l0 cells\\/mL of Pediococcus acidilactici followed by sun drying (28- 33C) for 23 hr or drying in an electric oven (45-50C) for 14 hr to an 18% moisture level. The chemical and microbiological

Kolli P. Reddy; T. M. Rudra Setty

1996-01-01

67

Effect of essential oils treatment on the frozen storage stability of chub mackerel fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bay leaf (BLO), thyme (TO), rosemary (RO), black seed (BSO), sage (SO), grape seed (GSO), flaxseed (FSO) and\\u000a lemon (LO) essential oil from vegetable extracted on lipid oxidation and some other quality parameter of frozen chub mackerel\\u000a during frozen storage at ?20°C were examined over a period of 11 months. Taste, odour, texture and overall acceptability of\\u000a control

Nuray Erkan; Gözde Bilen

2010-01-01

68

Hay Days: The Horse in Iowa History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Goldfinch" introduces young children to various facets of Iowa history. Each issue has a specific topic, and a number of articles covering different aspects of the topic being addressed. This particular issue focuses on horses. Featured articles discuss historical uses of horses, an Iowa child who owns a quarter horse, show horses, and horses

Frese, Millie K., Ed.

1998-01-01

69

Horse madness (hippomania) and hippophobia.  

PubMed

Anthropophagic horses have been described in classical mythology. From a current perspective, two such instances are worth mentioning and describing: Glaucus of Potniae, King of Efyra, and Diomedes, King of Thrace, who were both devoured by their horses. In both cases, the horses' extreme aggression and their subsequent anthropophagic behaviour were attributed to their madness (hippomania) induced by the custom of feeding them with flesh. The current problem of 'mad cow' disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is apparently related to a similar feed pattern. Aggressive behaviour in horses can be triggered by both biological and psychological factors. In the cases cited here, it is rather unlikely that the former were the cause. On the other hand, the multiple abuses imposed on the horses, coupled with people's fantasies and largely unconscious fears (hippophobia), may possibly explain these mythological descriptions of 'horse-monsters'. PMID:16482685

Papakostas, Yiannis G; Daras, Michael D; Liappas, Ioannis A; Markianos, Manolis

2005-12-01

70

Evaluating the efficacy of trawl exclusion zones for preserving prey fields of Steller sea lions foraging on Atka mackerel. II. Site specific estimates to evaluate availability of  

E-print Network

fields of Steller sea lions foraging on Atka mackerel. II. Site specific estimates to evaluate availability of Atka mackerel production for sea lion consumption Ivonne Ortiz1,2 and Elizabeth Logerwell1 1 was sufficient to support energetic requirements of Steller sea lions foraging. The sites studied were Seguam

71

The Trojan Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Doureios Hippos or the Trojan Horse was the huge wooden structure, built by the Achaeans on Odysseus’ suggestion, hiding a\\u000a number of fully armed select warriors inside. The Greeks, pretending to depart and give up Troy’s siege, left it before the\\u000a city walls as offering to the gods. The Trojans, discovering the “offering”, had intense arguments: the suspicious ones maintained

S. A. Paipetis

72

Coagulopathies in horses.  

PubMed

Although primary coagulopathies are rare in horses, changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis are commonly associated with inflammatory diseases. A clear understanding of the pathophysiology of normal and abnormal hemostasis is required to be able to choose and interpret diagnostic tests evaluating coagulation and fibrinolysis. After diagnosis, treatment of the underlying disease must occur regardless of whether clinical manifestations (excessive bleeding or thrombosis) of the coagulopathy are present or not. Specific treatment may be initiated if there are clinical signs of coagulopathy. PMID:25016501

Epstein, Kira L

2014-08-01

73

Venous aneurysm in a horse.  

PubMed

Venous aneurysm was diagnosed in a 3-year-old horse, using contrast radiography and acid-base analysis of blood samples taken simultaneously from the right jugular vein and a swelling in the right mandibular angle. Attempted surgical correction was followed by rupture of the right maxillary vein. Hemorrhagic shock developed, and the horse died. PMID:1158779

Hilbert, B J; Rendano, V T

1975-09-01

74

Horse Pastures For Texas.  

E-print Network

of annual warm?season pastures is they produce a large volume of high quality forage over a short period. Perennial Cool-Season Pastures Only a limited variety of perennial or permanent cool? season grasses can be utilized in Texas. In the west... and northwest section of the state, tall wheat grass is forage that can provide high quality pastures for horses. While this is a cool-season perennial grass, the extremely low temperatures of mid-winter make it a major producer during the late winter...

Dorsett, Donald J.; Householder, D. Douglas

1986-01-01

75

Horse Hoof Protectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

2004-01-01

76

Mushroom toxicity in a horse with meningioangiomatosis.  

PubMed

We describe a fatal case of mushroom intoxication in an 18-y-o horse presumably due to Amanita verna. Horses are normally regarded as too fastidious to eat the ill-flavored toadstools. In this case, the horse had a rare benign brain tumor, meningioangiomatosis, which may have altered the horse's normal eating behavior resulting in consumption of the mushrooms. PMID:10839323

Frazier, K; Liggett, A; Hines, M; Styer, E

2000-06-01

77

Horse Evolution Geology 331Geology 331  

E-print Network

Horse Evolution Geology 331Geology 331 Paleontology #12;Horses #12;Equus caballus #12;#12;Equus;EquusMerychippusMiohippusHyracotherium Hind feet left, front feet right. #12;Hyracotherium or Eohippus;MerychippusMerychippus from the MioceneMiocene, a plains grazer #12;The modern horseThe modern horse Equus

Kammer, Thomas

78

Three-dimensional analysis of finlet kinematics in the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).  

PubMed

Finlets, which are small non-retractable fins located on the body margins between the second dorsal and anal fins and the caudal fin of scombrid fishes, have been hypothesized to improve swimming performance. The kinematics of three posterior finlets of the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, were examined using three-dimensional measurement techniques to test hypotheses on finlet rigidity and function during steady swimming. Finlet bending and finlet planar orientation to the xz, yz, and xy planes were measured during steady swimming at 1.2 lengths s(-1) in a flow tank. Despite very similar morphology among the individual finlets, there was considerable variability in finlet flexure during a stroke. Several of the finlets were relatively rigid and flat (with intrafinlet angles close to 180 degrees during the stroke), although intrafinlet angle of the proximal portion of the most posterior finlet varied considerably over the stroke and was as low as 140 degrees midstroke. Finlets showed complex orientations in three-dimensional space over a stroke, and these orientations differed among the finlets. For example, during tail deceleration the proximal portion of the fifth finlet achieves a mean angle of approximately 75 degrees with the xz plane, while the distal portion of this finlet is oriented at 110 degrees. Our data suggest that the trajectory of local water flow varies among finlets and that the most posterior finlet is oriented to redirect flow into the developing tail vortex, which may increase thrust produced by the tail of swimming mackerel. PMID:11249216

Nauen, J C; Lauder, G V

2001-02-01

79

Impact of microbial transglutaminase on gelling properties of Indian mackerel fish protein isolates.  

PubMed

Impacts of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) (0-0.6 units/g sample) on gel properties of Indian mackerel unwashed mince, surimi and protein isolates with and without prewashing were studied. Generally, lower myoglobin and lipid contents were found in protein isolate with and without prewashing, compared to those of unwashed mince and surimi (P<0.05). Protein isolate had the decreased Ca(2+)-ATPase and protein solubility, indicating protein denaturation. When MTGase was incorporated, breaking force and deformation of all gels markedly increased, especially as MTGase levels increased (P<0.05). At the same MTGase level, gel from protein isolate with prewashing exhibited the highest breaking force and deformation (P<0.05). The addition of MTGase could lower the expressible moisture content of most gels. No change in whiteness of gel was observed with the addition of MTGase (P>0.05), but gel from protein isolate gels had decreased whiteness as MTGase at high level was added. The microstructure of protein isolate gels without prewashing showed a similar network to unwashed mince gels, whilst a similar network was observed between surimi gel and gel from protein isolate with prewashing. Nevertheless, a larger void was noticeable in gels from protein isolates. All gels incorporated with MTGase (0.6 units/g) showed a slightly denser network than those without MTGase. Thus, gel with improved properties could be obtained from protein isolate from Indian mackerel with added MTGase. PMID:23122146

Chanarat, Sochaya; Benjakul, Soottawat

2013-01-15

80

Texas 4-H Horse Quiz Bowl Supplement  

E-print Network

Texas 4-H HORSE Quiz Bowl Supplement 4-H 3-2.031 8-99 A. Nutrition Question: What are feces? Answer: The waste matter of digestion Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 25 Division: Both A. Nutrition Question: Name three of the five types... of nutrients a horse needs. Answer: Energy nutrients, proteins, vitamins, min- erals and water Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 26 Division: Senior A. Nutrition Question: What is the main energy nutrient? Answer: Carbohydrate Source: ?Horse Science? Page...

Howard, Jeff W.

1999-09-28

81

78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Horse Protection Act. This document corrects...National Coordinator, Animal Care, APHIS, 4700 River...of the Horse Protection Act. We established the minimum...Subjects in 9 CFR Part 11 Animal welfare, Horses, Reporting...

2013-05-09

82

Ultrastructure of atrial and ventricular myocardium in the pike Esox lucius L. and mackerel Scomber scombrus L. (Pisces)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrial and ventricular muscle in the pike and mackerel hearts consists of narrow, branching cells. The atrial cells in the two species are similar whereas the ventricular cells differ. The sarcolemma is attached to the Z and M lines of the sarcomere. Intercalated discs are common, and the transverse parts display desmosomes and intermediate junctions. Nexuses are uncommon and only

Bjørn Midttun

1980-01-01

83

"Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

2013-01-01

84

Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - Identification of Horses  

E-print Network

Permanently identifying horses can deter theft and help prove ownership. This publication discusses hot-iron branding, freeze branding, electronic identification, lip tattoos, and using photographs, illustrations, parentage verification and brand...

Gibbs, Pete G.; Wall, Leman H.; Householder, Doug

1998-08-12

85

Occurrence of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto in imported Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) represents a risk for Turkish consumers.  

PubMed

Anisakid larvae are a prevalent food-borne pathogen that has been found in numerous fish species destined for human consumption. The accidental consumption of infected raw or poorly cooked fish may cause gastroenteric diseases and allergies in humans. In spite of the fact that thorough cooking or freezing kills Anisakis worms, this method does not destroy their allergenic capacity. The presence of A. simplex (s.s.) in seafood products may present a health risk for consumers. In Turkey, Atlantic mackerels are marketed as frozen and mainly imported from Norway. The aim of this study was to identify the Anisakis species found in deep-frozen whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) destined for human consumption in fish markets that imported fish from Norway to Turkey. All Anisakis larvae isolated from imported Atlantic mackerel were identified via morphology as third larvae of Anisakis Type I. The ITS region (ITS-1, 5.8S subunit, ITS-2) was amplified and digested with the restriction enzymes Hinf I and Hha I. Larvae of the genus Anisakis were identified via PCR-RFLP as belonging to Anisakis simplex (s.s.), and this was confirmed by sequencing the cox2 gene. The overall prevalence of Anisakis larvae was 25% (95% confidence limits: 13-41%), and the mean intensity was 19.1 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits: 15.3-25.5). Recognized zoonotic A. simplex (s.s.) larvae found in imported Atlantic mackerel could represent a risk. Those who consume them could acquire parasitic allergies. The results will have an important impact on public health risk assessment in that they suggest reviewing critical control points at the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmer to reduce the risk of anisakid-induced allergies among consumers. Consequently, the present study provides the first data regarding the occurrence of A. simplex (s.s.) larvae in imported Atlantic mackerel in Turkish markets. PMID:24935687

Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer

2014-08-18

86

Artificially dehydrated lucerne for horses.  

PubMed

Artificially dehydrated lucerne produced in the United Kingdom has been shown to be a better source of nutrients for horses than grass hay. Horses eat more lucerne when it is pelleted, and the processing has little effect on its nutritive value. Lucerne does not appear to contain any antinutritional factors of significance to horses. Lucerne contains readily available calcium and protein and can thus be used as a cereal-balancer or to upgrade poor quality roughages. Because lucerne is a good source of digestible nutrients it has therapeutic applications, including the correction of electrolyte imbalances and hoof horn problems, and it can be used for intragastric nutrition and for feeding old horses. PMID:7846834

Cuddeford, D

1994-10-29

87

9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93.325 ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry...

2010-01-01

88

9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311 Section 93.311 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses...

2010-01-01

89

9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section 93.322 Animals...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

2010-01-01

90

My Kingdom for a Horse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

King, Judith

2004-01-01

91

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned;...

2010-04-01

92

Mature, Senior and Geriatric Horses: Management, Care and Use  

E-print Network

Texas is home to about 1 million horses, the majority of them working horses, competitive event horses and pleasure/recreational riding horses. For owners of horses that have completed their growth, knowing how to take care of their older horses can...

Martin, M. T.; Scrutchfield, W. L.; Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

2005-04-18

93

Migration of adult mackerel along the Atlantic European shelf edge from a tagging experiment in the south of the Bay of Biscay in 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the frame-work of the Shelf Edge Fisheries Oceanography Study (EU AIR SEFOS Project), 10000 mackerel were tagged in March and April 1994, off the Basque Country (Spain), at the eastern part of ICES Division VIIIc, close to the boundary between the, so-called, Southern and Western mackerel stocks in the north-east Atlantic. The purpose of this experiment was to outline

Andrés Uriarte; Paulino Lucio

2001-01-01

94

The influence of spatio-temporal egg production variability on the modelled survival of the early life history stages of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the eastern North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartsch, J. 2005. The influence of spatio-temporal egg production variability on the modelled survival of the early life history stages of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the eastern North Atlantic. e ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 1049e1060. An individual-based model (IBM) that simulates the transport, growth, and mortality of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) eggs and larvae, is used to determine the

Joachim Bartsch

2005-01-01

95

American Museum of Natural History: The Horse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online exhibit that accompanied "The Horse" at American Museum of Natural History is quite informative and useful. Visitors who are not necessarily that interested in horses, may just be won over by this beautiful and educational online exhibit. The "Evolution of Horses" link explains how horses evolved from being multi-toed to single-toed, and how horses as small as a dog, and larger horses, coexisted. Visitors will find the "Horses and Hunters" link dispels the myth about the hunting tactic of Ice Age people that involved corralling the horses to the edge of a cliff and forcing them to jump off to their deaths. Visitors shouldn't miss the subcategories of "Horses and Hunters", as there is much information here, along with great photos of European cave paintings depicting horses. Horses appear more often than any other animal in European cave paintings. The "Epilogue" shows the influence of horses around the world, by showing toy horses from Afghanistan, India, Japan, Italy, Canada, and North America.

96

Dispersion of Horse Allergen from Stables and Areas with Horses into Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: To protect susceptible subjects from exposure to horse allergen, a Swedish national report recommended a distance of at least 500 m between homes and stables and other areas with horses. The aim of this project was to study indoor and outdoor levels of horse allergen in relation to distance from stables and horse tracks. Methods: Indoor and outdoorsamples were

G. Emenius; A.-S. Merritt; B. Härfast

2009-01-01

97

Behavioral problems in Italian saddle horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out in 25 riding centers to evaluate the prevalence of behavioral problems among saddle horses and to investigate the relationship between these and individual traits, training and management of the affected horses. Seven percent of the 650 horses examined had some kind of behavioral problems, and crib-biting was the most frequent. These behavioral problems seemed to

Simona Normando; Elisabetta Canali; Valentina Ferrante; Marina Verga

2002-01-01

98

Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses.  

PubMed

Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses. PMID:24489393

Ohmes, Cameon M; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Vander Werf, Karie A; Bianco, Alex W; Giger, Urs

2014-02-01

99

Feeding Young Horses For Sound Development  

E-print Network

Horse owners must decide whether their young horses will be fed for moderate or rapid growth. One concern is the occurrence of bone and joint disorders in young horses that develop rapidly. Research has shown that this and other problems can...

Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

2005-05-25

100

Grazing -Simulator for horses kept in stalls  

E-print Network

Grazing - Simulator for horses kept in stalls key words: keeping horses stabling movement apparatus floor-treadmill moving platens The Grazing Simulator, as developed by Vienna University, it enables a horse confined to stables to simulate its natural behaviour, ie grazing in the fields, whereby

Szmolyan, Peter

101

Morphologic structuring between populations of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus in the Black, Marmara, Aegean, and northeastern Mediterranean Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometric and meristic analyses of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus were used to discriminate stocks throughout the Black, Marmara, Aegean, and northeastern Mediterranean Seas. Morphometric\\u000a and meristic analyses showed a similar pattern of differentiation between S. japonicus stocks and revealed a clear discreteness of two groups, northeastern Mediterranean (Antalya Bay–Iskenderun Bay) and the northern\\u000a group, including the Aegean, Marmara, and Black Seas. Univariate

Deniz Erguden; Bayram Öztürk; Zeliha Aka Erdogan; Cemal Turan

2009-01-01

102

Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

2011-03-01

103

Hydrodynamics of caudal fin locomotion by chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus (Scombridae).  

PubMed

As members of the derived teleost fish clade Scombridae, mackerel exhibit high-performance aquatic locomotion via oscillation of the homocercal forked caudal fin. We present the first quantitative flow visualization of the wake of a scombrid fish, chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (20-26 cm fork length, FL), swimming steadily in a recirculating flow tank at cruising speeds of 1.2 and 2.2FL s(-1). Thrust was calculated from wake measurements made separately in the horizontal (frontal) plane and vertical (parasagittal) planes using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and compared with drag measurements obtained by towing the same specimens of S. japonicus post mortem. Patterns of flow indicated that the wake consisted of a series of linked elliptical vortex rings, each with central jet flow. The length of the minor axis (height) of the vortex rings was approximately equal to caudal fin span; the length of the major ring axis was dependent on swimming speed and was up to twice the magnitude of ring height. Profiles of wake velocity components were similar to theoretical profiles of vortex rings. Lift, thrust and lateral forces were calculated from DPIV measurements. At 1.2FL s(-1), lift forces measured relative to the X axis were low in magnitude (-1+/-1 mN, mean +/- S.D., N=20) but oriented at a mean angle of 6 degrees to the body axis. Reaction forces tend to rotate the fish about its center of mass, tipping the head down. Thus, the homocercal caudal fin of S. japonicus functions asymmetrically in the vertical plane. Pitching moments may be balanced anteriorly via lift generation by the pectoral fins. Thrust estimates for the two smallest fish based on DPIV analysis were not significantly different from drag measurements made by towing those same animals. At a speed of 1.2FL s(-1), thrust magnitude was 11+/-6 mN (mean +/- S.D, N=40). Lateral force magnitudes were approximately double thrust magnitudes (22+/-6 mN, mean +/- S.D., N=20), resulting in a mean mechanical performance ratio (thrust/total force) of 0.32 at 1.2FL s(-1). An increase in speed by a factor of 1.8 resulted in a mean increase in thrust by a factor of 4.4, a mean increase in lateral forces by a factor of 3, no change in the magnitude of lift produced and an increase in mean mechanical performance to 0.42. The relatively high lateral forces generated during swimming may be a necessary consequence of force production via propagated waves of bending. PMID:12042330

Nauen, Jennifer C; Lauder, George V

2002-06-01

104

Visual Disability and Horse Riding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

Brickell, Diana

2005-01-01

105

Purpura haemorrhagica in 53 horses.  

PubMed

The medical records of 53 horses with purpura haemorrhagica were reviewed. Seventeen of them had been exposed to or infected with Streptococcus equi, nine had been infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, five had been vaccinated with S. equi M protein, five had had a respiratory infection of unknown aetiology, and two had open wounds; the other 15 cases had no history of recent viral or bacterial infection. The horses were between six months and 19 years of age (mean 8.4 years). The predominant clinical signs were well demarcated subcutaneous oedema of all four limbs and haemorrhages on the visible mucous membranes; other signs included depression, anorexia, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, reluctance to move, drainage from lymph nodes, exudation of serum from the skin, colic, epistaxis and weight loss. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities commonly detected were anaemia, neutrophilia, hyperproteinaemia, hyperfibrinogenaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and high activities of muscle enzymes. All of the horses were treated with corticosteroids; 42 also received non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and 26 received antimicrobial drugs. Selected cases received special nursing care, including hydrotherapy and bandaging of the limbs. Most of the horses were treated for more than seven days and none of them relapsed. Forty-nine of the horses survived, one died and three were euthanased, either because their severe clinical disease failed to respond to treatment or because they developed secondary complications. Two of the four non-survivors had been vaccinated against S. equi with a product containing the M protein, one had a S. equi infection and the other had a respiratory infection of undetermined aetiology. PMID:12918829

Pusterla, N; Watson, J L; Affolter, V K; Magdesian, K G; Wilson, W D; Carlson, G P

2003-07-26

106

Oceans Alive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

Rosentrater, Lynn

107

Gonadal development and gonadotropin gene expression during puberty in cultured chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).  

PubMed

Understanding puberty is important for establishing aquaculture in fish. In this study, we analyzed the timing and completion of pubertal development along with changes in pituitary gonadotropin genes (fshb and lhb) in cultured chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). At 45 days post-hatching (dph), gonadal sex differentiation was observed. The onset of puberty occurred at 192 dph in females with the start of vitellogenesis, whereas it occurred at 164 dph in males, with the beginning of spermatogenesis (proliferation and differentiation of germ cells). The completion of puberty was at 326 dph in females when vitellogenesis completed, and it was at 338 dph in males during spermiation. All fish sampled during the spawning season completed pubertal development. In the pituitary of female fish, fshb expression was activated during early secondary growth and was maintained high throughout vitellogenesis, whereas lhb expression was highest at the completion of vitellogenesis. In male fish, fshb and lhb expression were activated from the onset of spermatogenesis and further activated during late pubertal development; fshb remained high between late spermatogenesis and spermiation, whereas lhb was highest during spermiation. PMID:24882101

Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kodama, Ryoko; Kato, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2014-06-01

108

Development of observational learning during school formation in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.  

PubMed

We assessed whether the development of observational learning in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles corresponds with that of their schooling behaviour. Schooling behaviour was quantitatively analyzed by nearest neighbour distance and separation angle in two size classes of fish, 20-mm and 40-mm in body length. Observer and non-observer fish with matching sizes were conditioned to pellets by temporarily stopping aeration. Observer fish were provided with five observation trials of other individuals feeding near an air stone when aeration was stopped. After the observation trial, fish were conditioned to pellets with the stop of aeration, and then the learning process was evaluated by the increase in the association with the feeding area when aeration was stopped. In 20-mm fish, which were at an immature stage of schooling behaviour, there was no difference in the learning process between observer and non-observer fish. In contrast, 40-mm fish were confirmed to have a well-developed schooling behaviour, and the observer learnt the feeding area more efficiently than the non-observer. This study provides evidence that observational learning develops along with the development of the social interaction. PMID:24220796

Takahashi, Kohji; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

2014-03-01

109

9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312 Section 93.312 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the...

2010-01-01

110

9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment information. 93...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities; payment information....

2010-01-01

111

9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No litter or manure, fodder or...

2010-01-01

112

7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

113

[Salinomycin poisoning in a Polish stud horse].  

PubMed

24 cases of salinomycin poisoning in horses occurring recently in Silesia are discussed. All of these horses, used for riding-purposes, were fed with concentrate containing 61 mg/kg salinomycin as faulty prepared by the manufacturer. Each horse received approximately two to three kilograms of this forage. All horses developed severe clinical signs of intoxication. Despite therapy eight horses died within three to six days. Ten others became recumbent and had to be euthanased. Only six horses survived. Clinical and laboratory examinations were performed and are discussed. Laboratory examination of blood included red blood cell count, haematocrit, concentration of haemoglobin, enzyme activities of ASAT, ALAT and AP, also levels of urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and inorganic phosphor. Blood gas was also analysed. The dominating laboratory results were very high enzyme levels and alkalosis. The most characteristic clinical change appeared as paralysis of the hindlimbs. PMID:9441047

Nicpon, J; Czerw, P; Harps, O; Deegen, E

1997-08-01

114

Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome  

PubMed Central

We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

2014-01-01

115

Thiamin supplementation for exercising horses  

E-print Network

was represented. Chromic oxide was used as an external indicator to determine total fecal output. At iv the end of each experimental period horses were subjected to an exercise tolerance test on an equine treadmill. Heart and respiration rates and blood... treadmill which allows measurement of physiological parameters under a standardized workload. Among parameters most commonly used are heart rate, respi- ration rate and venous blood lactic acid concentration. While resting heart rate is generally...

Topliff, Donald Ray

2012-06-07

116

Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.  

PubMed

In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

2013-11-01

117

Identification, characterization, and expression profiles of two subtypes of kisspeptin receptors in a scombroid fish (chub mackerel).  

PubMed

The kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1R) is a cognate receptor for kisspeptin (Kiss), and this Kiss-Kiss1R system has been shown to regulate seasonal reproduction in vertebrates. Our previous study found the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses both kiss1 and kiss2 and exhibits sexually dimorphic changes during the seasonal reproductive cycle. The present study cloned two subtypes of kissr from the chub mackerel brain, and their signal transduction pathways to Kiss1 and Kiss2 were characterized in a mammalian cell line. Results of identification showed that kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs encode 369 and 378 deduced amino acids, respectively, and share 52% similarity in amino acid sequences. In vitro functional analysis revealed that chub mackerel Kiss receptor signals are also preferentially transduced via the protein kinase C (PKC) rather than protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Synthetic chub mackerel Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 peptides showed the highest potency for the activation of KissR1 and KissR2, respectively, stronger than their corresponding Kiss-10 peptides. Tissue distribution analyses indicated that both genes are highly expressed in the brain and that only kissr2 mRNA is expressed in the pituitary of both sexes. Unexpectedly, both kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs were detected only in the testes. Seasonal expression changes showed higher expression levels of both kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs in the brain of females during the early vitellogenic period; however, no significant differences were found in the brain of males. Pituitary kissr2 mRNA levels showed no significant variations. In the testes, the kissr1 mRNA expression level increased dramatically at spermiation compared with the immature and post-spawning periods. However, kissr2 mRNA levels in the testes did not vary significantly at different testicular stages. These results suggest that both kissr1 and kissr2 likely participate in the seasonal ovarian development of females, and thus in males, we propose a paracrine or autocrine role for kissr1 in testicular development. PMID:23932907

Ohga, Hirofumi; Fujinaga, Yoichiro; Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2013-11-01

118

Locomotion in scombrid fishes: morphology and kinematics of the finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus.  

PubMed

Finlets are small non-retractable fins located on the dorsal and ventral margins of the body between the second dorsal and anal fins and the tail of scombrid fishes. The morphology of the finlets, and finlet kinematics during swimming in a flow tank at speeds of 0.8-3. 0 fork lengths s(-1), were examined in the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Functionally, S. japonicus has five dorsal and anal triangular finlets (the fifth finlet is a pair of finlets acting in concert). Slips of muscle that insert onto the base of each finlet indicate the potential for active movement. In animals of similar mass, finlet length and area increased posteriorly. Finlet length, height and area show positive allometry in animals from 45 to 279 g body mass. Summed finlet area was approximately 15 % of caudal fin area. During steady swimming, the finlets typically oscillated symmetrically in the horizontal and vertical planes. Finlet excursions in the x, y and z directions ranged from 1 to 5 mm, increased posteriorly and were independent of speed. The timing of the maximum amplitude of oscillation was phased posteriorly; the phase lag of the maximum amplitude of oscillation was independent of speed. During some periods of gliding, a finlet occasionally moved independently of the body and the other finlets, which indicated active control of finlet movement. The angle of attack of the finlets averaged approximately 0 degrees over a tailbeat, indicating no net contribution to thrust production via classical lift-based mechanisms. However, the timing of finlet movement relative to that of the tail suggests that more posterior finlets may direct some flow longitudinally as the tail decelerates and thereby contribute flow to the developing caudal fin vortex. PMID:10887065

Nauen, J C; Lauder, G V

2000-08-01

119

Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - 15 Steps to Minimizing Theft of Horses and Equipment  

E-print Network

); ? Hot iron brand; ? Microchip (implant); and/or ? Lip tattoo. For detailed information on methods of identif_ication, see Extension publications L-5084, ?Freeze Branding Horses,? and L-5211, ?Permanent Identif_ica- tion of Horses.? Photograph horses... and ke ep photos current. ? Photograph both sides of the horse as close as possible, being sure to get the entire horse in the frame. A lthough saddles, blankets, leg wraps and people may look good in a photo, they often impair the photo?s useful- ness...

Gibbs, Pete G.

2003-09-26

120

Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11). Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype), whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype). It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber and localized areas of atrophy in the peripheral retina were seen. Conclusions The MCOA syndrome is segregating with the PMEL17 mutation in the Icelandic Horse population. This needs to be taken into consideration in breeding decisions and highlights the fact that MCOA syndrome is present in a breed that are more ancient and not closely related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. PMID:21615885

2011-01-01

121

Ocean Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of mammals that live in the ocean? First, you will need to use the Ocean Mammals Table 1. This website is here for you to learn about ocean mammals. Mammals 2. This website will help you learn about the different mammals that live in the ocean. Ocean Mammals 3. Here is some information about how oil spills effect animal skin in the ocean. Oil Spills 4. This link ...

Teschner, Miss

2011-04-06

122

May the Horse Be With You  

E-print Network

, for example, 1951, they're asking for an animal, more specifically, one of the 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac. And they are, in order of appearance: Rat, Ox, Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Goat, Monkey, Rooster, Dog and Pig. The Year of the Horse...

Hacker, Randi

2014-01-08

123

Feeding value of pastures for horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding value of fresh pasture grazed in situ is determined by animal performance or productivity and could be relatively easily established for growing and lactating horses. Despite this, there is a lack of published information on the relative feeding value of different pastures and forages grazed by horses in New Zealand and the world. In addition, for adult breeding

SO Hoskin; EK Gee

2004-01-01

124

Idiosyncratic motor laterality in the horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiosyncratic motor behaviour was investigated during four experimental procedures in 40 horses (males=20, females=20) to establish if horses revealed evidence of significant right or left laterality. The experimental procedures included (1) detection of the preferred foreleg to initiate movement (walk or trot), (2) obstacle avoidance within a passageway (right or left), (3) obstacle avoidance when ridden and (4) idiosyncratic motor

J. Murphy; A. Sutherland; S. Arkins

2005-01-01

125

Anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppressive anthelmintic treatment strategies originally designed to control Strongylus vulgaris in horses were extremely successful in reducing morbidity and mortality from parasitic dis- ease. Unfortunately, this strategy has inadvertently resulted in the selection of drug-resistant cyathostomes (Cyathostominea), which are now considered the principal parasitic pathogens of horses. Resistance in the cyathostomes to benzimidazole drugs is highly prevalent throughout the world,

Ray M. Kaplan

2002-01-01

126

Antioxidant and functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel skin as influenced by average molecular weight.  

PubMed

In the current study, the relationships between functional properties and average molecular weight (AMW) of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius) skin were researched. Seven hydrolysate fractions (5.04 ? AMW ? 47.82 kDa) from collagen of Spanish mackerel skin were obtained through the processes of acid extraction, proteolysis, and fractionation using gel filtration chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the collagen hydrolysate fractions were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the antioxidant activities and the logarithm of the AMW of the hydrolysate fractions in the tested AMW range. However, the reduction of AMW significantly enhanced the solubility of the hydrolysate fractions, and a similar AMW decrease of the hydrolysate fractions negatively affected the emulsifying and foaming capacities. This presented as a positive correlation between the logarithm of AMW and emulsion stability index, emulsifying activity index, foam stability, and foam capacity. Therefore, these collagen hydrolysates with excellent antioxidant activities or good functionalities as emulsifiers could be obtained by controlling the effect of the digestion process on the AMW of the resultant hydrolysates. PMID:25090114

Chi, Chang-Feng; Cao, Zi-Hao; Wang, Bin; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Li, Zhong-Rui; Zhang, Bin

2014-01-01

127

Odor and VOC Emissions from Pan Frying of Mackerel at Three Stages: Raw, Well-Done, and Charred.  

PubMed

Many classes of odorants and volatile organic compounds that are deleterious to our wellbeing can be emitted from diverse cooking activities. Once emitted, they can persist in our living space for varying durations. In this study, various volatile organic compounds released prior to and during the pan frying of fish (mackerel) were analyzed at three different cooking stages (stage 1 = raw (R), stage 2 = well-done (W), and stage 3 = overcooked/charred (O)). Generally, most volatile organic compounds recorded their highest concentration levels at stage 3 (O), e.g., 465 (trimethylamine) and 106 ppb (acetic acid). In contrast, at stage 2 (W), the lowest volatile organic compounds emissions were observed. The overall results of this study confirm that trimethylamine is identified as the strongest odorous compound, especially prior to cooking (stage 1 (R)) and during overcooking leading to charring (stage 3 (O)). As there is a paucity of research effort to measure odor intensities from pan frying of mackerel, this study will provide valuable information regarding the management of indoor air quality. PMID:25405596

Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Szulejko, Jan E; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won

2014-01-01

128

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.  

PubMed

Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

Weese, J Scott

2004-12-01

129

Warfarin anticoagulation in the horse.  

PubMed

The hematologic and clinical effects of anticoagulation with warfarin were documented in 4 horses. All of the animals had thrombophlebitis (external jugular vein). Measures of coagulation were monitored, with a prothrombin time of 1.5 to 2.5 x base-line value being used as the effective range of anticoagulation. Recanalization was achieved in 2 of 4 cases. Hemorrhage, both subcutaneous and through a surgical incision, was a complication. Vitamin K1, an antidote to warfarin toxicosis, was administered intravenously to reverse anticoagulation and to control hemorrhage. PMID:7440316

Scott, E A; Byars, T D; Lamar, A M

1980-12-01

130

Postanesthetic brachial triceps myonecrosis in a Spanish-bred horse  

PubMed Central

This report describes a case of postanesthetic brachial triceps myonecrosis affecting only the left forelimb of a horse. A fatal unilateral postanesthetic myonecrosis has not been previously reported in the horse. This article describes the factors in the horse’s history, the anesthetic protocol, and the treatment that may have led to this condition. PMID:19412400

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodriguez, M. Jesus; Aguirre, Carla; Buendia, Antonio J.; Belda, Eliseo; Laredo, Francisco G.

2009-01-01

131

Feeding and Caring for a Yearling 4-H Futurity Horse  

E-print Network

In a 4-H yearling futurity project, a 4-H club member trains and cares for a yearling horse for the purpose of entering that horse into competition. This publication explains how to care for a yearling horse and have a successful horse project...

Antilley, Teri J.; Sigler, Dennis

2009-04-23

132

Ocean Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Talk provides a glimpse of oceanography and an awareness of the importance of the sea to our environment and our own well-being. There are scientific explanations of ocean bottom features, the properties of seawater, underwater sound, sea ice, ocean currents, tides, waves, and tsunamis. A history of marine exploration and descriptions of the Earth's oceans are also provided.

133

Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.  

PubMed

Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human. PMID:15458726

Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary

2004-11-01

134

Human facial discrimination in horses: can they tell us apart?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human–horse relationship has a long evolutionary history. Horses continue to play a pivotal role in the lives of humans\\u000a and it is common for humans to think their horses recognize them by face. If a horse can distinguish his\\/her human companion\\u000a from other humans, then evolution has supplied the horse with a very adaptive cognitive ability. The current study

Sherril M. Stone

2010-01-01

135

Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.  

PubMed

In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods. PMID:24290612

Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

2014-02-01

136

Microsatellite Variation in Japanese and Asian Horses and Their Phylogenetic Relationship Using a European Horse Outgroup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic relationships of seven Japanese and four mainland-Asian horse populations, as well as two European horse populations, were estimated using data for 20 microsatellite loci. Mongolian horses showed the highest average heterozygosities (0.75-0.77) in all populations. Phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of three distinct clusters supported by high bootstrap values: the European cluster (Anglo-Arab and thoroughbreds), the Hokkaido-Kiso cluster,

T. Tozaki; N. TAKEZAKI; T. HASEGAWA; N. ISHIDA; M. KUROSAWA; M. TOMITA; N. SAITOU

2003-01-01

137

Metazoan parasites of the jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (Teleostei, Carangidae) in a latitudinal gradient from South America (Chile and Peru).  

PubMed

The metazoa parasite fauna of the jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920, obtained from seven ports from a latitudinal gradient of more than 30 degrees (From Paita Peru: 05 degrees 10' S to Talcahuano, Chile 36 degrees 40' S) was quantitatively described. 21 species of metazoan parasites were recorded (Monogenea 4, Digenea 3, Cestoda 5, Acanthocephala 2, Nematoda 4, Copepoda 2, Isopoda 1). Only four parasites (Lernanthropus trachuri, Ceratothoa gaudichaudii, Corynosoma australis, Anisakis simplex) were common to the seven ports. Only twelve species reach prevalence over 5% in at least one port. Main characteristic of the parasite fauna is the sparse of adult helminthes, specifically digenean and the dominance of larval forms, at both qualitative and quantitative levels. There are not evidence of changes in the parasite community along a latitudinal gradient, but at least Anisakis simplex (larvae) shows a trend in both, prevalence and mean intensity, increasing from north to south. PMID:10511970

Oliva, M E

1999-09-01

138

Horses  

MedlinePLUS

... likely than others to develop severe illness. More Ringworm ( Trichophyton and Microsporum spp.) Ringworm is a condition caused by a fungus that ... hair, and nails of both humans and animals. Ringworm is spread from animals to humans through direct ...

139

Protopine alkaloids in horse urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and

Paul M Wynne; John H Vine; R Gary Amiet

2004-01-01

140

West Nile Encephalitis in Humans and Horses  

E-print Network

Humans and horses are infected with West Nile Encephalitis after being bitten by mosquitoes that transmit the virus. Migratory birds are thought to be responsible for the introduction of the virus into new areas. This publication explains...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2000-08-25

141

Toxicological effects of aflatoxins in horses.  

PubMed

Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins principally produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which are both natural contaminants of food and feedstuff. Aflatoxin B(1) is the most prevalent member of this group that is normally detected and is the most powerful hepatocarcinogen known. Few naturally occurring episodes of aflatoxicosis in horses have been reported in the literature. Indeed, the published information about aflatoxin exposure, metabolism and the effects on horses is limited and controversial, possibly indicating a lack of awareness rather than the rarity of the occurrence. The target organ in horses, as in other animal species, is the liver and horses suffering from aflatoxicosis show signs of inappetence, depression, fever, tremor, ataxia and cough. Necropsy findings include a yellow-brown liver with centrilobular necrosis, icterus, haemorrhage, tracheal exudates and brown urine. A possible link between aflatoxin exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been hypothesised. PMID:20619706

Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina

2011-06-01

142

A Song for the Horse Nation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website accompanies an exhibition at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) George Gustav Heye Center in New York City, and presents "the epic story of the horse's influence on American Indian tribes from the 1600s to the present." Divided into five thematic sections, the exhibition draws on the riches of NMAI, using both historical objects, such as drawings, hoof ornaments, beaded bags, hide robes, and paintings, as well as new pieces by contemporary Native artists. For example, in the "Native Arts & the Horse", 1840-1900 section, visitors can see images of bridles, saddles and saddle blankets, and other clothing, along with photos of these being used and worn. The section "The Horse Nation Lives On" includes works by contemporary Native American artists, such as a painting by Jim Yellowhawk (Cheyenne River Lakota, b. 1958), Lakota Horse Mask, 2008, and beaded rawhide bags made by Jackie Bread (Piikuni, b. 1960) in 2009.

143

9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies...319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

2010-01-01

144

9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

2010-01-01

145

9 CFR 93.321 - Import permits and applications for inspection for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...permits and applications for inspection for horses. 93.321 Section 93.321 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.321 Import permits and applications for inspection for horses. For horses intended for...

2010-01-01

146

9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

2011-01-01

147

Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

McIntosh, Phyllis

2014-01-01

148

Molecular characterization, tissue distribution, and mRNA expression profiles of two Kiss genes in the adult male and female chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) during different gonadal stages.  

PubMed

Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, have emerged as key modulators of reproduction in mammals. In contrast to the placental mammals, some teleosts express two Kiss genes, Kiss1 and Kiss2. In the present study, full-length cDNAs of Kiss1 and Kiss2 in the chub mackerel were cloned and sequenced. Chub mackerel Kiss1 and Kiss2 cDNAs encode 105 and 123 amino acids, respectively. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of chub mackerel Kiss1 and Kiss2 with those of other vertebrate species showed a high degree of conservation only in the kisspeptin-10 region (Kp-10). The Kp-10 of chub mackerel Kiss1 (YNFNSFGLRY) and Kiss2 (FNFNPFGLRF) showed variations at three amino acids. Tissue distribution analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the Kiss1 and Kiss2 transcripts were expressed in different tissues of adult chub mackerel. In addition, their levels in the adipose tissue exhibited sexually dimorphic expression. Further, to have a basic understanding on the involvement of Kiss1 and Kiss2 in the seasonal gonadal development, their relative mRNA expression profiles in the brain, pituitary, and gonads at different gonadal stages were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Kiss1 and Kiss2 levels in the brain showed a differential expression profile between male and female fish. In males, Kiss1 and Kiss2 levels gradually decreased from the immature stage to spermiation and reached a minimal level during the post-spawning period. In contrast, Kiss1 levels in the brain of females did not vary significantly among the different gonadal stages. However, Kiss2 levels fluctuated as that of males, gradually declining from the immature stage to the post-spawning period. The pituitary Kiss1 levels did not show significant fluctuations. However, Kiss1 levels in the gonads were highly elevated during spermiation and late vitellogenesis compared to the immature and post-spawning period. These results suggest the possible involvement of two Kiss genes in the brain and Kiss1 in the gonads of chub mackerel during seasonal gonadal development. PMID:20691652

Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Fujinaga, Yoichiro; Ohga, Hirofumi; Yoneda, Michio; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Shimizu, Akio; Matsuyama, Michiya

2010-10-01

149

Identification of copy number variants in horses.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds. PMID:22383489

Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazey, Kylee; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V

2012-05-01

150

Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.  

PubMed

This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

2012-09-01

151

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

152

Ocean tides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

Hendershott, M. C.

1975-01-01

153

Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Do You Have Horse Sense!  

E-print Network

to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs Horse ears picture Crayons or colored pencils, bendy straws Pictures of horses: angry (ears pinned), scared (throwing head up), interested (ears perked), sleepy (drowsy expression) Pictures of people

Liskiewicz, Maciej

154

Environmental Assessment Wild Horse Gathering for the Fifteenmile Wild Horse Herd Management Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Worland Field Office (WFO), proposes to gather excess wild horses in the Fifteenmile Wild Horse Herd Management Area (HMA), during the fall of 2000. This action would be implemented under the authority of the Wild Free...

2000-01-01

155

HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907  

E-print Network

have a tremendous capacity for exercise and activity for long periods of time and quickly recover from exercise when they are healthy and fit. The spleen of the horse can hold new red blood cells and the horse excessive sweating, muscle stiffness, stiffness of gait, dehydration, overall dullness, depression

156

Ocean Terracing  

E-print Network

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean Art is the technically possible 21-st Century terracing of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Art is applicable worldwide to places that might be practically improved by its judicious employment. Such Ocean Art may constitute an entirely unique category of solutions to coastal disaster prevention planning.

Richard Cathcart; Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-09

157

Effects of turbidity on survival of larval ayu and red sea bream exposed to predation by jack mackerel and moon jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory experiments to examine the effects of turbidity on the survival of red sea bream Pagrus major and ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis larvae when exposed to either visual (jack mackerel juveniles) or tactile (moon jellyfish) predators. The experiments were\\u000a conducted in 30-l tanks with three different levels of turbidity obtained by dissolving 0, 50, or 300 ppm kaolin. Predators

Ryosuke Ohata; Reiji Masuda; Masahiro Ueno; Yuichi Fukunishi; Yoh Yamashita

2011-01-01

158

Mackerel skin lipids as an unsaturated fat model system for the determination of antioxidative potency of TBHQ and other antioxidant compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  A comparative study on the activity of antioxidation of butylhydroxy anisole, (BHA), butylhydroxy toluene (BHT),tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), ?-tocopherol, and tempeh oil has been investigated by using the readily oxidizable mackerel skin\\u000a lipids as the tested model system. The oxidation rate of the tested lipids was mainly followed by measuring the weight gain,\\u000a but some peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and

P. J. Ke; D. M. Nash; R. G. Ackman

1977-01-01

159

mRNA levels of kisspeptins, kisspeptin receptors, and GnRH1 in the brain of chub mackerel during puberty.  

PubMed

Kisspeptin (Kiss) and its cognate receptor (Kiss1R), implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH secretion in mammals, have been proposed to be the key factors in regulating puberty. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of puberty in fish are poorly understood. The chub mackerel Scomber japonicus expresses two forms of Kiss (kiss1 and kiss2) and two Kiss receptor (kissr1 and kissr2) genes in the brain, which exhibit sexually dimorphic changes during the seasonal reproductive cycle. This indicates that the kisspeptin system plays an important role in gonadal recrudescence of chub mackerel; however, the involvement of the kisspeptin system in the pubertal process has not been identified. In the present study, we examined the mRNA expression of kiss1, kiss2, kissr1, kissr2, and gnrh1 (hypophysiotropic form) in the brain of a chub mackerel during puberty. In male fish, kiss2, kissr1 and kissr2 levels increased significantly at 14weeks post-hatch (wph), synchronously with an increase in type A spermatogonial populations in the testis; kiss2 and gnrh1 levels significantly increased at 22wph, just before the onset of meiosis in the testes. In female fish, kiss2 increased significantly at 14wph, synchronously with an increase in the number of perinucleolar oocytes in the ovary; kiss1 and kiss2 levels significantly increased concomitantly with an increase in the kissr1, kissr2, and gnrh1 levels at 24wph, just before the onset of vitellogenesis in oocytes. The present results suggest positive involvement of the kisspeptin-GnRH system in the pubertal process in the captive reared chub mackerel. PMID:25250485

Ohga, Hirofumi; Adachi, Hayato; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kodama, Ryoko; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Selvaraj, Sethu; Kato, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

2015-01-01

160

The horse-human dyad: can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram?  

PubMed

This article examines the recently completed equid ethogram and shows how analogues of social interactions between horses may occur in various human-horse interactions. It discusses how some specific horse-horse interactions have a corresponding horse-human interaction - some of which may be directly beneficial for the horse while others may be unusual or even abnormal. It also shows how correspondent behaviours sometimes become inappropriate because of their duration, consistency or context. One analogue is unlikely to hold true for all horse-human contexts, so when applying any model from horse-horse interactions to human-horse interactions, the limitations of the model may eclipse the intended outcome of the intervention. These limitations are especially likely when the horse is being ridden. Such analyses may help to determine the validity of extrapolating intra-specific interactions to the inter-specific setting, as is advocated by some popular horse-training methods, and highlight the subsequent limitations where humans play the role of the 'alpha mare' or leader in horse handling and training. This examination provides a constructive framework for further informed debate and empirical investigation of the critical features of successful intra-specific interactions. PMID:19375965

McGreevy, P D; Oddie, C; Burton, F L; McLean, A N

2009-07-01

161

Serum hepatitis associated with commercial plasma transfusion in horses.  

PubMed

This report describes 4 fatal cases of serum hepatitis associated with the administration of commercial plasma in the horse. Serum hepatitis in the horse is characterized by acute hepatic central lobular necrosis, and it has been associated with the administration of biological products of equine origin. None of these horses had a recent history of equine biologic-origin vaccination; however, they had received 1.5-5 L of commercial plasma, and in I horse, an additional 8 L of fresh blood. Acute, severe colic unresponsive to medical therapy, lethargy, or sudden death developed in these 4 horses 41 to 60 days later. Two of the horses developed encephalopathy, confirmed in 1 horse by the presence of severe diffuse Alzheimer type II astrocytes in the brain. Although the prevalence of serum hepatitis associated with the administration of commercial plasma appears to be low in the horse, it should be considered an uncommon but potentially fatal risk factor. PMID:15715060

Aleman, Monica; Nieto, Jorge E; Carr, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Gary P

2005-01-01

162

Rupture of the peroneus tertius tendon in 27 horses  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing the outcome and prognosis of rupture of the tendon of the peroneus tertius muscle in 27 horses. Information on history, physical examination findings, diagnosis, treatment, and final outcome was summarized from medical records. Long-term follow-up information on horses was obtained by telephone survey. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to analyze factors influencing the outcome. Rupture occurred in the midbody of the tendon in 11 horses, at the insertion site in 11 horses, and at the origin in 2 horses. Overall, 18/23 (78.3%) horses returned to their previous level of exercise, 5/23 (21.7%) horses were euthanized due to persistent lameness. If the horse was racing at the time of injury or had an additional structure injured besides the peroneus tertius tendon, it was less likely to return to its intended use. PMID:16048009

2005-01-01

163

Wild, Free-Roaming Horses - An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this bibliography is to provide a comprehensive annotated list of articles, books, manuscripts, etc. on Wild Horses. Because of the limited information available specifically on Wild Horses, much of the information included in the bibliogra...

M. Zarn, T. Heller, K. Collins

1977-01-01

164

Activity of group-transported horses during onboard rest stops  

E-print Network

Activity of group-transported horses was evaluated during onboard rest stops to determine if horses derive meaningful rest. A single-deck semi-trailer separated into three compartments was used for all shipments. In Experiment One, twelve video...

Keen, Heidi A.

2007-04-25

165

Effect of Concentrate Form on Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Horses  

E-print Network

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common amongst equine athletes of various disciplines and linked to decreased performance. Prevalence among racehorses has been reported to be over 90%, performance horses at 60%, and endurances horses...

Huth, Lindsey

2012-02-14

166

Exercise performance of horses fed added dietary fat  

E-print Network

of 14 d was conducted to acquaint the horses with the treadmill and collection apparatus. Exercise was limited to that required to accustom the horses to the experimental equipment. The horses were individually fed a diet consisting of a 14. 5... Exercise Tolerance Test initially and at the end of each period, each horse was subjected to a standard exercise tolerance test (SET) on an equine treadmill using slight modifications of procedures reported by Pearson (1980). The treadmi 1 1 was set...

Meyers, Michael Clinton

2012-06-07

167

Atypical myopathy in grazing horses: A first exploratory data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, atypical myopathy (AM) in grazing horses has emerged in several European countries. An exploratory analysis was conducted to determine horse- and pasture-level indicators or factors associated with AM in Belgium. Belgian cases of AM confirmed by histology (n=57) were compared to their healthy co-grazing horses (n=77) and to pastured horses not involved with AM as controls

Dominique-M. Votion; Annick Linden; Catherine Delguste; Hélène Amory; Etienne Thiry; Patrick Engels; Gaby van Galen; Rachel Navet; Francis Sluse; Didier Serteyn; Claude Saegerman

2009-01-01

168

Continuing prevalence of African horse sickness in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Equine sera collected from 10 widely separated regions throughout Nigeria were tested for antibodies against African horse sickness viruses (AHSV) using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The animals sampled included imported, exotic horses, indigenous and locally cross-bred (local) horses and African donkeys. A high percentage of the sera (79.8%) were positive, confirming the continued prevalence of AHSV antibodies in Nigerian horses and donkeys. PMID:7569227

Adeyefa, C A; Hamblin, C

1995-01-01

169

Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.  

PubMed

In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all. PMID:22767092

Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

2012-12-01

170

9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for...Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable...of evidence of communicable disease, and that, so far as it...not been exposed to any such disease common to animals of...

2010-01-01

171

Influence of Acute Exercise on Serum Homocysteine in Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acute exercise on serum homocysteine (sHCy) concentration was examined in 10 horses; five Sella Italiana and five Thoroughbreds. All horses underwent standard training before the study (show jumping for Sella Italiana horses and gallop racing for Thoroughbreds). For the study, blood samples were taken at rest, immediately after exercise, and during a recovery period (30 and 60minutes

Francesco Fazio; Giuseppe Piccione; Stefania Casella; Anna Assenza; Vanessa Messina; Giovanni Caola

2010-01-01

172

Uneven feet limit performance of a warmblood horse population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warmblood horses scored by the jury as having uneven feet will never pass yearly selection sales of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN).To evaluate whether the undesired trait ‘uneven feet’ influences performance, databases of KWPN (n = 62234 horses) and KNHS (n = 16015 show jumpers, n = 24269 dressage horses) were linked through the unique number of each registered

B. M. C. Gorissen; B. J. Ducro; Tartwijk van H; G. Naber; Eldik van P; W. Back

2006-01-01

173

FIELD STUDY OF HOOF WALL PROBLEMS IN UNSHOD WORKING HORSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 100 native breed unshod working horses was examined for hoof wall problems. The diagnosis of hoof wall defects was performed by close visual observation and via physical examina- tion. The location, extent and types of defects were then determined and recorded. Out of 100 horses, 124 hoof wall defects were noted in ninety working horses. The number

A. S. BIGHAM; A. N. TABATABAEI

174

Techniques and Technology Immunocontraception in Wild Horses: One Inoculation  

E-print Network

-injection, 2-year-duration PZP vaccine in free-roaming wild horses (Equus caballus) in Nevada, USA adjuvant, controlled-release vaccine contraception, Equus caballus, field study, free-roaming wild horse Protection Act in 1971, management of wild horses (Equus caballus) on public lands has proven biologically

Abraham, Nader G.

175

76 FR 55107 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

2011-09-06

176

36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

2010-07-01

177

78 FR 46599 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...meeting can be mailed to National Wild Horse and Burro Program, WO-260,...

2013-08-01

178

27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188 Section 9...American Viticultural Areas § 9.188 Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name...viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4...

2010-04-01

179

Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

Tahmoush, David

2014-05-01

180

27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124 Section 9.124 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.124 Wild Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

2010-04-01

181

9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93.317 ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in...

2010-01-01

182

75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board) will...meeting on the BLM's management of wild horses and burros. This will be a two day...

2010-05-13

183

76 FR 7231 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

2011-02-09

184

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

2010-07-01

185

15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5 Section... SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement...a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

2010-01-01

186

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2014-07-01

187

36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2012-07-01

188

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2013-07-01

189

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2011-07-01

190

36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2013-07-01

191

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2012-07-01

192

36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2011-07-01

193

Ecological Impacts: Oceans Under-studied Oceans  

E-print Network

(more predators) Effects of Fish Capture & Handling #12;Chemistry of Ocean Acidification #12;High certainty: ocean acidification #12;Carbonate Life Forms in the Ocean #12;Ocean Acidification and CoralsEcological Impacts: Oceans #12;Under-studied Oceans #12;Example of long-term ocean records #12

Schweik, Charles M.

194

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Cole, Ms.

2011-04-07

195

Oceans - Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic video explains how the ocean produces 70 percent of the Earth's oxygen and drives our weather and the chemistry of the planet. Most of the creatures on Earth live in the sea, but our knowledge of the ocean is far outstripped by our impact on it. The video includes an introduction to the interaction of humans in the biosphere with the hydrosphere and the ocean's pollution problem.

Geographic, Ocean L.

2011-09-01

196

Basic farriery for the performance horse.  

PubMed

Proper farriery promotes a healthy functional foot and biomechanical efficiency and prevents lameness. Because the equine veterinarian is responsible for the soundness of the horse, a working knowledge of farriery becomes essential. A thorough knowledge of traditional horseshoeing enables the veterinarian to interact with the farrier at the farrier's level; this ultimately enhances and promotes quality hoof care. This article focuses on fundamental farriery and recognizing subtle changes in hoof conformation that can be used to preserve the integrity of the hoof capsule, along with the structures enclosed within, and thus prevent lameness in the performance horse. PMID:18314044

O'Grady, Stephen E

2008-04-01

197

Rapid diagnosis of African horse sickness.  

PubMed

The rapid diagnosis of African horse sickness (AHS) during the incubation period using virus antigens in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and red blood cells (RBC) in a sandwich indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is reported. PMBC consistently gave higher positive ELISA results than RBC from blood collected during viraemia from clinically affected horses. The potential of the method described for wider application in rapid diagnosis and virus surveillance in susceptible equine populations, particularly in AHS-free and in enzootic areas, for effective control strategies is highlighted. PMID:9239936

Adeyefa, C A

1996-01-01

198

Texas 4-H Horse Project Teaching Outlines  

E-print Network

and the hindgut. II. Compartments and functions A. The foregut has four components: the mouth, esopha- gus, stomach and small intestine. 1. In the mouth, digestion begins, and feeds are chewed and wetted with saliva. a. Chewing reduces particle size and increases... sur- face area of the feed. b. A horse?s teeth may need to be floated if it holds its head sideways, drops grain and salivates ex- cessively when it is chewing. 2. The esophagus is a muscular tube leading from the pharynx to the stomach. 3...

Howard, Jeff W.; Johnson, Ken; Mason, Vanessa; Mitchell, Julianne

2000-06-15

199

Anisakidae nematodes and Trypanorhyncha cestodes of hygienic importance infecting the king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

From February to October 2007, thirty specimens of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier, 1829) were purchased from markets in the municipalities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro. The fishes were measured, filleted and further had their organs investigated for helminths. Ten out of the thirty fish specimens were parasitized with anisakid nematodes represented by Anisakis sp. and Contracaecum sp. with prevalence of 1% and 16%, mean intensity of 2 and 3.31 and mean abundance of 0.02 and 0.53, respectively. The infection range with Contracaecum sp. was 1-9. The sites of infection were the stomach serosa and mesentery. Seventeen fish specimens (53%) out of the 30 investigated were parasitized with Trypanorhyncha metacestodes, identified as Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Pterobothrium crassicole, Callitetrarhynchus speciosus and Tentacularia coryphaenae in the mesentery, with prevalence of 26, 20, 6, 3%, intensity and mean intensity of 3.25, 3.5, 1, 2 and mean abundance of 0.86, 0.7, 0.06 and 0.06, respectively. The infection range due to C. gracilis and P. crassicole were of 1-5 and 1-20, respectively. Anisakis sp., C. speciosus and P. crassicole are reported in S. cavalla for the first time. Considerations on the zoonotic potential of the parasites and their rules in sanitary inspection are presented. PMID:21115292

Dias, F J E; São Clemente, S C; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães; Knoff, Marcelo

2011-02-10

200

Ocean tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to their spatial scales and to the generation mechanisms applying, tidal phenomena in the sea are presented together with hydrodynamic models explaining their existence and appearance. The astronomical tide generating forces, to which the tidal variations of the ocean state variables can finally be traced, have planetary scale and therefore can directly excite tidal oscillations in the open ocean.

Wilfried Zahel

1997-01-01

201

Oceanic Plateaus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the existence of large continental flood basalt provinces has been known for some considerable time, e.g., Holmes (1918), the recognition that similar flood basalt provinces also exist below the oceans is relatively recent. In the early 1970s increasing amounts of evidence from seismic reflection and refraction studies revealed that the crust in several large portions of the ocean floor

A. C. Kerr

2003-01-01

202

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

203

Ocean Acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans play a central role in the maintenance of life on Earth. Oceans provide extensive ecosystems for marine animals and plants covering two-thirds of the Earth's surface, are essential sources of food, economic activity, and biodiversity, and are central to the global biogeochemical cycles. The oceans are the largest reservoir of carbon in the Planet, and absorb approximately one-third of the carbon emissions that are released to the Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities. Since the beginning of industrialization, humans have been responsible for the increase in one greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), from approximately 280 parts per million (ppm) at the end of the nineteenth century to the current levels of 390ppm. As well as affecting the surface ocean pH, and the organisms living at the ocean surface, these increases in CO2 are causing global mean surface temperatures to rise.

Iglesias-Rodriguez, Maria Debora

204

Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities  

PubMed Central

The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

2014-01-01

205

Genomic analysis of the horse Y chromosome  

E-print Network

% of cases, male infertility is associated with deletions/rearrangements in the Y chromosome. Presently there is no gene map for the Y chromosome in the horse. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to build a detailed physical map of the chromosome...

Santani, Avni Bhawan

2005-02-17

206

The Trojan Horse Method in Nuclear Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications aimed to extract the bare Sb(E) astrophysical factor for several two body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential Ue was obtained from comparison with the direct experiments of fusion reactions.

Spitaleri, C.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Romano, S.; Tumino, A.; Figuera, P.; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.

2005-12-01

207

Proximal interphalangeal arthrodesis in 22 horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method of internal fixation technique for pastern arthrodesis. Pastern arthrodeses are performed commonly in horses with chronic osteoarthritis of the pastern joint or, in cases of acute traumatic injury to the pastern, in which the weightbearing bony column must be restored. Chronic osteoarthritis of the pastern is a frequent

T. P. SCHAER; L. R. BRAMLAGE; R. M. EMBERTSON; S. HANCE

2010-01-01

208

Infarctive purpura hemorrhagica in five horses.  

PubMed

Five horses were examined because of signs of muscle stiffness, colic, or both. All 5 had been exposed to Streptococcus equi within 3 weeks prior to examination or had high serum titers of antibodies against the M protein of S equi. Horses had signs of unrelenting colic-like pain and focal areas of muscle swelling. Four horses were euthanatized. The fifth responded to treatment with penicillin and dexamethasone; after 3 weeks of treatment with dexamethasone, prednisolone was administered for an additional 10 weeks. Common hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities included neutrophilia with a left shift and toxic changes, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and high serum creatine kinase and aspartate transferase activities. Necropsy revealed extensive infarction of the skeletal musculature, skin, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and lungs. Histologic lesions included leukocytoclastic vasculitis in numerous tissues and acute coagulative necrosis resembling infarction. These horses appeared to have a severe form of purpura hemorrhagica resembling Henoch-Schönlein purpura in humans and characterized by infarction of skeletal muscles. Early recognition of focal muscle swelling, abdominal discomfort, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and high serum creatine kinase activity combined with antimicrobial and corticosteroid treatment may enhance the likelihood of a successful outcome. PMID:15934258

Kaese, Heather J; Valberg, Stephanie J; Hayden, David W; Wilson, Julia H; Charlton, Patricia; Ames, Trevor R; Al-Ghamdi, Ghanem M

2005-06-01

209

Stretching Exercises for Horses: Are They Effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to present research in both animals and humans that support the use of stretching exercises in horses as a means of increasing range of motion, improving body flexibility and posture, and preventing injury by strengthening the supportive tissues. Too often veterinarians may overlook the importance of stretch exercises. This could partially be due to a lack of

Ava Frick

2010-01-01

210

Understanding the perceptual world of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the viewpoint of experimental psychology, there are two problems with our current knowledge of equine perception. The first is that the behavioral and neurophysiological research in this area has enormous gaps, reflecting that this animal is not a convenient laboratory subject. The second is that the horse, having been a close companion to humans for many millennia, entrenched anecdotal

Carol A Saslow

2002-01-01

211

Prepurchase Examination of Jumpers and Dressage Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rigorous examination aided by a check list, careful recording of findings, knowledge of the horse's discipline and awareness of legal liability are necessary for a satisfactory prepurchase examina- tion. Clear communications with all parties can help avoid misunderstandings and upsets. Au- thor's address: 59 Winding Rd., Santa Fe, NM 87505. r 1999 AAEP.

Daniel Marks

212

Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

Symington, Ashley

2012-01-01

213

Trojan Horse Particle Invariance: An Extensive Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, the Trojan Horse method (THM) has played a crucial role for the measurement of several particle (both neutron and charged one) induced cross sections for reactions of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases, many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance proves the relatively simple approach allowed by the pole approximation and sheds light in the involved reaction mechanisms. Here we shortly review the complete work for the binary 2H(d,p)3H, 6Li(d, ?)4He, 6Li(p, ?)3He, 7Li(p, ?)4He reactions, by using the quasi free reactions after break-ups of different nuclides. Results are compared assuming the 6Li and 3He break-up in the case of the d(d,p)t, 6Li(d, ?)4He reactions and considering the 2H and 3He break-up for 6Li(p, ?)3He, 7Li(p, ?)4He reactions. These results, regardless of the Trojan Horse particle or the break-up scheme, confirms the applicability of the standard description of the THM and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nuclei for a whole spectra of different cases. This gives a strong basis for the understanding of the quasi-free mechanism which is the foundation on which the THM lies.

Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Lamia, L.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spartá, R.

2014-08-01

214

It's Time to Get Another Horse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author comments on Peter Roos's article (this issue). The author sees a strong need to clarify whether the horse that is to be remounted is more and better English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs or the goal of promoting bilingual education as a positive practice in the nation's schools or something else altogether. If the…

Gonzalez, Josue

2007-01-01

215

Horse Creek Restoration Project 1994-95.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This letter is to document completion of Interagency Agreement No. 14-48-001-94539, Project No. 94-HR-10, Horse Creek Restoration Project. The contract specified a target of five W.I.N. sites rehabilitated. The authors exceeded that target by three sites ...

1995-01-01

216

Idiopathic granulomatous pneumonia in seven horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history, clinical signs and pathological findings in seven adult horses with histologically confirmed idiopathic granulomatous disease, primarily of the lungs, are reviewed. They ranged in age from eight to 21 years, five were geldings and two were females, they belonged to five breeds and there were no seasonal or geographical associations. The primary clinical signs were chronic weight loss,

N. Pusterla; P. A. Pesavento; P. Smith; M. M. Durando; K. G. Magdesian; W. D. Wilson

2003-01-01

217

Of Prancing Horses and Bolted Stable Doors  

E-print Network

Of Prancing Horses and Bolted Stable Doors: Financial Crisis Recession and PolicyFinancial Crisis The evolution of economic thinking can be illustrated through the experience of successive generations: · Today's young adults "the return of depression economics" (2007??) · Their parents "the end of history" (1979

Kim, Tae-Kyun

218

Pulmonary artery wedge pressure during treadmill exercise in warmblood horses with atrial fibrillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart rate and the pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PWP) was measured in 10 healthy warmblood horses and in six warmblood horses with atrial fibrillation (AF) at rest and during standardised treadmill exercise.During treadmill exercise, the increase in heart rate was significantly higher in the horses with AF than in the healthy horses.Horses with AF showed a significantly higher increase

Heidrun Gehlen; Kirstin Bubeck; Karl Rohn; Peter Stadler

2006-01-01

219

Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse

Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

2011-01-01

220

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

221

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

222

Purification and characterization of novel antioxidant peptides of different molecular weights from mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus protein hydrolysate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wave-forcing `Coriolis-Stokes forcing' and `Stokes-vortex force' induced by Stokes drift affect the upper ocean jointly. To study the effect of the wave-induced Stokes drift on the dynamics of the ocean mixed layer, a new three-dimensional (3D) numerical model is derived using the primitive basic equations and Eulerian wave averaging. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM), a 3D primitive equation ocean model is used with the upper wave-averaged basic equations. The global ocean circulation is simulated using the POM model, and the Stokes drift is evaluated based on the wave data generated by WAVEWATCH III. We compared simulations with and without the Stokes drift. The results show that the magnitude of the Stokes drift is comparable with the Eulerian mean current. Including the Stokes drift in the ocean model affects both the Eulerian current and the Lagranian drift and causes the vertical mixing coefficients to increase.

Wang, Xueqin; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Chen, Zuoyuan; Li, Pengcheng

2014-10-01

223

Plasma adrenocorticotropin concentration in healthy horses and in horses with clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism.  

PubMed

Pituitary adenomas are commonly reported in older horses. The typical clinical signs associated with this condition, also known as equine Cushing's disease (ECD), are related to increased adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) production resulting in hyperadrenocorticism. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma ACTH concentrations differed between cushingoid and healthy horses. The second objective was to determine the effects of blood sample handling techniques on ACTH concentrations. A commercial human ACTH radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to quantify equine plasma ACTH. Intra-assay and interassay variations, as well as dilutional parallelism were determined during the RIA validation. Plasma ACTH concentrations were evaluated in a group of healthy equids composed of 18 horses and 9 ponies, and in 22 equids with a clinical diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism (11 horses and 11 ponies). The mean plasma ACTH concentrations in healthy horses and ponies, (18.68 +/- 6.79 pg/mL (mean +/- SD) and 8.35 +/- 2.92 pg/mL, respectively), were significantly different (P = .009). The mean plasma ACTH concentration in horses and ponies with ECD, (199.18 +/- 182.82 pg/mL and 206.21 +/- 319.56 pg/mL, respectively), were significantly higher than the mean ACTH concentration in the control animals (P < .001). Plasma ACTH concentrations appeared to be a sensitive and specific indicator of ECD in horses and ponies. ACTH concentrations measured in plasma samples kept at room temperature (19 degrees C) as long as 3 hours after blood collection were not statistically different from those of samples kept at 1 degree C. PMID:8965262

Couëtil, L; Paradis, M R; Knoll, J

1996-01-01

224

Comparing Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A variety of classroom activities and lessons that compare the world's oceans. Activities included: The Gulf of Maine, Satellite Comparisons, Design a Fish, What Migrations, Incredible Feasting of Whales, Paddle to the Sea, and Ocean Soundings. Discover why weather at identical latitudes is not always the same, learn the different ways whales eat, and find out the temperature difference between the Gulf Stream and surrounding water. Links to other Aquarium modules.

225

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must...

2010-01-01

226

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The...

2010-01-01

227

19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. 148.32 Section 148...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. (a) Admission free...vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses, together with their...

2010-04-01

228

9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313 Section 93...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious...

2010-01-01

229

33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. 147... SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi...

2010-07-01

230

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28 Section 51...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep,...

2010-01-01

231

77 FR 47589 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Horse Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approval of an Information Collection; Horse Protection Regulations AGENCY: Animal...information collection associated with the Horse Protection Program. DATES: We will consider...For information on regulations for the Horse Protection Program, contact Dr....

2012-08-09

232

9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. 93.316...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter....

2010-01-01

233

76 FR 78692 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Wild Horse and Burro...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...California Resource Advisory Council Wild Horse and Burro Management Subcommittee AGENCY...California Resource Advisory Council's wild horse and burro management subcommittee will...issues associated with management of wild horses and burros on public lands managed by...

2011-12-19

234

9 CFR 93.305 - Declaration and other documents for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Declaration and other documents for horses. 93.305 Section 93.305 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.305 Declaration and other documents for horses. (a) The certificates,...

2010-01-01

235

Gastric ulcer syndrome in exercising horses fed different types of hay  

E-print Network

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is highly prevalent in horses and most commonly found in racing and performance horses. This condition may negatively impact the health and athletic performance of affected horses (Vatistas et al. 1999). Proton...

Lybbert, Travis Craig

2009-05-15

236

Myopathy in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (Cushing's disease).  

PubMed

Fifteen horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction were studied. The horses were of various breeds and between 15 and 28 years of age. Control horses matched for breed and age were studied for comparison. Evaluations included complete blood cell count and serum biochemical analysis, electromyography, and gluteus medius muscle biopsies for histochemical, morphometric, and ultrastructural analysis. No differences were found between groups of horses on routine laboratory analysis or electromyography. We demonstrated that muscle wasting in diseased horses was the result of atrophy of types 2A and 2B muscle fibers and loss of type 2B myofibers. Mild non-specific non-inflammatory myopathic alterations such as myofiber size variation, internal nuclei, perimysial, endomysial and sarcoplasmic fat accumulation were observed. At the ultrastructural level, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulation and increased lipid droplets were evident. Similar to other species, this study confirmed atrophy of type 2 fibers as the cause of muscle mass loss in horses with Cushing's disease. PMID:17005399

Aleman, M; Watson, J L; Williams, D C; LeCouteur, R A; Nieto, J E; Shelton, G D

2006-11-01

237

Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues.  

PubMed

The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference "Twilight". In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms. PMID:24860704

Moreton, Joanna; Malla, Sunir; Aboobaker, A Aziz; Tarlinton, Rachael E; Emes, Richard D

2014-01-01

238

Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues  

PubMed Central

The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms. PMID:24860704

Malla, Sunir; Aboobaker, A. Aziz; Tarlinton, Rachael E.; Emes, Richard D.

2014-01-01

239

Acquired Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia: A Review of 13 Horses  

PubMed Central

The case records of 13 horses with acquired incarcerated inguinal hernia in January-August 1983, were reviewed. Nine cases were in stallions. The remaining four involved eventration 5-48 hours following castration. Ages ranged from 1-17 years. Horses showed a variable degree of colic. Bowel was felt to pass through the internal inguinal ring on rectal examination in most cases. The physical features of the scrotum varied considerably. Resection of ischemic jejunum and/or ileum was necessary in three horses. Two horses were euthanized at surgery (one with bilateral ischemic jejunum, one with bowel perforation), and a further horse on day 16 postsurgery following development of multiple adhesions. All stallions were castrated. Follow-up for 6-24 months (mean 12.7) disclosed that all ten discharged horses were alive and healthy (recovery rate 77%). PMID:17422760

Weaver, A. David

1987-01-01

240

The horse as a potential reservoir of salmonella  

E-print Network

Horses at Necropsy? 20 Salmonella Serotyp s Isolated from 75 Horses Following Post-Mortem Examination-- 25 Frequency of Isolation of Salmonella Serotypes from Various Areas of the Intestinal Tract from Normal Horses at N ecropsy 29 Periodic~ ty...-Month Period- 42 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Areas o' the intestinal tract from which Samples were obtained 12 Percent isolation of individual salmonella serotypes recovered from various areas of the intestinal tract following post-mortem sampling of 75...

Silverthorne, Carol Ann

2012-06-07

241

Evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses.  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses are characterized by their ability to evade host immunity, even in vaccinated individuals. To determine how prior immunity shapes viral diversity in vivo, we studied the intra- and interhost evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Although the level and structure of genetic diversity were similar to those in naïve horses, intrahost bottlenecks may be more stringent in vaccinated animals, and mutations shared among horses often fall close to putative antigenic sites. PMID:23388708

Murcia, Pablo R; Baillie, Gregory J; Stack, J Conrad; Jervis, Carley; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A; Daly, Janet; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T; Holmes, Edward C; Wood, James L N

2013-04-01

242

Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.  

PubMed

Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV. PMID:25139547

Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

2014-12-01

243

Conditioning taste aversions to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in horses.  

PubMed

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) is a serious poisoning problem for horses grazing on infested rangelands in the western United States. Our objectives were to determine 1) whether lithium chloride or apomorphine would condition aversions to palatable foods, and at what doses, and 2) whether horses could be averted to fresh locoweed in a pen and grazing situation. Apomorphine was not an acceptable aversive agent because at the dose required to condition an aversion (> or = 0.17 mg/kg BW), apomorphine induced unacceptable behavioral effects. Lithium chloride given via stomach tube at 190 mg/kg BW conditioned strong and persistent aversions to palatable feeds with minor signs of distress. Pen and grazing tests were conducted in Colorado to determine if horses could be averted to fresh locoweed. Pen tests indicated that most horses (5/6) were completely averted from locoweed. Treated horses ate 34 g of fresh locoweed compared to 135 g for controls (P < 0.01) during three pen tests when offered 150 g per test. One horse (T) in the treatment group ate locoweed each time it was offered in the pen, but ate no locoweed while grazing. In the grazing trial, control horses averaged 8.6% of bites of locoweed (P < 0.01) during the grazing portion of the study, whereas treated horses averaged <0.5%. One treated horse (S) accounted for all consumption; he consumed 15% of his bites as locoweed in a grazing bout on d 2 of the field study. Thereafter, he was dosed a second time with lithium chloride and ate no locoweed in the subsequent 5 d. Three of six horses required two pairings of lithium chloride with fresh locoweed to condition a complete aversion. The results of this study indicate that horses can be averted from locoweed using lithium chloride as an aversive agent, and this may provide a management tool to reduce the risk of intoxication for horses grazing locoweed-infested rangeland. PMID:11831531

Pfister, J A; Stegelmeier, B L; Cheney, C D; Ralphs, M H; Gardner, D R

2002-01-01

244

Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine HCL in horses and foals  

E-print Network

of ranitidine HCI in adult horses 58 INTRODUCTION Histamine-2 (HZ) receptor antagonists are used in veterinary medicine for the prophylactic, short-term, and maintenance therapy of equine gastric ulcer disease (Becht and Byars, 1986; Duran and Ravis, 1993... senunal concentrations of ranitidine with the resultant gastric pH are lacking. First described by Rooney (1964), gastric ulcers are recognized as an important clinical disease of horses. Although they may affect adult horses as well as foals, certain...

Holland, Patricia Susan

2012-06-07

245

Modern riding style improves horse racing times.  

PubMed

When animals carry loads, there is a proportionate increase in metabolic cost, and in humans this increase in cost is reduced when the load is elastically coupled to the load bearer. Major horse race times and records improved by 5 to 7% around 1900 when jockeys adopted a crouched posture. We show that jockeys move to isolate themselves from the movement of their mount. This would be difficult or impossible with a seated or upright, straight-legged posture. This isolation means that the horse supports the jockey's body weight but does not have to move the jockey through each cyclical stride path. This posture requires substantial work by jockeys, who have near-maximum heart rates during racing. PMID:19608909

Pfau, Thilo; Spence, Andrew; Starke, Sandra; Ferrari, Marta; Wilson, Alan

2009-07-17

246

Acute hemorrhage and blood transfusions in horses.  

PubMed

Treatment of acute hemorrhage in the horse involves targeted medical management and also may involve surgical stabilization. This article provides an approach to the initial stabilization and information on available topical hemostats. The practice of blood collection and transfusion is also described, with attention to new information on viability of transfused equine blood, potential negative effects of blood transfusion, and methods of cell salvage. PMID:25016500

Mudge, Margaret C

2014-08-01

247

Metabolic studies of mesterolone in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesterolone (1?-methyl-5?-androstan-17?-ol-3-one) is a synthetic anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) with reported abuses in human sports. As for other AAS, mesterolone is also a potential doping agent in equine sports. Metabolic studies on mesterolone have been reported for humans, whereas little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the studies of both the in vitro and in

Emmie N. M. Ho; David K. K. Leung; Gary N. W. Leung; Terence S. M. Wan; Henry N. C. Wong; Xiaohua Xu; John H. K. Yeung

2007-01-01

248

Proton resonance assignments of horse ferricytochrome c  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D NMR) was used to obtain extensive resonance assignments in the ¹H NMR spectrum of horse ferricytochrome c. Assignments were made for the main-chain and C{sub β} protons of 102 residues (all except Pro-44 and Gly-84) and the majority of side-chain protons. As starting points for the assignment of the oxidized protein, a limited set

A. Joshua Wand; Deena L. Di Stefano; S. W. Englander

1989-01-01

249

[Ciliates from the intestine of Yakut horse (Equus caballus)].  

PubMed

Endobiotic ciliates of native Yakut horse are investigated. 57 ciliate species have been found. From 17 up to 43 species of ciliates have been revealed in each host specimen. The specimens of Alloiozona trizona Hsiung, 1930 and Triadinium caudatum Fiorentini, 1890 were present in 100 % of the horses. The endemic genus and species of allantosomides, Strelkowella urunbasiensis Kornilova, 2004, has been found in 11 horses. Allantoxena japonensis (Imai, 1979) and Cycloposthium ishikawai Gassovsky, 1919 being recorded previously in Japan only were found for the first time in Russia. The species Cycloposthium ponomarevi Kornilova, 2001 peculiar to the Turkmenistan koulan has been found in the Yakut horses. PMID:17144407

Kornilova, O A

2006-01-01

250

Summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis) poisoning in three horses.  

PubMed

Three horses died as a result of eating grass hay containing summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis L.), a plant containing cardenolides similar to oleander and foxglove. A 9-year-old thoroughbred gelding, a 20-year-old appaloosa gelding, and a 5-year-old quarter horse gelding initially presented with signs of colic 24-48 hours after first exposure to the hay. Gastrointestinal gaseous distension was the primary finding on clinical examination of all three horses. Two horses became moribund and were euthanatized 1 day after first showing clinical signs, and the third horse was euthanatized after 4 days of medical therapy. Endocardial hemorrhage and gaseous distension of the gastrointestinal tract were the only necropsy findings in the first two horses. On microscopic examination, both horses had scattered foci of mild, acute myocardial necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation associated with endocardial and epicardial hemorrhage. The third horse that survived for 4 days had multifocal to coalescing, irregular foci of acute, subacute, and chronic myocardial degeneration and necrosis. A. aestivalis (pheasant's eye, summer adonis) was identified in the hay. Strophanthidin, the aglycone of several cardenolides present in Adonis spp., was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry in gastrointestinal contents from all three horses. Although Adonis spp. contain cardiac glycosides, cardiac lesions have not previously been described in livestock associated with consumption of adonis, and this is the first report of adonis toxicosis in North America. PMID:15133169

Woods, L W; Filigenzi, M S; Booth, M C; Rodger, L D; Arnold, J S; Puschner, B

2004-05-01

251

Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses.  

PubMed

Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehydrotremetone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyl-tremetone) are responsible for the toxicity of rayless goldenrod. However, experimental reproduction of rayless goldenrod-induced disease and detailed descriptions of poisoning in horses with known concentrations of tremetone and other BFK has not been documented. In this study four horses were fed increasing amounts of rayless goldenrod to obtain doses of approximately 0, 10, 30, and 60 mg BFK/kg BW for 14 days. After seven days of dosing the horse dosed with 60 mg BFK/kg BW horse developed depression, reluctance to eat, dehydration, trembling, and muscle fatigue. Biochemical alterations including increases in the serum enzyme activities of CK, AST, ALT, and LDH, and increased cardiac troponin I concentration, were also identified. Physiologically the clinically poisoned horse had decreased endurance seen as reluctance to perform on the treadmill with increased resting heart rate and a prolonged recovery of heart rate following treadmill exercise. The condition of the horse continued to decline and it was euthanized and necropsied on day 10. At necropsy the myocardium was pale and soft and many of the appendicular and large apical muscles were pale and moist. Histologically, the myocardium had extensive myocardial degeneration and necrosis with extensive fibrosis and multifocal mineralization. Several of the large appendicular muscles in this horse also had small foci of skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. Less severe myocardial changes were also identified in the horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW after 14 days of dosing. No clinical, biochemical or histologic changes were identified in the control horse and the horse dosed with 10 mg BFK/kg BW. These results suggest that doses of 60 mg BFK/kg BW for seven days produce extensive myocardial lesions in horses. The horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW developed less severe, but similar myocardial lesions over a longer duration, this suggests that poisoning may be cumulative and lower doses of longer duration are also toxic. Horses seem to be uniquely sensitive to rayless goldenrod-induced myocardial disease, therefore cardiac troponin I may be a useful marker of rayless goldenrod poisoning in horses. More work is needed to determine which BFK produce myocardial toxicity and better determine the effects of dose and duration on poisoning in horses. PMID:23831837

Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Lee, S T; Green, B T; Hall, J O

2013-10-01

252

6. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: STONE FLOOR, HOPPER, HORSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: STONE FLOOR, HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ARRANGEMENTS, CRANE WITH RUNNER STONE - Lefferts Tide Mill, Huntington Harbor, Southdown Road, Huntington, Suffolk County, NY

253

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses  

E-print Network

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses The NYS Veterinary Diagnostic for identification. Since no commercially available vaccine exists against Salmonella, disinfection and other

Keinan, Alon

254

Mycoplasma felis pleuritis in two show-jumper horses.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma felis was identified as the cause of acute pleuritis in 2 show-jumping horses. The pleural exudate was proteinaceous, contained large numbers of neutrophils, and had a markedly increased lactate concentration. M. felis was isolated in pure culture from pleural fluid. Rising serum antibody titers to M. felis as well as a precipitous decline in titers to equine influenza virus were demonstrated in both horses. Pleural effusion in both horses and a pneumothorax detected in one of the horses resolved following a single drainage of pleural fluid and intravenous fluid, antibiotic, and analgesic therapy. PMID:1623728

Hoffman, A M; Baird, J D; Kloeze, H J; Rosendal, S; Bell, M

1992-04-01

255

Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

2005-01-01

256

[Use of the immunoenzyme test ELISA-NS3 to distinguish horses infected by African horsesickness virus from vaccinated horses].  

PubMed

A vaccination protocol involving three horses, with five repeated injections of inactivated serotype 4 African horse sickness virus, was undertaken to determine a possible threshold for the appearance of antibodies against the non-structural protein NS3. Using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with the recombinant NS3 protein as an antigen, the authors detected a response to NS3 as of the second injection for the first horse and after four injections for the second horse. No response to NS3 was detected for the third horse. The results show that the inactivated vaccine is insufficiently purified to eliminate the non-structural protein NS3. Therefore using the NS3 protein as a marker did not enable differentiation between vaccinated and infected horses. PMID:10588005

Idrissi Bougrine, S; Fassi Fihri, O; el Harrak, M; Fassi Fehri, M M

1999-12-01

257

Multicentric mast cell tumors in a horse.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old female Rocky Mountain horse was presented for evaluation of draining tracts and distal limb subcutaneous edema on the left front and left hind limbs that had been present for 2 weeks. Direct smears of fluid collected by fine-needle aspiration of subcutaneous fluid from both limbs were highly cellular with a predominance of eosinophils accompanied by numerous, moderately atypical, variably granulated mast cells. The cytologic diagnosis was mast cell tumor (MCT) with prominent eosinophilic infiltration with a differential diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. Histologic evaluation of surgical biopsies of lesions from both limbs was performed on sections stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and Luna stains. The histologic diagnosis was MCT, and staining with toluidine blue and Luna stains confirmed the presence of mast cells and eosinophils, respectively. In addition, the mast cells strongly expressed CD117. This is the first reported case of cutaneous mast cell neoplasia in a horse in which primary presenting complaints were draining tracts and distal limb subcutaneous edema involving multiple limbs. This case illustrates the utility of staining for CD117 expression in combination with traditional stains, such as toluidine blue and Luna, in differentiating MCTs from other eosinophilic lesions in horses. PMID:20412546

Millward, Laurie M; Hamberg, Alex; Mathews, Jennifer; Machado-Parrula, Cecilia; Premanandan, Christopher; Hurcombe, Samuel D A; Radin, M Judith; Wellman, Maxey L

2010-09-01

258

Australian bat lyssavirus infection in two horses.  

PubMed

In May 2013, the first cases of Australian bat lyssavirus infections in domestic animals were identified in Australia. Two horses (filly-H1 and gelding-H2) were infected with the Yellow-bellied sheathtail bat (YBST) variant of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). The horses presented with neurological signs, pyrexia and progressing ataxia. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) were detected in some Purkinje neurons in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the brain of one of the two infected horses (H2) by histological examination. A morphological diagnosis of sub-acute moderate non-suppurative, predominantly angiocentric, meningo-encephalomyelitis of viral aetiology was made. The presumptive diagnosis of ABLV infection was confirmed by the positive testing of the affected brain tissue from (H2) in a range of laboratory tests including fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real-time PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Retrospective testing of the oral swab from (H1) in the real-time PCR also returned a positive result. The FAT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an abundance of ABLV antigen throughout the examined brain sections. ABLV was isolated from the brain (H2) and oral swab/saliva (H1) in the neuroblastoma cell line (MNA). Alignment of the genome sequence revealed a 97.7% identity with the YBST ABLV strain. PMID:25195190

Shinwari, Mustaghfira Wafa; Annand, Edward J; Driver, Luke; Warrilow, David; Harrower, Bruce; Allcock, Richard J N; Pukallus, Dennis; Harper, Jennifer; Bingham, John; Kung, Nina; Diallo, Ibrahim S

2014-10-10

259

Bilateral nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis in a horse.  

PubMed

A Russian jumper horse presented because of an ocular perilimbal conjunctival mass and, on clinical examination, two bilateral conjunctival masses were found, of different size and conformation. Attempts at complete excision of the left eye mass and excisional biopsy of the right eye mass were performed. The left eye mass recurred rapidly, but resolved completely after topical corticosteroid therapy. The two lesions had similar histopathologic features, characterized by focal, chronic, primarily lymphocytic conjunctivitis with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia. Special histopathologic staining techniques (Gomori methenamine silver and acid fast stains) and immunohistochemistry (for CD3, BLA36 and lysozyme) failed to reveal any etiologic agents and indicated an inflammatory lesion composed of a heterogeneous population of lymphocytes and macrophages (nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis). The lesions were indistinguishable, clinically and behaviorally, from what has been reported as 'conjunctival pseudotumor' in the horse. Equine conjunctival pseudotumor/nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis has been reported to be unilateral and have a good prognosis after partial or complete surgical excision. This is the first reported case of bilateral nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis in a horse and for which surgical excision alone was not curative. PMID:15762926

Stoppini, Riccardo; Gilger, Brian C; Malarkey, David E; Ratto, Alessandra; Brigati, Giampiero

2005-01-01

260

Long-Term Retrospective Analysis of Mackerel Spawning in the North Sea: A New Time Series and Modeling Approach to CPR Data  

PubMed Central

We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock. PMID:22737221

Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Payne, Mark; Edwards, Martin; Schrum, Corinna; Pitois, Sophie

2012-01-01

261

Arctic Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

262

Measurement of erythrocyte volumes in splenectomized horses and sham-operated horses at rest and during maximal exercise.  

PubMed

Erythrocyte volumes of thoroughbred horses were measured. The volumes of splenectomized horses and sham-operated horses 2 hr after injection of 50Cr-tagged erythrocytes (at rest) and during maximal exercise were measured using the non-radioactive isotope 50Cr. Because splenic erythrocytes are released into circulation during exercise, it was estimated that the erythrocyte volumes of the sham-operated horses during maximal exercise are larger than those of the horses at rest. However, the erythrocyte volumes of the sham-operated horses at rest were about equal to those during maximal exercise. In the splenectomized horses, furthermore, erythrocyte volumes at rest and those at exercise were nearly equal. From these results, blood stored in the equine spleen is gradually mixed with circulating blood, and it was clarified that the phenomenon was completed within 2 hr. Although it is basically impossible to measure the circulating erythrocyte volume at rest using the erythrocyte tagged method, we observed that it is possible to measure the total erythrocyte volume using the 50Cr method. Also, the plasma volumes of the splenectomized horses during maximal exercise were found to be slightly smaller than those at rest. On the other hand, in the sham-operated horses, the plasma was decreased by a large quantity after maximal exercise. Therefore, it was suggested that the spleen participates in the phenomenon involving the disappearance of plasma from circulation due to exercise. PMID:9342694

Kunugiyama, I; Ito, N; Narizuka, M; Kataoka, S; Furukawa, Y; Hiraga, A; Kai, M; Kubo, K

1997-09-01

263

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

Osis, Vicki

264

A novel second instar Gasterophilus excretory/secretory antigen-based ELISA for the diagnosis of gasterophilosis in grazing horses.  

PubMed

We have developed a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on excretory/secretory antigens of second instar Gasterophilus for the diagnosis of gasterophilosis in grazing horses. Between January 2007 and January 2009, two experiments were carried out on free-ranging horses in northwest Spain. During the first year, monthly blood samples were collected from a herd of 25 horses. In the second year, a monthly serological survey was conducted for a total of 398 different horses. All the sera were analyzed by ELISA using excretory/secretory antigens from Gasterophilus intestinalis (GphiL2ES) and Gasterophilus nasalis second-stage larvae (GphnL2ES). Climatic data were collected between January 2007 and January 2009 from local meteorological automated stations to establish the weather pattern in the study area. Observations of Gasterophilus eggs on the horses' hair and third instars passed in the faeces were also done. The kinetics of IgG response decreased against GphiL2ES from January to July, increased slowly from August and rose up to January. After a slight decrease in January, the absorbances against GphnL2ES reduced from April to August, when the lowest values were observed. The IgG values rose until the end of the study in January. Third instars were observed in the faeces in March to May, and Gasterophilus eggs were seen on the horses' hair from June to September. The highest IgG seroprevalences were achieved in winter (January-February; 100%) against both antigens. The lowest percentages of seropositivity were observed in June (3%) to the GphiL2ES, and in July (9%) to the GphnL2ES. The use of antigens from G. intestinalis second-stage larvae was shown to be suitable for diagnosing infestation by G. intestinalis or G. nasalis. We concluded that under oceanic climate conditions, the egg-laying period occurs from late spring, and eggs and first instars are found in the mouth in early summer. During summer the second instars move into the stomach and intestine, where the third-stage larvae remain until the end of winter, when pupation takes place. The adult horse bot fly emerges in the spring. Two treatments for the control of gasterophilosis are suggested: a curative in the summer to eliminate the first instars and a preventive in the autumn to suppress the second instars. PMID:20430529

Sánchez-Andrade, R; Cortiñas, F J; Francisco, I; Sánchez, J A; Mula, P; Cazapal, C; Vázquez, L; Suárez, J L; Francisco, R; Arias, M S; Díez-Baños, P; Scala, A; Paz-Silva, A

2010-08-01

265

Ocean Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) team produces high-resolution detailed imagery of significant ocean events. OSEI products typically include sea surface temperature plots and single-channel imagery of oil spills. The images are available in several different file sizes; standard (full resolution) and preview (thumbnail).

Imagery, Operational S.; Noaa

266

Ocean Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage, from Hyperphysics, provides a detailed explanation of how waves form in the ocean. A series of diagrams show how the water moves as a wave passes by. The site shows how a water wave's speed depends on wavelength, and how the shape of a wave depends on its amplitude. A description of why waves break on a beach is included.

Nave, Carl R.

2010-07-13

267

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

268

Ocean bowling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coach Scott Carpenter, a biology teacher at Lexington High School in Massachusetts, says that “some [students] want to show that they can win on a football field, and some want to show that they know science better than anyone else.”His team of four sophomores and one senior proved their mettle when they won the 1998 National Ocean Science Bowl on April 27.

Showstack, Randy

269

Ocean bowling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coach Scott Carpenter, a biology teacher at Lexington High School in Massachusetts, says that ``some [students] want to show that they can win on a football field, and some want to show that they know science better than anyone else.''His team of four sophomores and one senior proved their mettle when they won the 1998 National Ocean Science Bowl on

Randy Showstack

1998-01-01

270

Ocean Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To gain a more complete understanding of ocean dynamical processes, particularly at fine-scale, through intercomparison of high, mid- and low- latitude observations, both near the sea surface, in the main thermocline, and near the sea floor. To identify t...

R. Pinkel

1998-01-01

271

Sinusitis associated with nasogastric intubation in 3 horses.  

PubMed

Sinusitis has not been reported as a complication of long-term nasogastric intubation in horses. We describe 3 horses that developed nosocomial sinusitis following abdominal surgery with associated perioperative nasogastric intubation. Sinusitis was suspected by the presence of malodorous discharge and confirmed by percussion, upper airway endoscopy, radiographs (n = 3), and bacterial culture (n = 1). PMID:24891638

Nieto, Jorge E; Yamout, Sawsan; Dechant, Julie E

2014-06-01

272

Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Background In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Findings Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. Conclusions This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered. PMID:24180621

2013-01-01

273

Suspected systemic calcinosis and calciphylaxis in 5 horses  

PubMed Central

Five horses were presented with signs of myopathy along with systemic malaise, hyperfibrinogenemia, hyperphosphatemia, and an elevated calcium phosphorus product (Ca*P). Postmortem findings were consistent with systemic calcinosis, a syndrome of calcium deposition in the tissue of organs including lungs, kidneys, muscle, and heart that has not been previously described in horses. PMID:21119866

Tan, Jean-Yin; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Sebastian, Manu M.; Davis, Gordon D.; Kelly, Jenny R.; Goehring, Lutz S.; Harland, Malte M.; Kuebelbeck, K. Leann; Waldridge, Bryan M.; Newton, Joseph C.; Reimer, Johanna M.

2010-01-01

274

Transport stress in horses: Effects of two different distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the effects of 2 journeys of different lengths (50 km and 200 km) on horses. The first journey lasted about 1 hour, the second about 3 hours. Twelve Standardbred horses were used for the test. Blood samples were collected and analyzed (packed cells volume [PCV], cortisol, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides,

Alessandra Tateo; Barbara Padalino; Marianna Boccaccio; Aristide Maggiolino; Pasquale Centoducati

275

Head protection for horse riders: a cause for concern.  

PubMed Central

We report the frequency with which horse riders with a significant head injury present to a large accident and emergency department. We have also recorded details about the use of headwear and conclude that horse-riding is associated with a serious risk of head injury and 'protective' headwear may not always protect. PMID:4015803

Muwanga, L C; Dove, A F

1985-01-01

276

From kids and horses: Equine facilitated psychotherapy for children1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine facilitated psychotherapy is a developing form of animal assisted therapy, which primarily incorporates human interaction with horses as guides. The behavior of a sensitive horse, provides a vehicle by which the therapist can use to teach the patient coping skills. This theoretical study is present to reader our opinion, about the main considerations of equine facilitated psychotherapy for children.

Eugenio Quiroz Rothe; Beatriz Jiménez Vega; Rafael Mazo Torres; Silvia María; Campos Soler; Rosa María; Molina Pazos

2005-01-01

277

Towards testing of identity concepts in horses: conditional discrimination learning  

E-print Network

in learning such a task. These results point out interesting aspects of the horses' learning behaviorsTowards testing of identity concepts in horses: conditional discrimination learning Bj types of discrimination learning and that they can learn the concept of relative size, but it is un

Samuelsson, Björn

278

Adaptation to a fat-supplemented diet by cutting horses  

E-print Network

) by days. Plasma glucose concentrations on d 28 when horses were fed F were lower than when fed C at numerous sampling times. Plasma oleate concentrations appeared to be higher when horses were fed F than C at all sampling times examined on d 14 and 28...

Julen, Tiffany Rochele

2012-06-07

279

Prepurchase evaluation of horses: 134 cases (1988-1990).  

PubMed

To quantify some components of prepurchase evaluations in horses, records from 134 evaluations performed during a 2-year period were reviewed and the outcome was determined via telephone follow-up interview. Sixty-two percent of the prepurchase evaluations had been performed at the clinic and 38% had been performed in the field by the ambulatory service. All evaluations included physical and lameness examinations, whereas radiography (49%), endoscopy (15%), nerve blocking (5%), transrectal palpation (3%), hematologic analysis (2%), electrocardiography (2%), drug testing for analgesic agents (2%), and ultrasonography of the flexor tendons (1%) were not always performed. Fifty-nine percent of horses evaluated at the clinic were radiographed, compared with 33% of horses evaluated in the field (P less than 0.05). Thirty-seven percent of horses evaluated were judged serviceable for their intended use. Thirty-five percent of horses evaluated at the clinic were assessed to be serviceable, compared with 41% of those evaluated in the field (P less than 0.05). Horses used for pleasure riding (48%) tended to be considered serviceable more often than horses used for more athletic endeavors (3-day eventing, 33%; hunter/jumper, 24%; show, 31%; dressage, 30%). The most common basis for finding a horse unserviceable was lameness (88%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1429136

Dart, A J; Snyder, J R; Pascoe, J R; Meagher, D M; Wilson, W D

1992-10-01

280

HAEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT WORKLOAD IN JUMPER HORSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five clinically healthy Sella Italiana horses were used in order to assess the haematological response to different workload. Blood samples were collected on each horse at rest, immediately after the exer- cise and 30 min after the end of the exercise. An automated haematology analyzer was used to assess red blood cells counts, haemglobin concentration, haematocrit (Hct) and white blood

G. PICCIONE; C. GIANNETTO; F. FAZIO; S. DI MAURO; G. CAOLA

2007-01-01

281

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

282

2004 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE BOWL ONE ON ONE  

E-print Network

including the coronary band S. AYHCLM B101 ­ 2L 18. Q. The domestic horse belongs to which species? A. Equus Caballus S. Evans, p. 13 19. Q Which region of the horse's vertebral column is the most flexible? A

New Hampshire, University of

283

Characterization of the horse ( Equus caballus ) IGHA gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide sequences of the immunoglobulin constant heavy chain genes of the horse have been described for IGHM, IGHG and IGHE genes, but not for IGHA. Here, we provide the nucleotide sequence of the genomic IGHA gene of the horse ( Equus caballus), including its secretion region and the transmembrane exon. The equine IGHA gene shows the typical structure of a

Bettina Wagner; Irene Greiser-Wilke; Douglas F. Antczak

2003-01-01

284

A Comparative Gene Map of the Horse (Equus caballus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative gene map of the horse genome composed of 127 loci was assembled based on the new assignment of 68 equine type I loci and on data published previously. PCR primers based on consensus gene sequences conserved across mammalian species were used to amplify markers for assigning 68 equine type I loci to 27 horse synteny groups established previously

Alexandre R. Caetano; Yow-Ling Shiue; Leslie A. Lyons; Steven J. O'Brien; Thomas F. Laughlin; Ann T. Bowling; James D. Murray

1999-01-01

285

Treatment of Coccidioides immitis pneumonia in two horses with fluconazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in horses can often lead to severe systemic disease and its treatment has previously been expensive and has carried a poor prognosis. This paper describes the successful treatment of two horses with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis with a fluconazole product produced by a compounding pharmacy.

J. C. Higgins; G. S. Leith; D. Pappagianis; N. Pusterla

2006-01-01

286

Environmental Assessment Wyoming Wild Horse Pilot Project. Wyoming State Office.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The BLM is the Federal Agency within the Department of the Interior mandated to manage wild horses and burros on BLM-administrated public lands. Management of the wild horses and burros includes not only the management of the public lands which provide ha...

2001-01-01

287

Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunecontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of the PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to being using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption processa?|

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

2004-01-01

288

Systematics and distribution of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan.  

PubMed

The horse fly fauna of Jordan consists of 24 species belonging to seven genera. The present study adds two new records; Tabanus unifasciatus and Tabanus lunatus. Keys and illustrations for the horse flies of Jordan are presented based on examined materials. Distribution and geographic ranges for each species is also given. PMID:16007956

Al-Talafha, H; Amr, Z S; Baker, M Abu; Bader, A Katbeh

2005-06-01

289

Dominant black in horses DP Sponenberg MC Weise  

E-print Network

) were near black rather than completely black. The dam of this stallion was of a near black or brown, manes and tails, are consistently designated as bay in most breed registries. While such red horses. Horses with a mixture of black and reddish brown body hairs and black lower legs, manes and tails

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Kinematics of side and cross circles on pommel horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most fundamental skills on the pommel horse is double leg circles (circles). Circles can be performed on all parts of the pommel horse. It was hypothesized that the different sets of physical constraints of the apparatus require a gymnast to adapt circles technique. The purpose of this study was to quantify how gymnasts modify their technique during

Toshiyuki Fujihara; Pierre Gervais

2010-01-01

291

Appendix 64 Excerpt from Hungry Horse Scientific Framework (Marotz 2002)  

E-print Network

their new variable flow, system flood control strategy called VARQ (ACOE 1999). The ACOE is currently Horse Dam (Marotz and Muhlfeld 2000). Thermal modeling conducted by this project resulted in the installation of selective withdrawal structures on the four penstocks on Hungry Horse Dam (Christenson et al

292

Conditioning taste aversions to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in horses1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) is a seri- ous poisoning problem for horses grazing on infested rangelands in the western United States. Our objec- tives were to determine 1) whether lithium chloride or apomorphine would condition aversions to palatable foods, and at what doses, and 2) whether horses could be averted to fresh locoweed in a pen and grazing situa- tion. Apomorphine

J. A. Pfister; B. L. Stegelmeier; C. D. Cheney; M. H. Ralphs; D. R. Gardner

293

76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...to ensure that these animals are not being abused...Subjects in 9 CFR Part 11 Animal welfare, Horses...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health...

2011-05-27

294

Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.  

PubMed

We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers. PMID:19398607

Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

2009-08-01

295

Immunohistochemical Analysis of Laryngeal Muscles in Normal Horses and Horses With Subclinical Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:787–800, 2009) PMID:19398607

Rhee, Hannah S.; Steel, Catherine M.; Derksen, Frederik J.; Robinson, N. Edward; Hoh, Joseph F.Y.

2009-01-01

296

HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907  

E-print Network

should be vaccinated annually against tetanus, eastern and western encephalomyelitis himself, especially a puncture wound, it is suggested that the horse receives tetanus antitoxin, even if it was vaccinated for tetanus earlier in the year. Talk to your veterinarian to design a vaccination program

297

Disorders of sexual development in the domestic horse, Equus caballus.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of sexual development causing infertility in horses have been investigated since the early 1970's. Conventional cytogenetic analysis by karyotyping has been the primary tool used to investigate these horses. Abnormalities have a broad range, from a phenotypically normal mare with gonadal dysgenesis to a horse with ambiguous external genitalia and internal male and female organs. Cytogenetic analysis can determine genetic sex but cannot identify mutations or deletions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. Molecular technologies have been developed to confirm cytogenetic results and to aid in identifying the genetic causes of abnormal sex determination in horses. In this paper, we review the historical development of methods used to understand abnormal sexual development in the horse as well as summarize cases reported over the last 40-50 years. PMID:22095202

Lear, T L; McGee, R B

2012-01-01

298

Safety and storage stability of horse meat for human consumption.  

PubMed

Most horse meat is consumed by humans and/or animals in the region where it is produced. However, horse meat for human consumption is exported in large quantities from the Americas and in lesser quantities from Eastern Europe, to Western Europe and Japan where it is often eaten raw. Horse meat prepared to a good hygienic condition should not be prone to early microbial spoilage, but contamination of the meat with Salmonella and Yersinia enterocolitica may be relatively common, and infection of the meat with Trichinella may occur occasionally. Those organisms from horse meat could cause disease when the raw meat is eaten. Moreover, accumulation of cadmium in horse liver and kidney may render those tissues unsafe for human consumption. PMID:22060926

Gill, C O

2005-11-01

299

Bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses  

PubMed Central

Background Oral lesions related to the use of the bit and bridle are reported to be common findings in horses worldwide and represent an important animal welfare issue. In order to provide an overview of bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses, a field examination of the rostral part of the oral cavity was performed in 424 competition horses coming to the two major national horse events in Iceland in 2012. Records from repeated examination of 77 horses prior to the finals were used to assess potential risk factors. Results Mild lesions were recorded in 152 horses (36%) prior to the preliminary rounds. They were most often located in the commissures of the lips and the adjacent buccal mucosa (n?=?111). Severe lesions were found in 32 (8%) horses. For 77 horses examined prior to the finals, the frequency of findings in the area of the mandibular interdental space (bars of the mandible) had increased from 8% to 31% (P?horses. The type of bits used influenced both the location and the severity of the lesions. The use of curb bits with a port was found to be a decisive risk factor for lesions on the bars of the mandible, most of which were regarded as severe. The results also raised questions about the head and neck carriage demanded for the competition horses. PMID:25116656

2014-01-01

300

Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals. PMID:25320481

Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

2014-12-01

301

MSU Horses for sale or adoption JC (Mr. Deck Cash) is a 2002 model Quarter Horse. He  

E-print Network

; grooming her and adoring her presence. She is mild mannered toward other horses and doesn't cause problems@montana.edu. All horses MSU sells or adopts out have been kept up on routine vaccinations, de-worming, and hoof

302

A Trojan Horse for Parkinson's Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathogenic mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are common genetic causes of late-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Initial studies indicated that the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 is associated with LRRK2-mediated PD pathogenesis. However, LRRK2 kinase activity may be dispensable for neuron survival and may not be required for its protective activity against neurotoxicity. Thus, the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 appears to be a Trojan horse for PD, and inhibition of its kinase activity could potentially be therapeutically beneficial.

Youren Tong (Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital REV); Yi Hu (Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital REV)

2010-04-06

303

Metabolic studies of formestane in horses.  

PubMed

Formestane (4-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione) is an irreversible steroidal aromatase inhibitor with reported abuse in human sports. In 2011, our laboratory identified the presence of formestane in a horse urine sample from an overseas jurisdiction. This was the first reported case of formestane in a racehorse. The metabolism of formestane in humans has been reported previously; however, little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of formestane in horses, with the objective of identifying the target metabolite with the longest detection time for controlling formestane abuse. In vitro metabolic studies of formestane were performed using homogenized horse liver. Seven in vitro metabolites, namely 4-hydroxytestosterone (M1), 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5?-androstan-17-one (M2a), 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5?-androstan-17-one (M2b), 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5?-androstan-17-one (M2c), androst-4-ene-3?,4,17?-triol (M3a), androst-4-ene-3?,4,17?-triol (M3b), and 5?-androstane-3?,4?,17?-triol (M4) were identified. For the in vivo studies, two thoroughbred geldings were each administered with 800 mg of formestane (32 capsules of Formadex) by stomach tubing. The results revealed that the parent drug and seven metabolites were detected in post-administration urine. The six in vitro metabolites (M1, M2a, M2b, M2c, M3a, and M3b) identified earlier were all detected in post-administration urine samples. In addition, 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5?-androstan-17-one (M2d), a stereoisomer of M2a/M2b/M2c, was also identified. This study has shown that the detection of formestane administration would be best achieved by monitoring 4-hydroxytestosterone (M1) in the glucuronide-conjugated fraction. M1 could be detected for up to 34 h post-administration. In blood samples, the parent drug could be detected for up to 34 h post administration. PMID:23339113

Leung, Gary N W; Kwok, W H; Wan, Terence S M; Lam, Kenneth K H; Schiff, Peter J

2013-06-01

304

Fire and smoke inhalation injury in horses.  

PubMed

Although not common in horses, fire and smoke inhalation trauma may require veterinary assistance at several levels. Most commonly, the equine clinician is called on to provide care of potentially complex and emotionally charged cases. Thermal injury, along with smoke inhalation, can cause local and diffuse lesions. Massive tissue edema may occur, which can be a challenge to manage as well as creating organ dysfunction at distant sites. Further complications of severely affected patients are varied and include life-threatening sepsis. This article reviews some of the important features of this type of trauma. PMID:17379107

Marsh, Peggy S

2007-05-01

305

Metabolism before, during and after anaesthesia in colic and healthy horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many colic horses are compromised due to the disease state and from hours of starvation and sometimes long trailer rides. This could influence their muscle energy reserves and affect the horses' ability to recover. The principal aim was to follow metabolic parameter before, during, and up to 7 days after anaesthesia in healthy horses and in horses undergoing abdominal

Anna H Edner; Görel C Nyman; Birgitta Essén-Gustavsson

2007-01-01

306

36 CFR 222.23 - Removal of other horses and burros.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Removal of other horses and burros. 222.23 Section 222.23...MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.23 Removal of other horses and burros. Horses and burros not...

2010-07-01

307

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin tuna on their oceanic migrations. The About area is a great way to learn about the research and technology involved with this complicated endeavor. Also, visitors can check out the low-tech/accessible version of the site if they are so inclined.

2013-02-08

308

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin tuna on their oceanic migrations. The About area is a great way to learn about the research and technology involved with this complicated endeavor. Also, visitors can check out the low-tech/accessible version of the site if they are so inclined.

309

Oceanic Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

Carder, K. L. (editor)

1981-01-01

310

Ocean Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This online resource guide focuses on earth/physical science including volcanic island formation and tsunamis; life science concepts including ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; science in personal and social perspectives including pollution, endangered species and conservation; and related careers.

Lefever, Mary

2009-08-01

311

Ocean Voyagers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Voyagers is an educational outreach initiative consisting of an interdisciplinary curriculum program. It is designed to allow middle school teachers and students to gain real-world knowledge about oceanographic science, social science, maritime cultures, communication, literature, and the language arts. This site includes: integrated lesson plans on oceanographic science, maritime life and lore, technology and communications, and profiles of the Navy oceanographic survey fleet.

312

Planet Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From DiscoverySchool.com, Planet Ocean is a Web site developed for students in grade 5-8 to learn about the abundant life found in the world's vast marine environments. Students are introduced to oceanography, marine biology, food chains, and ecosystems. Teachers will appreciate the tips for using this site in the classroom and related resources, and almost anyone will appreciate the Amazing Facts found under each topic.

2002-01-01

313

Antithrombotic actions of aspirin in the horse.  

PubMed

The antithrombotic effects of aspirin at two dose rates (4 mg/kg and 11 mg/kg bodyweight [bwt] were evaluated in normal, healthy ponies by measuring template bleeding time. Inhibition of platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen was evaluated and cyclo-oxygenase activity was monitored by radioimmunoassay of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), the stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2). TXB2 was measured in serum and platelet rich plasma. Bleeding time was prolonged significantly until 48 h after treatment at 12 mg/kg bwt and until 4 h at the lower dose rate. Synthesis of TXB2 and collagen induced aggregation were diminished for much greater periods with similar results at each of the dose rates. The prolonged effects of aspirin on platelet function occurred in spite of a very short plasma half-life of aspirin, because of its irreversible action on platelet cyclo-oxygenase. The results show that low dose aspirin has a potential role in antithrombotic therapy in horses although the relationship between skin bleeding time in normal horses and improvement of clinical conditions requires further research and evaluation in clinical trials. TXB2 measurement appears to overestimate the duration of antithrombotic effects of aspirin in vivo. PMID:1904347

Cambridge, H; Lees, P; Hooke, R E; Russell, C S

1991-03-01

314

Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.  

PubMed

Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

2014-03-01

315

Introduction to Ocean Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans cover over 70% of the surface of the earth, yet many details of their workings are not fully understood. To better understand and forecast the state of the ocean, we rely on numerical ocean models. Ocean models combine observations and physics to predict the ocean temperature, salinity, and currents at any time and any place across the ocean basins. This module will discuss what goes into numerical ocean models, including model physics, coordinate systems, parameterization, initialization, and boundary conditions.

Comet

2007-08-06

316

Social and spatial structure and range use by Kaimanawa wild horses (Equus caballus: Equidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured horse density, social structure, habitat use, home ranges and altitudinal micro-climates in the south-western Kaimanawa ranges east of Waiouru, New Zealand. Horse density in the Auahitotara ecological sector averaged 3.6 horses.km-2 and ranged from 0.9 to 5.2 horses.km-2 within different zones. The population's social structure was like that of other feral horse populations with an even adult sex

Wayne L. Linklater; Elissa Z. Cameron; Kevin J. Stafford; Clare J. Veltman

2000-01-01

317

Mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation among autochthonous horse breeds in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation in three Croatian coldblood horse populations was analysed using a sequence analysis of the proximal part (nt 15 498-15 821) of the D-loop region of mtDNA. Twenty unrelated horses were chosen from the Posavina horse and the Croatian Coldblood breeds and fifteen horses from the Murinsulaner horse population. Sequencing of the proximal part of the mtDNA D-loop region

A. Ivankovi?; J. Ramljak; M. Konja?i?; N. Kelava; P. Dov?; P. Miji?

2009-01-01

318

Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

2014-01-01

319

Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research  

PubMed Central

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisa, Lenka; Fisakova Nyvltova, Miriam; Bajer, Ales; Petr, Libor; Kocar, Petr; Kocarova, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybnicek, Michal; Suvova, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrcik, Hanus

2014-01-01

320

Nitrogen balance in mature horses at varying levels of work  

E-print Network

experimental periods of work, each seventeen days in length, Per1ods cons1sted of increas- ing the workload by doubling the distance galloped until the longest distance was reached in per1ods 4 and 5, and then decreasing the workloads in reverse order.... The horses were galloped on an oval track and each horse carried approximately 15% of body weight. Work- loads ranged from no forced exercise in periods 1, 8 and 9 to 6. 1 Mgkm in per1ods 4 and 5. Horses were fed bermudagrass hay at 1X of body weight per...

Freeman, David Wayne

2012-06-07

321

Osteoarthrosis of the Antebrachiocarpal Joint of 7 Riding Horses  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthrosis (OA) of the antebrachiocarpal joint from 7 riding horses is described. The horses were old mares and developed severe OA, with ankylosis in some of the joints. The lesions were bilateral, and the owners noticed the lameness in a late event. The cause of severe OA in these mares is not clear. The fact that OA was bilateral indicates that a single traumatic injury is unlikely as an etiologic factor. Considering the severe joint lesions it took long time before the horse-owners noticed the lameness. It is discussed if the threshold of pain is higher in the antebrachiocarpal joint compared with the middle carpal joint. PMID:11957370

Magnusson, L-E; Ekman, S

2001-01-01

322

Malignant melanoma in the foot of a horse.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old horse had a malignant melanoma of the right forefoot. Because surgical excision of the melanoma was incomplete, as determined by histologic examination of the excised tissue margins, the tumor margins were injected with a matrix therapeutic implant containing cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, epinephrine, and purified bovine collagen matrix. The foot healed and the horse remained clinically free of disease for 26 months before recurrence of malignant melanoma. Surgical exploration of the digit revealed extensive involvement of the foot, and the horse was euthanatized. PMID:2211329

Honnas, C M; Liskey, C C; Meagher, D M; Brown, D; Luck, E E

1990-09-15

323

An African horse sickness virus serotype 4 recombinant canarypox virus vaccine elicits specific cell-mediated immune responses in horses.  

PubMed

A recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing synthetic genes encoding outer capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5, of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 (ALVAC(®)-AHSV4) has been demonstrated to fully protect horses against homologous challenge with virulent field virus. Guthrie et al. (2009) detected weak and variable titres of neutralizing antibody (ranging from <10 to 40) 8 weeks after vaccination leading us to hypothesize that there could be a participation of cell mediated immunity (CMI) in protection against AHSV4. The present study aimed at characterizing the CMI induced by the experimental ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccine. Six horses received two vaccinations twenty-eight days apart and three horses remained unvaccinated. The detection of VP2/VP5 specific IFN-? responses was assessed by enzyme linked immune spot (ELISpot) assay and clearly demonstrated that all ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinated horses developed significant IFN-? production compared to unvaccinated horses. More detailed immune responses obtained by flow cytometry demonstrated that ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinations induced immune cells, mainly CD8(+) T cells, able to recognize multiple T-epitopes through all VP2 and only the N-terminus sequence of VP5. Neither VP2 nor VP5 specific IFN-? responses were detected in unvaccinated horses. Overall, our data demonstrated that an experimental recombinant canarypox based vaccine induced significant CMI specific for both VP2 and VP5 proteins of AHSV4. PMID:22763149

El Garch, H; Crafford, J E; Amouyal, P; Durand, P Y; Edlund Toulemonde, C; Lemaitre, L; Cozette, V; Guthrie, A; Minke, J M

2012-09-15

324

The Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many practitioners of the marine sciences, including myself, one of the most alluring aspects of investigating the oceans is the need to marry the scientific disciplines. The complex linkages among geological, chemical, physical, and biological processes that govern the behavior and evolution of nearly 60% of the Earth's surface are fascinating and often surprising. Making progress in decoding this planetary fugue requires investigative strategies that fly squarely in the face of the increasing specialization that characterizes most modern scientific research. The successful oceanographer must endeavor to see the forest as well as the trees, or perhaps more fittingly, the kelp.

Karlsten, Jill

325

Nitric oxide and exercise in the horse.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of exercise on the production rate of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air (VNO) and the effects of inhaled NO (80 p.p.m.) on cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were investigated in five Throughbred horses. 2. The concentration of NO ([NO]) in exhaled air collected from within the nasal opening was lower when collected at a high flow rate of 80 l min-1 than at a low flow rate of 20 l min-1: when trotting at 3.7 m s-1 the values were 0.78 +/- 0.15 and 1.23 +/- 9.14 p.p.b., respectively, and when cantering at 9 m s-1 the values were 1.69 +/- 0.31 and 2.25 +/- 0.32 p.p.b., respectively. 3. Nebulized methoxamine (40 mg ml-1 for 60 s), an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, further reduced [NO] during the 9 m s-1 canter to 1.05 +/- 0.14 and 1.99 +/- 0.41 p.p.b. when collected at 80 and 20 l min-1, respectively, and induced cyclical changes in the breathing pattern. 4. Exercise induced a linear increase in VNO with work intensity to a maximum (428.1 +/- 31.6 pmol min-1 kg-1) which coincided with the maximal oxygen uptake for the horses (138.3 +/- 11.7 ml min-1 kg-1), although a further increase in VNO (779.3 +/- 38.4 pmol min-1 kg-1) occurred immediately after exercise. The changes in VNO correlated well with the tidal volume (r = 0.968; P < 0.01) and the haematocrit (r = 0.855; P < 0.01). 5. In the first 2 min of high intensity exercise, inhaled NO (80 p.p.m.) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the pulmonary artery pressure: during the first minute, pulmonary artery pressure was 83.1 +/- 7.6 mmHg compared with a control value of 94.4 +/- 6.3 mmHg, and during the second minute, 84.2 +/- 7.1 mmHg compared with a control value of 98.4 +/- 4.7 mmHg. There were no other significant changes in cardiovascular or respiratory indices, including cardiac output, measured during exercise between control and inhaled NO tests. 6. The results show that exhaled NO is released from the airways of the horse and may contribute to the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise. PMID:8887788

Mills, P C; Marlin, D J; Demoncheaux, E; Scott, C; Casas, I; Smith, N C; Higenbottam, T

1996-01-01

326

Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Horses and Foals  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The adrenal cortices produce a variety of steroid hormones (corticosteroids) that play vital roles in a number of physiologic processes, including: electrolyte and fluid balance; cardiovascular homeostasis; carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; immune and inflammatory responses; and sexual development and reproductive function. While permanent adrenocortical insufficiency is rare in all species, emerging evidence in both human and equine medicine suggests that transient, reversible adrenocortical dysfunction resulting in cortisol insufficiency frequently develops during critical illness. This syndrome is termed relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) or critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), and can contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality associated with the primary disease. Thus, this review will primarily cover the mechanisms, diagnosis and clinical consequences of adrenocortical insufficiency, with particular focus on our current understanding of RAI/CIRCI in horses and foals. PMID:21392651

Hart, Kelsey A.; Barton, Michelle H.

2010-01-01

327

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

328

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...of effective enforcement of the Act: (a)...

2012-01-01

329

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...of effective enforcement of the Act: (a)...

2010-01-01

330

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...of effective enforcement of the Act: (a)...

2013-01-01

331

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...of effective enforcement of the Act: (a)...

2011-01-01

332

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

... Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...of effective enforcement of the Act: (a)...

2014-01-01

333

Epidemiology of Airborne Virulent Rhodococcus equi at Horse Breeding Farms  

E-print Network

Rhodococcus equi causes severe pneumonia, resulting in disease and sometimes death of foals. Infection is thought to occur by inhalation of dust contaminated with virulent R equi. A recent study of 3 horse breeding farms in Ireland found airborne...

Kuskie, Kyle Ryan

2012-02-14

334

2. GENERAL VIEW OF RESIDENCE (STRUCTURE 7) AND HORSE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW OF RESIDENCE (STRUCTURE 7) AND HORSE AND LIVERY STABLE (STRUCTURE 8) FROM NORTH - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

335

Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California  

PubMed Central

A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified. PMID:11927026

Kinde, Hailu; Jay, Michele T.; Kramer, Laura D.; Green, Emily-Gene N.; Chiles, Robert E.; Ostlund, Eileen; Husted, Stan; Smith, Jonathan; Parker, Michael D.

2002-01-01

336

7. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ARRANGEMENT ON LEFT, CRANE WITH STONE ON RIGHT - Lefferts Tide Mill, Huntington Harbor, Southdown Road, Huntington, Suffolk County, NY

337

8. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST: HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ARRANGEMENT ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST: HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ARRANGEMENT ON LEFT, GARNER IN CENTER, AND CROWN WHEEL ON RIGHT - Lefferts Tide Mill, Huntington Harbor, Southdown Road, Huntington, Suffolk County, NY

338

The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important cause of pain, disability and economic loss in humans, and is similarly important in the horse. Recent knowledge on post-traumatic OA has suggested opportunities for early intervention, but it is difficult to identify the appropriate time of these interventions. The horse provides two useful mechanisms to answer these questions: 1) extensive experience with clinical OA in horses; and 2) use of a consistently predictable model of OA that can help study early pathobiological events, define targets for therapeutic intervention and then test these putative therapies. This paper summarises the syndromes of clinical OA in horses including pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, and details controlled studies of various treatment options using an equine model of clinical OA. PMID:23610661

McIlwraith, C. W.; Frisbie, D. D.; Kawcak, C. E.

2012-01-01

339

Tooth enamel biomineralization in extant horses: implications for isotopic microsampling  

E-print Network

domestic horses (Equus caballus) to document the timing of enamel mineralization in equid cheek teeth to months. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Biomineralization; Equus; Enamel; Radiography

Amundson, Ronald

340

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the...

2014-07-01

341

Metabolic studies of 1-testosterone in horses.  

PubMed

1-Testosterone (17?-hydroxy-5?-androst-1-en-3-one), a synthetic anabolic steroid, has been described as one of the most effective muscle-building supplements currently on the market. It has an anabolic potency of 200 as compared to 26 for testosterone. Apart from its abuse in human sports, it can also be a doping agent in racehorses. Metabolic studies on 1-testosterone have only been reported for human in the early seventies, whereas little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the studies of in vitro and in vivo metabolism of 1-testosterone in horses, with the aim of identifying the most appropriate target metabolites to be monitored for controlling the misuse or abuse of 1-testosterone in racehorses. Six in vitro metabolites, namely 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1a), 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T2), epiandrosterone (T3), 16,17-dihydroxy-5?-androst-1-ene-3-one (T4 & T5), and 5?-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione (T6), were identified. For the in vivo studies, two thoroughbred geldings were each administered orally with 800?mg of 1-testosterone by stomach tubing. The results revealed that the parent drug and eight metabolites were detected in urine. Besides the four in vitro metabolites (T1a, T2, T3, and T5), four other urinary metabolites, namely 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1b), 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1c), 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T7) and 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T8) were identified. This study shows that the detection of 1-testosterone administration is best achieved by monitoring the parent drug, which could be detected for up to 30?h post-administration. PMID:22715048

Kwok, W H; Ho, Emmie N M; Leung, Gary N W; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M; Wong, Henry N C; Yeung, John H K

2013-02-01

342

An online survey of horse-owners in Great Britain  

PubMed Central

Background Contingency planning for potential equine infectious disease outbreaks relies on accurate information on horse location and movements to estimate the risk of dissemination of disease(s). An online questionnaire was used to obtain unique information linking owner and horse location to characteristics of horse movements within and outwith Great Britain (GB). Results This online survey yielded a strong response, providing more than four times the target number of respondents (1000 target respondents) living in all parts of GB. Key demographic findings of this study indicated that horses which were kept on livery yards and riding schools were likely to be found in urban environments, some distance away from the owner’s home and vaccinated against influenza and herpes virus. Survey respondents were likely to travel greater than 10 miles to attend activities such as eventing or endurance but were also likely to travel and return home within a single day (58.6%, 2063/3522). This may affect the geographical extent and speed of disease spread, if large numbers of people from disparate parts of the country are attending the same event and the disease agent is highly infectious or virulent. The greatest risk for disease introduction and spread may be represented by a small proportion of people who import or travel internationally with their horses. These respondents were likely to have foreign horse passports, which were not necessarily recorded in the National Equine Database (NED), making the location of these horses untraceable. Conclusions These results illustrate the difficulties which exist with national GB horse traceability despite the existence of the NED and the horse passport system. This study also demonstrates that an online approach could be adopted to obtain important demographic data on GB horse owners on a more routine and frequent basis to inform decisions or policy pertaining to equine disease control. This represents a reasonable alternative to collection of GB horse location and movement data given that the NED no longer exists and there is no immediate plan to replace it. PMID:24074003

2013-01-01

343

A study of Streptococcus equi in the horse  

E-print Network

clinical research could provide improved treatment and manage- ment of the disease. There is a need for correlation of symptomatology, hematology, pathology, bacteriology, and internal medicine. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 27 According to Merchant.... After this, examinations were continued about every fourth day until the project was completed. The post mortem examinations were started two weeks following medication of the last horses. The horses were euthanitized by intra- venous administration...

Evers, Warren Dean

2012-06-07

344

Scientific Principles for Conditioning Race and Performance Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equine athlete undergoes significant musculo-skeletal changes during conditioning and competition. Unfortunately, lameness and losses are higher than desirable and the industry is challenged to use field-and laboratory-based principles for improving the well-being of race and performance horses. Body condition can be adjusted to delay fatigue and influence thermal regulation. Body weight estimates can aid in feeding horses more effectively.

P. G. Gibbs; G. D. Potter; B. D. Nielsen; W. Moyere

345

Toxicosis in horses after ingestion of hoary alyssum.  

PubMed

Fever, limb edema, and laminitis were observed in horses 18 to 36 hours after they consumed hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) under field and experimental conditions. Clinical signs were not observed in all horses that had ingested the plant. Diagnosis in the field cases was limited to observation of clinical signs and evidence of plant ingestion in hay or on pasture. In most cases, clinical remission was observed 2 to 4 days after empirical treatment, removal of the plant source, or both. PMID:1644648

Geor, R J; Becker, R L; Kanara, E W; Hovda, L R; Sweeney, W H; Winter, T F; Rorick, J K; Ruth, G R; Hope, E; Murphy, M J

1992-07-01

346

Chronically starved horses: Predicting survival, economic, and ethical considerations  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nine of 45 horses subjected to prolonged malnutrition died subsequent to being placed with a responsible caregiver and being provided an appropriate diet. Initial extreme poor body condition score tended to be associated with death, although individual response to refeeding varied. The financial costs of stabilizing the group of horses significantly exceeded their free market price. Responsible management of chronically starved commercial animals should include options for immediate euthanasia. PMID:15943117

2005-01-01

347

Klossiella equi in the Kidneys of a Horse  

PubMed Central

The protozoan, Klossiella equi was found in the kidneys of an aged Shetland mare raised in the Fredericton area of New Brunswick. This is the first published report of K. equi in a horse in Canada. The microscopic appearance of the parasite in the kidney is described. A brief discussion of other conditions seen in the horse is also presented. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:7248892

Austin, R. J.; Dies, K. H.

1981-01-01

348

Clinical Problems Associated with the Intensive Management of Performance Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical as well as the behavioural requirements of the horse changed little through the process of domestication. This\\u000a means that horses kept within an intensively housed environment and used for performance, physically and behaviourally are\\u000a susceptible to specific clinical conditions, injuries and diseases. In this chapter, physiological and clinical problems such\\u000a as those causing pain related behaviours and head

R. A. Casey

349

Apparent rates of increase for two feral horse herds  

SciTech Connect

Rates of increase for 2 Oregon feral horse (Equus caballus) herds were estimated from direct aerial counts to be about 20% per year. These rates can be achieved only if survival rates are high, and reproduction exceeds that normally expected from horses. A population dynamics model suggests adult survival to be the key parameter in determining rates of increase, and there is some direct evidence of high adult survival rates. Management implications are discussed.

Eberhardt, L.L. (Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, WA); Majorowicz, A.K.; Wilcox, J.A.

1982-01-01

350

Comprehension of human pointing gestures in horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty domestic horses (Equus caballus) were tested for their ability to rely on different human gesticular cues in a two-way object choice task. An experimenter\\u000a hid food under one of two bowls and after baiting, indicated the location of the food to the subjects by using one of four\\u000a different cues. Horses could locate the hidden reward on the basis

Katalin Maros; Márta Gácsi; Ádám Miklósi

2008-01-01

351

On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses.  

PubMed

The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The results suggest that a prior claim that the extinction of horses preceded the arrival of humans cannot be made with confidence. PMID:16651534

Solow, Andrew R; Roberts, David L; Robbirt, Karen M

2006-05-01

352

On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses  

PubMed Central

The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The results suggest that a prior claim that the extinction of horses preceded the arrival of humans cannot be made with confidence. PMID:16651534

Solow, Andrew R.; Roberts, David L.; Robbirt, Karen M.

2006-01-01

353

Multifactorial inheritance of common white markings in the Arabian horse.  

PubMed

The results of a previous study were compatible with the hypothesis that common white facial markings in the Arabian horse have a multifactorial mode of inheritance. I expanded that study to (1) include the legs and therefore obtain insight into the heritability of common white markings in all peripheral regions (face and legs) of the Arabian horse and (2) investigate the influence of sex and the genotypes that produce the bay and chestnut phenotypes on the variation in common white markings. Both studies were based on computerized data obtained from the Arabian Horse Registry of America, Inc. Each leg of a horse was scored from 0 to 5 depending on the amount of whiteness present, and the four leg scores were added to obtain the total leg score for each horse. The facial region was divided into five areas, and each horse was given a score from 0 to 5 according to the number of areas with whiteness. Sire families were analyzed in which each sire family consisted of a sire, his foals, and the dams of those foals. There was a correlation between white facial scores and white leg scores, suggesting that both types of white markings are influenced by the same genetic mechanism. Sire-foal and dam-foal regression analyses were compatible with the hypothesis that common white leg markings also show multifactorial inheritance. Although the results support the model that additively acting genes (polygenes) influence the presence and extent of common white markings, the results also show that males are slightly more marked than are females and that chestnut horses are more heavily marked than are bay horses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2273238

Woolf, C M

1990-01-01

354

Plasma Citrulline Levels in Horses at Risk of Acute Laminitis  

E-print Network

would be observed. Of these six, one was diagnosed with abortion and colic, three were diagnosed with colitis, one with colic, and one with pneumonia and lipemia. Of the 13 horses that recovered successfully, seven were diagnosed with routine, non...-surgical colic, two were diagnosed with colitis, and three were diagnosed with slight grain overload. One of the horses was diagnosed with acute unilateral laminitis with no known trigger event. Citrulline Concentrations The mean amino acid percent...

Jackson, Amy Lynn

2013-04-10

355

36 CFR 222.26 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands. 222...MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.26 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands....

2010-07-01

356

78 FR 58511 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Horses...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Importation of Horses, Ruminants, Swine, and Dogs; Inspection...the regulations for the importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from regions...the regulations for the importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from...

2013-09-24

357

75 FR 31745 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Horses...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Importation of Horses, Ruminants, Swine, and Dogs; Inspection...with regulations for the importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from regions...on regulations for the importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from...

2010-06-04

358

36 CFR 222.66 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

...2014-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.66 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

2014-07-01

359

36 CFR 222.26 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.26 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

2012-07-01

360

36 CFR 222.66 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.66 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

2013-07-01

361

Dynamic ventrorostral displacement of the dorsal laryngeal mucosa in horses.  

PubMed

The objectives of this report were to describe the occurrence and features of dynamic ventrorostral displacement of the dorsal laryngeal mucosa (VRDDLM) in a group of Thoroughbred horses presented for investigation of poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. Records from 600, dynamic, endoscopic examinations of the upper respiratory tract of horses were reviewed. Horses with VRDDLM were identified as those in which the dorsal laryngeal mucosa progressively obscured the interarytenoid notch and dorsoaxial portion of the corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilages during high-speed exercise. The condition was recognised in 12 horses. Concurrent abnormalities of the respiratory tract of eight horses were also identified and included, axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds, vocal cord prolapse, unilateral and bilateral ventromedial luxation of the apex of the corniculate process of the arytenoid cartilage, and intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate. VRDDLM is a rare abnormality of the upper portion of the respiratory tract of horses that may be associated with abnormal respiratory noise and potentially poor performance. The significance of the condition is not known, but the presence of this condition in combination with other, obstructive diseases of the equine airway warrants further investigation. PMID:23559426

Pollock, P J; Kelly, P G; Reardon, R J M; Kelly, G M

2013-05-11

362

Correlation between dichromatic colour vision and jumping performance in horses.  

PubMed

There is general agreement that horses have dichromatic colour vision with similar capabilities to human beings with red-green colour deficiencies. However, whether colour perception has an impact on equine jumping performance and how pronounced the colour stimulus might be for a horse is unknown. The present study investigated the relationship between the colour of the fences (blue or green) and the show jumping performance of 20 horses ridden by two riders using an indoor and outdoor set of green and blue fences. In the indoor arena, significantly more touches and faults were made on blue fences in comparison to green fences (median difference of 2.5 bars). When only touched bars were included, a significant median difference of one bar was found. Mares (n?=?4) demonstrated more faults and had a significantly greater difference in touches and faults between the two colours than male horses (n?=?16). Repeating the same experiment with eight horses in an outdoor grass arena revealed no significant differences between the two colours. In order to draw any definite conclusions, more research concerning the colour perception, influence of contrast with the arena surface and sex of horse is required. PMID:25193409

Spaas, Julie; Helsen, Werner F; Adriaenssens, Maurits; Broeckx, Sarah; Duchateau, Luc; Spaas, Jan H

2014-10-01

363

Origin and History of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Domestic Horses  

PubMed Central

Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA) of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754 modern horses. The sample set ranged from Alaska and North East Siberia to the Iberian Peninsula and from the Late Pleistocene to modern times. We found a panmictic Late Pleistocene horse population ranging from Alaska to the Pyrenees. Later, during the Early Holocene and the Copper Age, more or less separated sub-populations are indicated for the Eurasian steppe region and Iberia. Our data suggest multiple domestications and introgressions of females especially during the Iron Age. Although all Eurasian regions contributed to the genetic pedigree of modern breeds, most haplotypes had their roots in Eastern Europe and Siberia. We found 87 ancient haplotypes (Pleistocene to Mediaeval Times); 56 of these haplotypes were also observed in domestic horses, although thus far only 39 haplotypes have been confirmed to survive in modern breeds. Thus, at least seventeen haplotypes of early domestic horses have become extinct during the last 5,500 years. It is concluded that the large diversity of mtDNA lineages is not a product of animal breeding but, in fact, represents ancestral variability. PMID:21187961

Cieslak, Michael; Pruvost, Melanie; Benecke, Norbert; Hofreiter, Michael; Morales, Arturo; Reissmann, Monika; Ludwig, Arne

2010-01-01

364

The absolute threshold of colour vision in the horse.  

PubMed

Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m(2), while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m(2). For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m(2). Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity. PMID:19002261

Roth, Lina S V; Balkenius, Anna; Kelber, Almut

2008-01-01

365

Seroepidemiological study of African horse sickness virus in The Gambia.  

PubMed

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the screening of horse sera from The Gambia for antibodies against African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The AHSV antigen used for coating was semipurified according to the method of Manning and Chen (Curr. Microbiol. 4:381, 1980); control mock-infected Vero cell antigen was treated in the same manner. A total of 459 horse serum samples were assayed at a single dilution (1:10), and their reactivities were compared with those of reference positive anti-AHSV and reference negative horse sera. A total of 81% of the horse serum samples clearly contained antibodies against AHSV; this consisted of 18% (of the total number of serum samples) strongly positive, 46.5% moderately positive, and 16.5% weakly but still clearly positive. Such results suggest a high prevalence of AHSV in the regions from whence the samples originated. Reports from investigations in other countries in this area of West Africa have also shown a high prevalence for anti-AHSV antibodies in equids. The question is raised as to how the animals became seropositive and whether the observations represent an increased resistance of horses living in a region in which AHS is enzootic. PMID:8370760

Staeuber, N; Fye, B; Zinsstag, J; McCullough, K C

1993-08-01

366

Origin and history of mitochondrial DNA lineages in domestic horses.  

PubMed

Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA) of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754 modern horses. The sample set ranged from Alaska and North East Siberia to the Iberian Peninsula and from the Late Pleistocene to modern times. We found a panmictic Late Pleistocene horse population ranging from Alaska to the Pyrenees. Later, during the Early Holocene and the Copper Age, more or less separated sub-populations are indicated for the Eurasian steppe region and Iberia. Our data suggest multiple domestications and introgressions of females especially during the Iron Age. Although all Eurasian regions contributed to the genetic pedigree of modern breeds, most haplotypes had their roots in Eastern Europe and Siberia. We found 87 ancient haplotypes (Pleistocene to Mediaeval Times); 56 of these haplotypes were also observed in domestic horses, although thus far only 39 haplotypes have been confirmed to survive in modern breeds. Thus, at least seventeen haplotypes of early domestic horses have become extinct during the last 5,500 years. It is concluded that the large diversity of mtDNA lineages is not a product of animal breeding but, in fact, represents ancestral variability. PMID:21187961

Cieslak, Michael; Pruvost, Melanie; Benecke, Norbert; Hofreiter, Michael; Morales, Arturo; Reissmann, Monika; Ludwig, Arne

2010-01-01

367

Mitochondrial DNA lineages of Italian Giara and Sarcidano horses.  

PubMed

Giara and Sarcidano are 2 of the 15 extant native Italian horse breeds with limited dispersal capability that originated from a larger number of individuals. The 2 breeds live in two distinct isolated locations on the island of Sardinia. To determine the genetic structure and evolutionary history of these 2 Sardinian breeds, the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced and analyzed in 40 Giara and Sarcidano horses and compared with publicly available mtDNA data from 43 Old World breeds. Four different analyses, including genetic distance, analysis of molecular variance, haplotype sharing, and clustering methods, were used to study the genetic relationships between the Sardinian and other horse breeds. The analyses yielded similar results, and the FST values indicated that a high percentage of the total genetic variation was explained by between-breed differences. Consistent with their distinct phenotypes and geographic isolation, the two Sardinian breeds were shown to consist of 2 distinct gene pools that had no gene flow between them. Giara horses were clearly separated from the other breeds examined and showed traces of ancient separation from horses of other breeds that share the same mitochondrial lineage. On the other hand, the data from the Sarcidano horses fit well with variation among breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and North-West Europe: genetic relationships among Sarcidano and the other breeds are consistent with the documented history of this breed. PMID:25366719

Morelli, L; Useli, A; Sanna, D; Barbato, M; Contu, D; Pala, M; Cancedda, M; Francalacci, P

2014-01-01

368

Planet Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will be taken into consideration, for instance, the value of the pH, using universal indicator paper, color, through visual evaluation and the temperature with the help of a thermometer. There will be also registered some existent chemical parameters as chloride, alkalinity, total hardness (Ca2+ and Mg2+), nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate. Two methods will be used for analysis, the titration and the kit of semi-quantitative chemical analyses. This kit is composed by biocompatible substances, which means they are not harmful for the environment and can be disposed of by domestic sewage systems. The results will be subsequently analyzed bearing in mind the maximum and recommended standards values for each one of the parameters. After this, the results achieved will be discussed. I believe this project contains characteristics that will be of interest to our students, thus enabling them to participate actively and effectively develop their knowledge and enhance their scientific curiosity.

Afonso, Isabel

2014-05-01

369

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...identification which includes a description of the horse, name, age, markings, if any, registration number, if any, and tattoo or eartag; the region of origin; the name and address of the exporter; the port of embarkation in the foreign...

2013-01-01

370

Residues of diflubenzuron on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) leaves and their efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella.  

PubMed

Residues of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron were quantified on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) leaves treated with a diflubenzuron 480 g litre(-1) SC, Dimilin. To analyse the samples, an analytical procedure was developed involving a simple extraction step followed by high-performance liquid chromatography on an octadecyl-modified silica column with methanol + 0.01 M ammonium acetate mobile phase. The results showed diflubenzuron to be highly stable on horse chestnut leaves; more than 4 months (127 days) after application, 38% (on average) of the insecticide still remained on/in the leaves. The data confirmed biological observations showing diflubenzuron's long-term efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimi?, which is the most important pest of the horse chestnut in Europe. The hypothesis of possible penetration of diflubenzuron into the leaf mass is explored and discussed. PMID:16475222

Nejmanová, Jana; Cvacka, Josef; Hrdý, Ivan; Kuldová, Jelena; Mertelík, Josef; Muck, Alexander; Nesnerová, Petra; Svatos, Ales

2006-03-01

371

Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)  

PubMed Central

Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

2014-01-01

372

Open ocean aquaculture engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of New Hampshire, Center for Ocean Engineering (UNH\\/COE) open ocean aquaculture engineering efforts continue to be focused on developing engineering design and analysis tools for assessing, evaluating and optimizing engineering systems required for successful open ocean aquaculture. The methodology presented here was used to develop the mooring\\/cage system for the successful deployment of two Ocean Spar Sea Station

K. C. Baldwin; J. D. Irish; B. Celikkol; M. R. Swift; D. Fredriksson; I. Tsukrov; Michael Chambers

2002-01-01

373

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum. PMID:22935132

2012-01-01

374

Ocean optics  

SciTech Connect

This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

1994-12-31

375

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 11.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...violations of the Horse Protection Act or regulations,...

2013-01-01

376

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 11.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...violations of the Horse Protection Act or regulations,...

2012-01-01

377

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 11.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...violations of the Horse Protection Act or regulations,...

2010-01-01

378

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 11.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...violations of the Horse Protection Act or regulations,...

2011-01-01

379

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

...Section 11.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...violations of the Horse Protection Act or regulations,...

2014-01-01

380

Hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) toxicity in a herd of broodmare horses.  

PubMed

A herd of pregnant horses exposed to hoary alyssum through ingested hay developed acute and severe gastrointestinal toxicity accompanied by intravascular hemolysis. Postmortem lesions were consistent with these signs. Three horses had late-term abortions. PMID:8434451

Hovda, L R; Rose, M L

1993-02-01

381

Evolution, Systematics, and Phylogeography of Pleistocene Horses in the New World  

E-print Network

regarded as closely related to the Eurasian caballines, a group that includes the domestic horse (Equus caballus) and the extant wild Przewalskii horse. The stilt-legged forms have been taxonomically assigned

Rubenstein, Daniel I.

382

Feeding and Caring for a Two-Year-Old 4-H Futurity Horse  

E-print Network

This publication explains how to care for a 2-year-old horse and have a successful 4-H futurity horse project. Topics include proper nutrition; regular coat, hoof, and health care; adequate exercise; and consistent training. Activities are included...

Antilley, Teri J.; Sigler, Dennis

2009-05-15

383

77 FR 41473 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Lion Attacking a Horse  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Lion Attacking a Horse'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...hereby determine that the object entitled ``Lion Attacking a Horse,'' to be imported by The J. Paul Getty Museum from...

2012-07-13

384

The role of andragogy and self-directed learning in the draft horse industry  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to determine and understand the variables affecting the revival of the draft horse industry in the United States. A qualitative study was conducted using 31 purposively (Lincoln and Guba, 1985) selected draft horse...

Hynes, James William

2006-08-16

385

Ocean Planet: Sea Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on ocean bottom features including continental shelf, deep ocean plain, and mid-ocean ridges. Students study the discovery and mapping of seafloor features, learn to read seafloor maps, then create a map of Atlantic seafloor features. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; maps and forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

386

Continents and Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn and explore the seven continents and five oceans. 1. Explore the 7 continents and 5 oceans Continents and Oceans! 2. Play the quiz on the continents and oceans. Start at Beginner and work your way up to Expert! Continents and Oceans! 3. Look at this map and write down all your seven continents! Continents 4. Go to this website and play the game about continents. Continue playing until ...

Kneugent

2012-11-26

387

Nutrition assessment of horse-racing athletes.  

PubMed

Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers; however, the literature is sparse pertaining to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of "making weight" causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education was expressed to Cooperative Extension of Delaware by representatives of the riders at Delaware Park Race Track. Nutrition assessment was done using the Nutrition Care Process. Twenty jockeys were interviewed using an assessment form developed to target areas of disordered eating. Body mass index (BMI), mean weight loss on race day, methods of weight loss and ease of weight maintenance were examined. The jockeys were also asked for areas they wished to receive nutrition education on in the future. The BMI of the 20 jockeys ranged from 17.0 to 21.4 during racing season, with only one jockey in the "underweight" category. This range increased to 19.1-24.0 when the riders were not riding. The most common method of weight loss was the use of steam rooms, to lose an average 2.5 lb in 1 day. Eight of 20, the most common response, reported it very easy to maintain their racing weight. The jockeys reported interest in future education sessions on meal planning and healthy food ideas. The assessment was used as the basis to develop nutrition education materials and presentations for the riders at the race track. PMID:20803166

Cotugna, Nancy; Snider, O Sue; Windish, Jennifer

2011-04-01

388

Assisted reproduction techniques in the horse.  

PubMed

This paper reviews current equine assisted reproduction techniques. Embryo transfer is the most common equine ART, but is still limited by the inability to superovulate mares effectively. Immature oocytes may be recovered by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of immature follicles, or from ovaries postmortem, and can be effectively matured in vitro. Notably, the in vivo-matured oocyte may be easily recovered from the stimulated preovulatory follicle. Standard IVF is still not repeatable in the horse; however, embryos and foals can be produced by surgical transfer of mature oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares or via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Currently, ICSI and in vitro embryo culture are routinely performed by only a few laboratories, but reported blastocyst development rates approach those found after bovine IVF (i.e. 25%-35%). Nuclear transfer can be relatively efficient (up to 26% live foal rate per transferred embryo), but few laboratories are working in this area. Equine blastocysts may be biopsied via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after biopsy, and accurate genetic analysis. Equine expanded blastocysts may be vitrified after collapsing them via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after warming and transfer. Many of these recently developed techniques are now in clinical use. PMID:23244831

Hinrichs, Katrin

2012-01-01

389

Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

2013-05-01

390

Cardiorespiratory response and blood lactate in cutting horses subjected to two exercise regimens  

E-print Network

subjected to aerobic and intermittent anaerobic (cutting horse) work using treadmill (TET) and cutting (CET) exercise tests. In phase I, heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR) and blood lactate (LA) concentrations were monitored in seven Quarter Horses... peziods I to II, then decreased from periods II to III (P&. 05). Data indicate that the horses became more fit as a result of training. They also reveal a different physiological response of the horses to cutting versus treadmill work. The length...

Campbell, Mary Elizabeth

2012-06-07

391

Epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse: the risk from animal product feeding practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discovery in 2002 of a Trichinella spiralis-infected horse in Serbia offered an opportunity to conduct needed epidemiological studies on how horses, considered herbivores, acquire a meat-borne parasite. This enigma has persisted since the first human outbreaks from infected horse meat occurred in then 1970s. The trace back of the infected horse to a farm owner was carried out. Interviews

K. D. Murrell; M. Djordjevic; K. Cuperlovic; Lj. Sofronic; M. Savic; S. Damjanovic

2004-01-01

392

Weaving in stabled horses and its relationship to other behavioural traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated 71 horses at five stud farms. Their breeds were Thoroughbred (n=48), Anglo-Arab (n=7), Thoroughbred mixed breed (n=5), Appaloosa (n=3), Selle Francais (n=2), Dutch Warmblood, Haflinger, Pinto, Quarter Horse and Westfalen (n=1, respectively), and one horse's breed was not known, but was a heavy horse. Their genders were stallion (n=5), gelding (n=41) and female (n=25). Their ages ranged from

Shigeru Ninomiya; Shusuke Sato; Kazuo Sugawara

2007-01-01

393

Selection and Use of Hay and Processed Roughage in Horse Feeding  

E-print Network

of safe and successful feeding programs, efforts to select the best available roughage are well worth the time spent. Horses must be fed roughage regularly to keep their digestive systems functioning properly, to minimize vices such as wood chewing... fed. Horses without access to a good grazing source should receive roughage daily in amounts equal to about 1 percent of body weight. This amount of roughage usually will satisfy a horse?s need for adequate gut fi ll and chewing, helping...

Gibbs, Pete G.

2005-04-15

394

Acute phase proteins in Andalusian horses infected with Theileria equi.  

PubMed

Clinical and laboratory findings were determined in 23 Andalusian horses in southern Spain that were positive for Theileria equi by PCR, including 16 mares at pasture (group A1) and seven stabled stallions (group B1). Five healthy mares at pasture (group A2) and five stabled stallions (group B2), all of which were negative for T.?equi in Giemsa stained blood smears and by PCR, were used as controls. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, anaemia, depression and icterus (group A1), along with loss of performance or failure to train and depression (group B1). Thrombocytopoenia was evident in 5/7 horses in group B1. Lower serum iron concentrations were observed in both diseased groups compared with their respective control groups. There were no significant differences in APP concentrations between diseased and control groups; all affected horses had APP concentrations within reference limits. Serum haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were higher than the reference limits in 5/23, 3/23 and 1/23 diseased horses, respectively. It was concluded that horses with theileriosis exhibited only a mild systemic inflammatory response. PMID:25086769

Rodríguez, Rocío; Cerón, José J; Riber, Cristina; Castejón, Francisco; Gómez-Díez, Manuel; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan M; Muñoz, Ana

2014-10-01

395

Horses (Equus caballus) discriminate body odour cues from conspecifics.  

PubMed

Knowledge about social recognition and memory in animals can help us to determine appropriate management and husbandry techniques. In this study, we used a habituation-discrimination procedure to investigate the ability of horses (Equus caballus) to distinguish between the body odour samples of unfamiliar conspecifics. To pick up body odour, we rubbed material on the coat of horses and presented these unknown body odours to 16 different conspecifics of the same sex and similar age. The test consisted of two successive two-min presentations of a sample from one individual (e.g. individual 'A') and a simultaneous presentation of samples from individual 'A' and a novel individual (e.g. individual 'B') during a final third presentation. The results showed that horses, regardless of sex, decreased the time they spent investigating conspecific body odour across the initial two presentations-demonstrating habituation. In the final presentation, the results demonstrated successful discrimination of the previously experienced odour because horses investigated the novel olfactory sample ('B') significantly more than the pre-exposed sample ('A'). Taken together, these findings suggest, for the first time, that horses are able to discriminate two stimuli derived from body odours of unfamiliar conspecifics over short period of time. PMID:24305997

Péron, F; Ward, R; Burman, O

2014-07-01

396

Corralling Your Camp Horse Program: Reviewing Your Policies and Procedures and Creating a Written Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camps offering horse programs need to have written policies and procedures to ensure quality control and risk minimization. Basic elements of a horse program manual include routine care of horses; general guidelines relating to participants, program, and staff; and emergency plans. Four information resources are presented. (TD)

Glunt, Jim

2000-01-01

397

Heart Rate Variability in Horses Engaged in Equine-Assisted Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a recent surge in using horses to treat mental and emotional human health issues, the consequences of horse-assisted interventions on the stress response of horses have not been well documented. Assessment of the autonomic nervous system and its regulation of cardiovascular function has been used as an indicator of acute and chronic stress in human beings

Ellen Kaye Gehrke; Ann Baldwin; Patric M. Schiltz

2011-01-01

398

Effects of loading and transport on the heart rate and behaviour of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is much anecdotal evidence to suggest that some horses are stressed during transport, very few empirical studies have been done that describe and quantify the responses of horses to transport. The aim of this preliminary study was to describe the behaviour and heart rates of horses during loading and transport that would enable further studies to be carried

Natalie K. Waran; Derek Cuddeford

1995-01-01

399

THIRTY-DAY RHYTHMICITY IN ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC AND ELECTROLYTIC PARAMETERS IN THE ATHLETIC HORSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes circatrigintan progress of some electrocardiographic pa- rameters and of the serum electrolytes in the jumper horse during a period of pre-competi- tive training performed in order to define the temporal organization of some parameters employed to evaluate the athletic performance of the horse. Five Sella Italiana horses, clinically healthy and specifically trained have been utilized for the

GIUSEPPE PICCIONE; ANNA ASSENZA; FRANCESCO FAZIO; FORTUNATA GRASSO; GIOVANNI CAOLA

400

State of the art on daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the literature on the daily rhythm in horses. Many physiological processes have been studied in horses to investigate their daily rhythmicity. In horses many rhythms are driven by an endogenous pacemaker, some of them endogenously generated, others influenced by external stimuli. It then addresses the influence of maturation and ageing, physical exercise and jet lag on these

Giuseppe Piccione; Claudia Giannetto

2011-01-01

401

Immunocontraception in Wild Horses (Equus caballus) Extends Reproductive Cycling Beyond the Normal  

E-print Network

Immunocontraception in Wild Horses (Equus caballus) Extends Reproductive Cycling Beyond the Normal if this is the case, we compiled foaling data from wild horses (Equus caballus) living on Shackleford Banks, North Horses (Equus caballus) Extends Reproductive Cycling Beyond the Normal Breeding Season. PLoS ONE 5(10): e

Rubenstein, Daniel I.

402

Comparative Genomics of Mongolian Purebred and Hybrid Horses: Conserving an Important Breed  

E-print Network

The Mongolian horse has been primarily under natural selection since its ancestral time due to the almost wild existence it lives in Mongolia. This has enabled the Mongolian horse to retain a high level of ancestral diversity compared to other horse...

Wright, Taryn

2013-02-04

403

Points to Consider When Purchasing Companion Animals, Livestock or Horses By Carrie Chickering-Sears  

E-print Network

chosen species. Some auctions might mask a horses' disposition by doping or tiring the animal priorPoints to Consider When Purchasing Companion Animals, Livestock or Horses By Carrie Chickering what breed of dog, livestock or horse that you want to purchase, you can contact the respective

New Hampshire, University of

404

77 FR 37705 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board AGENCY: Bureau...nominations for three positions on the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board). The...protection, and control of wild free-roaming horses and burros on the public lands...

2012-06-22

405

78 FR 59058 - Second Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Second Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board AGENCY: Bureau...nominations for three positions on the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board). The...protection, and control of wild free-roaming horses and burros on public lands...

2013-09-25

406

78 FR 39768 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board AGENCY: Bureau...nominations for three positions on the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board). The...protection, and control of wild free-roaming horses and burros on the public lands...

2013-07-02

407

76 FR 31220 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...APHIS-2008-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected...regulations regarding the importation of horses from countries affected with contagious...certification requirement for imported horses 731 days of age or less and adding...

2011-05-31

408

76 FR 20569 - Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11 [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0006] Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments...received a petition requesting changes to our horse protection regulations and our current...requests in the petition lack authority in the Horse Protection Act to implement. DATES:...

2011-04-13

409

76 FR 48174 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board AGENCY: Bureau...nominations for three members to the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board). The...protection, and control of wild free-roaming horses and burros on the public lands...

2011-08-08

410

75 FR 35078 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board AGENCY: Bureau...nominations for three members to the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board). The...protection, and control of wild free-roaming horses and burros on the public lands...

2010-06-21

411

77 FR 16063 - Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

2012-03-19

412

36 CFR 261.23 - Wild free-roaming horses and burros.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Wild free-roaming horses and burros. 261.23 Section 261...Prohibitions § 261.23 Wild free-roaming horses and burros. The following are prohibited...attempting to remove a wild free-roaming horse or burro from the National Forest...

2010-07-01

413

77 FR 58863 - Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

2012-09-24

414

9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the West Indies...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West...

2010-01-01

415

78 FR 8187 - Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

2013-02-05

416

The responses of horses to the situation of a closed feed box  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature pertaining to the behavior of horses and a study of learning curves for the opening of a feed box by 68 horses of various ages and breeds. There is also a comparison of the behavior of horses and that of pigs, kittens, cows, and a dog. Learning was rapid, 3 to 4 trials perfecting the

L. P. Gardner

1933-01-01

417

Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

Robbins, Lisa

2012-01-01

418

Acetylsalicylic acid and blood coagulation in the horse.  

PubMed

Equine blood may contain salicylic acid (SA) taken up as free acid or represents the metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). To obtain information of SA in race horses we screened blood samples of trotting-horses routinely drawn to be analyzed for doping substances. The individual values determined followed a Gaussian distribution displaying a geometric mean of 19 ng SA per ml serum. A probit analysis revealed linear relationship (r = 0.995). Additional studies examined the antithrombotic efficacy of ASA in the horse. An oral dose of 300 mg ASA considerably elevated the bleeding time for more than 2 hours with concomitant SA serum levels between 800 and 1000 ng/ml. It is concluded that salicylate levels even below 1 microgram/ml serum bring about considerable pharmacologic effects such as prolongation of bleeding time, decrease in blood viscosity and possibly dilatation of blood vessels. These effects may improve the tissue supply with blood including oxygen. PMID:1425318

Hagedorn, H W; Böck, M; Schulz, R

1992-10-01

419

Ventricular tachycardia and myocardial dysfunction in a horse.  

PubMed

Ventricular tachycardia develops less frequently than supraventricular dysrhythmias and generally is more indicative of cardiac disease. The horse in this report had clinical signs of lethargy and hypophagia and was determined to have sustained ventricular tachycardia. Echocardiography was a valuable diagnostic tool and revealed an echodense area in the left ventricle that had subnormal ventricular performance. A primary heart problem of an inflammatory nature was suspected. The horse responded favorably to treatment with lidocaine, antimicrobials, and aspirin, as well as stall rest. The horse was used successfully as a sire and hunter-jumper after treatment, but subsequently died 2.2 years later of massive hemoperitoneum. Necropsy revealed an extensive area in the left ventricle that appeared thin and fibrotic. PMID:7730126

Traub-Dargatz, J L; Schlipf, J W; Boon, J; Ogilvie, G K; Bennett, D G; Wingfield, W E; Hutchison, J M

1994-12-01

420

[New drugs for horses and production animals in 2010].  

PubMed

In 2010, three new active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for horses and food-producing animals. These were gamithromycin (Zactran®), a new macrolide antibiotic, Monepantel (Zolvix®), a broad spectrum anthelmintic with a novel mechanism, and Pergolide (Prascend®), the first dopamine receptor agonist for animals. Two substances have been approved for additional species. The tetracycline antibiotic doxycycline is now also authorized for turkeys and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug firocoxib from the group of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors is now available for horses. Furthermore, four new preparations with an interesting new pharmaceutical form, one drug with a new formulation and two drugs, which are interesting because of other criteria, were added to the market for horses and food producing animals. PMID:22167083

Emmerich, I U

2011-01-01

421

78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast...on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City...Street and 33rd Street over the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In...

2013-05-31

422

77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast...on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. This action...host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In...

2012-04-16

423

Review of furosemide in horse racing: its effects and regulation.  

PubMed

Furosemide has been used empirically and has been legally approved for many years by the US racing industry for the control of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) or bleeding. Its use in horses for this purpose is highly controversial and has been criticized by organizations outside and inside of the racing industry. This review concentrates on its renal and extra-renal actions and the possible relationship of these actions to the modification of EIPH and changes in performance of horses. The existing literature references suggest that furosemide has the potential of increasing performance in horses without significantly changing the bleeding status. The pulmonary capillary transmural pressure in the exercising horse is estimated to be over 100 mmHg. The pressure reduction produced by the administration of furosemide is not of sufficient magnitude to reduce transmural pressures within the capillaries to a level where pressures resulting in rupture of the capillaries, and thus haemorrhage, would be completely prevented. This is substantiated by clinical observations that the administration of furosemide to horses with EIPH may reduce haemorrhage but does not completely stop it. The unanswered question is whether the improvement of racing times which have been shown in a number of studies are due to the reduction in bleeding or to other actions of furosemide. This review also discusses the difficulties encountered in furosemide regulation, in view of its diuretic actions and potential for the reduction in the ability of forensic laboratories to detect drugs and medications administered to a horse within days or hours before a race. Interactions between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and furosemide have also been examined, and the results suggest that the effects of prior administration of NSAID may partially mitigate the renal and extra-renal effects which may contribute to the effects of furosemide on EIPH. PMID:9673965

Soma, L R; Uboh, C E

1998-06-01

424

Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I projected costs for several contraceptive treatments that could be used by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage 4 wild horse (Equus caballus) populations. Potential management alternatives included existing roundup and selective removal methods combined with contraceptives of different duration and effectiveness. I projected costs for a 20-year economic life using the WinEquus?? wild horse population model and state-by-state cost estimates reflecting BLM's operational expenses. Findings revealed that 1) currently available 2-year contraceptives in most situations are capable of reducing variable operating costs by 15%, 2) experimental 3-year contraceptives may be capable of reducing costs by 18%, and 3) combining contraceptives with modest changes to herd sex ratio (e.g., 55-60% M) could trim costs by 30%. Predicted savings can increase when contraception is applied in conjunction with a removal policy that targets horses aged 0-4 years instead of 0-5 years. However, reductions in herd size result in greater variation in annual operating expenses. Because the horse program's variable operating costs make up about half of the total program costs (which include other fixed costs), contraceptive application and management can only reduce total costs by 14%, saving about $6.1 million per year. None of the contraceptive options I examined eliminated the need for long-term holding facilities over the 20-year period simulated, but the number of horses held may be reduced by about 17% with contraceptive treatment. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the oldest age adoptable and per-day holding costs. The BLM will experience significant cost savings as carefully designed contraceptive programs become widespread in the wild horse herds it manages.

Bartholow, J.

2007-01-01

425

A Massively Parallel Sequencing Approach Uncovers Ancient Origins and High Genetic Variability of Endangered Przewalski's Horses  

PubMed Central

The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered—two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117–0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow. PMID:21803766

Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Allison R.; Schultz, Bryant; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

2011-01-01

426

Genome-Wide Detection of Copy Number Variations among Diverse Horse Breeds by Array CGH  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have found that copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in human and animal genomes. CNVs are a significant source of genetic variation, and have been shown to be associated with phenotypic diversity. However, the effect of CNVs on genetic variation in horses is not well understood. In the present study, CNVs in 6 different breeds of mare horses, Mongolia horse, Abaga horse, Hequ horse and Kazakh horse (all plateau breeds) and Debao pony and Thoroughbred, were determined using aCGH. In total, seven hundred CNVs were identified ranging in size from 6.1 Kb to 0.57 Mb across all autosomes, with an average size of 43.08 Kb and a median size of 15.11 Kb. By merging overlapping CNVs, we found a total of three hundred and fifty-three CNV regions (CNVRs). The length of the CNVRs ranged from 6.1 Kb to 1.45 Mb with average and median sizes of 38.49 Kb and 13.1 Kb. Collectively, 13.59 Mb of copy number variation was identified among the horses investigated and accounted for approximately 0.61% of the horse genome sequence. Five hundred and eighteen annotated genes were affected by CNVs, which corresponded to about 2.26% of all horse genes. Through the gene ontology (GO), genetic pathway analysis and comparison of CNV genes among different breeds, we found evidence that CNVs involving 7 genes may be related to the adaptation to severe environment of these plateau horses. This study is the first report of copy number variations in Chinese horses, which indicates that CNVs are ubiquitous in the horse genome and influence many biological processes of the horse. These results will be helpful not only in mapping the horse whole-genome CNVs, but also to further research for the adaption to the high altitude severe environment for plateau horses. PMID:24497987

Hou, Chenglin; Xing, Yanping; Cao, Junwei; Wu, Kaifeng; Liu, Chunxia; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yanru; Zhou, Huanmin

2014-01-01

427

Cottonseed Meal in Rations of Horses and Mules.  

E-print Network

- nection with other feeds for 224 days to two years, and some of them received two pounds daily for a much longer period. There was not a single instance of any injurious effects from feeding the cottonseed meal to mares, weanllings, artillery horses... available, and the climatic conditions. This study was made because it was believed possible to effect a practical improvement in'the ra- tions of horses and mules as a result of the inclusion of 1 to 2 pounds of cottonseed meal. The successful feeding...

Williams, R. H.; Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Jones, John H.

1934-01-01

428

Studies on the amino acid requirements of horses  

E-print Network

to the same ration as the h- aviest anima?. The animals were then randomly allotted to stalls. The sta. ll. , used in this work were located at the Horse Center of t?&e Animal Science Departatent of Texas ASvi Univcrs'. ty. Six of the stalls were in one... to the same ration as the h- aviest anima?. The animals were then randomly allotted to stalls. The sta. ll. , used in this work were located at the Horse Center of t?&e Animal Science Departatent of Texas ASvi Univcrs'. ty. Six of the stalls were in one...

Word, James Dewey

2012-06-07

429

Control of Strongylidae in horses by pasture rotation and chemotherapy  

E-print Network

stxongylss. The average RPO increass4 slowly but steadily until the horse was sutopsie4 4Q months later. kt this time the gPO was 95. On culture only small ctrongyla larvae were found. The time between ?xperimental infection a?4 autopsy wes 225 4ays... increased irregularly for two months at which time the horse deveLope4 a severe, watery 4iar rhea making further fecal egg counts meaningless. This uncontrolgabL? 4iarrhaa continued unti, L autopsy 4 months later. It was thought to have bean caused...

Sharp, Marvin Lafayette

2012-06-07

430

Advanced glycation endproducts in horses with insulin-induced laminitis.  

PubMed

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, inflammatory conditions and diabetic complications. An interaction of AGEs with their receptor (RAGE) results in increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing damage to susceptible tissues. Laminitis, a debilitating foot condition of horses, occurs in association with endocrine dysfunction and the potential involvement of AGE and RAGE in the pathogenesis of the disease has not been previously investigated. Glucose transport in lamellar tissue is thought to be largely insulin-independent (GLUT-1), which may make the lamellae susceptible to protein glycosylation and oxidative stress during periods of increased glucose metabolism. Archived lamellar tissue from horses with insulin-induced laminitis (n=4), normal control horses (n=4) and horses in the developmental stages (6h, 12h and 24h) of the disease (n=12) was assessed for AGE accumulation and the presence of oxidative protein damage and cellular lipid peroxidation. The equine-specific RAGE gene was identified in lamellar tissue, sequenced and is now available on GenBank. Lamellar glucose transporter (GLUT-1 and GLUT-4) gene expression was assessed quantitatively with qRT-PCR in laminitic and control horses and horses in the mid-developmental time-point (24 h) of the disease. Significant AGE accumulation had occurred by the onset of insulin-induced laminitis (48 h) but not at earlier time-points, or in control horses. Evidence of oxidative stress was not found in any group. The equine-specific RAGE gene was not expressed differently in treated and control animals, nor was the insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT-4. However, the glucose transporter GLUT-1 was increased in lamellar tissue in the developmental stages of insulin-induced laminitis compared to control horses and the insulin-independent nature of the lamellae may facilitate AGE formation. However, due to the lack of AGE accumulation during disease development and a failure to detect an increase in ROS or upregulation of RAGE, it appears unlikely that oxidative stress and protein glycosylation play a central role in the pathogenesis of acute, insulin-induced laminitis. PMID:22240145

de Laat, M A; Kyaw-Tanner, M T; Sillence, M N; McGowan, C M; Pollitt, C C

2012-01-15

431

Salmonella Oranienburg isolated from horses, wild turkeys and an edible home garden fertilized with raw horse manure.  

PubMed

In July 2010, a horse from a rural farm (Farm A) in coastal Northern California was diagnosed with Salmonella Oranienburg infection following referral to a veterinary hospital for colic surgery. Environmental sampling to identify potential sources and persistence of Salmonella on the farm was conducted from August 2010 to March 2011. Salmonella was cultured using standard enrichment and selective plating. Pure colonies were confirmed by biochemical analysis, serotyped and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 204 clinical and environmental samples at Farm A were analysed, and Salmonella spp. was isolated from six of eight (75%) horses, an asymptomatic pet dog, two of seven (28.6%) water samples from horse troughs, nine of 20 (45%) manure storage pile composites, 16 of 71 (22.5%) wild turkey faeces and four of 39 (10.3%) soil samples from the family's edible home garden. Well water and garden vegetable samples and horse faecal samples from a neighbouring ranch were negative. S. Oranienburg with a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the horse clinical strain was found in all positive sample types on Farm A. The investigation illustrates the potential for widespread dissemination of Salmonella in a farm environment following equine infections. We speculate that a recent surge in the wild turkey population on the property could have introduced S. Oranienburg into the herd, although we cannot rule out the possibility wild turkeys were exposed on the farm or to other potential sources of Salmonella. Findings from the investigation indicated that raw horse manure applied as fertilizer was the most likely source of garden soil contamination. Viable S. Oranienburg persisted in garden soil for an estimated 210 days, which exceeds the 120-day standard between application and harvest currently required by the National Organic Program. The study underscores the need to educate the public about potential food safety hazards associated with using raw animal manure to fertilize edible home gardens. PMID:23425126

Jay-Russell, M T; Madigan, J E; Bengson, Y; Madigan, S; Hake, A F; Foley, J E; Byrne, B A

2014-02-01

432

Harvesting the Ocean: 1. The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is the first in a series of three interdisciplinary units which focus specifically on the Pacific Ocean and its surrounding countries. The booklet, designed for lower secondary students, provides an introduction to the ocean environment such that students can understand the physical factors underlying issues raised by the other two…

Caton, Albert, Ed.; And Others

433

Antibodies in horses, mules and donkeys following monovalent vaccination against African horse sickness.  

PubMed

A total of 256 sera collected from three species of domesticated equidae in four different Spanish provinces were examined 1-4 months after the administration of attenuated monovalent African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 vaccine. Approximately 10% of the sera were negative by ELISA, virus neutralization, agar gel immuno-diffusion and complement fixation tests. Similar negative reactions were recorded with sera from two ponies after experimental primary vaccination. The rapid rise in antibodies in sera from these two ponies, after a second dose of vaccine, suggested they would probably have been immune to challenge. It is therefore suggested that the apparent absence of antibodies against AHSV in some animals after primary vaccination may not necessarily indicate a total lack of protection. PMID:1902185

Hamblin, C; Mellor, P S; Graham, S D; Hooghuis, H; Montejano, R C; Cubillo, M A; Boned, J

1991-04-01

434

Mixing by ocean eddies  

E-print Network

Mesoscale eddies mix and transport tracers such as heat and potential vorticity laterally in the ocean. While this transport plays an important role in the climate system, especially in the Southern Ocean, we lack a, ...

Abernathey, Ryan (Ryan Patrick)

2012-01-01

435

Ethane ocean on Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

1983-01-01

436

Oceanic Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This visualization illustrates the carbon cycle throughout the oceanic zones, beginning at the surface and traveling to the deep. The concept map-like connections encourage students to link the abiotic and biotic interactions within the oceanic food web.

Science, Office O.; Biological and Environmental Research Information System (BERIS)

437

Ocean Water: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how temperature, pressure, and salinity work together to determine the density of ocean water. The three density layers of the ocean are described by means of text description and a graphic illustration.

438

Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience  

PubMed Central

Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the “amateurs”, the “experienced” and the “experts”. Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the “amateur” group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside “measureable” qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the “amateur” group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses. PMID:24833979

GILLE, Claudia; KAYSER, Maike; SPILLER, Achim

2011-01-01

439

Antioxidant status in elite three-day event horses during competition.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if competition intensity would have an effect on antioxidant status in horses before and during a three-day event. Body weight, body condition score, and blood was sampled from CCI2* (n = 19) and CCI3* (n = 23) horses before the start of dressage, 20 to 30 min following cross-country, and 18-24 h after cross-county. Data were analyzed using a PROC MIXED in SAS. There were no differences between CCI2* and CCI3* horses during competition for plasma cortisol, lactate, ?-tocopherol, retinol, or erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. After cross-country, CCI3* horses had higher serum creatine kinase (P = 0.003) and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.0001) than the CCI2* horses. Plasma ?-carotene was higher in the CCI2* horses compared to the CCI3* horses (P = 0.0001). Total erythrocyte glutathione was also higher in the CCI2* horses versus CCI3* horses (P < 0.0001). These results are the first report of antioxidant status of horses competing in this level of a three-day event. The changes in antioxidant and muscle enzymes observed between divisions are likely due to the increased anaerobic and musculoskeletal demand on the upper level horses and the fitness required to compete at that level. PMID:22792415

Williams, Carey A; Burk, Amy O

2012-01-01

440

Antioxidant Status in Elite Three-Day Event Horses during Competition  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine if competition intensity would have an effect on antioxidant status in horses before and during a three-day event. Body weight, body condition score, and blood was sampled from CCI2* (n = 19) and CCI3* (n = 23) horses before the start of dressage, 20 to 30?min following cross-country, and 18–24?h after cross-county. Data were analyzed using a PROC MIXED in SAS. There were no differences between CCI2* and CCI3* horses during competition for plasma cortisol, lactate, ?-tocopherol, retinol, or erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. After cross-country, CCI3* horses had higher serum creatine kinase (P = 0.003) and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.0001) than the CCI2* horses. Plasma ?-carotene was higher in the CCI2* horses compared to the CCI3* horses (P = 0.0001). Total erythrocyte glutathione was also higher in the CCI2* horses versus CCI3* horses (P < 0.0001). These results are the first report of antioxidant status of horses competing in this level of a three-day event. The changes in antioxidant and muscle enzymes observed between divisions are likely due to the increased anaerobic and musculoskeletal demand on the upper level horses and the fitness required to compete at that level. PMID:22792415

Williams, Carey A.; Burk, Amy O.

2012-01-01

441

A microsatellite analysis of five Colonial Spanish horse populations of the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

The domestic horse (Equus caballus) was re-introduced to the Americas by Spanish explorers. Although horses from other parts of Europe were subsequently introduced, some New World populations maintain characteristics ascribed to their Spanish heritage. The southeastern United States has a history of Spanish invasion and settlement, and this influence on local feral horse populations includes two feral-recaptured breeds: the Florida Cracker and the Marsh Tacky, both of which are classified as Colonial Spanish horses. The feral Banker horses found on islands off the coast of North Carolina, which include, among others, the Shackleford Banks, the Corolla and the Ocracoke, are also Colonial Spanish horses. Herein we analyse 15 microsatellite loci from 532 feral and 2583 domestic horses in order to compare the genetic variation of these five Colonial Spanish Horse populations to 40 modern horse breeds. We find that the Corolla horse has very low heterozygosity and that both the Corolla and Ocracoke populations have a low mean number of alleles. We also find that the Florida Cracker population has a heterozygosity deficit. In addition, we find evidence of similarity of the Shackleford Banks, Marsh Tacky and Florida Cracker populations to New World Iberian horse breeds, while the origins of the other two populations are less clear. PMID:22221025

Conant, E K; Juras, R; Cothran, E G

2012-02-01

442

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic horses in Durango State, Mexico.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses in Mexico is unknown. Therefore, antibodies to T. gondii were assessed in 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Horses were from 18 farms in 3 municipalities in the valley region of Durango State. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 30 (6.1%) of 495 horses, with MAT titers of 1:25 in 19, 1:50 in 6, and 1:100 in 5. Seropositive horses were found in 8 (44.4%) of 18 farms sampled in all 3 municipalities. Age, gender, and breed of horses did not influence significantly the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. The seroprevalence in horses was higher in rural (7.8%) versus urban (0%) areas, and in larger herds (30-64 horses, 7.8%) versus smaller ones (3-28, 3.5%). The seroprevalence was higher in stall fed (16.5%) than in pastured horses (3.1%). Results indicate that infected horses represent a potential source of T. gondii infection for humans in Mexico. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in horses in Mexico. PMID:22559329

Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Rodríguez-Peña, S; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

2012-10-01

443

Common white facial markings in bay and chestnut Arabian horses and their hybrids.  

PubMed

Common white facial and leg markings have a multifactorial mode of inheritance in Equus caballus. Evidence for the complexity of the genetic component is the observation that chestnut (e/e) horses have more extensive white markings than do bay (E/-) horses. Computerized records obtained from the Arabian Horse Registry of America, Inc., were used to determine if heterozygous (E/e) bay horses have more extensive white facial markings than do homozygous (E/E) bay horses. Thirty-five sire families were analyzed. Each sire family consists of a sire, his foals, and the dams of those foals. The facial region was divided into five areas, and each horse was given a score from 0 to 5 according to the number of areas with whiteness. Since dams and foals with E/E genotypes cannot be identified in these sire families, mean facial scores were compared in dams and foals that were E/e and E/-. It was assumed that if a difference exists between E/e and E/E horses, the presence of E/E horses in the E/- group would reduce the mean of the E/- group. The results show that Arabian horses with the genotype E/e have more white markings than do horses with the genotype E/-, leading to the conclusion that horses with the genotypes e/e, E/e, and E/E vary as to the quantitative expression of white facial markings, with heterozygotes having an intermediate expression. PMID:2013690

Woolf, C M

1991-01-01

444

Unusual patterns of serum antibodies to Streptococcus equi in two horses with purpura hemorrhagica.  

PubMed

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for use in horses to determine serum titers of antibodies of the immunoglobulin classes IgA, IgG, and IgM to Streptococcus equi M-like protein and culture supernatant protein antigens. Serum antibodies were determined in 28 adult horses, including 9 horses with recent S. equi infections, 17 horses without known exposure to S. equi, but without a history of respiratory disease in the preceding 4 months, and 2 horses with clinical purpura hemorrhagica. Serum IgA titers to culture supernatant protein antigen were highest in recently infected horses (P less than 0.001). Serial determinations of antibody titers in the horses with purpura showed that IgG antibodies to both S. equi M-like protein and culture supernatant protein antigens were undetectable initially, but later rose coincidental with clinical recovery from the disease. Possible mechanisms for these findings are discussed. PMID:1748978

Heath, S E; Geor, R J; Tabel, H; McIntosh, K

1991-01-01

445

FAQs About Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a FAQ in a concise, readable summary of the current state of ocean acidification knowledge to support the scientific research community and educators. It is maintained by the OCB Project Office, with oversight from the Ocean Acidification Subcommittee of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program. Featured items include a primer to offer the foundational basics of ocean acidification and its impact on humans, Earth systems and marine life.

2012-09-24

446

Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

447

Ocean Exploration Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will familiarize students with discoveries in ocean research, including hydrothermal vents and historical shipwrecks. They will learn about the work of deep-sea explorer Robert Ballard and hypothesize about what they might find in the ocean. Students will complete their research by creating a museum exhibit about ocean exploration and by suggesting questions for future research.

448

Ocean Literacy Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted documents include 1) 2 pdf files that align key ocean concepts to National & California Science Standards, 2) the report from the first workshop on Public Ocean Literacy, and 3) an annotated bibliography of ocean related books for the K-12 audience.

449

Ocean Explorer: Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Gallery offers an extensive selection of images, sound recordings, animations, and movies associated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's expeditions. A set of links provides access to maps, photos of ocean-dwelling organisms, sound recordings, cultural and historic illustrations, research technology such as ships and submersibles, and photos of ocean explorers themselves.

450

Ocean Drilling Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The ODP conducts basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. There are also links to photographs, core data, and educational material on the site.

Program, Ocean D.; Texas A&M University

451

Horses (Equus caballus) use human local enhancement cues and adjust to human attention.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the horse (Equus caballus) use of human local enhancement cues and reaction to human attention when making feeding decisions. The superior performance of dogs in observing human states of attention suggests this ability evolved with domestication. However, some species show an improved ability to read human cues through socialization and training. We observed 60 horses approach a bucket with feed in a three-way object-choice task when confronted with (a) an unfamiliar or (b) a familiar person in 4 different situations: (1) squatting behind the bucket, facing the horse (2) standing behind the bucket, facing the horse (3) standing behind the bucket in a back-turned position, gazing away from the horse and (4) standing a few meters from the bucket in a distant, back-turned position, again gazing away from the horse. Additionally, postures 1 and 2 were tested both with the person looking permanently at the horse and with the person alternating their gaze between the horse and the bucket. When the person remained behind the correct bucket, it was chosen significantly above chance. However, when the test person was turned and distant from the buckets, the horses' performance deteriorated. In the turned person situations, the horses approached a familiar person and walked towards their focus of attention significantly more often than with an unfamiliar person. Additionally, in the squatting and standing person situations, some horses approached the person before approaching the correct bucket. This happened more with a familiar person. We therefore conclude that horses can use humans as a local enhancement cue independently of their body posture or gaze consistency when the persons remain close to the food source and that horses seem to orientate on the attention of familiar more than of unfamiliar persons. We suggest that socialization and training improve the ability of horses to read human cues. PMID:20845052

Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Maros, Katalin

2011-03-01

452

Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse.  

PubMed

The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43?kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5?million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2?Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72?kyr BP, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication. PMID:23803765

Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; Johnson, Philip L F; Fumagalli, Matteo; Vilstrup, Julia T; Raghavan, Maanasa; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Vogt, Josef; Szklarczyk, Damian; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vinther, Jakob; Dolocan, Andrei; Stenderup, Jesper; Velazquez, Amhed M V; Cahill, James; Rasmussen, Morten; Wang, Xiaoli; Min, Jiumeng; Zazula, Grant D; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie; Magnussen, Kim; Thompson, John F; Weinstock, Jacobo; Gregersen, Kristian; Røed, Knut H; Eisenmann, Véra; Rubin, Carl J; Miller, Donald C; Antczak, Douglas F; Bertelsen, Mads F; Brunak, Søren; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ryder, Oliver; Andersson, Leif; Mundy, John; Krogh, Anders; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Kjær, Kurt; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Olsen, Jesper V; Hofreiter, Michael; Nielsen, Rasmus; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

2013-07-01

453

Epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse: the risk from animal product feeding practices.  

PubMed

A discovery in 2002 of a Trichinella spiralis-infected horse in Serbia offered an opportunity to conduct needed epidemiological studies on how horses, considered herbivores, acquire a meat-borne parasite. This enigma has persisted since the first human outbreaks from infected horse meat occurred in then 1970s. The trace back of the infected horse to a farm owner was carried out. Interviews and investigations on the farm led to the conclusion that the owner had fed the horse food waste in order to condition the horse prior to sale. Further investigations were then carried out to determine the frequency of such practices among horse owners. Based on interviews of horse producers at local horse markets, it was revealed that the feeding of animal products to horses was a common practice. Further, it was alleged that many horses, particularly those in poor nutritional condition would readily consume meat. A subsequent series of trials involving the experimental feeding of 219 horses demonstrated that 32% would consume meat patties. To confirm that horses would eat infected meat under normal farm conditions, three horses were offered infected ground pork balls containing 1100 larvae. All three became infected, and at necropsy at 32 weeks later, were still positive by indirect IFA testing, but not by ELISA using an excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. This result indicates that further study is needed on the nature of the antigen(s) used for potential serological monitoring and surveillance of horse trichinellosis, especially the importance of antigenic diversity. The experimentally-infected horses also had very low infection levels (larvae per gram of muscle) at 32 weeks of infection, and although the public health consequences are unknown, the question of whether current recommended inspection procedures based on pepsin digestion of selected muscle samples require sufficient quantities of muscle should be addressed. It is concluded that horses are more willing to consume meat than realized and that the intentional feeding of animal products and kitchen waste is a common occurrence among horse owners in Serbia (and elsewhere?). This is a high risk practice which demands closer scrutiny by veterinary and food safety authorities, including the implementation of rules and procedures to ensure that such feeds are rendered safe for horses, as is now required for feeding to swine. PMID:15325048

Murrell, K D; Djordjevic, M; Cuperlovic, K; Sofronic, Lj; Savic, M; Djordjevic, M; Damjanovic, S

2004-09-01

454

Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs  

E-print Network

, marketed as a racemic mixture of its R(-) and S(+) enantiomers. Its stereoselective disposition in humans geldings and three male beagle dogs, following intravenous doses of racemic FPF (1 mg/kg in horses), R chirale / chien / cheval INTRODUCTION The two enantiomers of racemic drugs often have different

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

455

Applications of the Trojan Horse Method in Nuclear Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented. Information on the electron screening potential for various reactions is also obtained by comparison with direct measurements.

Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Musumarra, A.; Romano, S.; Tumino, A.; Pizzone, R. G.

2005-12-01

456

body condition score Evaluating your miniature horse's body  

E-print Network

, fresh water daily. Water should range in temperature from 45 to 65 degrees F -- neither very hot nor very cold water is desirable. At least 5 gallons of fresh water should be offered daily. Consumption are feeding, and one that can be fed in very small amounts. Water Miniature horses also need access to clean

457

The urinary excretion of synthetic corticosteroids by the horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioimmunoassay method has been developed that enables the administration of therapeutic doses of synthetic corticosteroids to be detected in horse urine. Fourteen proprietary preparations of these steroids have been given by intramuscular injection to ponies and thoroughbreds. The administration of some preperations could still be detected six days after a single intramuscular injection of a therapeutic dose. The route

DI Chapman; J Whiteside

1977-01-01

458

Short communication Toxicokinetics of ergovaline in the horse after  

E-print Network

animals fed an endophyted forage. As in cattle, in horses and particularly in gravid mares, ergovaline ­ The toxicokinetics of ergovaline (an ergopeptine mycotoxin present in some grasses infected with endophytic fungus) [3, 8, 17] is the most prevalent (85-97%) of all ergopeptine alka- loids present in certain grasses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

459

Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders  

PubMed Central

Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969

MUÑOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJÓN, Francisco

2010-01-01

460

Hazards of horse-riding as a popular sport.  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of horse-riding accidents, which are often severe in nature, prompted a pilot study of a questionnaire designed to elucidate the cause of such accidents. It was hoped that, on a larger scale, the information gleaned would highlight possible preventative measures which might improve the safety of an important recreational pursuit enjoyed by young and old from many walks of life. A retrospective study of riders sustaining serious spinal injuries admitted to Stoke Mandeville Hospital was compared with riders sustaining minor but significant injuries as the accidents came to the attention of the authors. The detailed analysis paid particular attention to the setting and to the experience and task of horse and rider. It was found that 70% of the 20 accidents could be thought attributable to the behaviour of the horse at the time, and seven of these were in the spinal injuries group. Rider error was a significant contribution in seven cases, and in two instances the rider was under instruction at the time. There was also inadequate experience of the rider in seven cases, of which five were thought to show inadequate supervision. The limited number of cases studied precludes significant observations, but, as the majority of accidents seemed preventable, a larger study has been initiated in collaboration with the British Horse Society. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7a and b Figure 8 Figure 6 Figure 9 PMID:1751891

Silver, J R; Parry, J M

1991-01-01

461

Body condition scoring and weight estimation of horses.  

PubMed

Three hundred and seventy two horses of varying breeds, height and fatness were weighed and measured for height at the withers. They were assessed for condition score by adaptation of a previously published method. The heart girth and length of 281 of the horses were also measured. Weight of horses was highly correlated (P less than 0.001) with height (r2 = 0.62), condition score (r2 = 0.22) and girth2 x length (r2 = 0.90). Nomograms were constructed to predict weight from height and condition score, and girth and length measurements. Weight can also be accurately estimated from the formula: (formula, see text) The average value of 'Y' in this experiment was 11900 and this estimated weight with more accuracy than some previously published values of 'Y'. Racing Thoroughbred horses were found to be significantly lighter than non-racing Thoroughbreds of the same height and condition score. The method of assessment of condition score was shown to be repeatable between different operators with varying degrees of experience. PMID:3366105

Carroll, C L; Huntington, P J

1988-01-01

462

Trojan Horse particle invariance:the impact on nuclear astrophysics  

E-print Network

Trojan Horse particle invariance:the impact on nuclear astrophysics R.G.Pizzone , C.Spitaleri , C Universit� Kore, Enna, Italy Abstract. In the current picture of nuclear astrophysics indirect methods and reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest, in the energy range required by the astrophysical

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

463

THE SYNCHRONIZATION OF VENTILATION AND LOCOMOTION IN HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 . Horses and some other galloping and hopping mammals link their breathing and locomotion, taking exactly one breath per stride. Three theoretical mechanisms by which the movements of locomotion might drive ventilation are considered, (i) Flexion of the lumbosacral joint and the resulting forward sweep of the pelvis pushes the viscera against the diaphragm. However, back flexion lags behind

IAIN S. YOUNG; A. J. WOAKES; P. J. BUTLER; LLOYD ANDERSON

1992-01-01

464

NEW HAMPSHIRE 4-H HORSE PROGRAM Cover Design Contest 2014  

E-print Network

` NEW HAMPSHIRE 4-H HORSE PROGRAM Cover Design Contest 2014 All 4-H youth have the opportunity, February 22, 2014. Voting will be by secret ballot, and all persons attending the Advisory Committee meeting may vote. THE DESIGN CRITERIA ARE: 1. The design should fit comfortably on an 8 ½ x 11" piece

New Hampshire, University of

465

TRYPANOSOMES FROM ELK AND HORSE FLIES IN NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Trypanosoma sp. was isolated from five of seven yearling elk (Cervus canadensis) at Red Rock Wildlife Area and 29 of 31 horse flies (Hybomitra laticor- nis) collected in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico. To our knowledge, this represents the first isolation of trypanosomes from elk.

ERT B. DAVIEStand; GARY G. CLARKD

466

Embryo Transfer Efficiency of Quarter Horse Athletic Mares  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to compare embryo recovery rates and pregnancy rates of athletic and breeding Quarter Horse mares in a tropical warm climate. Thirty-nine barrel racing mares in training and 135 breeding mares as control donors were included. During the training period, the ambient temperature ranged from 31°C to 36°C and the average humidity from 70% to 90%. After

Marcelo A. Pessoa; André P. Cannizza; Maria Fernanda S. Reghini; Marco Antônio Alvarenga

467

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Horse Cytokine 5-plex Assay  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Horse Cytokine 5-plex Assay Cytokines are soluble messenger molecules of the immune system. They are indicators of innate and adaptive immunity and have multiple is produced by most regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Many other cell types of the innate and adaptive immune

Keinan, Alon

468

Comparison of horse and tractor traction using emergy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse traction in the context of Sweden 1927 and tractor traction in the context of Sweden 1996 were compared in terms of their resource requirements. Flows of energy, material and service from the environment and the economy were identified for the two traction-producing systems. The environmental work and human activity involved in generating necessary inputs for the systems were evaluated

Torbjörn Rydberg; Jan Jansén

2002-01-01

469

Informational Guide Horse-Keeping Businesses and New Jersey Sales  

E-print Network

Division of Taxation August 13, 2008 New Jersey Department of Agriculture (609) 984-2503 Robert with the Division of Taxation and must collect and remit sales tax on its sale of horses, except when a specific of local property tax law, and thus qualify the land for Farmland Assessment, and yet the business would

Neimark, Alexander V.

470

Multifactorial inheritance of white facial markings in the Arabian horse.  

PubMed

The hypothesis was tested that white facial markings in the Arabian horse show multifactorial inheritance. The hypothesis assumes that (1) alleles at different loci acting in a cumulative manner influence the variation in white facial markings, (2) the amount of whiteness is correlated with the number of genes, and (3) interacting nongenetic factors influence the variation. The study was based on computerized data obtained from the Arabian Horse Registry of America, Inc. The facial region was divided into five areas, and each horse was given a score according to the number of areas with a white marking. Twenty-two sire families were analyzed. Each sire family consisted of a sire, his foals, and the dams of those foals. The results of the investigation, including dam-foal and sire-foal regression analyses, were totally compatible with the hypothesis. A heritability study suggested that about two-thirds of the phenotypic variation in white facial markings among Arabian horses is attributable to genetic differences. PMID:2732451

Woolf, C M

1989-01-01

471

Navigating the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Navigational tools and methods of early voyagers provide the background and contrast to the satellite images and models used today. Students complete mapping activities based on historical data from Columbus and Blith. Students will also use a computer model of ocean currents to investigate the movement of objects drifting on the ocean surface. Note that this is lesson one of five on the Ocean Motion website. Each lesson investigates ocean surface circulation using satellite and model data and can be done independently. See Related URL's for links to the Ocean Motion Website which provide science background information, data resources, teacher material, student guides and a lesson matrix.

472

Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. Are common in Oklahoma horses.  

PubMed

Abstract Tick infestations and infection with tick-borne agents are commonly recognized in horses in North America, but equine infection with true Ehrlichia spp. has not been described. To determine the degree to which horses in the south-central United States are naturally exposed to and infected with tick-borne disease agents, serum samples were collected at random (n=240) or from horses with active tick infestations (n=73) and tested by immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evidence of antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi. Positive samples were further evaluated by species-specific serology for antibodies reactive to E. canis and E. chaffeensis, and whole blood samples were tested by PCR for evidence of infection with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and an E. ruminantium-like organism referred to as the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were identified in 8.75% (21/240) of the randomly acquired samples and 24.7% (18/73) of the serum samples from tick-infested horses, but species-specific ELISA and PCR failed to confirm exposure to or infection with any known Ehrlichia spp. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. (5/313; 1.6%) and B. burgdorferi (3/313; 1.0%) were uncommon. These data suggest that horses in the south-central United States are likely exposed to a novel Ehrlichia sp. Further research is needed to identify the etiologic agent responsible for the serologic activity seen and to determine the clinical significance, if any, of this finding. PMID:25072984

Carmichael, Robert C; Duell, Jason R; Holbrook, Todd C; Herrin, Brian H; Leutenegger, Christian M; O'Connor, Thomas P; Little, Susan E

2014-08-01

473

Branchial remnant cysts of mature and juvenile horses.  

PubMed

This clinical report describes 8 cases of branchial remnant cysts (BRC) in the horse. The horses presented with bimodal age distribution, with 5 cases in mature horses (age 8-21 years) and 3 in foals (age 1, 6 and 10 months). Mature cases presented for dysphagia or intermittent oesophageal obstruction (2/5), and retropharyngeal swelling (3/5), whereas respiratory stridor and visible mass were presenting complaints in the foals. Presence of a right-sided (5/8) or dorsally located (2/8) palpable retropharyngeal mass of 3-35 cm diameter was noted clinically; one left-sided mass was identified as an incidental finding at necropsy. Ultrasonography typically revealed a thick-walled cyst containing hypoechoic fluid with dependent hyperechoic masses consistent with blood clots. Radiographs and upper airway endoscopy were also consistent with a retropharyngeal mass. Fluid cytology revealed chronic haemorrhage in 6/8 cases, and squamous epithelial cells in one case. Histopathology in all cases demonstrated an epithelium-lined cyst with no smooth muscle or thyroid tissue. Two cases was subjected to euthanasia; one due to concurrent laryngeal anomalies and one due to financial constraints. The remaining 5 cases were treated via surgical excision. Post operatively, right laryngeal hemiplegia was observed in 4/5 cases. All previous reports of BRC in the horse have described juvenile individuals. Brachial remnant cyst should be considered a differential diagnosis for mature horses with masses of the throatlatch area and can be definitively diagnosed by the presence of squamous epithelium in aspirated fluid or by histopathology of the excised mass. Right recurrent laryngeal nerve damage is a common complication of surgery. PMID:20383992

Nolen-Walston, R D; Parente, E J; Madigan, J E; David, F; Knafo, S E; Engiles, J B

2009-12-01

474

Microvascular circulation of the ascending colon in horses.  

PubMed

Microvascular circulation of the ascending colon in healthy horses was studied using microangiography, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The pelvic flexure with 30 cm of ventral and dorsal colon attached was removed from 14 adult horses immediately after horses were euthanatized. The lumen was flushed with warm water, and this section of the ascending colon was placed in a 37-C bath of isotonic NaCl. In sections from 8 horses, colic vessels were perfused with a radio-opaque medium for microangiography. After angiographic evaluation, tissue sections were prepared for light microscopic observation, using standard histologic methods. In sections from 6 horses, injection replicas were made by perfusing the vessels with 2 types of plastics. The results of microangiography, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy of vascular replicas were correlated, providing a comprehensive documentation of the microvasculature of the ascending colon at the pelvic flexure. Arteries branched from mesenteric colic vessels approximately every 2 cm toward the colonic tissue. Immediately after branching, arterial vessels formed an anastomotic plexus, the colonic rete. However, each branch from the colic vessel eventually continued into the colonic tissue. A second set of vessels originated from the colonic tissue. A second set of vessels originated from the colonic rete and supplied the mesenteric lymph nodes. Arterial vessels penetrated the tunica muscularis into the submucosa 3 to 4 cm toward the antimesenteric border forming a submucosal vascular network. From the submucosal arterioles, branching took place at right angles to supply the mucosal capillaries. Capillaries surrounded the colonic glands and anastomosed at the luminal surface, forming a superficial luminal honeycomb-appearing vascular plexus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2610433

Snyder, J R; Tyler, W S; Pascoe, J R; Olander, H J; Bleifer, D R; Hinds, D M; Neves, J W

1989-12-01

475

Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioural effects in the horse.  

PubMed

Hordenine is an alkaloid occurring naturally in grains, sprouting barley, and certain grasses. It is occasionally found in post race urine samples, and therefore we investigated its pharmacological actions in the horse. Hordenine (2.0 mg/kg bodyweight [bwt]) was administered by rapid intravenous (iv) injection to 10 horses. Typically, dosed horses showed a flehmen response and defecated within 60 secs. All horses showed substantial respiratory distress. Respiratory rates increased about 250 per cent and heart rates were approximately double that of resting values. All animals broke out in a sweat shortly after iv injection, but basal body temperature was not affected. These effects were transient, and the animals appeared normal within 30 mins of dosing. Treated horses were tested in a variable interval responding apparatus 30 mins after dosing and no residual stimulation or depressant effects of hordenine were apparent. Animals dosed orally with 2.0 mg/kg bwt of hordenine showed no changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, basal body temperature or behaviour. After iv injection of hordenine, (2.0 mg/kg bwt) plasma reached a maximum value of about 1.0 micrograms/ml, and declined thereafter in a biexponential fashion. Kinetics of plasma concentration satisfied the concept of a two compartment open system, with an alpha-phase half-life of about 3 mins, and a beta-phase half-life of about 35 mins. Total urinary concentrations of hordenine (free and conjugated) peaked at about 400 micrograms/ml, and then declined exponentially to background levels by 24 h after dosing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2269269

Frank, M; Weckman, T J; Wood, T; Woods, W E; Tai, C L; Chang, S L; Ewing, A; Blake, J W; Tobin, T

1990-11-01

476

76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast...a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City...vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners from the...

2011-05-31

477

75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast...a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City...vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners and the...

2010-04-13

478

In vitro of adenosine on lymphocytes and erythrocytes from horses with combined immunodeficiency.  

PubMed Central

The effect of adenosine on the mitogenic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and on the nucleotide pools of erythrocytes from normal horses, horses heterozygous for the combined immunodeficiency (CID) trait (carriers), and foals with CID was studied. When PBL from normal, carrier, and CID horses were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A, or pokeweed mitogen, [3H]thymidine uptake was inhibited by adenosine (0.1 microM) to 1.0 mM) in a dose-dependent manner. Adenosine (100 microM) mediated inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake was prevented in both normal and carrier horse PBL by incubation with uridine. Uridine had no sparing effect on PBL from horses with CID. Differences were detected between human and horse PBL in response to adenosine and erythro-9(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA), a competitive inhibitor of adenosine deaminase. In the first assay, mitogen-stimulated PBL from horses were more sensitive to adenosine. In the second assay, adenosine was added to PBL cultures at various times after PHA addition. Adenosine inhibited mitogenesis in horse PBL if added within the first 24 h. In human PBL cultures, adenosine inhibited mitogenesis only if added within the first 4 h. The third assay measured capacity of PHA-stimulated human and horse lymphocytes to escape inhibition by adenosine or EHNA. At the end of a 72-h culture period, horse PBL were still inhibited of mitogenesis in both human and horse PBL. With prolonged incubation (72 h), synergistic inhibition was detected only in horse PB. With high-pressure liquid chromatography, nucleotide levels in erythrocytes of normal, carrier, and CID horses were found to be similar. Incubation with adenosine produced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in total adenine nucleotide pools in erythrocytes from all horses. However, these increases were accompanied by alterations in the relative amounts of the nucleotide components. This was seen as a significant decrease in the ATP:(AMP plus ADP plus ATP) ratio and energy charge in erythrocytes from normal horses. In contrast, the ATP:(AMP plus ADP plus ATP) ratio decreased only slightly in erythrocytes from CID horses, whereas no change in the energy charge was detected. The data from these studies indicate a difference in adenosine metabolism exists between human and horse lymphoyctes, and an abnormality may exist in purine metabolism or in an interconnecting pathway in horses with CID. PMID:447864

Magnuson, N S; Perryman, L E

1979-01-01

479

Reconstructing the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppe.  

PubMed

Despite decades of research across multiple disciplines, the early history of horse domestication remains poorly understood. On the basis of current evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal sequencing, a number of different domestication scenarios have been proposed, ranging from the spread of domestic horses out of a restricted primary area of domestication to the domestication of numerous distinct wild horse populations. In this paper, we reconstruct both the population genetic structure of the extinct wild progenitor of domestic horses, Equus ferus, and the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppes by fitting a spatially explicit stepping-stone model to genotype data from >300 horses sampled across northern Eurasia. We find strong evidence for an expansion of E. ferus out of eastern Eurasia about 160 kya, likely reflecting the colonization of Eurasia by this species. Our best-fitting scenario further suggests that horse domestication originated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe and that domestic herds were repeatedly restocked with local wild horses as they spread out of this area. By showing that horse domestication was initiated in the western Eurasian steppe and that the spread of domestic herds across Eurasia involved extensive introgression from the wild, the scenario of horse domestication proposed here unites evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal DNA. PMID:22566639

Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim Ann; Barker, Graeme; Barrett, Elizabeth; Hanks, Bryan Kent; Li, Shuicheng; Lomitashvili, David; Ochir-Goryaeva, Maria; Sizonov, Grigory V; Soyonov, Vasiliy; Manica, Andrea

2012-05-22

480

Comparison of the fecal microbiota of healthy horses and horses with colitis by high throughput sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene.  

PubMed

The intestinal tract houses one of the richest and most complex microbial populations on the planet, and plays a critical role in health and a wide range of diseases. Limited studies using new sequencing technologies in horses are available. The objective of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiome of healthy horses and to compare the fecal microbiome of healthy horses to that of horses with undifferentiated colitis. A total of 195,748 sequences obtained from 6 healthy horses and 10 horses affected by undifferentiated colitis were analyzed. Firmicutes predominated (68%) among healthy horses followed by Bacteroidetes (14%) and Proteobacteria (10%). In contrast, Bacteroidetes (40%) was the most abundant phylum among horses with colitis, followed by Firmicutes (30%) and Proteobacteria (18%). Healthy horses had a significantly higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Spirochaetes while horses with colitis had significantly more Fusobacteria. Members of the Clostridia class were more abundant in healthy horses. Members of the Lachnospiraceae family were the most frequently shared among healthy individuals. The species richness reported here indicates the complexity of the equine intestinal microbiome. The predominance of Clostridia demonstrates the importance of this group of bacteria in healthy horses. The marked differences in the microbiome between healthy horses and horses with colitis indicate that colitis may be a disease of gut dysbiosis, rather than one that occurs simply through overgrowth of an individual pathogen. PMID:22859989

Costa, Marcio C; Arroyo, Luis G; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Stämpfli, Henry R; Kim, Peter T; Sturgeon, Amy; Weese, J Scott

2012-01-01

481

Ocean ecology: Life in an oceanic extreme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scarce food supplies could hinder biological activity in the ocean's depths. However, measurements at Mariana Trench point to an unexpectedly active microbial community in the deepest seafloor setting on the planet.

Epping, Eric

2013-04-01

482

Towards a postural indicator of back pain in horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

Postures have long been used and proved useful to describe animals' behaviours and emotional states, but remains difficult to assess objectively in field conditions. A recent study performed on horses using geometric morphometrics revealed important postural differences between 2 horse populations differing in management conditions (leisure horses living in social groups used for occasional "relaxed" riding/riding school horses living in individual boxes used in daily riding lessons with more constraining techniques). It was suggested that these postural differences may reflect chronic effects of riding techniques on the horses' kinematics and muscular development. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the interest of postural measures to assess welfare in horses. This study was separated into 2 parts. First, 18 horses coming from these 2 types of populations (leisure/riding school horses) were submitted to 2 back evaluations by 1) manual examination (experienced practitioner) and 2) sEMG measures along the spine. We then measured neck roundness on 16 of these 18 horses. The results highlighted high correlations between manual and sEMG examinations over the spine. sEMG measures at the different locations were strongly correlated all over the spine. Moreover, neck postures and muscular activities were strongly correlated, horses with concave necks having higher sEMG measures both at precise locations (i.e. cervical sites) but also when comparing neck postures to the whole spine muscular activity highlighting the functioning of horses' back as a whole. Lastly, strong differences appeared between the populations, leisure horses being evaluated as having sounder spines, exhibiting lower sEMG measures and rounder neck than the riding school horses. sEMG measures and neck "roundness" seemed therefore to be reliable indicators of back disorders, easy to evaluate in field conditions. This highlights the accuracy of using postural elements to evaluate the animals' general state and has important implications for animals' welfare evaluations. PMID:22970261

Lesimple, Clémence; Fureix, Carole; De Margerie, Emmanuel; Sénèque, Emilie; Menguy, Hervé; Hausberger, Martine

2012-01-01

483

Urinary cortisol:creatinine ratios in healthy horses and horses with hyperadrenocorticism and non-adrenal disease.  

PubMed

Urinary cortisol and creatinine concentrations, and the cortisol:creatinine ratio were compared between 12 healthy horses (group 1), 13 horses with Cushing's disease (group 2), and eight horses with dysautonomia syndrome (equine grass sickness) (group 3). The mean (sd) urinary cortisol concentrations were 112 (55.7), 250 (357) and 864 (526) nmol/litre in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively; the mean (sd) urinary creatinine concentrations were 18.9 (7.3), 12.0 (6.7) and 45.2 (26.4) nmol/litre in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and the mean (sd) ratios were 6.1 (2.6), 19.8 (23.8) and 21.3 (14.5) (x 10(-6)) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The urinary cortisol and creatinine concentrations were significantly greater in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2, but the ratios were not significantly different, although there was a trend (P=0.076) towards higher values in groups 2 and 3. A diagnostic cut-off in the cortisol:creatinine ratio for the confirmation of Cushing's disease of more than 6.9 x 10(-6) was associated with a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 92.3 and 75.0 per cent, respectively, when compared with healthy horses. However, when group 3 horses were included, a cut-off of more than 7.4 x 10(-6) was associated with a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 84.6 and 54.5 per cent, respectively. PMID:12135071

Chandler, K J; Dixon, R M

2002-06-22

484

OceanLink: OceanInfo Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of the OceanLink site offers learning resources prepared by OceanLink (a youth outreach program of the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre) on a variety of marine science topics, including marine life (seals, fish, invertebrates, and others), underwater acoustics, tides, biodiversity and food webs, and many others. The brief guides and explorations are well illustrated and are followed by reference lists, often including links to online resources for further exploration.

485

Horse and Libby dams. VarQ was made permanent at Libby and Hun-gry Horse dams by 2009, after an extensive Environmental  

E-print Network

VarQ Horse and Libby dams. VarQ was made permanent at Libby and Hun- gry Horse dams by 2009, afterQ providedecosystembenefitswhilemaintainingthesameFRMbenefits as under standard FRM. How Does VarQ Impact Canada? Above Libby Dam, both U of the border. Below Libby Dam, both U.S. and Canadian fish populations benefit from river flows that more

486

36 CFR 222.65 - Protection of wild free-roaming horses and burros when they are upon other than the National...  

...2014-07-01 false Protection of wild free-roaming horses and burros when they... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.65 Protection of wild free-roaming horses and burros when...

2014-07-01

487

Antibodies against equine herpesvirus 1 in the cerebrospinal fluid in the horse.  

PubMed

Neutralizing antibodies against equine herpesvirus 1 were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 16 horses and ponies from a closed herd both before and after vaccination with modified live equine herpesvirus 1. These titers were also measured in 22 neurologically normal and 15 neurologically abnormal horses at a teaching hospital. Animals from the closed herd had prevaccination serum titers up to 1:8 and postvaccination serum titers up to 1:128. Horses from the teaching hospital had serum titers up to 1:64. Cerebrospinal fluid titers were not detected in the vaccinated horses or the neurologically normal horses but a low titer (1:8) was noted in one neurologically abnormal horse. This titer probably resulted from hemorrhage into the cerebrospinal fluid following trauma. PMID:17422553

Blythe, L L; Mattson, D E; Lassen, E D; Craig, A M

1985-07-01

488

Study of agglutinins to Brucella abortus, B canis and Actinobacillus equuli in horses.  

PubMed

Horses at a veterinary teaching hospital and a slaughterhouse were surveyed for antibodies to Brucella abortus, B canis and Actinobacillus equuli. Four of the 141 hospitalised horses and none of the 73 slaughtered horses had titres of 1:100 or greater to B abortus. Six horses of both populations reacted to the card test. One was culture positive. A card test using B canis antigen was positive in 38 per cent of the sera from hospitalised horses and all of the slaughtered horses. Twenty (27.4 per cent) of the latter group had high tires in a tube agglutination test. High titres could not be reduced by 2-mercaptoethanol serum treatment. The titres appeared to be associated with advanced age but not to sex. Adsorption of sera with B canis did not affect titres to A equuli but the reverse was true. PMID:6816581

Nicoletti, P L; Mahler, J R; Scarratt, W K

1982-10-01

489

Ocean Planet: Pollution Solution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Focuses on sources of oil pollution and effects on ocean, marine life and humans. Students predict impacts of an oil spill and plan actions needed to protect and restore habitat and wildlife. Lab activities demonstrate properties of oil. Unit includes: background, instructions for the teacher, forms for student activities, discussion questions; all available online in PDF format. Resources include online version of the Ocean Planet exhibition.

490

Oceans for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive website is for teachers who want to integrate ocean topics into the classroom. The site provides resources that can be used to instruct students on the importance of the oceans, and includes topics such as hurricanes, the Hawaiian Islands, polar bears and tsunamis. There is also a forum available to help teachers learn about ocean science and technology. A classroom companion provides lesson plans, maps, photos, videos and more.

Ednet, Oceans F.; Society, National G.

491

Introduction to Ocean Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will create a diagram of the ocean zones and determine what organisms live in each zone. Learners will draw the appropriate scale to demark meters (and conversion to feet) from 0-6000m and draw the zones that correspond to the geological structures of the ocean basin. Finally, learners will use their critical thinking skills to determine where in the ocean each organism lives and place the organism in the habitat that is within the limitations for survival.

West, Cosee

2012-01-01

492

OceanCareers.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

OceanCareers.com is a nationwide project supported by COSEE California (Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence), part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) network created to foster scientists' involvement in ocean science education. This website provides current information on career opportunities, the knowledge and skills required to enter these careers, where students can gain the necessary education, employers who hire people to work in these careers, and much more.

Excellence, Centers F.

493

Life in the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 2nd Graders will have the opportunity to learn more about life underneath the ocean. This goes great with 2nd Grade Science Standards 1 and 3! INTRODUCTION: Welcome students! Have you ever wondered what it would be like to live in the ocean? What would you do all day? What would you eat? What would you have to avoid so that you wouldn't get eaten? There are many different types of life that live in the ocean. ...

Bennett, Miss

2010-03-26

494

California Energy Commission: Ocean Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This California Energy Commission website discusses how electrical power can be generated from tidal power, wave power, ocean thermal energy conversion, ocean currents, ocean winds, salinity gradients, and other ocean phenomena. Users can learn how different areas of the ocean vary in their potential energy production. The site presents the history of ocean energy production and the issues associated with permitting an ocean wave-energy conversion facility. Users can find links to ocean energy education and to companies and research groups involved with ocean energy development.

495

World Ocean Circulation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

Clarke, R. Allyn

1992-01-01

496

America's Oceans in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recently published report from the Pew Oceans Commission on the state of America's ocean ecosystems provides the basis for this Actionbioscience learning activity. Students read an abridged reprint of the report's executive summary, and discuss coastal development, overexploitation of marine resources, pollution and runoff, policy change, and other related topics. The site provides a number of well-selected Web links for learning more about the plight of America's ocean resources, including a link to the original Pew Oceans Commission report and another to a U.S. Navy Web site offering excellent background information and educational quizzes.

Commission, Pew O.

497

Global Ocean Phytoplankton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phytoplankton are free-floating algae that grow in the euphotic zone of the upper ocean, converting carbon dioxide, sunlight, and available nutrients into organic carbon through photosynthesis. Despite their microscopic size, these photoautotrophs are responsible for roughly half the net primary production on Earth (NPP; gross primary production minus respiration), fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels our global ocean ecosystems. Phytoplankton thus play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, and their growth patterns are highly sensitive to environmental changes such as increased ocean temperatures that stratify the water column and prohibit the transfer of cold, nutrient richwaters to the upper ocean euphotic zone.

Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

2013-01-01

498

Global Ocean Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson examines the effects of surface energy transfer and storage on ocean temperatures. Included are activities that introduce the use of scientific models. Students then use an energy flow computer model to track energy changes by manipulating four variables: solar energy, heat transfer, water transparency, and seasons of the year. Note that this is lesson four of five on the Ocean Motion website. Each lesson investigates ocean surface circulation using satellite and model data and can be done independently. See Related URL's for links to the Ocean Motion Website that provide science background information, data resources, teacher material, student guides and a lesson matrix.

499

Responses to training and standardised exercise test in the athlete horse: changes in blood gas profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the relationship between blood gas profile and athletic performance after a specific training programme,\\u000a six clinically healthy Italian saddle horses were used. Each animal was subjected to an adaptation period constituted by horse\\u000a walker exercise, followed by a training programme for 3 months. In the last day of each month, all horses were subjected to\\u000a a standardized

Stefania Casella; Daniela Alberghina; Claudia Giannetto; Giuseppe Piccione

500

Decreased oxidative phosphorylation and PGAM deficiency in horses suffering from atypical myopathy associated with acquired MADD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier research on ten horses suffering from the frequently fatal disorder atypical myopathy showed that MADD (multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency) is the biochemical derangement behind atypical myopathy. From five horses that died as a result of this disease and seven healthy control horses, urine and plasma were collected ante mortem and muscle biopsies were obtained immediately post-mortem (2 patients and

C. M. Westermann; L. Dorland; O. P. van Diggelen; K. Schoonderwoerd; J. Bierau; H. R. Waterham; J. H. van der Kolk

2011-01-01