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1

Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.  

PubMed

The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population. PMID:21875447

Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

2011-08-30

2

The effects of freeze-drying and storage on the FT-Raman spectra of Atlantic mackerel ( Scomber scombrus) and horse mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

FT-Raman spectroscopy was undertaken for quantitative characterization of lipids in horse mackerel (Trachurus Trachurus) and Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). Peroxide value of fish lipids and protein extractability of the fish lipids and muscles were also measured by titration and Bradford assay, respectively.Raman spectral analysis of oil extracted from freeze-dried Atlantic and stored (12 weeks) mackerel and horse mackerel revealed significant

Samiramis Sarkardei; Nazlin K. Howell

2007-01-01

3

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF HORSE-MACKEREL (TRACHURUS MEDITERRANEUS), AS A VALUABLE ECONOMIC SPECIES FOR THE BULGARIAN BLACK SEA COAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse-mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus Aleev), is a major commercial fish in the Black Sea waters. This species from the Bulgarian Black Sea pelagic community have been recognized as one of the most ecologically and economically important food resource. Diet composition and feeding intensity of the horse-mackerel, collected on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast were examined. This study showed that, Crustacea (Copepoda,

YANKOVA MARIA; PAVLOV DANAIL; RAYKOV VIOLIN

4

Oxidation of lipid and protein in horse mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus) mince and washed minces during processing and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein and lipid oxidation was followed during processing and storage of mince and washed minces prepared from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Briefly horse mackerel mince (M0) was washed with three volumes of water, mimicking the surimi production and different washed products were obtained: M1, M2 and M3, with one, two and three washing steps, respectively. The different products were characterised

Sylvie Eymard; Caroline P. Baron; Charlotte Jacobsen

2009-01-01

5

Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Horse Mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic objective of this study was to determine the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP; 220, 250 and 330 MPa), holding\\u000a time (5 and 10 min) and temperature (7, 15 and 25 °C) on some quality parameters of horse mackerel such as colour changes,\\u000a thiobarbituric acid (TBA-i) and trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N), free amino acid content. HHP increased L\\u000a * values of horse

Nuray Erkan; Gonca Üretener; Hami Alpas; Arif Selçuk; Özkan Özden; Sencer Buzrul

6

Genetic identification of horse mackerel and related species in seafood products by means of forensically informative nucleotide sequencing methodology.  

PubMed

In the present study, a methodology based on the amplification of a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b and subsequent phylogenetic analysis (FINS: forensically informative nucleotide sequencing) to genetically identify horse mackerels have been developed. This methodology makes possible the identification of more than 20 species belonging to the families Carangidae, Mullidae, and Scombridae. The main novelty of this work lies in the longest number of different horse mackerel species included and in the applicability of the developed methods to all kinds of processed products that can be found by consumers in markets around the world, including those that have undergone intensive processes of transformation, as for instance canned foods. Finally, the methods were applied to 15 commercial samples, all of them canned products. Therefore, these methods are useful for checking the fulfillment of labeling regulations for horse mackerels and horse mackerel products, verifying the correct traceability in commercial trade, and fisheries control. PMID:21332203

Lago, Fátima C; Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

2011-02-18

7

Amino Acid and Vitamin Composition of Raw and Cooked Horse Mackerel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid, vitamin (A, E, B1, B2, B3 and B6), and proximate composition were determined in raw and cooked horse mackerel. The changes in amino acid, vitamin, and proximate\\u000a content were found to be significant for all cooking methods (frying, grilling, and steaming). Cooking did in general significantly\\u000a increase the contents of essential, semi-essential, and other amino acids compared to

Nuray Erkan; Arif Selçuk; Özkan Özden

2010-01-01

8

Otolith shape analysis as a tool for stock separation of horse mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus) in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic variability in otolith shape of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) was investigated as a tool for stock separation. The outlines of several thousand otoliths, collected in 20 sampling areas during two consecutive years and covering most of the distributional range of the species in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean, were digitised and analysed for shape variation by elliptical Fourier

Christoph Stransky; Alberto G. Murta; Jürgen Schlickeisen; Christopher Zimmermann

2008-01-01

9

Epidemiology and molecular identification of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus from northern Morocco.  

PubMed

Anisakis infection parameters were studied in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) taken from two areas of northern Morocco (Tetouan and Tangier), which showed a mean prevalence of 54.9%. Identification of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 fragment by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) showed A. pegreffii to be the dominant species; no A. simplex s.s. were detected. The presence of A. pegreffii in horse mackerel was not influenced by the sex (P= 0.46) or catch area (Atlantic versus Mediterranean, P= 0.52) of the fish, but was significantly related to their length, weight, liver weight and gonad weight, and to the season of their capture (P< 0.05). A low prevalence (8.6%) and mean intensity (1.0) was detected in the muscle, probably related to the reduced ability of A. pegreffii to penetrate muscle. The risk of the presence of A. pegreffii in the muscle was fivefold higher in fish caught during the summer than during any other season. Susceptible members of the human population can minimize the risk of infection by avoiding the consumption of larger horse mackerel specimens during the summer. PMID:23461880

Abattouy, N; López, A Valero; Maldonado, J Lozano; Benajiba, M H; Martín-Sánchez, J

2013-03-01

10

Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

11

Headspace volatiles along with other instrumental and sensory analyses as indices of maturation of horse mackerel miso.  

PubMed

Development of aroma-active compounds during fermentation in the preparation of fermented fish-meat paste product (fish miso) from horse mackerel meat was quantitatively determined and characterized by olfactometric and organoleptic assessments. The critical ripening time was estimated by quantitative and/or qualitative analyses of volatile compounds, peptides, amino acids, product color, and total phenolics of the fish miso matrix throughout fermentation. The results confirmed that the application of koji for the fermentation of horse mackerel meat to produce fish miso significantly reduced the fishy off odor and promoted the development of highly acceptable fish miso with a nutty, cheesy, and fruity aroma. Ethyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl decanoate, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione, dimethyl trisulfide, and 3-(methylthio) propanal were identified as key odor-active compounds in fish miso prepared from horse mackerel meat. Among the volatiles, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2,3-butanedione were identified to serve as potential indicators of the maturation of fish miso. Amino acid content could also be a potential indicator of maturation of protein-rich, fermented products such as fish miso. In addition, surface color analysis of fish miso revealed a high correlation between sensory attributes and color components. Specifically, r and b values were considered potential indicators of maturation. Practical Application: Variability is a major drawback in fermented products such as fish miso and it requires establishing the optimum ripening time, defined as that providing the aroma attributes qualitatively and quantitatively mostly appreciated by consumers. We have carried out this work for comprehensive determination of the critical ripening time by applying several instrumental and sensory tools including quantitative and/or qualitative analysis of volatile compounds, peptides, amino acids, product color, and total phenolics of the fish miso matrix throughout the fermentation period. The outcome of the present study can be efficiently applied for detection of maturation in similar types of fermented product for large-scale production. PMID:21535514

Giri, Anupam; Okamoto, Akira; Okazaki, Emiko; Ohshima, Toshiaki

2010-09-20

12

Evolution of the indigenous microbiota in modified atmosphere packaged Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) identified by conventional and molecular methods.  

PubMed

A combination of conventional methods and genetic identification (PCR sequencing) was used to study the dynamics of the bacterial population during the spoilage of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) fillets. The cultivable microflora in Atlantic horse mackerel samples packaged in a modified atmosphere (48% CO2, 50% N2 and 2% O2) at refrigeration temperature (6°C) was measured on days 1, 5 and 7 using non-selective (Long and Hammer agar) and selective media (Kligler's iron agar, STAA and MRS). The microflora was genetically characterised using partial amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 309 bacterial isolates obtained from Long and Hammer agar. At the end of the shelf life (5days), the total viable counts (TVC) on Long and Hammer agar were not significantly different to the LAB counts on MRS agar (p>0.05). The molecular approach showed that Photobacterium, Arthrobacter, Chryseobacterium and Pseudoclavibacter (44.5% of total) dominated the microbial composition of the fish at the beginning of storage. However, Serratia, Shewanella and Yersinia dominated at the late spoilage stages (over 57.2% of the total). Carnobacterium was the most important species of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and was identified at the beginning and end of the storage period. Vibrio spp. was only found at the end of the shelf life. This research demonstrates that the microbial biodiversity in MAP Atlantic horse mackerel is enormous and the dominant species change over the storage time. The results presented here on the dominant communities in fish products will make it possible to accurately select the best preservation practices. PMID:24135667

Alfaro, Begoña; Hernandez, Igor

2013-08-31

13

Improvement of Frozen Storage Tolerance by the Addition of Sugar in Dusky Spinefoot, Lizard fish and Horse mackerel Surimi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of three different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, at 5%) were analyzed and compared against a control for frozen surimi (-25 °C) made from dusky spinefoot, lizard fish and horse mackerel, for a total storage period of 180 days. Kamaboko was prepared at defined time intervals, and its jelly strength (J.S.), water holding capacity (W.H.C.), and whiteness, and the total Ca-ATPase activity of surimi were analyzed. Present results showed that all parameters of sugar free control samples decreased faster than those of sugar added samples during frozen storage.Sugar resulted a good additive for long time surimi conservation for all the species analyzed.

Kawashima, Akane; Hamada, Yuki; Kusano, Sawa; Osako, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Nozaki, Yukinori

14

Quality changes of the Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) during chilled storage: The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pelagic fishes represent the main Mediterranean fisheries in terms of quantity. However, waste and spoilage of pelagic fish are substantial for a variety of reasons, such as their high perishability and the lack or inadequate supply of ice and freezing facilities. In this work, fresh Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) were irradiated at 1 and 2 kGy and stored in ice for 18 days. Quality changes during storage were followed by the determination of microbial counts, trimethylamine (TMA) and volatile basic nitrogen contents. Similarly, lipid composition and sensory analysis were carried out. Irradiation treatment was effective in reducing total bacterial counts throughout storage. Total basic volatile nitrogen content (TVB-N) and TMA levels increased in all lots with storage time, their concentrations being significantly reduced by irradiation, even when the lower level (1 kGy) was used. According to the quality index method, the control lot had a sensory shelf-life of 4 days, whereas those of the irradiated lots were extended by 5 days. Also, low-dose irradiation had no adverse effect on the nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of Mediterranean horse mackerel. In the same way, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values increased with irradiation during the first day, but these values were lower at the end of storage, compared to the control. Results confirm the practical advantages of using ? irradiation as an additional process to chilled storage to enhance the microbiological quality and to extend the shelf-life of small pelagic species.

Mbarki, Raouf; Sadok, Saloua; Barkallah, Insaf

2009-04-01

15

Effect of hydroxycinnamic acids on lipid oxidation and protein changes as well as water holding capacity in frozen minced horse mackerel white muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant effectiveness of different hydroxycinnamic acids for inhibiting the formation of off-flavours associated to rancidity in minced frozen horse mackerel white muscle stored at ?10 and ?18°C was studied. The influence of lipid oxidation on protein aggregation, protein denaturation and water holding capacity was also determined. Caffeic acid, o-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the antioxidants tested. The order

Isabel Medina; María Jesús González; Jacobo Iglesias; Nicholas D. Hedges

2009-01-01

16

Effect of chitosan and microbial transglutaminase on the gel forming ability of horse mackerel ( Trachurus spp.) muscle under high pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of high pressure treatment (300 MPa, 25 °C, 15 min), combined with a prior or a subsequent setting step (25 °C, 2 h), on gelling properties of mackerel mince containing 1.5% chitosan and\\/or 0.02% microbial transglutaminase (MTG). Rheological analyses (folding test, puncture test and stress–relaxation test), scanning electron microscopy, protein solubility and thiobarbituric acid reactive

M. Carmen Gómez-Guillén; Pilar Montero; M. Teresa Solas; Miriam Pérez-Mateos

2005-01-01

17

Heavy Metal Contamination of Spanish Mackerel, 'Scomberomorus maculatus', and King Mackerel, 'S. cavalla'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heavy metals in the edible tissues of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, and king mackerel, S. cavalla, may place constraints on the utilization of these migratory coastal pelagic species and on the development of the associated fisheries. Data ar...

G. M. Meaburn

1978-01-01

18

Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain).  

PubMed

A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 89% (95% CI 86, 92) and 1% cestoda (0, 2). The percentage of horses with strongyloid parasites was 89% (86, 92), 11% (8, 14) for Parascaris, and 3% (1, 5) for Oxyuris. The highest prevalence for ascariosis was observed in the youngest horses (<3 years), for oxyurosis in the >10 years animals, and for strongylosis in the 3-10 years ones. Females were significantly more parasitized than males. A negative correlation between the age and the egg-excretion of ascarids and strongyles was recorded. The autochthonous and the English Pure Blood horses were the most parasitized. We concluded that the infections by helminths, especially the strongyloids, are significantly common in the region, so that greater importance should be given to this situation. PMID:20721327

Francisco, I; Arias, M; Cortiñas, F J; Francisco, R; Mochales, E; Dacal, V; Suárez, J L; Uriarte, J; Morrondo, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Díez-Baños, P; Paz-Silva, A

2009-04-08

19

Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain)  

PubMed Central

A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 89% (95% CI 86, 92) and 1% cestoda (0, 2). The percentage of horses with strongyloid parasites was 89% (86, 92), 11% (8, 14) for Parascaris, and 3% (1, 5) for Oxyuris. The highest prevalence for ascariosis was observed in the youngest horses (<3 years), for oxyurosis in the >10 years animals, and for strongylosis in the 3–10 years ones. Females were significantly more parasitized than males. A negative correlation between the age and the egg-excretion of ascarids and strongyles was recorded. The autochthonous and the English Pure Blood horses were the most parasitized. We concluded that the infections by helminths, especially the strongyloids, are significantly common in the region, so that greater importance should be given to this situation.

Francisco, I.; Arias, M.; Cortinas, F. J.; Francisco, R.; Mochales, E.; Dacal, V.; Suarez, J. L.; Uriarte, J.; Morrondo, P.; Sanchez-Andrade, R.; Diez-Banos, P.; Paz-Silva, A.

2009-01-01

20

Characterization of King Mackerel and Spanish Mackerel Bycatches of South Carolina Shrimp Trawlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla and Spanish mackerel S. maculatus are caught by commercial shrimp trawlers in South Carolina. Our study documented the extent and duration of this bycatch during the commercial shrimp trawling season in South Carolina waters. Sampling was conducted onboard commercial shrimp vessels based in McClellanville, South Carolina, during 1991 and on vessels based in McClellanville, Charleston,

Patrick J. Harris; John M. Dean

1998-01-01

21

Refrigerated Shelflife of Spanish Mackerel ('Scomberomorus maculatus') and King Mackerel ('Scomberomorus cavalla') Harvested from the Southeastern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Freshly caught spanish mackerel and king mackerel were processed into various market forms and stored, either iced or packaged, at 4C. Representative samples of each product form were removed from storage at regular intervals and assessed for quality usin...

M. E. Waters

1982-01-01

22

Population structure of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).  

PubMed

Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults ("twinning"). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management. PMID:23741381

Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

2013-05-31

23

Population Structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)  

PubMed Central

Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults (“twinning”). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management.

Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

2013-01-01

24

EGGS AND LARVAE OF ANCHOVY, JACK MACKEREL, AND PACIFIC MACKEREL  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANCHOVY The eggs arid larvae of anchovy are pelagic. They float passively in the upper layers of the ocean, sel- dom deeper than 300 feet. Anchovy eggs differ from the eggs of most pelagic fishes in that they are ovoid rather than spherical. The eggs and early larval stages of the northern anchovy were first described by Bolin (1936). Ac-

ELBERT H. AHLSTROM

25

Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bridge: Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center. Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center, is a growing collection of on-line marine education resources. It provides educators with ...

26

Horse Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Horse racing, the so-called "sport of kings," has captivated fans for centuries. One reason is the grace and agility of the horses themselves -- when they're running at top speed, they look as if they're flying down the track. In this Science Update, you'll hear how studying horses may help engineers improve human flight in air and space.

Science Update;

2003-05-27

27

Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Ocean habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can find out about Deep Ocean or Open Ocean! Ocean Life is a great website that tells about different parts of the ocean and about animals that live there. Ugie! You can start your mission to find out about Killer Whales by going to Orca or Killer Whales. Jakhia! You can start your mission to find ...

Ryan, Ms.

2013-02-12

28

Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus  

SciTech Connect

This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

1986-06-01

29

Differential population structuring of two closely related fish species, the mackerel ( Scomber scombrus ) and the chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus ), in the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population genetic structures of the mackerel (Scomber scombrus ) and chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus ) were studied in the Mediterranean Sea. Fragments of 272 bp ( S. scomber ) and 387 bp ( S. japonicus ) of the 5''' ' -end of the mitochondrial control region were sequenced from spawning individuals collected off the coasts of Greece, Italy, Spain,

R. ZARDOYA; R. CASTILHO; C. GRANDE; L. FAVRE-KREY; S. CAETANO; S. MARCATO; G. KREY; T. PATARNELLO

30

Charley horse  

MedlinePLUS

A charley horse is the common name for a muscle spasm, especially in the leg. Muscle spasms can occur in any ... irritated nerve is involved, you might need physical therapy or even surgery. The most common cause of ...

31

Migration and Fisheries of North East Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in Autumn and Winter  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that observed spatial variation in mackerel fisheries, extending over several hundreds of kilometers, is reflective of climate-driven changes in mackerel migration patterns. Previous studies have been unable to clearly demonstrate this link. In this paper we demonstrate correlation between temperature and mackerel migration/distribution as proxied by mackerel catch data from both scientific bottom trawl surveys and commercial fisheries. We show that mackerel aggregate and migrate distances of up to 500 km along the continental shelf edge from mid-November to early March. The path of this migration coincides with the location of the relatively warm shelf edge current and, as a consequence of this affinity, mackerel are guided towards the main spawning area in the south. Using a simulated time series of temperature of the shelf edge current we show that variations in the timing of the migration are significantly correlated to temperature fluctuations within the current. The proposed proxies for mackerel distribution were found to be significantly correlated. However, the correlations were weak and only significant during periods without substantial legislative or technical developments. Substantial caution should therefore be exercised when using such data as proxies for mackerel distribution. Our results include a new temperature record for the shelf edge current obtained by embedding the available hydrographic observations within a statistical model needed to understand the migration through large parts of the life of adult mackerel and for the management of this major international fishery.

Jansen, Teunis; Campbell, Andrew; Kelly, Ciaran; Hatun, Hjalmar; Payne, Mark R.

2012-01-01

32

Protein properties of mackerel viscera extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

The extraction of mackerel viscera using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) was performed under the conditions of temperature range from 35 to 45 degrees C, and constant pressure 25 MPa. The digestive enzyme activities were determined in comparison of untreated and treated SCO2 and solvent treatment. Activities were maintained with high level compared to that of solvent extraction. Also from result of SDS-PAGE, the protein denaturation was minimized when using SCO2 extraction. The major amino acids in the mackerel viscera were determined as glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, leucine, lysine and the free amino acids were taurine, L-alanine, L-leucine, 1-methyl-L-histamine, 3-methyl-L-histidine. PMID:19195377

Park, Ji Yeon; Back, Sung Sin; Chun, Byung Soo

2008-07-01

33

Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted mackerel protein with low bitter taste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein,\\u000a resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high\\u000a nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It\\u000a turned out that the optimum enzyme was

Hu Hou; Bafang Li; Xue Zhao

2011-01-01

34

Evaluation of oregano antioxidant activity in mackerel oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry oregano was tested for its antioxidant activity in mackerel oil stored at 40 °C in the dark. Its effectiveness at 0.5% level was comparable to that of 200 ppm BHA and 0.5% (w\\/w) dry rosemary and stronger to that of red chillies and bay leaf which did not improve the stability of the fish oil. Oregano at 1% (w\\/w)

M. Tsimidou; E. Papavergou; D. Boskou

1995-01-01

35

Characterisation of muscles from Frigate mackerel (Auxis thazard) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus).  

PubMed

Frigate mackerel (Auxis thazard) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) can be used as alternative sources for surimi production. However, the functionality of surimi is species-dependent. This study aimed to characterise certain chemical and physical compositions of dark and ordinary muscles from these species. Catfish, particularly ordinary muscle, was composed of higher contents of lipid and carotenoid than Frigate mackerel muscle (p<0.05) but ordinary muscle from Frigate mackerel had the highest phospholipid content (p<0.05). Both dark and ordinary muscles of Frigate mackerel had greater contents of myofibrillar proteins than had catfish muscle (p<0.05). Myosin heavy chain and actin were predominant proteins found in both muscle types of both species. Dark muscle from Frigate mackerel had the highest sarcoplasmic protein content, especially extractable myoglobin (p<0.05). Muscles from Frigate mackerel had greater content of sodium chloride than had catfish (p<0.05). The highest contents of iron, copper and selenium were found in Frigate mackerel dark muscle (p<0.05). The pH of ordinary muscle from both species was higher than that of dark muscle (p<0.05). Frigate mackerel, especilly dark muscle, exhibited the most dark-red colour, as shown by the lowest L(*) and b(*) values with the highest a(*) value and redness index (a(*)/b(*)) (p<0.05). PMID:23561125

Chaijan, Manat; Klomklao, Sappasith; Benjakul, Soottawat

2013-02-11

36

Mackerel trypsin purified from defatted viscera by supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Viscera of mackerel (Scomber sp.) were defatted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO(2)) treatment. Trypsin (SC-T) was then extracted from the defatted powder and purified by a series of chromatographies including Sephacryl S-200 and Sephadex G-50. The purified SC-T was nearly homogeneous on SDS-PAGE, and its molecular weight was estimated as approximately 24,000?Da. N-terminal twenty amino acids sequence of SC-T was IVGGYECTAHSQPHQVSLNS. The specific trypsin inhibitors, soybean trypsin inhibitor and TLCK, strongly inhibited the activities of SC-T. The pH and temperature optimums of SC-T were at around pH 8.0 and 60°C, respectively, using N(?)-p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester as a substrate. The SC-T was unstable below pH 5.0 and above 40°C, and it was stabilized by calcium ion. These enzymatic characteristics of SC-T were the same as those of other fish trypsins, especially spotted mackerel (S. borealis) trypsin, purified from viscera defatted by acetone. Therefore, we concluded that the SCO(2) defatting process is useful as a substitute for organic solvent defatting process. PMID:22312468

Chun, Byung-Soo; Kishimura, Hideki; Nalinanon, Sitthipong; Klomklao, Sappasith; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-07-13

37

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (8 tetranucleotide and 2 dinucleotide) and 3 imperfect repeats (2 tetranucleotide and 1 dinucleo...

38

75 FR 5537 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries; Specifications and Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...implements 2010 specifications and management measures for Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish...These specifications and management measures promote the utilization and...

2010-02-03

39

Molecular expression of opsin gene in growing juvenile mackerel ( Scomber japonicus Houttuyn)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish have developed color vision that is closely adapted to their photic environments, where both spectral sensitivity and the number of visual opsins are influenced. The mackerel used in this study is one of the most important fishery stocks in Korea. The opsin gene of the mackerel juveniles after 20 days in hatching was isolated and characterized based on the molecular study of visual photoreceptor. The full-length mackerel opsin gene was obtained by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, as well as cDNA synthesis. Sequence analysis of the opsin gene showed that it contained a 1,080 bp open reading frame encoding 360 amino acids. Based on Schiff’s base formation (S114, K119), glycosylation (E3, F37) and palmitoylation (S281, 282), the deduced amino acid sequence had a typical rod opsin. The mackerel and Gempylus serpens showed 73.7% DNA homology on opsin gene, which was higher than any other of investigated species. In the analysis of phylogenetic relationship, the genetic placement of the mackerel is closer to that of Scombroidei than Labroidei, with supporting somewhat strong bootstrap value. In the analysis of Northern and RT-PCR, the probed products were observed only in rapidly growing juveniles. These findings indicate that in mackerel opsin mRNA expression can be detected in day-20 hatching larvae. It may play an important role in stimulating growth hormone.

Kim, Eung-Oh; Yoon, Seong-Jong; Park, Kyoung-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Do, Jeung-Wan; Cho, Eun-Seob

2009-12-01

40

Diseases from Horses  

MedlinePLUS

... rare. For example, horses often carry the bacterium Salmonella . This germ causes salmonellosis (sal-MON-el-oh- ... fungal disease associated various animals, including with horses . Salmonella Infection (salmonellosis) : A bacterial disease associated with various ...

41

Low-salt restructured fish products from Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) with texture resembling turkey breast.  

PubMed

Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is a pelagic and migratory species that is usually caught with other fish as bycatch. The aim of this work was to obtain low-salt restructured fish products from Atlantic mackerel resembling turkey breast using transglutaminase (0.2?U/g) as binder. NaCl concentration (0-20?g/kg), temperature (25-40?°C) and time of incubation (30-90?min) were assayed. The texture parameters (Warner-Bratzler force and Warner-Bratzler work) and expressible water were compared to those of turkey breast. Mathematical models were obtained to determine the effect of these variables on the texture of Atlantic mackerel restructured products. Optimal conditions to obtain a similar texture than turkey breast were found. The overall optimization point out that the treatment at 31.8?°C for 63.35?min using a NaCl concentration of 8.45?g/kg allowed to obtain restructured products from Atlantic mackerel with texture and expressible water similar to those of turkey breast. Color parameters (L*, a* and b*) of the product were also similar to those of turkey breast. The results showed the feasibility of producing low-salt restructured products from Atlantic mackerel resembling turkey breast using transglutaminase. PMID:22701058

Martelo-Vidal, M J; Mesas, J M; Vázquez, M

2012-06-01

42

77 FR 61300 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Atka Mackerel in the Bering...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS is reallocating the projected unused amount of the 2012 Atka mackerel incidental catch allowance (ICA) for the Bering Sea subarea and Eastern Aleutian district (BS/EAI) of to the Amendment 80 cooperatives in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to allow the 2012 total allowable catch of Atka mackerel to be fully...

2012-10-09

43

Managing Southern Ocean Krill and Fish Stocks in a Changing Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, and the mackerel icefish, Champsocephalus gunnari under the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) is discussed in relation to changes in their distribution and abundance arising from variation in circulation of the circumpolar current. It is concluded that on a Southern Ocean scale it is currently not possible to detect

Inigo Everson

1992-01-01

44

Spatial segregation within the spawning migration of North Eastern Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) as indicated by juvenile growth patterns.  

PubMed

A comparison of growth data (fish length) with latitude shows that southern juvenile mackerel attain a greater length than those originating from further north before growth ceases during their first winter. A similar significant relationship was found between the growth in the first year (derived from the otolith inner winter ring) and latitude for adult mackerel spawning between 44°N (Bay of Biscay) and 54°N (west of Ireland). These observations are consistent with spatial segregation of the spawning migration; the further north that the fish were hatched, the further north they will tend to spawn. No such relationship was found in mackerel spawning at more northerly latitudes, possibly as a consequence of increased spatial mixing in a more energetic regime with stronger currents. This study provides previously lacking support for spawning segregation behaviour among North East Atlantic mackerel--an important step towards understanding the migratory behaviour of mackerel and hence the spatiotemporal distribution dynamics around spawning time. PMID:23469149

Jansen, Teunis; Campbell, Andrew; Brunel, Thomas; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

2013-02-28

45

Spatial Segregation within the Spawning Migration of North Eastern Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) as Indicated by Juvenile Growth Patterns  

PubMed Central

A comparison of growth data (fish length) with latitude shows that southern juvenile mackerel attain a greater length than those originating from further north before growth ceases during their first winter. A similar significant relationship was found between the growth in the first year (derived from the otolith inner winter ring) and latitude for adult mackerel spawning between 44°N (Bay of Biscay) and 54°N (west of Ireland). These observations are consistent with spatial segregation of the spawning migration; the further north that the fish were hatched, the further north they will tend to spawn. No such relationship was found in mackerel spawning at more northerly latitudes, possibly as a consequence of increased spatial mixing in a more energetic regime with stronger currents. This study provides previously lacking support for spawning segregation behaviour among North East Atlantic mackerel – an important step towards understanding the migratory behaviour of mackerel and hence the spatiotemporal distribution dynamics around spawning time.

Jansen, Teunis; Campbell, Andrew; Brunel, Thomas; Wors?e Clausen, Lotte

2013-01-01

46

9 CFR 91.25 - Space requirements for animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stalls or pens for horses on ocean vessels. Space for horses in pens on ocean vessels shall not...roof or beams overhead to floor underfoot. Space containing...section, space in pens on ocean vessels for cattle...underfoot, except that when floors are raised over pipes...

2010-01-01

47

9 CFR 91.25 - Space requirements for animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stalls or pens for horses on ocean vessels. Space for horses in pens on ocean vessels shall not...roof or beams overhead to floor underfoot. Space containing...section, space in pens on ocean vessels for cattle...underfoot, except that when floors are raised over pipes...

2009-01-01

48

Horse Gaits Flipbooks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the gait of horses by constructing flipbooks with British photographer Eadweard Muybridge's famous photographs. Learners print out three flipbooks that showcase horses walking, trotting, and galloping. Learners will explore how many hooves leave the ground at the same time when the horse trots, walks, or gallops. This activity can also be used as part of a larger unit on animation or film.

History, American M.

2012-06-26

49

Selectivity of Gill Nets Used in the Commercial Spanish Mackerel Fishery of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection curves of encircling (run-around) and drifting (stab) gill nets used in the winter fishery for Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus off southern Florida were estimated by use of cumulative probability distributions of retention girth at length. Selection curves cor- responded well with observed size frequencies obtained from each mesh size. Increasing differences between maximum and head girth perimeters as fish

NELSON M. EHRHARDT; DAVID J. DIE

1988-01-01

50

A Description of Atlantic Mackerel, 'Scomber scombrus', Eggs and Early Larvae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of laboratory-reared Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus, eggs and early larvae is described in order to augment published descriptions of this species. The eggs are spherical, have a diameter of 1.01 to 1.28 mm, and have a single, yellowi...

P. L. Berrien

1975-01-01

51

Effect of irradiation in extending the storage life of boiled Chub mackerel (Rastrelliger spp).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effect of irradiation at doses of 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 Mrad in extending the storage life of boiled Chub mackerel held at room temperature was described. Total aerobic count, trimethylamine nitrogen, and total volatile basic nitrogen contents were used and ob...

P. Loaharanu C. Prompubesara S. Songprasertchai K. Kraisorn

1971-01-01

52

Mercury levels of small fishes: influence of size and catch area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we assessed small fishes as potential feed fishes with the lowest mercury levels. The mercury levels\\u000a of four small pelagic fishes and a benthic fish from the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, i.e., spotted chub mackerel Scomber australasicus, chub mackerel Scomber japonicus, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus, round scad Decapterus punctatus, and bastard halibut Paralichthys

Wen Jye Mok; MokManabu Seoka; Yasuyuki Tsukamasa; Ken-ichi Kawasaki; Masashi Ando

53

Theme Unit. Horse Sense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses

Flagg, Ann

1999-01-01

54

Welfare of competition horses.  

PubMed

In the large majority of cases and circumstances, horses benefit from their association with man. However, abuse of horses can occur, due to neglect or through the pressures of competition. The welfare of all animals, including competition horses, has become increasingly topical over the past ten years. Equestrian sport is coming under closer public scrutiny due to reports of apparent abuse. The bodies responsible for regulating these sports strenuously endeavour to protect the welfare of horses which compete under their rules and regulations. The Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI: International Equestrian Federation) is the sole authority for all international events in dressage, show-jumping, three-day event, driving, endurance riding and vaulting. The FEI rules illustrate the ways in which the welfare of competing horses is safeguarded. PMID:8173097

Atock, M A; Williams, R B

1994-03-01

55

Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle.  

PubMed

In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy. The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat consumption have implicated single cases of inadequate veterinary controls on horses imported from non-European Union countries. In particular, most cases of human infection have been attributed to horses imported from Eastern Europe, where pig trichinellosis is re-emerging and the main source of infection in horses. PMID:11484375

Pozio, E; Tamburrini, A; La Rosa, G

2001-06-01

56

Purification, reactivity with IgE and cDNA cloning of parvalbumin as the major allergen of mackerels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of mackerels (Scomber japonicus, S. australasicus and S. scombrus) are widely consumed and considered to be most frequently involved in incidents of IgE-mediated fish allergy in Japan. In this study, parvalbumin, a possible candidate for the major allergen, was purified from the white muscle of three species of mackerels by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and reverse-phase HPLC

Y. Hamada; H. Tanaka; S. Ishizaki; M. Ishida; Y. Nagashima; K. Shiomi

2003-01-01

57

ANTIPROTEINS IN HORSE SERA  

PubMed Central

1. Two horses were injected subcutaneously with alum-precipitated rabbit serum albumin. 2. The resulting antibody resembled diphtheria antitoxin and anti-egg albumin in the horse in giving a sharp zone of flocculation with antigen, in being water-soluble, in reactivity toward an anti-antibody rabbit serum, and in its electrophoretic properties. 3. The effect of continued immunization, and of variation in volume and temperature on the reactivity of the antibody are discussed. 4. Intravenous injection of the same antigen into horses did not give rise to detectable amounts of antibody of the same type.

Treffers, Henry P.; Heidelberger, Michael; Freund, Jules

1947-01-01

58

Hoof Comfort for Horses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called 'Power Pads,' which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads...

2002-01-01

59

Social Ecology of Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses (Equidae ) are believed to clearly demonstrate the links between ecology and social organization. Their social cognitive\\u000a abilities enable them to succeed in many different environments, including those provided for them by humans, or the ones\\u000a domestic horses encounter when escaping from their human care takers. Living in groups takes different shapes in equids. Their\\u000a aggregation and group cohesion

Konstanze Krueger

60

Occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria in salted mackerel in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-three samples of salted mackerel sold in retail markets and supermarkets in Taiwan were tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. The numbers of aerobic plate count (APC) in all samples were below the Taiwanese regulatory level of 6.47logcfu\\/g. The levels of pH, salt content, and total coliform in all samples ranged from 5.7 to 6.4, 5.0

Yung-Hsiang Tsai; Chueh-Yueh Lin; Shiou-Chung Chang; Hwi-Chang Chen; Hsien-Feng Kung; Cheng-I Wei; Deng-Fwu Hwang

2005-01-01

61

Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, is a species of major importance to fisheries, particularly in eastern Asia. To aid in the sustainable management of this\\u000a fisheries resource, we isolated eight novel microsatellite loci from the fish and examined their polymorphisms to estimate\\u000a genetic variability. Genetic variability differed at each locus. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 14, and observed

Hyung Kee Cha; Hye Suck An; Jung Hwa Choi; Sukyung Kang; Jung Youn Park; Kyung Kil Kim

2010-01-01

62

Autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty compounds in mackerel oil: Formation of 2,4,7-decatrienals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of potentially “fishy” off flavor components, especially 2,4,7-decatrienals, in various rancid mackerel oils\\u000a has been semiquantitatively investigated using preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC)\\u000a methods. A combination of 2 GLC analyses can be directly employed for free aldehyde analysis. This GLC method is faster and\\u000a gives a better recovery than the alternative TLC proceeding

P. J. Ke; R. G. Ackman; B. A. Linke

1975-01-01

63

Spawning frequency of the Tsushima Current subpopulation of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus off Kyushu, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Japanese chub mackerel Scomber japonicus of the Tsushima Current subpopulation were collected during the spawning season from March to May 2001. A total of 137 adult\\u000a females were caught between midnight and daybreak. A considerable number of fish displayed new postovulatory follicles (POF),\\u000a whereas there was no evidence of germinal vesicle breakdown or hydrated oocytes in any of the

Tetsuro Shiraishi; Suvarna D. Ketkar; Yoshiki Katoh; Mitsuo Nyuji; Akihiko Yamaguchi; Michiya Matsuyama

2009-01-01

64

Inheritance of racing performance of Thoroughbred horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse racing is a contest between horses, usually held for the purpose of betting. Thoroughbred horse racing is the most diffused form of horse racing throughout the world. Thoroughbred is one of the most versatile of horse breeds and has influenced the development of many other breeds. Thoroughbred horses served as a foundation stock for the development of the light

A. K. Thiruvenkadan; N. Kandasamy; S. Panneerselvam

2009-01-01

65

Effect of season on heavy metal contents and chemical compositions of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) muscle.  

PubMed

Seasonal variations of heavy metals concentrations and overall chemical compositions were determined in chub mackerel caught in the Southern Sea of Korea. The average mercury and lead content varied between 0.04 and 0.08 mg/kg and between 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. Seasonal variations were not detected in lead, but mercury displayed maximal values in winter (P < 0.05). A distinct seasonal pattern was found in crude fat content with maximal values in December and minimal values in April. Fatty acid composition showed that monounsaturated fatty acids levels were the highest in August, while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels were the highest in April. The major contributing factors to the seasonal variation of PUFA amounted to 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. The total amino acids content varied from 180.6 to 187.7 mg/g. There were no significant seasonal variations in total amounts of amino acids. Practical Application:? Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is one of the most important fishing resources in Korea. The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the human body have been identified, and consequently, the intake of fish lipids has steadily increased among the human population. There have been few studies on safety and alterations in chemical composition of mackerel attributed to seasonal fluctuations. Therefore, the results presented in this study could be used to improve the safety and nutrition information available to consumers. PMID:22251075

Bae, J H; Lim, S Y

2012-01-17

66

Steroidogenic and maturation-inducing potency of native gonadotropic hormones in female chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus  

PubMed Central

Background The gonadotropins (GtHs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are produced in the pituitary gland and regulates gametogenesis through production of gonadal steroids. However, respective roles of two GtHs in the teleosts are still incompletely characterized due to technical difficulties in the purification of native GtHs. Methods Native FSH and LH were purified from the pituitaries of adult chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus by anion-exchange chromatography and immunoblotting using specific antisera. The steroidogenic potency of the intact chub mackerel FSH (cmFSH) and LH (cmLH) were evaluated in mid- and late-vitellogenic stage follicles by measuring the level of gonadal steroids, estradiol-17beta (?2) and 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P). In addition, we evaluated the maturation-inducing potency of the GtHs on same stage follicles. Results Both cmFSH and cmLH significantly stimulated E2 production in mid-vitellogenic stage follicles. In contrast, only LH significantly stimulated the production of 17,20beta-P in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Similarly, cmLH induced final oocyte maturation (FOM) in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Conclusions Present results indicate that both FSH and LH may regulate vitellogenic processes, whereas only LH initiates FOM in chub mackerel.

2012-01-01

67

Off-flavors removal and storage improvement of mackerel viscera by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.  

PubMed

The oil in mackerel viscera was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) at a semi-batch flow extraction process and the fatty acids composition in the oil was identified. Also the off-flavors removal in mackerel viscera and the storage improvement of the oils were carried out. As results obtained, by increasing pressure and temperature, quantity was increased. The maximum yield of oils obtained from mackerel viscera by SCO, extraction was 118 mgg(-1) (base on dry weight of freeze-dried raw anchovy) at 50 degrees C, 350 bar And the extracted oil contained high concentration of EPA and DHA. Also it was found that the autoxidation of the oils using SCO2 extraction occurred very slowly compared to the oils by organic solvent extraction. The off-flavors in the powder after SCO2 extraction were significantly removed. Especially complete removal of the trimethylamine which influences a negative compound to the products showed. Also other significant off-flavors such as aldehydes, sulfur-containing compounds, ketones, acids or alcohols were removed by the extraction. PMID:19195403

Lee, Min Kyung; Uddin, M Salim; Chun, Byung Soo

2008-07-01

68

The Physical Basis for Reflective Communication between Fish, with Special Reference to the Horse Mackerel, Trachurus trachurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some properties of reflecting structures in the external surfaces of Trachurus trachurus and some other fish are described. These are related to the hypothesis that such structures are useful, especially to schooling fish, for communicating information on relative positions, orientations, and movements between neighbours. In addition to the silvery layers on the main body surfaces, there are: (a) highly silvered

D. M. Rowe; E. J. Denton

1997-01-01

69

A regime shift in the North Sea circa 1988 linked to changes in the North Sea horse mackerel fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 1987, Phytoplankton Colour (a visual estimate of chlorophyll) measured on samples taken by the continuous plankton recorder (CPR) in the North Sea increased substantially, both in level and seasonal extent, compared to earlier years since 1946. Many species of phytoplankton and zooplankton showed marked changes in abundance at about the same time. These events coincided with a large increase

Philip C. Reid; Maria de Fatima Borges; Einar Svendsen

2001-01-01

70

From wild horses to domestic horses: a European perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a period of some 5000 years or so in the prehistory of Europe when horse populations were greatly depleted and perhaps even disappeared in many places. Before this time, during the Upper Palaeolithic, wild horses were common; after, during the Bronze Age, domestic horses were being raised and used across Europe. What happened in between is uncertain, in

Robin Bendrey

2012-01-01

71

Coprophilous fungi of the horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1267 microfungi, including 35 Myxomycetes, were recorded from the fecal samples of the 60 horses; of these 395 were found on 20 saddle-horse feces, 363 on 20 race-horses and 509 on 20 working-horses. Eighty two species representing 53 genera were recorded; of these 7 were Zygomycetes, 18 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycetes and 25 Fungi Imperfecti: 2 Myxomycetes. Common

E. Piontelli; M. Alicia Toro Santa-maria; G. Caretta

1981-01-01

72

Training Methods and Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of horse care and handling are based upon convenience and traditional practices. Many of these methods of management and practice do not take into account the natural behaviour of horses. This is despite the belief that although domestic horses are probably more docile, stronger, faster growing and faster moving than their ancestors, they are unlikely to have lost

N. Waran; P. McGreevy; R. Casey

73

African horse sickness.  

PubMed

African horse sickness (AHS) is a reportable, noncontagious, arthropod-borne viral disease that results in severe cardiovascular and pulmonary illness in horses. AHS is caused by the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV), which is transmitted primarily by Culicoides imicola in Africa; potential vectors outside of Africa include Culicoides variipennis and biting flies in the genera Stomoxys and Tabanus. Infection with AHSV has a high mortality rate. Quick and accurate diagnosis can help prevent the spread of AHS. AHS has not been reported in the Western Hemisphere but could have devastating consequences if introduced into the United States. This article reviews the clinical signs, pathologic changes, diagnostic challenges, and treatment options associated with AHS. PMID:23705175

Stern, Adam W

2011-08-01

74

Effect of modified atmosphere packaging with freeze-chilling on some quality parameters of raw whiting, mackerel and salmon portions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was combined with freeze-chilling to extend the shelf-life of raw whiting, mackerel and salmon fillets\\/portions. The MAP packs for mackerel and salmon (60% N2\\/40% CO2), and for whiting (30% N2\\/40% CO2\\/30% O2) maintained their shape during freeze-chilling whereas packs with 100% CO2 were slightly imploded with concave sides. The chosen chilled shelf-life of 5–7 days in

J. D. Fagan; T. R. Gormley; M. M. U?? Mhuircheartaigh

2004-01-01

75

Temperature dependence of the Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) in the ventricles of tuna and mackerel.  

PubMed

Recent physiological studies on the cardiovascular performance of tunas suggest that the elevated heart rates of these fish may rely on increased use of intracellular sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ stores. In this study, we compare the cellular cardiac performance in endothermic tunas (bluefin, albacore, yellowfin) and their ectothermic sister taxa (mackerel) in response to acute temperature change. The cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) plays a major role during cardiac excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, transporting Ca2+ from the cytosol into the lumen of the SR and thus promoting the relaxation of the muscle. Measurements of oxalate-supported Ca2+ uptake in SR-enriched ventricular vesicles indicated that tunas were capable of sustaining a rate of Ca2+ uptake that was significantly higher than the mackerel. Among tunas, the cold-tolerant bluefin had the highest rates of SR Ca2+ uptake and ATPase activity. The differences among Ca2+ uptake and ATP hydrolysis rates do not seem to result from intrinsic differences between the SERCA2 present in the different tunas, as shown by their similar temperature sensitivities and similar values for activation energy. Western blots reveal that increased SERCA2 protein content is associated with the higher Ca2+ uptake and ATPase activities seen in bluefin ventricles compared with albacore, yellowfin, and mackerel. We hypothesize that a key step in the evolution of high heart rate and high metabolic rate in tunas is increased activity of the SERCA2 enzyme. We also suggest that high levels of SERCA2 in bluefin tuna hearts may be important for retaining cardiac function at cold temperatures. PMID:14604842

Landeira-Fernandez, Ana M; Morrissette, Jeffery M; Blank, Jason M; Block, Barbara A

2003-11-06

76

Horse Domestication and Conservation Genetics of Przewalski's Horse Inferred from Sex Chromosomal and Autosomal Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are

Allison N. Lau; Lei Peng; Hiroki Goto; Leona Chemnick; Oliver A. Ryder; Kateryna D. Makova

2008-01-01

77

Hyperelastosis in the Horse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

78

TEI HORSEing Around  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Text Encoding Initiative's typed segment-boundary delimiter method is only one of several proposed mechanisms for handling overlap in TEI documents. HORSE (aka CLIX) defines a method by which an XML element is used normally when possible and as an improved version of the typed segment-boundary delimiter method when an overlap problem is encountered. A significant portion of the rules

Syd Bauman

2005-01-01

79

[Intersexuality in horses].  

PubMed

Intersexuality is a rare congenital anomaly of horses. Diagnosis of intersexuality is difficult because there are usually no specific changes in the reproductive tract visible. During a period of five years, ten patients with reduced fertility or suspected intersexuality respectively were investigated using cytogenetic, molecular genetic, histopathological and endocrinological methods. In one case a 64,XX/63,X0 mosaicism was found. In six cases male pseudohermaphroditism was verified. These patients showed a male karyotype, testes and rudimentary parts of a female reproductive tract were present. One horse was suspected to be a male pseudohermaphrodite but the gonads were not examined. One horse was suspected to be affected by an XX-sex several syndrome and in one case a SRY-negative XY-sex reversal syndrome was most likely. In the case of an XX-sex reversal syndrome, there is a female chromosomal constitution, an uterus and cranial parts of the vagina are present but also testes tissue and possibly an enlarged penis like clitoris. Here an XX-sex reversal syndrome was suspected but not confirmed as it was not possible to examine the gonads and verify tissue from testes. Therefore a pseudohermaphroditismus femininus could not be excluded. In cases of XY-sex reversal syndrome the patients show a male chromosomal constitution, parts of a female reproductive tract but no testes tissue is present. For the horse described here, a deletion of the SRY gene was the most likely cause for the XY-sex reversal syndrome. PMID:17341020

Kuiper, H; Distl, O

2007-02-01

80

The Oceans  

SciTech Connect

Table of Contents: The Physical Ocean. The Chemical Ocean. The Biological Ocean. The Geoglogical Ocean. The Metorological Ocean. The Engineer's Ocean. The Global Ocean - Past, Present, and Future. Table 1: Distances, Areas, Volumes, and Weights. Table 2: Some Facts About the Earth and the Ocean. Table 3: Some Properties of Ocean Water. Table 4: Elements Present in Solution in Oceanic Seawater. Table 5: Animal Forms in the Ocean. Glossary. Bibliography. Index.

Groves

1989-01-01

81

Impact of microbial transglutaminase on gelling properties of Indian mackerel fish protein isolates.  

PubMed

Impacts of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) (0-0.6 units/g sample) on gel properties of Indian mackerel unwashed mince, surimi and protein isolates with and without prewashing were studied. Generally, lower myoglobin and lipid contents were found in protein isolate with and without prewashing, compared to those of unwashed mince and surimi (P<0.05). Protein isolate had the decreased Ca(2+)-ATPase and protein solubility, indicating protein denaturation. When MTGase was incorporated, breaking force and deformation of all gels markedly increased, especially as MTGase levels increased (P<0.05). At the same MTGase level, gel from protein isolate with prewashing exhibited the highest breaking force and deformation (P<0.05). The addition of MTGase could lower the expressible moisture content of most gels. No change in whiteness of gel was observed with the addition of MTGase (P>0.05), but gel from protein isolate gels had decreased whiteness as MTGase at high level was added. The microstructure of protein isolate gels without prewashing showed a similar network to unwashed mince gels, whilst a similar network was observed between surimi gel and gel from protein isolate with prewashing. Nevertheless, a larger void was noticeable in gels from protein isolates. All gels incorporated with MTGase (0.6 units/g) showed a slightly denser network than those without MTGase. Thus, gel with improved properties could be obtained from protein isolate from Indian mackerel with added MTGase. PMID:23122146

Chanarat, Sochaya; Benjakul, Soottawat

2012-09-17

82

"Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

2013-01-01

83

FAST CONTINUOUS SWIMMING OF TWO PELAGIC PREDATORS, SAITHE (POLLACHIUS VIRENS) AND MACKEREL (SCOMBER SCOMBRUS): A KINEMATIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Straight, forward, unrestrained swimming behaviour, with periodic lateral oscillations of body and tailfin, was described and compared for saithe and mackerel. A method was developed for kinematic analysis of forward motion, lateral displacements and body curvature, based on a Fourier-series approach. The dimensionless kinematic quantities showed relatively small varia- tions over large ranges of swimming speeds. The speed range

J. J. VIDELER; F. HESS

84

76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NMFS announces that it is establishing a new control date to control future access to the king and Spanish mackerel components...also may choose to take no further action to control entry or access to the fishery, in which case the...

2011-01-31

85

77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC083 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the...groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of the...

2012-07-03

86

75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel...fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery...of harvest and, (2) the economic impacts on fishing businesses...fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the...

2010-10-21

87

78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC654 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the...groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the directed...

2013-05-03

88

Free amino acids and peptides as related to antioxidant properties in protein hydrolysates of mackerel ( Scomber austriasicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mackerel (Scomber austriasicus) hydrolysates were prepared by an autolytic process and accelerated hydrolysis with a commercial enzyme, Protease N. Changes in the levels and compositions of free amino acids and small peptides during hydrolysis were investigated to find out their relationships with antioxidant activities. Increased levels of free amino acids, anserine, carnosine and other peptides of the hydrolysates obtained with

Hui-Chun Wu; Hua-Ming Chen; Chyuan-Yuan Shiau

2003-01-01

89

Training Methods and Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of horse care and handling are based upon convenience and traditional practices. Many of these methods of management\\u000a and practice do not take into account the natural behaviour of horses. This is despite the belief that although domestic horses\\u000a are probably more docile, stronger, faster growing and faster moving than their ancestors, they are unlikely to have lost

N. Waran; P. McGreevy; R. Casey

90

Does Horse Temperament Influence Horse–Rider Cooperation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills, knowledge, and personality of the rider on one hand and the temperament, experience, and physical abilities of the

E. Kathalijne Visser; Cornelis G. Van Reenen; Mari Zetterqvist Blokhuis; E. Karin M. Morgan; Peter Hassmén; T. Margareta M. Rundgren; Harry J. Blokhuis

2008-01-01

91

Bovine intelligence for training horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rail-mounted model of a small cow is to be used in the training of horses for camp-drafting contests. The paper concerns the addition of sensors and a strategy to enable the machine to respond to the proximity of the horse in a manner that will represent the behaviour of a live calf.

John Billingsley

2007-01-01

92

Effect of liquid smoke dipping and packaging method on the keeping quality of raw and cooked chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in biochemical and sensory attributes of chub mackerel fillets during storage treated by immersion in a 12% NaCl brine with or without 0.2% liquid smoke were investigated. Brine-treated chub mackerel fillets were packaged in modified atmosphere or under vacuum and were stored at 4°C. The brined fillets were stored and evaluated raw and after heat treatment as cooked samples.

Kyriaki Chatzikyriakidou; Eugenios Katsanidis

2011-01-01

93

Hay Days: The Horse in Iowa History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"The Goldfinch" introduces young children to various facets of Iowa history. Each issue has a specific topic, and a number of articles covering different aspects of the topic being addressed. This particular issue focuses on horses. Featured articles discuss historical uses of horses, an Iowa child who owns a quarter horse, show horses, and…

Frese, Millie K., Ed.

1998-01-01

94

Clinical nutrition of adult horses.  

PubMed

Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old. PMID:2202496

Ralston, S L

1990-08-01

95

Development of a real-time PCR method for the identification of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).  

PubMed

A Real Time-PCR method based on TaqMan technology for the identification of Scomber scombrus has been developed. A system of specific primers and a Minor Groove Binding (MGB) TaqMan probe based on sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b region was designed. The method was successfully tested in 81 specimens of S. scombrus and related species and validated in 26 different commercial samples. An average Threshold Cycle (Ct) value of 15.3 was obtained with S. scombrus DNA. With the other species tested fluorescence signal was not detected or Ct was significantly higher (P<0.001). The efficiency of the assay was estimated to be 92.41%, with 100% specificity, and no cross reactivity was detected with any other species. These results reveal that the developed method is a rapid and efficient tool to unequivocally identify S. scombrus and may aid in the prevention of fraud or mislabelling in mackerel products. PMID:23870921

Velasco, Amaya; Sánchez, Ana; Martínez, Icíar; Santaclara, Francisco J; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Sotelo, Carmen G

2013-05-23

96

Phylogeography and historical demography of the Pacific Sierra mackerel (Scomberomorus sierra) in the Eastern Pacific  

PubMed Central

Background Testing connectivity among populations of exploited marine fish is a main concern for the development of conservation strategies. Even though marine species are often considered to display low levels of population structure, barriers to dispersal found in the marine realm may restrict gene flow and cause genetic divergence of populations. The Pacific Sierra mackerel (Scomberomorus sierra) is a pelagic fish species distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the eastern Pacific. Seasonal spawning in different areas across the species range, as well as a limited dispersal, may result in a population genetic structure. Identification of genetically discrete units is important in the proper conservation of the fishery. Results Samples collected from the Eastern Pacific, including the areas of main abundance of the species, presented high levels of mtDNA genetic diversity and a highly significant divergence. At least two genetically discrete groups were detected in the northern (Sinaloa) and central areas (Oaxaca and Chiapas) of the species range, exhibiting slight genetic differences with respect to the samples collected in the southern region (Peru), together with a "chaotic genetic patchiness" pattern of differentiation and no evidence of isolation by distance. Historical demographic parameters supported the occurrence of past population expansions, whereas the divergence times between populations coincided with the occurrence of glacial maxima some 220 000 years ago. Conclusions The population genetic structure detected for the Pacific Sierra mackerel is associated with a limited dispersal between the main abundance areas that are usually linked to the spawning sites of the species. Population expansions have coincided with glacial-interglacial episodes in the Pleistocene, but they may also be related to the increase in the SST and with upwelling areas in the EEP since the early Pleistocene.

2010-01-01

97

Leptospirosis in horses in Ontario.  

PubMed Central

Sera from Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in southwest Ontario were tested for antibody to seven Leptospira interrogans serovars (autumnalis, bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona), using the microscopic agglutination test. There was significantly higher seroprevalence of bratislava than of other serovars, in which prevalence was low. Seroprevalence of bratislava increased significantly with age; only 5% of two to three year old horses had titers greater than or equal to 1:80 compared to 52% of horses older than seven years. Eight of 16 foals from two farms seroconverted at low titers to bratislava between four and eight months of age. Leptospires were not detected by immunofluorescence and isolation techniques in 50 kidneys collected from horses at slaughter. Fetal tissues from 52 aborted horse fetuses were also examined by these methods and serovar kennewicki was identified by immunofluorescence and by isolation in one fetus. Serovar bratislava appears to be widespread in horses in Ontario but unimportant in abortion. The clinical significance of this infection in horses in Ontario is unclear.

Kitson-Piggot, A W; Prescott, J F

1987-01-01

98

Ultrastructure of atrial and ventricular myocardium in the pike Esox lucius L. and mackerel Scomber scombrus L. (pisces).  

PubMed

Atrial and ventricular muscle in the pike and mackerel hearts consists of narrow, branching cells. The atrial cells in the two species are similar whereas the ventricular cells differ. The sarcolemma is attached to the Z and M lines of the sarcomere. Intercalated discs are common, and the transverse parts display desmosomes and intermediate junctions. Nexuses are uncommon and only occur in the longitudinal parts of the intercalated discs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum forms a regular hexagonal network on the myofibrillar surface. Subsarcolemmal cisternae form peripheral couplings at the I--A level. Junctional processes are usually inconspicuous, but an electron dense substance is present between the sarcolemma and the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum. Specific heart granules are common in atrial cells of both species and in ventricular cells of the pike, but are very scarce in mackerel ventricular muscle. PMID:7407886

Midttun, B

1980-01-01

99

Oceans Alive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oceans Alive covers basic information about Earth's oceans, including sections such as: The Water Planet, Oceans in Motion, Life in the Sea, Scientists at Sea and Resources. Topics include physical features of oceans, how the oceans formed, the water cycle, currents and waves, ebbs and tides, ocean plants and animals, and ocean research. The resources section contains links for more information about oceans, as well as class activities to accompany the material on the site.

Rosentrater, Lynn

100

African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.  

PubMed

To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation. PMID:22612775

Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J

2012-05-21

101

Electrophysiological properties of the L-type Ca(2+) current in cardiomyocytes from bluefin tuna and Pacific mackerel.  

PubMed

Tunas are capable of exceptionally high maximum metabolic rates; such capability requires rapid delivery of oxygen and metabolic substrate to the tissues. This requirement is met, in part, by exceptionally high maximum cardiac outputs, opening the possibility that myocardial Ca(2+) delivery is enhanced in myocytes from tuna compared with those from other fish. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological properties of the cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channel current (I(Ca)) to test the hypothesis that Ca(2+) influx would be large and have faster kinetics in cardiomyocytes from Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) than in those from its sister taxon, the Pacific mackerel (Scombe japonicus). In accordance with this hypothesis, I(Ca) in atrial myocytes from bluefin tuna had significantly greater peak current amplitudes and faster fast inactivation kinetics (-4.4 +/- 0.2 pA/pF and 25.9 +/- 1.6 ms, respectively) than those from mackerel (-2.7 +/- 0.5 pA/pF and 32.3 +/- 3.8 ms, respectively). Steady-state activation, inactivation, and recovery from inactivation were also faster in atrial myocytes from tuna than from mackerel. In ventricular myocytes, current amplitude and activation and inactivation rates were similar in both species but elevated compared with those of other teleosts. These results indicate enhanced I(Ca) in atrial myocytes from bluefin tuna compared with Pacific mackerel; this enhanced I(Ca) may be associated with elevated cardiac performance, because I(Ca) delivers the majority of Ca(2+) involved in excitation-contraction coupling in most fish hearts. Similarly, I(Ca) is enhanced in the ventricle of both species compared with other teleosts and may play a role in the robust cardiac performance of fishes of the family Scombridae. PMID:14656768

Shiels, H A; Blank, J M; Farrell, A P; Block, B A

2003-12-04

102

Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

2011-03-01

103

Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented.

Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A. [DMFCI, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Rolfs, C. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany); Typel, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

2006-07-12

104

Aorto-cardiac fistulas in seven horses.  

PubMed

This report describes the history, clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, treatment, outcome and post-mortem findings in seven horses with aorto-cardiac fistula. Affected horses included 5 stallions, one gelding and one mare; 2 each of the Thoroughbred, Arabian and Standardbred breeds and one Thoroughbred-cross with a mean +/- s.d. age of 12 +/- 4 years, range 6-18 years. The presenting signs were acute distress (four horses), exercise intolerance (two horses) and the lesion was detected during a routine examination in one horse. Five horses had monomorphic ventricular tachycardia on admission and one other had a history of this arrhythmia. Five horses had a characteristic continuous murmur loudest in the right fourth intercostal space. Echocardiography (six horses) and/or post-mortem examination (four horses) revealed the horses had aorto-cardiac fistulas arising from the right aortic sinus in all five horses in which the site was recorded. Two horses had ruptured aneurysmal dilatations of the aortic wall at this site. Fistulas extended into the right ventricle in four horses; the right atrium in two horses, the left ventricle in one horse, and five horses had dissecting tracts in the septal myocardium. Horses survived for periods ranging from 24 h to 4 years. Aorto-cardiac fistula should be considered in the differential diagnosis for horses presenting with acute distress, bounding arterial pulse, a right-sided continuous murmur and/or monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, particularly in middle-aged or older stallions. Echocardiography is the technique of choice for confirming the diagnosis and demonstrating accompanying cardiac changes. PMID:9491514

Marr, C M; Reef, V B; Brazil, T J; Thomas, W P; Knottenbelt, D C; Kelly, D F; Baker, J R; Reimer, J M; Maxson, A D; Crowhurst, J S

105

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic purposes; reservation...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.304 Import permits for horses...

2009-01-01

106

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic purposes; reservation...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.304 Import permits for horses...

2010-01-01

107

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66...exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry....

2010-04-01

108

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66...exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry....

2009-04-01

109

Fungal diseases of horses.  

PubMed

Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

2013-01-29

110

The exhausted horse syndrome.  

PubMed

Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

Foreman, J H

1998-04-01

111

Hydrodynamics of caudal fin locomotion by chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus (Scombridae).  

PubMed

As members of the derived teleost fish clade Scombridae, mackerel exhibit high-performance aquatic locomotion via oscillation of the homocercal forked caudal fin. We present the first quantitative flow visualization of the wake of a scombrid fish, chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (20-26 cm fork length, FL), swimming steadily in a recirculating flow tank at cruising speeds of 1.2 and 2.2FL s(-1). Thrust was calculated from wake measurements made separately in the horizontal (frontal) plane and vertical (parasagittal) planes using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and compared with drag measurements obtained by towing the same specimens of S. japonicus post mortem. Patterns of flow indicated that the wake consisted of a series of linked elliptical vortex rings, each with central jet flow. The length of the minor axis (height) of the vortex rings was approximately equal to caudal fin span; the length of the major ring axis was dependent on swimming speed and was up to twice the magnitude of ring height. Profiles of wake velocity components were similar to theoretical profiles of vortex rings. Lift, thrust and lateral forces were calculated from DPIV measurements. At 1.2FL s(-1), lift forces measured relative to the X axis were low in magnitude (-1+/-1 mN, mean +/- S.D., N=20) but oriented at a mean angle of 6 degrees to the body axis. Reaction forces tend to rotate the fish about its center of mass, tipping the head down. Thus, the homocercal caudal fin of S. japonicus functions asymmetrically in the vertical plane. Pitching moments may be balanced anteriorly via lift generation by the pectoral fins. Thrust estimates for the two smallest fish based on DPIV analysis were not significantly different from drag measurements made by towing those same animals. At a speed of 1.2FL s(-1), thrust magnitude was 11+/-6 mN (mean +/- S.D, N=40). Lateral force magnitudes were approximately double thrust magnitudes (22+/-6 mN, mean +/- S.D., N=20), resulting in a mean mechanical performance ratio (thrust/total force) of 0.32 at 1.2FL s(-1). An increase in speed by a factor of 1.8 resulted in a mean increase in thrust by a factor of 4.4, a mean increase in lateral forces by a factor of 3, no change in the magnitude of lift produced and an increase in mean mechanical performance to 0.42. The relatively high lateral forces generated during swimming may be a necessary consequence of force production via propagated waves of bending. PMID:12042330

Nauen, Jennifer C; Lauder, George V

2002-06-01

112

Domestication of the horse: Genetic relationships between domestic and wild horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, a large amount of equine genetic data has been obtained regarding (i) extant domestic horses of various breeds from all over the world, (ii) ancient domestic horses, (iii) the extant Przewalski's wild horse, and (iv) the late Pleistocene wild horse from Eurasia and North America. Here, a review of mtDNA and Y chromosome marker analyses is presented in

Tatjana Kavar; Peter Dov?

2008-01-01

113

Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n=12) or REFERENCE horses (n=12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box,

Janne Winther Christensen; Tatjana Zharkikh; Jan Ladewig

2008-01-01

114

Black walnut toxicosis in ten horses.  

PubMed

Black walnut toxicosis was diagnosed in 10 horses at one stable. The time from exposure to shavings to development of clinical signs was 8 to 12 hours. Most common clinical signs were moderate to severe laminitis (Obel grade 2 or 3), pitting edema of the distal portion of the limbs, and rapid respiratory rate. Two horses had clinical signs of colic and 2 other horses had anorexia and lethargy. All 10 horses recovered without complications. PMID:2768058

Uhlinger, C

1989-08-01

115

Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads.  

PubMed

The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe patterns of motor coordination between horse and rider across the equine gaits of walk, rising trot, sitting trot and canter. Eighteen female (N=18; mean age±SD: 37.57±13.04) Dutch horse-rider combinations were recruited to participate in the study. Horse-rider coordination was recorded using two tri-axial wireless accelerometers during a standard ridden protocol. Multiple measures of horse-rider coordination were calculated to investigate the relationship between the horse and rider, while the unpredictability of the acceleration-time series of the horse and rider during task performance were determined separately by means of approximate entropy analysis. The kinematic variables of horse-rider correlation, mean relative phase, mean standard deviation of the relative phase, approximate entropy rider, approximate entropy horse and spectral edge frequency at 95% of the power in the 0-10 Hz frequency band were examined using multiple correlational analyses and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Findings showed significantly different coordination dynamics between equine gaits, with the gait of canter allowing for the highest levels of horse-rider synchronicity. It may be concluded that accelerometers are a valuable tool to map distinct coordination patterns of horse-rider combinations. PMID:23290116

Wolframm, Inga A; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J

2013-01-04

116

Urethrolithiasis and nephrolithiasis in a horse.  

PubMed Central

A 9-year-old, quarter horse gelding with obstructive urethrolithiasis was treated with a perineal urethrostomy. The horse's condition deteriorated and abdominocentesis confirmed septic uroperitonitis. The horse was euthanized and postmortem examination revealed peritonitis, a tear in the lateral wall of the bladder, and a nephrolith within the left renal pelvis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Saam, D

2001-01-01

117

Ultrasonographic diagnosis of coxofemoral subluxation in horses.  

PubMed

The clinical and ultrasonographic features of seven horses with coxofemoral subluxation are presented. Affected horses included five adult geldings (11-20 years), one large pony (6 years) and a 3-month-old filly. All were lame at the walk except for the pony with grade 3/5 lameness. Lameness was acute in all horses, but three horses progressed after initial improvement. Crepitus, muscle atrophy, and pelvic asymmetry were inconsistent findings. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of subluxation required dynamic visualization of femoral head displacement from the acetabulum while placing weight on the affected limb and subsequent replacement into its normal position upon limb resting. Acetabular rim fractures and joint effusion were visible regardless of weight bearing status in six horses each. No fractures were identified in the pony; the only patient with a good outcome. Six horses had a poor outcome with severe chronic lameness, four of which were euthanized. Postmortem ventrodorsal radiographs obtained in two horses confirmed subluxation only on extended limb projections, but not on hip-flexed projections. Acetabular rim fractures were not visible radiographically in either horse but were confirmed at necropsy. Subluxation was due to an elongated but intact ligament of the head of the femur in both horses. Osteoarthrosis was evident ultrasonographically, radiographically, and at necropsy. Dynamic ultrasonography was readily performed in the standing horse and produced diagnostic images with a low frequency curvilinear transducer. The apparent poor prognosis for horses with subluxation and acetabular fracture illustrate the importance of this imaging technique to identify affected horses. PMID:19697609

Brenner, Suzanne; Whitcomb, Mary Beth

118

Horner's syndrome in ten horses  

PubMed Central

Ten cases of equine Horner's syndrome were reviewed. None of the clinical signs in this series were transient (<48 hours). Sweating and ptosis were consistently observed by the attending clinician in over half of the affected horses. Enophthalmos and prolapse of the third eyelid were not reported consistently. The average duration of the clinical signs was 4.94 months and ranged from 14 days to 15 months. Eight of the ten horses developed associated complications, some of which affected performance. Airway obstruction and impedance of passage of a fiberoptic endoscope due to nasal mucosal edema occurred in five horses. Facial paralysis (4/10) and laryngeal hemiplegia (2/10), which are not direct features of Horner's syndrome, were also observed.

Green, Sherril L.; Cochrane, Susan M.; Smith-Maxie, Laura

1992-01-01

119

Kleingrass-associated hepatotoxicosis in horses.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatic disease was diagnosed in 6 horses with history of anorexia and weight loss. These horses consistently had abnormally high serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, total and direct bilirubin and blood ammonia values, and sulfobromophthalein clearance times, whereas serum iditol dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were variable. In the 6 horses, histologic examination of the liver revealed lesions of chronic hepatitis with varying degrees of fibrosis. All 6 horses had ingested kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) for variable periods. Three healthy horses fed kleingrass hay for 90 days developed hepatic lesions and increases in serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities similar to those in the 6 horses with chronic hepatitis. Characteristic hepatic lesions in both groups of horses included bridging hepatic fibrosis, cholangitis, and hepatocellular regeneration. PMID:3192474

Cornick, J L; Carter, G K; Bridges, C H

1988-10-15

120

Locomotion in scombrid fishes: morphology and kinematics of the finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus.  

PubMed

Finlets are small non-retractable fins located on the dorsal and ventral margins of the body between the second dorsal and anal fins and the tail of scombrid fishes. The morphology of the finlets, and finlet kinematics during swimming in a flow tank at speeds of 0.8-3. 0 fork lengths s(-1), were examined in the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Functionally, S. japonicus has five dorsal and anal triangular finlets (the fifth finlet is a pair of finlets acting in concert). Slips of muscle that insert onto the base of each finlet indicate the potential for active movement. In animals of similar mass, finlet length and area increased posteriorly. Finlet length, height and area show positive allometry in animals from 45 to 279 g body mass. Summed finlet area was approximately 15 % of caudal fin area. During steady swimming, the finlets typically oscillated symmetrically in the horizontal and vertical planes. Finlet excursions in the x, y and z directions ranged from 1 to 5 mm, increased posteriorly and were independent of speed. The timing of the maximum amplitude of oscillation was phased posteriorly; the phase lag of the maximum amplitude of oscillation was independent of speed. During some periods of gliding, a finlet occasionally moved independently of the body and the other finlets, which indicated active control of finlet movement. The angle of attack of the finlets averaged approximately 0 degrees over a tailbeat, indicating no net contribution to thrust production via classical lift-based mechanisms. However, the timing of finlet movement relative to that of the tail suggests that more posterior finlets may direct some flow longitudinally as the tail decelerates and thereby contribute flow to the developing caudal fin vortex. PMID:10887065

Nauen, J C; Lauder, G V

2000-08-01

121

Ocean Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Talk provides a glimpse of oceanography and an awareness of the importance of the sea to our environment and our own well-being. There are scientific explanations of ocean bottom features, the properties of seawater, underwater sound, sea ice, ocean currents, tides, waves, and tsunamis. A history of marine exploration and descriptions of the Earth's oceans are also provided.

122

Canada's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview of Canadanain oceans outlines the characteristics of the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic marine ecosystems. After a brief look at Canada's ocean environments from a global perspective, additional chapters provide an overview of the physical properties, fauna and human impacts associated with Canada's oceans. For each ocean there is information on water properties, currents, tides, and the ocean floor. Ocean floor information includes descriptions of ocean basins, submarine ridges, continental shelves and sedimentation while current information includes the causes, effects, and names of the currents. There is an explanation of the cause of tides and how they affect each shoreline.

123

Over-flexing the horse's neck: A modern equestrian obsession?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used an opportunistic review of photographs of different adult and juvenile horses walking, trotting, and cantering (n = 828) to compare the angle of the nasal plane relative to vertical in feral and domestic horses at liberty (n = 450) with ridden horses advertised in a popular Australian horse magazine (n = 378). We assumed that horses in advertisements

Paul D. McGreevy; Alison Harman; Andrew McLean; Lesley Hawson

2010-01-01

124

External Parasites on Horses1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthropod parasites of horses include internal bots that infest the digestive tract, mites that burrow in the skin and feed on the skin surface, ticks that infest the ears as well as the skin, lice that either suck blood or feed on skin, blood sucking flies and mosquitoes that range in size from biting gnats just observable with the naked

P. E. Kaufman; P. G. Koehler; J. F. Butler

125

Syringohydromyelia in horses: 3 cases  

PubMed Central

Syringomyelia and hydromyelia are cavitary lesions of the spinal cord that may be acquired or congenital. These lesions are not frequently reported in large animal species. The presenting complaints, clinical, gross pathological, and histopathologic findings of 2 cases of syringomyelia and 1 case of hydromyelia in horses are described.

Sponseller, Brett A.; Sponseller, Beatrice T.; Alcott, Cody J.; Kline, Karen; Hostetter, Jesse; Reinertson, Eric L.; Fales-Williams, Amanda

2011-01-01

126

Adverse drug reactions in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in horses are rare but cause serious anxiety to patients, owners, and veterinarians when they occur and are frequently the reason for legal action against veterinarians. Although not every ADR can be prevented or predicted, equine practitioners should be aware of some of the most common or most serious reactions to frequently used drugs. The most

Patricia M. Dowling

2002-01-01

127

Age and growth of chub mackerel ( Xcomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas using sectioned otolith samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) is a primary pelagic fish species, we have only limited knowledge on its key life history processes. The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas. Age was determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercial purse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawning ground in May 2006. The difference between the assumed birth date of 1st April and date of capture was used to adjust the age determined from counting the number of complete translucent rings. The parameters of three commonly used growth models, the von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz models, were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion ( AIC), the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model. The size-at-age and size-at-maturity values were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s, which was caused by heavy exploitation over the last few decades.

Li, Gang; Chen, Xinjun; Feng, Bo

2008-11-01

128

Congenital ocular abnormalities of Rocky Mountain Horses.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and describe ocular abnormalities in a cross-section of the population of Rocky Mountain Horses. Design: Prospective study. Animals: Five-hundred and fourteen Rocky Mountain Horses. Procedure: Ophthalmic examinations were performed using a slit-lamp biomicroscope and an indirect ophthalmoscope. Intraocular pressures were measured by applanation tonometry. Eyes from six horses were obtained for histologic examination. RESULTS: Cysts of the posterior iris, ciliary body, and peripheral retina were detected most frequently (249 horses), and were always located temporally. Curvilinear streaks of retinal pigmented epithelium extending from the peripheral temporal retina marked the boundary of previous retinal detachment in 189 horses. Retinal dysplasia was detected in 125 horses. Multiple ocular anomalies were evident in 71 horses and were always bilateral and symmetrical. Affected eyes had a large, clear cornea that protruded excessively and had an apparent short radius of curvature, a deep anterior chamber, miotic and dyscoric pupil, and iris hypoplasia. Pupillary light responses were decreased or absent and pupils failed to dilate after repeated instillation of mydriatic drugs in horses with multiple ocular anomalies. Less frequently encountered abnormalities included peripheral iridocorneal adhesions and goniosynechiae. Congenital cataract was always present in eyes with multiple abnormalities. Intraocular pressures did not differ among horses with normal eyes and horses with multiple ocular abnormalities. Histologic examination of eyes corroborated the clinical appearance. PMID:11397242

Ramsey, D.T.; Ewart, S.L.; Render, J.A.; Cook, C.S.; Latimer, C.A.

1999-01-01

129

Changes in the Allergenicity during Different Preparations of Pomfret, Hilsa, Bhetki and Mackerel Fish as Illustrated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immunoblotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although the identification and characterization of several fish allergens have already been reported, there is almost no data on Indian fish allergens and the effect of thermal processing on their allergenicity. This study aimed at the evaluation of the changes in the level of allergenicity of 4 highly consumed Indian fishes, i.e. pomfret, hilsa, bhetki and mackerel, that occurred

U. Chatterjee; G. Mondal; P. Chakraborti; H. K. Patra; B. P. Chatterjee

2006-01-01

130

Reproductive biology of blue mackerel, Scomber australasicus , off southern and eastern Australia: suitability of the Daily Egg Production Method for stock assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the reproductive biology of blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) off southern and eastern Australia and assessed the suitability of the Daily Egg Production Method (DEPM) for future stock assessment. This analysis revealed that S. australasicus is a serial spawner with asynchronous oocyte development and indeterminate fecundity. S. australasicus spawns between November and April off southern Australia and

P. J. RogersA; T. M. WardA; L. J. McLeayA; M. LowryC; R. J. Saunders; D. Williams

2009-01-01

131

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...breeding, raising, and training of horses on farms for racing purposes...employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed...the feeding, care, and training of horses which have been used in...

2009-07-01

132

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...breeding, raising, and training of horses on farms for racing purposes...employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed...the feeding, care, and training of horses which have been used in...

2010-07-01

133

9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment information. 93...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities; payment information....

2010-01-01

134

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective...

2009-01-01

135

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective...

2010-01-01

136

9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment....

2010-01-01

137

9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment....

2009-01-01

138

9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities. 93.309 Section 93...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities. (a) Privately...

2009-01-01

139

Ocean's Alive!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the Museum of Science, Boston, the Ocean's Alive Web site takes a look into the fascinating world of oceans. The Water Planet link has information about the physical features of oceans, how they've been created, the water cycle, and ocean profiles. Other links explain ocean currents, winds and waves, tides, life in the sea, and scientists who study the oceans. The site contains good and easy-to-read descriptions, along with unique and interesting illustrations that make it fun to explore and a must-visit for users interested in the subject.

1998-01-01

140

Effect of trehalose on the gel-forming ability, state of water and myofibril denaturation of horse mackerel Trachurus japonicus surimi during frozen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryoprotective effects of trehalose on fish myofibrillar protein were compared with those of sucrose, glucose and sorbitol.\\u000a The frozen surimi with trehalose exhibited significantly higher Ca2+-ATPase activity through-out the storage periods, resulting in higher gel-forming ability than that of without trehalose.\\u000a The amount of unfrozen water was significantly increased in the surimi upon addition of trehalose at any concentrations

Kazufumi Osako; Mohammed Anwar Hossain; Koichi Kuwahara; Yukinori Nozaki

2005-01-01

141

Aortic root disease in four horses.  

PubMed

Clinical findings in 4 horses with aortic root disease are described. Three of the horses had aneurysms of the right aortic sinus, and in 2 of the 3, the aneurysm ruptured, creating a fistula between the aorta and right ventricle. One of these horses had had a murmur since birth, and the aortic sinus aneurysm may have been a congenital anomaly. In a second horse, the aneurysm may have been an acquired condition that developed secondary to chronic aortic regurgitation. Another horse had a large subendocardial hematoma associated with dissection of blood from the aorta to the interventricular septum because of a tear in the aortic root near the right aortic sinus. Ventricular ectopy and signs of abdominal pain were the most common initial signs in these horses. PMID:11518177

Sleeper, M M; Durando, M M; Miller, M; Habecker, P L; Reef, V B

2001-08-15

142

Behavioral and physiological responses of horses to initial training: the comparison between pastured versus stalled horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses kept in stalls are deprived of opportunities for social interactions, and the performance of natural behaviors is limited. Inadequate environmental conditions may compromise behavioral development. Initial training is a complex process and it is likely that the responses of horses may be affected by housing conditions. Sixteen 2-year-old Arabian horses were kept on pasture (P) (n=8) or in individual

E. Rivera; S. Benjamin; B. Nielsen; J. Shelle; A. J. Zanella

2002-01-01

143

Some nutritional problems of horses.  

PubMed

The effects of overfeeding, calcium-phosphorus imbalance, misuse of supplements and false advertising on equine nutrition are discussed. Overfeeding is known to cause disorders in several species but, although a similar relationship has been suggested on clinical evidence, no controlled trials on horses have been reported. It has also been suggested that overfeeding is a problem only for those horses with a genetic predisposition to skeletal problems. The importance of adequate calcium and phosphorus levels has been known for many years but severe cases of calcium deficiency still occur. Client education is important and should not be neglected. Excessive use of supplements containing high levels of trace minerals (eg, iodine and selenium) or fat soluble vitamins (eg, vitamin A and vitamin D) can be harmful. Some manufacturers advertise supplements in terms which may inadvertently or intentionally misrepresent their products. Supplements should, therefore, be selected carefully to ensure that they meet the particular requirements of the individual. PMID:7197619

Hintz, H F; Kallfelz, F A

1981-07-01

144

The horse–human dyad: Can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the recently completed equid ethogram and shows how analogues of social interactions between horses may occur in various human–horse interactions. It discusses how some specific horse–horse interactions have a corresponding horse–human interaction – some of which may be directly beneficial for the horse while others may be unusual or even abnormal. It also shows how correspondent behaviours

P. D. McGreevy; C. Oddie; F. L. Burton; A. N. McLean

2009-01-01

145

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

146

[Finding Setaria equina in horses].  

PubMed

For the first time findings of Setaria equina (Abildgaard, 1789) in horses are reported from the German Democratic Republic. The nematodes, located in the peritoneum, were discovered in the course of autopsy. Based on a thorough analysis of the international literature, the paper discusses geographical distribution, morphology, cycle and diagnosis of this nematode as well as clinical symptoms mainly caused by the stages of the larvae. PMID:2782665

Buchwalder, R; Schuster, R

1989-05-01

147

Ocean Terracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean

Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

2007-01-01

148

Generalized sarcoidosis in two horses.  

PubMed

Equine sarcoidosis is a rare disorder usually characterized by exfoliative dermatitis, moderate to severe wasting, and sarcoidal granulomatous inflammation of multiple organ systems. It has an unknown aetiopathogenesis. The condition is not related to equine sarcoid. This case report describes generalized cutaneous and systemic sarcoidosis in an 11-year-old Trakehner mare (case A) and in a 7-year-old Dutch Warmblood gelding (case B). Case A was presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis on the head and body and was diagnosed on the basis of histological examination of skin. Case B presented with multiple subcutaneous nodules (2-15 cm in diameter) and the diagnosis was established at postmortem examination. Both horses showed distinctive histology of the skin with extensive lymphohistiocytic infiltration and Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. Haematology and biochemistry revealed a normal total white blood cell count with a right shift in both horses. Case B was anaemic and had a slightly elevated total protein concentration with hyperglobulinaemia. Both horses were unresponsive to corticosteroids and were euthanized. PMID:18788186

Reijerkerk, E P R; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

2008-08-15

149

Radiation Preservation of Mackerel. Part of a Coordinated Programme on Radiation Preservation of Asian Fish and Fishery Products. Final Report for the Period 1 December 1975 - 31 July 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effect of irradiation on shelf-life extension of mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) stored at different temperatures was investigated. The microbial load in the unirradiated samples stored at both the temperatures reached the acceptability limit after 7 da...

A. M. Hussain M. Ashraf Chaudry

1979-01-01

150

Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of aragonite is 8.18 and 3.5). As a result of ocean fertilization, 10 years from now, the depth of saturation horizon (the depth below which ocean water is undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate) for aragonite in the Southern Ocean shoals from its present average value of about 700 m to 100 m. In contrast, no significant change in the depth of aragonite saturation horizontal is seen in the scenario without fertilization for the corresponding period. By year 2100, global mean calcite saturation horizon shoals from its present value of 3150 m to 2965 and 2534 m in the case without fertilization and with it. In contrast, if the sale of carbon credits from ocean fertilization leads to greater CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (e.g., if carbon credits from ocean fertilization are used to offset CO2 emissions from a coal plant), then there is the potential that ocean fertilization would further acidify the deep ocean without conferring any chemical benefit to surface ocean waters.

Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

2008-12-01

151

Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.  

PubMed

Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds. PMID:23706190

Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; L Castro, Paula M; E Pintado, Manuela

2013-04-10

152

Improvement of moistness and texture of high omega-3 fatty acid mackerel nuggets by inclusion of moisture-releasing ingredients.  

PubMed

In developing mince-based nugget products using mackerel, an abundant, underutilized, high omega-3 fatty acid species, attention was given to moistness and texture improvement with moisture-releasing ingredients. Three basic approaches were used: added water level variation (0 to 35%), varying added water-moisture-releasing vegetable combination (28/0, 21/7, 14/14, 7/21, 0/28), and varying milk-water combination (0/21, 7/14, 14/7, 21/0). Main ingredients of nugget included mackerel mince, mild cheddar cheese, and hydrated textured soy protein concentrate. The formulated products were molded, lightly battered, flash fried, and frozen until tested. Frozen nuggets were cooked to 65 degrees C and subjected to the Instron texture analysis (compressive force CF at 70% deformation, expressible fluid EF) and sensory analysis (firmness F, moistness M, overall desirability OD). The 28% added water, 7% moisture-releasing vegetable at 21% water, and 14:7 and 21:0 milk-water combinations were preferred (P < 0.05). Among the vegetables, onion and mushroom were preferred. Positive correlations were M-OD (r= 0.82), EF-OD (r= 0.54), and EF-M (r= 0.49), and negative correlations were F-OD (r=-0.83) and CF-OD (r=-0.34). Milk was more effective than water in rendering moistness and tender texture. The vegetable was effective in forming and making the cooked product moist with less liquid added by holding moisture release during forming and liquid cells after cooking. During warming under the lamps, the least decreases in sensory score, compressive force, and expressible fluid were observed in nuggets made with vegetable and milk. PMID:17995852

Lee, K H; Joaquin, H; Lee, C M

2007-03-01

153

Anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppressive anthelmintic treatment strategies originally designed to control Strongylus vulgaris in horses were extremely successful in reducing morbidity and mortality from parasitic dis- ease. Unfortunately, this strategy has inadvertently resulted in the selection of drug-resistant cyathostomes (Cyathostominea), which are now considered the principal parasitic pathogens of horses. Resistance in the cyathostomes to benzimidazole drugs is highly prevalent throughout the world,

Ray M. Kaplan

2002-01-01

154

Enteric neuropathy in horses with grass sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degeneration of enteric neurones has been recorded in grass sickness, but the distribution of the lesions in the gut and their possible relationship with the severity of the clinical signs has not been established. Samples obtained from 11 anatomically defined sites along the gastrointestinal tract of eight control horses without gastrointestinal disease, five horses with acute grass sickness and

SF Scholes; C Vaillant; P Peacock; GB Edwards; DF Kelly

1993-01-01

155

Stomach Ulcers and the Endurance Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of numerous surveys, conducted from the 1980s to present day suggest that gastric (stomach) ulcers are an ongoing and widespread problem for adult horses. Thoroughbreds in active race training were quickly identified as being a 'high risk' group, with the results of several published studies citing a prevalence of 80-90% within horses in training. Following on from these

David Marlin

156

Management of Feral Horses at the North  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral horse (Equus caballus L.) populations are found on properties managed by gov- ernmental agencies in western states, the Missouri Ozarks, and on several Atlantic coast barrier and estuarine islands. These animals are descendants of free-roaming horses introduced decades to centuries earlier. Public sentiment has influenced development of policies that have allowed the herds to remain. The North Carolina National

John B. Taggart

157

In vitro diazepam metabolism in horses.  

PubMed

There is little information about drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in horses. Therefore, it is necessary to characterize the profiles of drug metabolites for the safe use of drugs. In this study, we focused on cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), which represent an important enzyme group to determine pharmacological effects of drugs. We chose diazepam as the drug of choice for this study. The aim of this study was to elucidate the metabolic pathway of diazepam in horses in comparison with rats, and to clarify CYP subfamilies responsible for diazepam metabolism in horses. Our results showed temazepam was the major diazepam metabolite produced from microsomal reactions in horse liver, but horses produced drastically less p-hydroxydiazepam as compared with rats. Furthermore, CYP3A was a major contributor from the CYP subfamily of temazepam production. PMID:23631163

Hayami, Aki; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2013-02-01

158

Respiratory responses to exercise in the horse.  

PubMed

Horses are elite athletes when compared with other mammalian species. In the latter, performance is limited by cardiovascular or musculoskeletal performance whereas in athletic horses it is the respiratory system that appears to be rate limiting and virtually all horses exercising at high intensities become hypoxaemic and hypercapnoeic. This is due to both diffusion limitation and a level of ventilation inadequate for the metabolic level that enables horses to exercise at these intensities. In conjunction with these blood gas changes, total pulmonary resistance increases and the work of breathing rises exponentially and airflow eventually plateaus despite increases in inspiratory and expiratory intrapleural pressures. Horses breathe at comparatively high frequencies when galloping due to the tight 1:1 coupling of strides to breathing. Whether this effects gas exchange and, if so, to what extent, has not been fully elucidated. PMID:23106622

Franklin, S H; Van Erck-Westergren, E; Bayly, W M

2012-11-01

159

Behaviour of horses in the “round pen technique”  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the behavioural background of the way horses learn to follow humans in the “round pen technique” suggested by “horse whisperers” as a gentle method for initial horse training. Though the practicability of this technique has been adequately demonstrated in the past, the horses’ behaviour during such training has not yet been documented in detail. In a riding arena,

Konstanze Krueger

2007-01-01

160

Congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformations in the horse.  

PubMed

From a clinical, radiological and morphological study of 9 horses with congenital malformations of the occiput, atlas and axis, and from a study of 2 reported cases, 3 diseases were defined: A. Familial occipitalisation of the atlas with atlantalisation of the axis in Arabian horses (7 cases in this report and the case reported by Leipold, et al., 1974). These horses had congenital atlantooccipital fusion, hypoplasia of the atlas and dens, malformation of the axis and modification of the atlantoaxial joint. B. Congenital asymmetrical occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (2 cases in this report). A Standardbred and a Morgan horse had atlantooccipital fusion, a wedge shaped vertebral piece attached to the caudal end of the axis and sigmoid scoliosis of the cervical vertebrae. C. Asymmetrical atlantooccipital fusion (the case reported by Schmaltz, 1915). This horse of an unknown breed had asymmetrical fusion between the atlas and occiput and cervical scoliosis. The clinical syndromes shown by horses with these malformations were variable but were broadly classified as: 1. Foal dead at birth, seen in one foal with A. 2. Tetraparesis at birth, seen in 5 foals with A. These foals were born with signs varying from tetraparesis to tetraplegia. 3. Progressive ataxia, seen in 2 foals with A. Clinical signs were due to a progressive focal cervical compressive myelopathy. 4. Congenital cervical scoliosis/deviated head, seen in the 2 horses with B and the horse with C. These horses had no signs of spinal cord or brain disease. The diagnoses were made clinically by palpation of the occipitoatlantoaxial region and were confirmed radiographically and/or by post mortem examination in all except one case. Pedigree analysis showed the familial nature of the particular occipitoatlantoaxial malformation seen in horses of only the Arabian breed. PMID:565704

Mayhew, I G; Watson, A G; Heissan, J A

1978-04-01

161

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data â both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Lightle, Kimberly; Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-10-01

162

Ocean Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Ocean Planet_ is a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition that now has a companion on-line exhibition. It covers varied topics associated with the ocean, such as the science of the ocean, the animals, people, and communities who use the ocean, and pollution problems currently endangering ocean resources. The exhibit features all of the text and a good portion of the images from the traveling exhibit. The curator of this exhibit has put together six special interest tours including Biodiversity, Women and the Sea, and Pollution. Users can also build their own special tour from a list of key words. The current list contains only four words, but is expected to grow in the future. Visitors can also consult a comprehensive list of educational materials and ocean resources.

1995-01-01

163

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.  

PubMed

Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

Weese, J Scott

2004-12-01

164

Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results  

SciTech Connect

Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l'Ingegneria, Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy)

2008-01-24

165

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Cole, Ms.

2011-04-07

166

Conditions for the induction of some selective enzymes from Bacillus subtilis and their hydrolysis ability against mackerel and gracilar (asparagus, Gracilaria verrucosa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to optimize the cultivation conditions for Bacillus subtilis to produce proteases, amylases and cellulase, and to further investigate the hydrolysis ability against mackerel and asparagus.\\u000a The extracellular enzymes from B. subtilis after 2 and 4 days incubation in a modified medium, containing 1% skim milk, 1% soya meal, 0.25% starch, 0.25% K2HPO4, 0.5% NaCl and 0.05%

Li-Jung Yin; Pei-Chien Wu; Hsiu-Ho Cheung; Shann-Tzong Jiang

2007-01-01

167

Changes of radical-scavenging capacity and ferrous reducing power in chub mackerel Scomber japonicus and Pacific saury Cololabis saira during 4 °C storage and retorting  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the effects of freshness of raw fishes and boil-retort process on the antioxidant activities, we determined stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity and ferrous reducing power in the ethanol extract solution of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus and Pacific saury Cololabis saira meat before and after retort process (115°C for 80min). The antioxidant activities in boiled (mizu-ni) and canned fish

Takashi Kuda; Toshihiro Yano

2009-01-01

168

The Development of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Based Standardized Recipe and the Quality Assessment of Cook\\/chilled Soy Sauce Glazed Mackerel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soy sauce glazed mackerel is one of the frequently used menu items in Korean institutional foodservice operations and was selected as the test menu item for the study. Through experimental cooking, preliminary test, and the analysis of recipes, critical control points were identified and anHACCP-based recipe applicable to cook\\/chill system was standardized. The product flow of the item consisted of

T. Kwak; K. Lee; K. Ryu; E. Choi; H. Jang; S. Kim; W. Hong

1999-01-01

169

Effect of freeze-chilling, in comparison with fresh, chilling and freezing, on some quality parameters of raw whiting, mackerel and salmon portions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeze-chilling involves freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. It offers logistic benefits for fish packers as it enables packaged fillets to be held frozen and then released into the chill chain as required. Trials with whiting, mackerel and salmon fillets\\/portions indicated no difference in odour scores (raw samples) between freeze-chilled and chilled samples; however, freeze-chilled salmon

John D. Fagan; T. Ronan Gormley; Mary U?? Mhuircheartaigh

2003-01-01

170

Effects of turbidity on survival of larval ayu and red sea bream exposed to predation by jack mackerel and moon jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory experiments to examine the effects of turbidity on the survival of red sea bream Pagrus major and ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis larvae when exposed to either visual (jack mackerel juveniles) or tactile (moon jellyfish) predators. The experiments were\\u000a conducted in 30-l tanks with three different levels of turbidity obtained by dissolving 0, 50, or 300 ppm kaolin. Predators

Ryosuke Ohata; Reiji Masuda; Masahiro Ueno; Yuichi Fukunishi; Yoh Yamashita

2011-01-01

171

Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the genetic relationships among populations of scad mackerel (Decapterus macarellus, D. macrosoma, and D. russelli) in South-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic relationships among South-East Asian populations of the scad mackerels Decapterus macarellus, D. macrosoma and D. russelli (Pisces: Carangidae) were investigated. In 1995 and 1996, 216 fish were sampled in seven localities spanning the seas of\\u000a Indonesia and were examined for restriction-site polymorphisms using ten restriction enzymes for the mitochondrial (mt) DNA\\u000a control region, amplified by the polymerase chain-reaction.

S. Arnaud; F. Bonhomme; P. Borsa

1999-01-01

172

Effect of temperature on the swimming endurance and post-exercise recovery of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus as determined by ECG monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature on the swimming performance of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus was examined in a flume tank by measuring the swimming endurance time and heart rate. The lower swimming performance was\\u000a observed at 10°C (the lowest temperature tested), manifesting as the shortest endurance time and the slowest maximum sustained\\u000a speed. ECG measurements of the heart rate under free-swimming

Nofrizal; Kazutaka Yanase; Takafumi Arimoto

2009-01-01

173

Mackerel skin lipids as an unsaturated fat model system for the determination of antioxidative potency of TBHQ and other antioxidant compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  A comparative study on the activity of antioxidation of butylhydroxy anisole, (BHA), butylhydroxy toluene (BHT),tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), ?-tocopherol, and tempeh oil has been investigated by using the readily oxidizable mackerel skin\\u000a lipids as the tested model system. The oxidation rate of the tested lipids was mainly followed by measuring the weight gain,\\u000a but some peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and

P. J. Ke; D. M. Nash; R. G. Ackman

1977-01-01

174

Experimental Infection of Horses with Hendra Virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands  

PubMed Central

Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus harbored by Australian flying foxes with sporadic spillovers directly to horses. Although the mode and critical control points of HeV spillover to horses from flying foxes, and the risk for transmission from infected horses to other horses and humans, are poorly understood, we successfully established systemic HeV disease in 3 horses exposed to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands by the oronasal route, a plausible route for natural infection. In 2 of the 3 animals, HeV RNA was detected continually in nasal swabs from as early as 2 days postexposure, indicating that systemic spread of the virus may be preceded by local viral replication in the nasal cavity or nasopharynx. Our data suggest that a critical factor for reducing HeV exposure risk to humans includes early consideration of HeV in the differential diagnosis and institution of appropriate infection control procedures.

Haining, Jessica; Hancock, Timothy J.; Robinson, Rachel; Foord, Adam J.; Barr, Jennifer A.; Riddell, Shane; Heine, Hans G.; White, John R.; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Middleton, Deborah

2011-01-01

175

[Differentiation of domestic horse and Przewalskis horse using various DNA sequences].  

PubMed

The electrophoretic mobility of seven erythrocyte enzymes and spectra of fragments amplified by RAPD-PCR with primers UBC-85 and UBC-126 were comparatively analyzed in domestic horse and Przewalski's horse. All tested genetic markers were classified into two groups differing in their involvement in differentiation of the two closely related horse species. Markers from different groups differed neither in their type (a polymorphic protein or an amplification product) nor in their biochemical role (for enzymes). PMID:9749342

Glazko, V I; Zelenaia, L B

1998-07-01

176

and Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of electromagnetic induction within a hemispherical conducting sheet over a nonconductor and underlain by a concentric sphere of uniform conductivity is de- scribed. The theory is applied to the induction by Sq in a vast ocean. It is concluded that the electric currents induced in the ocean are considerably smaller than those estimated for a single hemispherical sheet,

TSUNEJI IIKITAKE

1961-01-01

177

Ocean eddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and empirical data for three classes of ocean eddies are summarized: 1) gigantic anticyclonic gyres; 2) meanders, rings, and synoptic eddies in the open ocean; and, 3) mesoscale eddies (lenses of foreign waters and rotating cells of forced convection). A number of new results obtained in the last few years are reported: linear and nonlinear instability of gigantic

A S Monin; G M Zhikharev

1990-01-01

178

Ocean Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast reports on ways to put ocean water to work doing everything from running steam engines and providing electricity to providing air conditioning and growing marine life and vegetables. After harnessing the power of the sea, the water is still clean and can be returned to the ocean. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

179

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

180

Ocean Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

Nasa

181

Pharmacokinetic assessment of ketanserin in the horse.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin in healthy adult horses, and to develop a computational model that could be used to optimize dosing. Plasma concentrations of ketanserin were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry after single and multiple intravenous administration in the horse. A two-compartment linear pharmacokinetic model described the plasma concentration-time profile of ketanserin after single and multiple doses in healthy horses; the terminal half-life was 11.5 h; steady-state volume of distribution was 10.5 L/kg; AUC was 115 ng · h/mL; and clearance was 0.87 L/h/kg. Model simulations followed by the examination in three healthy horses suggest 0.3 mg/kg q.8 h exhibited linear PK and produced consistent systemic blood concentrations of ketanserin above 3 ng/mL. PMID:22091605

Aljuffali, I A; Brainard, B M; Moore, J N; Kwon, S; Allen, D; Robertson, T P; Arnold, R D

2011-11-18

182

Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy in two young horses.  

PubMed

Two cases of temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO) in young Australian horses are described. The pathogenesis of THO is yet to be fully elucidated, but current theories include extension of infection from otitis media or interna to the temporohyoid joint or a primary but non-infectious degenerative condition within the temporohyoid joint. The young age of the horses and the unilateral distribution suggested an infectious aetiology. Both horses partially responded to treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drugs with concurrent management of ulcerative keratitis. The management of violent head shaking in one horse included the administration of gabapentin, an anticonvulsant known to have antihyperalgesic effects and reduce neuropathic pain. PMID:23614517

Readford, P K; Lester, G D; Secombe, C J

2013-03-11

183

Hungry Horse Selective Withdrawal Hydraulic Model Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of the Hungry Horse selective withdrawal hydraulic model study. The study was performed to evaluate the proposed selective withdrawal configurations and to provide operation and design information. Determination of addition...

J. Kubitschek

1994-01-01

184

Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C.

2012-11-01

185

Anaphylaxis as a Manifestation of Horse Allergy  

PubMed Central

Allergic disease induced by animal exposure is a common phenomenon worldwide. Whereas cat and dog dander exposure are well recognized as causative of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, and contact urticaria, horse allergy can present with anaphylaxis. Horse allergy is induced by exposure to the major horse allergens Equ 1 through 5. The severity of the symptoms may be related to the level of exposure. Greatest risk of anaphylaxis occurs in those sensitized patients who have large amounts of animal allergen exposure, such as when in a barn, or when an animal bite occurs exposing sensitized persons to large quantities of the animal allergen that resides in the saliva. Horse allergy may be successfully treated with allergen specific immunotherapy.

2009-01-01

186

Nonprimate Hepaciviruses in Domestic Horses, United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Although the origin of hepatitis C virus infections in humans remains undetermined, a close homolog of this virus, termed canine hepacivirus (CHV) and found in respiratory secretions of dogs, provides evidence for a wider distribution of hepaciviruses in mammals. We determined frequencies of active infection among dogs and other mammals in the United Kingdom. Samples from dogs (46 respiratory, 99 plasma, 45 autopsy samples) were CHV negative by PCR. Screening of 362 samples from cats, horses, donkeys, rodents, and pigs identified 3 (2%) positive samples from 142 horses. These samples were genetically divergent from CHV and nonprimate hepaciviruses that horses were infected with during 2012 in New York state, USA. Investigation of infected horses demonstrated nonprimate hepacivirus persistence, high viral loads in plasma (105–107 RNA copies/mL), and liver function test results usually within reference ranges, although several values ranged from high normal to mildly elevated. Disease associations and host range of nonprimate hepaciviruses warrant further investigation.

Lyons, Sinead; Kapoor, Amit; Sharp, Colin; Schneider, Bradley S.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Culshaw, Geoff; Corcoran, Brendan; McGorum, Bruce C.

2012-01-01

187

Cardiac arrest during anaesthesia in two horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unexpected cardiac arrest occurred in two horses during routine surgical anaesthesia. Both were successfully resuscitated. The aetiology of these occurrences and their possible relationship to second degree heart block is discussed.

RE Kellagher; GC Watney

1986-01-01

188

Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication  

PubMed Central

Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes) from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus) were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region) were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski) using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73%) already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the time depth of the domestic horse mtDNA gene pool.

2011-01-01

189

Periocular sarcoid in a horse.  

PubMed

A periocular nodular sarcoid of the right upper and lower eyelids was diagnosed in an 11-year-old Thoroughbred mare. Computed tomography scan revealed the extent of the tumor. The mass was surgically debulked under general anesthesia, and the affected periocular region was injected intralesionally with Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG). An emulsion of cell wall fractions was used, which has been modified to reduce the toxic and allergic effect, but retain the antitumor activity. In total, five injections were performed at 2-week intervals. At follow-up 7 months after the last BCG injection, the tumor was completely resolved. Two years after the last treatment, the horse remains tumor-free. PMID:15091319

Komáromy, András M; Andrew, Stacy E; Brooks, Dennis E; Detrisac, Carol J; Gelatt, Kirk N

190

Inertial properties of Dutch Warmblood horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete set of three-dimensional inertial properties (mass, density, contre of mass, inertial tensor) was determined in 26 segments of six Dutch Warmblood horses. The measurements were performed with frozen segments similar to the procedure described by Lephart (1984, J. Biomechanics17, 537–543). Based on these data linear regression models were developed for the estimation of inertial properties in living horses.The

H. H. F. Buchner; H. H. C. M. Savelberg; H. C. Schamhardt; A. Barneveld

1997-01-01

191

A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of 19 ataxic horses admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Montreal during the period of January 1985 to December 1988 is presented. There were 11 cases of cervical vertebral malformation, four of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, two of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, one each of vertebral osteomyelitis and intervertebral disc protrusion. The clinical diagnosis of ataxia in horses requires neurological, radiographic, myelographic, and laboratory examinations. PMID:17423438

Nappert, G; Vrins, A; Breton, L; Beauregard, M

1989-10-01

192

A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study of 19 ataxic horses admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Montreal during the period of January 1985 to December 1988 is presented. There were 11 cases of cervical vertebral malformation, four of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, two of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, one each of vertebral osteomyelitis and intervertebral disc protrusion. The clinical diagnosis of ataxia in horses requires neurological, radiographic, myelographic, and laboratory examinations. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.

Nappert, Germain; Vrins, Andre; Breton, Luc; Beauregard, Michel

1989-01-01

193

Oceanic Tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomena of tides are a matter of common experience: ocean tides under the influence of the Moon and the Sun, differences of the surface level of the oceans reaching several meters, following well-established cycles. In the present chapter we propose a first step in the general and classical mathematical formulations of the tidal potential and tidal force. Then we apply this formulation to the concrete case of the lunisolar ocean tides at a given point of the surface of the sea. At the end we give a review of various tidal manifestations all around the world.

Simon, Bernard; Lemaitre, Anne; Souchay, Jean

194

Earth's Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides a good introduction to the structure of the ocean. Included are excellent graphics and text about patterns of ocean salinity and temperature with depth, as well as surface currents, deep ocean circulation and even the water cycle. Extensive in-text links provide the means for users to explore the content in an open-ended fashion, although some might find the lack of any obvious top-level navigation to be disorienting.

2008-01-01

195

Identification of copy number variants in horses.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds. PMID:22383489

Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazey, Kylee; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V

2012-03-01

196

Identification of copy number variants in horses  

PubMed Central

Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E.; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V.

2012-01-01

197

Pharmacokinetics and safety of silibinin in horses.  

PubMed

Objective-To determine the oral bioavailability, single and multidose pharmacokinetics, and safety of silibinin, a milk thistle derivative, in healthy horses. Animals-9 healthy horses. Procedures-Horses were initially administered silibinin IV and silibinin phospholipid orally in feed and via nasogastric tube. Five horses then consumed increasing orally administered doses of silibinin phospholipid during 4 nonconsecutive weeks (0 mg/kg, 6.5 mg/kg, 13 mg/kg, and 26 mg/kg of body weight, twice daily for 7 days each week). Results-Bioavailability of orally administered silibinin phospholipid was 0.6% PO in feed and 2.9% via nasogastric tube. During the multidose phase, silibinin had nonlinear pharmacokinetics. Despite this, silibinin did not accumulate when given twice daily for 7 days at the evaluated doses. Dose-limiting toxicosis was not observed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Silibinin phospholipid was safe, although poorly bio-available, in horses. Further study is indicated in horses with hepatic disease. PMID:24066917

Hackett, Eileen S; Mama, Khursheed R; Twedt, David C; Gustafson, Daniel L

2013-10-01

198

Future Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

199

Comparative Studies on the Allergens of Horse Dandruff and Horse Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum albumin was found to be an important allergen in horse epithelia extracts. The albumin concentration varied considerably, depending on the raw material used for the preparation of the allergen extracts. In addition to serum albumin, two allergenic proteins were demonstrated in horse dandruff. The molecular weights of these allergens were calculated to be about 38,000 and 22,000, respectively. The

G. Ponterius; R. Brandt; E. Hultén; L. Yman

1973-01-01

200

Boots on Horses: Limb Protection or Hyperflexion Training Aids in the Showjumping Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Showjumping riders regularly employ various schooling strategies to control the horse's jump stride kinematics (JSK). Strategies include plyometric training regimes with fences of different heights and widths set at specific distances. Gymnastic grids teach the horse to jump cleanly. Rapping, once used almost routinely, is no longer in vogue. However, the use of performance enhancing (PE) boots on the distal

Jack Murphy

2008-01-01

201

Ocean Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy reference list has 12 kid-friendly books on marine biology. A short description is given for each title, along with author name and publisher. The list includes illustrated looks at ocean habitats, marine life, and more, hands-on activities and experiments that build kids' scientific observation skills along with their marine biology knowledge and puzzle and coloring books that offer creative ways to introduce kids to ocean life.

202

Changes in urocanic acid, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels in Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage at different temperatures.  

PubMed

Histamine, putrescine cadaverine and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) have all been implicated or suggested in scombroid fish poisoning. However, there is little information on UCA especially during storage. Changes in their contents during storage of whole Indian mackerel at 0, 3±1, 10±1 for up to 15 days and 23±2°C for up to 2 days were monitored. Fresh muscles contained 14.83 mg/kg trans-UCA, 2.23 mg/kg cis-UCA and 1.86 mg/kg cadaverine. Histamine and putrescine were not detected. After 15 days at 0 and 3°C, trans-UCA content increased to 52.83 and 189.51 mg/kg, respectively, and decreased to <2 mg/kg at the other two temperatures. Storage at 10°C also resulted in an increase in trans-UCA after 3 days, only to decrease after 6 days. The concentration of cis-UCA increased nearly 13-fold after 15 days at 0 and 3°C, decreased at 10°C and remained unchanged at 23°C. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels increased significantly (P value<0.05) at all temperatures especially at 23°C. PMID:23561112

Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

2012-12-29

203

23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL AT LEFT, RIGHT (OR NORTH) SPILLWAY, HEFU POWER UNIT, AND ORIGINAL POWER PLANT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

204

36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

205

Detail, drivethrough under hoppers, view to southeast. Hungry Horse ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, drive-through under hoppers, view to southeast. - Hungry Horse Village, Timber Sand Bunker, Approximately 1 mile south of Highway 2 East & 1/4 mile east of Colorado Boulevard, Hungry Horse, Flathead County, MT

206

1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; U.S. Highway 58 (toward Martinsville) is in the foreground - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

207

Context with Building 18, view to northwest. Hungry Horse ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Context with Building 18, view to northwest. - Hungry Horse Village, Maintenance Shop, Approximately 1 mile south of Highway 2 East & 1/4 mile east of Colorado Boulevard, Hungry Horse, Flathead County, MT

208

20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

209

Rupture of the peroneus tertius tendon in 27 horses  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing the outcome and prognosis of rupture of the tendon of the peroneus tertius muscle in 27 horses. Information on history, physical examination findings, diagnosis, treatment, and final outcome was summarized from medical records. Long-term follow-up information on horses was obtained by telephone survey. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to analyze factors influencing the outcome. Rupture occurred in the midbody of the tendon in 11 horses, at the insertion site in 11 horses, and at the origin in 2 horses. Overall, 18/23 (78.3%) horses returned to their previous level of exercise, 5/23 (21.7%) horses were euthanized due to persistent lameness. If the horse was racing at the time of injury or had an additional structure injured besides the peroneus tertius tendon, it was less likely to return to its intended use.

2005-01-01

210

A Hypoderma diana (Diptera: Hypodermatidae) infection in a horse.  

PubMed

An infection with second-stage larvae of the warble-fly H. diana in a horse is described. The second-stage larvae were incapable of developing into the third stage, because horses are unsuitable hosts and because the infected horse was treated with an insecticide. Since the horse was used for dragging trees in the forests, the infection was likely contracted via contact with H. diana, a normal parasite of roe deer in the Netherlands. PMID:2718349

Hendrikx, W M; Jansen, J; de Vries, T J

1989-01-01

211

Pathomorphological study on gastroduodenal ulceration in horses: localisation of lesions.  

PubMed

Gastroduodenal ulceration is a prevalent disease in foals and adult horses. Decreased performance as well as fatal complications relate to this syndrome. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of gastric ulceration in a mixed population of horses by postmortem examination and to evaluate a possible association between equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) and sex or age of the examined horses, to evaluate the localisation of lesions in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract and to determine the occurrence of gastric parasites. Postmortem examinations were performed on 71 horses over a period of 24 months. Gastric ulcers were found in 52 horses (73.2%). There was no significant association between age or sex and occurrence of gastric ulcers. In all horses the squamous mucosa lesions were localised near the margo plicatus (100% of the cases), whereas in 23 horses the lesions were near the margo plicatus and lesser curvature and in 7 horses at the greater curvature. In 18 horses the mucosa was affected in the whole extent of the margo plicatus and in 1 horse diffuse lesions of the squamous mucosa were noted. Lesions of the glandular mucosa were localised in 11 horses at the fundic area, in 1 horse they occurred in the pylorus, and in 10 horses diffuse lesions of the glandular mucosa were recorded. A low prevalence of Gasterophilus intestinalis infection was detected (1 horse, 1.4%). We have confirmed that gastric ulcers are a common problem in horses and duodenal or oesophageal ulceration is rare (not a single case of the latter was found in this study). Lesions in the glandular mucosa of the stomach are more frequent in suckling foals than in older animals. Lesions of the glandular mucosa are also common in adult horses, and a complete gastroscopic examination including examination of the pylorus is advisable to evaluate this syndrome. PMID:17555289

Bezdekova, Barbora; Jahn, P; Vyskocil, M

2007-06-01

212

Complications associated with Streptococcus equi infection on a horse farm.  

PubMed

Complications associated with Streptococcus equi infection developed in 15 (20.3%) of 74 horses on one farm included death, guttural pouch empyema, purpura hemorrhagica, upper respiratory tract obstruction, pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, agalactia, mesenteric lymph node abscessation, and periorbital abscessation. Death was attributed to pneumonia in 3 horses and to upper respiratory tract obstruction in 2 horses. One horse was euthanatized because of severe purpura hemorrhagica. PMID:3692991

Sweeney, C R; Whitlock, R H; Meirs, D A; Whitehead, S C; Barningham, S O

1987-12-01

213

Highly athletic terrestrial mammals: horses and dogs.  

PubMed

Evolutionary forces drive beneficial adaptations in response to a complex array of environmental conditions. In contrast, over several millennia, humans have been so enamored by the running/athletic prowess of horses and dogs that they have sculpted their anatomy and physiology based solely upon running speed. Thus, through hundreds of generations, those structural and functional traits crucial for running fast have been optimized. Central among these traits is the capacity to uptake, transport and utilize oxygen at spectacular rates. Moreover, the coupling of the key systems--pulmonary-cardiovascular-muscular is so exquisitely tuned in horses and dogs that oxygen uptake response kinetics evidence little inertia as the animal transitions from rest to exercise. These fast oxygen uptake kinetics minimize Intramyocyte perturbations that can limit exercise tolerance. For the physiologist, study of horses and dogs allows investigation not only of a broader range of oxidative function than available in humans, but explores the very limits of mammalian biological adaptability. Specifically, the unparalleled equine cardiovascular and muscular systems can transport and utilize more oxygen than the lungs can supply. Two consequences of this situation, particularly in the horse, are profound exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia as well as structural failure of the delicate blood-gas barrier causing pulmonary hemorrhage and, in the extreme, overt epistaxis. This chapter compares and contrasts horses and dogs with humans with respect to the structural and functional features that enable these extraordinary mammals to support their prodigious oxidative and therefore athletic capabilities. PMID:23737162

Poole, David C; Erickson, Howard H

2011-01-01

214

FIELD STUDY OF HOOF WALL PROBLEMS IN UNSHOD WORKING HORSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 100 native breed unshod working horses was examined for hoof wall problems. The diagnosis of hoof wall defects was performed by close visual observation and via physical examina- tion. The location, extent and types of defects were then determined and recorded. Out of 100 horses, 124 hoof wall defects were noted in ninety working horses. The number

A. S. BIGHAM; A. N. TABATABAEI

215

Safety and storage stability of horse meat for human consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most horse meat is consumed by humans and\\/or animals in the region where it is produced. However, horse meat for human consumption is exported in large quantities from the Americas and in lesser quantities from Eastern Europe, to Western Europe and Japan where it is often eaten raw. Horse meat prepared to a good hygienic condition should not be prone

C. O. Gill

2005-01-01

216

The Origins of Iberian Horses Assessed via Mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a number of recent studies that have focused on the origin of domestic horses, genetic relationships between major geographical clusters still remain poorly understood. In this study we analyzed a 296 bp mtDNA fragment from the HVI region of 171 horses representing 11 native Iberian, Barb, and Exmoor breeds to assess the maternal phylogeography of Iberian horses. The mtDNA

L. J. Royo; I. ALVAREZ; A. BEJA-PEREIRA; A. MOLINA; I. FERNANDEZ; J. JORDANA; E. GOMEZ; J. P. GUTIERREZ; F. GOYACHE

2005-01-01

217

Growth optimal investment in horse race markets with costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate the problem of growth optimal investment in horse race markets with proportional costs and study growth optimal strategies both for stochastic horse races as well as races where one does not make any distributional assumptions. Our results extend all known results for frictionless horse race markets to their natural analog in markets with costs

Garud N. Iyengar; Thomas M. Cover

2000-01-01

218

Growth Rates in Thoroughbred Horses Raised in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryGrowth rates of thoroughbred horses are not as well defined as those of other farm animals, and only a few articles summarize growth of thoroughbred horses over a prolonged period. Body weight (BW), heart girth (HG), wither height (WH), body length (BL), and hip height (HH) of 128 thoroughbred horses (59 colts and 69 fillies) were recorded from birth to

A. N Kavazis; E. A Ott

2003-01-01

219

Horse soleus muscle: Postural sensor or vestigial structure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soleus muscle of horses is rather diminutive with respect to the overall size of adjacent synergist muscles in the hind limb of the horse. Whether or not such a muscle might be vestigial or may be providing some essential function has not been determined. We have studied the horse's sol- eus muscle using histochemical (ATPase), immunocytochemical (myosin iso- form

Ron A. Meyers; John W. Hermanson

2006-01-01

220

Predator odour per se does not frighten domestic horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses frequently react nervously when passing animal production farms and other places with distinctive smells, leading riders to believe that horses are innately frightened by certain odours. In three experiments, we investigated how horses respond to (1) urine from wolves and lions, (2) blood from slaughtered conspecifics and fur-derived wolf odour, and (3) a sudden auditory stimulus in either presence

Janne Winther Christensen; Margareta Rundgren

2008-01-01

221

Changes in blood constituents accompanying exercise in polo horses.  

PubMed

There have been several studies of biochemical changes in horses doing intense exercise such as Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses and in horses performing exercise over a long period of time such as endurance horses and three-day eventing horses, but we are not aware of studies with polo horses. Blood samples were taken from 18 polo horses at rest, immediately after playing 2 chukkers of indoor polo, and after a 15 minute rest period. Each horse was studied at 2 different games. The blood samples were analyzed for lactic acid, protein, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, HCO-3, PCO2, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and pH. Samples taken immediately after playing polo had significant increases in lactic acid, protein, sodium, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and pH, and significant decreases in chloride, calcium, PCO2, and HCO-3. Pulse and respiration were significantly increased. After a 15 minute rest period, there was a significant decrease in potassium. The HCO-3 was lower immediately after playing, but was above the resting value after 15 minutes. It was concluded that the changes after exercise are similar in some aspects to those reported for horses performing intense exercise such as racehorses, and in some aspects to those reported for horses performing prolonged exercise such as three-day event horses and endurance horses. Horses playing indoor polo develop a high plasma lactic acid, but with alkalemia, and could be used as a model to study this condition. PMID:3921311

Craig, L; Hintz, H F; Soderholm, L V; Shaw, K L; Schryver, H F

1985-04-01

222

Prevalence of gastric ulcers in endurance horses – a preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric endoscopy was performed at the end of a 50 or 80 km endurance ride. Gastric ulceration was evident in 67% of the horses with ulcers on the squamous region of the stomach found in 57% of the horses and active bleeding of the glandular mucosa in 27%. Three horses (10%) had lesions only on the glandular mucosa. Values of

Jorge E Nieto; Jack R Snyder; Pablo Beldomenico; Monica Aleman; James W Kerr; Sharon J Spier

2004-01-01

223

9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93.317 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

2010-01-01

224

9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93.317 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

2009-01-01

225

Lesions of Experimental Equine Morbillivirus Pneumonia in Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory examinations of equine morbillivirus included experimental reproductions of the dis- ease caused by the virus by transmission of mixed lung and spleen taken from two field equine cases into two horses and by inoculating tissue culture virus into a further two horses. The most distinctive gross lesions of the diseases that developed in three of the horses was that

P. T. Hooper; P. J. Ketterer; A. D. Hyatt; G. M. Russell

1997-01-01

226

Ocean data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is keeping pace with the emerging information society by offering a host of oceanographic information and charts via a new automated fax service. Scientists, fishermen, students, sailors, and mariners will now be able to dial a 24-hour service—900-28-CHART—to obtain 15 different analysis charts that detail sea surface temperatures and surface current speed and direction, for example. The analyses will be available at both high and low resolution for various regions of the coastal United States, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The charge will be $1.50 per minute, with charts taking 2-4 min to transmit. NOAA's Ocean Products Center will also offer technical assistance to interpret the fax charts. A staff oceanographer may be reached by calling 900-288-HELP between 2:30 and 4:30 p.m. EST, Monday through Friday. The charge is $3.00 a minute.

227

Histamine inhalation challenge in normal horses and in horses with small airway disease.  

PubMed Central

A histamine inhalation challenge (HIC) procedure was developed to assess hyperreactive states in horses. Following clinical evaluation, percutaneous lung biopsies were performed on nine light breed mares aged 6 to 15 years. Five horses, with normal small airways, were classified as group A and four subjects with small airway disease (SAD) lesions formed group B. Pulmonary mechanics parameters were monitored following an aerosol of 0.9% saline and every 5 min for up to 30 min after HIC with 0.5% w/v of histamine diphosphate, administered through a face mask for 2.5 min. Tidal volume (VT) and airflow (V) values were obtained with a pneumotachograph. Transpulmonary pressure (delta Ppl) was measured by the esophageal balloon catheter method. Dynamic compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (RL), end expiratory work of breathing (EEW) and respiratory rate (f) were calculated by a pulmonary mechanics computer. Group A horses had increases in RL, and decreases in Cdyn whereas horses in group B were hyperreactive and showed greater changes in EEW, Cdyn, and delta Ppl but with a relatively lower variation of RL. One horse in clinical remission from SAD, but with a high biopsy score (group B), and one clinically normal horse belonging to group A showed marked hyperreactivity as shown by increases in EEW, maximum change in delta Ppl and RL and decreases in Cdyn. These results suggest that the HIC described can be used as a method to investigate airway hyperreactivity and SAD in horses. Images Fig. 1.

Doucet, M Y; Vrins, A A; Ford-Hutchinson, A W

1991-01-01

228

Understanding Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on oceans currents and their effects. Students do a lab activity to show that temperature is what causes ocean currents. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

Cahill, Mary

229

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

Osis, Vicki

230

Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum) toxicity in horses.  

PubMed

The clinical signs and pathology of 6 field cases of a respiratory disease of horses which occurs in the coastal hinterland of south-eastern Queensland are described. The condition has occurred for many years and has been thought to have been associated with ingestion of Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum). Coughing, rapid heaving respiration, decreased exercise tolerance and loss of condition were seen in affected horses. In longstanding cases fibrosis, alveolar lining cell proliferation, oedema, neutrophil infiltration and abscessation were seen. In some cases vascular thrombosis and infarction occur in the lungs. Similar signs and lesions occurred in one horse fed E. adenophorum for 8 months and early lesions in another fed the flowering stage of the plant for about 6 weeks. Lesions also developed in 2 rabbits experimentally fed the plant, but not in sheep or rats. PMID:571272

O'Sullivan, B M

1979-01-01

231

Monensin poisoning in horses -- an international incident  

PubMed Central

Several hundred Michigan horses were accidentally exposed to varying levels of monensin. Severity of effects was proportional to the level of feed contamination; sudden death resulted on at least two premises. Acute signs of cardiovascular impairment occurred on one premises having received feed containing over 200 grams of monensin per tonne. Gross and histological postmortem lesions consisted of acute myocardial necrosis. Although only circumstantially confirmed, investigations led to the suspicion that the source of poisoning was a ration formulation error in a feedmill in southwestern Ontario. Concern over possible undetected heart damage in exposed horses led to clinical monitoring on one farm over a period of several months. Electrocardiographic and serum enzyme monitoring were used soon after the incident to implicate exposure in some horses; they were poor prognostic indicators. Applicable legislation, the cooperative role of government departments, and legal implications relative to potential prosecution and lawsuits arising from sale of contaminated feed between Canada and the USA are summarized.

Doonan, Gordon R.; Brown, Christopher M.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Brooks, David B.; Ulmanis, Eugene G.; Slanker, Michael R.

1989-01-01

232

Conjunctival malignant melanoma in a horse.  

PubMed

A case of malignant melanoma originating from the conjunctiva of a horse is reported. The tumor exhibited locally aggressive behavior as evidenced clinically by recurrence following two treatment episodes including surgical excision on each occasion and one application of cryotherapy. The orbit was subsequently exenterated and histologically malignant conjunctival melanoma was confirmed. Histopathologic features included variable pigmentation with amelanotic sites demonstrating marked cellular and nuclear pleomorphism with high numbers of mitotic figures. Cords of neoplastic cells invaded the sclera and cornea. Following exenteration, the horse exhibited no recurrence of the tumor for five years before being lost to follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of primary malignant conjunctival melanoma in a horse. PMID:11397303

Moore, C.P.; Collins, B.K.; Linton, L.L.; Collier, L.L.

2000-01-01

233

Occurrence of Borrelia lusitaniae infection in horses.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infection in horses exposed to heavy tick infestations. Blood samples of 98 healthy horses from 5 stud farms were examined by SNAP(®) 4D× and PCR to detect antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. and Borrelia DNA, respectively. Ten samples (15.3%) were antibody positive and 5 samples (5.1%) were both antibody and PCR positive. Sequence analysis showed the highest homology with the B. lusitaniae genospecies. No differences were found between sexes and stud farms, while age was significantly related to seropositivity (p<0.05). Our data confirms the presence of B. lusitaniae infection in horses, previously not clearly demonstrated. PMID:22789679

Veronesi, Fabrizia; Laus, Fulvio; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Tesei, Beniamino; Piergili Fioretti, Daniela; Genchi, Claudio

2012-06-27

234

Y-Chromosome Analysis in Retuertas Horses  

PubMed Central

Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects.

Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Backstrom, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

2013-01-01

235

Ocean Acoustics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main element of this final report is a discussion of the development of the trace method for determining the acoustic properties of the ocean bottom sediments and basement. In addition a method is reported for the uniform determination of the continuo...

D. Stickler

1984-01-01

236

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

237

The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)|

Broecker, Wallace S.

1983-01-01

238

Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students choose shell fragments from different species of Molluscs and calculate percent lose after soaking in different ph solutions for different periods of time. They research ocean acidification and especially local events off the Oregon coast to apply to this activity.

Bown, Jennifer

239

Ocean Circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH no mathematician, and only an amateur in physics, it appears to me that the difficulties and objections of Mr. Croll on this subject may be obviated, and the whole question elucidated by a reference to the admitted facts, and a common sense interpretation of them. And first, as to the fact that the surface water of the Atlantic Ocean,

Alfred R. Wallace

1872-01-01

240

Dissecting aortic aneurysm in a horse.  

PubMed

A case of dissecting aortic aneurysm in a 4-year-old male thoroughbred horse is reported. The horse had a history of inflammation in the right thigh and a fever 2 weeks before sudden death. At necropsy, aortic aneurysms were observed from the aortic valve to the aortic arch, spreading over a distance of 40 cm. An irregular rupture of the intima of the ascending aorta was located in the cardiac side of a ramification to the tunica branchiocephalicus communis. An intramural haematoma, apparent on the cut surface and in the pericardium, had caused cardiac tamponade and sudden death. PMID:10213675

Shirai, W; Momotani, E; Sato, T; Kashima, T; Saito, T; Itoi, Y

1999-04-01

241

Induced juglone toxicosis in ponies and horses.  

PubMed

Juglone, a toxic compound found in all parts of plants of the walnut tree family Jugans, was evaluated as the possible toxin involved in black walnut shaving-associated laminitis in the horse. Large amounts (up to 1 g) of this chemical administered per os inconsistently caused mild signs of laminitis in ponies. Topical application of juglone to the digits of horses caused local skin irritation but did not cause laminitis. Intravenous administration of juglone caused acute pulmonary edema in some individuals previously exposed to the compound per os or IV. PMID:7436086

True, R G; Lowe, J E

1980-06-01

242

Delayed monensin sodium toxicity in horses.  

PubMed

Thirty-two horses were examined with a history of poor performance and unthriftiness several months after the ingestion of feed containing monensin sodium. Cardiac abnormality was diagnosed in 8 cases and suspected in 4 others. Necropsy examinations were performed on 6 cases with marked clinical symptoms and evidence of circulatory failure was found. Marked cardiac myopathy and fibrosis was a consistent feature. It is concluded that ingestion of monensin sodium by horses may cause either acute death or delayed cardiac circulatory failure as a result of specific cardiac myodegeneration. PMID:7250099

Muylle, E; Vandenhende, C; Oyaert, W; Thoonen, H; Vlaeminck, K

1981-04-01

243

European domestic horses originated in two holocene refugia.  

PubMed

The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both. PMID:21479181

Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim A; Cañon, Javier; Cothran, Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Glowatzki-Mullis, Marie-Louise; Hunt, Harriet; Luís, Cristina; do Mar Oom, Maria; Yupanqui, Isabel Tupac; Z?bek, Tomasz; Manica, Andrea

2011-03-30

244

Human facial discrimination in horses: can they tell us apart?  

PubMed

The human-horse relationship has a long evolutionary history. Horses continue to play a pivotal role in the lives of humans and it is common for humans to think their horses recognize them by face. If a horse can distinguish his/her human companion from other humans, then evolution has supplied the horse with a very adaptive cognitive ability. The current study used operant conditioning trials to examine whether horses could discriminate photographed human faces and transfer this facial recognition ability a novel setting. The results indicated the horses (a) learned to discriminate photographs of the unrelated individuals, fraternal twins, and identical twins and (b) demonstrated transfer of facial recognition by spending more time with their S+ woman in the field test. PMID:19533185

Stone, Sherril M

2009-06-17

245

Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention Without Compromising Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

246

Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention without Compromising Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

247

Long-Term Retrospective Analysis of Mackerel Spawning in the North Sea: A New Time Series and Modeling Approach to CPR Data  

PubMed Central

We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock.

Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Payne, Mark; Edwards, Martin; Schrum, Corinna; Pitois, Sophie

2012-01-01

248

A survey on the feeding of eventing horses during competition.  

PubMed

This study aims at the comparison of the actual feeding of horses with the recommendations from the literature, and it studies the effects of feeding and exercise on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from 25 horses during one-star eventing competitions and evaluated for blood glucose, insulin, lactate, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Questionnaires on the feeding practices of the horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training, and on tournament days, horses received on average 4.3 kg of concentrate per day (min. 1.54 kg, max. 8 kg). The statistical analysis showed no significant effect of the amount of concentrate fed before exercise on the measured blood values. Oil was supplied as a supplementary energy source to 30% of the horses, but most of them only received very small quantities (0.02-0.4 l/day). Five horses (20%) had no access to salt supplements at all, and eleven horses (45%) had no access to salt on tournament days. Fifteen horses (60%) were supplied with mineral feed. Twenty-one horses (84%) had daily access to pasture during the training period. During competition, 55% of the horses received roughage ad libitum, compared with 37% during training. The majority of the horses received less roughage on days before the cross-country competition. It could not be ascertained whether feeding a large amounts of roughage had a beneficial effect on performance, because only a few horses in this study were fed with very restrictive roughage. Feeding of most of the horses was in agreement with the recommendations from the literature, except the need for sodium and chloride. The sodium and chloride need for sport horses may be overestimated in literature and needs to be re-evaluated. PMID:22809115

Brunner, J; Wichert, B; Burger, D; von Peinen, K; Liesegang, A

2012-07-19

249

Ocean models and the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Ocean, because of its size and remoteness, has proved to be one of the most difficult oceans for the experimentalists to study and understand. Partly as a result of this, it has also been the ocean where large-scale ocean models have made some of the most interesting and useful contributions. In this review talk I aim to review

D. J. Webb

2003-01-01

250

Group housing exerts a positive effect on the behaviour of young horses during training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experiment on the effects of social environment and training on the human–animal relationship, 20 horses were handled according to a defined schedule. Eight horses were housed singly and 12 horses were housed in four groups of 3 horses. Horses were handled three times per week in 10min sessions from an age of 6 months until 2 years of

E Søndergaard; J Ladewig

2004-01-01

251

Traumatic foot injuries in horses: surgical management.  

PubMed

Managing traumatic foot wounds in horses may require surgical intervention. These wounds include coronary-band and heel-bulb lacerations, septic pedal osteitis, septic navicular bursitis, sepsis of the collateral cartilages, and hoof-wall injuries. This article provides a practical overview of the surgical management of these types of wounds. PMID:23532730

Burba, Daniel J

2013-01-01

252

Horse Training and Management: Program of Excellence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report on Lamar Community College's Horse Training and Management (HTM) program assesses the quality of the educational experience provided by the program, the quality of the faculty and students, institutional financial commitment to the program, contribution of the HTM program to state and local economic development, and external funding…

Lane, Marvin

253

Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

Symington, Ashley

2012-01-01

254

Electrochemotherapy of horses. A preliminary clinical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcoids are skin spontaneous tumours detected in horses. It can be cured by chemotherapy by using cisplatin. A multisequence treatment must be performed. Problems are present due to the poor diffusion of the hydrophilic product in the tumours. Electropulsation is known to drastically enhance the effect of antitumoral drugs in vivo. Taking into account the very successful results of the

M. P Rols; Y Tamzali; J Teissié

2002-01-01

255

Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

Symington, Ashley

2012-01-01

256

Widespread Origins of Domestic Horse Lineages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestication entails control of wild species and is generally regarded as a complex process confined to a restricted area and culture. Previous DNA sequence analyses of several domestic species have suggested only a limited number of origination events. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of 191 domestic horses and found a high diversity of matrilines. Sequence analysis of

Carles Vilà; Jennifer A. Leonard; Anders Götherström; Stefan Marklund; Kaj Sandberg; Kerstin Lidén; Robert K. Wayne; Hans Ellegren

2001-01-01

257

A Study of Horse Racing in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expansion of horse racing in California would serve to benefit horsemen through an increase in purse opportunities, facilitate the maximization of state revenues by increasing the size of the handle on which license fees are based, and provide for indi...

R. M. Bell R. L. Harris B. P. Donnelly

1977-01-01

258

Probability models on horse-race outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of models have been examined for modelling probability based on rankings. Most prominent among these are the gamma and normal probability models. The accuracy of these models in predicting the outcomes of horse races is investigated in this paper. The parameters of these models are estimated by the maximum likelihood method, using the information on win pool fractions.

MUKHTAR M. ALI

1998-01-01

259

Modern Riding Style Improves Horse Racing Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

When animals carry loads, there is a proportionate increase in metabolic cost, and in humans this increase in cost is reduced when the load is elastically coupled to the load bearer. Major horse race times and records improved by 5 to 7% around 1900 when jockeys adopted a crouched posture. We show that jockeys move to isolate themselves from the

Thilo Pfau; Andrew Spence; Sandra Starke; Marta Ferrari; Alan Wilson

2009-01-01

260

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses.  

PubMed

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introduced in a small paddock invaded by the plant. The first nervous signs were observed 44 days from the start of grazing. The animal was euthanized on day 59. No significant gross lesions were observed upon necropsies of the experimental horse as well as one spontaneously affected horse. Upon histologic examination neuronal lipofuscinosis was observed in the brain, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Wallerian-type degeneration was observed on some mesencephalic tracts. Neuronal and axonal degeneration and lipofuscinosis were observed on electron microscopy examination. Indospicine was detected in four samples of I. lespedezioides with concentrations ranging from 63 to 1178 ?g/g whereas nitro toxins could be detected in only one of the samples at a concentration of 2.5 mg/g. In conclusion, poisoning by I. lespedezioides is very similar to those poisonings by Indigofera linnaei and Indigofera hendecaphylla. Based on the preponderance of indospince and lack of nitro toxins in the samples it is proposed that indospicine is the toxic compound responsible for the poisoning. PMID:22560887

Lima, Everton F; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Gardner, Dale R; Barros, Severo S; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Soares, Mauro P; Riet-Correa, Gabriela

2012-04-25

261

Biomechanical analysis of circles on pommel horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyse the principal mechanics of circles. Seventeen university male gymnasts performed circles on an instrumented pommel horse model that enabled the pommel reaction forces to be recorded at 1000 Hz with two force plates. The circles were also videotaped using two digital video cameras operating at 60 frames per second. During circles, the vertical

Toshiyuki Fujihara; Takafumi Fuchimoto; Pierre Gervais

2009-01-01

262

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin tuna on their oceanic migrations. The About area is a great way to learn about the research and technology involved with this complicated endeavor. Also, visitors can check out the low-tech/accessible version of the site if they are so inclined.

263

Planet Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From DiscoverySchool.com, Planet Ocean is a Web site developed for students in grade 5-8 to learn about the abundant life found in the world's vast marine environments. Students are introduced to oceanography, marine biology, food chains, and ecosystems. Teachers will appreciate the tips for using this site in the classroom and related resources, and almost anyone will appreciate the Amazing Facts found under each topic.

2002-01-01

264

Ocean Voyagers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Voyagers is an educational outreach initiative consisting of an interdisciplinary curriculum program. It is designed to allow middle school teachers and students to gain real-world knowledge about oceanographic science, social science, maritime cultures, communication, literature, and the language arts. This site includes: integrated lesson plans on oceanographic science, maritime life and lore, technology and communications, and profiles of the Navy oceanographic survey fleet.

265

Oceanic Hotspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wilson-Morgan hypothesis that fixed mantle plumes rising from deep in Earth's mantle give rise to linear island and seamount chains like Hawaii has been a leading idea in planetary geodynamics for many decades. However, the notion that these ascending columns of buoyant mantle material are fixed relative to each other or to a fixed reference frame has been questioned because the mean regional flow of the mantle (the so-called mantle wind) would be expected to entrain them and waft them about. Lately, even more fundamental questions have been raised regarding the existence of deep mantle conduits. In fact, the subject of plumes has become quite controversial, with important implications for ideas of mantle convection, Earth's differentiation, and planetary magma budgets and cooling. The appearance of Oceanic Hotspots: Intraplate Submarine Magmatism and Tectonics is thus timely. The 14 chapters contained in this nicely produced volume reflect in part the successful Franco-German collaboration spanning more than 17 years (1986 to present) and 15 expeditions to largely uncharted and unexplored regions of the South Pacific Ocean. The editors intended to produce a comprehensive multidisciplinary overview of oceanic plumes in this region, and in this they have succeeded, with both review and research chapters. Most papers document new discoveries and contain new data and/or new and original thinking, whereas others provide a broad overview and synthesis of existing data.

Batiza, Rodey

2004-10-01

266

The use of phenylbutazone in the horse.  

PubMed

This review presents a brief historical prospective of the genesis of regulated medication in the US racing industry of which the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) phenylbutazone (PBZ) is the focus. It presents some historical guideposts in the development of the current rules on the use of PBZ by racing jurisdictions in the US. Based on its prevalent use, PBZ remains a focus of attention. The review examines the information presented in a number of different models used to determine the effects and duration of PBZ in the horse. They include naturally occurring lameness and reversible-induced lameness models that directly examine the effects and duration of the administration of various doses of PBZ. The review also examines indirect plasma and tissue models studying the suppression of the release of arachidonic acid-derived mediators of inflammation. The majority of studies suggest an effect of PBZ at 24 h at 4.4 mg/kg. This reflects and substantiates the opinion of many clinical veterinarians, many of whom will not perform a prepurchase lameness examination unless the horse is free of NSAID. This remains the opinion of many regulatory veterinarians responsible for the prerace examination of race horses that they wish to examine a horse without the possibility of an NSAID interfering with the examination and masking possible musculoskeletal conditions. Based on scientific studies, residual effects of PBZ remain at 24 h. The impact of sustained effect on the health and welfare of the horse and its contribution to injuries during competition remains problematic. PMID:21668837

Soma, L R; Uboh, C E; Maylin, G M

2011-06-14

267

Descriptive epidemiology of African horse sickness in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A study of the prevalence of African horse sickness in horses was conducted, using records from two private equine practices in Harare for the period 1998-2004. Results indicated a higher prevalence of the disease in horses in Zimbabwe in the late rainy season (March - May). Age of the horse was found to be a significant risk factor, with foals or yearlings appearing to be 1.80 times more likely to contract the disease compared with horses older than two years. The case fatality rate in foals or yearlings was also higher than in older age groups, but this difference was not significant. The vaccination status was an important risk factor, with vaccinated horses 0.12 times less likely to die from the disease compared with unvaccinated horses. Young, unvaccinated horses therefore seem to be the most susceptible to the disease and have greater chances of fatality. This study highlights the importance of adequately protecting horses against African horse sickness by providing immunisation through vaccination and discusses the need to review current vaccination strategies being practiced in Zimbabwe. PMID:23718258

Gordon, Stuart; Bolwell, Charlotte; Rogers, Chris; Guthrie, Alan; Magunda, Forgivemore; Hove, Petronella

2013-05-24

268

Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment  

PubMed Central

Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that < 30 horses used > 25 km2 of trails in our study area.

2009-01-01

269

33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone...ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible,...

2009-07-01

270

33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone...ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible,...

2010-07-01

271

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.41 Reporting required of horse industry organizations or...

2009-01-01

272

43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled...AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.7 Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately...

2012-10-01

273

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.41 Reporting required of horse industry organizations or...

2010-01-01

274

19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad...Residents § 148.32 Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad...Automobiles and other vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses,...

2013-04-01

275

Ocean Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama, this site seeks to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. In this unit, students investigate ocean temperature around the world, and how it varies during the year and at different locations. This helps explain what causes seasons, and allows students to make predictions about future changes in sea and air temperatures. Students use data from the National Data Buoy Center to answer a series of questions, and complete related enrichment exercises. A downloadable teacher's guide, student guide, and necessary activity sheets are provided.

Dempsey, John

2007-12-12

276

The Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many practitioners of the marine sciences, including myself, one of the most alluring aspects of investigating the oceans is the need to marry the scientific disciplines. The complex linkages among geological, chemical, physical, and biological processes that govern the behavior and evolution of nearly 60% of the Earth's surface are fascinating and often surprising. Making progress in decoding this planetary fugue requires investigative strategies that fly squarely in the face of the increasing specialization that characterizes most modern scientific research. The successful oceanographer must endeavor to see the forest as well as the trees, or perhaps more fittingly, the kelp.

Karlsten, Jill

277

Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity  

PubMed Central

In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Canon, Javier; Cortes, Oscar

2012-01-01

278

Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses.

2010-01-01

279

Idiopathic gastroesophageal reflux disease in an adult horse.  

PubMed

Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a 22-year-old female Tennessee Walking Horse that had signs of bruxism and ptyalism. Esophageal ulceration was detected via endoscopy. Compared with the damage to the proximal portions of the esophagus, the severity of the ulceration increased toward the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal ulceration attributable to chronic gastric acid reflux is usually secondary to pyloric outflow obstruction in horses. In the horse of this report, there was no evidence of either a chronic pyloric or duodenal obstruction that could have resulted in esophageal ulceration. Esophageal ulceration in this horse was attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease, a common condition in humans in which the underlying abnormality is functional incompetence of the gastroesophageal junction. Treatment is directed at decreasing gastric acidity and protecting the ulcerated mucosa. In the horse of this report, treatment was unsuccessful and the horse was euthanatized; a physical cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease was not identified during an extensive postmortem examination. PMID:15230453

Baker, Shannon J; Johnson, Philip J; David, Andrew; Cook, Cristi Reeves

2004-06-15

280

Evolution of Equine Influenza Virus in Vaccinated Horses  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses are characterized by their ability to evade host immunity, even in vaccinated individuals. To determine how prior immunity shapes viral diversity in vivo, we studied the intra- and interhost evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Although the level and structure of genetic diversity were similar to those in naïve horses, intrahost bottlenecks may be more stringent in vaccinated animals, and mutations shared among horses often fall close to putative antigenic sites.

Murcia, Pablo R.; Baillie, Gregory J.; Stack, J. Conrad; Jervis, Carley; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A.; Daly, Janet; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Holmes, Edward C.

2013-01-01

281

The Effects of Transportation on the Welfare of Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically, horses are transported many times in their lives, this is with the exception of the horses reared for meat. Although\\u000a difficult to estimate the extent of the movement of horses worldwide, it is clear that this is a substantial and growing practice.\\u000a Until recently research into the effects of the different methods of transport (road, sea and air), was

N. Waran; D. Leadon; T. Friend

282

Experimental Infection of Horses With West Nile virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 iso- lates. Postinfection, uninfected female

Michel L. Bunning; Richard A. Bowen; C. Bruce Cropp; Kevin G. Sullivan; Brent S. Davis; Nicholas Komar; Marvin S. Godsey; Dale Baker; Danielle L. Hettler; Derek A. Holmes; Brad J. Biggerstaff; Carl J. Mitchell

2002-01-01

283

Regulatory aspects of drug use in performance horses.  

PubMed

The control of drug use in performance horses and the policing of rules and regulations to prevent unauthorized drug use are important tasks for agencies overseeing equestrian events. This article describes the roles of the American Horse Shows Association, the Federation Equestre Internationale, and the Association of Racing Commissioners International, Inc, in the policing of drug use in horses competing in events under their control. PMID:8299009

Gowen, R R; Lengel, J G

1993-12-01

284

EFFECTS OF DIET AND CLIMATE ON GROWING HORSES 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of diet and climate were assessed in 42 light horse weanlings over 30 wk. Horses were fed diets varying in energy and phosphorus content. Diets were predominantly forage (73 to 77.5%) or concentrate (62 to 62.25%) and had 2.65 or 3.09 Mcal DE\\/kg DM, respectively. Horses were weighed every 14 d. Group feed intakes and climatic variables were

N. F. Cymbaluk; G. I. Christison

2010-01-01

285

Plasma and liver copper values in horses with equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy.  

PubMed Central

Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is a common spinal cord disease in the horse. The etiology of EDM currently is unknown. In other species, there are similarities in the clinical signs and neuropathological changes observed in EDM and in copper deficiency. The objective of this study was to determine if horses affected with EDM had low levels of plasma or liver copper. Plasma copper values were determined in 25 EDM affected horses and 35 normal horses. Liver copper levels were determined on 13 EDM affected horses and 22 normal horses. Plasma and liver copper values were not significantly lower in EDM affected horses than in control horses.

Dill, S G; Hintz, H F; deLahunta, A; Waldron, C H

1989-01-01

286

[Occurrence of Salmonella spp. and shigatoxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) in horse faeces and horse meat products].  

PubMed

In order to assess the relevance of horses as a possible reservoir of Salmonella and Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), 400 samples of horse faeces and 100 samples of horse meat products were examined by PCR-screening methods. Salmonella enterica was not found in any of the samples. One faeces-sample and one horse meat product were proved to be STEC positive. The STEC-strain from faecal origin belonged to the serotype 0113:H21 and had the stx 2c gene and the enterohemolysin gene. The STEC-strain isolated from a horse meat product had the serotype O87:H16 and the stx 2d gene. The results indicate a very low risk for human to get a Salmonella- or EHEC- infection from horses in Germany. PMID:16048044

Pichner, Rohtraud; Sander, Andrea; Steinrück, Hartmut; Gareis, Manfred

287

Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses.  

PubMed

Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehydrotremetone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyl-tremetone) are responsible for the toxicity of rayless goldenrod. However, experimental reproduction of rayless goldenrod-induced disease and detailed descriptions of poisoning in horses with known concentrations of tremetone and other BFK has not been documented. In this study four horses were fed increasing amounts of rayless goldenrod to obtain doses of approximately 0, 10, 30, and 60 mg BFK/kg BW for 14 days. After seven days of dosing the horse dosed with 60 mg BFK/kg BW horse developed depression, reluctance to eat, dehydration, trembling, and muscle fatigue. Biochemical alterations including increases in the serum enzyme activities of CK, AST, ALT, and LDH, and increased cardiac troponin I concentration, were also identified. Physiologically the clinically poisoned horse had decreased endurance seen as reluctance to perform on the treadmill with increased resting heart rate and a prolonged recovery of heart rate following treadmill exercise. The condition of the horse continued to decline and it was euthanized and necropsied on day 10. At necropsy the myocardium was pale and soft and many of the appendicular and large apical muscles were pale and moist. Histologically, the myocardium had extensive myocardial degeneration and necrosis with extensive fibrosis and multifocal mineralization. Several of the large appendicular muscles in this horse also had small foci of skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. Less severe myocardial changes were also identified in the horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW after 14 days of dosing. No clinical, biochemical or histologic changes were identified in the control horse and the horse dosed with 10 mg BFK/kg BW. These results suggest that doses of 60 mg BFK/kg BW for seven days produce extensive myocardial lesions in horses. The horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW developed less severe, but similar myocardial lesions over a longer duration, this suggests that poisoning may be cumulative and lower doses of longer duration are also toxic. Horses seem to be uniquely sensitive to rayless goldenrod-induced myocardial disease, therefore cardiac troponin I may be a useful marker of rayless goldenrod poisoning in horses. More work is needed to determine which BFK produce myocardial toxicity and better determine the effects of dose and duration on poisoning in horses. PMID:23831837

Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Lee, S T; Green, B T; Hall, J O

2013-07-04

288

Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

2005-01-01

289

[Ciliates from the intestine of Yakut horse (Equus caballus)].  

PubMed

Endobiotic ciliates of native Yakut horse are investigated. 57 ciliate species have been found. From 17 up to 43 species of ciliates have been revealed in each host specimen. The specimens of Alloiozona trizona Hsiung, 1930 and Triadinium caudatum Fiorentini, 1890 were present in 100 % of the horses. The endemic genus and species of allantosomides, Strelkowella urunbasiensis Kornilova, 2004, has been found in 11 horses. Allantoxena japonensis (Imai, 1979) and Cycloposthium ishikawai Gassovsky, 1919 being recorded previously in Japan only were found for the first time in Russia. The species Cycloposthium ponomarevi Kornilova, 2001 peculiar to the Turkmenistan koulan has been found in the Yakut horses. PMID:17144407

Kornilova, O A

290

Immunologically mediated ocular disease in the horse.  

PubMed

The continued study of immunology and its relationship to diseases of the eye will hopefully give some insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of certain ocular diseases of many species, including the horse. It may lead to a better understanding of equine recurrent uveitis, a disease that has remained an enigma for years and that now appears to be an immunologic hypersensitivity response to a number of varied antigens. The precise mechanism of the inflammation is still unclear, and the immunologic response may be variable or mixed depending upon the inciting antigen. Other ophthalmic diseases in the horse, such as conjunctivitis, chorioretinitis, and less well-defined entities such as superficial punctate keratitis, may also have an immunologic component in their pathogenesis. An appreciation of immunopathologic mechanisms may thus enhance the veterinarian's understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of equine ocular disease. PMID:6393544

Hines, M T

1984-11-01

291

Actinobacillus lignieresii infection in two horses.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old pregnant Norwegian Fjord horse was examined for gross swelling of the muzzle of 2 years' duration. Examination of biopsy specimens revealed diffuse dermal fibrosis, micropustule formation, and vascular thrombosis; large numbers of Actinobacillus lignieresii were isolated in pure culture. Prolonged treatment with i.v. administration of sodium iodide and oral administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole caused regression of the swelling and did not induce abortion. A 5-month-old American Paint filly was examined for swelling in the udder region. Bacteriologic culture of purulent material obtained from the left teat revealed A lignieresii. Treatment with oral administration of rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs. To the authors' knowledge, these findings represent the first report of mastitis and chronic nasal cellulitis caused by A lignieresii infection in horses. PMID:10496138

Carmalt, J L; Baptiste, K E; Chirino-Trejo, J M

1999-09-15

292

Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses.  

PubMed

The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for successful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo production. When these technologies were developed, the application of cloning also became possible and cloned horse offspring were obtained. This review summarizes the main technical procedures that are required for cloning equids and the present status of this technique. The first step is competent oocyte maturation, this is followed by oocyte enucleation and reconstruction, using either zona-enclosed or zona-free oocytes, by efficient activation to allow high cleavage rates and finally by a suitable in vitro embryo culture technique. Cloning of the first equid, a mule, was achieved using an in vivo-matured oocytes and immediate transfer of the reconstructed embryo, i.e. at the one cell stage, to the recipient oviduct. In contrast, the first horse offspring was obtained using a complete in vitro procedure from oocyte maturation to embryo culture to the blastocyst stage, followed by non-surgical transfer. Later studies on equine cloning report high efficiency relative to that for other species. Cloned equid offspring reported to date appear to be normal and those that have reached puberty have been confirmed to be fertile. In summary, horse cloning is now a reproducible technique that offers the opportunity to preserve valuable genetics and notably to generate copies of castrated champions and therefore, offspring from those champions that would be impossible to obtain otherwise. PMID:18638143

Galli, Cesare; Lagutina, Irina; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lazzari, Giovanna

2008-07-01

293

The Trojan Horse Method in Nuclear Astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross section in nuclear reaction between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed in the non resonant reactions case. A review of applications aimed to extract the bare nucleus astrophysical S{sub b}(E) factor for two body processes are presented. The information on electron screening potential U{sub e} were obtained from comparison with direct experiments of fusion reactions.

Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l'Ingegneria, Catania University (Italy) and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Catania (Italy)

2010-11-24

294

Nutrition Assessment of HorseRacing Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers, however, the literature is sparse pertaining\\u000a to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of “making weight” causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy\\u000a practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education\\u000a was expressed to Cooperative

Nancy CotugnaO; O. Sue Snider; Jennifer Windish

2011-01-01

295

Late Flowering of HorseChestnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

DR. JULIAN HUXLEY'S letter1 describing the late flowering of horse-chestnut in Paris this autumn brought back to me a vivid memory of autumn 1912. I turned up my youthful diary and found this entry:``Paris, 3rd September, 1912. The trees are in a queer state here; the old leaves are dead and falling as in autumn and at the same time

E. M. Blackwell

1945-01-01

296

Perineal sarcoid in a Caspian miniature horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 8-year-old stallion male Caspian miniature horse was acquired by the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Islamic Azad University\\u000a from a commercial source for teaching veterinary students. One year later, during an annual health screen, a mass was noted\\u000a in the perineal region. The mass was surgically removed. Histologic examination revealed that the mass was a relatively well-demarcated,\\u000a unencapsulated neoplasm composed of

Mehdi Sakha; Saeed Ozmaie; Iraj Sohrabi-Haghdoost; Pejman Mortazavi; Alireza Jahandideh; Mehrdad Ameri

297

The action of cyanogen bromide on horse-heart cytochrome c and horse-heart myoglobin  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of cyanogen bromide on horse-heart cytochrome c and horse-heart myoglobin have been investigated. Cytochrome c yielded four fragments, of which two were haemopeptides. The two colourless peptides had amino acid compositions corresponding to those that are expected, on the basis of the sequence proposed for horse-heart cytochrome c by Margoliash, Smith, Kreil & Tuppy (1961), from cleavage at both methionine residues. Of the two haemopeptides, one was isolated and shown to be that derived from cleavage at only one methionine residue, that nearer to the C-terminus of the peptide chain. 2. Myoglobin also gave four peptides, three of which accounted for the total amino acid content of the intact protein. The fourth fragment arose by cleavage at a single methionine residue, that nearer the C-terminus. Characterization of this fourth fragment made it possible to deduce the order of arrangement of the fragments in the intact molecule.

Black, J. A.; Leaf, G.

1965-01-01

298

Multicentric mast cell tumors in a horse.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old female Rocky Mountain horse was presented for evaluation of draining tracts and distal limb subcutaneous edema on the left front and left hind limbs that had been present for 2 weeks. Direct smears of fluid collected by fine-needle aspiration of subcutaneous fluid from both limbs were highly cellular with a predominance of eosinophils accompanied by numerous, moderately atypical, variably granulated mast cells. The cytologic diagnosis was mast cell tumor (MCT) with prominent eosinophilic infiltration with a differential diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. Histologic evaluation of surgical biopsies of lesions from both limbs was performed on sections stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and Luna stains. The histologic diagnosis was MCT, and staining with toluidine blue and Luna stains confirmed the presence of mast cells and eosinophils, respectively. In addition, the mast cells strongly expressed CD117. This is the first reported case of cutaneous mast cell neoplasia in a horse in which primary presenting complaints were draining tracts and distal limb subcutaneous edema involving multiple limbs. This case illustrates the utility of staining for CD117 expression in combination with traditional stains, such as toluidine blue and Luna, in differentiating MCTs from other eosinophilic lesions in horses. PMID:20412546

Millward, Laurie M; Hamberg, Alex; Mathews, Jennifer; Machado-Parrula, Cecilia; Premanandan, Christopher; Hurcombe, Samuel D A; Radin, M Judith; Wellman, Maxey L

2010-09-01

299

Differential outcome effect in the horse.  

PubMed Central

Three horses were trained with a discrimination task in which the color (blue or yellow) of a center panel signaled the correct (left or right) response (lever press). Reinforcing outcomes for the two correct color-position combinations (blue-left and yellow-right) were varied across phases. Discrimination performance was better when the combinations were differentially reinforced by two types of food (chopped carrot pieces and a solid food pellet) than when the combinations were randomly reinforced by these outcomes or when there was a common reinforcer for each of the correct combinations. However, the discrimination performance established by the differential outcome procedure was still 80% to 90% correct, and an analysis of two-trial sequences revealed that the stimulus color of the preceding trial interfered with discrimination performance on a given trial. Our demonstration of the differential outcome effect in the horse and its further analysis might contribute to more efficient control of equine behavior in the laboratory as well as in horse sports.

Miyashita, Y; Nakajima, S; Imada, H

2000-01-01

300

Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis  

PubMed Central

Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species.

2013-01-01

301

Ocean Currents Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on classroom learning unit looks at ocean currents and allows students to "understand, witness, and interact with the properties of water and discover the role of the oceans in the global climate." The surface tension of water, ocean currents and the ocean's connections to climate change are explored in three mini activities. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Orzali, Joe

2011-12-13

302

Ocean Energy Technology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Ocean Energy Technology (DOE\\/ OET) Program was instituted to develop options for extracting and distributing significant amounts of ocean energy in a reliable, environmentally acceptable and cost-effective manner. Since it's inception in 1974, the program originally emphasized the identification of the most viable ocean energy options and determination of their resource potential. Ocean current devices,

W. Richards

1983-01-01

303

The Ocean: Our Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as

Mario Soares

1998-01-01

304

Suspected systemic calcinosis and calciphylaxis in 5 horses  

PubMed Central

Five horses were presented with signs of myopathy along with systemic malaise, hyperfibrinogenemia, hyperphosphatemia, and an elevated calcium phosphorus product (Ca*P). Postmortem findings were consistent with systemic calcinosis, a syndrome of calcium deposition in the tissue of organs including lungs, kidneys, muscle, and heart that has not been previously described in horses.

Tan, Jean-Yin; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Sebastian, Manu M.; Davis, Gordon D.; Kelly, Jenny R.; Goehring, Lutz S.; Harland, Malte M.; Kuebelbeck, K. Leann; Waldridge, Bryan M.; Newton, Joseph C.; Reimer, Johanna M.

2010-01-01

305

Caudal vena cava thrombosis-like syndrome in a horse  

PubMed Central

A 9-year-old Quarter horse was presented for chronic refractory pneumonia. On necropsy, an hepatic abscess, caudal vena cava thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, and embolic pneumonia were identified. Similar lesions have been reported in cattle as caudal vena cava thrombosis syndrome, however this syndrome has not previously been reported in horses.

Schoster, Angelika; Anderson, Maureen E.C.

2010-01-01

306

From kids and horses: Equine facilitated psychotherapy for children1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine facilitated psychotherapy is a developing form of animal assisted therapy, which primarily incorporates human interaction with horses as guides. The behavior of a sensitive horse, provides a vehicle by which the therapist can use to teach the patient coping skills. This theoretical study is present to reader our opinion, about the main considerations of equine facilitated psychotherapy for children.

Eugenio Quiroz Rothe; Beatriz Jiménez Vega; Rafael Mazo Torres; Silvia María; Campos Soler; Rosa María; Molina Pazos

2005-01-01

307

Fusobacterium equinum sp. nov., from the oral cavity of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genus Fusobacterium are amongst a mixed facultative and anaerobic bacterial flora that may be isolated from the normal oral cavity as well as from oral-associated diseases of horses (Bailey & Love, 1991) and from a variety of other soft-tissue infections of humans and other animals. Respiratory tract infections of horses, including necrotizing pneumonia and pleurisy, are commonly

Matthias Dorsch; Daria N. Love; Graham D. Bailey

308

The Animal Other: Horse Training in Early Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This historical sociological analysis of the training of horses for competition in early modernity draws from the sociology of the body to suggest that animals as we know them are constructed through human social processes. Contemporary horse-care publications are used to demonstrate how equine bodies were shaped through an application of humoral physiological theory. That is, they were made suitable

Peter Mewett

2008-01-01

309

Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest proportion of the world's horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and com - petition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order

Michela Minero; Elisabetta Canali

2010-01-01

310

Ethical equitation: Capping the price horses pay for human glory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical equitation is nowadays coming into sharp focus in equestrian culture. Concerns surround the ethics of sports based on controlling an animal's locomotory responses and in using animals such as horses in sport in general. Anthropomorphically labeled misinterpretations of the responses of trained horses, such as the use of terms like “mad,” “lazy,” “keen,” and “stubborn,” may be detrimental to

Andrew N. McLean; Paul D. McGreevy

2010-01-01

311

Inheritance of racing performance of trotter horses: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harness racing is a form of horseracing in which the horses race in a specified gait (trot or pace). In contrast to the Thoroughbred, the trotter is not an international breed. In this type, the horses are raced with trotting or pacing gait. Breeds specialized for racing at trot or pace are indigenous to many countries. Separate breeds of light

A. K. Thiruvenkadan; N. Kandasamy; S. Panneerselvam

2009-01-01

312

Treatment in the field of 27 horses with epiglottic entrapment.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven horses were treated for epiglottic entrapment by using an oral, hand-assisted bistoury knife technique, under general anaesthesia; 26 of them returned successfully to racing, but one developed a permanently displaced soft palate. After the surgery 13 of the horses had an increased handicap rating and 13 had a decreased rating. PMID:17693627

Russell, T; Wainscott, M

2007-08-11

313

Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse  

PubMed Central

The place and date of the domestication of the horse has long been a matter for debate among archaeologists. To determine whether horses were domesticated from one or several ancestral horse populations, we sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop for 318 horses from 25 oriental and European breeds, including American mustangs. Adding these sequences to previously published data, the total comes to 652, the largest currently available database. From these sequences, a phylogenetic network was constructed that showed that most of the 93 different mitochondrial (mt)DNA types grouped into 17 distinct phylogenetic clusters. Several of the clusters correspond to breeds and/or geographic areas, notably cluster A2, which is specific to Przewalski's horses, cluster C1, which is distinctive for northern European ponies, and cluster D1, which is well represented in Iberian and northwest African breeds. A consideration of the horse mtDNA mutation rate together with the archaeological timeframe for domestication requires at least 77 successfully breeding mares recruited from the wild. The extensive genetic diversity of these 77 ancestral mares leads us to conclude that several distinct horse populations were involved in the domestication of the horse.

Jansen, Thomas; Forster, Peter; Levine, Marsha A.; Oelke, Hardy; Hurles, Matthew; Renfrew, Colin; Weber, Jurgen; Olek, Klaus

2002-01-01

314

4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, looking northeast; a "Greenhouse" structure can be seen extending to the west of the store at the left of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

315

5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture store, looking southwest; the store's two outbuildings can ben seen at the right of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

316

2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the east; U.S. Highway 58 runs from left to right across the view, while Route 687 rices into the distance at the left - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

317

Equine Recurrent Uveitis – A Spontaneous Horse Model of Uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is an autoimmune disease that occurs with a high prevalence (10%) in horses. ERU represents the only reliable spontaneous model for human autoimmune uveitis. We already identified and characterized novel autoantigens (malate dehydrogenase, recoverin, CRALBP) by analyzing the autoantibody-binding pattern of horses affected by spontaneous recurrent uveitis (ERU) to the retinal proteome. CRALBP also seems to

Cornelia A. Deeg; Stefanie M. Hauck; Barbara Amann; Dirk Pompetzki; Frank Altmann; Albert Raith; Thomas Schmalzl; Manfred Stangassinger; Marius Ueffing

2008-01-01

318

Immunopathology of Recurrent Uveitis in Spontaneously Diseased Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most serious eye disease in horses worldwide. Despite the fact that ERU is generally considered to be immune mediated, a detailed description of the histopathology of the posterior part of ERU eyes is lacking. Here, we examined sections of paraffin-embedded eyes using histological and immunhistological methods. Twenty seven eyes of 20 horses with ERU

C. A. Deeg; M. Ehrenhofer; S. R. Thurau; S. Reese; G. Wildner; B. Kaspers

2002-01-01

319

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section 1002.16 Parks...RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as...

2012-07-01

320

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section 1002.16 Parks...RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as...

2011-07-01

321

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

322

The Demand for Parimutuel Horse Race Wagering and Attendance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a long history of patron participation in parimutuel horse race wagering and attendance, which are major recreational products in consumer budgets. In this paper, the demand for parimutuel horse race wagering and attendance has been specified and estimated for both Thoroughbred and Standardbred racetracks in a multistate market area. The data are annual over the period 1960--1987.

Richard Thalheimer; Mukhtar M. Ali

1995-01-01

323

Subclinical leptospirosis may impair athletic performance in racing horses.  

PubMed

The infection by Leptospira in horses, in both its acute disease and subclinical forms, is very common, particularly in endemic regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of subclinical leptospirosis in the athletic performance of racing thoroughbred horses. Athletic performance of 119 racing Thoroughbred horses from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was calculated by assigning a point value for the results in racing (performance index (PI)), and serology for leptospirosis was conducted. A total of 85 (71.4 %) horses showed reactive titers (? 100), and of which 52 had high titers (34 with 400 and 18 with ? 800). Although those animals had high titers against Leptospira, no clinical signs associated with leptospirosis were observed. Seventeen (89.5 %) out of the 19 horses with substandard performance were seroreactive with high titers, in contrast with 35 % of seroreactivity in horses with good athletic performance (P < 0.0001). Additionally, seroreactivity to leptospirosis was more often observed in horses with substandard athletic performance in contrast to those with good performance (P < 0.0001, odds ratio 15.8). The Average PI of this group increased to 133 % after treatment (P < 0.0001). Leptospirosis may impair performance in racing horses, and antibiotic therapy may improve the performance of affected animals. PMID:22547110

Hamond, Camila; Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

2012-05-02

324

Adapting to failure: The case of horse race gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exemplifying Goffman's concern with adaptation to failure (cooling the mark), the researcher delineates the strategies used by horse race gamblers to deal with the consequences of monetary losses. Although racing attracts a large number of regular participants, little is known of their adaptations to the stark reality that ninety-five percent of horse players lose money from gambling. Analysis of participant

John Rosecrance

1986-01-01

325

A Comparison of Weight Estimation Methods in Adult Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight tapes and body weight estimation formulas are routinely used to determine the body weight of a horse when a scale is not available. The established formula to estimate body weight in mature horses is weight (kg) = (heartgirth2 ×body length)\\/(11,880 cm3). Two variations of the body length measurement have been used, measuring distance from the point of the shoulder

Elizabeth L. Wagner; Patricia J. Tyler

326

Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race.  

PubMed

We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities. PMID:22547844

Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M

2011-11-01

327

5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ARE AT CENTER AND CONCRETE TOWER LINES. AGGREGATE OPERATION IS VISIBLE ABOVE CONSTRUCTION SITE July 22, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

328

An overview of breeding objectives for warmblood sport horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to review the current breeding objectives of organisations that run a selection programme for warmblood riding horses in the light of an increasing trend in trade of semen across countries. In a questionnaire, 19 horse breeding organisations provided information on breeding objective traits. Variation both in length and amount of details used to define

E. P. C. Koenen; L. I. Aldridge; J. Philipsson

2004-01-01

329

Laterality of horses associated with emotionality in novel situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have established that lateral biases are characteristic of visual behaviour in 65 horses. Two breeds, Trotters and French Saddlebreds aged 2 to 3, were tested on a novel object test. The main finding was a significant correlation between emotionality index and the eye preferred to view the novel stimulus: the higher the emotionality, the more likely that the horse

Claire Larose; Marie-Annick Richard-Yris; Martine Hausberger; Lesley J. Rogers

2006-01-01

330

Prepurchase evaluation of horses: 134 cases (1988-1990).  

PubMed

To quantify some components of prepurchase evaluations in horses, records from 134 evaluations performed during a 2-year period were reviewed and the outcome was determined via telephone follow-up interview. Sixty-two percent of the prepurchase evaluations had been performed at the clinic and 38% had been performed in the field by the ambulatory service. All evaluations included physical and lameness examinations, whereas radiography (49%), endoscopy (15%), nerve blocking (5%), transrectal palpation (3%), hematologic analysis (2%), electrocardiography (2%), drug testing for analgesic agents (2%), and ultrasonography of the flexor tendons (1%) were not always performed. Fifty-nine percent of horses evaluated at the clinic were radiographed, compared with 33% of horses evaluated in the field (P less than 0.05). Thirty-seven percent of horses evaluated were judged serviceable for their intended use. Thirty-five percent of horses evaluated at the clinic were assessed to be serviceable, compared with 41% of those evaluated in the field (P less than 0.05). Horses used for pleasure riding (48%) tended to be considered serviceable more often than horses used for more athletic endeavors (3-day eventing, 33%; hunter/jumper, 24%; show, 31%; dressage, 30%). The most common basis for finding a horse unserviceable was lameness (88%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1429136

Dart, A J; Snyder, J R; Pascoe, J R; Meagher, D M; Wilson, W D

1992-10-01

331

Reliability of an injury scoring system for horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The risk of injuries is of major concern when keeping horses in groups and there is a need for a system to record external injuries in a standardised and simple way. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop and validate a system for injury recording in horses and to test its reliability and feasibility under field conditions.

Cecilie M Mejdell; Grete HM Jørgensen; Therese Rehn; Kjersti Fremstad; Linda Keeling; Knut E Bøe

2010-01-01

332

Helicobacter species and gastric ulceration in horses: a clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to gather more clinical information about the relationship between Helico- bacter species and gastric ulceration in horses. Twenty seven privately owned patients were selected for the clinical study. All horses were gastroscopically examined and biopsies were taken from the glandular mucosa. Stomach biopsies were examined using a PCR assay specific for Helicobacter pylori and\\/or

B. Bezdekova; J. Futas

333

Investigation of Deaths of Horses at Orr Springs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigation of the wild horse deaths in the Orr springs area of Dugway Proving Ground led to the following information: The weather had been exceptionally hot and dry prior to, and during, the incident. The water hole at Orr Springs used by the horses h...

L. L. Salomon

1976-01-01

334

Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race  

PubMed Central

We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

Trigo, Pablo; Munoz, Ana; Castejon, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M.

2011-01-01

335

Kinematics of side and cross circles on pommel horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most fundamental skills on the pommel horse is double leg circles (circles). Circles can be performed on all parts of the pommel horse. It was hypothesized that the different sets of physical constraints of the apparatus require a gymnast to adapt circles technique. The purpose of this study was to quantify how gymnasts modify their technique during

Toshiyuki Fujihara; Pierre Gervais

2010-01-01

336

Influenza Virus Transmission from Horses to Dogs, Australia  

PubMed Central

During the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, respiratory disease in dogs in close contact with infected horses was noted; influenza (H3N8) virus infection was confirmed. Nucleotide sequence of the virus from dogs was identical to that from horses. No evidence of dog-to-dog transmission or virus persistence in dogs was found.

Finlaison, Deborah S.; Crispe, Ellie; Hurt, Aeron C.

2010-01-01

337

Inbreeding in captive bred Przewalski horses from local populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to estimate the inbreeding level in the population of captive bred Przewalski horses and its changes over time in the biggest conservation centers. The data of 2935 horses extracted from the Studbooks were considered. The average inbreeding coefficient was equal to 9.4%. In general, the inbreeding level decreased over the analyzed period. Average percentage

Anna WOLC; Martyna JOZWIAKOWSKA-NITKA; Tomasz SZWACZKOWSKI

338

9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...been possible to determine, they have not been exposed to any such disease common to animals of their kind during the preceding 60 days, and if the horses are shipped by rail or truck, the certificate shall further specify that the horses...

2013-01-01

339

‘High Horses’ – Horses, Class and SocioEconomic Change in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines an aspect of the growth of an Afrikaner bourgeoisie in the platteland through the ‘things’ they desired. It discusses the introduction of the American Saddlebred horse from the USA, to the agrarian sectors of the then Cape Province and Orange Free State. Analysis of breed discourse affords us insights into the role of status symbols, the socio-economic

Sandra Swart

2008-01-01

340

Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.  

PubMed

Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P < 0.05). HR of horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these tests (excluding the indoor arena test) reflect normal police work, it is suggested that this kind of police work is not significantly stressful for horses and will have no negative impact on the horse's welfare. PMID:23244508

Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

2012-12-17

341

Coordination Dynamics of the Horse~Rider System  

PubMed Central

The authors studied the interaction between rider and horse by measuring their ensemble motions in a trot sequence, comparing 1 expert and 1 novice rider. Whereas the novice’s movements displayed transient departures from phase synchrony, the expert’s motions were continuously phase-matched with those of the horse. The tight ensemble synchrony between the expert and the horse was accompanied by an increase in the temporal regularity of the oscillations of the trunk of the horse. Observed differences between expert and novice riders indicated that phase synchronization is by no means perfect but requires extended practice. Points of contact between horse and rider may haptically convey effective communication between them.

Lagarde, J.; Peham, C.; Licka, T.; Kelso, J. A. S.

2007-01-01

342

Field evaluation of moxidectin/praziquantel oral gel in horses.  

PubMed

The safety and efficacy of 2% moxidectin/12.5% praziquantel oral gel administered at a rate of 0.4 mg moxidectin and 2.5 mg praziquantel/kg was studied in client-owned horses under field use conditions. Four hundred horses (300 treated with moxidectin/praziquantel oral gel and 100 treated with vehicle) were enrolled, feces were collected, and eggs were counted. Investigators as well as horse owners were masked to treatment assignment. No adverse reactions to treatment were observed in any horses. Moxidectin/praziquantel gel reduced Anoplocephala spp by more than 99% and provided a significant (P <.05) reduction (> 98%) in the strongyle egg count of treated horses. PMID:15136986

Grubbs, Steven T; Amodie, Debbie; Rulli, Dino; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan; Reinemeyer, Craig; Yazwinski, Tom; Tucker, Chris; Hutchens, Doug; Smith, Larry; Patterson, Deborah

2003-01-01

343

Ocean Planet: Sea Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on ocean bottom features including continental shelf, deep ocean plain, and mid-ocean ridges. Students study the discovery and mapping of seafloor features, learn to read seafloor maps, then create a map of Atlantic seafloor features. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; maps and forms for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

344

Continents and Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn and explore the seven continents and five oceans. 1. Explore the 7 continents and 5 oceans Continents and Oceans! 2. Play the quiz on the continents and oceans. Start at Beginner and work your way up to Expert! Continents and Oceans! 3. Look at this map and write down all your seven continents! Continents 4. Go to this website and play the game about continents. Continue playing until ...

Kneugent

2012-11-26

345

An Ocean of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate the close relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere to determine the extent the ocean affects the Earth's weather in the South Atlantic Bight region. As they study this relationship, students will learn that the ocean and atmosphere work together as a system. They will experiment to find out that heat transfer from the ocean is a cause of much of Earth's weather and will make and explain an ocean water cycle.

346

Estimates of longevity and causes of culling and death in Swedish warmblood and coldblood horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on several different horse populations were analysed and compared regarding length of life and diseases or injuries leading to death or culling. In order to include information for horses still alive, a failure time (survival) analysis was used. The first material included 1847 warmblood horses born between 1968 and 1982, that had participated in the Swedish Riding Horse Quality

Lena Wallin; Erling Strandberg; Jan Philipsson; Göran Dalin

2000-01-01

347

Ocular findings in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA ...

348

Indiana 4-H Horse and Pony adult volunteers' valuation of equine welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the value that Indiana 4-H Horse and Pony adult volunteers place on skills that reflect aspects of equine well-being. In order to promote horse welfare through practice, the underlying perceptional attitudes about horse welfare must first be gleaned from industry participants. Because the 4-H Horse and Pony program functions as an

Natalie M Rappaport

2009-01-01

349

Concepts, scientific bases, structure and validation of the French horse net energy system (UFC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French horse net energy (NE) system is based on energy utilization for maintenance and work, as maintenance accounts for 50–90% of total energy requirements of horses. The NE value of feeds was computed from their digestible energy (DE) content as determined in horses, the ratio between metabolizable energy (ME) and DE as measured in horses and the efficiency of

M. Vermorel; W. Martin-Rosset

1997-01-01

350

Ancient DNA provides new insights into the origin of the Chinese domestic horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic horses played a pivotal role in ancient China, but their exact origin remains controversial. To investigate the origin of Chinese domestic horses, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 35 horse remains, aged between 4000 and 2000 years, excavated from nine archaeological sites in northern China. The Chinese ancient horses exhibited high matrilineal diversity, falling into all the seven haplogroups

Dawei Cai; Zhuowei Tang; Lu Han; Camilla F. Speller; Dongya Y. Yang; Xiaolin Ma; Jian'en Cao; Hong Zhu; Hui Zhou

2009-01-01

351

9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from...

2010-01-01

352

9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from...

2009-01-01

353

The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

The study of energy production and nucleosynthesis in stars requires an increasingly precise knowledge of the nuclear reaction rates at the energies of interest. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the small cross sections at those energies and from the presence of the electron screening, the Trojan Horse Method has been introduced. The method provides a valid alternative path to measure unscreened low-energy cross sections of reactions between charged particles, and to retrieve information on the electron screening potential when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available.

Spitaleri, C., E-mail: spitaleri@lns.infn.it [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute (United States); Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Cognata, M. La [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy)

2011-12-15

354

latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. Despite intensive supportive therapy the horse's condition continued to deteriorate and the decision was made for humane euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings supported the clinical diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia. PMID:21851746

Metcalfe, Lucy; Cummins, Carolyn; Maischberger, Eva; Katz, Lisa

2010-05-01

355

A Trojan Horse for Parkinson's Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathogenic mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are common genetic causes of late-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Initial studies indicated that the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 is associated with LRRK2-mediated PD pathogenesis. However, LRRK2 kinase activity may be dispensable for neuron survival and may not be required for its protective activity against neurotoxicity. Thus, the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 appears to be a Trojan horse for PD, and inhibition of its kinase activity could potentially be therapeutically beneficial.

Youren Tong (Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital REV); Yi Hu (Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital REV)

2010-04-06

356

Trema micrantha toxicity in horses in Brazil.  

PubMed

After ingesting green leaves of T. micrantha, 2 horses showed apathy, locomotor deficit, blindness, recumbency, paddling, coma and death. The main gross findings were scattered haemorrhages, enhanced lobular pattern of the liver, and cerebral oedema. Histological changes included disseminated haemorrhages, massive hepatocellular necrosis, neuronal degeneration, Alzheimer type II astrocytes and cerebral perivascular oedema. Clinicopathological findings which were comparable with those observed in Trema micrantha poisoned ruminants, associated with epidemiological evidence suggested the diagnosis.Trema micrantha poisoning should be evaluated as a possible cause in the diagnosis of equine hepatopathy and occasional secondary encephalopathy. PMID:20636784

Bandarra, P M; Pavarini, S P; Raymundo, D L; Corrêa, A M R; Pedroso, P M O; Driemeier, D

2010-07-01

357

ExploreWorldOcean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ExploreWorldOcean supports Exploring the World Ocean, an introductory oceanography textbook written by Sean Chamberlin, PhD, at Fullerton College, and Tommy Dickey, PhD, at the University of California, Santa Barbara. ExploreWorldOcean is an educational web site that inspires people to learn more about the world ocean. Featuring hundreds of pages of content , it aims to provide a broad range of information on the ocean and oceanography suitable for beginning and advanced students of oceanography. Perhaps most importantly, the site strives to help people understand their relationship with the world ocean and how they may help it.

Chamberlin, W. S.; Exploreworldocean

358

Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis in 8 horses.  

PubMed Central

Arthrodesis was performed to treat septic arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of 8 horses. Records of the horses were reviewed to determine outcome and possible factors that influenced success or failure. All horses were female. Seven horses had 1 joint treated and 1 horse was treated for bilateral pelvic limb involvement. The duration of sepsis before surgery ranged from 1 to 66 days. Bone lysis and production was radiographically apparent in 7 horses before surgery. Six horses had multiple bacterial organisms cultured from bone or synovial tissues; 2 horses had single isolates identified. After aggressive curettage, arthrodesis was accomplished with 3 parallel screws in 1 horse, 2 divergent narrow dynamic compression plates in 3 horses, and a single broad dynamic compression plate in 4 horses. Casts were applied to all horses for 1 to 6 weeks. Four horses survived to successful brood mare status. Four horses were euthanized during hospitalization because of continued discomfort or complications of sepsis. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis appears to be an acceptable alternative to euthanasia for some horses. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.

Groom, L J; Gaughan, E M; Lillich, J D; Valentino, L W

2000-01-01

359

Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis in 8 horses.  

PubMed

Arthrodesis was performed to treat septic arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of 8 horses. Records of the horses were reviewed to determine outcome and possible factors that influenced success or failure. All horses were female. Seven horses had 1 joint treated and 1 horse was treated for bilateral pelvic limb involvement. The duration of sepsis before surgery ranged from 1 to 66 days. Bone lysis and production was radiographically apparent in 7 horses before surgery. Six horses had multiple bacterial organisms cultured from bone or synovial tissues; 2 horses had single isolates identified. After aggressive curettage, arthrodesis was accomplished with 3 parallel screws in 1 horse, 2 divergent narrow dynamic compression plates in 3 horses, and a single broad dynamic compression plate in 4 horses. Casts were applied to all horses for 1 to 6 weeks. Four horses survived to successful brood mare status. Four horses were euthanized during hospitalization because of continued discomfort or complications of sepsis. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis appears to be an acceptable alternative to euthanasia for some horses. PMID:10723597

Groom, L J; Gaughan, E M; Lillich, J D; Valentino, L W

2000-02-01

360

The fibrous tapetum of the horse eye.  

PubMed

The tapetum lucidum is a light-reflective tissue in the eyes of many animals. Many ungulates have a fibrous tapetum. The horse has one of the largest eyes of any living animal and also has excellent vision in low-light environments. This study aimed to clarify the macroscopic tapetal shape, relationship between the tapetal thickness and the degree of pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), spatial relationship between the visual streak and the tapetum, and wavelength of the light reflected from the tapetum in the horse. Macroscopically, weak light revealed the tapetum as a horizontal band located dorsal to and away from the optic disc. The tapetum expanded dorsally as the illumination increased. The tapetal tissue consisted of lamellae of collagen fibrils running parallel to the retinal surface; these spread over almost the entire ocular fundus and were thicker in the horizontal band dorsal to the disc. Only the horizontal band of the tapetum was covered by unpigmented RPE, suggesting that this band reflects light and is responsible for mesopic and scotopic vision. The visual streak was located in the ventral part of the horizontal band, ventral to the thickest part of the tapetum. The wavelength of the light reflected from the horizontal band of the tapetum was estimated from the diameter and interfibrous distance of the collagen fibrils to be approximately 468?nm. Therefore, the light reflected from the tapetum should be more effectively absorbed by rods than by cones, and should not interfere with photopic vision. PMID:24102505

Shinozaki, Aya; Takagi, Satoshi; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Uehara, Masato

2013-09-15

361

Morphology of starch digestion in the horse.  

PubMed

Structure of starch in feed and chyme of horses (7 with a cannula at the caudal end of the jejunum and 2 with a cecal fistula) after feeding high starch diets (maize: whole, broken, ground, expanded and as silage, oats: whole, rolled or ground, rolled barley, raw potatoes, and tapioca) was investigated by light and electron microscopy. Structure of feed starch and morphology or starch degradation in the chyme corresponded to data on preileal starch digestibility which was investigated in a parallel study. Barriers for starch digestion in the gastrointestinal tract of the horse were structure of the plant storage organ, as for example, a tight connection between starch granules in maize gains as well as the structure of the starch granules itself. The highly digestible oat starch was degraded by exocorrosion around the grains, whereas in other, less digestible, starch types degradation occurred by endocorrosion via pin holes. The number and size of the pin holes increased with increasing preileal starch digestibility. The effect of various ways of decomposition on preileal digestibility increased with advanced destruction of the original starch structure. Expanding was most effective. The granules were destroyed completely and the starch became soluble. Simple examination by light microscopy is a fast method to evaluate the degree of starch decomposition in the feed. PMID:9270343

Kienzle, E; Pohlenz, J; Radicke, S

1997-06-01

362

The Ocean Literacy Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

2008-12-01

363

Ependymoma of the neurohypophysis and hypernatremia in a horse.  

PubMed

A 2-year-old Standardbred gelding was examined because of prolapse of the third eyelid; myoclonus of the muscles of the head, neck, and forelimbs; and persistent tail swishing. The horse had a high plasma sodium concentration but was not drinking water. The hypernatremia could not be corrected by means of IV administration of fluids, and the horse became worse and, 6 days later, died. At necropsy, a tumor was found to be compressing the neurohypophysis and the area in the brain in which the thirst centers are believed to be located. It is believed that hypernatremia in this horse was a result of altered thirst. PMID:7657573

Heath, S E; Peter, A T; Janovitz, E B; Selvakumar, R; Sandusky, G E

1995-09-15

364

Genetic variation of Polish endangered Bi?goraj horses and two common horse breeds in microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

Genetic variation of endangered Bi?goraj horses and two common Polish horse breeds was compared with the use of 12 microsatellite loci (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10, VHL20). Lower allelic diversity was detected in all investigated populations in comparison to other studies. Large differences in the frequencies of microsatellite alleles between Bi?goraj horses and two other horse breeds were discovered. In all polymorphic loci all investigated breeds were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Mean Fis values and the results of a test for the presence of a recent bottleneck were non-significant in all studied populations. Comparable values of observed and expected gene diversity indicate no substantial loss of genetic variation in the Bi?goraj population and two other breeds. The lowest variability observed in the investigated group of Thoroughbred horses was confirmed. About 10% of genetic variation are explained by differences between breeds. Values of pairwise Fst and two measures of genetic distance demonstrated that Bi?goraj horses are distantly related to both common horse breeds. PMID:16110187

Zabek, Tomasz; Nogaj, Anna; Radko, Anna; Nogaj, Jan; S?ota, Ewa

2005-01-01

365

An African horse sickness virus serotype 4 recombinant canarypox virus vaccine elicits specific cell-mediated immune responses in horses.  

PubMed

A recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing synthetic genes encoding outer capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5, of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 (ALVAC(®)-AHSV4) has been demonstrated to fully protect horses against homologous challenge with virulent field virus. Guthrie et al. (2009) detected weak and variable titres of neutralizing antibody (ranging from <10 to 40) 8 weeks after vaccination leading us to hypothesize that there could be a participation of cell mediated immunity (CMI) in protection against AHSV4. The present study aimed at characterizing the CMI induced by the experimental ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccine. Six horses received two vaccinations twenty-eight days apart and three horses remained unvaccinated. The detection of VP2/VP5 specific IFN-? responses was assessed by enzyme linked immune spot (ELISpot) assay and clearly demonstrated that all ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinated horses developed significant IFN-? production compared to unvaccinated horses. More detailed immune responses obtained by flow cytometry demonstrated that ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinations induced immune cells, mainly CD8(+) T cells, able to recognize multiple T-epitopes through all VP2 and only the N-terminus sequence of VP5. Neither VP2 nor VP5 specific IFN-? responses were detected in unvaccinated horses. Overall, our data demonstrated that an experimental recombinant canarypox based vaccine induced significant CMI specific for both VP2 and VP5 proteins of AHSV4. PMID:22763149

El Garch, H; Crafford, J E; Amouyal, P; Durand, P Y; Edlund Toulemonde, C; Lemaitre, L; Cozette, V; Guthrie, A; Minke, J M

2012-06-15

366

Monitoring Global Ocean Carbon Inventories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword by OOSDP chairman; Preface by Author; Significance of a Changing Oceanic Carbon Inventory; The Case for Monitoring Ocean Carbon Inventories; Ocean Carbon Monitoring Approaches (Air-Sea Fluxes, CO(sub 2) Transport within the Ocean, Inven...

D. W. R. Wallace

1995-01-01

367

People and Oceans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

NatureScope, 1988

1988-01-01

368

People and Oceans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)|

NatureScope, 1988

1988-01-01

369

Harvesting the Ocean: 1. The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is the first in a series of three interdisciplinary units which focus specifically on the Pacific Ocean and its surrounding countries. The booklet, designed for lower secondary students, provides an introduction to the ocean environment such that students can understand the physical factors underlying issues raised by the other two…

Caton, Albert, Ed.; And Others

370

Harvesting the Ocean: 1. The Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is the first in a series of three interdisciplinary units which focus specifically on the Pacific Ocean and its surrounding countries. The booklet, designed for lower secondary students, provides an introduction to the ocean environment such that students can understand the physical factors underlying issues raised by the other two…

Caton, Albert, Ed.; And Others

371

Ocean Planet: Rough Planet Earth without Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-04-29

372

Cadmium, zinc, and copper in horse liver and in horse liver metallothionein: Comparisons with kidney cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium, zinc, and copper were determined in liver and in kidney cortex samples obtained from 33 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in liver ranged from 0.002 to 0.165 mmole\\/kg and in kidney from 0.01 to 2.15 mmole\\/kg. There was a significant correlation between liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium. The average kidney concentration of cadmium was about 15 times that

C. G. Elinder; M. Nordberg; B. Palm; M. Piscator

1981-01-01

373

Exercise studies in horses: 1. A simple telemetry system for recording excercise ECGs in horses.  

PubMed

A robust low cost portable radiotelemetry system is described for the horse and its method of operation and advantages briefly discussed. The equipment consisted of 2 electrodes forming a bipolar lead, a transmitter, a receiver and a writing device. The sitting, application and immobilising of the electrodes was a most important factor in obtaining good quality recordings. ECGs were recorded at all paces and also while jumping and the results proved satisfactory. PMID:862606

Hill, G; Atkins, R; Littlejohn, A; Kruger, J M; Bowles, F

1977-04-01

374

FAQs About Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a FAQ in a concise, readable summary of the current state of ocean acidification knowledge to support the scientific research community and educators. It is maintained by the OCB Project Office, with oversight from the Ocean Acidification Subcommittee of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program. Featured items include a primer to offer the foundational basics of ocean acidification and its impact on humans, Earth systems and marine life.

2012-09-24

375

[Use of tempered, particle-reinforced aluminum horse shoes in sport horses under field conditions].  

PubMed

The use of handmade particulate reinforced alloy horseshoes (MMC metal matrix composites) was tested in a field study on 15 riding and draught horses. All horseshoes have been tempered after having been manually forged and tested concerning their surface imperfection. Forging temperature ranged between 350 degrees and 420 degrees C. Horseshoes in series A consisted of particulate reinforced wrought alloy (22% Al2O3 in alloy matrix). 11 shoeing periods with a duration of mean = 49.7 days (sd = 13.6) were evaluated. Horseshoes in series B consisted of particulate reinforced foundry alloy (20% SiC in alloy matrix), 5 shoeing periods were evaluated with a duration of mean = 45.4 days (sd = 7.9). Series C tested horseshoes made of particulated reinforced coextruded wrought alloy evaluating 6 shoeing periods with a duration of mean = 49.2 days (sd = 18.7). Service of the tempered particulate reinforced alloy horseshoes was significantly higher compared to untempered alloy horseshoes. Mechanical and forging properties of tempered particulate reinforced alloy are satisfactory. Service is only suitable for riding horses but not for draught horses. PMID:10085578

Brandstetter, J; Stanek, C; Hinterhofer, C

1999-02-01

376

Ocean engineering power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The text presents basic thermodynamic principles and engineering considerations for ocean power systems. A survey chapter introduces a wide range of applications of power systems in the oceans. Thermodynamic principles and engine cycles are extensively reviewed in the next chapter. Then, chapters on energy sources, thermal power plants, and engineering of specific types of ocean systems are presented. Engineering principles

Carmichael

1974-01-01

377

Measuring Ocean Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes a student survey on ocean literacy devised and conducted by a Professor of Oceanography at North Carolina State University. Topics include the definition of ocean literacy, seven essential principles in ocean literacy, and a brief description of the survey subjects. Examples of the various versions of the survey and results of the research are provided.

Cudaback, Cynthia

2010-11-19

378

Ocean Drilling Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The ODP conducts basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. There are also links to photographs, core data, and educational material on the site.

Program, Ocean D.; Texas A&M University

379

The Physical Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the physical properties of the ocean (including the composition of seawater; waves, currents, and tides) and the topography of the ocean floor. Included are (1) activities on oceans, saltwater, and the sea floor; and (2) questions, and a puzzle which can be copied. (Author/RT)

NatureScope, 1988

1988-01-01

380

Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

381

Ocean Salmon Fishery Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

California ocean salmon fisheries are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) under the federal Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. This chapter describes the ocean fisheries impacting California Central Valley (CV) chinook stocks, the federal regulatory process that is followed in managing these ocean fisheries, and discusses alternative management mea- sures for protecting valuable natural resources. The CV

L. B. Boydstun

382

Ocean Explorer: Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Gallery offers an extensive selection of images, sound recordings, animations, and movies associated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's expeditions. A set of links provides access to maps, photos of ocean-dwelling organisms, sound recordings, cultural and historic illustrations, research technology such as ships and submersibles, and photos of ocean explorers themselves.

383

Metabolic studies of turinabol in horses.  

PubMed

Turinabol (4-chloro-17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-1,4-androstadien-3-one) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid. As in the case of other anabolic steroids, it is a prohibited substance in equine sports. The metabolism of turinabol in human has been reported previously; however, little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the studies of both the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of turinabol in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting turinabol administration. For the in vitro studies, turinabol was incubated with fresh horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixture were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after trimethylsilylation. The results showed that the major biotransformation of turinabol was hydroxylation at the C6, C16 and C20 sites to give metabolites 6beta-hydroxyturinabol (M1), 20-hydroxyturinabol (M2), two stereoisomers of 6beta,16-dihydroxyturinabol (M3a, M3b) and 6beta,20-dihydroxyturinabol (M4). The metabolite 6beta-hydroxyturinabol was confirmed using an authentic reference standard. The structures of all other turinabol metabolites were tentatively identified by mass spectral interpretation. For the in vivo studies, two horses were administered orally with turinabol. Pre- and post-administration urine samples were collected for analysis. Free and conjugated metabolites were isolated using solid-phase extraction and analysed by GC-MS as described for the in vitro studies. The results revealed that turinabol was extensively metabolised and the parent drug was not detected in urine. Two metabolites detected in the in vitro studies, namely 20-hydroxyturinabol and 6beta,20-dihydroxyturinabol, these were also detected in post-administration urine samples. In addition, 17-epi-turinabol (M5) and six other metabolites (M6a-M6c and M7a-M7c), derived from D-ring hydroxylation and A-ring reduction, were also detected. Except for 17-epi-turinabol, none of these metabolites has ever been reported in any species. All in vivo metabolites were detected within 48 h after administration. PMID:17386713

Ho, E N M; Kwok, W H; Leung, D K K; Wan, T S M; Wong, A S Y

2006-10-04

384

Prevalence of gastric ulcers in endurance horses--a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Gastric endoscopy was performed at the end of a 50 or 80 km endurance ride. Gastric ulceration was evident in 67% of the horses with ulcers on the squamous region of the stomach found in 57% of the horses and active bleeding of the glandular mucosa in 27%. Three horses (10%) had lesions only on the glandular mucosa. Values of albumin, creatinine and glucose were higher in horses without gastric lesions. We conclude that horses from endurance competitions have a high prevalence of gastric ulceration that is similar to that observed in performance horses. However the severity of ulceration is less severe than has been reported in Thoroughbred race horses in active training. Owners should be aware of the high prevalence of gastric ulceration in horses that perform in endurance competitions. The high incidence of active bleeding from the glandular mucosa of the stomach in these horses requires further investigation. PMID:14623148

Nieto, Jorge E; Snyder, Jack R; Beldomenico, Pablo; Aleman, Monica; Kerr, James W; Spier, Sharon J

2004-01-01

385

West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in horses in Ontario: 28 cases  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in 28 horses presented to the Ontario Veterinary College Veterinary Teaching Hospital between August 20 and October 15, 2002. The age range of affected horses was 5 months to 20 years (mean 6.9 years, median 6 years). Clinical signs were highly variable. Duration of hospitalization ranged from < 1 to 12 days (mean 5 days, median 5.4 days). Overall, 16 of the 28 (57%) horses were discharged and, of the 14 from which follow-up information was available, 13 (93%) were reported to be clinically normal 4 to 6 weeks following discharge, while the other horse had markedly improved. This pathogen is emerging as an important cause of neurological disease in Canada.

Weese, J. Scott; Baird, John D.; DeLay, Josepha; Kenney, Daniel G.; Staempfli, Henry R.; Viel, Laurent; Parent, Joane; Smith-Maxie, Laura; Poma, Roberto

2003-01-01

386

39. VIEW OF HORSE AND ESCAPE STEPS ON ARIZONA CANAL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. VIEW OF HORSE AND ESCAPE STEPS ON ARIZONA CANAL, LOOKING NORTH ON THE SALT RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION Photographer: James Eastwood, June 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

387

Construction Project Management for RED HORSE Troop Training Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This master's thesis is a study in construction project management for United States Air Force RED HORSE squadrons. The objective of the study is to design a construction project control system for troop training projects based on successful control pract...

T. H. Keiper

1989-01-01

388

9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2013-01-01

389

9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2013-01-01

390

9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2013-01-01

391

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...is rendered by a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine in the presence of an APHIS representative...injection by the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine attending the horse. The use,...

2013-01-01

392

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the...

2013-07-01

393

Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California  

PubMed Central

A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified.

Kinde, Hailu; Jay, Michele T.; Kramer, Laura D.; Green, Emily-Gene N.; Chiles, Robert E.; Ostlund, Eileen; Husted, Stan; Smith, Jonathan; Parker, Michael D.

2002-01-01

394

Borrelia burgdorferi infections with special reference to horses. A review.  

PubMed

This review discusses the literature on B. burgdorferi infections in view of the rising incidence of this infection in general and the increasing concerns of horse owners and equine practitioners. Lyme disease, the clinical expression of Borrelia infections in man is an important health problem. The geographic distribution of B. burgdorferi infections in equidae should resemble that of human cases because the vector tick involved, Ixodes ricinus, feeds on both species and, indeed, the infection has been established many times in horses. However, a definite diagnosis of the disease "Lyme borreliosis" in human beings as well as in horses and other animals is often difficult to accomplish. Although a broad spectrum of clinical signs has been attributed to B. burgdorferi infections in horses, indisputable cases of equine Lyme borreliosis are extremely rare so far, if they exist at all. PMID:16402512

Butler, C M; Houwers, D J; Jongejan, F; van der Kolk, J H

2005-12-01

395

Borrelia burgdorferi infections with special reference to horses. A review.  

PubMed

Summary This review discusses the literature on B. burgdorferi infections in view of the rising incidence of this infection in general and the increasing concerns of horse owners and equine practitioners. Lyme disease, the clinical expression of Borrelia infections in man is an important health problem. The geographic distribution of B. burgdorferi infections in equidae should resemble that of human cases because the vector tick involved, Ixodes ricinus, feeds on both species and, indeed, the infection has been established many times in horses. However, a definite diagnosis of the disease "Lyme borreliosis" in human beings as well as in horses and other animals is often difficult to accomplish. Although a broad spectrum of clinical signs has been attributed to B. burgdorferi infections in horses, indisputable cases of equine Lyme borreliosis are extremely rare so far, if they exist at all. PMID:22070377

Butler, C M; Houwers, D J; Jongejan, F; van der Kolk, J H

2002-12-01

396

11. Detail of horse lamp fixture in original Clubhouse bar. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Detail of horse lamp fixture in original Clubhouse bar. Fixture is at north end of bar. Camera pointed up and NW. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

397

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

398

Optical DEM generation: satellites help preserve Przewalski's horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privateers NV generated a DEM from optical LANDSAT TM and Spot images as first layer for the GIS system that is used in the Hustain Nuruu national park in Mongolia by the re- introduction program of the Przewalski horse.

Paul ROMEIJN; Edmond NEZRY; Pierre TRAHAN; Iwan SUPIT

399

2. GENERAL VIEW OF RESIDENCE (STRUCTURE 7) AND HORSE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW OF RESIDENCE (STRUCTURE 7) AND HORSE AND LIVERY STABLE (STRUCTURE 8) FROM NORTH - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

400

Severe mitral regurgitation in horses: clinical, echocardiographic and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Forty-three horses with mitral regurgitation (MR) and congestive heart failure were examined, using M-mode, 2-dimensional real-time and Doppler echocardiography. There was no breed or sex predisposition when compared to the general hospital population. The mean +/- s.d. age of affected horses was 7.6 +/- 8.1 years. Horses with MR and congestive heart failure had significant increases in mean values for left ventricular chamber size, left atrial size and heart rate and significant decreases in interventricular septal and left ventricular free wall thickness. Significant increases in pulmonary artery diameter were detected compared to aortic diameter. Mean values for fractional shortening were not significantly different from normal. All horses had a Grade 3-6/6 holosystolic or pansystolic murmur with its point of maximal intensity in the mitral to aortic valve area. Atrial fibrillation was found at presentation in 24 horses with MR and congestive heart failure. One horse presented with atrial tachycardia and subsequently developed atrial fibrillation. Seven horses had ventricular premature contractions. Exercise intolerance (n = 34), respiratory signs (n = 31), and fever (n = 21) were the most common presenting signs. Thickening of the left atrioventricular valve leaflets, endocarditis, flail valve leaflets, rupture of a chorda tendineae, and mitral valve prolapse were detected echocardiographically. Doppler echocardiography confirmed the presence of a large systolic regurgitant jet in the left atrium in all horses in which it was used, and in many horses, concurrent tricuspid and pulmonary regurgitation was detected. All horses died or were subjected to euthanasia due to the severity of their MR and/or lack of response to therapy. Post mortem examinations were performed in 35 horses and confirmed the echocardiographic findings. The echocardiographic detection of a flail mitral valve leaflet was significantly associated with the detection of a ruptured chorda tendineae at post mortem examination. There was a significant association between echocardiographic detection of a dilated pulmonary artery and its presence at post mortem examination. M-mode, 2-dimensional real-time, and Doppler echocardiography should be used to accurately characterise the valvular abnormalities and assess the severity of mitral regurgitation. Pulmonary artery dilatation, an echocardiographic indication of severe pulmonary hypertension, should be considered a grave prognostic indicator and may indicate impending pulmonary artery rupture. PMID:9458395

Reef, V B; Bain, F T; Spencer, P A

1998-01-01

401

Surgical treatment of distal tarsal joint luxations in three horses.  

PubMed

The clinical signs, radiographic findings, surgical treatment, and outcome of three horses with luxation of the distal tarsal joints are reported. Two patients showed luxations of the tarsometatarsal joint whereas luxation of the proximal intertarsal joint was found in one case. Open reduction, followed by internal fixation was performed in two horses and closed reduction with a transfixation pin cast was performed in the third. The treatment in all three cases resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome. PMID:23857573

Abuja, G A; Bubeck, K A; Quinteros, D D; García-López, J M

2013-04-10

402

Differentiation of Heel Pain from Other Hoof Pain in Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sardari, K, Kazemi, H. and Seifi, H. 2005. Differentiation of heel pain from other hoof pain in horses. J. Appl. Amm. Sci., 28: 133–135.Thirty-four horses with forelimb lameness referable to the hoof based on their response to the palmar digital nerves analgesia were divided into 2 groups based on their response to distal interphalangeal joint analgesic injection and hoof tester

K. Sardari; H. Kazemi; H. Seifi

2005-01-01

403

Radiographic study of bit position within the horse's oral cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to describe and compare the positions of different types of bits within the horse's oral cavity. Eight horses were fitted with a bridle and six bits (jointed snaffle ( JS), Boucher, KK Ultra, Myler snaffle (MylerS), Myler ported barrel (MylerPB), Myler correctional-ported barrel (MylerCPB)). Lateral radiographs and custom soft- ware were used to measure the position and

J Manfredi; HM Clayton; D Rosenstein

2005-01-01

404

Accidents with horses: what has changed in 20 years?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse riding is a dangerous pastime with more accidents occurring per hour than during motor-cycling. Since a prospective survey of horse-related injuries conducted at a major centre in 1971–19722, equestrian groups and the medical profession have encouraged improvements in training and protective riding wear. By conducting a similar study at the same centre 20 years later we hoped to assess

J. P. Chitnavis; C. L. M. H. Gibbons; M. Hirigoyen; J. Lloyd Parry; A. H. R. W. Simpson

1996-01-01

405

Genomic characterization of MHC class I genes of the horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of a contig of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones spanning the equine major histocompatibility\\u000a complex (MHC) made possible a detailed analysis of horse MHC class I genes. Prior to this study, only a single horse MHC class\\u000a I gene had been sequenced at the genomic level. Although many (?60) MHC class I cDNA sequences had been determined and

Rebecca L. Tallmadge; Teri L. Lear; Douglas F. Antczak

2005-01-01

406

Chronically starved horses: predicting survival, economic, and ethical considerations.  

PubMed

Nine of 45 horses subjected to prolonged malnutrition died subsequent to being placed with a responsible caregiver and being provided an appropriate diet. Initial extreme poor body condition score tended to be associated with death, although individual response to refeeding varied. The financial costs of stabilizing the group of horses significantly exceeded their free market price. Responsible management of chronically starved commercial animals should include options for immediate euthanasia. PMID:15943117

Whiting, Terry L; Salmon, Ray H; Wruck, Gustave C

2005-04-01

407

First mass spectrometric detection of boldenone in horse mane samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to investigate the detection of boldenone in horse mane samples, a boldenone study was conducted on two horses. The\\u000a analytical procedure consisted in a hydrolysis using the Sorensen buffer, a liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether and\\u000a a PFPA derivatization. The instrumental method was a gas chromatography sequential mass spectrometry performed on an ion trap\\u000a instrument in full scan

M. A. Popot; N. Stojiljkovic; P. Garcia; Y. Bonnaire; J. C. Tabet

2003-01-01

408

Metabolic studies of 1-testosterone in horses.  

PubMed

1-Testosterone (17?-hydroxy-5?-androst-1-en-3-one), a synthetic anabolic steroid, has been described as one of the most effective muscle-building supplements currently on the market. It has an anabolic potency of 200 as compared to 26 for testosterone. Apart from its abuse in human sports, it can also be a doping agent in racehorses. Metabolic studies on 1-testosterone have only been reported for human in the early seventies, whereas little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the studies of in vitro and in vivo metabolism of 1-testosterone in horses, with the aim of identifying the most appropriate target metabolites to be monitored for controlling the misuse or abuse of 1-testosterone in racehorses. Six in vitro metabolites, namely 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1a), 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T2), epiandrosterone (T3), 16,17-dihydroxy-5?-androst-1-ene-3-one (T4 & T5), and 5?-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione (T6), were identified. For the in vivo studies, two thoroughbred geldings were each administered orally with 800?mg of 1-testosterone by stomach tubing. The results revealed that the parent drug and eight metabolites were detected in urine. Besides the four in vitro metabolites (T1a, T2, T3, and T5), four other urinary metabolites, namely 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1b), 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1c), 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T7) and 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T8) were identified. This study shows that the detection of 1-testosterone administration is best achieved by monitoring the parent drug, which could be detected for up to 30?h post-administration. PMID:22715048

Kwok, W H; Ho, Emmie N M; Leung, Gary N W; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M; Wong, Henry N C; Yeung, John H K

2012-06-20

409

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome in adult horses: a review.  

PubMed

In recent years, gastric ulceration has been recognised as a common, possibly performance-limiting disease of adult horses. Here, we aim to provide the reader with a useful review of recent literature covering all aspects of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in adult horses. The anatomy and physiology of the stomach, with particular reference to secretion of acid and mucosal protective mechanisms, are reviewed, as are the differing theories relating to the aetiopathogenesis of gastric ulceration. We also explore the possible influence of various management factors on development of the disease. The prevalence of the disease in racehorses has been reported to be as high as 100%. In general, horses that are in active training for racing tend to have a prevalence of around 90%, whereas pleasure horses in full work have a reported prevalence of approximately 60%. Emerging diagnostic tests which could obviate the need for gastroscopy are introduced and current recommendations for treatment are summarised, focussing on proton pump inhibitors, in particular omeprazole, administered orally. The oral administration of omeprazole has been shown to be effective in both treating horses with gastric ulceration and at preventing re-occurrence whilst the horses are in training, provided that daily dosing is maintained. PMID:17339910

Bell, R J W; Mogg, T D; Kingston, J K

2007-02-01

410

The Absolute Threshold of Colour Vision in the Horse  

PubMed Central

Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m2, while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m2. For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m2. Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity.

Roth, Lina S. V.; Balkenius, Anna; Kelber, Almut

2008-01-01

411

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...identification which includes a description of the horse, name, age, markings, if any, registration number, if any, and tattoo or eartag; the region of origin; the name and address of the exporter; the port of embarkation in the foreign...

2013-01-01

412

Residues of diflubenzuron on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) leaves and their efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella.  

PubMed

Residues of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron were quantified on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) leaves treated with a diflubenzuron 480 g litre(-1) SC, Dimilin. To analyse the samples, an analytical procedure was developed involving a simple extraction step followed by high-performance liquid chromatography on an octadecyl-modified silica column with methanol + 0.01 M ammonium acetate mobile phase. The results showed diflubenzuron to be highly stable on horse chestnut leaves; more than 4 months (127 days) after application, 38% (on average) of the insecticide still remained on/in the leaves. The data confirmed biological observations showing diflubenzuron's long-term efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimi?, which is the most important pest of the horse chestnut in Europe. The hypothesis of possible penetration of diflubenzuron into the leaf mass is explored and discussed. PMID:16475222

Nejmanová, Jana; Cvacka, Josef; Hrdý, Ivan; Kuldová, Jelena; Mertelík, Josef; Muck, Alexander; Nesnerová, Petra; Svatos, Ales

2006-03-01

413

A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Methods A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. Results MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase-negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95% CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusions It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses.

Mallardo, Karina; Nizza, Sandra; Fiorito, Filomena; Pagnini, Ugo; De Martino, Luisa

2013-01-01

414

Quality assessment of seven Mediterranean fish species during storage on ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following seven Mediterranean fish species, bogue (Boops boops), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus collias), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), Mediterranean hake (Merluccius mediterraneus), sardine (Sardine mediterraneus), striped mullet (Mullus barbatus) were assessed for quality changes during a week of ice storage. All fish were stored whole in ice. Fish tester readings of all fish species were found

S. Simeonidou; A. Govaris; K. Vareltzis

1997-01-01

415

Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.  

PubMed

Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students. PMID:22767090

Ralston, Sarah L

2012-07-05

416

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum.

2012-01-01

417

Quantitative genetic aspects of coat color in horses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for coat color in horses. Besides defining coat color classes (gray, chestnut, bay, and black), the phenotypes were also measured quantitatively according to standardized international procedures (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*, a*, b*), where L* describes lightness, a* describes color saturation from red to green, and b* describes color saturation from yellow to blue. The total color saturation was derived from a* and b* and referred to as Chroma. A total of 294 horses from the breeds Lipizzan, Nonius, Arabian Pure Bred, Shagya Arabian, and Gidran were measured at neck, shoulder, and belly. Heritabilities (within and between breeds or color classes) and repeatabilities were estimated using REML from univariate animal models defined separately for gray and nongray horses. For gray horses, the estimated within-breed heritabilities for L* ranged from 0.45 to 0.49 and for a*, b*, and Chroma from 0.09 to 0.52, indicating moderate polygenic effect. For nongray horses, between-color class heritabilities were high (0.70 to 0.85) and within-color class heritabilities were negligible (except for L* measured on neck and belly, 0.21 and 0.34, respectively). Additionally, the importance of L* was described by the relation with the total melanin content of horse coat hair; for gray and nongray horses, a strong negative linear relationship was detected (P < 0.01). The spectrometric measures and the results of this study demonstrate a possible approach to the estimation of the polygenic component involved in coat color inheritance. PMID:16971562

Toth, Z; Kaps, M; Sölkner, J; Bodo, I; Curik, I

2006-10-01

418

Lameness and Laminitis in U.S. Horses. National Animal Health Monitoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives for the lameness portion of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Equine 98 study: (1) describe the occurrence of owner reported lameness and laminitis in horses and the proportion of operations with one or more affected horses f...

2000-01-01

419

49. HORSE MESA DAM, AUXILIARY SPILLWAY, 40.0' x 44.5' REGULATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. HORSE MESA DAM, AUXILIARY SPILLWAY, 40.0' x 44.5' REGULATING GATE HOIST. INSTALLATION ASSEMBLY February 3, 1937 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

420

Presumed clostridial and aerobic bacterial infections of the cornea in two horses.  

PubMed

Microscopic examination of Gram-stained tissue specimens collected from severe corneal ulcers in 2 horses revealed large gram-positive rods suggestive of Clostridium spp. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from specimens collected from horse 1; anaerobic organisms were not detected in specimens from horse 2. Aerobic bacterial culture revealed Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterobacter cloacae in specimens collected from horses 1 and 2, respectively. An insect exoskeleton was presumed to be the underlying cause of ulceration in horse 1. Cause of ulceration in horse 2 was not determined. Antibiotics used to treat the corneal infections included ticarcillin disodium-clavulanic acid injected one time subconjunctivally and chloramphenicol applied topically at frequent intervals. Horse 2 also received penicillin or trimethoprim-sulfadiazine. Small leukomas were the only lesion remaining between 2 and 7 months after initial evaluation. Chloramphenicol applied topically appears to be an effective treatment against clostridial corneal infections in horses. PMID:10340080

Rebhun, W C; Cho, J O; Gaarder, J E; Peek, S F; Patten, V H

1999-05-15

421

California Energy Commission: Ocean Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This California Energy Commission website discusses how electrical power can be generated from tidal power, wave power, ocean thermal energy conversion, ocean currents, ocean winds, salinity gradients, and other ocean phenomena. Users can learn how different areas of the ocean vary in their potential energy production. The site presents the history of ocean energy production and the issues associated with permitting an ocean wave-energy conversion facility. Users can find links to ocean energy education and to companies and research groups involved with ocean energy development.

422

America's Oceans in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The reprinted resource warns that without reform, our daily actions will increasingly jeopardize American oceans, which are already suffering from: coastal development and expansion, depletion of fisheries and other marine life, degradation from pollution and runoff, invasive species and other human-induced hazards. The resource is an abridged reprint of the executive summary of America's Living Oceans: Charting a Course for Sea Change by the Pew Oceans Commission.

Pew Oceans Commission (Pew Oceans Commission;)

2003-06-01

423

Oceans for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive website is for teachers who want to integrate ocean topics into the classroom. The site provides resources that can be used to instruct students on the importance of the oceans, and includes topics such as hurricanes, the Hawaiian Islands, polar bears and tsunamis. There is also a forum available to help teachers learn about ocean science and technology. A classroom companion provides lesson plans, maps, photos, videos and more.

Ednet, Oceans F.; Society, National G.

424

The Princeton Ocean Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Princeton Ocean Model (POM), a sigma coordinate, free surface, ocean model, can be "used for modeling estuaries, coastal regions, basin, and global oceans." Users can find helpful guides on how to use the freely distributed POM. The web site offers downloads of the proceedings of past meetings. Researchers can find links to data sources, national agencies and labs, and organizations. The Applications link offers numerous examples of organizations that have used POM in their research projects.

2007-10-08

425

The Princeton Ocean Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Princeton Ocean Model (POM), a sigma coordinate, free surface, ocean model, can be "used for modeling estuaries, coastal regions, basin, and global oceans." Users can find helpful guides on how to use the freely distributed POM. The web site offers downloads of the proceedings of past meetings. Researchers can find links to data sources, national agencies and labs, and organizations. The Applications link offers numerous examples of organizations that have used POM in their research projects.

426

Ocean Primary Productivity Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers datasets of primary productivity measurements, computer source code, input data fields, and ocean productivity estimates for modeling purposes, as well as information on the activities of the NASA-sponsored Ocean Primary Productivity Working Group (OPPWG), which has been conducting round-robin algorithm testing exercises to compare the performance of various productivity models with the intent of establishing a NASA resident "consensus" algorithm for the routine generation of ocean productivity maps.

427

Life in the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 2nd Graders will have the opportunity to learn more about life underneath the ocean. This goes great with 2nd Grade Science Standards 1 and 3! INTRODUCTION: Welcome students! Have you ever wondered what it would be like to live in the ocean? What would you do all day? What would you eat? What would you have to avoid so that you wouldn't get eaten? There are many different types of life that live in the ocean. ...

Bennett, Miss

2010-03-26

428

Epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse: the risk from animal product feeding practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discovery in 2002 of a Trichinella spiralis-infected horse in Serbia offered an opportunity to conduct needed epidemiological studies on how horses, considered herbivores, acquire a meat-borne parasite. This enigma has persisted since the first human outbreaks from infected horse meat occurred in then 1970s. The trace back of the infected horse to a farm owner was carried out. Interviews

K. D. Murrell; M. Djordjevic; K. Cuperlovic; Lj. Sofronic; M. Savic; S. Damjanovic

2004-01-01

429

Identification of Allergens in Extract of Horse Hair and Dandruff by Means of Crossed Radioimmunoelectrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from 26 patients and 4 normals were examined for specific IgE binding to antigens of extract of horse hair and dandruff by means of CR1E. 22 of the patients were RAST- and intracutaneous-positive to horse extract. 4 more of the patients were RAST-negative to horse allergens, but showed allergies to extract of allergens from sources other than horse. The

H. Løwenstein; B. Markussen; B. Weeke

1976-01-01

430

Behavioural and physiological responses to an acute stressor in crib-biting and control horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of eleven pairs of crib-biting and non-crib-biting horses (controls) to an arousal-inducing stimulus were studied. Video-observation of the horses revealed that crib-biting horses spent between 10.4 and 64.7% of their stabling time performing the stereotypy. During the first 2 days of an experimental period, the horses were conditioned to receive food from a special bucket. On the third

I. Bachmann; P. Bernasconi; R. Herrmann; M. A. Weishaupt; M. Stauffacher

2003-01-01

431

America's Oceans in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recently published report from the Pew Oceans Commission on the state of America's ocean ecosystems provides the basis for this Actionbioscience learning activity. Students read an abridged reprint of the report's executive summary, and discuss coastal development, overexploitation of marine resources, pollution and runoff, policy change, and other related topics. The site provides a number of well-selected Web links for learning more about the plight of America's ocean resources, including a link to the original Pew Oceans Commission report and another to a U.S. Navy Web site offering excellent background information and educational quizzes.

Commission, Pew O.

432

Apples and Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use an apple as a model to represent the proportions of the Earth that are covered by land and ocean. They will be introduced to the vastness of the one, interconnected ocean, and to the importance of the ocean to all life on Earth. They will also understand the concept that the proportions of habitable area, farmable land, and land with fresh water are very limited and that ocean upwelling areas that allow high biological productivity are also very limited.

433

Phylogeography and population history of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.): a genealogical approach reveals genetic structuring among the eastern Atlantic stocks.  

PubMed Central

Despite the resolving power of DNA markers, pelagic and migratory marine fish species generally show very little geographical population structuring. In mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) population differentiation has been detected only at a transatlantic scale. By applying two regions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (D-loop and cytochrome b (cytb)) in combination with genealogical and frequency-based statistical approaches, our data suggest population differentiation among eastern Atlantic spawning stocks. In contrast, and indicative of homing behaviour, no genetic structuring was observed among shoals of individuals outside the spawning season. Among spawning stocks, mtDNA D-loop sequences detected differentiation within the eastern Atlantic, while the cytb gene detected transatlantic differentiation. The impact of recurrent events (e.g. gene flow restricted by isolation by distance) and historic events (e.g. population range expansions) among spawning stocks was investigated applying a nested cladistic analysis of geographical distribution of cytb haplotype lineages. In the eastern Atlantic, historical population range expansion, presumably in connection with recolonization of northern areas after the last glaciation, is suggested to be the main factor determining mtDNA lineage distribution. This was supported by estimates of mtDNA nucleotide diversity, where the highest diversity was observed for the stock spawning in the Bay of Biscay, for which the size estimate is only 15% of the largest stock (Celtic Sea). In addition to revealing population differentiation, our data demonstrate the importance of sampling strategy and the power of applying statistical methods addressing both ongoing and historical population processes.

Nesb?, C L; Rueness, E K; Iversen, S A; Skagen, D W; Jakobsen, K S

2000-01-01

434

The seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Equine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an emerging disease of weanling foals and affects their growth and development. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in The Netherlands is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in The Netherlands. Blood samples were taken from healthy foals before and after weaning and from healthy yearlings and mature horses on farms throughout The Netherlands. These samples were analysed for the presence of Lawsonia intracellularis-specific antibodies with a blocking ELISA. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and total protein concentration were also measured in all foals. Information regarding housing, pasture access, and contact with pig manure on the premises was obtained for all animals. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis antibodies in foals increased significantly from 15% before weaning to 23% after weaning (p = 0.019); it was 89% in yearlings and 99% in horses older than 2 years. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between the pasture-kept and stable-confined adult horses (97% and 100%, respectively), and there was no significant influence of contact with pig manure. None of the sampled animals showed clinical disease. In conclusion, the results suggest that Lawsonia intracellularis is widespread in The Netherlands and that seropositivity is not necessarily associated with clinical problems. The high seroprevalence in adult horses suggests long-term persistence of antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis or constant exposure to the bacterium. PMID:21528618

Kranenburg, L C; van Ree, H E M I; Calis, A N M; de Pater, M; Buter, G J; van Maanen, C; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaarn, M M

2011-04-01

435

Is there evidence of learned helplessness in horses?  

PubMed

Learned helplessness is a psychological condition whereby individuals learn that they have no control over unpleasant or harmful conditions, that their actions are futile, and that they are helpless. In a series of experiments in which dogs were exposed to inescapable shocks, this lack of control subsequently interfered with the ability to learn an avoidance task. There is evidence that both neural adaptations and behavioral despair occur in response to uncontrollable aversive experiences in rodents, although this has yet to be demonstrated in other species such as horses. However, certain traditional methods of horse training and some behavioral modification techniques--it has been suggested--may involve aversive conditions over which the horse has little or no control. When training and management procedures are repeatedly unpleasant for the horse and there is no clear association between behavior and outcome, this is likely to interfere with learning and performance-in addition to compromising welfare. This article reviews published literature and anecdotal evidence to explore the possibility that the phenomenon, learned helplessness, occurs in the horse. PMID:18569222

Hall, Carol; Goodwin, Deborah; Heleski, Camie; Randle, Hayley; Waran, Natalie

2008-01-01

436

Vertical ground reaction force–time histories of sound Warmblood horses trotting on a treadmill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to establish representative treadmill ground reaction force (GRF) and interlimb co-ordination time data of clinically sound horses at the trot. It was anticipated that these normative standards would provide a reference data base against which lame horses could be compared. GRF–time histories were collected from 30 Warmblood riding horses with easy, wide natural gaits.

Michael A. Weishaupt; Thomas Wiestner; Hermann P. Hogg; Patrick Jordan; Jörg A. Auer

2004-01-01

437

Larval viability and serological response in horses with long-term Trichinella spiralis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horse is considered an aberrant host for the nematode parasite Trichinella spiralis, and many aspects of the biology and epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse are poorly understood. It has been reported that experimentally-infected horses produce a transient serological response to infection and that muscle larvae are cleared more rapidly than in parasite-adapted hosts such as the pig

D. E. Hill; L. Forbes; M. Kramer; A. Gajadhar; H. R. Gamble

2007-01-01

438

Distribution of Trichinella spiralis larvae in muscles from a naturally infected horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological investigations conducted during 10 trichinellosis outbreaks between 1975 and 1994 showed that horse-meat was the probable source of infection. Though hundreds of thousands of horses have been examined at abattoirs in America and Europe to detect Trichinella infection by artificial digestion or trichinelloscopy, an infected horse has never been detected during routine analysis, which consists of examining 1 g

E. Pozio; G. V. Celano; L. Sacchi; C. Pavia; P. Rossi; A. Tamburrini; S. Corona; G. La Rosa

1998-01-01

439

Viability and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae in frozen horse tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of the biology and epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse are poorly understood, including survival of Trichinella spp in horse muscle. In this study, we have assessed the freeze tolerance of T. spiralis in horse meat stored at 5, ?5, and ?18°C for 1 day to 24 weeks. Results demonstrate a steady reduction in the number of

D. E. Hill; L. Forbes; A. A. Gajadhar; H. R. Gamble

2007-01-01

440

Radiographic closure time of appendicular growth plates in the Icelandic horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Icelandic horse is a pristine breed of horse which has a pure gene pool established more than a thousand years ago, and is approximately the same size as living and extinct wild breeds of horses. This study was performed to compare the length of the skeletal growth period of the \\

Eric Strand; Linn Camilla Braathen; Mia C Hellsten; Lisel Huse-Olsen; Sigridur Bjornsdottir

2007-01-01

441

Cortisol Circadian Rhythm Ratio: A Simple Method to Detect Stressed Horses at Higher Risk of Colic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the hypothesis that police horses with abnormal cortisol circadian rhythm (CCR) had more chance to develop colic, the aim of this study was to determine the CCR ratio in horses subjected to different housing and work conditions and to associate abnormal CCR ratio with incidence of colic. A total of 116 police horses belonging to four different groups were

Baity B. Leal; Geraldo E. S. Alves; Robert H. Douglas; Beatriz Bringel; Robert J. Young; João Paulo A. Haddad; Walmir S. Viana; Rafael R. Faleiros

2011-01-01

442

A comparison of sympathetic and conventional training methods on responses to initial horse training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ‘sympathetic horsemanship’ the importance of the natural behaviour of the horse and the use of body language in communication is emphasised. However, it is unclear what effect sympathetic horsemanship has on the welfare of horses. During a 5-week starting period the effect of a sympathetic (ST) versus a conventional (CT) training method was studied using 28 young Warmblood horses.

E. Kathalijne Visser; Machteld VanDierendonck; Andrea D. Ellis; Charlotte Rijksen; Cornelis G. Van Reenen

2009-01-01

443

Effects of glycosaminoglycan polysulphate on the organisation of collagen fibres in experimentally induced tendonitis in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inflammatory process was induced by intratendinous injection of bacterial collagenase into the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the left thoracic limb of 10 horses. One week later, the tendons in five of the horses (group 1) were treated with glycosaminoglycan polysulphate (GAGPS), and the tendons of the other five (group 2) were treated with saline solution. The horses

J. R. E. Moraes; G. G. Facco; F. R. Moraes; J. R. Engracia Filho; L. G. Miyazato; D. C. Beretta

2009-01-01

444

Analysis of the strongylid nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylidae) community after deworming of brood horses in Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities of intestinal helminths in horses are commonly studied post mortem. The study objectives were here to examine the species composition of the strongylid community in brood horses in Ukraine after deworming with an aversectin drug Univerm. The site distribution of the strongylid species was analysed according to dynamics of their expulsion in faeces. Forty-four horses of different ages from

T. A. Kuzmina; V. A. Kharchenko; A. I. Starovir; G. M. Dvojnos

2005-01-01

445

Effects of athletic conditioning on horses with degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) is a debilitating condition that has limited response to rest and stall confinement. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that mild to moderate DSLD is not worsened by consistent exercise. Paso Fino and Peruvian Paso horses (two normal horses and four horses with DSLD) were exercised for 30min every other day for

Lin Xie; Nakia D. Spencer; Ralph E. Beadle; Lorrie Gaschen; Mark R. Buchert; Mandi J. Lopez

2011-01-01

446

America's Wild Horses "Fitting 'Em In": A Social Studies Subject for Upper Elementary Students. Teachers Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning package is designed to portray to upper elementary and junior high school students the various factors influencing the relationship of wild horses and burros to their environment in the Western United States. Protested by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act of 1971, the thousands of protected horses and burros pose a…

Lent, Judith; And Others

447

43 CFR 4710.3-2 - Wild horse and burro ranges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wild horse and burro ranges. 4710.3-2 Section...MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-2 Wild horse and burro ranges. Herd management...

2012-10-01

448

Detection of Leptospira spp. in the Aqueous Humor of Horses with Naturally Acquired Recurrent Uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptospiral organisms have long been presumed to be associated with the presence of equine recurrent uveitis. This project was undertaken to determine the presence of Leptospira spp. in the aqueous humor of horses with uveitis to determine if there was an association with inflammation. Thirty horses were determined to have recurrent uveitis based on clinical evaluation or history. Sixteen horses

NICK A. FABER; MELISSA CRAWFORD; RANCE B. LEFEBVRE; NEDIM C. BUYUKMIHCI; JOHN E. MADIGAN; NEIL H. WILLITS

2000-01-01

449

Selection and acceptance of flavours in concentrate diets for stabled horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like most large grazing herbivores, horses select their food based on visual cues, odour, taste, texture, availability and variety. There is relatively little published information about the role of flavour in diet selection by domestic horses in comparison with other domestic and companion animals. However, previous trials investigating effects of diet flavour in stabled horses indicated significant effects on foraging

D. Goodwin; H. P. B. Davidson; P. Harris

2005-01-01

450

Extrapituitary and Pituitary Pathological Findings in Horses with Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction: A Retrospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to describe the histopathologic changes observed in extrapituitary organs as well as the pituitary glands of horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). Adrenal gland, thyroid gland, liver, lung, kidney, heart, and pituitary gland from 32 horses with clinical and histologic evidence of PPID and 20 control horses were reviewed histologically. Ten of the

Christiana M. Glover; Lisa M. Miller; Noel O. Dybdal; Alfonso Lopez; Wendy M. Duckett; Dianne McFarlane

2009-01-01

451

Fear reactions in trained and untrained horses from dressage and show-jumping breeding lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses’ fear reactions are hazardous to both horses and human beings, but it is not clear whether fear is influenced more by training or by other factors such as genetics. The following study was designed to detect differences between young, untrained (U) and older, well-trained (T) horses of dressage (D), show-jumping (J), and mixed (M) genetic lines with regard to

Uta U. K. von Borstel; Ian J. H. Duncan; Märtha Claesson Lundin; Linda J. Keeling

2010-01-01

452

Fat diet reduces stress and intensity of startle reaction in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intense startle reaction by horses is a common cause of injuries for both riders and horses. Some studies suggest that diet composition, in particular the percentage of fat, may have an effect in stress and behavioural response to novel stimuli. Here we use 28 individual horses to perform an experiment on the influence of diet treatment on physiological parameters and

Alberto José Redondo; Juan Carranza; Pablo Trigo

2009-01-01

453

Theileria ( Babesia ) equi and Babesia caballi Infections in Horses in Galicia, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of equine piroplasmosis is becoming increasingly important to maintain the international market open to the horse industry. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi) in Galicia, north-west Spain, and to compare haematological and serum biochemistry parameters between non-parasitaemic horses and horses parasitaemic with T. equi and B.

A. T. Camacho; F. J. Guitian; E. Pallas; J. J. Gestal; A. S. Olmeda; M. A. Habela; S. R. Telford III; A. Spielman

2005-01-01

454

Evaluation of two vaccines for the treatment of pythiosis insidiosi in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two vaccines to treat pythiosis insidiosi in horses were evaluated in 71 Costa Rican horses between 1982 to 1988. One vaccine used a cell-mass (CMV) as antigen and the other a soluble concentrated antigen (SCAV). Both vaccines cured horses infected with Pythium insidiosum (p value ~ 14%). The age of lesions prior to vaccination was important in the response of

Leonel Mendoza; Jaime Villalobos; Carlos E. Calleja; Alejandro Solis

1992-01-01

455

Horse-training techniques that may defy the principles of learning theory and compromise welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review considers some contemporary training and restraining techniques that may lead to confusion or abuse in ridden and nonridden horses. As competitive equestrian sports boom, the welfare of the horse is under increasing scrutiny. The current focus on hyperflexion of the neck in dressage warm-up has exposed the problems with relying on subjective opinions when attempting to safeguard horse

Andrew N. McLean; Paul D. McGreevy

2010-01-01

456

Study of crib-biting and gastric inflammation and ulceration in young horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen young horses that had recently started to perform the stereotypy of crib-biting were compared with 16 non-stereotypic horses for 14 weeks. After initial observations of their behaviour and an endoscopic examination of the condition of their stomachs, the horses were randomly allocated to a control or an antacid diet. At the start of the trial, the stomachs of the

C. J. Nicol; H. P. D. Davidson; P. A. Harris; A. J. Waters; A. D. Wilson

2002-01-01

457

Rhodococcus equi-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Immune Horses and Development in Asymptomatic Foals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodococcus equi is an important cause of pneumonia in young horses; however, adult horses are immune due to their ability to mount protective recall responses. In this study, the hypothesis that R. equi-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are present in the lung of immune horses was tested. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-derived pulmonary T lymphocytes stimulated with R. equi lysed infected alveolar

Kristin M. Patton; Travis C. McGuire; Melissa T. Hines; Robert H. Mealey; Stephen A. Hines

2005-01-01

458

Heart Rate Variability in Horses Engaged in Equine-Assisted Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a recent surge in using horses to treat mental and emotional human health issues, the consequences of horse-assisted interventions on the stress response of horses have not been well documented. Assessment of the autonomic nervous system and its regulation of cardiovascular function has been used as an indicator of acute and chronic stress in human beings

Ellen Kaye Gehrke; Ann Baldwin; Patric M. Schiltz

2011-01-01

459

Ten cases of bladder paralysis associated with sabulous urolithiasis in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bladder paralysis and sabulous urolithiasis were diagnosed in 10 horses with urinary incontinence. Additional neurological deficits in the hindquarters were detected in five of them. Treatment by catheter drainage and bladder lavage was unsuccessful, and all the horses were destroyed within 14 months of presentation. Neuritis of the cauda equina was diagnosed post mortem in one horse, but the cause

PE Holt; TS Mair

1990-01-01

460

Clinicopathological Features Associated with the Outbreak of African Horse Sickness in Lagos, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of African horse sickness involving 17 horse stables in Lagos, Nigeria, was investigated from December 20 to February 21, 2007. The investigation revealed high and sudden mortality of 40 horses, affecting both the local and Argentine breeds from December 20, 2006 to January 30, 2007. The clinical and postmortem signs were predominantly circulatory and respiratory, as described elsewhere,

M. M. Kazeem; N. Rufai; E. A. Ogunsan; L. H. Lombin; L. U. Enurah; O. Owolodun

2008-01-01

461

EQUINE PIROPLASMOSES AT THE REINTRODUCTION SITE OF THE PRZEWALSKI'S HORSE (EQUUS FERUS PRZEWALSKII ) IN MONGOLIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piroplasmosis has been identified as a possible cause of mortality in reintroduced Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in the Dsungarian Gobi (Mongolia). A cross- sectional and a longitudinal study were conducted in a representative sample (n5141) of the resident domestic horse population and in 23 Przewalski's horses to assess the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasms were detected

Simon R. Ruegg; Paul R. Torgerson; Marcus G. Doherr; Peter Deplazes; Reinhard Bose; Nadia Robert; Christian Walzer

462

Assisted reproduction techniques in the horse.  

PubMed

This paper reviews current equine assisted reproduction techniques. Embryo transfer is the most common equine ART, but is still limited by the inability to superovulate mares effectively. Immature oocytes may be recovered by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of immature follicles, or from ovaries postmortem, and can be effectively matured in vitro. Notably, the in vivo-matured oocyte may be easily recovered from the stimulated preovulatory follicle. Standard IVF is still not repeatable in the horse; however, embryos and foals can be produced by surgical transfer of mature oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares or via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Currently, ICSI and in vitro embryo culture are routinely performed by only a few laboratories, but reported blastocyst development rates approach those found after bovine IVF (i.e. 25%-35%). Nuclear transfer can be relatively efficient (up to 26% live foal rate per transferred embryo), but few laboratories are working in this area. Equine blastocysts may be biopsied via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after biopsy, and accurate genetic analysis. Equine expanded blastocysts may be vitrified after collapsing them via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after warming and transfer. Many of these recently developed techniques are now in clinical use. PMID:23244831

Hinrichs, Katrin

2012-01-01

463

Blue ocean strategy.  

PubMed

Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

2004-10-01

464

An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat  

PubMed Central

White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid–horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection–polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent.

Horvath, Gabor; Blaho, Miklos; Kriska, Gyorgy; Hegedus, Ramon; Gerics, Balazs; Farkas, Robert; Akesson, Susanne

2010-01-01

465

An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat.  

PubMed

White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid-horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection-polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent. PMID:20129982

Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Kriska, György; Hegedüs, Ramón; Gerics, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Akesson, Susanne

2010-02-03

466

Ocean Surface Topography from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Global Conveyer Belt" shows how the oceans move energy from the tropics to the poles and back again in order to moderate Earth's climate. This is accomplished through long-term ocean circulation. This on-line tutorial about ocean circulation features text, pictures, and satellite imagery with links to topics such as ocean heat transport, the coriolis effect, hills and valleys in the ocean, measurement and motion in the wind and ocean, changes in sea height over time, and El Nino.

2001-06-08

467

The Living Ocean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide contains information, activities, and discussion questions and answers about oceans for grades nine and ten. The information section covers the following topics: studying global ocean color from space, what can be seen from space, phytoplankton, carbon dioxide, and the greenhouse effect of the earth. (MKR)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

468

Diversity in Ocean Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

COSEE-SE provides resources and links to help improve diversity in ocean sciences. Included resources are coastal legacy resources for elementary and middle school teachers, Coastal Legacy traveling curriculum kit, documents from the Multicultural Pathways for Ocean Science Education workshop, and university and marine laboratory programs.

469

Volcanic signals in oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change.

Georgiy Stenchikov; Thomas L. Delworth; V. Ramaswamy; Ronald J. Stouffer; Andrew Wittenberg; Fanrong Zeng

2009-01-01

470

Volcanic signals in oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2-3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change.

Georgiy Stenchikov; Thomas L. Delworth; V. Ramaswamy; Ronald J. Stouffer; Andrew Wittenberg; Fanrong Zeng

2009-01-01

471

An Ocean Mural.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces a class project on oceans, fishes, and fishing industries around the world. Groups of students make a mural of the world, filling the oceans with accurate drawings of fish, fishing boats, and fishing equipment. Students learn about the importance of fish in various cultures and about the migration routes of fish. Includes a resource…

Graham, Frank; Graham, Ada

1998-01-01

472

Ocean Acidification Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program developed this website as a clearinghouse of ocean acidification news and information to support the scientific research and the education communities. Included are Resources for Educators, Labs, Datasets, Multimedia, FAQs and Educational Program information.

473

Ocean nutrient enhancer \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean nutrient enhancer (ONE) is composed of a spar type floating structure from which is suspended a 175 m long compliant steel riser. The ONE was installed at the center of Sagami-Bay in May 2003 for the purpose of discharging density controlled water, which is adjusted by mixing the up-welled deep ocean water (DOW) and surface water, into the

Satoshi Masuda; Masayuki Yonezawa; Masao Morikawa

2004-01-01

474

Deep Ocean Ambient Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this report is to provide information on deep ocean ambient noise which can be used in sonar system design and analysis. Guidelines are given for estimating wind-generated noise, oceanic ship traffic noise, biological noise levels, and th...

A. A. Barrios

1967-01-01

475

Visualizing Underwater Ocean Optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Simulating the in-water ocean light field is a daunting task. Ocean waters are one of the richest participating me-dia, where light interacts not only with water molecules, but with suspended particles and organic matter as well. The concentration of each constituent greatly affects these interactions, resulting in very different hues. Inelastic scattering events such as fluorescence or Raman scattering

Diego Gutierrez; Francisco J. Serón; Adolfo Muñoz; Oscar Anson

2008-01-01

476

Visualizing underwater ocean optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulating the in-water ocean light field is a daunting task. Ocean waters are one of the richest participating media, where light interacts not only with water molecules, but with suspended particles and organic matter as well. The concentration of each constituent greatly affects these interactions, resulting in very different hues. Inelastic scattering events such as fluorescence or Raman scattering imply

Diego Gutierrez; Francisco J. Seron; Adolfo Munoz; Oscar Anson

2008-01-01

477

Ocean Entry Aerial View  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As evident by the small plume at the ocean entry, the amount of lava traveling through the tubes from the vent to the ocean has diminished. The most active area of the flow field is above the pali where the new rootless shield is forming. ...

2010-06-18

478

Formulating an Oceanic Jurisprudence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present state of both the oceanic legal regime and the traditional manners of inquiry leave much to be desired. To obtain a better perspective, the purpose of proposed jurisprudence is the conceptual analysis of oceanic legal regimes existant and opti...

C. Martin

1971-01-01

479

An Ocean Mural.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a class project on oceans, fishes, and fishing industries around the world. Groups of students make a mural of the world, filling the oceans with accurate drawings of fish, fishing boats, and fishing equipment. Students learn about the importance of fish in various cultures and about the migration routes of fish. Includes a resource…

Graham, Frank; Graham, Ada

1998-01-01

480

Oceanography: Deep ocean freshening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional view of the open ocean is that surface waters should change faster and that the deep waters should be relatively stable. Now research shows that the depths of the Southern Ocean are also rapidly freshening and warming, and that these changes are spreading towards the Equator.

Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Hobbs, William R.

2013-10-01

481

OceanCareers.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information on: ocean science career opportunities, the knowledge and skills required to enter these careers, where students can gain the necessary education, ocean science employers, and much more. It also includes all the necessary information to lead educators and students to resources on furthering education and joining the marine science work force.

2011-04-21

482

Shipwrecks Reveal Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA, a detailed map showing the trajectories of abandoned ships from the late 1800's is used to reveal the routes of surface currents in the Atlantic Ocean. Animations illustrate the role played by ocean currents in the colonization of North America.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

483

A Nation of Oceans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is for people that want to know more about the oceans, its inhabitants, and the ocean processes. The main text of the book describes individual marine ecosystems including offshore open water, benthic, nearshore tropical, nearshore temperate, and nearshore arctic ecosystems. Discussed are some of the basic ecological principles found…

Weber, Michael; Tinney, Richard

484

Inactivated African Horse Sickness virus cell culture vaccine  

PubMed Central

Immunogenic killed vaccine against African Horse Sickness can be prepared from a neurotropic vaccine strain or a virulent strain of virus, type 9, grown in a monkey kidney stable cell line. Virus was inactivated with either formaldehyde in a final concentration of 1:8000 or ?-propiolactone at 0·2 per cent. In order to enhance the immunogenicity of the product, aluminium hydroxide was added to the vaccine as an adjuvant. After inoculation of a single dose of either vaccine, neutralizing antibodies developed with 4 weeks, and all horses resisted challenge with homologous virulent virus. When two injections of inactivated vaccine were administered at an interval of 4 weeks, much higher neutralizing antibodies were present in sera and 6 months later all horses were still resistant to a challenge dose of virulent virus. Under the conditions of these experiments a significantly higher degree of antigenicity was demonstrated with formalin-inactivated vaccine than with ?-propiolactone-inactivated vaccine.

Mirchamsy, H.; Taslimi, H.

1968-01-01

485

Physical and chemical characterization of horse serum carboxylesterase  

SciTech Connect

The serine carboxylesterase from horse serum was characterized by amino acid composition, peptide mapping, molecular and subunit weights, C- and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and partial sequencing of the amino acids around the essential serine residue at the active site. A protocol was developed for using reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography to obtain homogeneous preparation of horse serum carboxylesterase. In addition, a number of kinetic properties were determined, including the substrate specificity, effect of pH, and activation energies. The horse serum carboxylesterase was characterized by unusually low turnover numbers with substrates commonly used with serine carboxylesterases. A variety of criteria were used to confirm the low turnover numbers and the concomitant high concentration of the esterase in the serum. These included reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, disc-gel electrophoresis, and labelling with (/sup 14/C) diisopropylphosphofluoridate.

Torres, J.L.

1987-01-01

486

Laryngotracheal lesions following routine orotracheal intubation in the horse.  

PubMed

Sequelae of routine orotracheal intubation under clinical conditions were characterised in 38 healthy horses presented at three veterinary medical teaching hospitals. Four of these were necropsied and their tissues studied histologically. To minimise variation, 30 mm id cuffed silicone endotracheal tubes or Cole cuffless tubes were used in all patients. Fibreoptic endoscopic examination of upper respiratory and tracheal areas was accomplished pre-intubation, immediately post extubation and after 24 h. Endoscopy revealed that intubation was associated with laryngeal and/or tracheal lesions in all horses. Observations included abundant tracheal mucus, epithelial ecchymoses, basement membrane haemorrhage and mucus covered diphtheritic membrane plaques. Histological examination of lesions from the upper respiratory system of the four necropsied horses confirmed that the damage was comparable to that associated with tracheal intubation and reported in other species. PMID:2591359

Heath, R B; Steffey, E P; Thurmon, J C; Wertz, E M; Meagher, D M; Hyyppa, T; Van Slyke, G L

1989-11-01

487

Abortion in a horse following Neorickettsia risticii infection.  

PubMed

A pregnant 18-year-old Quarterhorse mare presented with fever, anorexia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and gastrointestinal hypermotility at day 68 of gestation. Potomac horse fever was diagnosed based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of whole blood and a high antibody titer to Neorickettsia risticii. The mare made a rapid clinical recovery following antibiotic therapy, but aborted 98 days later. Necropsy on the aborted fetus revealed lymphohistiocytic colitis, lymphadenitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. The placenta was grossly and histologically normal. Formalin-fixed lymph node, thymus, liver, and colon taken from the aborted fetus were positive by PCR for N. risticii DNA. Potomac horse fever is a common disease in horses that may result in delayed abortion. The microscopic lesions in the fetus are characteristic, and the diagnosis can be confirmed by PCR on formalin-fixed tissues. PMID:18987240

Coffman, Elizabeth A; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Craig, Linden E

2008-11-01

488

[Phylogeny, form and function of canine teeth in the horse].  

PubMed

The canine teeth of the horse developed phylogenically from the simple, pointed, short-rooted tooth form of the leaf eating, in pairs living, Eocene horse Hyracotherium and served up to the Oligocene as a means of defense (self preservation). In the Miocene the living conditions of the Merychippus changed and they took to eating grass and adopted as a new behavior the life in a herd. The canine teeth possibly played an important role in fights for social ranking; they changed from a crown form to knife-like shape. In the Pliohippus the canine tooth usually remained in male horses and since the Pliocene, it contributed to the fights between stallions, to ensure that the offspring only came from the strongest animals (preservation of the species). Form and construction of the canine tooth are described and discussed in detail under the above mentioned phylogenic and ethologic aspects. PMID:12919071

Vollmerhaus, B; Roos, H; Gerhards, H; Knospe, C

2003-08-01

489

[New drugs for horses and production animals in 2010].  

PubMed

In 2010, three new active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for horses and food-producing animals. These were gamithromycin (Zactran®), a new macrolide antibiotic, Monepantel (Zolvix®), a broad spectrum anthelmintic with a novel mechanism, and Pergolide (Prascend®), the first dopamine receptor agonist for animals. Two substances have been approved for additional species. The tetracycline antibiotic doxycycline is now also authorized for turkeys and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug firocoxib from the group of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors is now available for horses. Furthermore, four new preparations with an interesting new pharmaceutical form, one drug with a new formulation and two drugs, which are interesting because of other criteria, were added to the market for horses and food producing animals. PMID:22167083

Emmerich, I U

2011-01-01

490

A Massively Parallel Sequencing Approach Uncovers Ancient Origins and High Genetic Variability of Endangered Przewalski's Horses  

PubMed Central

The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered—two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117–0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow.

Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Allison R.; Schultz, Bryant; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

2011-01-01

491

A massively parallel sequencing approach uncovers ancient origins and high genetic variability of endangered Przewalski's horses.  

PubMed

The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered-two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117-0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow. PMID:21803766

Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A; Fisher, Allison R; Schultz, Bryant; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

2011-07-29

492

The effect of double bridles and jaw-clamping crank nosebands on facial cutaneous and ocular temperature in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any apparatus that restricts a horse’s movement can compromise welfare. Eye temperature as measured remotely using infrared thermography is emerging as a correlate of salivary cortisol concentrations in horses. This article explores the effect on the temperature of the eyes and facial skin of horses wearing devices that restrict jaw movements. In certain equestrian disciplines, unacceptable equine oral activity, such

Paul McGreevy; Amanda Warren-Smith; Yann Guisard

493

High prevalence of bovine papillomaviral DNA in the normal skin of equine sarcoid-affected and healthy horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine papillomavirus (BPV), the causative agent of papillomas in cattle, has been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of equine sarcoids in horses. BPV has also been detected occasionally in normal equine skin. In this study, presence and activity of BPV in normal skin and peripheral blood of 4 groups of horses were evaluated: sarcoid-affected horses, horses

L. Bogaert; A. Martens; M. Van Poucke; R. Ducatelle; H. De Cock; J. Dewulf; C. De Baere; L. Peelman; F. Gasthuys

2008-01-01

494

World Ocean Observatory: A Forum for Ocean Affairs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a place of exchange for ocean information, education and public discourse about the future of the ocean and its implication for human survival. Topic areas consist of the Cultural Ocean; content with a social perspective (history, art, literature, etc.); and the Physical Ocean; content with a scientific perspective (the United Nations Atlas of the Oceans, NOAA's Ocean Explorer, UNESCO's intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, etc.). There is also the World Ocean Directory, a searchable directory of ocean-related organizations (log-in and password are required) and 'Breaking Waves', a digest of ocean news articles. 'The Ocean Classroom' consists of online educational resources (lesson plans, activities, references) organized by theme: fresh water and sanitation, marine biology, ocean energy, coastal issues, the law of the sea, and many others.

495

Mesoscale ocean dynamics modeling  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ocean is a very complex nonlinear system that exhibits turbulence on essentially all scales, multiple equilibria, and significant intrinsic variability. Modeling the ocean`s dynamics at mesoscales is of fundamental importance for long-time-scale climate predictions. A major goal of this project has been to coordinate, strengthen, and focus the efforts of applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computational physicists and engineers (at LANL and a consortium of Universities) in a joint effort addressing the issues in mesoscale ocean dynamics. The project combines expertise in the core competencies of high performance computing and theory of complex systems in a new way that has great potential for improving ocean models now running on the Connection Machines CM-200 and CM-5 and on the Cray T3D.

mHolm, D.; Alber, M.; Bayly, B.; Camassa, R.; Choi, W.; Cockburn, B.; Jones, D.; Lifschitz, A.; Margolin, L.; Marsden, L.; Nadiga, B.; Poje, A.; Smolarkiewicz, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levermore, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-05-01

496

Archived ocean data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy has established the Institute for Naval Oceanography (INO, in NSTL, Miss.), which has as its principal goal the development and demonstration of mesoscale eddy-resolving ocean prediction systems on a global basis. Data bases of meteorological and oceanographic variables are a component in understanding and predicting the dynamics of atmospheric and oceanic systems. Thus high-quality, well documented data bases are vital for the