Sample records for oceanic horse mackerel

  1. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

    2012-09-01

    The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population. PMID:21875447

  2. Stock assessment and management implications of horse mackerel ( Trachurus japonicus) in Korean waters, based on the relationships between recruitment and the ocean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang Ik; Lee, Jae Bong

    This study presents an example of horse mackerel ( Trachurus japonicus) stock to demonstrate that marine environmental factors are important in stock assessment for the new Korean Total Allowable Catch (TAC)-based fisheries management system. The estimated survival rate ( S) of horse mackerel ranged from 0.25 to 0.36. The instantaneous coefficient of natural mortality ( M) was 0.48/year, and the age at first capture was 0.83 year. Annual biomass of horse mackerel in Korean waters was estimated by a biomass-based cohort analysis using annual catch in weight at age during 1965-1995. Yield-per-recruit and spawning biomass-per-recruit were estimated under various harvest strategies at Fmax, F0.1, F30% and F40%. A method for estimating acceptable biological catch (ABC) is proposed for dealing with the large differences in the quality and quantity of information and data available. Using recruitment of horse mackerel estimated from various spawner-recruitment relationship models combined with salinity, volume transport, and zooplankton biomass as environmental factors, the ABC under the best information available was estimated to range from 3100 to 3800 mt.

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in European sardine, horse mackerel and Atlantic mackerel from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Campos, A; Lino, C M; Cardoso, S M; Silveira, M I N

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports the results for the surveillance of nine organochlorine pesticides (HCH isomers (alpha, beta, e, gamma), p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, HCB and aldrin) in muscle of three fish species, European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus), Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). Analytical methodology included n-hexane extraction, clean-up with 2% deactivated Florisil, and quantification with gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The highest mean concentrations were found for p,p'-DDT in sardine and mackerel at levels of 30.1 and 109.9 microg kg(-1), respectively, and for p,p'-DDD in horse mackerel at 51.9 microg kg(-1). Three species had higher levels for S-DDT than S-HCH. The estimated daily intake of organochlorine pesticides in the three species showed that in sardine, the highest EDIs were found for aldrin, at 1.8 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), which represents 1.8% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), and for ss-HCH, at 4.0 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.4% of ADI. Lowest values were found for Atlantic mackerel. Statistical analysis to determine the differences in mean concentrations of pesticides between species, and any correlation between groups of residues related with each one of the species, was undertaken. PMID:16019839

  4. Sardine and horse mackerel recruitment and upwelling off Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Miguel; P. Santos; Maria de Fatima Borges; Steve Groom

    2001-01-01

    The results of preliminary investigations on the possible relationships between coastal upwelling variability observed with satellite remote sensing, and sardine and horse mackerel recruitment dynamics in the west coast of Portugal are presented. The analysis of a sardine-recruitment time-series for the period 1976-1998 shows that there has been a decreasing trend since 1983 (with the exceptions of 1991 and 1992),

  5. Morphological variation of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Iberian and North African Atlantic: implications for stock identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto G. Murta

    2000-01-01

    The current delimitation of the Atlanto-Iberian stock of horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758), is based on scant biological evidence. Here, the location of the southern boundary of this stock is investigated through the analysis of several morphometric and meristic characteristics. A total of 384 horse mackerel were sampled from three areas off the Portuguese, one off the Spanish (Gulf

  6. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition of horse-mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narcisa M. Bandarra; Irineu Batista; Maria L. Nunes; José M. Empis

    2001-01-01

    Chemical analysis was performed on samples of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus L.) caught monthly off the Portuguese coast throughout a period of one year (May 1997-April 1998). In the period between August and January the amount of total lipids present was recorded showing a minimum in February. Protein content remained fairly constant during the whole one-year period. Seasonal variation of

  7. Effect of Storage Temperature on Quality of Frozen Horse-mackerel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohtaka, Tateo

    Quality change of frozen horse-mackerel were studied under storage temperature at -18, -23, -30 and -40°C for 12 months. Quality were measured with K value (Freshness index of muscle, degradation ratio of ATP), amount of drip (free and expressible drip), water-holdiog capacity, weight ratio of cooking loss, organoleptic test, and histological feature of muscle. K value, a mount of free drip, w eight ratio of cooking loss, histological feature of muscle, and organoleptic test in color, form and flavor were not detected any changes during frozen storage for 12 months at various temperature. However expressible drip, water-holding capacity and score of taste in organoleptic test showed some changes after 8 or 12 months at -18 and/or -23°C, it was not serious change to-loss quality as food. Frozen horse-mackerel can store under below ~ 18°C for 12 months.

  8. Amino Acid and Vitamin Composition of Raw and Cooked Horse Mackerel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuray Erkan; Arif Selçuk; Özkan Özden

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid, vitamin (A, E, B1, B2, B3 and B6), and proximate composition were determined in raw and cooked horse mackerel. The changes in amino acid, vitamin, and proximate\\u000a content were found to be significant for all cooking methods (frying, grilling, and steaming). Cooking did in general significantly\\u000a increase the contents of essential, semi-essential, and other amino acids compared to

  9. Quality loss related to rancidity development during frozen storage of horse mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago P. Aubourg; Carmen Piñeiro; M Jesús González

    2004-01-01

    The development of rancidity and its effect on quality loss were studied in frozen horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Two different kinds of fish products (whole fish and fillets) were stored at a commercial freezer temperature (?20°C) for\\u000a up to 12 mon and were compared to samples stored at a much lower temperature (?80°C). Analyses included: lipid hydrolysis\\u000a (FFA formation) and

  10. Inhibition of chemical changes related to freshness loss during storage of horse mackerel ( Trachurus trachurus) in slurry ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanesa Losada; Carmen Piñeiro; Jorge Barros-Velázquez; Santiago P. Aubourg

    2005-01-01

    Slurry ice is a biphasic system consisting of small spherical ice crystals surrounded by seawater at subzero temperature. Its employment was evaluated in the present work as a new chilled storage method for whole horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and compared with traditional flake icing. Different chemical analyses (nucleotide degradation, lipid hydrolysis and oxidation, interaction compounds formation and electrophoretic protein profiles)

  11. Alkali and Acid Solubilization Effects on Rheological Properties of Horse Mackerel Muscle Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo-Deaño, L.; Tovar, C. A.

    2008-07-01

    Influence of the acid (Type A) and alkali (Type B) solubilization of muscle proteins in the viscoelastic properties of surimi and surimi gels made from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) muscle were evaluated. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that surimi from method B presents higher viscoelastic moduli, lowest values of phase angle and minimum viscoelastic moduli dependence with frequency than surimi A. These results show a high inicial protein aggregation in surimi B, that could explain the greater firmness and hardness of this sample, showing a more compact network structure. From static and dynamic tests, gel developed from alkali solubilization resulted in higher gel strength and more rigid network than that from acidic pH, despite the incial protein aggregation of surimi B its protein keeps better gelation capacity. The less structural quality of GA gel is likely due to the more lipid content on the surimi as compared to alkali treatment.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACID AND PEPSIN SOLUBLE COLLAGEN FROM THE SKIN OF HORSE MACKERELS (MAGALASPIS CORDYLA) AND CROAKER (OTOLITHES RUBER)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Sampath Kumar; R. A. Nazeer; R. Jaiganesh; R. Ranjith

    2011-01-01

    Acid and pepsin-soluble collagen (ASC & PSC) was isolated from the skin of horse mackerel (Magalaspis cordyla) and croaker (Otolithes ruber) using 0.5 M acetic acid followed by precipitation with 0.9 M NaCl. The yields of ASC were 17.3±0.4 & 21.9±0.6% and PSC (22.5±0.8 & 25.7±0.3%) as per wet weight basis respectively. The extracted ASC and PSC were characterized by

  13. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  14. Improvement of Frozen Storage Tolerance by the Addition of Sugar in Dusky Spinefoot, Lizard fish and Horse mackerel Surimi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Akane; Hamada, Yuki; Kusano, Sawa; Osako, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Nozaki, Yukinori

    The effects of three different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, at 5%) were analyzed and compared against a control for frozen surimi (-25 °C) made from dusky spinefoot, lizard fish and horse mackerel, for a total storage period of 180 days. Kamaboko was prepared at defined time intervals, and its jelly strength (J.S.), water holding capacity (W.H.C.), and whiteness, and the total Ca-ATPase activity of surimi were analyzed. Present results showed that all parameters of sugar free control samples decreased faster than those of sugar added samples during frozen storage.Sugar resulted a good additive for long time surimi conservation for all the species analyzed.

  15. Quality changes of the Mediterranean horse mackerel ( Trachurus mediterraneus) during chilled storage: The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarki, Raouf; Sadok, Saloua; Barkallah, Insaf

    2009-04-01

    Pelagic fishes represent the main Mediterranean fisheries in terms of quantity. However, waste and spoilage of pelagic fish are substantial for a variety of reasons, such as their high perishability and the lack or inadequate supply of ice and freezing facilities. In this work, fresh Mediterranean horse mackerel ( Trachurus mediterraneus) were irradiated at 1 and 2 kGy and stored in ice for 18 days. Quality changes during storage were followed by the determination of microbial counts, trimethylamine (TMA) and volatile basic nitrogen contents. Similarly, lipid composition and sensory analysis were carried out. Irradiation treatment was effective in reducing total bacterial counts throughout storage. Total basic volatile nitrogen content (TVB-N) and TMA levels increased in all lots with storage time, their concentrations being significantly reduced by irradiation, even when the lower level (1 kGy) was used. According to the quality index method, the control lot had a sensory shelf-life of 4 days, whereas those of the irradiated lots were extended by 5 days. Also, low-dose irradiation had no adverse effect on the nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of Mediterranean horse mackerel. In the same way, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values increased with irradiation during the first day, but these values were lower at the end of storage, compared to the control. Results confirm the practical advantages of using ? irradiation as an additional process to chilled storage to enhance the microbiological quality and to extend the shelf-life of small pelagic species.

  16. Effect of frozen storage on the quality of whole fish and fillets of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and mediterranean hake (Merluccius mediterraneus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stamatia Simeonidou; Alexander Govaris; Kyriakos Vareltzis

    1997-01-01

    Whole fish and fillets of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and mediterranean hake (Merluccius mediterraneus) were assessed for quality (physical, chemical and sensory attributes) changes throughout 12 months of frozen storage at\\u000a ?18?°C. The pH, expressible water (EXW), quantities of trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylamine (DMA), formaldehyde (FA), the total\\u000a volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) the thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), peroxide value (PV) and

  17. Standardization of CPUE for Chilean jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi) from Chinese trawl fleets in the high seas of the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Zou, Xiaorong; Chen, Xinjun; Zhou, Yinqi; Zhang, Min

    2013-09-01

    The generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to the standardization of catch per unit effort (CPUE) for Chilean jack mackerel from Chinese factory trawl fishing fleets in the Southeast Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2010 by removing the operational, environmental, spatial and temporal impacts. A total of 9 factors were selected to build the GLM and GAM, i.e., Year, Month, Vessel, La Niña and El Niño events (ELE), Latitude, Longitude, Sea surface temperature (SST), SST anomaly (SSTA), Nino3.4 index and an interaction term between Longitude and Latitude. The first 5 factors were significant components in the GLM, which in combination explained 27.34% of the total variance in nominal CPUE. In the stepwise GAM, all factors explained 30.78% of the total variance, with Month, Year and Vessel as the main factors influencing CPUE. The higher CPUE occurred during the period April to July at a SST range of 12-15°C and a SSTA range of 0.2-1.0°C. The CPUE was significantly higher in normal years compared with that in La Niña and El Niño years. The abundance of Chilean jack mackerel declined during 2001 and 2010, with an increase in 2007. This work provided the relative abundance index of Chilean jack mackerel for stock assessment by standardizing catch and effort data of Chinese trawl fisheries and examined the influence of temporal, spatial, environmental and fisheries operational factors on Chilean jack mackerel CPUE.

  18. Horses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... horses and can cause human illness are: Anthrax ( Bacillus anthracis ) Anthrax is a naturally occurring disease of animals caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis . People and animals can get anthrax when they ...

  19. King mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) are large coastal pelagic

    E-print Network

    Massachu- setts to Brazil in the western Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea (Mc of Mexico (GOM) and in the Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic) off the southeastern United States. King mackerel) and Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic). Separate migra- tory groups, or stocks, migrate from eastern GOM

  20. ATLANTIC MACKEREL FISHERY, 1804-1965

    E-print Network

    2 ATLANTIC MACKEREL FISHERY, 1804-1965 i The mackerel, Scomber scombrus, has a streamlined body FISHERIES, H. E . Crowther, Director ATLANTIC MACKEREL FISHERY, 1804 - 1965 By DWIGHT L. HOY and GEORGE M .........·.··....·. Atlantic mackerel catch, 1804- 1965 Atlantic mackerel catch, by statistical regions , 1871 - 1965

  1. Mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic levels in three pelagic fish species from the Atlantic Ocean: Intra- and inter-specific variability and human health risks for consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Vieira; S. Morais; S. Ramos; C. Delerue-Matos; M. B. P. P. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Three commonly consumed and commercially valuable fish species (sardine, chub and horse mackerel) were collected from the Northeast and Eastern Central Atlantic Ocean in Portuguese waters during one year. Mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic amounts were determined in muscles using graphite furnace and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Maximum mean levels of mercury (0.1715±0.0857mg\\/kg, ww) and arsenic (1.139±0.350mg\\/kg, ww) were

  2. Analytical correction for oversampled Atlantic mackerel

    E-print Network

    Analytical correction for oversampled Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus eggs collected on the calculated abunqance of mackerel eggs is analyzed. An ana- lytical correction for this bias is de- rived and applied to empirical data from a mackerel egg survey held in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1990

  3. Evidence for distinct stocks of king mackerel,

    E-print Network

    Evidence for distinct stocks of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in the Gulf of Mexico Allyn G.-Evidence support- ing a two stock hypothesis for king mackerel, Scomberornorus cavalla, in the Gulf of Mexico Nacional de la Pesca Mexico City. Mexico The king mackerel, Scomber- omorus cavalla, is a widely distrib

  4. THE 1978 SPRING RECREATIONAL CATCH OF ATLANTIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER SCOMBRUS,

    E-print Network

    THE 1978 SPRING RECREATIONAL CATCH OF ATLANTIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER SCOMBRUS, OFF THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC REGION Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus, season- ally migrate through the Middle Atlantic region of Atlantic mackerel in New Jersey in 1975 was

  5. Growth and Mortality of King Mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla

    E-print Network

    Growth and Mortality of King Mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla Tagged in the Southeastern United and Atlantic king mackerel groups. Table 1 Number of king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla tag releases off Total 6416 2594 2674 809 Methods King mackerel captured by hook- and-line were marked with internal

  6. FOOD FISH FACTS Sp4nlSh Mackerel

    E-print Network

    46 FOOD FISH FACTS Sp4nlSh Mackerel (Scomberomorus m~cul.1lw) Spanish mackerel are members of a large family of fish that include the tunas and other mackerels. All of these fish, although vary- ing of this family live in the open sea and are more or less migratory. Spanish mackerel are known

  7. Mackerel are packed at Gloucester, Mass., and Portland, Me., on . the Atlantic Coast. The mackerel canning industry of the Pacific

    E-print Network

    MACKEREL Mackerel are packed at Gloucester, Mass., and Portland, Me., on . the Atlantic Coast. The mackerel canning industry of the Pacific Coast is confined to the southern California area, with San Pedro as the most important center. Mackerel are also packed to some extent at San Diego and in small amounts

  8. The jack mackerel fishery and El Niño 1997 98 effects off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, Dagoberto F.; Cubillos, Luis A.; P. Núñez, Sergio

    The jack mackerel fishery is one of the most important resources on the South Eastern Pacific Ocean off Chile, with landings higher than 3 million tonnes between 1990 and 1996. During 1997-1998, remarkable changes occurred in the length structure of jack mackerel catches, as juveniles (<26 cm FL) dominated the fishing grounds. That was attributed to the environmental effects of the 1997-98 El Niño on the feeding grounds of the jack mackerel off central-southern Chile. Anomalous sea surface temperatures were first detected in June 1997 and persisted into 1998. The response of the incidence of juveniles lagged one year after the ENSO phenomenon affected central-southern Chile, whereas there was a direct relationship between the proportion of juveniles and the intrusion of the 15°C isotherm towards the south. This isotherm reached its most southerly distribution in 1997-98, as a consequence of the El Niño. Jack mackerel is an oceanic and highly migrating species, so we propose that El Niño conditions affected the migratory pathway of the juveniles. It is postulated that the restoration of the nursery habitat north of 30°S may be delayed by more than 3-4 years. New juveniles will dominate in northern areas in the short-term, whereas the juveniles that migrated to southern areas during 1997-1999 are not expected to return back north. At present, the real situation of the stock is far from certain, but we think that environmental impacts associated to the El Niño can not be overlooked when planning the management of the jack mackerel fishery.

  9. JACK MACKEREL EGGS PACIFIC COAST, 1951-5

    E-print Network

    JACK MACKEREL EGGS PACIFIC COAST, 1951-5 SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT- FISHERIES No. 263 UNITED STATES Report--Fisheries No. 263 Washington, D. C, July 1958 #12;JACK MACKEREL EGGS, PACIFIC COAST, 1951-54 By David A. Farris CONTENTS Page Area covered 2 Methods of sampling 2 The stages of jack mackerel egg

  10. DESCRIPTION OF EGGS AND LARVAE OF JACK MACKEREL (Trachurus symmetricus)

    E-print Network

    DESCRIPTION OF EGGS AND LARVAE OF JACK MACKEREL (Trachurus symmetricus) AND DISTRIBUTION, Director #12;ABSTRACT Development of jack mackerel (Traoh1WltB 8ymmetricll8) is described for the em in the identification of jack-mackerel eggs. The larva, on hatching, is about 2 mm. in length. The oil globnle occupies

  11. Seasonal variation in fat content of mackerel (Scomberscombrus L.) caught

    E-print Network

    Seasonal variation in fat content of mackerel (Scomberscombrus L.) caught in the western English RESEARCH TECHNICAL REPORT NUMBER 91 Seasonal variation in fat content of mackerel (Scomberscombrus L feature among pelagic fish and are known by those working in the field also to be true for mackerel

  12. MATURATION AND INDUCED SPAWNING OF CAPTIVE PACIFIC MACKEREL, SCOMBERJAPONICUS

    E-print Network

    MATURATION AND INDUCED SPAWNING OF CAPTIVE PACIFIC MACKEREL, SCOMBERJAPONICUS RODERICK LEONGl AB~TRACT Pacific mackerel, Scomber japonicu8, became sexually mature under laboratory conditions and were induced light 8 h dark. Mackerel caught near the end ofthe spawning season redeveloped their gonads more rapidly

  13. STARVATIONINDUCED MORTALITY OF YOUNG SEACAUGHT JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS,

    E-print Network

    STARVATION·INDUCED MORTALITY OF YOUNG SEA·CAUGHT JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS, DETERMINED WITH HISmWGICAL AND MORPHOWGICAL METHODS GAIL H. 1'HEILACKER' ABSTRACf Young jack mackerel, Trackurll8 8!f for sea-caught jack mackerel were determined by using histological and mor· phological criteria

  14. Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus mon-opterygius) is a hexagrammid fish

    E-print Network

    571 Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus mon- opterygius) is a hexagrammid fish that inhabits the temperate trawl fishery (Lowe et al., 2006). Atka mackerel is a demersal spawner and males pro- vide parental care are important factors in the management of Atka mackerel populations. The male brooding phase of the re

  15. Causes of mortality in young jack mackerel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger P. Hewitt; Gail H. Theilacker; Nancy C. H. Lo

    1985-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted with the purpose of partitioning jack mackerel Trachurus symmetricus larval mortality into portions due to starvation and to predation. Field collections were made to determine larval condition, growth, net retention and production; laboratory experiments were conducted to determine growth and body shrinkage due to preservation treatment. Age-specific starvation and total mortality rates were estimated

  16. Paradata for 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'

  17. Population Structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults (“twinning”). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management. PMID:23741381

  18. Population structure of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).

    PubMed

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults ("twinning"). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management. PMID:23741381

  19. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted....

  20. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted....

  1. 75 FR 11441 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...mt) of Atlantic mackerel per trip at any time, and may only land Atlantic mackerel...mt) of Atlantic mackerel per trip at any time, and may only land Atlantic mackerel...13 mt) or more of Loligo per trip at any time, and may only land Loligo...

  2. Concentrating PUFA from mackerel processing waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles P. Zuta; Ben K. Simpson; Hing Man Chan; Leroy Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Mackerel processing waste comprising skins, viscera, and muscle tissue was evaluated for concentrating PUFA by urea complexation.\\u000a Fish oil was extracted using either chloroform\\/methanol (2?1, vol\\/vol) or hexane\\/isopropanol (3?2, vol\\/vol). The yield of\\u000a oil, as well as iodine, peroxide, and acid values, was determined for fresh fish oil extracts, and oil samples were storel\\u000a at ?70°C in the presence of

  3. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePLUS

    ... E-mail: info@nccih.nih.gov PubMed® A service of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), PubMed® contains publication information and ( ... supporting research, sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications ... Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus Horse Chestnut Listing: www.nlm. ...

  4. NOAA Form 88-129 (8/94) OMB No. 0648-0013, exp. 8/31/2004 MONTHLY DEALER REPORT OF KING AND SPANISH MACKEREL

    E-print Network

    MACKEREL LANDINGS FOR THE COASTAL MIGRATORY PELAGIC RESOURCES ___________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ KING MACKEREL SPANISH MACKEREL GEAR Round Wt. Gutted Wt. Round Wt. Gutted Wt. Hook & Line ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ Gill Net ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ No King or Spanish Mackerel were purchased

  5. 50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern...372 Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern...for applications for renewals of king mackerel gillnet permits, no applications...

  6. 50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern...372 Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern...for applications for renewals of king mackerel gillnet permits, no applications...

  7. 75 FR 3873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas for vessels...

  8. 75 FR 53606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas by vessels...

  9. Metal-catalyzed oxidation in mackerel skin and meat lipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Ke; R. G. Ackman

    1976-01-01

    Kinetic effects of added copper, zinc, and iron compounds have been investigated in the oxidation of lipids in mackerel skin\\u000a and meat at 60 C using a simple weight gain method. Inorganic Fe(II) and Cu(II) were found to be strong catalysts in mackerel\\u000a lipid oxidation. The meat lipids were particularly sensitive to oxidation in the presence of Fe(II) and Cu(II)

  10. Phylogenetic Systematics of the Scomberomorus regalis (Teleostei: Scombridae) Species Group: Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    : Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels Heidi M. Banford; Eldredge Bermingham; Bruce B (Teleostei: Scombridae) Species Group: Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels

  11. these tests were conducted during March-April when juvenile mackerels are rare in the coastal

    E-print Network

    these tests were conducted during March-April when juvenile mackerels are rare in the coastal waters of South Carolina. In 1986 we collected juvenile mackerels during July through October. Because- gion. Based on the occurrence of early larval stages, spawning of both mackerels in the South Atlantic

  12. AGE AND GROwtH OF SPANISH MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS MACULAroS,

    E-print Network

    AGE AND GROwtH OF SPANISH MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS MACULAroS, FROM FLORIDA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, were used to estimate age and growth rates of this species from Florida.731, where I = fork length (mm) and t = years. Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, are found

  13. DESCRIPTION AND SURFACE DISTRIBUTION OF JUVENILE PERUVIAN JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS MURPHYI, NICHOLS

    E-print Network

    DESCRIPTION AND SURFACE DISTRIBUTION OF JUVENILE PERUVIAN JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS MURPHYI, NICHOLS Peruvian jack mackerel, TrlU'hurus m."rphyi, were collected with a dip net and from albacore stomachs are presented. The predominance of T. murphyi in the diet of albacore suggests that the jack mackerel

  14. 40.-NOTES ON THE IRISH MACKEREL FISHERIES. BY REV. WILLIAM SPOTSWOOD GREEN,

    E-print Network

    40.-NOTES ON THE IRISH MACKEREL FISHERIES. BY REV. WILLIAM SPOTSWOOD GREEN, Inspector of Irid fish can wander from the shores of one country to the other. The mackerel (&comber scombrus), owing previous to the date named. In 1892 I shot a train of mackerel nets 10 miles outside the Arran Islands off

  15. Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Aleutian Islands Atka Mackerel

    E-print Network

    Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Aleutian Islands Atka Mackerel mackerel and Pacific cod fisheries. The western distinct population segment (WDPS) of Steller sea lion is declining. Atka mackerel and Pacific cod are principal prey species for Steller sea lions in the Aleutian

  16. The king mackerel (Scomberomorus ca-valla),a westernAtlantic member of the

    E-print Network

    684 The king mackerel (Scomberomorus ca- valla),a westernAtlantic member of the family ScombridaeVries and Grimes, 1997). King mackerel sup- port valuable commercial and recre- ational fisheries by quota was implemented in the 1985­86 fishing year. The current management regime for king mackerel

  17. REPRODUCTIVE BIOWGY OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    E-print Network

    REPRODUCTIVE BIOWGY OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES biology ofking mackerel, Scomberomon18 cawJla, was studied from specimens collected off Texas, Louisiana examined from 1,163 females and 595 males obtained in 1977-78. Spawning was prolonged. Most'king mackerel

  18. To be cited as: Borsa P. 2003. Genetic structure of round scad mackerel Decapterus macrosoma (Carangidae)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    To be cited as: Borsa P. 2003. ­ Genetic structure of round scad mackerel Decapterus macrosoma scad mackerel Decapterus macrosoma (Carangidae) in the Indo-Malay archipelago P. Borsa ( ) Institut de mackerel sampled in 1995-1998 were analysed for genetic variation using mitochondrial and nuclear

  19. THE SOUTHERN SPRING MACKEREL FISHERY OF THE UNITED STATES. By HUGH M. SMITH.

    E-print Network

    THE SOUTHERN SPRING MACKEREL FISHERY OF THE UNITED STATES. By HUGH M. SMITH. The southern spring mackerel fishery of the United States if'! important from aev- eral standpoints, and of late has been than the regular fishery for mackerel carried on during the summer and fall months, it- has

  20. A DESCRIPTION OF ATLANTIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER SCOMBRVS, EGGS AND EARLY LARVAE

    E-print Network

    A DESCRIPTION OF ATLANTIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER SCOMBRVS, EGGS AND EARLY LARVAE PETER L. BERRIEN 1 ABSTRACT The development of laboratory-reared Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus, eggs and early larvae of this paper is to present descrip- tive information on the eggs and early larvae ofAtlantic mackerel, Scomber

  1. SIZE, SEX RATIO, AND RECRUITMENT IN VARIOUS FISHERIES OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CA VALLA, IN

    E-print Network

    SIZE, SEX RATIO, AND RECRUITMENT IN VARIOUS FISHERIES OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CA VALLA. MANOOCH III' ABSTRACT Data from over 54,000 king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, were analyzed selective for particular sizes of king mackerel. Size composition in each area varied considerably among

  2. THE UTILITY AND METHODS OF MACKEREL PROPAGATION. By J. PERCY MOORE.

    E-print Network

    THE UTILITY AND METHODS OF MACKEREL PROPAGATION. By J. PERCY MOORE. The esteem in which the mackerel is commonly held as a food-fish and the great importance of its pursuit and capture to a large to be the possibilities and limitations of the method when applied to the mackerel. Tile subject may be stated as two

  3. Age and Growth of King Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, From the U.S. Gulf of Mexico

    E-print Network

    Age and Growth of King Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, From the U.S. Gulf of Mexico CHARLES S mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla. to recreational and commercial fisheries along the southeastern Atlantic resources (mackerels) in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic region. final amendment I 1985 Gulf of Mexico

  4. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Finlet Kinematics in the Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus)

    E-print Network

    Lauder, George V.

    Three-Dimensional Analysis of Finlet Kinematics in the Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) JENNIFER C of the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, were examined using three-dimensional measurement techniques to test produced by the tail of swimming mackerel. Introduction Finlets are small non-retractable fins

  5. A LABORATORY STUDY OF PARTICULATE AND FILTER FEEDING OF THE PACIFIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER JAPON/CUS

    E-print Network

    A LABORATORY STUDY OF PARTICULATE AND FILTER FEEDING OF THE PACIFIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER JAPONI capacity. The results suggest that the mackerel utilizes only the larger of the planktonic crusta- ceans indicate that the mackerel could not obtain its daily nutritional requirement, estimated to be 8

  6. Observations From a Preservation and Processing Study on Atka Mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius

    E-print Network

    Observations From a Preservation and Processing Study on Atka Mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius other species including Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monop- terygius (Fig. I), of the greenling family (Hexagrammidae). Although less abundant than other species, Atka mackerel are nonetheless an im- portant resource

  7. King Mackerel, Scomberomorus caval/a, Mark-Recapture Studies Off Florida's East Coast

    E-print Network

    King Mackerel, Scomberomorus caval/a, Mark-Recapture Studies Off Florida's East Coast H. CHARLES SCHAEFER and WILLIAM A. FABLE, JR. Introduction King mackerel, Scomberomorus cav alla, is a coastal mackerel had exceeded H. Charles Schaefer is with the Statistics Office, Coastal Resources Division

  8. EFFECTS OF THE MENHADEN AND MACKEREL FISHERIES UPON THE FISH SUPPLY

    E-print Network

    = = EFFECTS OF THE MENHADEN AND MACKEREL FISHERIES UPON THE FISH SUPPLY J- By Woo C. Kendall and movements of menhaden and mackerel, - __- __- __- h _ 283 Spawning migrations of the mackereli c , , n n n........·...........·.................·...·......··..............·.. ~ . . . . . . . . . . 293 280 #12;EFFECTS OF THE MENHADEN AND MACKEREL FISHERIES UPON THE FISH SUPPLY. By W. C. KENDALL

  9. Abundance of King Mackerel, Scomberomorus caval/a, in the Southeastern United States Based on

    E-print Network

    Abundance of King Mackerel, Scomberomorus caval/a, in the Southeastern United States Based. BRUSHER Introduction The king mackerel fisheries of the southeastern United States are presently being Councils (1983, 1985). Basic to the for mulation and use of the mackerel FMP are various commercial

  10. NORTH PACIFIC RESEARCH BOARD PROJECT FINAL REPORT Reproductive Ecology of Atka Mackerel Pleurogrammus monopterygius in Alaska

    E-print Network

    1 NORTH PACIFIC RESEARCH BOARD PROJECT FINAL REPORT Reproductive Ecology of Atka Mackerel's permission. #12;66 CHAPTER 3: ATKA MACKEREL MATING SYSTEM Genetic assessment of the mating system and patterns of egg cannibalism in Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius Michael F. Canino 1 , Ingrid B

  11. SPAWNING AND FECUNDITY OF ATLANTIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER SCOMBRUS, IN THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC BIGHT

    E-print Network

    SPAWNING AND FECUNDITY OF ATLANTIC MACKEREL, SCOMBER SCOMBRUS, IN THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC BIGHT WALLACE W. MORSE 1 ABSTRACT Collections ofAtlantic mackerel, Scomber BcombruB, were made during spring 1977 to fork length, gutted weight, and age. The Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus Lin- naeus, is a schooling

  12. Inhibition of mackerel ( Scomber scombrus) muscle lipoxygenase by green tea polyphenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sreeparna Banerjee

    2006-01-01

    The high polyunsaturated fatty acid content of oily fish such as mackerel (Scomber scombrus) makes it particularly susceptible to oxidative degradation. We have shown previously the presence of lipoxygenase (LOX), a lipid oxygenase, in mackerel muscle. In the current study, commercially available green tea polyphenols were shown to effectively inhibit the LOX activity of mackerel muscle. EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) was

  13. Abundance of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, in the Southeastern United States Based on Charterboat CPUE Data, 1982-85

    E-print Network

    Abundance of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, in the Southeastern United States Based mackerel, Scombero morus maculatus, a member of the fam ily Scombridae, is closely related to the king mackerel, S. cavalla, the cero, S. regalis, and the recently-described Brazilian Spanish mackerel, S

  14. Composting Horse Manure

    E-print Network

    Auvermann, Brent W.; McDonald, Lanny; Devin, Robert; Sweeten, John M.

    1999-07-02

    Uncontrolled stockpiles of horse manure can be an unsightly, smelly and fly-infested mess. However, composting manure can eliminate the messy problems and provide a modest additional income for horse enthusiasts, operators of equine facilities...

  15. Schooling mackerel and herring choose neighbours of similar size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Pitcher; A. E. Magurran; J. I. Edwards

    1985-01-01

    Fish schooling in a submerged sea-cage swam next to neighbours of similar size. Between 57 and 74 fish were used. Extensive three-dimensional data showed the neighbour size effect for two different species, herring and mackerel, during both day and night. These experiments, covering sizes which coexist in the wild, are the first demonstration of the neighbour size choice in fish

  16. Horse Genome Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What's in a horse? As it turns out, what's in a horse is quite important, and the Horse Genome Project at the University of Kentucky is currently defining the genome of this animal. The Project is a cooperative international effort which involves some 100 scientists working in 20 countries. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can make their way through five sections, including "The People", "The Horses", "Genomics 101", and "Applications of Genome Study". "The Horses" area is a good place to start, as it gives an overview of the animals being used in the project. In "Genomics 101", interested parties will find an overview of some basic terms used in the field, such as gene, allele, and mutation. The "Applications of Genome Study" area focuses in on how their work will be used to benefit the health and welfare of horses.

  17. Evaluation of oregano antioxidant activity in mackerel oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tsimidou; E. Papavergou; D. Boskou

    1995-01-01

    Dry oregano was tested for its antioxidant activity in mackerel oil stored at 40 °C in the dark. Its effectiveness at 0.5% level was comparable to that of 200 ppm BHA and 0.5% (w\\/w) dry rosemary and stronger to that of red chillies and bay leaf which did not improve the stability of the fish oil. Oregano at 1% (w\\/w)

  18. Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted mackerel protein with low bitter taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein, resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It turned out that the optimum enzyme was the `Mixed enzymes for animal proteolysis'. An enzyme dosage of 4%, a temperature of 50°, and a hydrolysis time of 300 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain high NR (84.28%) and degree of hydrolysis (DH, 16.18%) by orthogonal experiments. Glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid of MDP (defatted mackerel protein) and MDPH (defatted mackerel protein hydrolysates). Compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein, the essential amino acid chemical scores (CS) were greater than 1.0 (1.0-1.7) in MDPH, which is reflective of high nutritional value. This, coupled with the light color and slight fishy odor, indicates that MDPH would potentially have a wide range of applications such as nutritional additives, functional ingredients, and so on.

  19. STARVATION-INDUCED MORTALITY OF YOUNG SEA-CAUGHT JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS, DETERMINED WITH HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GAIL H. THEILACKER

    1986-01-01

    Young jack mackerel, 'Il-aehurus symmetricus, living offshore are starving while those living nearshore are healthy. These results for sea-caught jack mackerel were determined by using histological and mor- phological criteria that reliably diagnosed the viability of laboratory-raised jack mackerel. Both the histological and morphological indices indicated that 350 km offshore about 70% of the first-feeding jack mackerel were starving. In

  20. 78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Bering Sea subarea and Eastern...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  1. 77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  2. To be cited as: Rohfritsch A., Borsa P. 2005. Genetic structure of Indian scad mackerel Decapterus russelli: Pleistocene

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 To be cited as: Rohfritsch A., Borsa P. 2005. ­ Genetic structure of Indian scad mackerel. Heredity 95, 315-322. Genetic structure of Indian scad mackerel Decapterus russelli: Pleistocene vicariance title: Genetic structure of Indian scad mackerel hal-00554479,version1-10Jan2011 Author manuscript

  3. 75 FR 8547 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...opening and closing dates of the Atka mackerel directed fisheries within the harvest...the 2010 A season HLA limits of Atka mackerel in areas 542 and 543 of the Bering...

  4. 75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY...assignments for the 2010 B season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA...trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register...

  5. 76 FR 10780 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Bering Sea subarea and Eastern...the A season allowance of the 2011 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in...

  6. 77 FR 61300 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Atka Mackerel in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...projected unused amount of the 2012 Atka mackerel incidental catch allowance (ICA) for...the 2012 total allowable catch of Atka mackerel to be fully harvested. DATES:...

  7. 78 FR 35771 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  8. 75 FR 6129 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...the 2010 A season allocation of Atka mackerel in these areas allocated to vessels...

  9. Proposed amendment language for the allocation of Atka mackerel to vessels using jig gear -Amendment 34 to the Fishery

    E-print Network

    Proposed amendment language for the allocation of Atka mackerel to vessels using jig gear implemented on [insert date] allocates Atka mackerel to vessels using jig gear. Annually, up to 2 percent.4.9.4 is added to read as follows: 14.4.9.4 Atka mackerel The Regional Administrator, in consultation

  10. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  11. AGE AND GROWTH OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE ATLANTIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES1

    E-print Network

    AGE AND GROWTH OF KING MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, FROM THE ATLANTIC COAST OF THE UNITED larval (2-7 nun SL) and 69 young-of-the-year (79-320 mm FL) king mackerel. were ex- amined. All fish were examined was age 21. The daily nature of rings on lapilli of age 0 king mackerel was not validated

  12. 77 FR 26212 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...the A season allowance of the 2012 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in...

  13. To be cited as: FAUVELOT C., BORSA P. 2011. Patterns of genetic isolation in narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) across the Indo-West Pacific. Biological Journal of the Linnean-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) CECILE FAUVELOT 1 and PHILIPPE BORSA 2* 1 Institut de recherche ISOLATION IN SPANISH MACKEREL ird-00759711,version1-2Dec2012 Author manuscript, published in "Biological

  14. 75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY...assignments for the 2010 A season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA...trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register...

  15. 76 FR 65975 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Bering Sea subarea and Eastern...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas allocated to vessels...

  16. 75 FR 4491 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...is opening directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas specified for...

  17. 78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...the A season allowance of the 2013 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in...

  18. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...is opening directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas specified for...

  19. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian District of the...the 2010 A season allocation of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  20. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  1. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions...

  2. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions...

  3. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  4. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR surveys, egg surveys and commercial landings from Danish coastal fisheries in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and inner Danish waters. The three independent sources of data all show that there is a significant relationship between the timing of spawning and sea surface temperature. Large mackerel are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management and monitoring. An increase in temperature is likely to affect the timing and magnitude of the growth, recruitment and migration of North Sea mackerel with subsequent impacts on its sustainable exploitation.

  5. Estimation of Temperature Range for Cryo Cutting of Frozen Mackerel using DSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    Frozen mackerel flesh was subjected to measurement of its fracture stress (bending energy) in a low temperature range. The optimum conditions for low temperature cutting, "cryo cutting," were estimated from the results of enthalpy changes measured by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). There were two enthalpy changes for gross transition on the DSC chart for mackerel, one was at -63°C to -77°C and the other at -96°C to -112°C. Thus we estimated that mackerel was able to cut by bending below -63°C and that there would be a great decrease in bending energy occurring at around -77°C and -112°C. In testing, there were indeed two great decreases of bending energy for the test pieces of mackerel that had been frozen at -40°C, one was at -70°C to -90°C and the other was at -100°C to -120°C. Therefore, the test pieces of mackerel could be cut by bending at -70°C. The results showed that the DSC measurement of mackerel flesh gave a good estimation of the appropriate cutting temperature of mackerel.

  6. CHAPTER 16: HORSE SAFETY GUIDELINES Approaching a horse

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    the lead near the halter. Extend your right elbow slightly toward the horse. If the horse makes contact with you, its shoulder will hit your elbow first and move you away from it. Your elbow also can be used

  7. Assessing fitness in endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-03-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  8. Assessing fitness in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  9. Thiamin supplementation for exercising horses 

    E-print Network

    Topliff, Donald Ray

    1981-01-01

    at the other measured intervals however horses after treat- ment III appeared to clear pyruvate from the blood at a faster rate than horses after either treatments I or II. Horses after treatment I had significantly higher (P&. 05) TPP effect values at 30... Blanace Blood Thiamln ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Blood Pyruvate. . . . . , ~ TP ' Effect o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Blood Lactate ~. . . . , ~. . . , , , ~ Correlations GENERAL DISCUSSION ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ SU...

  10. Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families

    PubMed Central

    Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families. PMID:24023883

  11. Use of stable isotopes to assess king and Spanish mackerel groups 

    E-print Network

    Roelke, Lynn Ann

    1995-01-01

    , NMFS, Panama City, FL) for his assistance in obtaining samples. Special thanks to Barbara Palko (NMFS, Panama City, FL), for coordinating the collection from NMFS, and all the individuals at NMFS who assisted in the collection. Individuals in John... of nitrogen (A) and carbon (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6 13 Fry's (1983) stable isotope data compared to this king mackerel data set. . . . . . . 5 1 14 All king mackerel sample sites are normalized to Panama City, FL. 52 LIST OF TABLES Table...

  12. Molecular expression of opsin gene in growing juvenile mackerel ( Scomber japonicus Houttuyn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eung-Oh; Yoon, Seong-Jong; Park, Kyoung-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Do, Jeung-Wan; Cho, Eun-Seob

    2009-12-01

    Fish have developed color vision that is closely adapted to their photic environments, where both spectral sensitivity and the number of visual opsins are influenced. The mackerel used in this study is one of the most important fishery stocks in Korea. The opsin gene of the mackerel juveniles after 20 days in hatching was isolated and characterized based on the molecular study of visual photoreceptor. The full-length mackerel opsin gene was obtained by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, as well as cDNA synthesis. Sequence analysis of the opsin gene showed that it contained a 1,080 bp open reading frame encoding 360 amino acids. Based on Schiff’s base formation (S114, K119), glycosylation (E3, F37) and palmitoylation (S281, 282), the deduced amino acid sequence had a typical rod opsin. The mackerel and Gempylus serpens showed 73.7% DNA homology on opsin gene, which was higher than any other of investigated species. In the analysis of phylogenetic relationship, the genetic placement of the mackerel is closer to that of Scombroidei than Labroidei, with supporting somewhat strong bootstrap value. In the analysis of Northern and RT-PCR, the probed products were observed only in rapidly growing juveniles. These findings indicate that in mackerel opsin mRNA expression can be detected in day-20 hatching larvae. It may play an important role in stimulating growth hormone.

  13. Besnoitiosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J; Els, H J; Raubenheimer, E J; Williams, J H

    1993-06-01

    Besnoitiosis was confirmed in a pony which presented with inspiratory dyspnoea, scleroderma and ventral oedema. Numerous cysts were visible in the sclerae. Histological examination of the skin confirmed the presence of numerous cysts. The parasite could not be transmitted by subcutaneous injection of homogenised skin from the infected horse to rabbits and a horse. Ultrastructural morphology of the crescent-shaped bradyzoites was not compatable with Besnoitia besnoiti or B. jellisoni and it is proposed that the infection was caused by B. bennetti. PMID:8410950

  14. Freeze Branding Horses

    E-print Network

    Householder, Doug; Webb, Gary; Wigington, Sam; Bruemmer, Jason

    2001-06-29

    , simpli- f_ied drawing of one hair shaft with its color (pigment) producing follicle (CF) and its growth follicle (GF), both shown below the skin. Doug Householder 1 , Gary Webb 2 , Sam Wigington 3 and Jason Bruemmer 4 Freeze Branding Horses Figure 1. Hair... manager, Horse Center, Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University. Texas AgriLife Extension Service ? Zerle L. Carpenter, Director ? The Texas A&M University System ? College Station, Texas Under normal circumstances hair grows as a clear shaft...

  15. Horse Domestication and Conservation Genetics of Przewalski's Horse Inferred from Sex Chromosomal and Autosomal Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison N. Lau; Lei Peng; Hiroki Goto; Leona Chemnick; Oliver A. Ryder; Kateryna D. Makova

    2008-01-01

    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are

  16. Gastric ulceration in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Hepburn

    2011-01-01

    Equine gastric ulceration syndrome (EGUS) was first described in 1986 and is common in all types of horses. The clinical signs are variable and often vague but EGUS can be easily diagnosed following thorough history taking and physical examination, and confirmed using gastroscopy. Ulcers can be effectively treated and prevented by introducing changes in management practices and instituting drug therapy.

  17. NOAA Form 88-129 (8/94) OMB No. 0648-0013, exp. 8/31/2004 WEEKLY DEALER REPORT OF SPANISH MACKEREL LANDINGS

    E-print Network

    NOAA Form 88-129 (8/94) OMB No. 0648-0013, exp. 8/31/2004 WEEKLY DEALER REPORT OF SPANISH MACKEREL ___________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ SPANISH MACKEREL GEAR ROUND Wt. GUTTED Wt. Hook & Line ___________ ___________ Gill Net ___________ ___________ No Spanish Mackerel were purchased during the reporting period. Submitted by: Name (please print

  18. Evaluating the efficacy of trawl exclusion zones for preserving prey fields of Steller sea lions foraging on Atka mackerel. II. Site specific estimates to evaluate availability of

    E-print Network

    fields of Steller sea lions foraging on Atka mackerel. II. Site specific estimates to evaluate availability of Atka mackerel production for sea lion consumption Ivonne Ortiz1,2 and Elizabeth Logerwell1 1 whether Atka mackerel production inside trawl exclusion zones in 5 local areas in the Aleutian Islands

  19. Texas 4-H Horse Quiz Bowl Supplement 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    1999-09-28

    of nutrients a horse needs. Answer: Energy nutrients, proteins, vitamins, min- erals and water Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 26 Division: Senior A. Nutrition Question: What is the main energy nutrient? Answer: Carbohydrate Source: ?Horse Science? Page... horse see what he is eating? Answer: No Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 3 Division: Both D. Anatomy and Conformation Question: What is a cataract? Answer: A cloudy or opaque appearance of the eye Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 10 Division...

  20. 62 FR 49464 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocation of Atka Mackerel to Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-09-22

    ...Allocation of Atka Mackerel to Vessels Using Jig Gear AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...allocation of Atka mackerel to vessels using jig gear. Annually, up to 2 percent of the total...subarea (BS) could be allocated to the jig gear fleet fishing in this area. This...

  1. 62 FR 68228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocation of Atka Mackerel to Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-12-31

    ...Allocation of Atka Mackerel to Vessels Using Jig Gear AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...allocation of Atka mackerel to vessels using jig gear. Annually, up to 2 percent of the total...subarea (BS) will be allocated to the jig gear fleet fishing in this area. This...

  2. Effect of salting and smoking-method on the keeping quality of chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus): biochemical and sensory attributes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonios E. Goulas; Michael G. Kontominas

    2005-01-01

    The effect of salting and smoking method on the keeping quality of chub mackerel was studied over a period of 30 days. Quality assessment was based on sensory analysis and biochemical indices determination. The effect of salting on the preservation of non-smoked chub mackerel packaged and stored under the same conditions as the smoked samples was also studied. The two

  3. Composting Horse Manure 

    E-print Network

    Auvermann, Brent W.; McDonald, Lanny; Devin, Robert; Sweeten, John M.

    1999-07-02

    and disagreeable odors. 2. Biologically mediated. A biologically mediated process like composting takes advantage of naturally occurring microbes to digest the organic material. The addition of heat normally is not required. By contrast, a purely chemical... composting. B-6084 6-99 Composting Horse Manure Brent W . Auvermann, Lanny A. McDonald, Robert Devin and John M. Sweeten* *Assistant Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer, Extension Associate/Water Quality, Randall County Extension Agent...

  4. Clinical nutrition of adult horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S L

    1990-08-01

    Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old. PMID:2202496

  5. Observational learning in horses 

    E-print Network

    Baer, Katherine Louise

    1979-01-01

    to extraneous stimuli in the way of sounds and movements of the technicians which could cause data on that particular day to be invalid. The response data obtained on this day were suspect to experi- mental cues, therefore data from day 1 has been deleted... habituated to them. Throughout the experimental procedures, the horses were exposed to extraneous stimuli in the form of sounds or odors. Other animals outside the barn, cars and other vehicles contributed to the various sounds. Inside the barn, the smell...

  6. Freeze Branding Horses 

    E-print Network

    Householder, Doug; Webb, Gary; Wigington, Sam; Bruemmer, Jason

    2001-06-29

    (like a clear straw) from the GF. On colored horses, pigment (black, brown, red, yellow, etc.) is added from the CF below the skin to the clear hairshaft, which gives the hair its color. When the intensely cold iron used in freeze branding is placed... site contains no pigment and appears white. This is the desired result?a uniform, white brand. If the iron is pressed to the skin for a shorter period of time and/or with less pressure than required, some hairs grow in colored and some hairs grow...

  7. Lexical Representation of Schwa Words: Two Mackerels, but Only One Salami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burki, Audrey; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the lexical representations underlying the production of English schwa words. Two types of schwa words were compared: words with a schwa in poststress position (e.g., mack"e"rel), whose schwa and reduced variants differ in a categorical way, and words with a schwa in prestress position (e.g., s"a"lami), whose…

  8. EFFECT OF STARVATION ON THE HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS, LARVAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GAIL H. THEILACKER

    Histological and morphological criteria were developed to assess the nutritional condition of laboratory-reared jack mackerel, Trachurus symmetricus, larvae. A comparison of the histological features of fed and starved larvae revealed that the digestive tract and its associated glands were the first tissues to be affected by starvation. The extent of cellular deterioration increased with time of starvation. To classify larval

  9. RECENT INCREASED ABUNDANCE AND POTENTIAL PRODUCTIVITY OF PAC1 FIC MACKEREL (SCOMBER JAPONICUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEC D MACCALL; RICHARD D METHOT

    1985-01-01

    Cohort analysis (VPA) of recent Pacific mackerel catches off southern California and northern Baja California shows that total biomass (age I+) in- creased sharply beginning in 1977. The increase fol- lowed a period of extreme depletion, and continued for several years, reaching a peak of 300,000 to 500,000 MT in 1982. Abundance decreased substan- tially in 1983 and 1984 because

  10. 78 FR 53404 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...measure would help prevent overfishing, promote the long-term health and stability of the mackerel and longfin squid resources...uniformly to all vessels under the Closed Area I requirements, inequality among the fleet is not an issue for the Closed Area I...

  11. Use of stable isotopes to assess king and Spanish mackerel groups

    E-print Network

    Roelke, Lynn Ann

    1995-01-01

    species. King and Spanish mackerel were collected at ten sites in the Gulf of Mexico and along the southeast coast of the United States. Stable nitrogen (81,5N) and carbon (613C) isotope measurements were conducted on collagen extracted from the dorsal fin...

  12. The physical basis of reflective communication between fish, with special reference to the horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, D. M.; Denton, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    Some properties of reflecting structures in the external surfaces of Trachurus trachurus and some other fish are described. These are related to the hypothesis that such structures are useful, especially to schooling fish, for communicating information on relative positions, orientations, and movements between neighbours. In addition to the silvery layers on the main body surfaces, there are: (a) highly silvered patches on the tail, the pectoral fins and the jaws which, in the sea, will become much brighter or darker with any movement such as a tailbeat or mouth opening which changes their orientations in the ambient lightfield, and (b) structures such as the dorsal lateral line which, in the sea, will only appear bright from certain directions. To us, the colours of the ventral flanks change from bright red to blue with direction orientations and have special reflectivity curves close to those predicted by A.F. Huxley for interference reflectors which are 'ideal' ?/4 stacks of guanine crystals and cytoplasm. The wavebands best reflected by such platelets move to shorter wavelengths with increasing angle of incidence, also in accord with these equations. At normal incidence, the outer layer of platelets reflects maximally for far-red light which penetrates only a short distance in the sea. Such layers can, however, be useful at oblique angles where they reflect maximally in the yellow and blue. The inner layer of reflectors reflects very strongly in the blue at normal incidence, but reflects in the ultra-violet at oblique angles. Some theoretical studies are made on the ways in which the patterns of reflectivity by single and superposed layers of ?/4 stacks could signal a fish's movements or its position relative to its neighbours.

  13. Feeding the Arena Performance Horse

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Scott, Brett D.

    2003-11-04

    comparatively large amount of highly digestible starch to meet their demands for both aerobic and anaerobic energy production. High-performance horses cannot eat enough hay to get the amount of energy they need, and cereal grain can cause digestive upsets when... as polysaccha- ride storage myopathy syndrome (PSSM), and those horses should not be fed large amounts of carbohy- drates. But in normal horses, the most effective way to achieve peak performance is to feed a fat-supple- mented, high-carbohydrate diet. Several...

  14. Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - Identification of Horses 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Wall, Leman H.; Householder, Doug

    1998-08-12

    Permanently identifying horses can deter theft and help prove ownership. This publication discusses hot-iron branding, freeze branding, electronic identification, lip tattoos, and using photographs, illustrations, parentage verification and brand...

  15. Recovery of horses from anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Clark-Price, Stuart C

    2013-04-01

    Recovery from anesthesia can be one of the most dangerous and unpredictable elements of providing anesthesia to horses. Strategies to quiet, control, and improve the quality of recovery of horses can be implemented in most situations and circumstances. This article provides an overview of the recovery period and areas where interventions may be practical to clinicians to provide improved care for their equine patients. PMID:23498055

  16. Horse domestication and conservation genetics of Przewalski's horse inferred from sex chromosomal and autosomal sequences.

    PubMed

    Lau, Allison N; Peng, Lei; Goto, Hiroki; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A; Makova, Kateryna D

    2009-01-01

    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are so closely related, genetic data can also be used to infer domestication-specific differences between the two. To investigate the genetic relationship of Przewalski's horse to the domestic horse and to address whether evolution of the domestic horse is driven by males or females, five homologous introns (a total of approximately 3 kb) were sequenced on the X and Y chromosomes in two Przewalski's horses and three breeds of domestic horses: Arabian horse, Mongolian domestic horse, and Dartmoor pony. Five autosomal introns (a total of approximately 6 kb) were sequenced for these horses as well. The sequences of sex chromosomal and autosomal introns were used to determine nucleotide diversity and the forces driving evolution in these species. As a result, X chromosomal and autosomal data do not place Przewalski's horses in a separate clade within phylogenetic trees for horses, suggesting a close relationship between domestic and Przewalski's horses. It was also found that there was a lack of nucleotide diversity on the Y chromosome and higher nucleotide diversity than expected on the X chromosome in domestic horses as compared with the Y chromosome and autosomes. This supports the hypothesis that very few male horses along with numerous female horses founded the various domestic horse breeds. Patterns of nucleotide diversity among different types of chromosomes were distinct for Przewalski's in contrast to domestic horses, supporting unique evolutionary histories of the two species. PMID:18931383

  17. Purification, reactivity with IgE and cDNA cloning of parvalbumin as the major allergen of mackerels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hamada; H. Tanaka; S. Ishizaki; M. Ishida; Y. Nagashima; K. Shiomi

    2003-01-01

    Three species of mackerels (Scomber japonicus, S. australasicus and S. scombrus) are widely consumed and considered to be most frequently involved in incidents of IgE-mediated fish allergy in Japan. In this study, parvalbumin, a possible candidate for the major allergen, was purified from the white muscle of three species of mackerels by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and reverse-phase HPLC

  18. Occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) caught off Korea.

    PubMed

    Bak, Tae-Jong; Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2014-11-17

    Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is a pelagic fish species widely distributing in the Indo-Pacific and a commercially important fish species in Korea. It is known to harbor anisakid nematodes larvae, and ingesting the raw or undercooked fish can accidentally cause human infection. In this study, we isolated the nematode larvae in 417 chub mackerel caught from 7 sampling locations around the Korean Peninsula in 2011 and 2012, and identified them by PCR-RFLP of the ITS (internal transcribed spacer) of ribosomal DNA and the direct sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA cox2 gene. The prevalence of infection was 55.4% (231/417) and the mean intensity was 7.0 (1628/231). Most of the nematodes (1523/1628; 93.6%) were found in the body cavity, while 5.5% (89/1628) were found in the gastrointestinal tract. Four different species were identified by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing. Most of the nematodes (1535/1628; 94.3%) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii, and 2.8% (46/1628) were identified as Hysterothylacium sp. A hybrid genotype (Anisakis simplex sensu stricto×A. pegreffii) and A. simplex sensu stricto were 2.5% (41/1628) and 0.4% (6/1628) of the identified nematodes, respectively. The anisakid nematode assemblage of chub mackerel in Korea was similar to that of chub mackerel from the Tsushima Current stock in Japan, in that A. pegreffii was the dominant species. Since most of the anisakid nematodes were found in the body cavity and most of them were identified as A. pegreffii or Hysterothylacium sp. by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing, chub mackerel may not greatly contribute to human anisakidosis in Korea. Alternately, A. pegreffii may be responsible for human anisakidosis in Korea, in addition to A. simplex sensu stricto. Further studies, such as the molecular diagnosis of human anisakidosis, are necessary for assessing the epidemiological role of chub mackerel in Korea. PMID:25268324

  19. Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Vander Werf, Karie A; Bianco, Alex W; Giger, Urs

    2014-02-01

    Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses. PMID:24489393

  20. Horses’ responses to variation in human approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynda Birke; Jo Hockenhull; Emma Creighton; Lisa Pinno; Jenny Mee; Daniel Mills

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of humans around horses is thought to have a substantial impact on how people are perceived in subsequent interactions and many horse trainers give detailed advice on how handlers should behave when initially approaching a loose horse. Here we report on three studies designed to explore the effect of different human approach styles on the behaviour of naïve

  1. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

  2. The iron horse: a sound ride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanna Landin; Sus Lundgren; Johannes Prison

    2002-01-01

    The Iron Horse combines modern technology with a childhood dream. It's a bike --- but its sounds like a horse. By biking at different speeds, one can get it to walk, trot or gallop. Sometimes it snorts, and it greets its owner and other iron horses with a neigh. In the project, we explored how to transfer the auditive expressions

  3. Original article Breeding evaluation of arab horses

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Breeding evaluation of arab horses from their racing results in Tunisia by a BLUP of the earnings according to the place was too approximate. horse / racing ability / purebred Arabian / BLUP was to estimate the breeding value of Arab horses in Tunisia. Racing results (36203) were available corresponding

  4. Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses

    PubMed Central

    Ohmes, Cameon M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; Beard, Laurie A.; Vander Werf, Karie A.; Bianco, Alex W.; Giger, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses. PMID:24489393

  5. Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads.

    PubMed

    Wolframm, Inga A; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J

    2013-02-01

    The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe patterns of motor coordination between horse and rider across the equine gaits of walk, rising trot, sitting trot and canter. Eighteen female (N=18; mean age±SD: 37.57±13.04) Dutch horse-rider combinations were recruited to participate in the study. Horse-rider coordination was recorded using two tri-axial wireless accelerometers during a standard ridden protocol. Multiple measures of horse-rider coordination were calculated to investigate the relationship between the horse and rider, while the unpredictability of the acceleration-time series of the horse and rider during task performance were determined separately by means of approximate entropy analysis. The kinematic variables of horse-rider correlation, mean relative phase, mean standard deviation of the relative phase, approximate entropy rider, approximate entropy horse and spectral edge frequency at 95% of the power in the 0-10 Hz frequency band were examined using multiple correlational analyses and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Findings showed significantly different coordination dynamics between equine gaits, with the gait of canter allowing for the highest levels of horse-rider synchronicity. It may be concluded that accelerometers are a valuable tool to map distinct coordination patterns of horse-rider combinations. PMID:23290116

  6. Functional and Bioactive Components from Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and Blue Whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) Processing Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zied Khiari

    2010-01-01

    The use of fish processing waste from an oily fish model (mackerel, Scomberscombrus) and a white fish model (blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou) as a source of functional and bioactive compounds was investigated.Gelatines were extracted from fish heads and skins using pre-treatment withdifferent organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, tartaric and malic acids). Gelatines from fish bones were extracted after pre-treating the

  7. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus. PMID:26204013

  8. Extraction of fish oil from the skin of Indian mackerel using supercritical fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Sahena; I. S. M. Zaidul; S. Jinap; M. H. A. Jahurul; A. Khatib; N. A. N. Norulaini

    2010-01-01

    The total oil was extracted from the ground skin of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) using various techniques of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 20–35MPa and 45–75°C and by the Soxhlet method for comparison. The oil yield increased with pressure and temperature and the highest yields were 24.7, 53.2, 52.8, and 52.3\\/100g sample (dry basis) for the continuous, cosolvent, soaking, and

  9. Effect of essential oils treatment on the frozen storage stability of chub mackerel fillets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuray Erkan; Gözde Bilen

    2010-01-01

    The effect of bay leaf (BLO), thyme (TO), rosemary (RO), black seed (BSO), sage (SO), grape seed (GSO), flaxseed (FSO) and\\u000a lemon (LO) essential oil from vegetable extracted on lipid oxidation and some other quality parameter of frozen chub mackerel\\u000a during frozen storage at ?20°C were examined over a period of 11 months. Taste, odour, texture and overall acceptability of\\u000a control

  10. Involvement of cathepsins B and L in the post-mortem autolysis of mackerel muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiko Aoki; Ryuji Ueno

    1997-01-01

    The intracellular distributions of catheptic enzymes (cathepsins) in white muscle of mackerel were investigated using differential centrifugation. The enzymes included cathepsin B, cathepsin L, ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and cathepsin D (a lysosomal marker), and alkaline phosphatase (a microsomal marker). The highest relative specific activities of each of the cathepsins and ?-N-acet-ylglucosaminidase were in the lysosomal fraction, and the highest relative specific activity

  11. Occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria in salted mackerel in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Hsiang Tsai; Chueh-Yueh Lin; Shiou-Chung Chang; Hwi-Chang Chen; Hsien-Feng Kung; Cheng-I Wei; Deng-Fwu Hwang

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-three samples of salted mackerel sold in retail markets and supermarkets in Taiwan were tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. The numbers of aerobic plate count (APC) in all samples were below the Taiwanese regulatory level of 6.47logcfu\\/g. The levels of pH, salt content, and total coliform in all samples ranged from 5.7 to 6.4, 5.0

  12. Oxidative stability of sardine and mackerel lipids with reference to synergism between phospholipids and ?-tocopherol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Ohshima; Yasuo Fujita; Chiaki Koizumi

    1993-01-01

    Relationships between oxidative stability and the compositions of sardine and mackerel lipids were investigated in view of\\u000a possible synergism between phospholipids and?-tocopherol (?-Toc). The total lipids extracted from viscera were highly susceptible to autoxidation, compared with lipids of white and\\u000a red muscles and of skin. This seemed to be due to lower concentrations of?-Toc and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the tissue,

  13. Population genetic structure of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus in the Northwestern Pacific inferred from microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiao; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Song, Na; Gao, Tian-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Marine pelagic fishes are usually characterized by subtle but complex patterns of genetic differentiation, which are influenced by both historical process and contemporary gene flow. Genetic population differentiation of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, was examined across most of its range in the Northwestern Pacific by screening variation of eight microsatellite loci. Our genetic analysis detected a weak but significant genetic structure of chub mackerel, which was characterized by areas of gene flow and isolation by distance. Consistent with previous estimates of stock structure, we found genetic discontinuity between Japan and China samples. Local-scale pattern of genetic differentiation was observed between samples from the Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea and those from the East China Sea, which we ascribed to differences in spawning time and migratory behavior. Furthermore, the observed homogeneity among collections of chub mackerel from the East and South China Seas could be the result of an interaction between biological characteristics and marine currents. The present study underlies the importance of understanding the biological significance of genetic differentiation to establish management strategies for exploited fish populations. PMID:25366174

  14. Effect of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Fei; Huang, Rui-Ji; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Xuxia; Ding, Yu-Ting

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage on board. Fishes were slaughtered by asphyxia in air (AA), asphyxia in ice water (AI) or stunning fish heads (SH), and the rigor mortis, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory properties for the fishes were analyzed. On day 0, Chilean jack mackerel samples of AI group displayed higher pH values than those of AA and SH groups. TVB-N, TMA and TBARS values of all samples increased with the storage time, and these values of AI had a lower increase than AA and SH. Moreover, samples of AI had a better sensory score than AA and SH during storage. It can be concluded that slaughter method of asphyxia in ice water for Chilean jack mackerel exhibit the better efficiency on maintaining the fish quality during refrigerated storage on board. PMID:25745250

  15. Brodifacoum toxicosis in two horses.

    PubMed

    McConnico, R S; Copedge, K; Bischoff, K L

    1997-10-01

    Increased popularity during the past decade of brodifacoum, an anticoagulant rodenticide, has led to an increase in cases of accidental poisoning in nontarget species, including pets and farm animals. Pharmacokinetics of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides such as brodifacoum are substantially different from those of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides such as warfarin. This difference dramatically influences management of exposure in terms of duration and cost of treatment and may affect outcome. The National Poison Control Center reports that approximately 50 cases of brodifacoum exposure have occurred in horses between 1993 and 1997. To our knowledge, this report is the first complete clinical description of accidental ingestion of a potentially lethal dose of brodifacoum in horses. Early recognition of exposure to brodifacoum, subsequent treatment with adequate doses of vitamin K1, and sequential monitoring of clotting times and serum brodifacoum concentration permitted poisoning in these horses to be managed successfully. PMID:9333092

  16. Shuni Virus as Cause of Neurologic Disease in Horses

    PubMed Central

    van Eeden, Charmaine; Williams, June H.; Gerdes, Truuske G.H.; van Wilpe, Erna; Viljoen, Adrianne; Swanepoel, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To determine which agents cause neurologic disease in horses, we conducted reverse transcription PCR on isolates from of a horse with encephalitis and 111 other horses with acute disease. Shuni virus was found in 7 horses, 5 of which had neurologic signs. Testing for lesser known viruses should be considered for horses with unexplained illness. PMID:22305525

  17. European Domestic Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera Warmuth; Anders Eriksson; Mim A. Bower; Javier Cañon; Gus Cothran; Ottmar Distl; Marie-Louise Glowatzki-Mullis; Harriet Hunt; Cristina Luís; Maria Do Mar Oom; Isabel Tupac Yupanqui; Tomasz Zabek; Andrea Manica; Michael Hofreiter

    2011-01-01

    The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local

  18. Archeometery Applied to Horse Bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Madsen; Steven E. Jones

    1998-01-01

    For many years it has been assumed that horses became extinct in the American continent during the last ice age (Pleistocene period). Most of the evidence for this was obtained through stratagraphic dating. However, we have uncovered new evidence which may contradict this theory. We are currently applying Archeometry, the application of physics techniques to archelogy, to seek evidence for

  19. Review article African horse sickness

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article African horse sickness: transmission and epidemiology PS Mellor Institute for Animal. These are usually considered to be species of Culicoides biting midges but mosquitoes and/or ticks may also Africa spanning as they do, 5 or more yr, seem to have established a new pattern in AHS virus persistence

  20. logic bombs trojan horse independent

    E-print Network

    West, Margaret Mary

    needs host program logic bombs trojan horse virus worm replicate zombie malicious programs from hacking, fraud, viruses or human error. Malicious Programs: See Figure 1 for taxonomy of malicious and running a file from the Internet. The PWSteal.Trojan is a Trojan. Virus's definition: computer virus

  1. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  2. The horse-saddle-rider interaction.

    PubMed

    Greve, Line; Dyson, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Common causes of poor performance in horses include factors related to the horse, the rider and/or the saddle, and their interrelationships remain challenging to determine. Horse-related factors (such as thoracolumbar region pain and/or lameness), rider-related factors (such as crookedness, inability to ride in rhythm with the horse, inability to work the horse in a correct frame to improve core strength and muscular support of the thoracolumbar spine of the horse), and saddle-related factors (such as poor fit causing focal areas of increased pressure) may all contribute to poor performance to varying degrees. Knowledge of the horse-saddle-rider interaction is limited. Traditionally, saddle fit has been evaluated in standing horses, but it is now possible to measure the force and pressure at the interface between the saddle and the horse dynamically. The purpose of this review is critically to discuss available evidence of the interaction between the horse, the rider and the saddle, highlighting not only what is known, but also what is not known. PMID:23177524

  3. The daily catch: Flight altitude and diving behavior of northern gannets feeding on Atlantic mackerel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garthe, Stefan; Guse, Nils; Montevecchi, William A.; Rail, Jean-François; Grégoire, François

    2014-01-01

    Predators utilize a variety of behavioral techniques to capture elusive prey. Behavioral flexibility is essential among generalist predators that pursue a diversity of prey types, and capture efficiency is expected to be intense during the breeding season for parents that engage in self- and offspring-provisioning. We studied the foraging behavior of parental northern gannets in the northwestern Atlantic (Gulf of St. Lawrence) when they were feeding on Atlantic mackerel almost exclusively. Data-loggers recorded short (mean duration: 6.3 s), high speed (inferred vertical speeds of up to 54.0 m*s- 1, equivalent to 194 km*h- 1), and shallow dives (mean depth: 4.2 m; maximum: 9.2 m). Dives tended to occur in bouts, varying between 0.3 and 4.6 per hour (mean = 1.6). During foraging, overall flight heights ranged from 0 to 70 m, with no clear preferences for height. Most plunge-dives were initiated at flight altitudes of 11-60 m (mean ± SE = 37.1 ± 2.8 m; range 3-105 m except for 1 of 162 dives that was initiated at the sea surface). Dive depth and flight altitude at plunge-dive initiation were positively and significantly correlated, though it appears that low flight altitudes were sufficient to reach dive depths at which mackerel were present. Almost all dives were V-shaped indicating that a high acceleration attack is the most effective strategy for gannets feeding on large rapid-swimming prey such as mackerel that owing to thermal preferences does not occur below the thermocline and are thus well available and essentially trapped in the water depths exploited by northern gannets.

  4. Hindgut microbes, fermentation and their seasonal variations in Hokkaido native horses compared to light horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Kobayashi; Satoshi Koike; Makoto Miyaji; Hiroshi Hata; Keiichi Tanaka

    2006-01-01

    Fecal bacteria and protozoa of Hokkaido native horses and light horses were enumerated to compare seasonal variation in hindgut microbes and fermentation between the two breeds. Fecal samples were collected in winter and summer from eight horses (four for each breed) that had been reared together under the same conditions after birth (on woodland pasture in winter and on grassland

  5. Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - 15 Steps to Minimizing Theft of Horses and Equipment 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.

    2003-09-26

    to permanently identify horses. Thieves are less likely to steal horses that are per- manently marked, and those that are stolen are easier to track and recover. Remember: The state is full of solid sorrels and bays all f_it- ting a similar description. Horse...

  6. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  7. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

  8. Cutaneous schwannomas in 22 horses.

    PubMed

    Schöniger, S; Valentine, B A; Fernandez, C J; Summers, B A

    2011-03-01

    Schwannomas are uncommonly recognized in horses. This study describes cutaneous schwannomas in 22 horses aged 8 to 25 years: 12 male, 7 female, and 3 of unknown sex. The horses had solitary cutaneous masses: 9 on the head, 3 on the neck, and the others on the shoulder, hip, thorax, abdomen, rump, extremities, or tail. The location of 1 tumor was unknown. The dermal tumors were well demarcated and expansile. Twelve had a multinodular pattern, whereas 10 formed a single nodule. Antoni A areas were observed in all tumors, and 10 tumors contained Antoni B areas. In Antoni A areas, the densely packed spindle-shaped neoplastic cells were arranged in short fascicles with nuclear palisading. In the hypocellular Antoni B areas, neoplastic cells were separated by abundant myxomatous stroma. Tumors commonly had hyalinization of stroma and vessel walls and ancient change. Cellular vacuolation was observed in 18 tumors. In all 22 cases, neoplastic cells were immunopositive for S100 protein. Expression of laminin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in all 6 tumors evaluated by immunohistochemistry for these markers. One tumor was examined ultrastructurally: Neoplastic cells had branched cytoplasmic processes and were surrounded by an external lamina. Follow-up information was available 8 months to 10 years postexcision for 9 horses, for which surgical excision of the tumor was curative. The equine cutaneous schwannomas in this study had microscopic features like those of human schwannoma and had benign clinical behavior. Correct classification of equine cutaneous schwannoma will facilitate accurate prognosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:20716761

  9. Feeding the Arena Performance Horse 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Scott, Brett D.

    2003-11-04

    ..............................................................................8 Vitamins ............................................................................8 Minerals ............................................................................11 How to feed for best performance............12 Balanced rations... Vitamin Vitamin Thiamin Salt Energy Protein A E Class (Mcals) (pounds) (grams) (grams) (IU?s) (IU?s) (mg) (grams) Mature horses a Light work 20.5 1.8 25 18 22,000 675 100 90 Moderate work 24.6 2.2 30 21 22,000 800 150 100 Intense work 32.8 2.9 40 29 22...

  10. Ameloblastic Carcinoma in a Horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. V De Cock; P Labelle; K. G Magdesian

    2003-01-01

    The clinical, gross morphological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of an ameloblastic carcinoma in a 30-year-old Quarter Horse mare are reported. This tumour was fast growing, locally invasive and destructive. Histologically, it showed an infiltrative pattern of large islands, broad sheets and, at the periphery, small cords of moderately pleomorphic round, oval to spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed positive labelling for

  11. 76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ...Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic...Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic...components of the coastal migratory pelagics...exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the South...because the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management...this segment of the coastal migratory...

  12. FAST CONTINUOUS SWIMMING OF TWO PELAGIC PREDATORS, SAITHE (POLLACHIUS VIRENS) AND MACKEREL (SCOMBER SCOMBRUS): A KINEMATIC ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. VIDELER; F. HESS

    SUMMARY Straight, forward, unrestrained swimming behaviour, with periodic lateral oscillations of body and tailfin, was described and compared for saithe and mackerel. A method was developed for kinematic analysis of forward motion, lateral displacements and body curvature, based on a Fourier-series approach. The dimensionless kinematic quantities showed relatively small varia- tions over large ranges of swimming speeds. The speed range

  13. Free amino acids and peptides as related to antioxidant properties in protein hydrolysates of mackerel ( Scomber austriasicus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Chun Wu; Hua-Ming Chen; Chyuan-Yuan Shiau

    2003-01-01

    Mackerel (Scomber austriasicus) hydrolysates were prepared by an autolytic process and accelerated hydrolysis with a commercial enzyme, Protease N. Changes in the levels and compositions of free amino acids and small peptides during hydrolysis were investigated to find out their relationships with antioxidant activities. Increased levels of free amino acids, anserine, carnosine and other peptides of the hydrolysates obtained with

  14. Iberian Origins of New World Horse Breeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CRISTINA LUIS; E. GUS COTHRAN; MARIA DO MAR OOM; Edifõ ´ cio; Campo Grande; C. Luõ

    2006-01-01

    Fossil records, archaeological proofs, and historical documents report that horses persisted continuously in the Iberian Peninsula since the Pleistocene and were taken to the American continent (New World) in the 15th century. To investigate the variation within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Iberian and New World horse breeds, to analyze their relationships, and to test the historical origin

  15. Stomach Ulcers and the Endurance Horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Marlin

    The results of numerous surveys, conducted from the 1980s to present day suggest that gastric (stomach) ulcers are an ongoing and widespread problem for adult horses. Thoroughbreds in active race training were quickly identified as being a 'high risk' group, with the results of several published studies citing a prevalence of 80-90% within horses in training. Following on from these

  16. Distributed Computing with a Trojan Horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauri Auronen; Antti Peltonen; Sami Vaarala; Teemupekka Virtanen

    In this paper we describe constructing a trojan horse application for the purpose of distributed computing on the Internet. The mechanisms used by the trojan horse are discussed in detail. We also detail the procedure by which a user can be tricked to install the trojan using a known Microsoft Outlook Express vulnerability. The gains and risks of constructing a

  17. May the Horse Be With You

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2014-01-08

    , for example, 1951, they're asking for an animal, more specifically, one of the 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac. And they are, in order of appearance: Rat, Ox, Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Goat, Monkey, Rooster, Dog and Pig. The Year of the Horse...

  18. Occurrence of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto in imported Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) represents a risk for Turkish consumers.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer

    2014-08-18

    Anisakid larvae are a prevalent food-borne pathogen that has been found in numerous fish species destined for human consumption. The accidental consumption of infected raw or poorly cooked fish may cause gastroenteric diseases and allergies in humans. In spite of the fact that thorough cooking or freezing kills Anisakis worms, this method does not destroy their allergenic capacity. The presence of A. simplex (s.s.) in seafood products may present a health risk for consumers. In Turkey, Atlantic mackerels are marketed as frozen and mainly imported from Norway. The aim of this study was to identify the Anisakis species found in deep-frozen whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) destined for human consumption in fish markets that imported fish from Norway to Turkey. All Anisakis larvae isolated from imported Atlantic mackerel were identified via morphology as third larvae of Anisakis Type I. The ITS region (ITS-1, 5.8S subunit, ITS-2) was amplified and digested with the restriction enzymes Hinf I and Hha I. Larvae of the genus Anisakis were identified via PCR-RFLP as belonging to Anisakis simplex (s.s.), and this was confirmed by sequencing the cox2 gene. The overall prevalence of Anisakis larvae was 25% (95% confidence limits: 13-41%), and the mean intensity was 19.1 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits: 15.3-25.5). Recognized zoonotic A. simplex (s.s.) larvae found in imported Atlantic mackerel could represent a risk. Those who consume them could acquire parasitic allergies. The results will have an important impact on public health risk assessment in that they suggest reviewing critical control points at the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmer to reduce the risk of anisakid-induced allergies among consumers. Consequently, the present study provides the first data regarding the occurrence of A. simplex (s.s.) larvae in imported Atlantic mackerel in Turkish markets. PMID:24935687

  19. Hepatic cirrhosis and hemochromatosis in three horses.

    PubMed

    Pearson, E G; Hedstrom, O R; Poppenga, R H

    1994-04-01

    Hemochromatosis, an iron storage disease, was diagnosed in 3 horses with hepatic cirrhosis. Each horse had bridging portal fibrosis and abundant iron deposits in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Serum concentrations of liver-derived enzymes and total bile acids were high. However, serum iron concentration was not high, and iron binding capacity was only 46% saturated in the 1 horse in which it was measured. However, the concentration of iron in the liver of this horse was 20 times the reference limits. Hemochromatosis is common in mynah birds and human beings. There are several types of this iron storage disease. In human beings, there is a familial disease with iron absorption inappropriate for the level of stored iron. Hemochromatosis also occurs secondary to cirrhosis of the liver, and in certain anemia diseases. Another type of hemochromatosis is seen in association with dietary iron overload. These horses were not related, and there was not any evidence of high dietary iron intake. PMID:8045806

  20. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. PMID:25376504

  1. Innovative use of an automated horse walker when breaking in young horses.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    There is an inherent element of risk associated with "backing" and riding the previously unbroken horse. If training proceeds too quickly, conflict behaviors may result from the simultaneous application of too many cues. Automated horse walkers (AHW) facilitate the exercising of several horses concurrently at walk or trot for warm-up, cool-down, fitness programs, and rehabilitation purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate if backing the horse within the AHW was an appropriate training method. Ten horses (3-year-olds) took part in this study. They began training within the AHW with a simple bridle and protective boots. A handler subsequently long-reined the horses within the AHW when they wore rollers, side reins, and a saddle. When considered appropriate, the handler went from jumping beside the horse to lying over the saddle to sitting astride the horse within the AHW. The horses habituated to this innovative approach quickly without evidence of conflict behavior. The handler rode the horses from the AHW after approximately 4 riding episodes of this innovative training system. PMID:18569219

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott

    2004-12-01

    Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

  3. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l'Ingegneria, Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2008-01-24

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

  4. Ameloblastic carcinoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    De Cock, H E V; Labelle, P; Magdesian, K G

    2003-01-01

    The clinical, gross morphological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of an ameloblastic carcinoma in a 30-year-old Quarter Horse mare are reported. This tumour was fast growing, locally invasive and destructive. Histologically, it showed an infiltrative pattern of large islands, broad sheets and, at the periphery, small cords of moderately pleomorphic round, oval to spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed positive labelling for vimentin, cytokeratin 5/6 and cytokeratin 14. In the oral cavity of human beings, this immunolabelling pattern is unique for the embryonal enamel organ and tumours of ameloblastomatous epithelial origin, which strongly supports the diagnosis of equine ameloblastic carcinoma. PMID:12634103

  5. Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.

    PubMed

    Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods. PMID:24290612

  6. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-01-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses. PMID:8315368

  7. A Description of Lecithocladium angustiovum (Digenea: Hemiuridae) in Short Mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma (Scombridae), of Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Indaryanto, Forcep Rio; Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Wardiatno, Yusli; Tiuria, Risa; Imai, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Lecithocladium angustiovum is identified from the stomach (87.33%) and the intestine (12.67%) of Indonesian short mackerel (Rastrelliger brachysoma). The description includes an elongated body; a mean total length of 1018.84 µm; and an ecsoma of 47.52% of the total length. The oral and ventral sucker ratio is 1:0.63, and the pharynx length is 97.42 µm. The sequence results were obtained by 18s rDNA gene sequencing of the 354 basepair (bp) DNA segment, and the mean base composition (%) was 17.7 A; 35.7 T; 29.6 G; and 17.1 C. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to demonstrate the genetic distance between L. angustiovum and sequences from Lecithocladium excisum, Dinurus longisinus, Plerurus digitatus and Lecithochirium caesionis obtained from GenBank.

  8. Amino acid and protein changes in tilapia and Spanish mackerel after irradiation and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kahtani, Hassan A.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Atia, Mohamed; Bajaber, Adnan S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; El-Mojaddidi, Mohamed A.

    1998-01-01

    Some amino acids in tilapia decreased while some others increased when subjected to doses up to 10.0 kGy. However, 10 kGy contributed to a significant reduction in all amino acids of Spanish mackerel. Variations in amino acid contents continued during post-irradiation storage with no consistant trend of increase or decrease. SDS-PAGE of protein from both fish showed 27 bands of subunits with MW < 14.0-94.0 KD. Isoelectric focusing patterns of sarcoplasmic protein of unirradiated and irradiated fish showed no charge in the number of bands, while some changes were observed in the intensities of the anodic and cathodic bands depending on isoelectric points (pIs).

  9. Optimum packaging material for irradiated dried salted striped mackerel (restrelliger chrysozonus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablo, Ignacio S.

    Eight different packaging materials namely: polyester polyethylene (PET/PE), nylon polyethylene (N/PE), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), cello polyethylene (cello/PE), kraft paper, jute sack and plastic sack were exposed to a population of 120 larvae and adult beetles. Out of these eight types of packaging materials, PET/PE was found to be the most resistant packaging material. PET/ PE utilized as bulk packaging material was overwrapped with plastic sack to offer more protection from any physical damages. Irradiated dried striped mackerel at 225 krad and packed in PET/PE were stored in the laboratory and in 3 different market places. Results showed that after a month of storage, there was no infestation nor any damage in PET/PE. No holes, scratches or punctures were found in the lined plastic sack. There were no significant differences noted on the moisture, mold and yeast count and Total Plate Count among samples stored at different market conditions.

  10. Microsatellite Variation in Japanese and Asian Horses and Their Phylogenetic Relationship Using a European Horse Outgroup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tozaki; N. TAKEZAKI; T. HASEGAWA; N. ISHIDA; M. KUROSAWA; M. TOMITA; N. SAITOU

    2003-01-01

    The genetic relationships of seven Japanese and four mainland-Asian horse populations, as well as two European horse populations, were estimated using data for 20 microsatellite loci. Mongolian horses showed the highest average heterozygosities (0.75-0.77) in all populations. Phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of three distinct clusters supported by high bootstrap values: the European cluster (Anglo-Arab and thoroughbreds), the Hokkaido-Kiso cluster,

  11. Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - 15 Steps to Minimizing Theft of Horses and Equipment

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.

    2003-09-26

    , and some- times even resource people who will speak to equine groups and associations. Publications available from Texas Cooperative Extension in- clude: ? L-5244, ?What to do if Your Horse is Stolen?; and ? L-5211, ?Horse Theft Aware- ness and Prevention...: Perma- nent Identif_ication of Horses.? Publications available from Veterinar y Practice Publishing Company, P.O. Box 4457, Santa Barbara, California 93140-4457, include: ? The Equine Recovery Hand- book , by Amelita F. Donald; ? The Equine Identif...

  12. Staphylococcus hyicus in skin lesions of horses.

    PubMed

    Devriese, L A; Vlaminck, K; Nuytten, J; De Keersmaecker, P

    1983-07-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus (subspecies hyicus) was isolated as the only pathogenic organism from two independent cases of dermatitis of the lower parts of the limbs (grease heel) in horses. The organism was recovered together with other pathogenic staphylococci from similar conditions in two other horses of different origins. These conditions were characterised by epidermolysis, alopecia and crust formation. They responded quickly to antibiotic treatment. The organism was also isolated from a long standing case of "summer eczema" which healed without antibiotic treatment, and from a horse with dermatophilosis (streptotrichosis, Dermatophilus congolensis infection). Experimentally, Staph hyicus caused epidermolysis, exudation and inflammation in the superficial layers of the skin. PMID:6884317

  13. West Nile Encephalitis in Humans and Horses 

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2000-08-25

    Humans and horses are infected with West Nile Encephalitis after being bitten by mosquitoes that transmit the virus. Migratory birds are thought to be responsible for the introduction of the virus into new areas. This publication explains...

  14. A Song for the Horse Nation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website accompanies an exhibition at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) George Gustav Heye Center in New York City, and presents "the epic story of the horse's influence on American Indian tribes from the 1600s to the present." Divided into five thematic sections, the exhibition draws on the riches of NMAI, using both historical objects, such as drawings, hoof ornaments, beaded bags, hide robes, and paintings, as well as new pieces by contemporary Native artists. For example, in the "Native Arts & the Horse", 1840-1900 section, visitors can see images of bridles, saddles and saddle blankets, and other clothing, along with photos of these being used and worn. The section "The Horse Nation Lives On" includes works by contemporary Native American artists, such as a painting by Jim Yellowhawk (Cheyenne River Lakota, b. 1958), Lakota Horse Mask, 2008, and beaded rawhide bags made by Jackie Bread (Piikuni, b. 1960) in 2009.

  15. Toxicological effects of aflatoxins in horses.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins principally produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which are both natural contaminants of food and feedstuff. Aflatoxin B(1) is the most prevalent member of this group that is normally detected and is the most powerful hepatocarcinogen known. Few naturally occurring episodes of aflatoxicosis in horses have been reported in the literature. Indeed, the published information about aflatoxin exposure, metabolism and the effects on horses is limited and controversial, possibly indicating a lack of awareness rather than the rarity of the occurrence. The target organ in horses, as in other animal species, is the liver and horses suffering from aflatoxicosis show signs of inappetence, depression, fever, tremor, ataxia and cough. Necropsy findings include a yellow-brown liver with centrilobular necrosis, icterus, haemorrhage, tracheal exudates and brown urine. A possible link between aflatoxin exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been hypothesised. PMID:20619706

  16. Determination of the moisture sorption behavior of osmotically dehydrated mackerel fillets by means of binary and ternary solutions.

    PubMed

    Agustinelli, Silvina Paola; Salvadori, Viviana Olga; Yeannes, Maria Isabel

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the moisture sorption isotherm of osmotically dehydrated mackerel fillets (Scomber japonicus) was experimentally determined. The fillets were osmotically dehydrated with solutions of salt (NaCl) (120 and 180 g per liter of solution) or in combination with sugar (350 to 700 g per liter of solution). The sorption isotherms were determined using the static gravimetric methodology with six salts for the water activity range of 0.33-0.98 at 5 degrees C and 25 degrees C. All the sorption curves were found to be type III. Temperature and the final tissue salt content had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the sorption isotherms. A regression program was used to fit the Halsey, Oswin and Smith moisture sorption isotherm models. Oswin equation gave the best fit for the whole range of water activity and temperatures. The Smith equation only presented valuable results for the mackerel fillets samples with the higher salt content. PMID:23744120

  17. Purification and characterization of four antibacterial peptides from protamex hydrolysate of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) by-products.

    PubMed

    Ennaas, Nadia; Hammami, Riadh; Beaulieu, Lucie; Fliss, Ismail

    2015-07-01

    Proteins from fish by-product sources are valuable source of bioactive peptides and show promise as functional foods ingredients. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize antibacterial peptides from protamex hydrolysates of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) by-products. Four sequences SIFIQRFTT (P4), RKSGDPLGR (P8.1), AKPGDGAGSGPR (P8.2) and GLPGPLGPAGPK (P11) were identified in peptide fractions separated using RP-HPLC. At 200 ?g mL(-1), while peptides P8.1, P8.2 and P11 exhibited partial inhibition, P4 totally inhibited tested Gram-positive (Listeria innocua) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains. These results suggest that the protein hydrolysate derived from mackerel by-products could be used as an antimicrobial ingredient in both functional food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:25934151

  18. Chronic renal failure in horses.

    PubMed

    Schott, Harold C

    2007-12-01

    Chronic renal failure is a syndrome of progressive loss of renal function that results in loss of urinary concentrating ability, retention of nitrogenous and other metabolic end products, alterations in electrolyte and acid-base status, and dysfunction of several hormone systems. This article describes the prevalence, causes, clinical signs, diagnostic evaluation, and management of horses afflicted with chronic renal failure. It is hoped that this article illustrates that chronic renal failure, when detected in the earlier stages of disease, can be managed successfully in the short-term allowing owners to enjoy a period of time of ongoing productivity, performance, or companionship until loss of condition reaches the point that euthanasia becomes warranted. PMID:18061852

  19. Discrimination reversal learning in yearling horses 

    E-print Network

    Fiske, Jeanna Chastain

    1976-01-01

    ~ fillies, 20, 02~ geldings, 15o18e ME scores were& colts, 5 ' 84i fillies, 10. 66~ geldings, 3. 52 ' LAI scores were~ colts, 11. 5i filliesy 15 ' 8) geldings, 24, 4. Mean emotionality scores were' colts, 2. 64' fillies, 2 ' 48t geldings, 1 ' 78 ' Mean... ~ ~ ~ ~ . . ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ . 15 MT Scores for All Horses Ranked in Order of' Performance ~ . ~ ~ . . ~ ~ 20 ME Scores for All Horses Ranked in Order of Performance . . . . . . . . 22 Daily MT for the Three Experimental Groups ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 25 10...

  20. A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses

    PubMed Central

    Nappert, Germain; Vrins, André; Breton, Luc; Beauregard, Michel

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of 19 ataxic horses admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Montreal during the period of January 1985 to December 1988 is presented. There were 11 cases of cervical vertebral malformation, four of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, two of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, one each of vertebral osteomyelitis and intervertebral disc protrusion. The clinical diagnosis of ataxia in horses requires neurological, radiographic, myelographic, and laboratory examinations. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17423438

  1. Horses 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    42nd Bombardment Squadron (H) Monthly Squadron Histories April 1944 ? November 1944. 42nd Bombardment Squadron (H), 11th Bombardment Group (H), 7th Air Force (1941-January 1943); 13th Air Force (January 1943... - ) Air Force Historical Association, IRIS No. 44028. This copy of the missions of the 42 nd Bombardment Squadron was digitized from the microfilm copy (Air Force Historical Association, IRIS No. 44028) obtained from the Air Force Historical...

  2. Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

    2011-03-01

    As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  3. HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907

    E-print Network

    facing horse owners. The best advice is to establish a regular health care program with a local veterinarian who has interest and expertise with horses. Let the veterinarian help you make health care waste and pasture management. Some indications of parasite infestation are weight loss, rough hair coat

  4. Ocean Mammals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Teschner

    2011-04-06

    What are the different types of mammals that live in the ocean? First, you will need to use the Ocean Mammals Table 1. This website is here for you to learn about ocean mammals. Mammals 2. This website will help you learn about the different mammals that live in the ocean. Ocean Mammals 3. Here is some information about how oil spills effect animal skin in the ocean. Oil Spills 4. This link ...

  5. Bone growth and development in weanling horses given forced exercise 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Jessica Leah

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of different management techniques to grow weanling horses, focusing on bone growth and development. Horses were put into two management regimens, the first in semi-confinement in a dry lot paddock...

  6. Effect of Concentrate Form on Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Horses

    E-print Network

    Huth, Lindsey

    2012-02-14

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common amongst equine athletes of various disciplines and linked to decreased performance. Prevalence among racehorses has been reported to be over 90%, performance horses at 60%, and endurances horses...

  7. The Hypersensitivity of Horses to Culicoides Bites in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail S.; Belton, Peter; Kleider, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Culicoides hypersensitivity is a chronic, recurrent, seasonal dermatitis of horses that has a worldwide distribution, but has only recently been reported in Canada. It is characterized by intense pruritus resulting in lesions associated with self-induced trauma. A survey of veterinarians and horse-owners in British Columbia showed no differences in susceptibility due to the sex, color, breed, or height of the horses. The prevalence of the disease in the 209 horses surveyed was 26%. Horses sharing the same pasture could be unaffected. The disease was reported primarily from southwestern British Columbia; it occurred between April and October and usually affected the ventral midline, mane, and tail. Horses were generally less than nine years old when the clinical signs first appeared ([unk]=5.9 yr). Culicoides hypersensitivity was common in the lineage of several affected horses, possibly indicating a genetic susceptibility. Most cases were severe enough to require veterinary attention and some horses were euthanized. PMID:17423117

  8. Bone growth and development in weanling horses given forced exercise

    E-print Network

    Williams, Jessica Leah

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of different management techniques to grow weanling horses, focusing on bone growth and development. Horses were put into two management regimens, the first in semi-confinement in a dry lot paddock...

  9. Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs: an in vivo-in vitro study geldings and three male beagle dogs, following intravenous doses of racemic FPF (1 mg/kg in horses), R(-)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs), and S(+)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs

  10. CHARMM: The Biomolecular Simulation Program B. R. BROOKS,1* C. L. BROOKS III,2,3* A. D. MACKERELL, Jr.,4* L. NILSSON,5* R. J. PETRELLA,6,7* B. ROUX,8* Y. WON,9*

    E-print Network

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    CHARMM: The Biomolecular Simulation Program B. R. BROOKS,1* C. L. BROOKS III,2,3* A. D. MACKERELL-mail: brbrooks@helix.nih.gov or C. L. Brooks III; e-mail: brookscl@umich.edu or A. D. MacKerell, Jr.; e

  11. Ocean Talk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ocean Talk provides a glimpse of oceanography and an awareness of the importance of the sea to our environment and our own well-being. There are scientific explanations of ocean bottom features, the properties of seawater, underwater sound, sea ice, ocean currents, tides, waves, and tsunamis. A history of marine exploration and descriptions of the Earth's oceans are also provided.

  12. Endoscopically assisted annular ligament release in horses.

    PubMed

    Nixon, A J; Sams, A E; Ducharme, N G

    1993-01-01

    An endoscopically assisted technique for internally dividing the palmar or plantar annular ligament was developed in six cadaver limb specimens and two anesthetized horses. Under arthroscopic view, a slotted cannula was inserted into the digital sheath through a stab wound proximal to the annular ligament and advanced through the fetlock canal superficial to the flexor tendons with the slot oriented toward the fibers of the annular ligament. Division of the annular ligament by 90-degree tipped open and guarded blades was observed and verified by direct arthroscopic view. At necropsy, complete division of the annular ligament without iatrogenic damage to the neurovascular structures was confirmed by dissection. Annular ligament division was performed in seven horses with complex tenosynovitis conditions. Tenoscopic examination and removal of tendon and digital sheath adhesions, masses, and bands was followed by endoscopically assisted annular ligament transection. At follow-up, five horses were sound athletes without recurrent digital sheath problems, one horse had residual lameness, and one horse was still convalescing. PMID:8116207

  13. Causative ehrlichial organisms in Potomac horse fever.

    PubMed Central

    Rikihisa, Y; Perry, B D

    1985-01-01

    An ehrlichia was consistently isolated from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction of ponies that had been experimentally infected with Potomac horse fever by whole blood transfusion from naturally infected horses. The organism was propagated in a human histiocyte cell line for 3 to 5 weeks and then inoculated intravenously or intradermally into healthy adult ponies. Clinical signs of Potomac horse fever, which varied in the degree of severity, occurred 9 to 14 days post-inoculation in all of the ponies. One pony died 20 days post-inoculation. The ehrlichial organism was reisolated in the human histiocyte cell line from the blood leukocyte fraction of all of the experimental ponies on each day that samples were examined (days 9, 10, 11, 19, and 39). These organisms were identical to those originally detected in the wall of the intestine of ponies with clinically diagnosed Potomac horse fever when compared by light and electron microscopy and an immunofluorescence labeling technique. The immunofluorescent antibody titer became positive in a pony at 20 days postinjection. These results indicate that the ehrlichial organisms is the causative agent of Potomac horse fever. Images PMID:4030092

  14. Sensory sensitivities: Components of a horse's temperament dimension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Léa Lansade; Gaëlle Pichard; Mathilde Leconte

    2008-01-01

    Temperament is an important factor when working with horses. Behavioural tests have already been developed to measure certain dimensions of a horse's temperament (fearfulness, gregariousness, etc.). In order to measure the temperament more precisely, our work aimed to identify a dimension which has already been described in several species but not yet in horses, namely sensory sensitivity. Our study was

  15. Effects of observational learning on food selection in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Clarke; C. J. Nicol; R. Jones; P. D. McGreevy

    1996-01-01

    Fourteen riding horses of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to observer and control treatments. An additional horse was pre-trained as a demonstrator to walk the 13.8 m length of the test arena and select one of two food buckets using colour and pattern cues. Observer horses were exposed to correct performances of the task by the trained demonstrator,

  16. Differences in motor laterality between breeds of performance horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. McGreevy; Peter C. Thomson

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between motor laterality in horses bred for different types of work and therefore different temperaments. Foreleg preference during grazing was measured in three populations of domestic horse, Thoroughbreds (TB, bred to race at the gallop), Standardbreds (SB, bred for pacing) and Quarter Horses (QH, in this case bred for so-called “cutting work” which involves manoeuvring

  17. FIELD STUDY OF HOOF WALL PROBLEMS IN UNSHOD WORKING HORSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. BIGHAM; A. N. TABATABAEI

    A population of 100 native breed unshod working horses was examined for hoof wall problems. The diagnosis of hoof wall defects was performed by close visual observation and via physical examina- tion. The location, extent and types of defects were then determined and recorded. Out of 100 horses, 124 hoof wall defects were noted in ninety working horses. The number

  18. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO ENCEPHALITOZOON CUNICULI IN HORSES IN BRAZIL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi has been associated with natural cases of abortion and still-birth in horses. However, little is known abut the prevalence of this parasite in horses. We examined serva from 559 horses from Brazil for antibodies to E. cuniculi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody ...

  19. A zoonotic genotype of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an equid species. Feces from 195 horses from four locations in Colombia were examined for E. bieneusi by PCR. Of these, 21 horses (10.8 percent) were found positive for E. bieneusi. The prevalence of E. bieneusi in horses <1 yr of age was signif...

  20. Assessment of size-dependent mercury distribution in King Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, E.O. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States). Dept. of Biometry and Epidemiology; Balthis, W.L. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States). Dept. of Biometry and Epidemiology]|[National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States). Southeast Fisheries Science Center

    1994-12-31

    The assessment of health risks from fish contamination and the issuance of advisories require accurate characterizations of the actual contaminant concentrations in fish of every relevant size. Such characterizations should not only contain statistical measures of location and variation, but provide a complete parameterization of the contaminant distribution for each given size class. This paper proposes two methods for determining such distributions from scatter diagrams of contaminant concentration versus fish length and illustrates them with an analysis of mercury contaminant in king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla. The first method consists of fitting contamination data with a family of S-distributions. This family shows trends in its defining parameter values, and these trends provide a comprehensive characterization of the measured contaminant concentrations. Each S-distribution has a rather simple mathematical structure from which one readily obtains secondary characteristics like quantiles, which are necessary for advanced simulation purposes. The second method takes into account that contaminant accumulation is the outcome of a metabolic process. When this process is modeled as a system of differential equations, it can be reformulated in such a way that it describes how the contaminant distribution changes over a given period of time. The resulting distributions have a more complicated structure than those obtained with the first method, but they allow them to bridge the gap between individual metabolic accumulation processes and trends in populations.

  1. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  2. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    E-print Network

    Atlantic Mackerel Fishery New Limited Access Permit System New Vessel Permits Required as ofMarch 1, 2012 mackerel. This program was developed by the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council in Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (Amendment 11). In order to fish for

  3. Texas 4-H Horse Project Teaching Outlines 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.; Johnson, Ken; Mason, Vanessa; Mitchell, Julianne

    2000-06-15

    differing amounts of nutrients in their daily diets. 1. The nutritional classes are mature idle, producing, working and growing. 2. Use practical feeding plans. a. Plan A: Feed the same kind of roughage and two to four different concentrate feeds. b. Plan B... reliable than visual observation in estimating weight. B. The procedure may not be highly accurate for pregnant mares or for horses with extreme conformational irregu- larities. 13 A SIMPLE FORMULA TO ESTIMATE HORSE BODY WEIGHT Q&A 1. What is the formula...

  4. European Domestic Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia

    PubMed Central

    Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim A.; Cañon, Javier; Cothran, Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Glowatzki-Mullis, Marie-Louise; Hunt, Harriet; Luís, Cristina; do Mar Oom, Maria; Yupanqui, Isabel Tupac; Z?bek, Tomasz; Manica, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both. PMID:21479181

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in horses with septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Easley, Jeremiah T; Brokken, Matthew T; Zubrod, Chad J; Morton, Alison J; Garrett, Katherine S; Holmes, Shannon P

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen horses with septic arthritis underwent high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Septic arthritis was diagnosed based on results from historical and clinical findings, synovial fluid analyses and culture, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, arthroscopic, and histopathologic findings. MR findings included diffuse hyperintensity within bone and extracapsular tissue on fat-suppressed images in 14/14 horses (100%), joint effusion, synovial proliferation, and capsular thickening in 13/14 horses (93%), bone sclerosis in 11/14 horses (79%), and evidence of cartilage and subchondral bone damage in 8/14 horses (57%). Intravenous gadolinium was administered to five of the 14 horses and fibrin deposition was noted in all horses. Other findings after gadolinium administration included synovial enhancement in 4/5 (80%) horses, and bone enhancement in 1/5 (20%) horses. The MR findings of septic arthritis in horses were consistent with those reported in people. MRI may allow earlier and more accurate diagnosis of septic arthritis in horses as compared with other imaging modalities, especially when the clinical diagnosis is challenging. It also provides additional information not afforded by other methods that may influence and enhance treatment. PMID:21447039

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and pharynx in horses.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L

    1994-01-01

    Medical records were reviewed for 11 horses with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and/or pharynx. The average age at presentation was 15.3 years. No breed or sex predilection was present. At presentation, 6 of 11 horses were dyspneic and 4 horses had inspiratory stridor. Endoscopy was performed in all cases and was more useful in demonstrating a mass in the laryngopharyngeal region than laryngeal or guttural pouch radiography. Surgical excision was attempted in 3 horses and in 1 horse alleviated clinical signs for 4 months. Ten horses were euthanatized and 1 horse died. Results of this study indicated that laryngopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas are difficult to surgically excise due to their location, size and invasiveness. Treatment is often not attempted because of the advanced state of the disease at the time of presentation. PMID:8313703

  7. Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Puzzling Horse Parts!

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , ears, and nose are for sensing things. The mane is like the hair on your head, protecting your skin Tags: Cloverbud, horse, parts Time Needed: 45-60 minutes (can easily be divided into smaller segments

  8. Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention without Compromising Horse Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

    Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

  9. Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention Without Compromising Horse Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

    Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

  10. Post-glacial population expansion of the Monterey Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus concolor in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-López, M; Díaz-Jaimes, P; Uribe-Alcocer, M; Quiñonez-Velázquez, C

    2015-03-01

    The level of genetic homogeneity and demographic history of the Monterey Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus concolor was assessed by analyses using sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA-control region of samples from the two oceanographic regions of the Gulf of California in order to define the stock structure for this exploited vulnerable species. The data were consistent with a single homogeneous population and revealed the hallmark of fluctuations in population size; these fluctuations appear to have occurred during glacial events of the middle to late Pleistocene, which may in turn be related to the colonization and expansion of S. concolor populations in the gulf. PMID:25583211

  11. Use of a 3-D dispersion model for calculation of distribution of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities.

    PubMed

    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

    2014-04-01

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m³). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority--80%-90%--detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

  12. Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

  13. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse

  14. Page 1 of 2 2013 NEW ENGLAND 4-H HORSE EDUCATION POSTER CONTEST

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Page 1 of 2 2013 NEW ENGLAND 4-H HORSE EDUCATION POSTER CONTEST Situation: 4-H members procedures around horses and general horse knowledge. How: A Horse Safety Poster Display in the horse barn. Who: Any 4-H member is invited to submit annually a new poster for the contest. When: Posters must

  15. Experimental Transmission of Ehrlichia equi to Horses through Naturally Infected Ticks (Ixodes pacificus) from Northern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERHARD H. REUBEL; ROBERT B. KIMSEY; JEFFREY E. BARLOUGH; JOHN E. MADIGAN

    1998-01-01

    We report the experimental transmission of Ehrlichia equi from naturally infected Ixodes pacificus ticks to horses. Three weeks after exposure to ticks, two of three horses developed clinical signs compatible with E. equi infection, while one horse remained asymptomatic. 16S rRNA gene PCR of blood leukocyte lysates was positive for all horses at various time points; two horses seroconverted. The

  16. Common peripheral nerve disorders in the horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Hahn

    2008-01-01

    WITH rare exceptions, horses are largely unaffected by the plethora of developmental, degenerative and metabolic axonopathies and myelinopathies that perplex neurologists in human and small animal medicine. Nevertheless, selected equine peripheral nerve syndromes are not uncommon. A detailed neurological examination is an absolute prerequisite to localising peripheral neuropathies and determining the underlying aetiology of these syndromes. This article describes disorders

  17. Letting horse sense loose on marketing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin van Mesdag

    1995-01-01

    Issues a plea for the exercise and application of horse sense in place of the increasingly sophisticated tools of modern marketers to repair some of the damage done by suppliers who have been economizing on their concern for their customers? interests. Uses a wide variety of examples (products, services, brands) to illustrate how all elements of the marketing mix could

  18. Emergency management of fractures in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Walmsley

    1999-01-01

    THE development of internal fixation techniques and better hospital facilities have significantly improved the success of fracture repair in horses. A practitioner, therefore, has an obligation to be prepared to administer adequate splinting in fracture cases unless he or she is absolutely certain that the injury is irreparable and warrants euthanasia. Properly applied initial first aid for the fracture case

  19. Infarctive purpura hemorrhagica in five horses.

    PubMed

    Kaese, Heather J; Valberg, Stephanie J; Hayden, David W; Wilson, Julia H; Charlton, Patricia; Ames, Trevor R; Al-Ghamdi, Ghanem M

    2005-06-01

    Five horses were examined because of signs of muscle stiffness, colic, or both. All 5 had been exposed to Streptococcus equi within 3 weeks prior to examination or had high serum titers of antibodies against the M protein of S equi. Horses had signs of unrelenting colic-like pain and focal areas of muscle swelling. Four horses were euthanatized. The fifth responded to treatment with penicillin and dexamethasone; after 3 weeks of treatment with dexamethasone, prednisolone was administered for an additional 10 weeks. Common hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities included neutrophilia with a left shift and toxic changes, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and high serum creatine kinase and aspartate transferase activities. Necropsy revealed extensive infarction of the skeletal musculature, skin, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and lungs. Histologic lesions included leukocytoclastic vasculitis in numerous tissues and acute coagulative necrosis resembling infarction. These horses appeared to have a severe form of purpura hemorrhagica resembling Henoch-Schönlein purpura in humans and characterized by infarction of skeletal muscles. Early recognition of focal muscle swelling, abdominal discomfort, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and high serum creatine kinase activity combined with antimicrobial and corticosteroid treatment may enhance the likelihood of a successful outcome. PMID:15934258

  20. Advancing Medicine for Horses and Humans

    E-print Network

    Advancing Medicine for Horses and Humans Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory Laboratory, in the Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences's work.Dr.Ed Squires'passion for equine medicine was infectious.I switched an elective rotation

  1. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare Galli; Irina Lagutina; Roberto Duchi; Silvia Colleoni; Giovanna Lazzari

    2008-01-01

    Contents The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for success- ful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo

  2. Trojan Horse Particle Invariance: An Extensive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Lamia, L.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spartá, R.

    2014-08-01

    In the last decades, the Trojan Horse method (THM) has played a crucial role for the measurement of several particle (both neutron and charged one) induced cross sections for reactions of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases, many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance proves the relatively simple approach allowed by the pole approximation and sheds light in the involved reaction mechanisms. Here we shortly review the complete work for the binary 2H(d,p)3H, 6Li(d, ?)4He, 6Li(p, ?)3He, 7Li(p, ?)4He reactions, by using the quasi free reactions after break-ups of different nuclides. Results are compared assuming the 6Li and 3He break-up in the case of the d(d,p)t, 6Li(d, ?)4He reactions and considering the 2H and 3He break-up for 6Li(p, ?)3He, 7Li(p, ?)4He reactions. These results, regardless of the Trojan Horse particle or the break-up scheme, confirms the applicability of the standard description of the THM and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nuclei for a whole spectra of different cases. This gives a strong basis for the understanding of the quasi-free mechanism which is the foundation on which the THM lies.

  3. Investigating the origins of horse domestication.

    PubMed

    Levine, M A

    1999-04-01

    Before the development of firearms, the horse was crucial to warfare and, before the invention of the steam engine, it was the fastest and most reliable form of land transport. It is crucial to the life of nomadic pastoralists on the Eurasian steppe and played a major role in the evolution of human society during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Understanding the human past requires knowledge of the origins and development of horse husbandry. The problem of being able to identify the early stages of horse domestication is one that many researchers have grappled with for the most part unsuccessfully. Until recently the most important criteria used had been that of increased relative abundance. That is, around 3500 BC, in some parts of Eurasia, there was an apparent increase in the proportions of horse bones and teeth found in archaeological deposits by comparison with preceding periods. However, other evidence suggests that the observed increase during the Copper Age could be explained as well, or even better, by increased hunting rather than by domestication. PMID:11314236

  4. Feeding Young Horses For Sound Development

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

    2005-05-25

    and exercise on the incidence of developmental orthopedic disease in weanling horses?. In Proceeding, 12th Equine Nutrition & Physiology Symposium. p. 15. 3. Boren, S.R., D.R. Topliff, D.W. Freeman, R.J. Bahr, D.G. Wagner and C.V. Maxwell. 1987. ?Growth...

  5. Ocean Portal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IOC/IODE Marine Data Training Team

    Ocean Portal is a high-level directory of Ocean Data and Information related web sites. The object of the site is to help scientists and other ocean experts in locating data and information. Sites are listed in a directory with headings that include information, data, scientific topics, agencies and societies, among others.

  6. Diagnostic and operative arthroscopy of the coxofemoral joint in horses.

    PubMed

    Nixon, A J

    1994-01-01

    Arthroscopic examination of the hip joint was performed in mature and juvenile horses, using a lateral approach and standard or long instruments depending on body weight. Nine hip joints were examined in three cadavers and four anesthetized horses. The lateral, cranial, and caudal regions of the femoral head and acetabulum were accessible, and, after distraction of the limb, the ligament of the head of the femur and the acetabular notch were also visible. In small horses, the medial regions of the hip joint were visible but were inaccessible in larger horses. Iatrogenic injury to the sciatic nerve or periarticular vasculature was not evident at necropsy examination. Six horses with lameness localized to the hip joint were examined arthroscopically. At surgery, two horses had tearing of the ligament of the head of the femur, two horses had osteochondrosis of the femoral head or acetabulum, and two horses had degenerative joint disease, one associated with a rim fracture of the caudal aspect of the acetabulum and the other of indeterminant origin. Improvement after debridement occurred in one of the horses with partial disruption of the ligament of the head of the femur and in both horses with osteochondrosis. Diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy of the hip can be accomplished in foals and weanlings using standard equipment, but, in adults weighing more than 300 kg, longer instruments are required and the ease of access and the visible extent of the hip joint is considerably reduced. PMID:7839596

  7. Ocean Terracing

    E-print Network

    Richard Cathcart; Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-09

    Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean Art is the technically possible 21-st Century terracing of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Art is applicable worldwide to places that might be practically improved by its judicious employment. Such Ocean Art may constitute an entirely unique category of solutions to coastal disaster prevention planning.

  8. Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Effective Population Size with Immigrants from Divergent Populations: A Case Study on Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson)

    PubMed Central

    Macbeth, Gilbert Michael; Broderick, Damien; Buckworth, Rik C.; Ovenden, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of genetic effective population size (Ne) using molecular markers are a potentially useful tool for the management of endangered through to commercial species. However, pitfalls are predicted when the effective size is large because estimates require large numbers of samples from wild populations for statistical validity. Our simulations showed that linkage disequilibrium estimates of Ne up to 10,000 with finite confidence limits can be achieved with sample sizes of approximately 5000. This number was deduced from empirical allele frequencies of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in a commercially harvested fisheries species, the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson). As expected, the smallest SD of Ne estimates occurred when low-frequency alleles were excluded. Additional simulations indicated that the linkage disequilibrium method was sensitive to small numbers of genotypes from cryptic species or conspecific immigrants. A correspondence analysis algorithm was developed to detect and remove outlier genotypes that could possibly be inadvertently sampled from cryptic species or nonbreeding immigrants from genetically separate populations. Simulations demonstrated the value of this approach in Spanish mackerel data. When putative immigrants were removed from the empirical data, 95% of the Ne estimates from jacknife resampling were greater than 24,000. PMID:23550119

  9. Antioxidant and functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel skin as influenced by average molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chang-Feng; Cao, Zi-Hao; Wang, Bin; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Li, Zhong-Rui; Zhang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the relationships between functional properties and average molecular weight (AMW) of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius) skin were researched. Seven hydrolysate fractions (5.04 ? AMW ? 47.82 kDa) from collagen of Spanish mackerel skin were obtained through the processes of acid extraction, proteolysis, and fractionation using gel filtration chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the collagen hydrolysate fractions were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the antioxidant activities and the logarithm of the AMW of the hydrolysate fractions in the tested AMW range. However, the reduction of AMW significantly enhanced the solubility of the hydrolysate fractions, and a similar AMW decrease of the hydrolysate fractions negatively affected the emulsifying and foaming capacities. This presented as a positive correlation between the logarithm of AMW and emulsion stability index, emulsifying activity index, foam stability, and foam capacity. Therefore, these collagen hydrolysates with excellent antioxidant activities or good functionalities as emulsifiers could be obtained by controlling the effect of the digestion process on the AMW of the resultant hydrolysates. PMID:25090114

  10. Age and growth of chub mackerel ( Xcomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas using sectioned otolith samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Xinjun; Feng, Bo

    2008-11-01

    Although chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) is a primary pelagic fish species, we have only limited knowledge on its key life history processes. The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas. Age was determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercial purse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawning ground in May 2006. The difference between the assumed birth date of 1st April and date of capture was used to adjust the age determined from counting the number of complete translucent rings. The parameters of three commonly used growth models, the von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz models, were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion ( AIC), the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model. The size-at-age and size-at-maturity values were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s, which was caused by heavy exploitation over the last few decades.

  11. The influence of dietary mackerel oil on the condition of organs and on blood lipid composition in the young growing pig1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ruiter; A. W. Jongbloed; C. M. van Gent; L. H. J. C. Danse; S. H. M. Metz

    A feeding experiment was carried out in which piglets were fed a diet enriched with either mackerel oil or olive oil. The oil consumption amounted to about 100 g per animal per day. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of feeding high amounts of fish oil rich in polyunsaturated and long-chain monoenoic acids in order to

  12. 19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. 148.32 Section...aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. (a) Admission...aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses, together with their...

  13. 43 CFR 4750.4 - Private maintenance of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private maintenance of wild horses and burros. 4750...CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4 Private maintenance of wild horses and...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses. PMID:21851747

  15. Inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle via inhibition of growth and histidine decarboxylase activity of Morganella morganii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri; Cho, Ji Young; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2014-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle. First, antimicrobial activities of brown algae extracts against Morganella morganii were investigated using a disk diffusion method. An ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (ECEE) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ECEE was 2 mg/ml. Furthermore, the brown algae extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit crude histidine decarboxylase (HDC) of M. morganii. The ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (EBEE) and ECEE exhibited significant inhibitory activities (19.82% and 33.79%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. To obtain the phlorotannin dieckol, ECEE and EBEE were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and HPLC. Dieckol exhibited substantial inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.61 mg/ml, and exhibited competitive inhibition. These extracts were also tested on mackerel muscle. The viable cell counts and histamine production in mackerel muscle inoculated with M. morganii treated with ?2.5 MIC of ECEE (weight basis) were highly inhibited compared with the untreated sample. Furthermore, treatment of crude HDC-inoculated mackerel muscle with 0.5% ECEE and 0.5% EBEE (weight basis), which exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against crude HDC, reduced the overall histamine production by 46.29% and 56.89%, respectively, compared with the untreated sample. Thus, these inhibitory effects of ECEE and EBEE should be helpful in enhancing the safety of mackerel by suppressing histamine production in this fish species. PMID:24394193

  16. Plasma and liver copper values in horses with equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Dill, S G; Hintz, H F; deLahunta, A; Waldron, C H

    1989-01-01

    Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is a common spinal cord disease in the horse. The etiology of EDM currently is unknown. In other species, there are similarities in the clinical signs and neuropathological changes observed in EDM and in copper deficiency. The objective of this study was to determine if horses affected with EDM had low levels of plasma or liver copper. Plasma copper values were determined in 25 EDM affected horses and 35 normal horses. Liver copper levels were determined on 13 EDM affected horses and 22 normal horses. Plasma and liver copper values were not significantly lower in EDM affected horses than in control horses. PMID:2914224

  17. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of the art of exercise testing in the Olympic disciplines of eventing, show jumping and dressage, and areas for further development are defined. In event horses, a simple four-step incremental exercise test measuring heart rate (HR), lactate concentration (LA) and velocity (V) is most often used. In dressage and riding horses, a wide variety of exercise tests have been developed, including incremental exercise tests, indoor riding tests and lunging tests. In show jumping, the use of a five-step incremental exercise test and exercise tests evaluating technical skills and fatigue of the horse has been reported. The velocity at a plasma LA of 4?mmol/L (VLA4) and HR recovery during submaximal exercise intensity have been shown to be the best parameters in event horses for predicting performance and impending injuries. In riding horses, the fitness level of horses is also an important determinant of injuries. Implementation of regular exercise testing and monitoring of training sessions may have important added value in the assessment of performance ability and potential future injuries in Warmblood sport horses. However, there is an urgent need to standardise methodologies and outcome parameters in order to make results comparable. PMID:25172838

  18. Impaired instrumental choice in crib-biting horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew; Redhead, Edward S; Goodwin, Deborah; McBride, Sebastian D

    2008-08-01

    Horses displaying an oral stereotypy were tested on an instrumental choice paradigm to examine differences in learning from non-stereotypic counterparts. Stereotypic horses are known to have dysfunction of the dorsomedial striatum, and lesion studies have shown that this region may mediate response-outcome learning. The paradigm was specifically applied in order to examine learning that requires maintenance of response-outcome judgements. The non-stereotypic horses learned, over three sessions, to choose a more immediate reinforcer, whereas the stereotypic horses failed to do so. This suggests an initial behavioural correlate for dorsomedial striatum dysregulation in the stereotypy phenotype. PMID:18430476

  19. Summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis) poisoning in three horses.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Filigenzi, M S; Booth, M C; Rodger, L D; Arnold, J S; Puschner, B

    2004-05-01

    Three horses died as a result of eating grass hay containing summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis L.), a plant containing cardenolides similar to oleander and foxglove. A 9-year-old thoroughbred gelding, a 20-year-old appaloosa gelding, and a 5-year-old quarter horse gelding initially presented with signs of colic 24-48 hours after first exposure to the hay. Gastrointestinal gaseous distension was the primary finding on clinical examination of all three horses. Two horses became moribund and were euthanatized 1 day after first showing clinical signs, and the third horse was euthanatized after 4 days of medical therapy. Endocardial hemorrhage and gaseous distension of the gastrointestinal tract were the only necropsy findings in the first two horses. On microscopic examination, both horses had scattered foci of mild, acute myocardial necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation associated with endocardial and epicardial hemorrhage. The third horse that survived for 4 days had multifocal to coalescing, irregular foci of acute, subacute, and chronic myocardial degeneration and necrosis. A. aestivalis (pheasant's eye, summer adonis) was identified in the hay. Strophanthidin, the aglycone of several cardenolides present in Adonis spp., was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry in gastrointestinal contents from all three horses. Although Adonis spp. contain cardiac glycosides, cardiac lesions have not previously been described in livestock associated with consumption of adonis, and this is the first report of adonis toxicosis in North America. PMID:15133169

  20. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses.

    PubMed

    Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Lee, S T; Green, B T; Hall, J O

    2013-10-01

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehydrotremetone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyl-tremetone) are responsible for the toxicity of rayless goldenrod. However, experimental reproduction of rayless goldenrod-induced disease and detailed descriptions of poisoning in horses with known concentrations of tremetone and other BFK has not been documented. In this study four horses were fed increasing amounts of rayless goldenrod to obtain doses of approximately 0, 10, 30, and 60 mg BFK/kg BW for 14 days. After seven days of dosing the horse dosed with 60 mg BFK/kg BW horse developed depression, reluctance to eat, dehydration, trembling, and muscle fatigue. Biochemical alterations including increases in the serum enzyme activities of CK, AST, ALT, and LDH, and increased cardiac troponin I concentration, were also identified. Physiologically the clinically poisoned horse had decreased endurance seen as reluctance to perform on the treadmill with increased resting heart rate and a prolonged recovery of heart rate following treadmill exercise. The condition of the horse continued to decline and it was euthanized and necropsied on day 10. At necropsy the myocardium was pale and soft and many of the appendicular and large apical muscles were pale and moist. Histologically, the myocardium had extensive myocardial degeneration and necrosis with extensive fibrosis and multifocal mineralization. Several of the large appendicular muscles in this horse also had small foci of skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. Less severe myocardial changes were also identified in the horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW after 14 days of dosing. No clinical, biochemical or histologic changes were identified in the control horse and the horse dosed with 10 mg BFK/kg BW. These results suggest that doses of 60 mg BFK/kg BW for seven days produce extensive myocardial lesions in horses. The horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW developed less severe, but similar myocardial lesions over a longer duration, this suggests that poisoning may be cumulative and lower doses of longer duration are also toxic. Horses seem to be uniquely sensitive to rayless goldenrod-induced myocardial disease, therefore cardiac troponin I may be a useful marker of rayless goldenrod poisoning in horses. More work is needed to determine which BFK produce myocardial toxicity and better determine the effects of dose and duration on poisoning in horses. PMID:23831837

  1. Cervical Intervertebral Disc Protrusion in Two Horses

    PubMed Central

    Foss, R. R.; Genetzky, R. M.; Riedesel, E. A.; Graham, C.

    1983-01-01

    Two horses with ataxia of all four limbs were found to have cervical intervertebral disc protrusion. Severe pelvic limb ataxia, proprioceptive deficits and spasticity were present in both horses with similar but less severe signs in the thoracic limbs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was within normal limits. Metrizamide myelography allowed definitive diagnosis in one case when a compression of the spinal cord was demonstrated at the level of the second intervertebral space. In the second case, an intervertebral disc protrusion between cervical vertebrae 6 and 7 was found at necropsy. Fiber degeneration with poor myelin staining characterized the spinal cords histologically. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2a.Figure 2b.Figure 3. PMID:17422269

  2. Ocean Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    _Ocean Planet_ is a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition that now has a companion on-line exhibition. It covers varied topics associated with the ocean, such as the science of the ocean, the animals, people, and communities who use the ocean, and pollution problems currently endangering ocean resources. The exhibit features all of the text and a good portion of the images from the traveling exhibit. The curator of this exhibit has put together six special interest tours including Biodiversity, Women and the Sea, and Pollution. Users can also build their own special tour from a list of key words. The current list contains only four words, but is expected to grow in the future. Visitors can also consult a comprehensive list of educational materials and ocean resources.

  3. The Trojan Horse Method in Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l'Ingegneria, Catania University (Italy) and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Catania (Italy)

    2010-11-24

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross section in nuclear reaction between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed in the non resonant reactions case. A review of applications aimed to extract the bare nucleus astrophysical S{sub b}(E) factor for two body processes are presented. The information on electron screening potential U{sub e} were obtained from comparison with direct experiments of fusion reactions.

  4. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses.

    PubMed

    Galli, Cesare; Lagutina, Irina; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2008-07-01

    The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for successful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo production. When these technologies were developed, the application of cloning also became possible and cloned horse offspring were obtained. This review summarizes the main technical procedures that are required for cloning equids and the present status of this technique. The first step is competent oocyte maturation, this is followed by oocyte enucleation and reconstruction, using either zona-enclosed or zona-free oocytes, by efficient activation to allow high cleavage rates and finally by a suitable in vitro embryo culture technique. Cloning of the first equid, a mule, was achieved using an in vivo-matured oocytes and immediate transfer of the reconstructed embryo, i.e. at the one cell stage, to the recipient oviduct. In contrast, the first horse offspring was obtained using a complete in vitro procedure from oocyte maturation to embryo culture to the blastocyst stage, followed by non-surgical transfer. Later studies on equine cloning report high efficiency relative to that for other species. Cloned equid offspring reported to date appear to be normal and those that have reached puberty have been confirmed to be fertile. In summary, horse cloning is now a reproducible technique that offers the opportunity to preserve valuable genetics and notably to generate copies of castrated champions and therefore, offspring from those champions that would be impossible to obtain otherwise. PMID:18638143

  5. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Burócziová; J. ?íha

    2009-01-01

    Genetic relationships and population structure of 8 horse breeds in the Czech and Slovak Republics were investigated using\\u000a classification methods for breed discrimination. To demonstrate genetic differences among these breeds, we used genetic information\\u000a — genotype data of microsatellite markers and classification algorithms — to perform a probabilistic prediction of an individual’s\\u000a breed. In total, 932 unrelated animals were genotyped

  6. Scintigraphical evaluation of alveolar clearance in horses.

    PubMed

    Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Duvivier, D H; Lambert, P; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1998-07-01

    This study proposed a standardized method for measuring alveolar epithelium membrane permeability in the horse. The normal rate of clearance (%.min-1) from lung into blood of nebulized 99mTc-DTPA has been established for healthy horses (Group A) compared with values obtained with horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; Group B). The 99mTc-DTPA clearance was measured in the caudoventral (R1) and in the half caudal (R2) parts of the left lung during different time intervals. The two regions aimed to define the influence of the airways on measured clearance (R2 contained proportionally more conducting airways than R1). It was concluded that a comparison of groups of subjects may be performed in R2 and on data collected during a 20 min period. The normal clearance rate in R2 was 1.80 +/- 0.46%.min-1 (T1/2R2 = 40.99 +/- 12.45 min) in Group A. In Group B, a significantly faster 99mTc-DTPA transfer rate was found (4.17 +/- 0.83%.min-1 or T1/2R2 = 17.17 +/- 3.38min). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) suggested that the increased permeability measured in Group B could be the result of lung inflammatory responses. Our results have demonstrated the ability of the 99mTc-DTPA clearance test to detect alveolar epithelial damage in horses. Furthermore, we were able to show that a regional analysis of the alveolar-capillary barrier integrity may be performed satisfactorily in the equine patient. PMID:9691851

  7. Saddled with a Lame Horse? Why State Consumer Protection Laws Can Be the Best Protection for Duped Horse Purchasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne I Bandes

    2003-01-01

    Many first-time horse purchasers have little experience with the equine industry and are thus vulnerable to the use of deceptive and unfair practices by the more knowledgeable seller. In situations where inexperienced horse purchasers are duped into buying ill or otherwise defective horses, there are two potential claims that purchasers can make for relief: U.C.C. claims or state consumer protection

  8. Immunologic studies of a horse with lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ansar Ahmed, S; Furr, M; Chickering, W R; Sriranganathan, N; Sponenberg, D P

    1993-10-01

    Immunological, clinical, and pathological investigations were conducted on a horse with lymphosarcoma. The immunological status was investigated by measuring the level of antibodies by single radial immunodiffusion test and the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in response to mitogens. Multiple immunological abnormalities were noted in this horse. They were; (1) decreased IgM, IgG, and IgA levels in the serum despite hyperproteinemia; (2) increased in-vitro spontaneous lymphoproliferation which reflects augmented mitosis; (3) decreased lymphoproliferative response to T cell stimulants (e.g. Concanavalin-A (Con-A)) suggesting impaired T cell activation; (4) presence of immunosuppressive factors in serum as demonstrated by in-vitro lymphocyte culture systems. Clinical pathology findings revealed an unusual monoclonal alpha peak in the serum and morphologically abnormal lymphocytes distributed throughout the body. Serum fractionated by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) revealed that the immunosuppressive factors were found in this abnormal alpha peak. The immunopathological findings in this horse are discussed. PMID:8291201

  9. Ocean Optics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    This NASA website is part of Visible Earth, and contains a searchable directory of images of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to ocean optics, such as ocean color, turbidity and reflectance. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the photographing satellite.

  10. Ocean Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    Bermuda may be known as a luxurious vacation destination, but it also houses one of the world's leading institutes for ocean studies, called BIOS. Dr. Tony Knap explains how climate change is causing ocean temperatures to rise, and what impacts it may bring around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  11. Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-08-01

    Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds. PMID:23706190

  12. Ocean Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students discover that measurements from space can tell us the temperature of the ocean, both on an annual average and as measured on any given date. For the annual average the highest ocean temperatures are near the equator, and drop as one moves either northward or southward from the equator. Students will graph each temperature value as a function of latitude and write a linear equation that best fits the points on their graph. They can choose as data points any point at that approximate latitude because the temperature is not uniform for a certain latitude - some areas are hotter and some are cooler. They can also look at today's ocean temperatures via the link provided to see how the seasons affect whether the northern or southern oceans are warmer. Students will take ocean temperature data from a map and plot temperature versus angle from the equator.

  13. FEEDING STANDARDS FOR ENERGY AND PROTEIN FOR HORSES IN FRANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM MARTIN-ROSSET

    The validity of the UFC and MADC systems was tested through many feeding trials using mares, growing horses and working horses to create the new French feeding standards. These systems and the proposed feeding standards were updated in 1990 by the INRA group on the basis of further experiments and feeding trials, which focused on energy metabolism and mare and

  14. Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Franklin; Hailu Kinde; Michele T. Jay; Laura D. Kramer; Emily-Gene N. Green; Robert E. Chiles; Eileen Ostlund; Stan Husted; Jonathan Smith; Michael D. Parker

    2002-01-01

    A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for pre- vention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed. A vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was later suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neuro-

  15. Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses The NYS Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory has isolated Salmonella Group C2 from cultures submitted from 4 different horse farms in either to most antibiotics. A Salmonella newport strain (Group C2) was recently associated with the closing

  16. Neutrophil and cytokine dysregulation in hyperinsulinemic obese horses.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Todd C; Tipton, Ty; McFarlane, Dianne

    2012-01-15

    Equine metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity and regional adiposity coupled with evidence of recurrent laminitis. Although inflammation has been well characterized in several experimental models of acute laminitis, the inflammatory events associated with endocrinopathic laminitis are not well documented. The aim of this study was to characterize selected markers of inflammation in horses with clinical evidence of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst, as well as endogenous and stimulated cytokine expression were evaluated. A marked increase in neutrophil reactive oxygen species production upon phagocytosis was observed in horses with EMS that was strongly correlated to the blood insulin concentration. Increased oxidative burst activity of neutrophils in hyperinsulinemic horses may predispose horses with metabolic syndrome to laminitis. In contrast, peripheral blood cells of obese hyperinsulinemic horses showed decreased endogenous proinflammatory cytokine gene expression (IL-1 and IL-6) and similar cytokine response following immune stimulation compared to that of control horses. This may suggest that, unlike in people, cytokine-mediated inflammation does not increase in direct response to obesity or insulin resistance in horses. This species-specific disparity may explain the difference in clinical outcomes observed in obese horses compared to obese people. PMID:22169327

  17. Immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in horses and pigs using Western blots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Texia Gorman; Jimena Aballay; Fernando Fredes; Marco Silva; Juan Carlos Aguillón; Hector A. Alcaíno

    1997-01-01

    Crude and partially purified somatic (S) and excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of Fasciola hepatica were subjected to Western blot analysis in order to identify polypeptides that would enable specific and sensitive immunodiagnosis of horse and pig fasciolosis to be undertaken. Sera from 20 horses and 20 pigs with natural infections of F. hepatica and the same number of uninfected hosts of

  18. Very low-density lipoprotein metabolism in hypothyroid horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Frank

    2002-01-01

    The central hypothesis of this thesis is that hypothyroidism alters the metabolism of blood lipoproteins in horses. More specifically, our goal was to determine the effect of hypothyroidism on very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism. Thyroid glands were surgically removed (thyroidectomy) from horses to create a hypothyroid state and blood lipids were examined. Results revealed a significant 9-fold rise in mean

  19. Orthopaedic Health, Conformation and Longevity in Riding Horses

    E-print Network

    Lina Jönsson Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal Breeding, correlations, horse breeding, heritability Author's address: Lina Jönsson, SLU, Department of Animal Breeding a central role for animal welfare, sport performance and horse owner economy. Routine registration of health

  20. Job Title: Ranch Hand Name: Howard Owens' Cutting Horses

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Job Title: Ranch Hand Name: Howard Owens' Cutting Horses Openings: 1 Time: 2-3 hours a day, 7 days a week Salary: $200/month Start Date: Immediately Supervisor: Howard Owens Description: Job entails daily cleaning of horse stalls, keeping grass mowed, and odd jobs around the ranch. Approximately 2 to 3 hours

  1. Connecticut 4-H Horse Judging By Margaret I. Rausch

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    that should be of equal length; the shoulder, midpiece, hindquarter. Ideally the shoulder, back, hip, head as much as a horse with a shorter (or longer) back or hip. The most important lengths that should that "run downhill" should not be faulted as severely as a mature horse would be. In addition, the width

  2. A changing pattern of injuries to horse riders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P S Moss; A Wan; M R Whitlock

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the demographics and nature of injuries occurring on or around horses, to examine the nature of protective clothing in relation to these injuries, and to compare our data with previously published work in this area.Methods: Patients were identified using the term “sports injury–horse riding” from the departmental database for one calendar year from February 2000. Data were

  3. Tansy ragwort poisoning in a horse in southern Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    de Lanux-Van Gorder, V

    2000-01-01

    Bizarre behavior, apparent lameness, and colic were noticed in 1 of 3 horses on a pasture overgrown by weeds during a drought. Liver failure and hepatoencephalopathy were diagnosed, caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis associated with consumption of tansy ragwort. The horse made a full recovery when removed from the pasture. PMID:10816838

  4. Sinusitis associated with nasogastric intubation in 3 horses

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Jorge E.; Yamout, Sawsan; Dechant, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Sinusitis has not been reported as a complication of long-term nasogastric intubation in horses. We describe 3 horses that developed nosocomial sinusitis following abdominal surgery with associated perioperative nasogastric intubation. Sinusitis was suspected by the presence of malodorous discharge and confirmed by percussion, upper airway endoscopy, radiographs (n = 3), and bacterial culture (n = 1). PMID:24891638

  5. Feeding and Caring for a Yearling 4-H Futurity Horse

    E-print Network

    Antilley, Teri J.; Sigler, Dennis

    2009-04-23

    Feeding and Caring for a Yearling 4-H Futurity Horse Teri Antilley and Dennis Sigler* B-6223 4-09 *Extension Program Specialist?Equine, and Professor and Extension Horse Specialist The Texas A&M University System i TEXAS AGRILIFE EXTENSION... SERVICE All photos courtesy of Teri Antilley, Sarah Owen, and Dennis Sigler Contents Introduction .....................................................................1 Nutrition ...........................................................................1...

  6. Tail docking in horses: a review of the issues.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, D; Lips, D; Odberg, F O; Giffroy, J M

    2007-09-01

    Routinely performed painful procedures are of increasing interest and, in 2001 (Royal Order, May 17), Belgium prohibited docking in several vertebrates including horses. In 2004, opponents to this decision submitted a Bill (Doc51 0969/001) to Parliament, intending to obtain derogation for Belgian draught horses, which were traditionally docked. The Animal Welfare Council of Belgium, an official body advising the Minister of Public Health, was asked to evaluate this complex question, including biological, ethical and socio-economic aspects, on the basis of the available peer-reviewed studies. In this context, this study reviews legal aspects (overview of the European legislation), zootechnic aspects (uses of the Belgian draught horse) and biological aspects (pain potentially related to docking; horses' welfare linked to insect harassment and hygiene, communication and reproduction) of tail docking in draught horses. We conclude that (1) there is no benefit for horses in tail docking, including Belgian draught horses, (2) potential advantages of docking are essentially in favour of humans and these advantages could be scrupulously re-evaluated, taking into account practices of other countries. Therefore, there is no need to dock any horse other than for veterinary reasons. PMID:22444861

  7. A large scale molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in horses is poorly known. The present study examined feces from 195 horses, 1 month to 17 years of age, in 4 locations in Colombia. Prevalence of infection was determined by PCR and all positives were sequenced to determine the genotypes. Thirty four (...

  8. An inherited connective tissue disease in the horse.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M H; Fisher, K R; Vrablic, O E; Yager, J A; Nimmo-Wilkie, J S; Parker, W; Keeley, F W

    1988-08-01

    The hyperextensible, fragile skin of two related horses was compared with the skin of eight normal horses. Skin sections were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The deep dermal layer of the dorsal abdomen was much thinner in the affected horses, and contained bundles of collagen fibers which were more loosely packed. Within individual fibers, the fibrils were frequently curved and nonparallel rather than straight and parallel. Both of the affected animals had a greater range of fibril diameters than a normal horse. They had some unusually thick fibrils with very irregular outlines in cross-sections, not observed in the normal animal. Other skin samples were subjected to acetic acid extraction, pepsin digestion, amino acid analysis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the skin of the two affected horses, the proportion of total extracted collagen which was acid-soluble was twice as high as in two normal horses. Collagen types I and III were present in similar proportions in normal and affected horses, and the collagen chains were of normal molecular weights. The disorder resembles the group described by Minor (Minor RR: Am J Pathol 98: 226, 1980) as 'dominant collagen packing defect I' which has been reported in dogs, mink, and cats, and which shares features with Ehlers Danlos Syndrome I, II, and III in man. The pedigree data available for these horses suggest an autosomal recessive mutation, but are also consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. PMID:3404977

  9. Adverse effects of zilpaterol administration in horses: three cases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three healthy horses were fed 0.17 mg/kg body weight of the beta-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol to determine zilpaterol elimination kinetics. Shortly after treatment, each horse developed skeletal muscle tremors, tachycardia, and serological abnormalities lasting several days. A 75% to 87.5% reduced ...

  10. From kids and horses: Equine facilitated psychotherapy for children1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenio Quiroz Rothe; Beatriz Jiménez Vega; Rafael Mazo Torres; Silvia María; Campos Soler; Rosa María; Molina Pazos

    2005-01-01

    Equine facilitated psychotherapy is a developing form of animal assisted therapy, which primarily incorporates human interaction with horses as guides. The behavior of a sensitive horse, provides a vehicle by which the therapist can use to teach the patient coping skills. This theoretical study is present to reader our opinion, about the main considerations of equine facilitated psychotherapy for children.

  11. Species distributions from English Celtic Sea

    E-print Network

    and older) 24 7.6 Hake (1-group) 26 7.7 Horse mackerel (2-group and older) 28 7.8 Horse mackerel (1-group) 30 7.9 Megrim 32 7.10 Mackerel (2-group and older) 34 7.11 Mackerel (1-group) 36 7.12 Four The original objectives of this series of surveys were to investigate the distribution and biology of mackerel

  12. Growth dynamics of Lipizzan horses and their comparison to other horse breeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ester Lovšin; Gregor Fazarinc; Azra Poga?nik; Sr?an V Bavdek

    2001-01-01

    A typical body format of Slovenian Lipizzan horse was investigated. The study included 6 foals (5 colts and 1 filly) at the Lipica stud farm. They were measured from birth to twenty-seven months and again at forty-four months of age. Measurements included body length, chest circumference, withers height and body mass. All those measurements were statistically evaluated and compared to

  13. HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907

    E-print Network

    can increase its heart rate 5-6 times resting levels, both advantages for emergency situations. When, and is an extremely important ethical issue. A horse's well-being is based on its physical, emotional have a tremendous capacity for exercise and activity for long periods of time and quickly recover from

  14. Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2009-08-01

    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers. PMID:19398607

  15. HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907

    E-print Network

    $7 per square foot of floor space as the absolute minimum cost to build an enclosed barn for horses have fewer problems with respiratory diseases and more normal bone development when they are housed percent of their body weight per day. As an animal that evolved as a nibbler and grazer, it is best

  16. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.

    PubMed

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2013-05-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P < 0.05). HR of horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these tests (excluding the indoor arena test) reflect normal police work, it is suggested that this kind of police work is not significantly stressful for horses and will have no negative impact on the horse's welfare. PMID:23244508

  17. Comprehensive Ocean Drilling

    E-print Network

    Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

  18. Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii Exposure among Horses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Seung-Hun; LEE, Sang-Eun; SEO, Min-Goo; GOO, Youn-Kyoung; CHO, Kwang-Hyun; CHO, Gil-Jae; KWON, Oh-Deog; KWAK, Dongmi; LEE, Won-Ja

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies by ELISA in horses reared in Korea. Serum samples were collected from 2009 through 2013 from 816 horses reared in Korea. Analysis was performed using a commercial toxoplasmosis ELISA kit to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. Overall, 24 out of 816 horses (2.9%) were seropositive for T. gondii. The result was analyzed by age, gender, breed and region. Significant differences were observed according to breed and region (P<0.05). This is the first nationwide serological investigation of T. gondii in horses reared in Korea. The study results reveal that T. gondii occurs nationwide in Korean horses. PMID:25649954

  19. Genetic characterization of the Spanish Trotter horse breed using microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Javier Azor; Mercedes Valera; María Dolores Gómez; Félix Goyache; Antonio Molina

    2007-01-01

    To assist in selection schemes we carried out the first genetic characterization of the Spanish Trotter horse (Trotador Español). We used 16 microsatellite markers to genotype 40 unrelated Spanish trotters, 25 native Balearic horses (11 Menorquina and 14 Mallorquina horses) and 32 Andalusian horses. The observed heterozygosity for the Spanish Trotters was 0.647 ± 0.037 and the expected heterozygosity was

  20. Bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral lesions related to the use of the bit and bridle are reported to be common findings in horses worldwide and represent an important animal welfare issue. In order to provide an overview of bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses, a field examination of the rostral part of the oral cavity was performed in 424 competition horses coming to the two major national horse events in Iceland in 2012. Records from repeated examination of 77 horses prior to the finals were used to assess potential risk factors. Results Mild lesions were recorded in 152 horses (36%) prior to the preliminary rounds. They were most often located in the commissures of the lips and the adjacent buccal mucosa (n?=?111). Severe lesions were found in 32 (8%) horses. For 77 horses examined prior to the finals, the frequency of findings in the area of the mandibular interdental space (bars of the mandible) had increased from 8% to 31% (P?horses. The type of bits used influenced both the location and the severity of the lesions. The use of curb bits with a port was found to be a decisive risk factor for lesions on the bars of the mandible, most of which were regarded as severe. The results also raised questions about the head and neck carriage demanded for the competition horses. PMID:25116656

  1. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals. PMID:25320481

  2. Y-Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Diversity in Chinese Indigenous Horse.

    PubMed

    Han, Haoyuan; Zhang, Qin; Gao, Kexin; Yue, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Tao; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to high genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), equine Y chromosome shows extremely low variability, implying limited patrilines in the domesticated horse. In this study, we applied direct sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods to investigate the polymorphisms of 33 Y chromosome specific loci in 304 Chinese indigenous horses from 13 breeds. Consequently, two Y-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (Y-45701/997 and Y-50869) and one Y-indel (Y-45288) were identified. Of those, the Y-50869 (T>A) revealed the highest variation frequency (24.67%), whereas it was only 3.29% and 1.97% in Y-45288 (T/-) and Y-45701/997 (G>T) locus, respectively. These three mutations accounted for 27.96% of the total samples and identified five Y-SNP haplotypes, demonstrating genetic diversity of Y chromosome in Chinese horses. In addition, all the five Y-SNP haplotypes were shared by different breeds. Among 13 horse breeds analyzed, Balikun horse displayed the highest nucleotide diversity (? = 5.6×10(-4)) and haplotype diversity (h = 0.527), while Ningqiang horse showed the lowest nucleotide diversity (? = 0.00000) and haplotype diversity (h = 0.000). The results also revealed that Chinese horses had a different polymorphic pattern of Y chromosome from European and American horses. In conclusion, Chinese horses revealed genetic diversity of Y chromosome, however more efforts should be made to better understand the domestication and paternal origin of Chinese indigenous horses. PMID:26104513

  3. Fisheries in the Southern Ocean: an ecosystem approach.

    PubMed

    Kock, Karl-Hermann; Reid, Keith; Croxall, John; Nicol, Stephen

    2007-12-29

    The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) is bound by its Article II, 3 to follow an ecosystem approach to management. This approach has been extended to the application of a precautionary approach in the late 1980s. In our review, we deal primarily with the science-related aspects of CCAMLR and its development towards an ecosystem approach to the management of the living resources of the Southern Ocean. To assist the Commission in meeting its objectives, as set out in Article II, 3, the Scientific Committee established the CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Programme to detect possible effects of krill fishing on the performance of top-level predators, such as albatrosses, penguins, petrels and fur seals. Fisheries in the Southern Ocean followed the fate of other fisheries worldwide in which target species were depleted to low level one after the other. Currently, two types of fisheries are open: the longline fisheries on Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) and Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) and the trawl fisheries on mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari). Both fisheries are managed in a single-species context, however, with conservation measures in place to protect by-catch species, such as rattails (Macrouridae) and skates and rays (Rajidae). Two major problems still exist in fisheries in the Southern Ocean: the by-catch of birds in longline fisheries primarily in the Indian Ocean and the high level of IUU fishing again in the Indian Ocean. Both, the by-catch of birds and high IUU catches undermine the credibility of CCAMLR to safeguard the marine living resources in the Southern Ocean. PMID:17553767

  4. Acid Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

  5. Disseminated cryptococcosis including osteomyelitis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Lenard, Z M; Lester, N V; O'hara, A J; Hopper, B J; Lester, G D

    2007-01-01

    A 4-year-old Arab mare was diagnosed with disseminated cryptococcosis, including osteomyelitis of the proximal phalanx of the left hind limb, osteomyelitis with associated soft tissue granuloma of a rib and disseminated, large cryptococcal nodules in the lungs. The lesion in the dorsoproximal aspect of the proximal phalanx had a large area of cortical lysis with spiculated periosteal new bone and extensive soft tissue swelling. The affected rib had a pathological fracture. Cryptococcal osteomyelitis has not been previously reported in horses but should be considered as a differential diagnosis, particularly in endemic regions. PMID:17300456

  6. mRNA levels of kisspeptins, kisspeptin receptors, and GnRH1 in the brain of chub mackerel during puberty.

    PubMed

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Adachi, Hayato; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kodama, Ryoko; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Selvaraj, Sethu; Kato, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss) and its cognate receptor (Kiss1R), implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH secretion in mammals, have been proposed to be the key factors in regulating puberty. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of puberty in fish are poorly understood. The chub mackerel Scomber japonicus expresses two forms of Kiss (kiss1 and kiss2) and two Kiss receptor (kissr1 and kissr2) genes in the brain, which exhibit sexually dimorphic changes during the seasonal reproductive cycle. This indicates that the kisspeptin system plays an important role in gonadal recrudescence of chub mackerel; however, the involvement of the kisspeptin system in the pubertal process has not been identified. In the present study, we examined the mRNA expression of kiss1, kiss2, kissr1, kissr2, and gnrh1 (hypophysiotropic form) in the brain of a chub mackerel during puberty. In male fish, kiss2, kissr1 and kissr2 levels increased significantly at 14weeks post-hatch (wph), synchronously with an increase in type A spermatogonial populations in the testis; kiss2 and gnrh1 levels significantly increased at 22wph, just before the onset of meiosis in the testes. In female fish, kiss2 increased significantly at 14wph, synchronously with an increase in the number of perinucleolar oocytes in the ovary; kiss1 and kiss2 levels significantly increased concomitantly with an increase in the kissr1, kissr2, and gnrh1 levels at 24wph, just before the onset of vitellogenesis in oocytes. The present results suggest positive involvement of the kisspeptin-GnRH system in the pubertal process in the captive reared chub mackerel. PMID:25250485

  7. Population genetic evidence for the east–west division of the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus commerson, Perciformes: Teleostei) along Wallace’s Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zohrah Haji Sulaiman; Jennifer R. Ovenden

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA D-loop (control) region (426-bp) was used to infer the genetic structure of Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) from populations in Southeast Asia (Brunei, East and West Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, and China) and northern\\u000a Australia (including western Timor). An east–west division along Wallace’s Line was strongly supported by a significant AMOVA,\\u000a with 43% of the total sequence variation partitioned

  8. Environmental assessment of the Atlantic mackerel ( Scomber scombrus ) season in the Basque Country. Increasing the timeline delimitation in fishery LCA studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saioa Ramos; Ian Vázquez-Rowe; Iñaki Artetxe; Maria Teresa Moreira; Gumersindo Feijoo; Jaime Zufía

    Purpose  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts linked to fish extraction on a temporal basis, in order\\u000a to analyze the effect that stock abundance variations may have on reporting environmental burdens. Inventory data for the\\u000a North-East Atlantic Mackerel (NEAM) fishing season were collected over an 8-year period and used to carry out a life cycle\\u000a assessment

  9. Fatty alcohols in capelin, herring and mackerel oils and muscle lipids: I. Fatty alcohol details linking dietary copepod fat with certain fish depot fats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. N. Ratnayake; R. G. Ackman

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the shorter chain (C14-C18) minor fatty alcohols in copepods, fish body lipids, and commercial fish oils are all qualitatively present, and quantitatively\\u000a similar in proportions to acids found in the depot fats of capelin and mackerel, and in some herring. Although these fatty\\u000a acids can be formed de novo in fish, copepod alcohols offer an alternative

  10. Fatty alcohols in capelin, herring and mackerel oils and muscle lipids: II. A comparison of fatty acids from wax esters with those of triglycerides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. N. Ratnayake; R. G. Ackman

    1979-01-01

    The fatty acids recovered from the triglycerides and wax esters of common northwest Atlantic copepods are compared with the\\u000a fatty acids of wax esters recovered intact from certain fish skin and body lipid, and from commercial fish oils. The fish\\u000a species, herring, capelin and mackerel, all feed on copepods, and many resemblances of the copepod lipid fatty acids to those

  11. Mackerel skin lipids as an unsaturated fat model system for the determination of antioxidative potency of TBHQ and other antioxidant compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Ke; D. M. Nash; R. G. Ackman

    1977-01-01

    and Summary  A comparative study on the activity of antioxidation of butylhydroxy anisole, (BHA), butylhydroxy toluene (BHT),tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), ?-tocopherol, and tempeh oil has been investigated by using the readily oxidizable mackerel skin\\u000a lipids as the tested model system. The oxidation rate of the tested lipids was mainly followed by measuring the weight gain,\\u000a but some peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and

  12. Future Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Great Rift Valley is a huge gash cut into East Africa, extending 3000 kilometers from Malawi in southern Africa to the Red Sea in the north. Beneath the Great Rift Valley, the next new ocean on Earth may be forming. This radio broadcast ptovides interviews with geologists who are studying this part of Africa to learn how new seas appear. The tectonic plates that form the continents drift continuously about the globe as new oceans open up and old ones get closed down. But, occasionally, continents themselves split apart and new ocean floor forms from volcanoes that erupt in the the ensuing rift. It is this event that geologists believe they are witnessing in East Africa. The broadcast discusses Project EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment), an investigation into how a continental rift turns into a new ocean. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

  13. Comparing Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A variety of classroom activities and lessons that compare the world's oceans. Activities included: The Gulf of Maine, Satellite Comparisons, Design a Fish, What Migrations, Incredible Feasting of Whales, Paddle to the Sea, and Ocean Soundings. Discover why weather at identical latitudes is not always the same, learn the different ways whales eat, and find out the temperature difference between the Gulf Stream and surrounding water. Links to other Aquarium modules.

  14. Effects of deep frying on proximate composition and micronutrient of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), eel (Monopterus albus) and cockle (Anadara granosa).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Zamri, M; Fadilla, N

    2012-06-15

    This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish. PMID:24191621

  15. Does the timing of the spawning migration change for the southern component of the Northeast Atlantic Mackerel ( Scomber scombrus, L. 1758)? An approximation using fishery analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punzón, Antonio; Villamor, Begoña

    2009-05-01

    Part of the Northeast Atlantic mackerel population migrates towards the southern spawning area (Cantábrian Sea) at the end of winter. In this seasonal handline fishery targeting mackerel, the most important in the study area that targets this species, the timing of the peak of catches has shifted forward (later) in recent years. This paper presents results pointing to the likelihood that this shift is due to a change in the timing of the spawning migration to the southern area of the Northeast Atlantic mackerel population. Three types of fleet have been identified within this fishery, and in all of them there is a forward shift in time in effort exerted. Moreover, a new model has been defined for the standardization of catch per unit effort (CPUE). The fishing season appears to have shifted forward by 29 days between 2000 and 2006. Nevertheless, changes have been detected neither in the exploitation pattern nor in the duration of the fishing season during the period studied. A shift on this scale has important consequences for the management of the resource, the fleets that exploit it and the resource assessment survey designs that will have to be adapted to this new scenario.

  16. Proximodorsal first phalanx osteochondral chip fragmentation in 336 horses.

    PubMed

    Kawcak, C E; McIlwraith, C W

    1994-09-01

    The results of arthroscopic surgery in the treatment of osteochondral fragmentation of the proximodorsal aspect of the first phalanx and the influence of other fetlock joint lesions on prognosis were evaluated in 336 horses. Horses were classified as: 1) returning to previous use at the same or higher class of performance; 2) returning to previous use (regardless of class of performance); or 3) failing to return to previous use. Ninety-six horses (29%) had fragmentation alone; 140 horses (42%) had fragmentation and additional fetlock lesions, and 100 horses (29%) underwent concurrent carpal arthroscopy. Of the 100 horses that underwent carpal arthroscopy, 63 had proximodorsal first phalanx fragmentation alone and 37 had other fetlock lesions associated with the fragment. There was significant association between lesion type and return to previous use for the Thoroughbred racehorse group. There was also a significant association between lesion type and return to the same or higher class of racing for the Thoroughbred racehorse group. No significant association in return to previous use existed for racehorses vs. non-racehorses, Thoroughbred racehorses vs. Quarter Horse racehorses, single vs. multiple joint involvement, and single vs multiple fragmentation per joint. The Thoroughbred racehorses in this study were sensitive to additional fetlock or carpal lesions, as was exemplified by the significant effect lesion type had on outcome. PMID:7988543

  17. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  18. Potential of enterococci isolated from horses.

    PubMed

    Lauková, Andrea; Simonová, Monika; Strompfová, Viola; Styriak, Igor; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Várady, Marián

    2008-10-01

    Faecal samples of 122 horses (from farms in Slovakia) were examined to select enterococci to study their probiotic potential for their further use as additives. Each gram of faeces contained 1.0-5.0 cfu (log 10) of enterococci. Of the 43 isolates, 25 (58.1%) were identified as Enterococcus faecium, 3 strains were (6.9%) Enterococcus mundtii and one strain was identified as E. faecalis. Fourteen isolates were not characterized further. A significant proportion of the isolates were resistant to kanamycin, vancomycin and gentamicin. Low urease activity of enterococci dominated. The values of lactic acid ranged from 0.98 to 1.91 mmol/L. Porcine fibronectectin and bovine lactoferrin were bound weakly by tested enterococci, while bovine fibrinogen was bound more strongly. Enterococci from horses did not bind bovine apotransferrin. The isolates adhered with the same ability to human as well as to canine mucus. At least one enterocin gene was detected among 16 analyzed isolates. Ent B gene was detected in all strains tested (16, 100%), followed by the genes ent A, ent P and ent L50B. Three suitable candidates-the strains of E. faecium EF 412, EF 462 and EF 491 were selected for further detail studies and possibilities to be used as additives. PMID:18508395

  19. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

  20. The effects of meclofenamic acid on osteoarthritis in the horse 

    E-print Network

    Gunn, Floyd Littleton

    1971-01-01

    disease in the horse was studied. Alkaline phosphatase levels in horses with osteo- arthritis and/or navicular disease were found to be lower than controls. Test horses showed slightly lower levels while on the drug than they did on pre and post drug... evaluations. During the administration of the drug there was an average decrease in the degree of pain. Mec3, ofenamic acid did not effect hemoglobin, packed cell volume, RBC, WBC, BUN, urine pH and specific gravity. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author...

  1. Daytime shelter use of individually kept horses during Swedish summer.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Hopkins, R J; Blomgren, E; Ventorp, M; von Brömssen, C; Dahlborn, K

    2015-02-01

    In Sweden, no provision for summer shelter to protect horses from heat and insects is required, although access to shelter for horses kept outdoors 24 h during winter is a requirement. This study investigated horses' daytime shelter-seeking behavior in relation to weather conditions and insect activity during a 2-wk period in summer. Eight Warmblood riding horses had access to 2 shelters of different design to test which shelter design is preferred by horses. Furthermore, rectal and skin temperatures and insect-defensive behavior were measured to test whether horses would benefit from the provision of shade. The horses were kept alone in paddocks for 4 d. During 2 d, horses had access to 2 shelters: 1) open shelter with roof and uncovered sides and 2) closed shelter with roof, wind nets on 2 sides, and opaque plastic opposite the entrance. Weather conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed) were recorded every 10 min. The number of insects (flies, mosquitos) was counted from insect traps placed in each shelter and outside. Behavior (shelter use, insect-defensive behavior, locomotion, grazing) was recorded at 5-min intervals between 0900 to 1200 h and 1300 to 1600 h and rectal and skin temperatures were measured at 0800 h, 1200 h, and 1600 h. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED and GLIMMIX procedure for Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Ambient temperature ranged from 16 to 25°C (average temperature humidity index 65.7 ± 1.4). Five horses preferred the closed shelter and were observed inside up to 2.5 h continuously. Greater wind speed decreased the likelihood of observing horses inside the shelter ( < 0.001), as did lower numbers of flies ( < 0.001). The insect-defensive behaviors, skin shiver and ear flick, were performed less frequently when horses were using the closed shelter ( < 0.001), indicating that they were less disturbed by insects. Thirty-minute shelter use had no effect on rectal and skin temperatures ( > 0.05). Results showed that horses made use of shelters during the summer even when weather conditions were moderate. A shelter with roof and covers on 3 sides was preferred over a shelter with roof only and can reduce insect-defensive behavior. PMID:26020760

  2. Methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from horses.

    PubMed

    Corrente, Marialaura; D'Abramo, Maria; Latronico, Francesca; Greco, Maria Fiorella; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Greco, Grazia; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Domenico

    2009-07-01

    A methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus epidermidis strain was isolated from a saddle horse affected by osteolysis. MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) were isolated from 11 of 14 (78.8%) horses housed in the same riding club. By typing of the SCCmec region, almost the strains displayed a non typeable (NT) pattern and possessed the ccr type 2. Altogether, the high prevalence of MRCNS and the detection of NT SCCmec types support the hypothesis that horses may represent a reservoir of MRCNS for humans and that equine MRCNS may act as potential source of resistance genes for other staphylococci. PMID:19845115

  3. Metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad fibrotic proliferation in 63 horses.

    PubMed

    Dabareiner, R M; White, N A; Sullins, K E

    1996-01-01

    Medical records, radiographs, and sonograms of 63 horses with metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad proliferation were examined retrospectively. All horses had lameness, joint effusion, or both signs associated with one or both metacarpophalangeal joints. Bony remodeling and concavity of the distodorsal aspect of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) just proximal to the metacarpal condyles was identified by radiography in 71 joints (93%); 24 joints (32%) had radiographic evidence of a chip fracture located at the proximal dorsal aspect of the proximal phalanx. Fifty-four joints (71%) were examined by ultrasound. The mean +/- SD sagittal thickness of the synovial pad was 11.3 +/- 2.8 mm. Seventy-nine percent of the horses had single joint involvement with equal distribution, between the right and left forelimbs. Sixty-eight joints in 55 horses were treated by arthroscopic surgery. Sixty joints (88%) had debridement of chondral or osteochondral fragmentation from the dorsal surface of Mc3 beneath the synovial pad and 30 joints (44%) had a bone chip fracture removed from the medial or lateral proximal dorsal eminence of the proximal phalanx. Complete or partial excision of both medial and lateral synovial pads was completed in 42 joints. Only the medial synovial pad was excised or trimmed in 21 joints, and 5 joints had only the lateral pad removed. Eight joints in eight horses were treated by stall rest, administration of intra-articular medication and systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Follow-up information was obtained for 50 horses treated surgically and for eight horses treated medically. Forty-three (86%) that had surgery returned to racing; 34 (68%) raced at an equivalent or better level than before surgery. Three (38%) of the medically treated horses returned to racing; only one horse raced better than the preinjury level. Horses that returned to racing at a similar or equal level of performance were significantly younger in age than horses returning at a lower level or not racing (P < or = .05). Overall, horses with synovial pad proliferation treated by arthroscopic surgery had a good prognosis for return to racing at a level equal or better than before injury. PMID:9012104

  4. Genetic variation of Polish endangered Bi?goraj horses and two common horse breeds in microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Zabek, Tomasz; Nogaj, Anna; Radko, Anna; Nogaj, Jan; S?ota, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Genetic variation of endangered Bi?goraj horses and two common Polish horse breeds was compared with the use of 12 microsatellite loci (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10, VHL20). Lower allelic diversity was detected in all investigated populations in comparison to other studies. Large differences in the frequencies of microsatellite alleles between Bi?goraj horses and two other horse breeds were discovered. In all polymorphic loci all investigated breeds were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Mean Fis values and the results of a test for the presence of a recent bottleneck were non-significant in all studied populations. Comparable values of observed and expected gene diversity indicate no substantial loss of genetic variation in the Bi?goraj population and two other breeds. The lowest variability observed in the investigated group of Thoroughbred horses was confirmed. About 10% of genetic variation are explained by differences between breeds. Values of pairwise Fst and two measures of genetic distance demonstrated that Bi?goraj horses are distantly related to both common horse breeds. PMID:16110187

  5. Healing with horses: fostering recovery from cancer with horses as therapists.

    PubMed

    Haylock, Pamela J; Cantril, Cynthia A

    2006-05-01

    Nearly 10 years ago, I looked at a poster exhibit for a nonprofit organization's camping experience for cancer survivors. One of the images in particular remains with me to this day. It was of an elderly man wearing a cowboy hat and the great grin on his wrinkled face as he stood next to a beautiful sorrel horse. The woman at the poster told me the story behind the picture: The man had advanced cancer and had already entered a hospice program, even though he was still physically active. He'd told many people that his biggest regret in life was that he'd never gotten to ride a horse. The photograph was taken the day his wish to ride had finally come true, and he died only weeks later. At that moment, I started thinking about how to describe the benefit the equine experience had given that man. A growing number of experiential programs offer cancer survivors, primarily children, the opportunity to ride horses as one of many recreational activities. But, that man had experienced something that surpassed a momentary recreational thrill. That started a quest that, after 10 years, is coming to fruition. PMID:16781655

  6. Plasma Citrulline Levels in Horses at Risk of Acute Laminitis

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Amy Lynn

    2013-04-10

    Laminitis is a painful and irreversible disease in horses in which the soft tissue structures of the foot, called the laminae (connecting the coffin bone to the hoof wall), lose blood flow and deteriorate. Without the support of these laminae...

  7. Hematological and Biochemical Reference Values for the Endangered Kiso Horse

    PubMed Central

    TAKASU, Masaki; NAGATANI, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; MAEDA, Masami; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

    2013-01-01

    To establish blood and biochemical references for the endangered Kiso horse, blood samples were collected from 111 adult Kiso horses, 74.5% of the existing breed. The samples were analyzed for 23 hematological and biochemical parameters to determine their means and standard deviations (SD). We compared the mean ± 2SD with the reference values cited in one of the most commonly used veterinary textbooks in Japan. The hematology of Kiso horses is characterized by lower erythrocyte count and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. In addition, their serum biochemistry showed lower levels of aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and ?-glutamyl transferase. Whether these propensities are attributed to breed-specific factors or are acquired factors remains unclear. Nevertheless, this study provides useful diagnostic indices for the endangered Kiso horse. PMID:24834006

  8. 4-H Horse Advisory Committee 23 February 2013

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Berry Hillborough County: Danielle Morano, Elyse Morano, Margaret Edmonds, Cher Griffin, Jo Gelinas/Budgets for 4-H Horse Events handed out, as had been requested. Quiz Bowl 2013 at Belmont, Jan. 19 ­ 1

  9. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehy...

  10. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Horses

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    signs such as depression, dysphagia, head tilt and encephalitis were reported in chronic cases 2 in response to tick feeding and again after infection of a warm-blooded host, such as dogs, horses, or humans

  11. 15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE AT THE FAR RIGHT, AND THE STORE ROOM DOOR IS AT THE NEAR RIGHT. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  13. Ocean Acidification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vicki Osis

    The purpose of the lessons is to teach about ocean acidification, its causes and impacts on marine life especially zooplankton, an essential part of marine food webs. Included in the materials is background information on ocean acidification. There are four different activities included in this document. To do all four you should plan on at least two 45 minute periods. The activities define and explain the process of acidification as well as its impacts on shelled organism. The materials can be adapted and used for grades 5-6 and adding more indepth information makes it suitable for middle and high school students.

  14. Understanding Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Cahill

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on oceans currents and their effects. Students do a lab activity to show that temperature is what causes ocean currents. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  15. Ocean Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The European Geosciences Union has been working on a number of open access journals over the past few years, and Ocean Science is just such an endeavor. The intent of the journal is to publish research articles, review papers, and short communications of all stripes. Visitors can sign up for RSS feeds, look over the "General Information" area, and also learn about their submission guidelines. In the "Online Library OS" area, visitors can view recently revised papers, complete issues, special issues, and also search past works by title or author. Also, visitors are welcome to comment on published works and they can also sign up to receive an email subscription to Ocean Science.

  16. Facial hair whorls (trichoglyphs) and the incidence of motor laterality in the horse.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack; Arkins, Sean

    2008-09-01

    Several species demonstrate obvious motor laterality (sidedness, handedness) in their motor function. Motor laterality in the horse affects locomotion and subsequently equine performance during training and may have inherent safety implications for equitation. Some of the most commonly used identification features in the horse are hair whorls (trichoglyphs), since their specific location and character vary to some degree in every horse. We investigated the relationship between the hair flow of single facial hair whorls and the incidence of lateralised motor bias in 219 horses when under saddle in ridden work. The horses exhibited significant differences in motor preferences with 104 left-lateralised (LL) horses, 95 right-lateralised (RL) horses compared to only 20 well-balanced (WB) horses (chi(2)=36.9, d.f.=2, P<0.01). There was also a significant difference in the frequency distribution of single facial hair whorl patterns in the horses consisting of 114 horses with counter-clockwise (CC) whorls, 82 horses with clockwise (C) whorls and 23 horses, which had radial (R) whorls (chi(2)=38.87, d.f.=2, P<0.01). Overall there was a statistically significant association between motor behaviour and facial hair whorl patterns in the horses (chi(2)=69.4, d.f.=4, P>0.001). The RL horses had significantly more C facial hair whorls and the LL horses had significantly more CC facial hair whorls than would be expected purely by chance alone (P<0.05). The findings may provide trainers with a useful tool when attempting to identify simple, non-invasive and reliable predictors of motor laterality in the horse. Furthermore, given that efficient targeted training of performance horses during ridden work may produce WB equine athletes, the findings could assist trainers when designing individual-specific training programmes for young horses. PMID:18511219

  17. Lead foreign body arthropathy in a horse.

    PubMed

    Crabill, M R; Watkins, J P; Morris, E L; Helman, R G; Schmitz, D G

    1994-09-15

    A diagnosis of degenerative joint disease secondary to an intra-articular metallic foreign body in the right metacarpophalangeal joint was made in a Quarter Horse gelding. Arthroscopy, performed to evaluate the joint and remove the foreign body, revealed yellow discoloration of the articular cartilage and synovium, and blunting and proliferation of the synovium. The foreign body was identified as a lead sphere. Microscopic examination of synovium revealed chronic synovitis, with accumulation of hemosiderin and multifocal, mild mineralization. Another pigment was evident extracellularly in the synovium. Lead arthropathy was diagnosed. Lead arthropathy results from the dissolution of intra-articular lead, causing signs of chronic pain, restricted motion, joint effusion, and synovial proliferation. PMID:7829382

  18. Latherin: A Surfactant Protein of Horse Sweat and Saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhona E. McDonald; Rachel I. Fleming; John G. Beeley; Douglas L. Bovell; Jian R. Lu; Xiubo Zhao; Alan Cooper; Malcolm W. Kennedy; Sotirios Koutsopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass), and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and

  19. Control of Strongylidae in horses by pasture rotation and chemotherapy 

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Marvin Lafayette

    1964-01-01

    in afflictions of horses was at a Low ebb due to many factors including mechanisat ion of farms ~ economic depressions and the ds vslopment of small animal practice. With the advent of phenothiasine, interest in the chemotherapy of strongy- losis was revived... parasites which were prcssat vers removed by chemotherapy. To prevsae rsiafsc? tioa thc horses were hept ia *n sroa which was free of infective strongyle larvae. gcgular treatment at three week iatorvals with thia- bsn4ssolc wss givci o prevent...

  20. [New drugs for horses and production animals in 2014].

    PubMed

    Emmerich, I U

    2015-06-15

    In 2014, no new active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for horses and food producing animals. One established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredient is avaibable for an additional species. The analgetic buprenorphine (Buprenodale® Multidose) has additionally been authorized for horses. Furthermore, four new preparations with a new pharmaceutical form, one drug with a new formulation, new galenics and a new indication, respectively, have recently been released to the market. Furthermore, the prostaglandin F2? analoque luprostiol is available again. PMID:26013471

  1. An Outbreak of Herpesvirus Myeloencephalitis in Vaccinated Horses

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, G. W.; McCready, R.; Sanford, E.; Gagnon, A.

    1979-01-01

    In the foaling season of 1977, five vaccinated horses in a Standardbred breeding stable were affected with herpesvirus myeloencephalitis. Respiratory and abortigenic forms also occurred in other individuals on the premises. Equine herpesvirus type 1 was isolated from the brain of one case of myeloencephalitis and from lungs of two aborted fetuses. Twelve of 16 horses demonstrated fourfold or greater increases in titres to equine herpesvirus type 1. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4. PMID:216473

  2. Male reproductive success in free-ranging feral horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl S. Asa

    1999-01-01

    In the social organization of feral horses, adult males compete to monopolize groups or bands of females, sometimes called\\u000a harems. Alternative male strategies are to remain alone or with other bachelors or, less commonly, to accept subordinate status\\u000a within a harem. The hypothesis that dominant harem stallion status confers a reproductive advantage was tested in free-ranging\\u000a feral horses. The presence

  3. Nitrogen balance in mature horses at varying levels of work 

    E-print Network

    Freeman, David Wayne

    1981-01-01

    NITROGEN BALANCE IN MATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1981 Major Subject: Animal Science NITROGEN BALANCE IN NATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Approved as to style and content by: (Chai an o Committee) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Head of Departmen ) December...

  4. Muscle glycogen utilization and exercise performance in horses 

    E-print Network

    Oldham, Shannon Lee

    1990-01-01

    MUSCLE GLYCOGEN UTILIZATION AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN HORSES A Thesis bY SHANNON LEE OLDHAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1990 Major Subject: Animal Science MUSCLE GLYCOGEN UTILIZATION AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN HORSES A Thesis by SHANNON LEE OLDHAM Approved as to style and content by: Gary . otter (Chair of Committee) J. W. Evans (Member) S B. Smith...

  5. Toxicosis in horses after ingestion of hoary alyssum.

    PubMed

    Geor, R J; Becker, R L; Kanara, E W; Hovda, L R; Sweeney, W H; Winter, T F; Rorick, J K; Ruth, G R; Hope, E; Murphy, M J

    1992-07-01

    Fever, limb edema, and laminitis were observed in horses 18 to 36 hours after they consumed hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) under field and experimental conditions. Clinical signs were not observed in all horses that had ingested the plant. Diagnosis in the field cases was limited to observation of clinical signs and evidence of plant ingestion in hay or on pasture. In most cases, clinical remission was observed 2 to 4 days after empirical treatment, removal of the plant source, or both. PMID:1644648

  6. Mitochondrial DNA lineages of Italian Giara and Sarcidano horses.

    PubMed

    Morelli, L; Useli, A; Sanna, D; Barbato, M; Contu, D; Pala, M; Cancedda, M; Francalacci, P

    2014-01-01

    Giara and Sarcidano are 2 of the 15 extant native Italian horse breeds with limited dispersal capability that originated from a larger number of individuals. The 2 breeds live in two distinct isolated locations on the island of Sardinia. To determine the genetic structure and evolutionary history of these 2 Sardinian breeds, the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced and analyzed in 40 Giara and Sarcidano horses and compared with publicly available mtDNA data from 43 Old World breeds. Four different analyses, including genetic distance, analysis of molecular variance, haplotype sharing, and clustering methods, were used to study the genetic relationships between the Sardinian and other horse breeds. The analyses yielded similar results, and the FST values indicated that a high percentage of the total genetic variation was explained by between-breed differences. Consistent with their distinct phenotypes and geographic isolation, the two Sardinian breeds were shown to consist of 2 distinct gene pools that had no gene flow between them. Giara horses were clearly separated from the other breeds examined and showed traces of ancient separation from horses of other breeds that share the same mitochondrial lineage. On the other hand, the data from the Sarcidano horses fit well with variation among breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and North-West Europe: genetic relationships among Sarcidano and the other breeds are consistent with the documented history of this breed. PMID:25366719

  7. Four Loci Explain 83% of Size Variation in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Hoffman, Gabriel E.; Allen, Jeremy J.; Chu, Erin; Gu, Esther; Chandler, Alyssa M.; Loredo, Ariel I.; Bellone, Rebecca R.; Mezey, Jason G.; Brooks, Samantha A.; Sutter, Nathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS) that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication. PMID:22808074

  8. Origin and History of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Domestic Horses

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Michael; Pruvost, Melanie; Benecke, Norbert; Hofreiter, Michael; Morales, Arturo; Reissmann, Monika; Ludwig, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA) of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754 modern horses. The sample set ranged from Alaska and North East Siberia to the Iberian Peninsula and from the Late Pleistocene to modern times. We found a panmictic Late Pleistocene horse population ranging from Alaska to the Pyrenees. Later, during the Early Holocene and the Copper Age, more or less separated sub-populations are indicated for the Eurasian steppe region and Iberia. Our data suggest multiple domestications and introgressions of females especially during the Iron Age. Although all Eurasian regions contributed to the genetic pedigree of modern breeds, most haplotypes had their roots in Eastern Europe and Siberia. We found 87 ancient haplotypes (Pleistocene to Mediaeval Times); 56 of these haplotypes were also observed in domestic horses, although thus far only 39 haplotypes have been confirmed to survive in modern breeds. Thus, at least seventeen haplotypes of early domestic horses have become extinct during the last 5,500 years. It is concluded that the large diversity of mtDNA lineages is not a product of animal breeding but, in fact, represents ancestral variability. PMID:21187961

  9. Relationship between morphological and stabilographic variables in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Hilary M; Buchholz, Rachel; Nauwelaerts, Sandra

    2013-12-01

    A stabilogram plots movements of the centre of pressure (COP) in the horizontal plane. Derived stabilographic variables quantify postural balance, but it is not known if these variables are size dependent. The aims of this study were to determine which morphological variable was most representative of size, which stabilographic variables were most representative of balance and whether size normalisation improved estimates of postural performance. Croup height (0.93-1.77 m), mass (117-666 kg), base of support (BOS) length (0.74-1.18 m) and BOS width (0.22-0.45 m) were measured in 24 horses. Stabilographic variables describing craniocaudal (CC), mediolateral (ML) and resultant amplitudes, velocities and frequencies of COP motion were measured as the horses stood stationary for 15s with fore and hind hooves on separate force plates (960 Hz). Principal component analysis identified morphological and stabilographic components. Morphological variables were consolidated into a single size component that was represented by body mass. Five stabilographic components explained 91% of the variation in sway patterns and five representative stabilographic variables were identified: CC amplitude, CC velocity, CC frequency, ML amplitude and ML frequency. Mass was correlated with CC velocity and ML frequency, with larger horses having smaller CC velocities and slower ML sway frequencies. When horses were grouped by mass (small horses <400 kg; large horses ? 400 kg), the within-group values for CC velocity and ML frequency were no longer correlated with mass. PMID:24144772

  10. Hierarchical Monte Carlo modeling with S-distributions: Concepts and illustrative analysis of mercury contamination in King Mackerel

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, E.O.; Balthis, W.L.; Holser, R.A. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)] [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The quantitative assessment of environmental contaminants is a complex process. It involves nonlinear models and the characterization of variables, factors, and parameters that are distributed and dependent on each other. Assessments based on point estimates are easy to perform, but since they are unreliable, Monte Carlo simulations have become a standard procedure. Simulations pose two challenges: They require the numerical characterization of parameter distributions and they do not account for dependencies between parameters. This paper offers strategies for dealing with both challenges. The first part discusses the characterization of data with the S-distribution. This distribution offers several advantages, which include simplicity of numerical analysis, flexibility in shape, and easy computation of quantiles. The second part outlines how the S-distribution can be used for hierarchical Monte Carlo simulations. In these simulations the selection of parameter values occurs sequentially, and each choice depends on the parameter values selected before. The method is illustrated with preliminary simulation analyses that are concerned with mercury contamination in king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla). It is demonstrated that the results of such hierarchical simulations are generally different from those of traditional Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. The Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broecker, Wallace S.

    1983-01-01

    The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

  12. Ocean World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The majority of Ocean World is devoted to a series of ten reference sections: coral reefs, currents, El Nino, Fisheries, Ice Ages, icebergs, JASON-1 (a satellite), the role of the ocean in weather, satellites and ocean exploration, and waves. Each section culminates with an interactive quiz, links to sources of related real-time data, and a list of additional related links. Also available is a set of supplementary services, including a glossary, a question and answer section called Ask Dr.Bob, an index page for all of the available real-time dataset sources, primer pages on the use of internet technology, and links to three distance learning courses in oceanography offered by Texas A&M university. An additional series of link lists are broken up into Four Star Sites, General Links, and (the site author's) Bookmarks. Finally, under a teacher's introductory section to the site, instructors can access a guide to using Ocean World in the classroom, find advice on teaching oceanography in general, locate technology lab stations, and follow links to additional teaching resources.

  13. Empty Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How does the human population affect the population of marine species? What can citizens do to sustain seafood populations? In this lesson, students will learn how pieces of the ocean food web, fish, are being removed faster than they can be replenished. Students will also learn how they can become informed consumers to promote sustainable seafood.

  14. Ocean Events

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Operational Signifcant Event Imagery

    This website from the Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) team produces high-resolution detailed imagery of significant ocean events. OSEI products typically include sea surface temperature plots and single-channel imagery of oil spills. The images are available in several different file sizes; standard (full resolution) and preview (thumbnail).

  15. Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Minero, Michela; Lebelt, Dirk; Stucke, Diana; Canali, Elisabetta; Leach, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]). Methodology/Principal Findings Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n?=?19) received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n?=?21) received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C). These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS) scores and horse grimace scale (HGS) scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B) showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups. Conclusions The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules. PMID:24647606

  16. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  17. Serum thymidine kinase activity in clinically healthy and diseased horses: A potential marker for lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Larsdotter, S; Nostell, K; von Euler, H

    2015-08-01

    Serum thymidine kinase (sTK) activity is a tumour marker used as a prognostic indicator for lymphoma in humans, dogs and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of sTK as a biomarker for lymphoma in horses. Serum samples were collected from clinically normal horses (n?=?37), horses with lymphoma (n?=?23), horses with non-haematopoietic neoplasia (n?=?9) and horses with inflammatory disease (n?=?14). sTK was measured using a radioenzyme assay. A reference cut-off value of?<2.7?U/L (mean?+?2 standard deviations, SDs) was established using data from clinically normal horses. sTK activity (mean?±?SD) was 26.3?±?91.5?U/L (range 0.8-443?U/L) for horses with lymphoma, 2.3?±?1.4?U/L (range 0.6-5.7?U/L) for horses with non-haematopoietic neoplasia and 1.5?±?0.6?U/L (range 0.6-2.8?U/L) for horses with inflammatory disease. Horses with lymphoma had significantly higher sTK activity than horses without clinical signs of disease (P?<0.01), horses with inflammatory disease (P?<0.01) and horses with non-haematopoietic neoplasia (P?<0.05). sTK activity is a potentially useful biomarker for equine lymphoma. PMID:25744802

  18. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2012-12-01

    Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students. PMID:22767090

  19. Rapid calcitonin response to experimental hypercalcemia in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Rourke, K M; Kohn, C W; Levine, A L; Rosol, T J; Toribio, R E

    2009-05-01

    Calcium has important physiological functions, and disorders of calcium homeostasis are frequent in horses. We have made important progress understanding equine calcium homeostasis; however, limited information on equine calcitonin (CT) is available, in part because of the lack of validated CT assays. To determine the CT response to high ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations in healthy horses, we induced hypercalcemia in 10 healthy horses using a calcium gluconate 23% solution (5mg/kg; 120 mL/500 kg horse) infused over 4 min. Four horses were infused with 120 mL of 0.9% NaCl and used as controls. We validated a human-specific CT radioimmunoassay for use in horses. Serum Ca(2+) concentrations increased from 6.2+/-0.3mg/dL to 9.9+/-0.5mg/dL (4 min; P<0.01). Serum CT increased from 16.7+/-8.0 pg/mL to 87.1+/-55.8 pg/mL at 2 min, and 102.5+/-51.1 pg/mL at 4 min (P<0.01). Serum CT returned to baseline by 20 min, whereas serum Ca(2+) returned to baseline by 40 min. Of interest, CT concentrations returned to baseline despite hypercalcemia, suggesting thyroid gland C-cell CT depletion. Resting CT values higher than 40 pg/mL were considered abnormally elevated. No significant changes in serum Ca(2+) or CT concentrations were found in control horses. The coefficients of variation for the CT radioimmunoassay were lower than 11.9%. We conclude that the equine thyroid gland C-cell responds quickly to changes in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations by secreting large quantities of CT into the systemic circulation, indicating that CT is important in equine calcium homeostasis. The human CT radioimmunoassay can be used to measure changes in equine CT. PMID:19135828

  20. Hendra virus and horse owners--risk perception and management.

    PubMed

    Kung, Nina; McLaughlin, Amanda; Taylor, Melanie; Moloney, Barbara; Wright, Therese; Field, Hume

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus), commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63%) had seen their state's Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn't done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk-management scenarios. PMID:24260503

  1. Physiological responses of reining horses to interval training versus conventional training procedures 

    E-print Network

    Haney, Elizabeth anne

    1998-01-01

    Eight mature Quarter Horses were used in a cross-over hics. experiment to determine the efficacy of an interval training program versus a conventional training program to enhance fitness in the reining performance horse. The two training treatments...

  2. Selection and Use of Hay and Processed Roughage in Horse Feeding 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.

    2005-04-15

    Roughage, fed on a regular basis, helps a horse's digestive system function properly and meets some percentage of the horse's daily nutrient requirements. Proper selection of roughage, avoiding inferior quality foodstuffs, and daily roughage intake...

  3. Imflammatory response in horses fed diets containing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Kristopher Ray

    2003-01-01

    cowhorse training protocol to mimic the athletic stresses placed on young horses during strenuous exercise. There was no significant difference (P>.05) in body weight between horses consuming the three diets. When compared to consuming diet B (corn oil...

  4. 77 FR 41473 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Lion Attacking a Horse

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Lion Attacking a Horse'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the...15, 2003), I hereby determine that the object entitled ``Lion Attacking a Horse,'' to be imported by The J. Paul...

  5. Dermatitis in a horse associated with the poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    Mignon, Bernard; Losson, Bertrand

    2008-02-01

    This is the first documented case report of dermatitis associated with the poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in a horse. It occurred in a 16-year-old horse that was in contact with domestic hens. Clinical signs consisted of severe pruritus, with self-induced hair loss mainly on the head. Despite the multiple skin scrapings performed during both day- and nighttime, mites were only isolated from the in-contact poultry and from the horse's environment, and not the horse. The animal was treated using a 2% permethrin solution, sprayed on the entire body once a week for 4 weeks, and by decontamination of the horse's immediate environment. Although eradication of the mites and elimination of further contact between the horse and the poultry were not achievable, recurrence of dermatitis was prevented by regular applications of permethrin on the horse and biannual decontamination of the horse's stable. PMID:18177291

  6. Hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) toxicity in a herd of broodmare horses.

    PubMed

    Hovda, L R; Rose, M L

    1993-02-01

    A herd of pregnant horses exposed to hoary alyssum through ingested hay developed acute and severe gastrointestinal toxicity accompanied by intravascular hemolysis. Postmortem lesions were consistent with these signs. Three horses had late-term abortions. PMID:8434451

  7. Ocean Voyagers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ocean Voyagers is an educational outreach initiative consisting of an interdisciplinary curriculum program. It is designed to allow middle school teachers and students to gain real-world knowledge about oceanographic science, social science, maritime cultures, communication, literature, and the language arts. This site includes: integrated lesson plans on oceanographic science, maritime life and lore, technology and communications, and profiles of the Navy oceanographic survey fleet.

  8. Interactive Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is a collaboration of US and Canadian research institutions; it proposes an ocean observatory in the NE Pacific. A network of fiber optic cables on the Juan de Fuca plate will support sensors to monitor geological, chemical and biological events and provide shore-based researchers with real-time data. The site is intended to serve learners from K to college with web access to data, curricula and activities, as well as maps, images, videos of deep-sea environments.

  9. Oceanic Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L. (editor)

    1981-01-01

    Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

  10. Introduction to Ocean Models

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    Oceans cover over 70% of the surface of the earth, yet many details of their workings are not fully understood. To better understand and forecast the state of the ocean, we rely on numerical ocean models. Ocean models combine observations and physics to predict the ocean temperature, salinity, and currents at any time and any place across the ocean basins. This module will discuss what goes into numerical ocean models, including model physics, coordinate systems, parameterization, initialization, and boundary conditions.

  11. Oceanic Hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batiza, Rodey

    2004-10-01

    The Wilson-Morgan hypothesis that fixed mantle plumes rising from deep in Earth's mantle give rise to linear island and seamount chains like Hawaii has been a leading idea in planetary geodynamics for many decades. However, the notion that these ascending columns of buoyant mantle material are fixed relative to each other or to a fixed reference frame has been questioned because the mean regional flow of the mantle (the so-called mantle wind) would be expected to entrain them and waft them about. Lately, even more fundamental questions have been raised regarding the existence of deep mantle conduits. In fact, the subject of plumes has become quite controversial, with important implications for ideas of mantle convection, Earth's differentiation, and planetary magma budgets and cooling. The appearance of Oceanic Hotspots: Intraplate Submarine Magmatism and Tectonics is thus timely. The 14 chapters contained in this nicely produced volume reflect in part the successful Franco-German collaboration spanning more than 17 years (1986 to present) and 15 expeditions to largely uncharted and unexplored regions of the South Pacific Ocean. The editors intended to produce a comprehensive multidisciplinary overview of oceanic plumes in this region, and in this they have succeeded, with both review and research chapters. Most papers document new discoveries and contain new data and/or new and original thinking, whereas others provide a broad overview and synthesis of existing data.

  12. Haematological and biochemical changes in horses competing in a 3 Star horse trial and 3-day-event.

    PubMed

    Andrews, F M; Geiser, D R; White, S L; Williamson, L H; Maykuth, P L; Green, E M

    1995-11-01

    Haematological and biochemical changes in horses competing in the Endurance Test (Phase T and D) of an advanced Horse Trial (HT, n = 22) and the Endurance Test (Phases A-D) of an advanced (CCI) 3-day-event (TD, n = 11) over a similar course on the same day were studied. Environmental conditions during the event were cool (5.5-11.1 degrees C). Blood samples were collected from the horses in each group the evening prior to the Endurance Test, within 60 s after, and 10 min after, completion of Phase D (cross-country jumping). The following were determined in the blood samples and compared between the 2 groups of horses: packed cell volume (PCV), serum total protein [TP], serum albumin [ALB], plasma lactate [lactate], serum total calcium [TCa], plasma ionised calcium [Ca+2], serum inorganic phosphate [PO4], plasma pH, plasma sodium [Na], plasma potassium [K], serum chloride [Cl], serum urea nitrogen [SUN], serum creatinine [Cr] and serum glucose concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) activities. The PCV and [Cr] were higher in the TD group and approached significance (P = 0.063 and P = 0.057, respectively). The [TP], [ALB], [Na], glucose concentration and CK, and AST were significantly higher and [Cl] and [PO4] were significantly lower in the TD group after exercise when compared to the HT group. It was deduced from these data that the horses competing in the 3-day-event experienced greater fluid and electrolyte losses, reduced glomerular filtration, higher glycogenolysis and had greater leakage of enzymes from working muscles during competition than horses competing in the horse trial. PMID:8933086

  13. Acute phase proteins in Andalusian horses infected with Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rocío; Cerón, José J; Riber, Cristina; Castejón, Francisco; Gómez-Díez, Manuel; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan M; Muñoz, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings were determined in 23 Andalusian horses in southern Spain that were positive for Theileria equi by PCR, including 16 mares at pasture (group A1) and seven stabled stallions (group B1). Five healthy mares at pasture (group A2) and five stabled stallions (group B2), all of which were negative for T.?equi in Giemsa stained blood smears and by PCR, were used as controls. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, anaemia, depression and icterus (group A1), along with loss of performance or failure to train and depression (group B1). Thrombocytopoenia was evident in 5/7 horses in group B1. Lower serum iron concentrations were observed in both diseased groups compared with their respective control groups. There were no significant differences in APP concentrations between diseased and control groups; all affected horses had APP concentrations within reference limits. Serum haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were higher than the reference limits in 5/23, 3/23 and 1/23 diseased horses, respectively. It was concluded that horses with theileriosis exhibited only a mild systemic inflammatory response. PMID:25086769

  14. Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema in Belgian Draught Horses.

    PubMed

    De Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Peeters, L M; Foqué, N; Gasthuys, F; Oosterlinck, M; Buys, N

    2014-12-01

    Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL)-associated traits in Belgian Draught Horses were estimated, using a multitrait animal model. Clinical scores of CPL in the four limbs/horse (CPLclin ), skinfold thickness and hair samples (hair diameter) were studied. Due to CPLclin uncertainty in younger horses (progressive CPL character), a restricted data set (D_3+) was formed, excluding records from horses under 3 years from the complete data set (D_full). Age, gender, coat colour and limb hair pigmentation were included as fixed, permanent environment and date of recording as random effects. Higher CPLclin certainty (D_3+) increased heritability coefficients of, and genetic correlations between traits, with CPLclin heritabilities (SE) for the respective data sets: 0.11 (0.06) and 0.26 (0.05). A large proportion of the CPLclin variance was attributed to the permanent environmental effect in D_full, but less in D_3+. Date of recording explained a proportion of variance from 0.09 ± 0.03 to 0.61 ± 0.08. Additive genetic correlations between CPLclin and both skinfold thickness and hair diameter showed the latter two traits cannot be used as a direct diagnostic aid for CPL. Due to the relatively low heritability of CPLclin , selection should focus on estimated breeding values (from repeated clinical examinations) to reduce CPL occurrence in the Belgian Draught Horse. PMID:24641331

  15. 1 Responsibilities as a 4-H Horse Leader HorLdrRe.doc.indd.pdf

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    , to field trips and horse shows. Horses are large animals and can be unpredictable. Youth and adults working you become a 4-H Volunteer you signed a 4-H Volun- teer Agreement Form. This guide further defines not participate in 4-H activities involving horses or other large animals. Adhering to items listed in the 4-H

  16. Phenotypic relationship between test results of Swedish Warmblood horses as 4-year-olds and longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Wallin; Erling Strandberg; Jan Philipsson

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between longevity and different traits scored in the Swedish Riding Horse Quality Test (RHQT) was studied to evaluate their use as predictors of survival. Data comprised 1815 Warmblood horses born between 1969 and 1982 that had participated in the RHQT as 4-year-olds. Survival information was obtained via a questionnaire sent to owners of horses that had participated in

  17. Genetic Diversity in a Feral Horse Population from Sable Island, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YVES PLANTE; J OSE LUIS VEGA-PLA; Z. Lucas; D. Colling; B. de March; F. Buchanan

    2007-01-01

    The present-day Sable Island horse population, inhabiting an island off the eastern coast of Canada, is believed to have originated mainly from horses confiscated from the early French settlers in Nova Scotia in the latter half of the 18th century. In 1960, the Sable Island horses were given legal protected status and no human interference has since been allowed. The

  18. VARIATION OF SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CATTLE, HORSES AND DOGS,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VARIATION OF SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CATTLE, HORSES AND DOGS, AND CAUSES cattle. A few examples will also be given concerning horses and dogs. NORMAL RANGE In biology the concept the normal ranges for dairy cattle (Swedish Red and White Breed), horses (standardbred trotters) and dogs

  19. Analysis of the strongylid nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylidae) community after deworming of brood horses in Ukraine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Kuzmina; V. A. Kharchenko; A. I. Starovir; G. M. Dvojnos

    2005-01-01

    Communities of intestinal helminths in horses are commonly studied post mortem. The study objectives were here to examine the species composition of the strongylid community in brood horses in Ukraine after deworming with an aversectin drug Univerm. The site distribution of the strongylid species was analysed according to dynamics of their expulsion in faeces. Forty-four horses of different ages from

  20. 2002 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE ROUND-UP BEGIN ONE-ON-ONE

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    = Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Appaloosa, Paint, Arabian S. Evans, p. 72 RESUME OPEN QUESTIONS 22. Cat. 500 Q2002 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE ROUND-UP Round 1 BEGIN ONE-ON-ONE 1. Cat. 900 Q. Aluminum shoes are most commonly used in what equine sport? A. Race horses S. Evans, p. 732 2. Cat. 400 Q. What

  1. The genetic structure of indigenous Romanian Hucul horse breed inferred from microsatellite data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. GEORGESCU; MARIA ADINA MANEA; MARIETA COSTACHE

    2008-01-01

    The existence of the Hucul horse on the Romanian territory has been documented from the very distant past and some of the theories state that this horse originates from a wild mountain horse, similar to the Tarpan. Today, the Hucul is an independent and unique breed and belongs to the protected gene fund of original and primitive animal breeds of

  2. Management and long-term outcome of partial glossectomy in 2 horses

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hayley M.; Panizzi, Luca; Smyth, Travis T.; Plaxton, Andrea E.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Barber, Spencer M.

    2014-01-01

    Records were reviewed for 2 horses with partial glossectomy, 1 traumatic and 1 elective. According to long-term follow-up by telephone, both horses had recovered well, experiencing only temporary difficulty while eating, and went on to be ridden successfully using mouth bits. Partial glossectomy, therefore, had a favorable prognosis in 2 performance horses. PMID:24587510

  3. Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against African horse sickness virus in domestic

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Short note Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against African horse sickness virus in domestic of antibody against AHS virus. Of these, 77 (95.1%) horse, 4 (100%) donkey, 10 (10.4%) camel and 28 (35%) dog horses in different regions was similar. The prevalence of antibody to AHS virus detected in camels

  4. The Man Who Listens to Behavior: Folk Wisdom and Behavior Analysis from a Real Horse Whisperer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Dougan; Valeri Farmer-Dougan

    1999-01-01

    The popular novel and movie The Horse Whisperer are based on the work of several real-life horse whisperers, the most famous of whom is Monty Roberts. Over the last 50 years, Roberts has developed a technique for training horses that is both more effective and less aversive than traditional training techniques. An analysis of Roberts’ methods (as described in his

  5. Horse fly and Deer fly Control Phil Pellitteri, UW-Madison Insect Diagnostic Lab

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Horse fly and Deer fly Control Phil Pellitteri, UW-Madison Insect Diagnostic Lab There are over thirty species of blood feeding horse flies (Tabanus, Hybomitra) and deer flies (Chrysops) found until they get an opportunity to bite. Deer flies and horse flies can be active from May until September

  6. Theileria ( Babesia ) equi and Babesia caballi Infections in Horses in Galicia, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Camacho; F. J. Guitian; E. Pallas; J. J. Gestal; A. S. Olmeda; M. A. Habela; S. R. Telford III; A. Spielman

    2005-01-01

    The control of equine piroplasmosis is becoming increasingly important to maintain the international market open to the horse industry. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi) in Galicia, north-west Spain, and to compare haematological and serum biochemistry parameters between non-parasitaemic horses and horses parasitaemic with T. equi and B.

  7. EQUINE PIROPLASMOSES AT THE REINTRODUCTION SITE OF THE PRZEWALSKI'S HORSE (EQUUS FERUS PRZEWALSKII ) IN MONGOLIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon R. Ruegg; Paul R. Torgerson; Marcus G. Doherr; Peter Deplazes; Reinhard Bose; Nadia Robert; Christian Walzer

    Piroplasmosis has been identified as a possible cause of mortality in reintroduced Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in the Dsungarian Gobi (Mongolia). A cross- sectional and a longitudinal study were conducted in a representative sample (n5141) of the resident domestic horse population and in 23 Przewalski's horses to assess the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasms were detected

  8. Risk factors for fecal shedding of Salmonella from horses in a veterinary teaching hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine A. Alinovi; Michael P. Ward; Laurent L. Couëtil; Ching Ching Wu

    2003-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for horses shedding Salmonella in their feces helps identify patients at-risk of infection and protect the overall population through heightened biosecurity. Fecal samples from 230 hospitalized horses were cultured for Salmonella spp. Historical data were collected on 21 putative risk factors and assessed for association with the risk of a horse being culture positive using forwards

  9. Body composition and nutrient metabolism in juvenile athletic horses treated with exogenous equine somatotropin

    E-print Network

    Sutfin, Jonathan Arthur

    2000-01-01

    likely due to anabolic effects of eST. The eST treated horses consumed more feed and energy per kg body weight than the control horses as the trial advanced. Normalized feed intake data revealed an increase in the eST treated horses above...

  10. Arytenoid mucosal injury in young Thoroughbred horses — investigation of a proposed aetiology and clinical significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RL Smith; NR Perkins; EC Firth; BH Anderson

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether trauma to the larynx caused by nasotracheal intubation induced mucosal ulceration of the arytenoid cartilages of adult horses, and to determine the incidence of such ulceration in yearling Thoroughbred horses and its effect on athletic performance.METHODS: Laryngeal trauma was induced in a group of 21 adult horses by introduction of a nasogastric tube into the trachea

  11. The genetic structure of Spanish Celtic horse breeds inferred from microsatellite data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Canon; M L Checa; C Carleos; J L Vega-Pla; M Vallejo; S Dunner

    2000-01-01

    Partition of the genetic variability, genetic structure and relationships among seven Span- ish Celtic horse breeds were studied using PCR amplification of 13 microsatellites on 481 ran- dom individuals. In addition, 60 thoroughbred horses were included. The average observed heterozygosity and the mean number of alleles were higher for the Atlantic horse breeds than for the Balearic Islands breeds. Only

  12. Use of a minimally invasive fasciotomy technique for treatment of antebrachial compartment syndrome in two horses.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Brad B; Ragle, Claude A; Barrett, Myra F; Hendrickson, Dean A

    2015-08-01

    Case Description-An 18-year-old Paint stallion (horse 1) and a 17-year-old Morgan gelding (horse 2) were evaluated because of an acute onset of severe unilateral forelimb lameness. Clinical Findings-Both horses were unable to bear weight on the affected forelimb and had a dropped elbow appearance. Radial nerve paralysis, triceps myopathy, and fractures of the humerus and ulna were ruled out. The caudal aspect of the affected antebrachium of each horse was very firm to palpation and became firmer when weight was shifted onto the limb. Ultrasonographic examination revealed swelling and suspected intramuscular hemorrhage of the caudal antebrachial muscles. On the basis of clinical examination and diagnostic imaging findings, both horses had antebrachial compartment syndrome diagnosed. Lameness did not substantially improve with medical treatment in either horse. Treatment and Outcome-Caudal antebrachial fasciotomy was performed in each horse. Following sedation and local anesthetic administration, a bistoury knife was inserted through small incisions to perform fasciotomy. Horses remained standing throughout the procedure and were immediately able to bear weight on the affected limb without signs of discomfort. Horse 1 developed colitis and horse 2 developed a mild incisional infection, but both fully recovered and returned to their previous activities. Clinical Relevance-Antebrachial compartment syndrome is a rare cause of severe unilateral forelimb lameness and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with a dropped elbow appearance. Both horses of this report had a successful outcome following antebrachial fasciotomy. PMID:26176728

  13. Effects of loading and transport on the heart rate and behaviour of horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie K. Waran; Derek Cuddeford

    1995-01-01

    Although there is much anecdotal evidence to suggest that some horses are stressed during transport, very few empirical studies have been done that describe and quantify the responses of horses to transport. The aim of this preliminary study was to describe the behaviour and heart rates of horses during loading and transport that would enable further studies to be carried

  14. Corneal invasion by hemangiosarcoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Pinn, Toby L; Cushing, Tim; Valentino, Lorie Moore; Koch, Seth A

    2011-05-01

    A 15-year-old gray Arabian gelding presented for evaluation of a lateral limbal mass extending across approximately 30% of the cornea. Grossly, the raised mass appeared nonpigmented, smooth, and irregular in shape, with an area of central necrosis and serosanguinous discharge. The mass was removed via lamellar keratectomy and histopathologic evaluation revealed features characteristic of hemangiosarcoma (HSA), including irregular vascular channels lined by a plump spindle cell population. Immunohistochemistry results showed that the neoplastic cells lining the vascular channels present diffuse and strong cytoplasmic reaction with von Willebrand Factor and the perivascular spindle cells exhibit moderate cytoplasmic reaction for smooth muscle actin. A lack of cytokeratin staining definitively excluded a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell carcinoma. Smooth muscle actin staining of the perivascular cells adjacent to the neoplastic endothelial cells is not a feature commonly described in HSA and has not been reported in previous cases of equine HSA. The horse remained in good health 21 months postkeratectomy and has exceeded the survival time of previously documented equine ocular HSA cases where more extreme surgical excision was performed. PMID:21521445

  15. Osteochondrosis in the horse. II. Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rejnö, S; Strömberg, B

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the pathology of osteochondritis dissecans of young foals and horses with clinical signs of the lesion. A randomly selected material of fetuses and young foals without clinical signs was also examined. It was demonstrated that osteochondritis dissecans is primarily a cartilaginous disease, as previously described in pigs and dogs. Thickening, disturbance of endochondral ossification, degeneration and necrosis of the cartilage were the four main features of osteochondritis dissecans. Cracks and fissures occurred in the degenerated and necrotic parts of the cartilage. This led to formation of cartilage flaps and eventually to loose bodies. It was shown that small pieces of subchondral bone could be ripped off when a cartilage flap was formed. This was one explanation as to why many flaps and loose bodies contained bone in contrast to the findings in pigs and dogs. Endochondral ossification could also take place in the thickened joint cartilage in some cases. Even some loose bodies could undergo endochondral ossification if they were well nourished. Osteochondritis dissecans was often found bilaterally in the knee and hock joint and this was interpreted as an indication that osteochondritis dissecans is a manifestation of a generalized condition called osteochondrosis. Simultaneous occurrence of lesions in joints other than the knee and hock and in several metaphyseal growth plates was another indication of the generalized nature. PMID:233595

  16. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods.

    PubMed

    Burocziova, M; Riha, J

    2009-01-01

    Genetic relationships and population structure of 8 horse breeds in the Czech and Slovak Republics were investigated using classification methods for breed discrimination. To demonstrate genetic differences among these breeds, we used genetic information - genotype data of microsatellite markers and classification algorithms - to perform a probabilistic prediction of an individual's breed. In total, 932 unrelated animals were genotyped for 17 microsatellite markers recommended by the ISAG for parentage testing (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG10, VHL20, HTG6, HMS2, HTG7, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, LEX3). Algorithms of classification methods - J48 (decision trees); Naive Bayes, Bayes Net (probability predictors); IB1, IB5 (instance-based machine learning methods); and JRip (decision rules) - were used for analysis of their classification performance and of results of classification on this genotype dataset. Selected classification methods (Naive Bayes, Bayes Net, IB1), based on machine learning and principles of artificial intelligence, appear usable for these tasks. PMID:19875888

  17. Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

    2013-05-01

    Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

  18. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 58: 633647. 2001 doi:10.1006/jmsc.2001.1052, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-print Network

    Teixeira, Sara

    inshore variability in assemblage composition was much greater. Species such as sardine, horse mackerel, mackerel (to the north of Lisbon) and sparids (to the south) comprised significant and highly variable

  19. An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Kriska, György; Hegedüs, Ramón; Gerics, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Åkesson, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid–horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection–polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent. PMID:20129982

  20. A preliminary study of the effects of handling type on horses' emotional reactivity and the human-horse relationship.

    PubMed

    Fureix, Carole; Pagès, Magali; Bon, Richard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel; Kuntz, Philippe; Gonzalez, Georges

    2009-10-01

    Handling is a crucial component of the human-horse relationship. Here, we report data from an experiment conducted to assess and compare the effect of two training methods. Two groups of six Welsh mares were trained during four sessions of 50 min, one handled with traditional exercises (halter leading, grooming/brushing, lifting feet, lunging and pseudo-saddling (using only girth and saddle pad) and the second group with natural horsemanship exercises (desensitization, yielding to body pressure, lunging and free-lunging). Emotional reactivity (ER) and the human-horse relationship (HHR) were assessed both prior to and following handling. A social isolation test, a neophobia test and a bridge test were used to assess ER. HHR was assessed through test of spontaneous approach to, and forced approach by, an unknown human. Horses' ER decreased after both types of handling as indicated by decreases in the occurrence of whinnying during stressful situations. Head movement (jerk/shake) was the most sensitive variable to handling type. In the spontaneous approach tests, horses in the traditional handling group showed higher latencies to approach a motionless person after handling than did the natural horsemanship group. Our study suggests that natural horsemanship exercises could be more efficient than traditional exercises for improving horses' HHR. PMID:19591910

  1. [Complex fracture of the larynx caused by a horse kick].

    PubMed

    Kilgué, A; Teudt, I U; Grundmann, T; Püschel, K

    2014-12-01

    Every blunt laryngeal trauma requires examination by an ENT physician and may necessitate observation for a number of hours. The literature shows a heterogeneous picture regarding airway management (tracheotomy vs. intubation). Extremely violence forces such as horse kicks require a tracheotomy, as demonstrated by case studies. In such cases, a high level of responsibility lies with the emergency physician providing the initial treatment. We present the case of a 37-year-old horse trainer, who suffered a horse kick to the larynx with a complex laryngeal fracture. Intubation of the patient by the emergency physician would most probably have led to incorrect placement of the tube or complete displacement of larynx and trachea. In addition to securing a vital airway by tracheotomy, a timely reconstruction of the airways, where necessary by employing the temporary insertion of a tracheal stent, is the treatment of choice. The latter therapy should be applied within the first 6 hours following the accident. PMID:25270837

  2. Circumferential hoof clamp method of lameness induction in the horse.

    PubMed

    Swaab, M E; Mendez-Angulo, J L; Groschen, D M; Ernst, N S; Brown, M P; Trumble, T N

    2015-07-01

    A circumferential hoof clamp method to induce controlled and reversible lameness in the forelimbs of eight horses was assessed. Peak vertical forces and vertical impulses were recorded using a force plate to verify induced lameness. Video recordings were used by blinded observers to determine subjective lameness using a 0-5 scale and any residual lameness following clamp loosening. Tightening of clamps resulted in consistent, visible lameness in the selected limbs in all horses. Lameness was confirmed by significant decreases from baseline in the peak vertical force (P?<0.01). Lameness was also confirmed subjectively by elevated median scores (0 at baseline and 2 during lameness). Lameness was not immediately reversible after clamp loosening (median score 1.5), but horses were not obviously lame after clamp removal and were no different from initial baseline (median score 0.5) approximately 3 days later. PMID:26045357

  3. Meperidine prolongs lidocaine caudal epidural anaesthesia in the horse.

    PubMed

    Derossi, Rafael; Medeiros, Ulisses; de Almeida, Ricardo G; Righetto, Fernando R; Frazílio, Fabrício O

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of caudal epidural administration of meperidine (MP), lidocaine (LD), and a combination of the two (MPLD) in six mature saddle horses. Horses were randomly assigned to receive three treatments (MP 0.3 mg/kg; LD 0.2 mg/kg; and MPLD: MP 0.3 mg/kg and LD 0.2 mg/kg), with at least 1 week between treatments. Drugs were injected into the epidural space between the first and second coccygeal areas in conscious standing horses. Analgesia, ataxia, sedation, cardiovascular and respiratory effects, and rectal temperature were recorded at different intervals before (baseline) and after administration. Epidural administration of MPLD resulted in a longer duration of analgesia of the tail, perineum, and upper hind limb regions than did administration of MP or LD alone. PMID:17892957

  4. Post-anesthetic pulmonary edema in two horses.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, M Johanna; Pang, Daniel S J; Cuvelliez, Sophie G

    2010-03-01

    CASE 1: A two-year old, 462 kg Standard bred horse was anesthetized for arthroscopy and castration. During anesthesia, hyperemia of the mucosal membranes and urticaria were noticed. During 5 hours of anesthesia subcutaneous edema of the eyelids and neck region developed. In the recovery box, the orotracheal (OT) tube was left in situ and secured in place with tape. Following initial attempts to stand, the horse became highly agitated and signs consistent with pulmonary edema developed subsequently. Arterial hypoxemia (PaO(2): 3.7 kPa [28 mmHg]) and hypocapnia (PaCO(2): 3.1 kPa [23 mmHg]) were confirmed. Oxygen and furosemide were administered. The horse was assisted to standing with a sling. Therapy continued with bilateral intra-nasal oxygen insufflation. Ancillary medical therapy included flunixin meglumine, penicillin, gentamycin and dimethylsulfoxide. Following 7 hours of treatment the arterial oxygen tensions began to increase towards normal values. CASE 2: An 11-year old, 528 kg Paint horse was anesthetized for surgery of a submandibular mass. The 4-hour anesthetic period was unremarkable. The OT tube was left in situ for the recovery. During recovery, the horse was slightly agitated and stood after three attempts. Clinical signs consistent with pulmonary edema and arterial hypoxemia (PaO(2): 5 kPa [37.5 mmHg]) subsequently developed following extubation. Respiratory signs resolved with medical therapy, including unilateral nasal oxygen insufflation, furosemide, flunixin meglumine and dimethylsulfoxide. The diagnosis of pulmonary edema in these horses was made by clinical signs and arterial blood-gas analysis. While pulmonary radiographs were not taken to confirm the diagnosis, the clinical signs following anesthesia support the diagnosis in both cases. The etiology of pulmonary edema was most likely multifactorial. PMID:20230564

  5. Long-Term Retrospective Analysis of Mackerel Spawning in the North Sea: A New Time Series and Modeling Approach to CPR Data

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Payne, Mark; Edwards, Martin; Schrum, Corinna; Pitois, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock. PMID:22737221

  6. Ocean Surface Currents Glossary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This glossary provides short definitions of the oceanographic jargon used to describe ocean surface currents. It is designed to accompany the website "Ocean Surface Currents", a reference that provides information on surface currents in the world's oceans.

  7. Mature, Senior and Geriatric Horses: Management, Care and Use 

    E-print Network

    Martin, M. T.; Scrutchfield, W. L.; Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

    2005-04-18

    .J. Valberg, J.H. Jones, B.L. Smith and B. Sommerville. 1995. ?Limitations to performance caused by skeletal muscle enzyme deficiencies.? Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 18:205. ? S.J. Valberg, J.M. MacLeay and J.R. Mickel- son. 1997. ?Exertional... into geriatric status has been hastened by an injury. Chronically foundered horses, severely arthritic horses and those with special conditions of the kid- neys, liver or other organs may be classed as geriat- ric (see Table 2). Special conditions of geriatric...

  8. Long distance exercise in the horse: Golden Horseshoe Ride 1978.

    PubMed

    Lucke, J N; Hall, G M

    As part of a study of the metabolic effects of long distance riding the results of biochemical analyses of blood samples taken from horses before, immediately after and one hour after an 80 km ride are reported. The results show that the horses were moderately dehydrated, they were working aerobically using fats as metabolic substrates and blood glucose was reduced. There was no evidence of post exercise ketosis and circulating alanine levels fell. Metabolic hormone levels are reported and are related to the availability of substrates for gluconeogenesis. There was evidence of reduced kidney and liver function which was showing little sign of recovery in the first hour after the ride. PMID:7434503

  9. Antioxidant Status in Elite Three-Day Event Horses during Competition

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Carey A.; Burk, Amy O.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if competition intensity would have an effect on antioxidant status in horses before and during a three-day event. Body weight, body condition score, and blood was sampled from CCI2* (n = 19) and CCI3* (n = 23) horses before the start of dressage, 20 to 30?min following cross-country, and 18–24?h after cross-county. Data were analyzed using a PROC MIXED in SAS. There were no differences between CCI2* and CCI3* horses during competition for plasma cortisol, lactate, ?-tocopherol, retinol, or erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. After cross-country, CCI3* horses had higher serum creatine kinase (P = 0.003) and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.0001) than the CCI2* horses. Plasma ?-carotene was higher in the CCI2* horses compared to the CCI3* horses (P = 0.0001). Total erythrocyte glutathione was also higher in the CCI2* horses versus CCI3* horses (P < 0.0001). These results are the first report of antioxidant status of horses competing in this level of a three-day event. The changes in antioxidant and muscle enzymes observed between divisions are likely due to the increased anaerobic and musculoskeletal demand on the upper level horses and the fitness required to compete at that level. PMID:22792415

  10. Salmonella Oranienburg isolated from horses, wild turkeys and an edible home garden fertilized with raw horse manure.

    PubMed

    Jay-Russell, M T; Madigan, J E; Bengson, Y; Madigan, S; Hake, A F; Foley, J E; Byrne, B A

    2014-02-01

    In July 2010, a horse from a rural farm (Farm A) in coastal Northern California was diagnosed with Salmonella Oranienburg infection following referral to a veterinary hospital for colic surgery. Environmental sampling to identify potential sources and persistence of Salmonella on the farm was conducted from August 2010 to March 2011. Salmonella was cultured using standard enrichment and selective plating. Pure colonies were confirmed by biochemical analysis, serotyped and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 204 clinical and environmental samples at Farm A were analysed, and Salmonella spp. was isolated from six of eight (75%) horses, an asymptomatic pet dog, two of seven (28.6%) water samples from horse troughs, nine of 20 (45%) manure storage pile composites, 16 of 71 (22.5%) wild turkey faeces and four of 39 (10.3%) soil samples from the family's edible home garden. Well water and garden vegetable samples and horse faecal samples from a neighbouring ranch were negative. S. Oranienburg with a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the horse clinical strain was found in all positive sample types on Farm A. The investigation illustrates the potential for widespread dissemination of Salmonella in a farm environment following equine infections. We speculate that a recent surge in the wild turkey population on the property could have introduced S. Oranienburg into the herd, although we cannot rule out the possibility wild turkeys were exposed on the farm or to other potential sources of Salmonella. Findings from the investigation indicated that raw horse manure applied as fertilizer was the most likely source of garden soil contamination. Viable S. Oranienburg persisted in garden soil for an estimated 210 days, which exceeds the 120-day standard between application and harvest currently required by the National Organic Program. The study underscores the need to educate the public about potential food safety hazards associated with using raw animal manure to fertilize edible home gardens. PMID:23425126

  11. Natural infestation of the chewing lice (Werneckiella equi) on horses and treatment with imidacloprid and phoxim.

    PubMed

    Mencke, N; Larsen, K S; Eydal, M; Sigurdsson, H

    2004-11-01

    Infestation with the chewing louse (Werneckiella (Damalinia) equi) can be found on horses world-wide. Louse infestations, including clinical signs of louse-derived dermatitis, are known from Icelandic horses. A clinical field investigation was conducted in Iceland using horses with natural louse infestations to evaluate the efficacy of imidacloprid in a 10% solution in comparison with phoxim in a 0.05% solution. A total of 27 horses received a single imidacloprid treatment using 16 ml of the 10% solution along the mane and on the dorso-lateral trunk. A further 43 horses were treated twice, 14 days apart, with phoxim, using 2 x 50 ml solution applied along the mane and the dorso-lateral trunk. At the final evaluation on day 28, complete control of the lice was obtained for the imidacloprid treated horses and only a single moribund louse was found on two horses treated with phoxim. PMID:15549385

  12. Effect of exercise on concentrations of immunoreactive endothelin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of normal horses and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Benamou, A E; Art, T; Marlin, D J; Roberts, C A; Lekeux, P

    1999-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major cause of loss of performance in the horse. The role of endothelin (ET), a potent bronchoconstrictive and vasoactive peptide, is currently being investigated in asthma and other obstructive respiratory diseases in man. We have previously found elevated systemic and pulmonary endothelin levels in horses during exacerbation of COPD. In the present study, our aim was to examine possible variations in ET concentrations occurring during exercise in COPD horses. We compared the effects of intense treadmill exercise on the recovery of endothelin (ET) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as in arterial and venous blood, in a group of 5 healthy horses and a group of 5 COPD horses studied alternately in remission and while symptomatic. We also investigated the possible correlations between ET levels and pulmonary function tests during the study. While exercise did not affect the ET levels recovered in BALF among controls, it caused a significant increase (P = 0.02) among symptomatic COPD horses. During remission, wide variations of ET levels among horses, at rest and during exercise, made any significant interpretation difficult. No correlation could be found between exercise-induced changes in ET concentrations and pulmonary function tests or changes in arterial oxygen tension with exercise. We conclude that exercise appears to affect the release of ET by the airways in COPD horses, in contrast to healthy horses. It is still unclear, however, whether these differences relate to adjustments of lung function during exercise. PMID:10659230

  13. Antibodies in horses, mules and donkeys following monovalent vaccination against African horse sickness.

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, C.; Mellor, P. S.; Graham, S. D.; Hooghuis, H.; Montejano, R. C.; Cubillo, M. A.; Boned, J.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 256 sera collected from three species of domesticated equidae in four different Spanish provinces were examined 1-4 months after the administration of attenuated monovalent African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 vaccine. Approximately 10% of the sera were negative by ELISA, virus neutralization, agar gel immuno-diffusion and complement fixation tests. Similar negative reactions were recorded with sera from two ponies after experimental primary vaccination. The rapid rise in antibodies in sera from these two ponies, after a second dose of vaccine, suggested they would probably have been immune to challenge. It is therefore suggested that the apparent absence of antibodies against AHSV in some animals after primary vaccination may not necessarily indicate a total lack of protection. PMID:1902185

  14. Enterocolitis caused by Ehrlichia sp. in the horse (Potomac horse fever).

    PubMed

    Cordes, D O; Perry, B D; Rikihisa, Y; Chickering, W R

    1986-07-01

    Potomac horse fever was reproduced in 15 ponies by transfusion of whole blood originally from two natural cases and subsequently from ponies infected by the transfusions. Incubation periods varied from 9 to 15 days. Affected ponies developed varying degrees of fever, diarrhea, anorexia, depression, and leukopenia. Eleven affected ponies were killed, three died in the acute phase of the disease, and one did not show clinical signs. The most consistent post-mortem findings were fluid contents in the cecum and large colon, and areas of hyperemia (of inconstant degree and distribution) in mucosae of both small and large intestines. Multifocal areas of necrosis occurred in mucous membranes. Ehrlichial organisms were most common in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells, macrophages, and mast cells of the large colon. PMID:3750739

  15. The prevalence and nature of cardiac arrhythmias in horses following general anaesthesia and surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and nature of arrhythmias in horses following general anaesthesia and surgery is poorly documented. It has been proposed that horses undergoing emergency surgery for gastrointestinal disorders may be at particular risk of developing arrhythmias. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence and nature of arrhythmias in horses following anaesthesia in a clinical setting and to establish if there was a difference in the prevalence of arrhythmias between horses with and without gastrointestinal disease undergoing surgery. Our secondary objective was to assess selected available risk factors for association with the development of arrhythmias following anaesthesia and surgery. Methods Horses with evidence of gastrointestinal disease undergoing an exploratory laparotomy and horses with no evidence of gastrointestinal disease undergoing orthopaedic surgery between September 2009 and January 2011 were recruited prospectively. A telemetric electrocardiogram (ECG) was fitted to each horse following recovery from anaesthesia and left in place for 24 hours. Selected electrolytes were measured before, during and after surgery and data was extracted from clinical records for analysis. Recorded ECGs were analysed and the arrhythmias characterised. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with the development of arrhythmias. Results Sixty-seven horses with gastrointestinal disease and 37 without gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Arrhythmias were very common during the post-operative period in both groups of horses. Supra-ventricular and bradyarrhythmias predominated in both groups. There were no significant differences in prevalence of any type of arrhythmias between the horses with or without gastrointestinal disease. Post-operative tachycardia and sodium derangements were associated with the development of any type of arrhythmia. Conclusions This is the first study to report the prevalence of arrhythmias in horses during the post-operative period in a clinical setting. This study shows that arrhythmias are very common in horses following surgery. It showed no differences between those horses with or without gastrointestinal disease. Arrhythmias occurring in horses during the post-anaesthetic period require further investigation. PMID:22112936

  16. Coding as a Trojan Horse for Mathematics Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadanidis, George

    2015-01-01

    The history of mathematics educational reform is replete with innovations taken up enthusiastically by early adopters without significant transfer to other classrooms. This paper explores the coupling of coding and mathematics education to create the possibility that coding may serve as a Trojan Horse for mathematics education reform. That is,…

  17. Wild Horses: Stories and Activities. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorehead, Carol Ann

    This curriculum guide is all about wild horses and provides information through the telling of stories about these animals and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the…

  18. Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Examination of Horse Apomyoglobin Acid Unfolding Intermediates

    E-print Network

    Asher, Sanford A.

    Articles Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Examination of Horse Apomyoglobin Acid Unfolding Intermediates excited Raman spectra are dominated by the Tyr and Trp Raman bands, which are analyzed to examine changes of Tyr and Trp environments and solvent exposures. We observe two partially unfolded apoMb intermediates

  19. Current concepts of hyperlipaemia in horses and ponies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LB Jeffcott; JR Field

    1985-01-01

    Hyperlipaemia is an important condition in ponies, not just because of the seriousness of the clinical signs and biochemical changes involved, but because of the distress it causes owners and breeders that have had animals suffer from it. Hyperlipaemia occurs most commonly in fat ponies in late pregnancy and is rarely seen in larger horses. The syndrome has similarities with

  20. Pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone after multiple oral dose administration in horses.

    PubMed

    Wearn, J M G; Crisman, M V; Davis, J L; Geor, R J; Hodgson, D R; Suagee, J K; Ashraf-Khorassani, M; McCutcheon, L J

    2011-06-01

    Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic agent with proven efficacy in increasing insulin sensitivity in humans with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a syndrome of insulin resistance sharing similarities with equine metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone in adult horses following multiple oral dose administration. Pioglitazone hydrochloride (1 mg/kg) was administered orally for 11 doses at 24-h intervals, and plasma samples were collected. Initially, a pilot study was performed using one horse; and thereafter the drug was administered to six horses. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental modeling. The maximum plasma concentration was 509.1 ± 413.5 ng/mL achieved at 1.88 ± 1.39 h following oral administration of the first dose, and 448.1 ± 303.5 ng/mL achieved at 2.83 ± 1.81 h (mean ± SD) following the eleventh dose. Apparent elimination half-life was 9.94 ± 4.57 and 9.63 ± 5.33 h after the first and eleventh dose, respectively. This study showed that in healthy horses, pioglitazone administered at a daily oral dose of 1 mg/kg results in plasma concentrations and total drug exposure approximating, but slightly below, those considered therapeutic in humans. PMID:21492190

  1. Effect of Concentrate Form on Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Horses 

    E-print Network

    Huth, Lindsey

    2012-02-14

    separated into 1 of 2 treatment groups that were all fed Bermuda grass hay and either a commercially available pelleted or textured concentrate. After the initial 28-d period, horses were all fed pelleted feed and Bermuda grass hay for a 21-d washout period...

  2. Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    MUÑOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJÓN, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969

  3. On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Solow; David L. Roberts; Karen M. Robbirt

    2006-01-01

    The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The

  4. MOTION PICTURE STUDIES ON DEGRANULATION OF HORSE EOSINOPHILS DURING PHAGOCYTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Gordon T.; Hirsch, James G.

    1963-01-01

    Horse eosinophil function has been studied in vitro by means of phase contrast cinemicrophotography. Locomotion of horse eosinophils was inhibited by serum factors reacting with glass surfaces. Under appropriate conditions which eliminated this inhibitory effect, eosinophils moved about and ingested some particles as rapidly as did neutrophils. Eosinophils were attracted to and readily engulfed such diverse materials as yeast cell walls, foreign erythrocytes, and antigen-antibody precipitates. Specific antibody was required for phagocytosis of red cells, and greatly accelerated the uptake of yeast cell walls. Horse eosinophil granules situated adjacent to material being engulfed disrupted with discharge of granule contents into or alongside the phagocytic vacuole. Granule disruption resulted in a clear zone and deposition of amorphous, phase-dense material. A heat-labile serum factor was required for degranulation of eosinophils ingesting foreign red cells, but not for degranulation during engulfment of yeast cell walls or antigen-antibody precipitates. Horse eosinophils were incapable under these conditions of engulfing an entire human red cell. The eosinophil commonly put out a large pseudopod to surround about half the red cell, and then appeared to constrict this pseudopod distally to cut the erythrocyte in half. It is concluded that eosinophils are phagocytic cells, resembling neutrophils in many of their properties. Any specific functions of eosinophils, distinguishing them from other phagocytes, remain to be discovered. PMID:14074392

  5. MOTION PICTURE STUDIES ON DEGRANULATION OF HORSE EOSINOPHILS DURING PHAGOCYTOSIS.

    PubMed

    ARCHER, G T; HIRSCH, J G

    1963-08-01

    Horse eosinophil function has been studied in vitro by means of phase contrast cinemicrophotography. Locomotion of horse eosinophils was inhibited by serum factors reacting with glass surfaces. Under appropriate conditions which eliminated this inhibitory effect, eosinophils moved about and ingested some particles as rapidly as did neutrophils. Eosinophils were attracted to and readily engulfed such diverse materials as yeast cell walls, foreign erythrocytes, and antigen-antibody precipitates. Specific antibody was required for phagocytosis of red cells, and greatly accelerated the uptake of yeast cell walls. Horse eosinophil granules situated adjacent to material being engulfed disrupted with discharge of granule contents into or alongside the phagocytic vacuole. Granule disruption resulted in a clear zone and deposition of amorphous, phase-dense material. A heat-labile serum factor was required for degranulation of eosinophils ingesting foreign red cells, but not for degranulation during engulfment of yeast cell walls or antigen-antibody precipitates. Horse eosinophils were incapable under these conditions of engulfing an entire human red cell. The eosinophil commonly put out a large pseudopod to surround about half the red cell, and then appeared to constrict this pseudopod distally to cut the erythrocyte in half. It is concluded that eosinophils are phagocytic cells, resembling neutrophils in many of their properties. Any specific functions of eosinophils, distinguishing them from other phagocytes, remain to be discovered. PMID:14074392

  6. Geophagia in horses: a short note on 13 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D McGreevy; L. A Hawson; T. C Habermann; S. R Cattle

    2001-01-01

    Recorded in several species including humans, geophagia or soil eating has been observed in both wild and domesticated horses and has generally been regarded as an indication of nutritional deficiency or “boredom”. Studies of soils consumed by different species have led to several theories as to the identity of soil constituents that stimulate geophagia. In this study, geochemical analysis of

  7. The Palæolithic Drawing of a Horse from Sherborne, Dorset

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Smith Woodward

    1926-01-01

    IN the third edition of his ``Ancient Hunters'', p. 536, Prof. W. J. Sollas states that the drawing of a head of a horse on bone from Sherborne, which I described in 1914 as an example of Palæolithic art, ``is a forgery perpetrated by some schoolboys.'' I read this statement with surprise, because the bone is in a semi-fossilised condition,

  8. Epidemiology of equine sarcoids in horses in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K; Davies, Jennifer L; Hill, Janet E; Jackson, Marion L; Kidney, Beverly A; Mayer, Monique N; Townsend, Hugh G G; Allen, Andrew L

    2010-10-01

    Sarcoids are the most common tumor of the equine skin but only 1 study describing the epidemiology of sarcoids in Canadian horses has been published. The records of 5 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in western Canada were searched to identify submissions of sarcoids from horses. The submission records and diagnostic reports of 802 separate submissions of equine sarcoids were reviewed for age, breed, and gender of the horse and the number, location, and clinical type of sarcoid. From these records, the 307 submissions to laboratories in Saskatchewan were compared to a reference group to test for breed and gender predisposition. Based on clinical history and lesion descriptions, 5 clinical types of sarcoids were identified. Horses of various ages and 23 equine breeds were affected; donkeys were over-represented. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from a stratified subset of 96 of the different clinical types; BPV2 was present in 60 of 74 (81%) for which a PCR product was obtained. Unlike other areas in the world, in western Canada, equine sarcoids are most commonly associated with BPV type 2. PMID:21197201

  9. Epidemiology of equine sarcoids in horses in western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wobeser, Bruce K.; Davies, Jennifer L.; Hill, Janet E.; Jackson, Marion L.; Kidney, Beverly A.; Mayer, Monique N.; Townsend, Hugh G.G.; Allen, Andrew L.

    2010-01-01

    Sarcoids are the most common tumor of the equine skin but only 1 study describing the epidemiology of sarcoids in Canadian horses has been published. The records of 5 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in western Canada were searched to identify submissions of sarcoids from horses. The submission records and diagnostic reports of 802 separate submissions of equine sarcoids were reviewed for age, breed, and gender of the horse and the number, location, and clinical type of sarcoid. From these records, the 307 submissions to laboratories in Saskatchewan were compared to a reference group to test for breed and gender predisposition. Based on clinical history and lesion descriptions, 5 clinical types of sarcoids were identified. Horses of various ages and 23 equine breeds were affected; donkeys were over-represented. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from a stratified subset of 96 of the different clinical types; BPV2 was present in 60 of 74 (81%) for which a PCR product was obtained. Unlike other areas in the world, in western Canada, equine sarcoids are most commonly associated with BPV type 2. PMID:21197201

  10. The regulation of respiratory resistance in exercising horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio L. Lafortuna; Franco Saibene; Mariangela Albertini; M. Giovanna Clement

    2003-01-01

    Horses display remarkable aerobic capabilities, attaining during muscular exercise a maximal rate of oxygen consumption about 30-fold higher than the resting value, and 2.5-fold higher than that of other mammals of similar body mass. Under these circumstances an enormous mechanical burden is expected to impinge on the equine respiratory pump and regulatory mechanisms aiming to minimize this load may play

  11. Gene expression profiling from leukocytes of horses affected by osteochondrosis.

    PubMed

    Serteyn, Didier; Piquemal, David; Vanderheyden, Laurent; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Verwilghen, Denis; Sandersen, Charlotte

    2010-07-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease that affects growing horses and that severely affects their ability to perform. The genetic basis of its pathogenesis is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to analyze the transcript profile of leukocytes from horses affected with OC. Two transcriptome libraries were constructed from leukocytes of OC-affected and non-OC-affected horses using digital gene expression analysis (DGE) and real-time PCR. Statistical analysis allowed selection of 1,008 tags upregulated in the non-OC-affected group and 1,545 tags upregulated in the OC-affected group. Among these genes, 16 regulated genes and 5 housekeeping genes were selected. Metabolic pathways analysis showed an obvious dysregulation of several signaling pathways related to cartilage formation or cartilage repair, including Wnt, Indian hedgehog, and TGF-beta signaling. Other genes, including ISG, ApoB, MGAT4, and TBC1D9, showed a significantly different expression between groups. These genes may play a role in high carbohydrate diet, abnormal insulin metabolism, or inflammation, mechanisms suspected to be involved in OC. This DGE analysis of the transcript profile of leukocytes from OC-affected horses demonstrated significant differences in comparison to the control library. These results open new perspectives for the understanding of equine OC. PMID:20108324

  12. Components of the total kinetic moment in jumping horses.

    PubMed

    Galloux, P; Barrey, E

    1997-05-01

    Thirty horses were filmed with a panning camera operating at 50 frames/s as they jumped over a 1.20 x 1.20 m fence. The markers of 9 joints on the horse and 7 joints on the rider were tracked in 2D with the TrackEye system. The centre of gravity and moment of inertia of each segment were calculated using a geometric algorithm and a cylindric model, respectively. The kinetic moment of each part of the horse was calculated after filtering, and resampling of data. This method showed the relative contribution of each body segment to the body overall rotation during the take-off, jump and landing phases. It was found that the trunk, hindlimbs and head-neck had the greatest influence. The coordination between the motion of the body segments allowed the horse to control its angular speed of rotation over the fence. This remained nearly constant during the airborne phase (120 +/- 5 degrees/s). During the airborne phase, the kinetic moment was constant because its value was equal to the moment of the external forces (722 +/- 125 kg x m2/s). PMID:9354287

  13. "One of the big loads leaving Springville. Eighteen horses are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "One of the big loads leaving Springville. Eighteen horses are marching along with 30,000 pounds on the wagon." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. I, No. 12, December 1913, p. 552 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  14. Speculations on the origin of the Arabian horse breed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iwona G?a?ewska

    2010-01-01

    Arabian horses are widely believed to be one of the oldest breeds in the world. There are many legends regarding their origin, some of which date back even to the times of King Solomon. The present study attempts to determine the real origin of the breed through the analysis of mtDNA sequences from American and Polish Arabs that are deposited

  15. Forces and pressures on the horse's back during bareback riding.

    PubMed

    Clayton, H M; Belock, B; Lavagnino, M; Kaiser, L J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure forces and pressure profiles when riding with a conventional saddle compared to bareback riding. An electronic pressure mat was used to compare contact area, mean total force and pressure variables for one rider riding seven horses at sitting trot with a conventional saddle or bareback. The use of a saddle was associated with a larger contact area and higher mean total force compared with the bareback condition. Mass normalized mean total force for bareback riding was lower than expected based on the rider's body mass, suggesting that shear forces exerted by the rider's thighs were not being registered by the pressure mat. In spite of the lower total force, the bareback condition was associated with higher average pressure, higher maximal pressure and larger area with mean pressure >11 kPa. Focal pressure concentrations were present beneath the rider's ischial tuberosities in the area of the horse's epaxial muscles when riding bareback but not when using a saddle. It was concluded that bareback riding was associated with focal pressure concentrations that may increase the risk of pressure-induced injury to the horse's epaxial musculature. The findings also emphasized that researchers should remain cognizant of shear forces, which may not be registered by the pressure mat, but may contribute to the effects of riding on the horse's back. PMID:22796121

  16. West Nile Virus Infection in Humans and Horses, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Maria Guadalupe; Fernández, Roberto; Llop, Alina; Dickinson, Félix Orlando; Pérez, Daniel; Cruz, Raúl; González, Tayri; Estévez, Gonzalo; González, Hiram; Santos, Paulino; Kourí, Gustavo; Andonova, Maya; Lindsay, Robbin; Artsob, Harvey; Drebot, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A surveillance system to detect West Nile virus (WNV) was established in Cuba in 2002. WNV infection was confirmed by serologic assays in 4 asymptomatic horses and 3 humans with encephalitis in 2003 and 2004. These results are the first reported evidence of WNV activity in Cuba. PMID:16707068

  17. Methods, Applications and Limitations of Gait Analysis in Horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. BARREY

    1999-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the increase in interest in horses for racing and riding activities has stimulated scientific research in equine locomotion. This paper presents a review of the measurement methods and their applications used to assess equine locomotion. After describing gaits and velocity-related changes in stride variables, the current applications of gait analysis are presented. The economic consequences

  18. "A shape bend in the road, showing how the horses ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "A shape bend in the road, showing how the horses are hitched in 'blocking.' The remainder of the team has been hitched to the block and tackle." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. I, No. 12, December 1913, p. 553 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  19. Comparison of horse and tractor traction using emergy analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torbjörn Rydberg; Jan Jansén

    2002-01-01

    Horse traction in the context of Sweden 1927 and tractor traction in the context of Sweden 1996 were compared in terms of their resource requirements. Flows of energy, material and service from the environment and the economy were identified for the two traction-producing systems. The environmental work and human activity involved in generating necessary inputs for the systems were evaluated

  20. Major histocompatibility complex variation in the endangered Przewalski's horse.

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, P W; Parker, K M; Miller, E L; Miller, P S

    1999-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a fundamental part of the vertebrate immune system, and the high variability in many MHC genes is thought to play an essential role in recognition of parasites. The Przewalski's horse is extinct in the wild and all the living individuals descend from 13 founders, most of whom were captured around the turn of the century. One of the primary genetic concerns in endangered species is whether they have ample adaptive variation to respond to novel selective factors. In examining 14 Przewalski's horses that are broadly representative of the living animals, we found six different class II DRB major histocompatibility sequences. The sequences showed extensive nonsynonymous variation, concentrated in the putative antigen-binding sites, and little synonymous variation. Individuals had from two to four sequences as determined by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. On the basis of the SSCP data, phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences, and segregation in a family group, we conclude that four of these sequences are from one gene (although one sequence codes for a nonfunctional allele because it contains a stop codon) and two other sequences are from another gene. The position of the stop codon is at the same amino-acid position as in a closely related sequence from the domestic horse. Because other organisms have extensive variation at homologous loci, the Przewalski's horse may have quite low variation in this important adaptive region. PMID:10430594

  1. TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  2. Physical Fitness and Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity in Horse Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Hélène; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background Within the animal kingdom, horses are among the most powerful aerobic athletic mammals. Determination of muscle respiratory capacity and control improves our knowledge of mitochondrial physiology in horses and high aerobic performance in general. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied high-resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols to study mitochondrial physiology in small (1.0–2.5 mg) permeabilized muscle fibres sampled from triceps brachii of healthy horses. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity (pmol O2•s?1•mg?1 wet weight) with combined Complex I and II (CI+II) substrate supply (malate+glutamate+succinate) increased from 77±18 in overweight horses to 103±18, 122±15, and 129±12 in untrained, trained and competitive horses (N?=?3, 8, 16, and 5, respectively). Similar to human muscle mitochondria, equine OXPHOS capacity was limited by the phosphorylation system to 0.85±0.10 (N?=?32) of electron transfer capacity, independent of fitness level. In 15 trained horses, OXPHOS capacity increased from 119±12 to 134±37 when pyruvate was included in the CI+II substrate cocktail. Relative to this maximum OXPHOS capacity, Complex I (CI)-linked OXPHOS capacities were only 50% with glutamate+malate, 64% with pyruvate+malate, and 68% with pyruvate+malate+glutamate, and ?78% with CII-linked succinate+rotenone. OXPHOS capacity with glutamate+malate increased with fitness relative to CI+II-supported ETS capacity from a flux control ratio of 0.38 to 0.40, 0.41 and 0.46 in overweight to competitive horses, whereas the CII/CI+II substrate control ratio remained constant at 0.70. Therefore, the apparent deficit of the CI- over CII-linked pathway capacity was reduced with physical fitness. Conclusions/Significance The scope of mitochondrial density-dependent OXPHOS capacity and the density-independent (qualitative) increase of CI-linked respiratory capacity with increased fitness open up new perspectives of integrative and comparative mitochondrial respiratory physiology. PMID:22529950

  3. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil columns (0-20 cm) from the different segments of the paddock were isolated and potential leaching losses of P, N and carbon (C) were measured from two representative horse paddock (a clay and a loamy sand) following simulated rainfall events in the laboratory. Results showed that the leachate concentrations and net release of P, N, and dissolved organic C (DOC) from paddock topsoils were highest in feeding and excretion areas and considerably higher from the loamy sand than the clay paddock topsoil. It was concluded that: i) horse paddocks pose a potential threat to water quality via leaching of excess P and N, ii) feeding and excretion areas are potential hotspots for highly enhanced leaching losses, and iii) paddocks established on sandy soils are particularly susceptible to high losses.

  4. Open ocean aquaculture engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Baldwin; J. D. Irish; B. Celikkol; M. R. Swift; D. Fredriksson; I. Tsukrov; Michael Chambers

    2002-01-01

    The University of New Hampshire, Center for Ocean Engineering (UNH\\/COE) open ocean aquaculture engineering efforts continue to be focused on developing engineering design and analysis tools for assessing, evaluating and optimizing engineering systems required for successful open ocean aquaculture. The methodology presented here was used to develop the mooring\\/cage system for the successful deployment of two Ocean Spar Sea Station

  5. Ocean Currents Lesson

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Orzali, Joe

    This hands-on classroom learning unit looks at ocean currents and allows students to "understand, witness, and interact with the properties of water and discover the role of the oceans in the global climate." The surface tension of water, ocean currents and the ocean's connections to climate change are explored in three mini activities. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  6. Microvascular circulation of the ascending colon in horses.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J R; Tyler, W S; Pascoe, J R; Olander, H J; Bleifer, D R; Hinds, D M; Neves, J W

    1989-12-01

    Microvascular circulation of the ascending colon in healthy horses was studied using microangiography, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The pelvic flexure with 30 cm of ventral and dorsal colon attached was removed from 14 adult horses immediately after horses were euthanatized. The lumen was flushed with warm water, and this section of the ascending colon was placed in a 37-C bath of isotonic NaCl. In sections from 8 horses, colic vessels were perfused with a radio-opaque medium for microangiography. After angiographic evaluation, tissue sections were prepared for light microscopic observation, using standard histologic methods. In sections from 6 horses, injection replicas were made by perfusing the vessels with 2 types of plastics. The results of microangiography, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy of vascular replicas were correlated, providing a comprehensive documentation of the microvasculature of the ascending colon at the pelvic flexure. Arteries branched from mesenteric colic vessels approximately every 2 cm toward the colonic tissue. Immediately after branching, arterial vessels formed an anastomotic plexus, the colonic rete. However, each branch from the colic vessel eventually continued into the colonic tissue. A second set of vessels originated from the colonic tissue. A second set of vessels originated from the colonic rete and supplied the mesenteric lymph nodes. Arterial vessels penetrated the tunica muscularis into the submucosa 3 to 4 cm toward the antimesenteric border forming a submucosal vascular network. From the submucosal arterioles, branching took place at right angles to supply the mucosal capillaries. Capillaries surrounded the colonic glands and anastomosed at the luminal surface, forming a superficial luminal honeycomb-appearing vascular plexus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2610433

  7. Dorsoproximal proximal phalanx osteochondral fragmentation in 117 Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Declercq, J; Martens, A; Maes, D; Boussauw, B; Forsyth, R; Boening, K J

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine clinical and arthroscopic characteristics associated with dorsoproximal proximal phalanx (P1) fragments in Warmblood horses, as well as to examine their histopathological appearance. One hundred sixty-eight fragments were removed from 150 fetlocks of 117 Warmblood horses. Details of signalment and results of clinical examination were collected prior to surgery. After arthroscopic fragment removal and joint evaluation for synovial and/or cartilage abnormalities, the fragments were measured and evaluated histopathologically. The vast majority of the fragments (95.2%) were found medially, without predilection for front or hind limbs. In 10% of the joints, more than one fragment was present. The mean size of the fragments was 6.8 +/- 2.6 mm. Only eight horses presented fetlock-related lameness. Horses of seven years of age and older (OR = 13.32; p = 0.033) and the presence of more than one fragment (OR = 11.12; p = 0.016) were significantly associated with lameness. Arthroscopic evaluation revealed one or more abnormalities in 50.7% of the joints. On histopathology, osteochondral fragments presented as a bony center covered with smooth hyaline cartilage on one side and some fibrous tissue on the other side. No clear histopathological signs were indicating precisely their origin. In Warmblood horses with dorsoproximal P1 fragments, the age (seven years and older) and the presence of more than one fragment in a fetlock significantly increased the risk of lameness. The osteochondral dorsoproximal P1 fragments could be defined as a developmental orthopaedic disease. PMID:19151863

  8. [Diversity and dynamics of bacteriophages in horse feces].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, E E; Isaeva, A S; Rotkina, A S; Manykin, A A; Letarov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The complex cellulolytic microbial community of the horse intestines is a convenient model for studying the ecology of bacteriophages in natural habitats. Unlike the rumen of the ruminants, this community of the equine large intestine is not subjected to digestion. The inner conditions of the horse gut are much more stable in comparison to other mammals, due to the fact that the horse diet remains almost unchanged and the intervals between food consumption and defecation are much shorter than the whole digestive cycle. The results of preliminary analysis of the structure and dynamics of the viral community of horse feces, which combines direct and culture methods, are presented. In horse fecal samples, we detected more than 60 morphologically distinct phage types, the majority of which were present as a single phage particle. This indicates that the community includes no less than several hundreds of phage types. Some phage types dominated and constituted 5-11% of the total particle count each. The most numerous phage type had an unusual morphology: the tails of its members were extremely long (about 700 nm), flexible, and irretractable, while their heads were 100 nm in diameter. Several other phage types with similar but not identical properties were detected. The total coliphage plaque count of the samples taken from three animals revealed significant fluctuations in the phage titers. During the observation time, the maximum titer ranged within four orders of magnitude (10(3)-10(7) plaque forming units (PFU)/g); the minimum titer ranged within two orders of magnitude. The samples contained two to five morphologically distinct and potentially competitive coliphage types, specific to a single Escherichia coli strain. PMID:17583225

  9. In vitro of adenosine on lymphocytes and erythrocytes from horses with combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, N S; Perryman, L E

    1979-01-01

    The effect of adenosine on the mitogenic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and on the nucleotide pools of erythrocytes from normal horses, horses heterozygous for the combined immunodeficiency (CID) trait (carriers), and foals with CID was studied. When PBL from normal, carrier, and CID horses were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A, or pokeweed mitogen, [3H]thymidine uptake was inhibited by adenosine (0.1 microM) to 1.0 mM) in a dose-dependent manner. Adenosine (100 microM) mediated inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake was prevented in both normal and carrier horse PBL by incubation with uridine. Uridine had no sparing effect on PBL from horses with CID. Differences were detected between human and horse PBL in response to adenosine and erythro-9(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA), a competitive inhibitor of adenosine deaminase. In the first assay, mitogen-stimulated PBL from horses were more sensitive to adenosine. In the second assay, adenosine was added to PBL cultures at various times after PHA addition. Adenosine inhibited mitogenesis in horse PBL if added within the first 24 h. In human PBL cultures, adenosine inhibited mitogenesis only if added within the first 4 h. The third assay measured capacity of PHA-stimulated human and horse lymphocytes to escape inhibition by adenosine or EHNA. At the end of a 72-h culture period, horse PBL were still inhibited of mitogenesis in both human and horse PBL. With prolonged incubation (72 h), synergistic inhibition was detected only in horse PB. With high-pressure liquid chromatography, nucleotide levels in erythrocytes of normal, carrier, and CID horses were found to be similar. Incubation with adenosine produced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in total adenine nucleotide pools in erythrocytes from all horses. However, these increases were accompanied by alterations in the relative amounts of the nucleotide components. This was seen as a significant decrease in the ATP:(AMP plus ADP plus ATP) ratio and energy charge in erythrocytes from normal horses. In contrast, the ATP:(AMP plus ADP plus ATP) ratio decreased only slightly in erythrocytes from CID horses, whereas no change in the energy charge was detected. The data from these studies indicate a difference in adenosine metabolism exists between human and horse lymphoyctes, and an abnormality may exist in purine metabolism or in an interconnecting pathway in horses with CID. PMID:447864

  10. The course of some bone remodelling plasma metabolites in healthy horses and in horses offered a calcium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    de Behr, V; Daron, D; Gabriel, A; Remy, B; Dufrasne, I; Serteyn, D; Istasse, L

    2003-04-01

    An inquiry was carried out to assess the concentrations of plasma metabolites related to bone remodelling in 21 saddle horses of Warmblood breed aged 4-26 years, five draught horses of Ardennes breed aged 4-10 years, and 10 Ardennes foals aged 9-11 months. They were fed according to normal feeding practice in Belgium. The changes in some bone remodelling plasma metabolite concentrations were studied when an unbalanced diet was offered and later corrected for four Warmblood horses. Bone formation was evaluated by bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and osteocalcin (bone gla-protein, OC). Bone resorption was assessed by hydroxyproline (HYP). Total calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus (P) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25-(OH)D] concentrations were more or less constant. The comparison of four bone remodelling factors between the Ardennes and Warmblood horses showed higher concentrations in the Ardennes breed. Bone marker concentrations decreased according to age. The correction of the unbalanced Ca : P diet induced inconsistent effects at plasma level. The interpretation of the different bone parameters appeared to be difficult if not associated with other parameters such as a complete anamnesis and clinical examination of the animal in addition to dietary evaluation. PMID:14511141

  11. Horses fail to use social learning when solving spatial detour tasks.

    PubMed

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-07-01

    Social animals should have plenty of opportunities to learn from conspecifics, but most studies have failed to document social learning in horses. This study investigates whether young Icelandic horses can learn a spatial detour task through observation of a trained demonstrator horse of either the same age (Experiments 1 and 2, n = 22) or older (Experiment 3, n = 24). Observer horses were allowed to observe the demonstrator being led three times through the detour route immediately before being given the opportunity to solve the task themselves. Controls were allowed only to observe the demonstrator horse eating at the final position, but not the demonstration of the route. Although we found a tendency towards better performance by observer horses in the second experiment, we were unable to repeat this result in a similar set-up with a new group of horses and older, dominant demonstrator horses. We conclude that horses exposed to prior demonstration did not perform better than control horses in solving spatial detour tasks. PMID:25716720

  12. Effects of trot quality and collection on the angular velocity in the hindlimbs of riding horses.

    PubMed

    Holmström, M; Drevemo, S

    1997-05-01

    The angular velocities of the hindlimb angles of 14 horses, including 6 Grand Prix dressage horses, 4 horses judged as good at the trot and 4 horses judged as poor, were analysed. The horse material was the same as previously used by Holmström (1994) in studies on conformation and trotting gaits in the Swedish Warmblood riding horse. Four consecutive strides of each horse and the corresponding pace were analysed and mean velocity curves (Xh) for each angle were calculated. Before calculation the data were filtered forwards and backwards with a Butterworth third order filter with a cut off frequency of 60 Hz. During the last 60% of the stance phase there were differences between the horses judged as good and poor at the trot in all the analysed hindlimb angles except the femur inclination. The angular velocity in the hock joint, pelvis inclination and hindlimb pendulation was larger in the good horses. The angular velocity of the hindlimb pendulation decreased with collection in the Grand Prix horses. During parts of the stance phase, there was also a gradual decrease in the femur angular velocity from trot at hand to piaffe. In the hock joint, there was no difference in angular velocity between trot at hand and passage during the last 30%. The higher compression of the hock angle and pelvic angle to the horizontal plane probably reflects a higher compression of the whole hindlimb. It probably contributes to the greater springiness in the movements of good young horses and Grand Prix dressage horses. The results from the present study confirmed the importance of storing elastic strain energy for the quality of the dressage horse gaits. PMID:9354292

  13. An Ocean of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will investigate the close relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere to determine the extent the ocean affects the Earth's weather in the South Atlantic Bight region. As they study this relationship, students will learn that the ocean and atmosphere work together as a system. They will experiment to find out that heat transfer from the ocean is a cause of much of Earth's weather and will make and explain an ocean water cycle.

  14. Ocean optics

    SciTech Connect

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  15. A nonnatural head-neck position (Rollkur) during training results in less acute stress in elite, trained, dressage horses.

    PubMed

    van Breda, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This study measured parameters of stress in recreational, trained horses (REC; n = 7) and elite (International Grand Prix level) trained, dressage horses (DRES; n = 5). The training of the DRES horses uses an unnatural head-neck position (Rollkur), whereas in the REC horses such training techniques are not common. The study measured stress by using heart rate variability analysis for 30 min postfeeding in the morning and 30 min postexercise after a morning training session. The study found no significant difference at rest between the REC and DRES horses. During the posttraining measurements, however, the DRES horses showed, among others, a less sympathetic and increased parasympathetic dominance. These results suggest that DRES horses tend to have less acute stress than do REC horses postexercise. The findings of this study suggest maintaining the health and well-being of DRES horses despite nonnatural, biomechanical positions. PMID:16649951

  16. Europe's Horse Meat Scandal Casts Light on Food Taboo1 Horse meat is taboo in some cultures, standard in others.2

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    , chicken, and cow a part of your diet, there's a feeling10 that there's just something wrong about eating On the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, for example, horse is a popular local ingredient, as is its relative the FAO, is25 Kazakhstan, where horse is an integral part of the diet and used to make various sausages

  17. Microsporidia and Cryptosporidium in horses and donkeys in Algeria: detection of a novel Cryptosporidium hominis subtype family (Ik) in a horse.

    PubMed

    Laatamna, Abd Elkarim; Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Kv?to?ová, Dana; Xiao, Lihua; Rost, Michael; McEvoy, John; Saadi, Ahmed Rachid; Aissi, Meriem; Kvá?, Martin

    2015-03-15

    A total of 219 and 124 individual fecal samples of horses and donkeys, respectively, were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Encephalitozoon spp., and Enterocytozoon bieneusi DNA by genus-specific nested PCR. Isolates were genotyped by sequence analysis of SSU rRNA, GP60, TRAP-C1, COWP, and HSP70 loci in Cryptosporidium, and the ITS region in microsporidia. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected on 3/18 horse farms and 1/15 farms where donkeys were kept. Overall, five (2.3%) horse and two (1.6%) donkey specimens were PCR positive for Cryptosporidium. Genotyping at SSU and GP60 loci revealed that three isolates from horses and donkeys were C. parvum subtype family IIaA16G1R1, one isolate from a horse was, C. muris RN66, and one isolate from a donkey was C. muris TS03. An isolate from a horse shared 99.4% and 99.3% similarity with Cryptosporidium hominis and C. cuniculus, respectively, at the SSU locus. This isolate shared 100% identity with C. hominis at the TRAP-C1, COWP, and HSP70 loci, and it was from the novel gp60 subtype family IkA15G1. Microsporidia were found on 6/18 horse and 2/15 donkey farms. E. bieneusi was identified in 6.8% (15/219) and 1.6% (2/124), and Encephalitozoon cuniculi was identified in 1.8% (4/219) and 1.6% (2/124), of horses and donkeys, respectively. Three genotypes of E. cuniculi (I, II and III) were detected in horses, and E. cuniculi genotype II was detected in donkeys. Four genotypes of E. bieneusi (horse1, horse 2, CZ3, D) were described in horses. An additional five horses and two donkeys were positive for E. bieneusi, but the isolated were not genotyped. Neither Cryptosporidium nor microsporidia prevalence were affected by sex, age, type of breeding, or whether the host was a horse or a donkey. PMID:25638716

  18. Applicability of stable C and N isotope analysis in inferring the geographical origin and authentication of commercial fish (Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock).

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejoong; Suresh Kumar, K; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Globalisation of seafood and aquaculture products and their convenient marketing worldwide, increases the possibility for the distribution of mislabelled products; thereby, underlining the need to identify their origin. Stable isotope analysis is a promising approach to identify the authenticity and traceability of seafood and aquaculture products. In this investigation, we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?(13)C and ?(15)N) of three commercial fish, viz. Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock, originating from various countries. Apart from the species-dependent variation in the isotopic values, marked differences in the ?(13)C and ?(15)N ratios were also observed with respect to the country of origin. This suggests that C and N isotopic signatures could be reliable tools to identify and trace the origin of commercial fish. PMID:25442587

  19. Metabolism before, during and after anaesthesia in colic and healthy horses

    PubMed Central

    Edner, Anna H; Nyman, Görel C; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Background Many colic horses are compromised due to the disease state and from hours of starvation and sometimes long trailer rides. This could influence their muscle energy reserves and affect the horses' ability to recover. The principal aim was to follow metabolic parameter before, during, and up to 7 days after anaesthesia in healthy horses and in horses undergoing abdominal surgery due to colic. Methods 20 healthy horses given anaesthesia alone and 20 colic horses subjected to emergency abdominal surgery were anaesthetised for a mean of 228 minutes and 183 minutes respectively. Blood for analysis of haematology, electrolytes, cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, glucose and lactate was sampled before, during, and up to 7 days after anaesthesia. Arterial and venous blood gases were obtained before, during and up to 8 hours after recovery. Gluteal muscle biopsy specimens for biochemical analysis of muscle metabolites were obtained at start and end of anaesthesia and 1 h and 1 day after recovery. Results Plasma cortisol, FFA, glycerol, glucose, lactate and CK were elevated and serum phosphate and potassium were lower in colic horses before anaesthesia. Muscle adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was low in several colic horses. Anaesthesia and surgery resulted in a decrease in plasma FFA and glycerol in colic horses whereas levels increased in healthy horses. During anaesthesia muscle and plasma lactate and plasma phosphate increased in both groups. In the colic horses plasma lactate increased further after recovery. Plasma FFA and glycerol increased 8 h after standing in the colic horses. In both groups, plasma concentrations of CK increased and serum phosphate decreased post-anaesthesia. On Day 7 most parameters were not different between groups. Colic horses lost on average 8% of their initial weight. Eleven colic horses completed the study. Conclusion Colic horses entered anaesthesia with altered metabolism and in a negative oxygen balance. Muscle oxygenation was insufficient during anaesthesia in both groups, although to a lesser extent in the healthy horses. The post-anaesthetic period was associated with increased lipolysis and weight loss in the colic horses, indicating a negative energy balance during the first week post-operatively. PMID:18001483

  20. U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service This is a summary of, but not a

    E-print Network

    Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Federal regulations. You are strongly encouraged to read. For more information on this fishery contact Sustainable Fisheries at (978) 281-9315. ATLANTIC MACKEREL, SQUID (Illex and Longfin), AND BUTTERFISH INFORMATION SHEET The Atlantic mackerel, longfin squid, Illex

  1. Characterization of digestive enzymes from de-oiled mackerel (Scomber japonicus) muscle obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide and n-hexane extraction as a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, A K M; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2015-06-01

    The oil in mackerel muscle was extracted using an environmental friendly solvent, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at a semi-batch flow extraction process and an n-hexane. The SC-CO2 was carried out at temperature 45 °C and pressures ranging from 15 to 25 MPa. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant at the entire extraction period of 2 h. The highest oil extracted residues after SC-CO2 extraction was used for activity measurement of digestive enzymes. Four digestive enzymes were found in water soluble extracts after n-hexane and SC-CO2 treated samples. Amylase, lipase and trypsin activities were higher in water soluble extracts after SC-CO2 treated samples except protease. Among the four digestive enzymes, the activity of amylase was highest and the value was 44.57 uM/min/mg of protein. The water soluble extracts of SC-CO2 and n-hexane treated mackerel samples showed same alkaline optimum pH and pH stability for each of the digestive enzymes. Optimum temperature of amylase, lipase, protease and trypsin was 40, 50, 60 and 30 °C, respectively of both extracts. More than 80 % temperature stability of amylase, lipase, protease and trypsin were retained at mentioned optimum temperature in water soluble extracts of both treated samples. Based on protein patterns, prominent protein band showed in water soluble extracts after SC-CO2 treated samples indicates no denaturation of protein than untreated and n-hexane. PMID:26028731

  2. Expression Levels of LCORL Are Associated with Body Size in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Julia; Schrimpf, Rahel; Philipp, Ute; Distl, Ottmar

    2013-01-01

    Body size is an important characteristic for horses of various breeds and essential for the classification of ponies concerning the limit value of 148 cm (58.27 inches) height at the withers. Genome-wide association analyses revealed the highest associated quantitative trait locus for height at the withers on horse chromosome (ECA) 3 upstream of the candidate gene LCORL. Using 214 Hanoverian horses genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 BeadChip and 42 different horse breeds across all size ranges, we confirmed the highly associated single nucleotide polymorphism BIEC2-808543 (?log10P?=?8.3) and the adjacent gene LCORL as the most promising candidate for body size. We investigated the relative expression levels of LCORL and its two neighbouring genes NCAPG and DCAF16 using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We could demonstrate a significant association of the relative LCORL expression levels with the size of the horses and the BIEC2-808543 genotypes within and across horse breeds. In heterozygous C/T-horses expression levels of LCORL were significantly decreased by 40% and in homozygous C/C-horses by 56% relative to the smaller T/T-horses. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that this SNP T>C mutation is disrupting a putative binding site of the transcription factor TFIID which is important for the transcription process of genes involved in skeletal bone development. Thus, our findings suggest that expression levels of LCORL play a key role for body size within and across horse breeds and regulation of the expression of LCORL is associated with genetic variants of BIEC2-808543. This is the first functional study for a body size regulating polymorphism in horses and a further step to unravel the mechanisms for understanding the genetic regulation of body size in horses. PMID:23418579

  3. A synteny map of the horse genome comprised of 240 microsatellite and RAPD markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. L. Shiue; L. A. Bickel; A. R. Caetano; R. S. Clark; M. L. Eggleston; R. Michelmore; E. Bailey; G. Guerin; S. Godard; J. R. Mickelson; S. J. Valberg; J. D. Murray; A. T. Bowling

    1999-01-01

    Summary To generate a domestic horse genome map we integrated synteny information for markers screened on a somatic cell hybrid (SCH) panel with published information for markers physi- cally assigned to chromosomes. The mouse- horse SCH panel was established by fusing pSV2neo transformed primary horse fibroblasts to either RAG or LMTk-mouse cells, followed by G418 antibiotic selection. For each of

  4. Airway response of horses with COPD to dry powder inhalation of ipratropium bromide.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1997-09-01

    To determine the effects of the dry powder inhalation (DPI) of ipratropium bromide (ipratropium) on the airways of health horses and the dose-response curve in horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by means of pulmonary function tests, five healthy horses were first studied. Ipratropium (2400 micrograms ipratropium horse-1) was contained in gelatine capsules and administered using a dry powder device connected to an adapted face mask. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before inhalation and 15 and 60 min after inhalation. No modification of pulmonary function was observed. The airway response to ipratropium DPI was then determined in six horses suffering from COPD. To induce airway obstruction, the horses were bedded on straw and fed hay. When the maximal change in pleural pressure during tidal breathing exceeded 1.96 kPa, pulmonary function tests were recorded before DPI, and 15 and 60 min post-inhalation. Placebo (six capsules horse-1) or ipratropium (600, 1200 and 2400 micrograms horse-1) was administered in a randomized order to each horse using the dry powder device and the adapted face mask. Neither ipratropium nor placebo DPI affected respiratory frequency (f) or tidal volume (VT). Inhalation of 600 micrograms ipratropium horse-1 resulted in a delayed decrease of total pulmonary resistance (RL) whereas dynamic compliance (Cdyn) was improved (although not significantly) at both times of measurement when compared with values following placebo inhalation. Simultaneous decreased RL and increased Cdyn, was observed within 15 min after DPI of 1200 micrograms ipratropium horse-1 and persisted for the 1 h duration of the experiment. Doubling the dose also improved pulmonary function but not significantly more than following inhalation of 1200 micrograms ipratropium. No systemic side effects were observed in either group of horses. PMID:9308401

  5. Effect of orientation and location during transport on stress and maintenance of balance in horses 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Diana Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    inside the trailer (behind a plywood partition positioned behind the forward facing horse) recorded how often the horses impacted the sides and ends of the trailer, lost their balance, pawed, vocalized, or defecated. Heart rates were monitored... displacement behaviors as "activities that typically appear in conflict situations but also appear in frustration conditions. " Pawing in horses can be an anomalous reactive behavior (Merck, 1986). Carbonaro (1989) found that female goats, frustrated...

  6. Hysteresis and calcium set-point for the calcium parathyroid hormone relationship in healthy horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramiro E. Toribio; Catherine W. Kohn; Richard A. Sams; Charles C. Capen; Thomas J. Rosol

    2003-01-01

    Abnormalities in calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis are reported in horses with several pathological conditions; however, there is little information on Ca2+ regulation in horses. The objectives of the present study were to determine the Ca2+ set-point in healthy horses, to determine whether the Ca2+\\/parathyroid hormone (PTH) response curves were characterized by hysteresis, and to determine if the order of experimentally induced

  7. A study of the use of methoxyflurane general anesthesia in the horse 

    E-print Network

    Titus, Robert Stephen

    1964-01-01

    result of ventricular fibrillation. Table 111 gives the same information as Table II for horse number ll, the animal intentionally destroyed. Figure II is typical of a series of recordings made ~ Note the partial heart block that existed in this horse... prior to restraint, This was the only incidence of heart block that was observed and it disappeared when the animal was restrained. Figure III shows a series of recordings made on the animal that died from ventricular fibrillation (horse number 9...

  8. Plasma concentration of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in horses following an oral dose

    E-print Network

    Welch, Courtney Ann

    2006-04-12

    in performance and pleasure horses (Hanson, 1996). Numerous dietary supplements containing glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulfate are marketed as a way to help support, improve or restore the health of horse?s joints (Ramey et al., 2002). The main goal... in the medical management of these joint problems has focused on slowing the process of cartilage degradation and promotion of cartilage matrix synthesis (Hanson, 1996). Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are macromolecules endogenous to cartilage and have...

  9. Improving environmental management on small-scale farms: perspectives of extension educators and horse farm operators.

    PubMed

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms. PMID:25267522

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of the Hucul horse from Romania inferred from mitochondrial D-loop variation.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, S E; Manea, M A; Dudu, A; Costache, M

    2011-01-01

    The existence of the Hucul horse on Romanian territory has been documented from the very distant past; today Hucul is a unique breed that is part of the FAO Program for the Preservation of Animal Genetic Resources. We compared Hucul with several primitive European and Asiatic breeds in order to elucidate the origin of these horses. We analyzed a 683-bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop fragment in a population of Hucul horses and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from other primitive breeds, including Exmoor, Icelandic Pony, Sorraia, Przewalski Horse, Mongolian Wild Horse, Konik, and Shetland Pony, as well as with Arabian, Akhal Teke and Caspian Pony. The sequences were truncated to 247 bp to accommodate short sequence data for the other species. Eighty horses were analyzed; 35 polymorphic sites representing 33 haplotypes were observed. The mean percentage of polymorphic sites was 14.2% for this mtDNA fragment. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Kimura two-parameter distances and the Network 3.111 software was used for phylogenetic analysis. The Hucul horse was classified separately from all other primitive breeds. It is possible that the Hucul horse is not part of the pony class, as it segregated apart from all primitive pony breeds. We found multiple origins in the maternal lineage of domestic horse breeds and demonstrated the uniqueness of the Hucul breed; its origins remain unclear. PMID:22057995

  11. Radiographic closure time of appendicular growth plates in the Icelandic horse

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Eric; Braathen, Linn Camilla; Hellsten, Mia C; Huse-Olsen, Lisel; Bjornsdottir, Sigridur

    2007-01-01

    Background The Icelandic horse is a pristine breed of horse which has a pure gene pool established more than a thousand years ago, and is approximately the same size as living and extinct wild breeds of horses. This study was performed to compare the length of the skeletal growth period of the "primitive" Icelandic horse relative to that reported for large horse breeds developed over the recent centuries. This information would provide practical guidance to owners and veterinarians as to when the skeleton is mature enough to commence training, and would be potentially interesting to those scientists investigating the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis. Interestingly, osteochondrosis has not been documented in the Icelandic horse. Methods The radiographic closure time of the appendicular growth plates was studied in 64 young Icelandic horses. The results were compared with previously published closure times reported for other, larger horse breeds. The radiographs were also examined for any signs of developmental orthopaedic diseases. In order to describe further the growth pattern of the Icelandic horse, the total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined and the height at the withers was measured. Results Most of the examined growth plates were fully closed at the age of approximately three years. The horses reached adult height at this age; however ALP activity was still mildly increased over baseline values. The growth plates in the digits were the first to close at 8.1 to 8.5 months of age, and those in the regions of the distal radius (27.4 to 32.0 months), tuber olecrani (31.5 to 32.2 months), and the stifle (27.0 to 40.1 months) were the last to close. No horse was found to have osteochondrosis type lesions in the neighbouring joints of the evaluated growth plates. Conclusion The Icelandic horse appears to have similar radiographic closure times for most of the growth plates of its limbs as reported for large new breeds of horses developed during the past few centuries. It thus appears that different breeding goals and the intensity of breeding have not altered the length of the growth period in horses. Instead, it can be assumed that the pristine and relatively small Icelandic horse has a slower rate of growth. The appendicular skeleton of Icelandic horses has completed its bone growth in length at approximately 3 years of age, and therefore may be able to enter training at this time. PMID:17640333

  12. Notching and anterior beveling on fossil horse incisors: Indicators of domestication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Richard A.; Rogers, Laurine A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the lines of evidence cited for possible late Pleistocene human control of horses has been the presence of notching and anterior beveling on horse incisor teeth recovered from upper and middle Paleolithic sites in Europe. Similar forms of wear have been found on the incisor teeth of wild horses from early and middle Pleistocene deposits in North America. Notching appears partly due to malocclusion and chipping. The causes of beveling are less certain but may involve the eating of bark. Therefore, the presence of notching and anterior beveling on horse incisor teeth may not be a reliable indicator of human control.

  13. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinlong; Zhao, Yiping; Shiraigol, Wunierfu; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Ye, Weixing; Daidiikhuu, Dorjsuren; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Burenqiqige; Zhao, Qinan; Gao, Yahan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Li, Anaer; Zhang, Yuhong; Han, Haige; Bai, Haitang; Bao, Yanqing; Zhao, Lele; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Zhao, Wenjing; Sun, Zikui; Zhang, Yan; Meng, He; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3?M bp) and Mongolian horse (2?M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsonian translocation event through the wild horse's chromosomes 23 and 24, which contained sequences that were highly homologous with those on the domestic horse's chromosome 5. The four main types of rearrangement, insertion of unknown origin, inserted duplication, inversion, and relocation, are not evenly distributed on all the chromosomes, and some chromosomes, such as the X chromosome, contain more rearrangements than others, and the number of inversions is far less than the number of insertions and relocations in the horse genome. Furthermore, we discovered the percentages of LINE_L1 and LTR_ERV1 are significantly increased in rearrangement regions. The analysis results of the two representative Equus species genomes improved our knowledge of Equus chromosome rearrangement and karyotype evolution. PMID:24828444

  14. Impact of horse traffic on trails in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Summer, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Disturbances related to the impact of horses on trails in Rocky Mountain National Park vary across the landscape. Geomorphic monitoring of permanent sites suggests that horse traffic is not the single, dominant process active on trails, nor is degredation always a direct result of horse use. Instead, amounts and rates of change are a function of geomorphic and biologic characteristics of the terrain interacting with horse traffic of varying degrees. The most influential landscape factors governing trail deteriortion, rockiness, stoniness, vegetation, and drainage. - from Author

  15. Patterns of Horse-Rider Coordination during Endurance Race: A Dynamical System Approach

    PubMed Central

    Viry, Sylvain; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Frances, Jean-Philippe; Berton, Eric; Laurent, Michel; Nicol, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In riding, most biomechanical studies have focused on the description of the horse locomotion in unridden condition. In this study, we draw the prospect of how the basic principles established in inter-personal coordination by the theory of Coordination Dynamics may provide a conceptual and methodological framework for understanding the horse-rider coupling. The recent development of mobile technologies allows combined horse and rider recordings during long lasting natural events such as endurance races. Six international horse-rider dyads were thus recorded during a 120 km race by using two tri-axial accelerometers placed on the horses and riders, respectively. The analysis concentrated on their combined vertical displacements. The obtained shapes and angles of Lissajous plots together with values of relative phase between horse and rider displacements at lower reversal point allowed us to characterize four coordination patterns, reflecting the use of two riding techniques per horse's gait (trot and canter). The present study shows that the concepts, methods and tools of self-organizing dynamic system approach offer new directions for understanding horse-rider coordination. The identification of the horse-rider coupling patterns constitutes a firm basis to further study the coalition of multiple constraints that determine their emergence and their dynamics in endurance race. PMID:23940788

  16. Factors affecting clinical assessment of insulin sensitivity in horses.

    PubMed

    Firshman, A M; Valberg, S J

    2007-11-01

    Insulin resistance is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of many equine conditions such as pars intermedia dysfunction, equine metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipaemia, laminitis, endotoxaemia and osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD); whereas polysaccharide storage myopathy in Quarter Horses and equine motor neuron disease (EMD) have been associated with increased insulin sensitivity. However, it is clear that there is not one ideal test, in terms of both practicality and accuracy, for evaluating insulin sensitivity in horses and improved diagnostic techniques are required. This review sets out the background to the subject and identifies current knowledge regarding the measurement of insulin sensitivity by tolerance testing and clamping techniques. Factors affecting insulin sensitivity, such as breed, pregnancy, lactation, obesity and nutritional factors are discussed. In addition, the relationship with training, nutritional supplementation and drug administration are considered. PMID:18065318

  17. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin given intramuscularly in horses.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, J A; Todd, K S; Lock, T F; McPherron, T A

    1982-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of ivermectin was evaluated in 18 female horses with naturally acquired parasitic infections. Horses were treated once (IM) with vehicle only (n = 6), 200 microgram/kg of body weight (n = 6), and 300 microgram/kg (n = 6). Efficacy of both dosages of ivermectin was greater than 99% against Gasterophilus spp, 100% against Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema muscae, H majus, and Draschia megastoma, 98% to 99% against adult cyathostomes, 86% to 97% against 4th-stage cyathostomes, and 100% against adult large strongyles. Although ivermectin was incomplete in its activity against arterial stages of Strongylus vulgaris, it was effective against microfilariae of Onchocerca spp. Adverse local or systemic reactions were not observed due to treatment with ivermectin. PMID:6896407

  18. [Preliminary performance test in saddle horses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    van der Mey, G J; Bos, H

    1975-12-01

    The study of the literature on a preliminary performance test for saddle horses (stallions) is concerned with European countries. Interest is found to be increasing in the various countries. Performance of the test in the Netherlands (since 1966) is described and the various criteria of evaluation are discussed in detail. The intensity of selection based on this test is referred to. In 1974, it was 78 per cent in the Netherlands. Part of studies on the relationship between some results of testing are reviewed. The traction test shows a very low coefficient of correlation with the other parts of the examination. The contemplated analysis of the results of progeny groups is discussed. In the comment, the fact is stressed that there should be more international co-operation in this field. Finally, the preliminary performance test is considered as part of the criteria adopted in the selection of saddle horses in the future. PMID:1202651

  19. Endoscopic examination of the carpal flexor tendon sheath in horses.

    PubMed

    Cauvin, E R; Munroe, G A; Boyd, J S

    1997-11-01

    This study was undertaken to design a safe technique to examine the carpal flexor tendon sheath (carpal sheath) of horses endoscopically, using an arthroscope. The limbs from 15 horses were used to study the normal anatomy of the carpal sheath and related structures, establish a safe approach and endoscopic technique, and determine the normal endoscopic appearance of the sheath. Major arteries, veins and nerves, present within and around the sheath, left few 'safe' areas to insert the endoscope. Several portals were assessed and a distal lateral approach was found to be safest and to allow adequate visualisation of most of the sheath. The surgical technique and normal endoscopic findings are described in detail and discussed. PMID:9413719

  20. A Genome Scan for Positive Selection in Thoroughbred Horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingjing Gu; Nick Orr; Stephen D. Park; Lisa M. Katz; Galina Sulimova; David E. MacHugh; Emmeline W. Hill; Cecile Fairhead

    2009-01-01

    Thoroughbred horses have been selected for exceptional racing performance resulting in system-wide structural and functional adaptations contributing to elite athletic phenotypes. Because selection has been recent and intense in a closed population that stems from a small number of founder animals Thoroughbreds represent a unique population within which to identify genomic contributions to exercise-related traits. Employing a population genetics-based hitchhiking

  1. Latherin: a surfactant protein of horse sweat and saliva.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Rhona E; Fleming, Rachel I; Beeley, John G; Bovell, Douglas L; Lu, Jian R; Zhao, Xiubo; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2009-01-01

    Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass), and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and associated tissues of mammals. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (< or = 1 mg ml(-1)), and therefore probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a waterproofed pelt. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that this detergent-like activity is associated with the formation of a dense protein layer, about 10 A thick, at the air-water interface. However, biophysical characterization (circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry) in solution shows that latherin behaves like a typical globular protein, although with unusual intrinsic fluorescence characteristics, suggesting that significant conformational change or unfolding of the protein is required for assembly of the air-water interfacial layer. RT-PCR screening revealed latherin transcripts in horse skin and salivary gland but in no other tissues. Recombinant latherin produced in bacteria was also found to be the target of IgE antibody from horse-allergic subjects. Equids therefore may have adapted an oral/salivary mucosal protein for two purposes peculiar to their lifestyle, namely their need for rapid and efficient heat dissipation and their specialisation for masticating and processing large quantities of dry food material. PMID:19478940

  2. Genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of the Polish Heavy Horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Iwa?czyk; Rytis Juras; Grzegorz Cholewi?ski; E. Gus Cothran

    2006-01-01

    In this study a wide range of genetic markers (12 microsatellites, 7 blood-group loci, 10 blood-protein loci) and mitochondrial\\u000a DNA (mtDNA) were used to assess genetic diversity in Polish Heavy horses. Three random samples were sequenced for 421 bp of\\u000a the mitochondrial D-loop region, but no clear phylogenetic patterns were seen in mtDNA variation. Both heterozygosity and\\u000a diversity levels are

  3. MICROSATELLITES VARIATIONS IN ROMANIAN THOROUGHBRED AND ARABIAN HORSE POPULATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgescu Sergiu Emil; Condac Eduard; Rebedea Mariana; Dinischiotu Anca; Tesio C lin Dumitru; Costache Marieta

    2005-01-01

    The use of PCR technology for analyzing microsattelites is increasing every day. Microsatellite markers are evenly distributed across genome and can be identified within DNA samples using PCR. Genetic diversity between Thoroughbred and Arabian horse populations were analyzed using 12 microsatellite markers. The DNA loci analyzed - AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10 and VHL20

  4. Applied load on the horse's back under racing conditions.

    PubMed

    Geser-von Peinen, Katja; Latif, Selma N; Wiestner, Thomas; Bitschnau, Caroline; Renk, Brigitte; Weishaupt, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    With the intention of limiting the weight on horses' backs and guaranteeing maximal freedom of movement, commonly used racing saddles are small and have minimal cushioning. Poor saddle cushioning may limit performance or even affect soundness of the back. The aim of this study was to measure the pressure under an average racing saddle ridden by a jockey at racing speed. Saddle pressure using a medium-sized racing saddle (length 37 cm, weight 450 g) was measured in five actively racing Thoroughbred horses. All horses were trained at the same facility and ridden by their usual professional jockey, weighing 60 kg. The horses were ridden on a race track at canter (mean velocity, V1 ± standard deviation, SD: 7.7 ± 0.4m/s) and gallop (V2 ± SD: 14.0 ± 0.7 m/s). Maximal pressure was 134 kPa at V1 and 116 kPa at V2. Mean peak pressure was 73.6 kPa at V1 and 54.8 kPa at V2. The maximal total force did not differ between the two velocities and was approximately twice the jockey's bodyweight. The centre of pressure lateral range of motion differed significantly, with excursions of 23 mm at V1 and 37 mm at V2; longitudinal excursion was 13 mm for V1 and 14 mm for V2. The highest pressure (>35 kPa) was always localised along the spinous processes over an average length of 12.5 cm. It was concluded that racing saddles exert high peak pressures over bony prominences known to be sensitive to pressure. PMID:24246649

  5. 33. 20HORSE POWER VERTICAL BOILER WAS MANUFACTURED BY ORR & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. 20-HORSE POWER VERTICAL BOILER WAS MANUFACTURED BY ORR & SEMBOWER, FROM READING, PA. IT WAS INSTALLED IN 1929 TO REPLACE THE ORIGINAL BOILER. THE BOILER PROVIDED STEAM TO THE STEAM ENGINE. TO LUBRICATING THE DIE OF THE BRICK AUGER, AND TO THE STEAM PIPES OF THE DRYING ROOM ON THE FLOOR ABOVE. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  6. 1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A SMALL WINDOW. THE 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW IS IN THE STORE ROOM. THE ROLLING DOOR WAS WIDENED, PROBABLY IN 1926, ELIMINATING THE ORIGINAL LOFT LADDER AT THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE PUBLIC RESTROOM NEAR THE LEFT EDGE OF THE VIEW DOES NOT RELATE TO THE RANGER STATION. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  7. Evaluation of purified horse serum butyrylcholinesterase in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Genovese; X. C. M. Lu; M. K. Gentry; R. Larrison

    1993-01-01

    We examined the effects of purified horse serum butyrylcholinesterasc (BChE) to further investigate its potential use as a prophylaxis therapy against organophosphorus toxicity. Rats were trained to lever-press for food under a variable interval 18 s (VI18) schedule of reinforcement which produced relatively fast and constant response rates throughout daily 30-min sessions. One group received BChE (500 U), IP, prior

  8. Granulomatous colitis associated with small strongyle larvae in a horse.

    PubMed

    Jasko, D J; Roth, L

    1984-09-01

    Horses presented with chronic weight loss are difficult to manage clinically. A diagnosis of granulomatous colitis due to mucosal stages of cyathostomes (small strongyles) should be considered in those cases exhibiting weight loss, intermittent diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, increased serum globulins, and low fecal egg counts. Treatment can be attempted with larva-cidal doses of fenbendazole or ivermectin. Clinical and necropsy findings in one such case are presented. PMID:6480477

  9. A study of Streptococcus equi in the horse

    E-print Network

    Evers, Warren Dean

    1966-01-01

    and Barner, strangles in the horse was described by Solleysel in 1664. Lafosse recognized the contagious nature of the disease in 1790. Viborg, in 1802, described his dem- onstration of the transmissability of strangles through the use of nasal 19 pus.... Pyosepticemia and septic arthritis have been reported in 17, 18, 29 foals. "The streptococci on reaching the surface of the nasal mucosa, colonize and multiply. The organisms either penetrate the mucous glands or are carried through the epithelium...

  10. Comparison of pharmacopuncture, aquapuncture and acepromazine for sedation of horses.

    PubMed

    Luna, Stelio P L; Angeli, Ana L; Ferreira, Cristiane L; Lettry, Vivien; Scognamillo-Szabó, Márcia

    2008-09-01

    Pharmacopuncture, the injection of subclinical doses of drugs into acupoints reduces drug undesirable side effects, residues in animal consumption products and treatment costs in large animals. Acepromazine (Acp) produces several undesirable effects, such as hypotension. Previous studies with the injection of 1/10 of Acp dose in dog acupoints showed its advantage for sedation, minimizing undesirable effects. Eight horses were randomly submitted to four different treatment protocols according to a Latin Square double-blind design: (i) 0.1 ml kg(-1) of saline subcutaneously injected at the cervical region, (ii) 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp injected subcutaneously at the cervical region, (iii) 0.01 ml kg(-1) of saline injected into GV1 acupoint (aquapuncture) and (iv) 0.01 mg kg(-1) of Acp injected into GV1 acupoint (pharmacopuncture). Heart rate, respiratory rate, head height and degree of sedation were measured before and at 30, 60 and 90 min after treatments. Signs of sedation were observed in all treated groups at 30 min and only in 1/10Acp-GV1 at 60 min after the treatments. Only the group treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp s.c. had significantly lower values of head height at 30 min. Respiratory rate tended to reduce in all groups but was significantly lower only in horses treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp s.c. Heart rate remained unchanged in all groups. Acp-pharmacopuncture on GV1 in horses produced a mild sedation when compared with the conventional dose of Acp. More investigations are necessary to determine the optimal dosage of Acp-pharmacopuncture for sedation in horses. PMID:18830446

  11. West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Horses in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Ute; Skrypnyk, Artem; Keller, Markus; Staubach, Christoph; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Damiani, Armando M.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Groschup, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus of global importance. Over the last two decades, it has been responsible for significant numbers of cases of illness in humans and animals in many parts of the world. In Ukraine, WNV infections in humans and birds were first reported more than 25 years ago, yet the current epidemiological status is quite unclear. In this study, serum samples from over 300 equines were collected and screened in order to detect current WNV activity in Ukraine with the goal to estimate the risk of infection for humans and horses. Sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization assay (NT) to detect WNV-specific antibodies. The results clearly revealed that WNV circulates in most of the regions from which samples were obtained, shown by a WNV seroprevalence rate of 13.5% of examined horses. This is the first topical report indicating the presence of WNV infections in horses in Ukraine, and the results of this study provide evidence of a widespread WNV circulation in this country. PMID:24100889

  12. Age-related changes in genomic stability of horses.

    PubMed

    Wnuk, Maciej; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Lewinska, Anna; Oklejewicz, Bernadetta; Zabek, Tomasz; Bartosz, Grzegorz; S?ota, Ewa

    2011-05-01

    Recently, the old horse has been proposed as a model to study telomere-dependent senescence, immunosenescence and inflamm-aging. In the present paper, we used 80 Hucul and Anglo-Arabian horses divided into 3 age groups (juvenile, adult, old) to evaluate age-dependent changes at the genomic and DNA level and in cell proliferative potential. The level of positive TUNEL cells (both apoptotic and with DNA fragmentation), oxidative DNA damage (8-oxoG immunostaining), sister chromatid exchange and bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks were significantly increased in the combined old group compared to the combined adult group. We observed a negative correlation between micronuclei formation and age, which may be associated with damaged cells undergoing apoptosis, rather than expressing micronuclei. We were unable to show any significant changes in the nuclear division index value, which reflects the proliferative status of the viable cell fraction during aging. Here, we show that breed-independent and age-associated changes in genomic stability may contribute, at least in part, to the aging process in the horse. PMID:21557962

  13. Mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation among Italian horse breeds

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi, Maria Cristina; Strillacci, Maria Giuseppina; Valiati, Paolo; Bighignoli, Barbara; Cancedda, Mario; Zanotti, Marta

    2004-01-01

    The genetic variability of the mitochondrial D-loop DNA sequence in seven horse breeds bred in Italy (Giara, Haflinger, Italian trotter, Lipizzan, Maremmano, Thoroughbred and Sarcidano) was analysed. Five unrelated horses were chosen in each breed and twenty-two haplotypes were identified. The sequences obtained were aligned and compared with a reference sequence and with 27 mtDNA D-loop sequences selected in the GenBank database, representing Spanish, Portuguese, North African, wild horses and an Equus asinus sequence as the outgroup. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated and a cluster analysis using the Neighbour-joining method was performed to obtain phylogenetic trees among breeds bred in Italy and among Italian and foreign breeds. The cluster analysis indicates that all the breeds but Giara are divided in the two trees, and no clear relationships were revealed between Italian populations and the other breeds. These results could be interpreted as showing the mixed origin of breeds bred in Italy and probably indicate the presence of many ancient maternal lineages with high diversity in mtDNA sequences. PMID:15496286

  14. Copper-associated hepatic cirrhosis in a Friesian horse.

    PubMed

    Ankringa, Nynke; Wijnberg, Inge D; Boerma, Siebren; Ijzer, Jooske

    2012-05-01

    A 6-year-old Friesian stallion was examined because of signs of exercise intolerance, stiff gait and symmetrical hind weakness, and increased serum liver enzymes. On presentation, the horse showed muscle atrophy of the hindquarters. Neurological investigation showed no abnormalities. Laboratory findings revealed a prolonged prothrombin time and increased levels of alkaline phosphatase (AF), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and bile acids. Histological evaluation of the liver revealed severe cirrhosis and intracytoplasmic greyish brown granules in almost all hepatocytes, sinusoidal Kuppfer cells, and macrophages. These granules stained strongly for copper. Treatment to slow hepatic fibrosis was advised and included oral prednisolone administration for at least 1 month. A diet to support liver function was formulated by a nutritional specialist, and vitamin E was advised as dietary supplement to support neuromuscular function. Soon after diagnosis, the animal showed signs of intravascular haemolysis, with the presence of Heinz bodies in peripheral blood smears, and haemoglobinuria. On the basis of this haemolytic crisis and the poor prognosis of the chronic hepatic disease, the horse was euthanized at the owners' request. Although we could not establish the cause of the hepatic copper accumulation, this case report highlights that excessive copper in the liver should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis and Heinz body anaemia in the horse. PMID:22667176

  15. Random X inactivation in the mule and horse placenta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Miller, Donald C.; Clark, Andrew G.; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    In eutherian mammals, dosage compensation of X-linked genes is achieved by X chromosome inactivation. X inactivation is random in embryonic and adult tissues, but imprinted X inactivation (paternal X silencing) has been identified in the extra-embryonic membranes of the mouse, rat, and cow. Few other species have been studied for this trait, and the data from studies of the human placenta have been discordant or inconclusive. Here, we quantify X inactivation using RNA sequencing of placental tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey (mule and hinny). In placental tissue from the equid hybrids and the horse parent, the allelic expression pattern was consistent with random X inactivation, and imprinted X inactivation can clearly be excluded. We characterized horse and donkey XIST gene and demonstrated that XIST allelic expression in female hybrid placental and fetal tissues is negatively correlated with the other X-linked genes chromosome-wide, which is consistent with the XIST-mediated mechanism of X inactivation discovered previously in mice. As the most structurally and morphologically diverse organ in mammals, the placenta also appears to show diverse mechanisms for dosage compensation that may result in differences in conceptus development across species. PMID:22645258

  16. Peripheral serotoninergic response to physical exercise in athletic horses.

    PubMed

    Alberghina, Daniela; Giannetto, Claudia; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of exercise on plasma tryptophan (TRP) and free serotonin (f5-HT), whole blood-5-HT (WB-5-HT) and f5-HT/WB-5-HT ratio in Italian Saddle horses. Six clinically healthy Italian Saddle horses were subjected to a 450 meters obstacles course. Blood samples were collected from each horse by jugular venipuncture using vacutainer tubes with K(3)-EDTA at rest, immediately after exercise, and after 30 min. TRP, f5-HT and WB-5-HT were analyzed by HPLC. Immediately after exercise, statistically significant increases of f5-HT (p <0.001) and WB-5-HT (p <0.001) were observed. After 30 min, f5-HT and WB-5-HT decreased compared to immediately after exercise, but were still significantly higher than rest values (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). A significant linear regression between f5-HT and WB-5-HT was observed during experimental conditions. f5-HT and WB-5-HT modifications after exercise suggest an important role of peripheral serotoninergic markers in response to physical activity. The possible source of extra serotonin detected after show jumping should be clarified by further investigation. PMID:21113096

  17. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  18. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-09-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  19. Mixing by ocean eddies

    E-print Network

    Abernathey, Ryan (Ryan Patrick)

    2012-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies mix and transport tracers such as heat and potential vorticity laterally in the ocean. While this transport plays an important role in the climate system, especially in the Southern Ocean, we lack a, ...

  20. Oceanic Food Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science

    This visualization illustrates the carbon cycle throughout the oceanic zones, beginning at the surface and traveling to the deep. The concept map-like connections encourage students to link the abiotic and biotic interactions within the oceanic food web.