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Sample records for oceanography

  1. Applied oceanography

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book combines oceanography principles and applications such as marine pollution, resources, and transportation. It is divided into two main parts treating the basic principles of physical oceanography, and presenting a unique systems framework showing how physical oceanography, marine ecology, economics, and government policy may be combined to define the newly developing field of applied oceanography.

  2. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  3. Careers in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Charles D., Ed.

    This booklet was prepared by practicing oceanographers to help college students in their search for professional direction. The booklet: (1) points out some frontiers of current research; (2) describes five major subfields of oceanography (marine geology and geophysics, oceanographic engineering, physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, and…

  4. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  5. Oceanography Information Sources 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Richard C.

    This booklet lists oceanography information sources in the first section under industries, laboratories and departments of oceanography, and other organizations which can provide free information and materials describing programs and activities. Publications listed in the second section include these educational materials: bibliographies, career…

  6. High School Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falmouth Public Schools, MA.

    This book is a compilation of a series of papers designed to aid high school teachers in organizing a course in oceanography for high school students. It consists of twelve papers, with references, covering each of the following: (1) Introduction to Oceanography, (2) Geology of the Ocean, (3) The Continental Shelves, (4) Physical Properties of Sea…

  7. Physics in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnock, H.

    1980-01-01

    Described is physical oceanography as analyzed by seven dependent variables, (three components of velocity, the pressure, density, temperature and salinity) as a function of three space variables and time. Topics discussed include the heat balance of the earth, current patterns in the ocean, heat transport, the air-sea interaction, and prospects…

  8. Oceanography From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeckis, R.

    Oceanography From Space, edited by J.F.R. Gower, is a collection of papers based on the proceedings o f the COSPAR/SCOR/IUCRM symposium held in May 1980 in Venice, Italy. There are 109 papers and nearly 1000 pages of text. The objective of the meeting was a major review of oceanography from space. The papers illustrate the new interest in remote sensing of the oceans generated by recent measurements from the SEASAT, NIMBUS-7, GEOS-3, and TIROS-N satellites. Although the emphasis of the papers is on satellite instrument validation and algorithm development, there are a sufficient number of application papers that illustrate the advantages of the two-dimensional view of the ocean provided by satellites.

  9. Physics as an Integrative Theme in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The teaching of physics as an integral part of an undergraduate oceanography course is described. A general outline of oceanography and the corresponding physics topics is given. The objectives, organization, and difficulties of such a course are discussed. (CW)

  10. A Source Book for Teaching Chemical Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder, Theodore C.; Glibert, Patricia M.

    Chemical oceanography or marine chemistry are taught in many colleges and universities. This publication provides sources for instructors of such courses. The first section of this report is a detailed composite outline of a course in chemical oceanography. It includes fundamental topics taught in many chemical oceanography classes. The outline…

  11. Oceanography: the present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of a symposium held September 29 to October 2, 1980 at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The book is the companion volume to ''Oceanography: the Past'' also published by Springer-Verlag. The papers are organized not by conventional disciplinary topics but by the ''scale'' of the oceanographic process: Part I, Small and Local Scale Oceanography; Part II, Regional Scale Oceanography; Part III, Global Scale Oceanography; and Part IV, The Human Scale. The articles presented, however, do not summarize such projects but give recognizable disciplinary summaries and predictions in line with the subtitle of the book. In general, the articles are classed by this scale concept, although ''Shoreline Research'' by Pilkey and ''The Oceans Nearby'' by Murphy are better placed in the section The Human Scale and Bolin's ''Changing Global Biogeochemistry'' switched from The Human Scale to Global Scale as indicated by the title. This volume should be of value to marine geologists and geochemists, sedimentologists, and public-interest (environmental) geologists interested in oceanographic processes.

  12. Developing Online Oceanography at UCSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.; Dodson, H.

    2001-12-01

    Oceanography at UCSB is an introductory general education science course taken by up to 200 students per quarter. The emphasis is on learning science process by engaging in authentic science activities that use real earth data. Recently, to increase student motivation, the course has been modified to include an Earth Summit framework. The online support being developed for this course is the first step in the creation of a completely online oceanography class. Foundation software was first tested in the class during Spring 2001. Online activities that are supported are writing and instructor feedback, online threaded discussion with live chat and graphics, automatically graded homeworks and games, auto graded quizzes with questions randomly selected from a database, and thought problems graded by the instructor(s). Future plans include integration with commercial course management software. To allow choice of assignments, all course activities totaled110%. Since grades were based on A=90-100, B=80-90, C= 70-80, etc, it was possible to get a better than A grade. Students see the effect (on their grade) of each assignment by calculating their current course grade. Course activities included (most of which are automatically graded): weekly lab homeworks, weekly mini-quizzes (10 multiple choice questions selected at random from a topic database), weekly thought questions (graded by the TA), 3 written assignments, and "Question of the Day" from lecture (credit given for handing it in), The online writing software allowed students to enter their writing, edit and link to graphic images, print the paper, and electronically hand it in. This has the enormous advantage of allowing the instructor and TA's convenient access to all student papers. At the end of the course, students were asked how effective each of the course activities were in learning the course material. On a five point scale, ranging from highest contribution to lowest, the percentage of students giving

  13. Key Concepts in Microbial Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B. C.; Achilles, K.; Walker, G.; Weersing, K.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institution Science and Technology Center, established by the National Science Foundation in 2006. C-MORE's research mission is to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the diverse assemblages of microorganisms in the sea, ranging from the genetic basis of marine microbial biogeochemistry including the metabolic regulation and environmental controls of gene expression, to the processes that underpin the fluxes of carbon, related bioelements, and energy in the marine environment. The C-MORE education and outreach program is focused on increasing scientific literacy in microbial oceanography among students, educators, and the general public. A first step toward this goal is defining the key concepts that constitute microbial oceanography. After lengthy discussions with scientists and educators, both within and outside C-MORE, we have arrived at six key concepts: 1) Marine microbes are very small and have been around for a long time; 2) Life on Earth could not exist without microbes; 3) Most marine microbes are beneficial; 4) Microbes are everywhere: they are extremely abundant and diverse; 5) Microbes significantly impact our global climate; and 6) There are new discoveries every day in the field of microbial oceanography. A C-MORE-produced brochure on these six key concepts will be distributed at the meeting. Advanced copies may be requested by email or downloaded from the C-MORE web site(http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/downloads/MO_key_concepts_hi-res.pdf). This brochure also includes information on career pathways in microbial oceanography, with the aim of broadening participation in the field. C-MORE is eager to work in partnership to incorporate these key concepts into other science literacy publications, particularly those involving ocean and climate literacy. We thank the following contributors and reviewers: P Chisholm, A Dolberry, and A Thompson (MIT); N Lawrence

  14. Equatorial oceanography. [review of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Sarachik, E. S.

    1983-01-01

    United States progress in equatorial oceanography is reviewed, focusing on the low frequency response of upper equatorial oceans to forcing by the wind. Variations of thermocline depth, midocean currents, and boundary currents are discussed. The factors which determine sea surface temperature (SST) variability in equatorial oceans are reviewed, and the status of understanding of the most spectacular manifestation of SST variability, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, is discussed. The problem of observing surface winds, regarded as a fundamental factor limiting understanding of the equatorial oceans, is addressed. Finally, an attempt is made to identify those current trends which are expected to bear fruit in the near and distant future.

  15. LABORATORY EXERCISES IN OCEANOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    DESCRIBED ARE LABORATORY EXERCISES IN OCEANOGRAPHY DEVELOPED FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOLS BY THE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN THE 1967 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF) SUMMER INSTITUTE IN OCEANOGRAPHY AT FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY. INCLUDED ARE SUCH ACTIVITIES AS (1) THE MEASUREMENT OF TEMPERATURE, WATER VAPOR, PRESSURE, SALINITY, DENSITY, AND OTHERS,…

  16. Estuarine Oceanography. CEGS Programs Publication Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, F. F.

    Estuarine Oceanography is one in a series of single-topic problem modules intended for use in undergraduate and earth science courses. Designed for those interested in coastal oceanography or limnology, the module is structured as a laboratory supplement for undergraduate college classes but should be useful at all levels. The module has two…

  17. Oceanography Information System of Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello, Olvido; Gómez, María; González, Sonsoles

    2016-04-01

    Since 1914, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) performs multidisciplinary studies of the marine environment. In same case are systematic studies and in others are specific studies for special requirements (El Hierro submarine volcanic episode, spill Prestige, others.). Different methodologies and data acquisition techniques are used depending on studies aims. The acquired data are stored and presented in different formats. The information is organized into different databases according to the subject and the variables represented (geology, fisheries, aquaculture, pollution, habitats, etc.). Related to physical and chemical oceanography data, in 1964 was created the DATA CENTER of IEO (CEDO), in order to organize the data about physical and chemical variables, to standardize this information and to serve the international data network SeaDataNet. www.seadatanet.org. This database integrates data about temperature, salinity, nutrients, and tidal data. CEDO allows consult and download the data. http://indamar.ieo.es On the other hand, related to data about marine species in 1999 was developed SIRENO DATABASE. All data about species collected in oceanographic surveys carried out by researches of IEO, and data from observers on fishing vessels are incorporated in SIRENO database. In this database is stored catch data, biomass, abundance, etc. This system is based on architecture ORACLE. Due to the large amount of information collected over the 100 years of IEO history, there is a clear need to organize, standardize, integrate and relate the different databases and information, and to provide interoperability and access to the information. Consequently, in 2000 it emerged the first initiative to organize the IEO spatial information in an Oceanography Information System, based on a Geographical Information System (GIS). The GIS was consolidated as IEO institutional GIS and was created the Spatial Data Infrastructure of IEO (IDEO) following trend of INSPIRE. All

  18. Oceanography for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    2005-12-01

    Textbooks and most oceanography courses are organized around the 19th century concepts of biological, chemical, geological, and physical oceanography. This approach fails to involve students in the interesting problems of the 21st century: the role of the ocean in climate and weather, fisheries, and coastal problems, all of which involve a complex interplay of chemical, biological, and physical systems plus policy issues. To make my oceanography and environmental geosciences courses more relevant, I organize them around case studies such as coastal pollution or climate change. After using this approach for two years, I find students are much more interested in the ocean, and they understand the relevance of the ocean to their daily lives. Because no textbook is very useful for teaching these case studies, I have begun to write a new open-source book: Oceanography for the 21st Century: An Ocean Planet.

  19. Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Steven; Hedges, John

    The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.

  20. The Oceanography Concept Inventory: A Semicustomizable Assessment for Measuring Student Understanding of Oceanography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthurs, Leilani; Hsia, Jennifer F.; Schweinle, William

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated an Oceanography Concept Inventory (OCI), which used a mixed-methods approach to test student achievement of 11 learning goals for an introductory-level oceanography course. The OCI was designed with expert input, grounded in research on student (mis)conceptions, written with minimal jargon, tested on 464 students, and…

  1. French Project For Operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliquen, S.; Petit de La Villéon, L.; Carval, T.; Loaec, G.; Gourmelen, L.; Desaubies, Y.; Coriolis, A.

    2003-04-01

    The seven French agencies concerned by ocean research are developing together a strong capability in operational oceanography based on a triad including satellite altimetry (JASON), numerical modelling with assimilation (MERCATOR), and in situ data (CORIOLIS). The CORIOLIS project aims to build a pre-operational structure to collect, valid and distribute ocean data (temperature/salinity profiles and current speeds) to the scientific community and modellers. CORIOLIS aims at four goals : (1) To build up a data management centre, part of the ARGO network for the GODAE experiment, able to provide quality-controlled data in real time and delay modes. (2) To contribute to ARGO floats deployment mainly in the Atlantic with about 250 floats during the 2001-2004 period. (3) To develop and improve profiling ARGO floats. PROVOR is a self-ballasted float, able to drift at a user-defined parking depth and then to dive to 2000m before profiling up to the surface where data are transmitted using the Argos system. More than 100 cycles can be performed during its 3-year lifetime. (4) To integrate into CORIOLIS all other data presently collected at sea by French agencies from surface drifting buoys, PIRATA anchored buoys, oceanographic research vessels (XBT, thermosalinograph and ADCP transmitted on a daily basis). CORIOLIS data centre, already one of the two global data centres for ARGO, and aims to be an important partner in projects within GMES et 6th PRCD calls. In 2004, recommendations will be done to transform the CORIOLIS activity into a permanent, routinely contribution to ocean measurement, in accordance with international plans which will follow the ARGO/GODAE experiment.

  2. The oceanography of winter leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morison, J. H.; McPhee, M. G.; Curtin, T. B.; Paulson, C. A.

    1992-07-01

    Leads in pack ice have long been considered important to the thermodynamics of the polar regions. A winter lead affects the ocean around it because it is a density source. As the surface freezes, salt is rejected and forms more dense water which sinks under the lead. This sets up a circulation with freshwater flowing in from the sides near the surface and dense water flowing away from the lead at the base of the mixed layer. If the mixed layer is fully turbulent, this pattern may not occur; rather, the salt rejected at the surface may simply mix into the surface boundary layer. In either event the instability produced at the surface of leads is the primary source of unstable buoyancy flux and, as such, exerts a strong influence on the mixed layer. Here as many as possible of the disparate and almost anecdotal observations of lead oceanography are assembled and combined with theoretical arguments to predict the form and scale of oceanographic disturbances caused by winter leads. The experimental data suggest the velocity disturbances associated with lead convection are about 1-5 cm s-1. These appear as jets near the surface and the base of the mixed layer when ice velocities across the lead are less than about 5 cm s-1. The salinity disturbances are about 0.01 to 0.05 psu. Scaling arguments suggest that the geostrophic currents set up by the lead density disturbances are also of the order of 1-5 cm s-1. The disturbances are most obvious when freezing is rapid and ice velocity is low because the salinity and velocity disturbances in the upper ocean are not smeared out by turbulence. In this vein, lead convection may be characterized at one extreme as free convection in which the density disturbance forces the circulation. At the other extreme, lead convection may be characterized as forced convection in which the density disturbance is mixed rapidly by boundary layer turbulence. The lead number Lo, which is the ratio of the pressure term to the turbulence term in the

  3. Oceanography. Boy Scouts of America Merit Badge Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, Irving, TX.

    Presented are various activities and projects intended to help Boy Scouts earn a merit badge in oceanography. Each project and/or activity is related to a requirement (objective) found in a list at the beginning of the booklet. Topic areas and/or related activities and projects include: (1) nature of oceanography (naming oceanography branches,…

  4. In Pursuit of Oceanography and a Better Life for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of and activities in marine geology/geophysics, oceanographic engineering, physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, and biological oceanography. This information, which includes comments on major employment positions (academic, government, industry, consulting), is provided to help students select possible careers in…

  5. The Structure of Oceanography in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churgin, James

    1984-01-01

    Describes the structure of marine science in China. Includes organization and activities of China's National Bureau of Oceanography and programs administered through various ministries, Academia Sinica (China's Academy of Sciences), universities, and provincial institutes. Comments on research vessionals and other development initiatives are also…

  6. Oceanography for Landlocked Classrooms. Monograph V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr., Ed.; Hounshell, Paul B., Ed.

    This monograph attempts to show the importance of bringing marine biology into science classrooms, discusses what makes the ocean so important and explains why oceanography should be included in the science curriculum regardless of where students live. Section I, "Getting Started," includes discussions on the following: (1) "Why Marine Biology?";…

  7. Remote sensing for oceanography: Past, present, future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgoldrick, L. F.

    1984-01-01

    Oceanic dynamics was traditionally investigated by sampling from instruments in situ, yielding quantitative measurements that are intermittent in both space and time; the ocean is undersampled. The need to obtain proper sampling of the averaged quantities treated in analytical and numerical models is at present the most significant limitation on advances in physical oceanography. Within the past decade, many electromagnetic techniques for the study of the Earth and planets were applied to the study of the ocean. Now satellites promise nearly total coverage of the world's oceans using only a few days to a few weeks of observations. Both a review of the early and present techniques applied to satellite oceanography and a description of some future systems to be launched into orbit during the remainder of this century are presented. Both scientific and technologic capabilities are discussed.

  8. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  9. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  10. SWOT Oceanography and Hydrology Data Product Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peral, Eva; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Fernandez, Daniel Esteban; Johnson, Michael P.; Blumstein, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would demonstrate a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurements of water elevation at high resolution over ocean and land, addressing the needs of both the hydrology and oceanography science communities. To accurately evaluate the performance of the proposed SWOT mission, we have developed several data product simulators at different levels of fidelity and complexity.

  11. Oceanography in the next decade: Building new partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The field of oceanography has existed as a major scientific discipline in the United States since World War 2, largely funded by the federal government. In this report, the Ocean Studies Board documents the state of the field of oceanography and assesses the health of the partnership between the federal government and the academic oceanography community. The objectives are to document and discuss important trends in the human, physical, and fiscal resources available to oceanographers, especially academic oceanographers, over the last decade; to present the Ocean Studies Board's best assessment of scientific opportunities in physical oceanography, marine geochemistry, marine geology and geophysics, biological oceanography, and coastal oceanography during the upcoming decade; and to provide a blueprint for more productive partnerships between academic oceanographers and federal agencies.

  12. Multibeam synthetic aperture radar for global oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.

    1979-01-01

    A single-frequency multibeam synthetic aperture radar concept for large swath imaging desired for global oceanography is evaluated. Each beam iilluminates a separate range and azimuth interval, and images for different beams may be separated on the basis of the Doppler spectrum of the beams or their spatial azimuth separation in the image plane of the radar processor. The azimuth resolution of the radar system is selected so that the Doppler spectrum of each beam does not interfere with the Doppler foldover due to the finite pulse repetition frequency of the radar system.

  13. Applying "-omics" Data in Marine Microbial Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrman, Jed; Follows, Mick; Forde, Samantha

    2013-07-01

    Due to biotechnological advances and the ever-decreasing cost of sequencing in recent years, there has been a major shift in microbial oceanography to include data on the sequences of genes, gene transcripts, and proteins from environmentally relevant organisms and naturally occurring mixed communities in studies of marine ecosystems. This research area is collectively called "-omics," referring to genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics of individual organisms and metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics of mixed communities. These data provide information about how organisms interact with their environment.

  14. Coastal scale operational oceanography with structural interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; García León, Manuel; Gracia, Vicente; Pau Sierra, Joan; Espino, Manuel; Grifoll, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Operational oceanography predictions are now starting to include coupled wind, wave and current fields for open ocean and shelf domains. However the same product for coastal scales, including a) the non-linearity of coastal processes, b) the effect of continental rain driven discharge and c) the interaction with coastal structures are still in an early stage of development, both for the physical and numerical aspects. In this paper we shall explore a coupled wind-wave-current model based on the COWAST system but including also the continental discharge and the effect of coastal structures, in particular shore parallel detached breakwaters. We shall apply such a pre-operational code to a test case near Barcelona, where the concept of transient coastal defences is being considered. The available in-situ and remote observations should also allow a robust calibration. The operational oceanography simulations will be used to support the activation of these transient coastal defences and therefore illustrate the challenges required by coastal scales under rapid storm development such as is commonly found in the Western Mediterranean. The benefits of applying a robust and high resolution coupled hydro-dynamic system will become apparent from the stand point of transient coastal defence deployment and risk mitigation in heavily populated coastal areas.

  15. A Study of Enlisted Training and Education in Applied Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriner, Karl Leonard

    The study concludes that the primary reason for present programs of enlisted training and education in oceanography is to support Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). There is a significant lack of courses, schools, and self-study material available to enlisted personnel on the subject of oceanography. Through more extensive training the aviation ASW…

  16. What Oceanography Concepts are Taught in Ohio's Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Ray, Jr.; Martin, Ralph E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A survey listing 21 major oceanographic concepts and several sub-concepts was mailed to all Ohio earth science teachers. Respondents indicated that most of the oceanography topics taught were geologically-oriented. Oceanography concepts relating to ecology, chemical, physical or life science are considered less important. (DH)

  17. Assessment of Differences in University Oceanography Students' Scientific Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takao, Allison Y.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the differences in university oceanography students' scientific writing. Specifically, the authors examine the argumentation structures of a high scoring paper and a low scoring paper. This study was conducted in an introductory level oceanography course in a large public university. In this course students…

  18. From satellite altimetry to Argo and operational oceanography: three revolutions in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Traon, P. Y.

    2013-07-01

    The launch of the US/French mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. Together with my CLS colleagues, we demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. Near real time high resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 yr. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. Altimetry needs to be complemented with global in situ observations. In the end of the 90s, a major international initiative was launched to develop Argo, the global array of profiling floats. This has been an outstanding success. Argo floats now provide the most important in situ observations to monitor and understand the role of the ocean on the earth climate and for operational oceanography. This is a second revolution in oceanography. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near real time at high resolution and the development of Argo were essential to the development of global operational oceanography, the third revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) was instrumental in the development of the required capabilities. This paper provides an historical perspective on the development of these three revolutions in oceanography which are very much interlinked. This is not an exhaustive review and I will mainly focus on the contributions we made together with many colleagues and

  19. From satellite altimetry to Argo and operational oceanography: three revolutions in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Traon, P. Y.

    2013-10-01

    The launch of the French/US mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large-scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. Together with my CLS colleagues, we demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. Near-real-time high-resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 yr. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. Altimetry needs to be complemented with global in situ observations. At the end of the 90s, a major international initiative was launched to develop Argo, the global array of profiling floats. This has been an outstanding success. Argo floats now provide the most important in situ observations to monitor and understand the role of the ocean on the earth climate and for operational oceanography. This is a second revolution in oceanography. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near-real-time at high resolution and the development of Argo were essential for the development of global operational oceanography, the third revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) was instrumental in the development of the required capabilities. This paper provides an historical perspective on the development of these three revolutions in oceanography which are very much interlinked. This is not an exhaustive review and I will mainly focus on the contributions we made together with many colleagues and

  20. Using Oceanography to Support Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, V.

    2012-04-01

    Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from

  1. The Current Trajectory of Seismic Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Ana E.; Ruddick, Barry R.; Biescas-Gorriz, Berta

    2013-09-01

    Seismic oceanography (SO) uses multichannel seismic techniques to visualize the ocean's fine structure, yielding a tool for investigating ocean mixing processes and their links with mesoscale features such as eddies, fronts, and currents. Ten years after the seminal paper initiating the SO field (W. S. Holbrook, P. Páramo, S. Pearse, and R. W. Schmitt, Thermohaline fine structure in an oceanographic front from seismic reflection profiling, Science, 301, 821-824, 2003), a special session and mini-workshop were convened at the International Congress on Acoustics in Montreal on 2-7 June 2013. At the workshop, participants discussed the successes of SO, the challenges it faces as an observational tool, and ways to move the field forward.

  2. The sixth conference on satellite meteorology and oceanography

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, F.F.; Purdom, J.F.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Sixth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography was held in conjunction with the AMS Annual Meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, the week of 6 January 1992. Over 150 scientific papers were presented orally or in poster sessions. Joint sessions were held with the Symposium on Weather Forecasting and the Eighth International Conference on Interactive Information and Processing Systems for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology. The quality of the papers in the preprint volume, as well as in the presentations at both oral and poster sessions, reflects the robustness of national and international operational and research interests in satellite meteorology and oceanography. A preprint volume for this conference is available through the AMS.

  3. From satellite altimetry to operational oceanography and Argo: three revolutions in oceanography (Fridtjof Nansen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Traon, P. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The launch of the US/French mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. Topex/Poseidon revolutionized our vision and understanding of the ocean. It provided new views of the large scale seasonal and interannual sea level and ocean circulation variations. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. The ERS-1/2 orbit was well adapted for mesoscale circulation sampling but the orbit determination and altimeter performance were much less precise than for T/P. We demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. This was an essential first step for the merging of T/P and ERS-1/2. The second step required the development of a global optimal interpolation method. Near real time high resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 years. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near real time at high resolution was essential to the development of global ocean forecasting, a second revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) (1998-2008) was phased with the T/P and ERS-1/2 successors (Jason-1 and ENVISAT) and was instrumental in the development of global operational oceanography capabilities. Europe played a leading role in GODAE. In 1998, the global in-situ observing system was inadequate for the global scope of GODAE. This led to the development of Argo, an

  4. Oceanography, the new Frontier for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nelson

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the discipline of oceanography and some of its specific areas of concern. Describes the major resources of the oceans and reflects on how these may be utilized and shared by nations in the future. (JR)

  5. From Chaos To MAOS: Launching an Oceanography High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Marlene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the background of a specialty high school in Monterey Bay, California focusing on oceanography. Describes the collaborative research relationship that exists between the school and the scientific community. (DDR)

  6. Coastal Operational Oceanography: understanding user needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J.; Lopez, J.; Jerez, F.; Hermosilla, F.; Espino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the 7th Framework European project FIELD_AC, SIMO and the LIM/UPC have undertaken a study about the operational oceanography requirements of a selected group of specific end-users in four different European coastal regions, namely Hamburg, Liverpool, Barcelona and Venice. The activities of all the target organisations are related to coastal issues, varying from aquaculture to marinas and port management, Water Framework Directive implementation, renewable energies and flooding alerts. Information has been compiled using a specific questionnaire that has been distributed to all potential users, in addition to workshops held in the four mentioned regions. A total number of 25 questionnaires have been collected in all the locations from a variety of users. Results have been analysed depending on the location but also considering the type of organisation. Information about the spatial and temporal resolution requirements, variables needed, locations to be considered, frequency of data delivery and formats requirements have been gathered. This input from the end-users is being used both in the FIELD_AC modelling set up and also in the development of an application to visualise the results. Regarding the latter, all the modelling results and observational data will be handled using a THREDDS catalogue linked to a web-based GIS application.

  7. Graduate students in oceanography: Recruitment, success, and career prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowell, Arthur R. M.; Hollister, Charles D.

    Graduate education, student quality, stipend support, and subsequent employment form a triad of concern to many oceanographers. While the number of graduate degree programs in oceanography in the U.S. exceeds 50, remarkably few data are available on numbers of student applications, student survival rates, the quality of the applicants and accepted students, and their subsequent employment.Consequently, most discussions within an institution are based on data from a single school, while most statements made to federal government program managers by scientists are based on personal perceptions and feelings. With the emerging global initiatives, which are very labor intensive, it appears appropriate to ask, “Is there an impending crisis in graduate education in oceanography?” Widespread concern about availability of new talent, the quality of incoming students, and the overall national crisis in science and engineering student recruitment has led many scientists to state that oceanography has widespread problems in terms of student numbers and, more importantly, quality. Often, when a scientist does not find a student in the spring application rites, the scientist declares there is a national shortage of well-qualified students. Moreover, in certain subdisciplines of the field (e.g., physical oceanography) the crisis is perceived as severe and immediate, though as we shall see, physical oceanography is in an improving mode and is also experiencing an interesting increase in the numbers of well-qualified women applicants.

  8. Application of optimal data assimilation techniques in oceanography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.N.

    1996-12-31

    Application of optimal data assimilation methods in oceanography is, if anything, more important than it is in numerical weather prediction, due to the sparsity of data. Here, a general framework is presented and practical examples taken from the author`s work are described, with the purpose of conveying to the reader some idea of the state of the art of data assimilation in oceanography. While no attempt is made to be exhaustive, references to other lines of research are included. Major challenges to the community include design of statistical error models and handling of strong nonlinearity.

  9. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  10. Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Limnology and Oceanography (DIALOG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The DIALOG Program was founded by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), in order to reduce the historical, institutional and philosophical barriers that limit the exchange of information between limnologists and oceanographers, and to foster interdisciplinary and inter-institutional research. This was achieved by targeting a recent cohort of Ph.D. recipients whose work included a biological component of limnology or oceanography. The program included: (1) publication of the submitted Ph.D. dissertation abstracts; (2) a symposium to facilitate exchange across institutions and disciplines; and (3) establishment of a centralized data base for applicant characterization and tracking.

  11. A Resource Guide for Oceanography and Coastal Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sharon H., Ed.; Damon-Randall, Kimberly, Ed.; Walters, Howard D., Ed.

    This resource guide was developed for elementary, middle, and high school teachers to teach about oceanography and coastal processes. This guide contains information on the program's history and names and contact information for all Operation Pathfinder participants since 1993. The body is divided into 6 topics. Topic 1 is on Physical Parameters,…

  12. Connecting Middle School, Oceanography, and the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan W.; Hansen, Terri M.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity that features 16 oceanography work stations and integrates other disciplines. Assigns students different oceanic life forms and requires students to work in stations. Explains seven of 16 stations which cover oil spills, the periodic table, ocean floor, currents, and classification of oceanic organisms. (YDS)

  13. Biological oceanography of the red oceanic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theil, Hjalmar; Weikert, Horst

    1. In 1977, 1979 and 1980-81, investigations were carried out which aimed at evaluating the potential risks from mining metalliferous muds precipating in the Atlantis II Deep of the central Red Sea. This environmental research was initiated by the Saudi Sudanese Red Sea Joint Commission in order to avoid any danger for the Red Sea ecosystem. The broad environmental research programme coherent studies in physical, chemical, biological, and geological oceanography as well as toxicological investigations in the oceanic and in reef zones. We summarise the results from our biological fiels studies in the open sea. 2. The biological investigations were concentrated on the area of the Atlantis II Deep. Benthos was sampled between 700-2000m. For comparison a few samples were also taken further north in the central Red Sea, and to east and west along the flanking deep terraces (500-1000m). Plankton studies covered the total water column above the Deep, and were extended along the axial through to north and south. 3. Benthos sampling was carried out using a heavy closing trawl, a large box grab (box size 50 × 50 cm), Van Veen grabs and traps; photographic surveys were made a phototrap and a photosled. Community respiration was measured with a ship-board method using grab subsamples. Nutrient concentrations, seston and phytoplankton standing stocks as well as in situ primary production were determined from hydrocast samples. Data on zooplankton and micronekton composition and standing stock were obtained from samples collected using different multiple opening-and-closing nets equipped with 100 μm, 300 μm, and 1000 μm mesh sizes. Daily and ontogenetical vertical migration patterns were studied by comparisons of data from midday and midnight tows. 4. Throughout the whole area the sediment is a pteropod ooze containing low contentrations of organic matter; measured organic carbon and nitrogen contents were 0.5 and 0.05% respectively, and chloroplastic pigment equivalents

  14. Tenth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, R.; Colton, M.; Deblonde, G.; Jedlovec, G.; Lee, T.

    2000-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society held its Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography in conjunction with the 80th Annual Meeting in Long Beach, California. For the second consecutive conference, a format that consisted of primarily posters, complemented by invited theme oriented oral presentations, and panel discussions on various aspects on satellite remote sensing were utilized. Joint sessions were held with the Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence, the Eleventh Conference on Middle Atmosphere, and the Eleventh symposium on Global Change Studies. In total, there were 23 oral presentations, 170 poster presentations, and four panel discussions. Over 450 people representing a wide spectrum of the society attended one or more of the sessions in the five-day meeting. The program for the Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography can viewed in the October 1999 issue of the Bulletin.

  15. New developments in satellite oceanography and current measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, N. E.

    1979-01-01

    Principal satellite remote sensing techniques and instruments are described and attention is given to the application of such techniques to ocean current measurement. The use of radiometers, satellite tracking drifters, and altimeters for current measurement is examined. Consideration is also given to other applications of satellite remote sensing in physical oceanography, including measurements of surface wind stress, sea state, tides, ice, sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean color, and oceanic leveling.

  16. Letter exchange documents 50 years of progress in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipper, Dale F.; Lewis, John M.

    During World War II the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) became involved in the oceanographic training of officers. This, combined with a rekindling of interest in the Pacific Ocean during and after the war, catapulted SIO in the late 1940s to a position of prominence in oceanographic education. The leader of the institution, both administratively and academically, was Harald Sverdrup (Figure 1). When he became director in 1936, only five graduate students were enrolled.

  17. (abstract) Satellite Physical Oceanography Data Available From an EOSDIS Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, Susan A.; Collins, Donald J.

    1996-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory archives and distributes data as part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Products available from JPL are largely satellite derived and include sea-surface height, surface-wind speed and vectors, integrated water vapor, atmospheric liquid water, sea-surface temperature, heat flux, and in-situ data as it pertains to satellite data. Much of the data is global and spans fourteen years.There is email access, a WWW site, product catalogs, and FTP capabilities. Data is free of charge.

  18. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  19. Diploma of Higher Studies in Oceanography. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents four courses for the diploma of higher studies in oceanography conducted by the Department of Oceanography, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Egypt. These courses are organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO). Each course is designed to be taught in one academic year…

  20. Curriculum Outline for a General Oceanography Field Laboratory (Review Cycle-Annual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    A curriculum guide, in outline form, for oceanography field laboratories is presented. Designed to complement and expand upon an oceanography lecture course, it provides a list of objectives related to student experiences in three areas: (1) operating oceanographic equipment; (2) gathering, manipulating, and evaluating data; and (3) writing formal…

  1. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.; Gegg, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanography and marine ecosystem research are inherently interdisciplinary fields of study that generate and require access to a wide variety of measurements. In late 2006 the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Geosciences Directorate Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). In late 2010 additional funding was contributed to support management of research data from the NSF Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program. The BCO-DMO is recognized in the 2011 Division of Ocean Sciences Sample and Data Policy as one of several program specific data offices that support NSF OCE funded researchers. BCO-DMO staff members offer data management support throughout the project life cycle to investigators from large national programs and medium-sized collaborative research projects, as well as researchers from single investigator awards. The office manages and serves all types of oceanographic data and information generated during the research process and contributed by the originating investigators. BCO-DMO has built a data system that includes the legacy data from several large ocean research programs (e.g. United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and United States GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics), to which data have been contributed from recently granted NSF OCE and OPP awards. The BCO-DMO data system can accommodate many different types of data including: in situ and experimental biological, chemical, and physical measurements; modeling results and synthesis data products. The system enables reuse of oceanographic data for new research endeavors, supports synthesis and modeling activities, provides availability of "real data" for K-12 and college level use, and provides decision-support field data for policy-relevant investigations. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: map

  2. Developments in Airborne Oceanography and Air-Sea Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, W. K.

    2014-12-01

    One of the earliest ocean-related flights was that of Amundsen to be first across the North Pole and Arctic from Svalbard to Alaska in the airship Norge in 1926. Twenty five years later Cox & Munk flew a B-17G "Flying Fortress" bomber over Hawaiian waters measuring sea surface slope statistics from photographs of sun glitter and wind speed from a yacht. The value of Cox & Munk's "airborne oceanography" became apparent another twenty five years later with the short-lived Seasat microwave remote-sensing mission, since interpretation of the Seasat data in geophysical variables required scattering theories that relied on their data. The universal acceptance of remote sensing in oceanography began in 1992 with the launch of, and successful analysis of sea surface height data from, the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter. With that and the development of more realistic coupled atmosphere-ocean models it became apparent that our understanding of weather and climate variability in both the atmosphere and the ocean depends crucially on our ability to measure processes in boundary layers spanning the interface. Ten years ago UNOLS formed the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic Aircraft Research (SCOAR) "...to improve access to research aircraft facilities for ocean sciences"; an attempt to make access to aircraft as easy as access to research vessels. SCOAR emphasized then that "Aircraft are ideal for both fast-response investigations and routine, long-term measurements, and they naturally combine atmospheric measurements with oceanographic measurements on similar temporal and spatial scales." Since then developments in GPS positioning and miniaturization have made scientific measurements possible from smaller and smaller platforms, including the transition from manned to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Furthermore, ship-launched and recovered UAVs have demonstrated how they can enhance the capabilities and reach of the research vessels, "projecting" research and science

  3. [Oceanography and King Dom Carlos I's collection of iconography].

    PubMed

    Jardim, Maria Estela; Peres, Isabel Marília; Ré, Pedro Barcia; Costa, Fernanda Madalena

    2014-01-01

    After the Challenger expedition (1872-1878), other nations started to show interest in oceanographic research and organizing their own expeditions. As of 1885, Prince Albert I of Monaco conducted oceanographic campaigns with the collaboration of some of the best marine biologists and physical oceanographers of the day, inventing new techniques and instruments for the oceanographic work. Prince Albert's scientific activity certainly helped kindle the interest of his friend, Dom Carlos I, king of Portugal, in the study of the oceans and marine life. Both shared the need to use photography to document their studies. This article analyzes the role of scientific photography in oceanography, especially in the expeditions organized by the Portuguese monarch. PMID:25338032

  4. Applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    Research activity has continued to be focused on the applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery in oceanography. A number of regional studies were completed including investigations of temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton populations in the South Atlantic Bight, Northwest Spain, Weddell Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and in tropical Atlantic Ocean. In addition to the regional studies, much work was dedicated to developing ancillary global scale meteorological and hydrographic data sets to complement the global CZCS processing products. To accomplish this, SEAPAK's image analysis capability was complemented with an interface to GEMPAK (Severe Storm Branch's meteorological analysis software package) for the analysis and graphical display of gridded data fields. Plans are being made to develop a similar interface to SEAPAK for hydrographic data using EPIC (a hydrographic data analysis package developed by NOAA/PMEL).

  5. Problems inherent in using aircraft for radio oceanography studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the disadvantages relating to altitude stability and proximity to the ocean are described for radio oceanography studies using aircraft. The random oscillatory motion introduced by the autopilot in maintaining aircraft altitude requires a more sophisticated range tracker for a radar altimeter than would be required in a satellite application. One-dimensional simulations of the sea surface (long-crested waves) are performed using both the JONSWAP spectrum and the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum. The results of the simulation indicate that care must be taken in trying to experimentally verify instrument measurement accuracy. Because of the relatively few wavelengths examined from an aircraft due to proximity to the ocean and low velocity compared to a satellite, the random variation in the sea surface parameters being measured can far exceed an instrument's ability to measure them.

  6. The role of ocean climate data in operational Naval oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesbrough, Radm G.

    1992-01-01

    Local application of global-scale models describes the U.S. Navy's basic philosophy for operational oceanography in support of fleet operations. Real-time data, climatologies, coupled air/ocean models, and large scale computers are the essential components of the Navy's system for providing the war fighters with the performance predictions and tactical decision aids they need to operate safely and efficiently. In peacetime, these oceanographic predictions are important for safety of navigation and flight. The paucity and uneven distribution of real-time data mean we have to fall back on climatology to provide the basic data to operate our models. The Navy is both a producer and user of climatologies; it provides observations to the national archives and in turn employs data from these archives to establish data bases. Suggestions for future improvements to ocean climate data are offered.

  7. NSF-Sponsored Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    2010-12-01

    Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data

  8. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, Elena; Balbin, Rosa; Cabanas, Jose-Manuel; Garcia, Maria-Jesus; Garcia-Martinez, M. Carmen; Gonzalez-Pola, Cesar; Lavin, Alicia; Lopez-Jurado, Jose-Luis; Rodriguez, Carmen; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; Sánchez-Leal, Ricardo F.; Vargas-Yáñez, Manuel; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography. Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the Observing System includes six permanent moorings equipped with current meters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and a sea-surface temperature satellite image station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the Argo international programme with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers on the research vessel fleet. The system is completed with the contribution to the Northwest Iberian peninsula and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands such as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programmes of Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits a spatio-temporal description of some events, such as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  9. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Balbin, R.; Cabanas, J. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Garcia-Martinez, M. C.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Lavin, A.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Rodriguez, C.; Ruiz-Villarreal, M.; Sanchez-Leal, R. F.; Vargas-Yanez, M.; Velez-Belchi, P.

    2015-10-01

    Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography (OO). Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The IEO standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the IEO Observing System (IEOOS) includes 6 permanent moorings equipped with currentmeters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and an SST satellital image reception station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the ARGO international program with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and ADCP onboard the IEO research vessels. The system is completed with the IEO contribution to the RAIA and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, etc, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programs Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits following spatio-temporal description of some events, as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  10. A new look at the oceanography of the Bay of Biscay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Soto, Carlos; Pingree, Robin D.

    2014-08-01

    Some results of the Bay of Biscay regional oceanography presented at ISOBAY are summarized including contributions to physical oceanography, chemical and biological oceanography, marine geology, deep water ecology, marine pollution, fisheries research and cetacean studies. A long-term analysis of the spring bloom of phytoplankton in the area during the last 17 years (1997-2014) is presented as an example of Bay of Biscay climate research. The Spring Bloom presents cycles of 4-6 years reflecting probably the availability of nutrients from the previous winter and has increased in peak intensity during the last decades.

  11. Applied Coastal Oceanography--A Course That Integrates Science and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montvilo, Jerome A.; Levin, Douglas R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a course designed to teach students the fundamentals of coastal oceanography and the scientific methodologies used in studying this field. Business applications of this information also play an important role in the course. (DDR)

  12. Introductory Oceanography Taught as a Laboratory Science--An Experiment That Worked.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Franz E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a college level introductory oceanography course that incorporates a hands-on laboratory component. The activities include the determination of density and buoyancy, light transmission in sea water, and wave refraction. (MA)

  13. Possible satellite oceanography on coastal waters during the NPP stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Asanuma, I.; Zhao, C.; Huang, B.

    2007-09-01

    Ocean color monitoring on the coastal water is still under study because of an incomplete atmospheric correction over the turbid water like over the coastal water along the China main land. Currently available sensors for science as MODIS on Terra or Aqua will terminate their service in the near future and the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) will be the next satellite to support the satellite oceanography on the coastal water. The Tokyo University of Information Sciences (TUIS) has updated the MODIS receiving system to capture and ingest the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data from NPP, which will be launched in 2008. Data processing software from the Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL), such as the Real-time Software Telemetry Processing (RT-STPS), Simulcast, and DB algorithms, will be core programs in our system. VIIRS has seven bands in VIS&NIR, which are for ocean color research. The spatial resolution is 0.742×0.259 meters at nadir. While the MODIS spatial resolution of the nine ocean color bands is 1000m. The higher spatial resolution MODIS data (250 meters) is used to illustrate the advantage of the higher spatial resolution remote sensing data, such as data from VIIRS. In this study, we propose to combine the higher spatial resolution data with the traditional products of chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature in the low resolution so as to extract further information on the coastal ocean.

  14. Paleophysical oceanography with an emphasis on transport rates.

    PubMed

    Huybers, Peter; Wunsch, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Paleophysical oceanography is the study of the behavior of the fluid ocean of the past, with a specific emphasis on its climate implications, leading to a focus on the general circulation. Even if the circulation is not of primary concern, heavy reliance on deep-sea cores for past climate information means that knowledge of the oceanic state when the sediments were laid down is a necessity. Like the modern problem, paleoceanography depends heavily on observations, and central difficulties lie with the very limited data types and coverage that are, and perhaps ever will be, available. An approximate separation can be made into static descriptors of the circulation (e.g., its water-mass properties and volumes) and the more difficult problem of determining transport rates of mass and other properties. Determination of the circulation of the Last Glacial Maximum is used to outline some of the main challenges to progress. Apart from sampling issues, major difficulties lie with physical interpretation of the proxies, transferring core depths to an accurate timescale (the "age-model problem"), and understanding the accuracy of time-stepping oceanic or coupled-climate models when run unconstrained by observations. Despite the existence of many plausible explanatory scenarios, few features of the paleocirculation in any period are yet known with certainty. PMID:21141656

  15. Creating Education and Outreach Opportunities in Microbial Oceanography through Partnerships between Scientists and Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilles, K.; Weersing, K.; Walker, G.; Bruno, B. C.

    2008-05-01

    C-MORE is an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center. Headquartered at the Univ of Hawaii at Manoa, C- MORE has five partner institutions: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Oregon State Univ, Univ of California at Santa Cruz and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Research and education activities occur at all six institutions. C-MORE's goals include educating and training a diverse population of teachers and students in microbial oceanography, providing professional development and training opportunities for scientists and educators, and improving public awareness of microbial oceanography. To date, C-MORE has focused on K-12 teacher-training, which include shipboard experiences, professional development workshops and mini-grants to incorporate microbial oceanography into K-12 curriculum. C-MORE's education and outreach activities are joint efforts between scientists and educators. Scientists have the microbial oceanography content knowledge and research skills, while educators can translate this information into everyday language and develop curriculum aligned with state and national standards. Some examples of upcoming events are given below. During Spring 2008, C-MORE will offer a six-week teacher workshop in microbial oceanography in Hawaii for local teachers. Emphasis is on research methods and laboratory skills. In mid-June, a two-day education cruise will engage teachers in scientific research in microbial oceanography. Working closely with microbial oceanographers, teachers will participate in sampling and analysis. In July, C-MORE will co-sponsor a nationwide teacher workshop on microbial oceanography in Oregon with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), as part of the Education and Research: Testing Hypotheses (EARTH) workshop series (www.mbari.org/earth). For more info: kate.achilles@soest.hawaii.edu or barb@hawaii.edu

  16. PROJECT BLUE: An Operational Oceanography program in the Southeastern Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves dos Santos, Francisco; da Rocha Fragoso, Maurício; Maturo Marques da Cruz, Leonardo; de Castro Pellegrini, Julio Augusto; de Freitas Assad, Luiz Paulo; Landau, Luiz; Adissi, Flávia

    2013-04-01

    The beginning of 2013 will mark the start for the Project BLUE, one of the greatest efforts in operational oceanography ever proposed in Brazil. The region of interest is located in the continental shelf break between Cabo Frio (23°S) and Floriananópolis Island (28°S). The region is dominated by the Brazil Current system, formed by the Brazil Current, carrying Tropical Water southward from surface down to 400-500 meters and the Intermediate Counter Current, flowing northward in the interface of the South Atlantic Central Water and the Antarctic Intermediate Water. In situ data and operational forecasts efforts in this oil rich region are still few and disperse. Nevertheless, the constant increase of offshore operations is followed by the necessity of both a baseline study and a systematic data collection. All project structure is aimed at optimizing real-time data collection and displaying. Project BLUE is formed by 4 modules: (1) In situ data collection will be performed by 5 gliders, 108 surface drifters and 36 subsurface profiling floats. (2) Remote Sensing module count on a local receiving antenna to provide operational information of Sea Surface Temperature, Height and Ocean Color. (3) Numerical Modelling module aims, initially, to implement a regional grid for long climatological runs, followed by an operational run, with assimilation of the data generated by the first module. One of the great concerns of the Project BLUE is to turn public all collected data, allowing for a greater number of researchers to access the data and, consequently, improving the knowledge on the region. For that purpose, there is an specific module (4) Data displaying focused on easing the access to the data via web services. It is expected, by the end of the first three years, to have a systematic data collection system, a well adapted assimilation scheme and an operational forecast model for the Santos Basin, providing reliable information for offshore operations and emergency

  17. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  18. Strategies for Assessing Learning Outcomes in an Online Oceanography Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.

    2003-12-01

    All general education courses at the San Jose State University, including those in the sciences, must present a detailed assessment plan of student learning, prior to certification for offering. The assessment plan must state a clear methodology for acquiring data on student achievement of the learning outcomes for the specific course category, as well as demonstrate how students fulfill a strong writing requirement. For example, an online course in oceanography falls into the Area R category, the Earth and Environment, through which a student should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the methods and limits of scientific investigation; distinguish science from pseudo-science; and apply a scientific approach to answer questions about the Earth and environment. The desired learning outcomes are shared with students at the beginning of the course and subsequent assessments on achieving each outcome are embedded in the graded assignments, which include a critical thinking essay, mid-term exam, poster presentation in a symposium-style format, portfolio of web-based work, weekly discussions on an electronic bulletin board, and a take-home final exam, consisting of an original research grant proposal. The diverse nature of the graded assignments assures a comprehensive assessment of student learning from a variety of perspectives, such as quantitative, qualitative, and analytical. Formative assessment is also leveraged into learning opportunities, which students use to identify the acquisition of knowledge. For example, pre-tests are used to highlight preconceptions at the beginning of specific field studies and post-testing encourages students to present the results of small research projects. On a broader scale, the assessment results contradict common misperceptions of online and hybrid courses. Student demand for online courses is very high due to the self-paced nature of learning. Rates of enrollment attrition match those of classroom sections, if students

  19. A perspective on the future of physical oceanography.

    PubMed

    Garabato, Alberto C Naveira

    2012-12-13

    oceanography towards a more operational enterprise by contextual factors. The basic elements that a strategy for the future must have to foster progress in these two areas are discussed, with an overarching emphasis on the promotion of curiosity-driven fundamental research against opposing external pressures and on the importance of upholding fundamental research as the apex of education in the field. PMID:23129710

  20. Using Earth Data in an Introductory Oceanography Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2002-12-01

    Activities that engage students in the use and interpretation of real earth data provide an effective way of promoting an understanding of the science process. In UCSB's introductory Oceanography course, major goals are to improve student understanding of how science works and how to interpret science claims in the popular media. Activities are modeled after those of practicing scientists. These include: a) posing a solvable problem, b) choosing and acquiring relevant data, c) describing the data, d) interpreting the data, e) giving talks to peers, and f) publishing and reviewing findings. Each of these activities poses pedagogical challenges that must be addressed in carefully sequenced course assignments that build upon each other, and respond to a variety of learning styles. The use of earth data in education also presents significant challenges in creating effective data acquisition and display tools. However, only item b, above, is pertinent to these tools. The other items present similar challenges. During the course, learners must acquire enough subject knowledge to successfully interpret the data. They must understand the theory or model they are testing, how the relevant data can be used to test the model, and how to illustrate and present their findings orally and in writing. Some of the assignments that support this are: online homework, online subject area mini-quizzes (randomly created from a database of questions), "questions of the day" in lecture, online short answer thought questions, lab section guided mini-investigations, lab section group presentations, short writing exercises, and 2 longer writing assignments. Students rate the writing assignments as the most effective course component that contributes to their learning. The writing assignments focus student effort and also produce a product that we can study in an attempt to measure student learning. Prof. Gregory Kelly and Prof. Charles Bazerman (UCSB Graduate School of Education) are

  1. A Retrospective Self-Assessment of the SURFO Summer Internship Program in Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Donohue, K. A.; Fliegler, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships in Oceanography (SURFO) program at the Graduate School of Oceanography/University of Rhode Island is an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates site program with a programmatic research niche focused on quantitative aspects of Oceanography. Each summer-cohort includes 9-12 participants (rising seniors) who are paired with a primary research advisor and often with a graduate student mentor. The primary components of the 10-week program include a 4-week introductory phase and a 6-week core research phase. A retrospective self-assessment instrument gauged the confidence, attitude and comfort level of participants with; 1) core math and science subjects, 2) oceanography-related subjects, 3) research skills, and 4) SURFO and GSO staff. SURFO participants evaluated themselves at the start of the program, after the introductory phase, and at the end of the program. Participants were also asked to reassess their initial evaluations and provide an updated score. The pre-assessment results indicate that the program recruits students from the target group (e.g., strong physics and math backgrounds, but with limited exposure to oceanography). The results also indicate that the students are initially comfortable with their advising team, but not so comfortable with their research topic and research skills. The post-introductory phase results indicate large increases in comfort level with the advising team and the local research community yet little or no change is indicated for research skills. The final assessments show large changes in oceanography-content knowledge, research topic, and research skills. The retrospective reassessment indicates an initial overconfidence in most categories. Overall, the largest changes occurred during the core research portion of the program. These results reinforce the importance/effectiveness of authentic, hands-on, inquiry-based research for higher learning and training the next

  2. A FORMAL COURSE IN OCEANOGRAPHY AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL THROUGH INDEPENDENT STUDY, SUMMARY REPORT AND FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAMIE, RICHARD G.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF INTRODUCING A COURSE IN OCEANOGRAPHY AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES WERE (1) TO ORGANIZE, EXAMINE, AND REVISE EXISTING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR USE IN AN INDEPENDENT STUDY COURSE IN OCEANOGRAPHY, (2) TO DEVELOP NEW INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND EXPERIENCES, (3) TO…

  3. Bringing the Ocean into the Social Studies Classroom: What Can Oceanography Do for Sixth through Twelfth Grade Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul B.; Earl, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors show how oceanography can enlighten and energize the teaching of middle- and high-school social studies on a grade-by-grade basis, and they describe "hooks" from oceanography that will heighten students' interest in various social studies topics. They base the article on their own experiences--as a university-level…

  4. Short Training Course in Oceanography. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course in oceanography intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates in physics, mathematics, chemistry, zoology, botany or geology to give them the minimum qualifications required to work in any of the marine science stations. This 14-week course, organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and…

  5. Beyond the Golden Gate; oceanography, geology, biology, and environmental issues in the Gulf of the Farallones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A., (Edited By); Chin, John L.; Ueber, Edward; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W., II

    2001-01-01

    In the 1990's, the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored a multidisciplinary, multiagency investigation of the Gulf of the Farallones, which lies offshore of the San Francisco Bay region. This book discussess the results of the endeavor, covering the topics of oceanography and geology, biology and ecological niches, and issues of environmental management.

  6. Let's Talk About You and Sharks, American Oceanography Special Educational Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas L.; Miloy, Leatha

    1971-01-01

    This special educational newsletter of the American Society for Oceanography presents information on marine oriented subjects, primarily for reading by junior high and secondary school students. Major articles consider the habits and stinging effects of sharks, jelly fish, and sting rays, and what one should do if stung by these fish while…

  7. Skills Conversion Project: Chapter 10, Ocean Engineering and Oceanography. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    In order to determine the potential utilization of displaced aerospace and defense technical professionals in oceanography and ocean engineering, a study of ocean-oriented industry in Florida and Southern California was conducted by The National Society of Professional Engineers for the U.S. Department of Labor. After recent consolidation, this…

  8. A Naturalistic Study of Epistemology: Oceanography Constructed through Oral and Written Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gregory J.; Chen, Catherine

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how the epistemology of a discipline is interactionally accomplished, acknowledged, and appropriated in a university oceanography course. Drawing from sociological and anthropological studies of scientific communities, this study uses an ethnographic perspective to explore how teachers and students came to…

  9. The Epistemological Framing of a Discipline: Writing Science in University Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gregory J.; Chen, Catherine; Prothero, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines how instruction in scientific writing in a university oceanography course communicated epistemological positions of the discipline. Uses an ethnographic perspective to explore how teachers and students came to define particular views of disciplinary knowledge. Identifies epistemological issues such as uses of evidence, role of expertise,…

  10. Epistemic Levels in Argument: An Analysis of University Oceanography Students' Use of Evidence in Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gregory J.; Takao, Allison

    2002-01-01

    Examines university oceanography students' use of evidence in writing considering the relative epistemic status of propositions comprising student' written texts. Defines the epistemic levels by discipline-specific geological constructs from descriptions of data, to identification of features, to relational aspects of features, to theoretical…

  11. Developing a Teaching Assistant Preparation Program in the School of Oceanography, University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Dean A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the development of a program preparing graduate students to teach in the School of Oceanography, University of Washington, in response to repeated graduate student complaints about the lack of a program. Describes the program which is based on surveys of groups affected by the program and research on teaching assistant preparation,…

  12. Officer Education and Training in Oceanography for ASW and Other Naval Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Larry Wayne

    The study into the knowledge and experience required for optimum performance by officers assigned to operational, R & D, and managerial duties in Anti-submarine Warfare concludes that oceanography should receive the major emphasis on an interdisciplinary graduate level program of the contributing disciplines in ASW. In planning education and…

  13. Applying Argumentation Analysis To Assess the Quality of University Oceanography Students' Scientific Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takao, Allison Y.; Prothero, William A.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the methods and results of an assessment of students' scientific writing. Studies an introductory oceanography course in a large public university that used an interactive CD-ROM, "Our Dynamic Planet". Analyzes the quality of students' written arguments by using a grading rubric and an argumentation analysis model. Includes 18 references.…

  14. A Semester at Sea: Students Learn Nautical Science, Oceanography, and which Line Lowers the Topsail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Michele N-K

    1989-01-01

    Students in the Sea Semester, a program sponsored by the Sea Education Association, spend six weeks in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, studying oceanography, nautical science, and maritime history and then they board the brigantine "Cramer" and continue another six weeks of study on the water. (MLW)

  15. Directory of Source Materials for the History of Oceanography. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science, 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Anita

    This directory lists institutions holding original source material for the history of oceanography, dating from 1600 to 1950. These materials include apparatus, collections of geological and biological samples and specimens, data, documents and written archives, and photographs. For each institution (listed by country), the directory gives name,…

  16. Digital image enhancement techniques used in some ERTS application problems. [geology, geomorphology, and oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Billingsley, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    Enhancements discussed include contrast stretching, multiratio color displays, Fourier plane operations to remove striping and boosting MTF response to enhance high spatial frequency content. The use of each technique in a specific application in the fields of geology, geomorphology and oceanography is demonstrated.

  17. Research and Teaching: Implementation of Interactive Engagement Teaching Methods in a Physical Oceanography Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiner, Louis E.; Gilman, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the effects of increased faculty-student engagement on student learning, success rates, and perceptions in a Physical Oceanography course. The study separately implemented two teaching methods that had been shown to be successful in a different discipline, introductory physics. These methods were the use of interactive…

  18. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  19. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  20. 1960-69 Cumulative Index of Articles Related to Oceanography and Limnology Education in The Science Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Maxwell

    Indexed are articles relating to oceanography and limnology published in "The Science Teacher" between 1960 and 1969. Articles are indexed under title, author, and topic. Topics include background information, course descriptions, and laboratory equipment and techniques. (EB)

  1. Developing European operational oceanography for Blue Growth, climate change adaptation and mitigation, and ecosystem-based management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jun; Allen, Icarus; Buch, Erik; Crise, Alessandro; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves; Lips, Urmas; Nolan, Glenn; Pinardi, Nadia; Reißmann, Jan H.; Siddorn, John; Stanev, Emil; Wehde, Henning

    2016-07-01

    Operational approaches have been more and more widely developed and used for providing marine data and information services for different socio-economic sectors of the Blue Growth and to advance knowledge about the marine environment. The objective of operational oceanographic research is to develop and improve the efficiency, timeliness, robustness and product quality of this approach. This white paper aims to address key scientific challenges and research priorities for the development of operational oceanography in Europe for the next 5-10 years. Knowledge gaps and deficiencies are identified in relation to common scientific challenges in four EuroGOOS knowledge areas: European Ocean Observations, Modelling and Forecasting Technology, Coastal Operational Oceanography and Operational Ecology. The areas "European Ocean Observations" and "Modelling and Forecasting Technology" focus on the further advancement of the basic instruments and capacities for European operational oceanography, while "Coastal Operational Oceanography" and "Operational Ecology" aim at developing new operational approaches for the corresponding knowledge areas.

  2. Physical oceanography of the US Atlantic and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Milliman, J.D.; Imamura, E.

    1992-06-01

    The report provides a summary of the physical oceanography of the U.S. Atlantic and Eastern Gulf of Mexico and its implication to offshore oil and gas exploration and development. Topics covered in the report include: meteorology and air-sea interactions, circulation on the continental shelf, continental slope and rise circulation, Gulf Stream, Loop Current, deep-western boundary current, surface gravity-wave climatology, offshore engineering implications, implications for resource commercialization, and numerical models of pollutant dispersion.

  3. Bringing together an ocean of information: An extensible data integration framework for biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, Karen I.; Condit, Chris; Qian, Xufei; Brewin, Paul E.; Gupta, Amarnath

    2009-09-01

    As increasing volumes and varieties of data are becoming available online, the challenges of accessing and using heterogeneous data resources are growing. We have developed a mediator-based data integration system called Cartel for biological oceanography data. A mediation approach is appropriate in cases where a single central warehouse is not desirable, such as when the needed data sources change frequently through time, or when there are advantages for holding heterogeneous data in their native formats. Through Cartel, data sources of a variety of types can be registered to the system, and users can query against simplified virtual schemas, without needing to know the underlying schema and computational capabilities of each data source. The system can operate on a variety of relational and geospatial data formats, and can perform joins between formats. We tested the performance of the Cartel mediator in two biological oceanography application areas, and found that the system was able to support the variety of data types needed in a typical ecology study, but that the response times were unacceptably slow when very large databases (i.e. Ocean Biogeographic Information System and the World Ocean Atlas) were used. Indexing and caching are currently being added to the system to improve response times. The mediator is an open-source product, and was developed to be a generic, extensible component available to projects developing oceanography data systems.

  4. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: Seagoing Oceanography for Middle School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice, D.; Foley, S.; Knox, R. A.; Mauricio, P.

    2007-12-01

    Now in its fourth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with National Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Naval Research (ONR), National Science Foundation (NSF), San Diego County Office of Education (SDCOE), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum encourages active inquiry with intellectually stimulating problem-solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as role- models. Recent science test scores with IFRR students have shown significant increases in classes where this curriculum has been implemented as compared to other classes where the traditional curriculum has been used. IFRR has provided students in the San Diego area with a unique opportunity for learning about oceanographic research, which could inspire students to become oceanographers or at least scientifically literate citizens - a benefit for a country that depends

  5. Study of the marine environment of the northern Gulf of California. [seasonal variations in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrickson, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of studies of the oceanography of the northern Gulf of California (Mexico) are reported. A remote, instrumented buoy measuring and telemetering oceanographic data by ERTS-1 satellite was designed, constructed, deployed, and tested. Regular cruises by a research ship on a pattern of 47 oceanographic stations collected data which are analyzed and referenced to analysis of ERTS-1 satellite imagery. A thermal dynamic model of current patterns in the northern Gulf of California is proposed. Findings are examined in relation to the model.

  6. JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) data availability, version 1-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and integrated water vapor. The JPL PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is the United States distribution site for Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  7. Fast neural network surrogates for very high dimensional physics-based models in computational oceanography.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Rudolph; Leen, Todd K; Lu, Zhengdong; Frolov, Sergey; Baptista, Antonio M

    2007-05-01

    We present neural network surrogates that provide extremely fast and accurate emulation of a large-scale circulation model for the coupled Columbia River, its estuary and near ocean regions. The circulation model has O(10(7)) degrees of freedom, is highly nonlinear and is driven by ocean, atmospheric and river influences at its boundaries. The surrogates provide accurate emulation of the full circulation code and run over 1000 times faster. Such fast dynamic surrogates will enable significant advances in ensemble forecasts in oceanography and weather. PMID:17517493

  8. NCAR CSM ocean model by the NCAR oceanography section. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This technical note documents the ocean component of the NCAR Climate System Model (CSM). The ocean code has been developed from the Modular Ocean Model (version 1.1) which was developed and maintained at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in Princeton. As a tribute to Mike Cox, and because the material is still relevant, the first four sections of this technical note are a straight reproduction from the GFDL Technical Report that Mike wrote in 1984. The remaining sections document how the NCAR Oceanography Section members have developed the MOM 1.1 code, and how it is forced, in order to produce the NCAR CSM Ocean Model.

  9. Alaskan oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Physical oceanographers, chemists, and biologists will soon begin studying the seas around northern Alaska as part of an international effort to learn how increased fishing, oil and gas drilling, and land-based farming will affect marine life. The $2.5 million National Science Foundation (NSF)- funded study, called ISHTAR (Inner Shelf Transfer and Recycling in the Bering and Chukchi Seas), will involve scientists from the United States, Belgium, and Denmark.According to NSF, previous studies suggest that, despite a short growing season, the seas around the Bering Strait produce more plant life than most marine areas of the world. However, the source of mineral nutrients for this plant life and its destination in the food web or organic sediment is not well understood. The researchers will trace nutrients from the Yukon River and the deeper waters of the Bering Sea to the continental shelves of the Bering and Chukchi seas in an attempt to better understand what happens to land and marine organic matter when it enters this continental shelf ecosystem.

  10. Geophysics, Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of decade-long time series of global surface wind measurements for studies ofseasonal-to-interannual climate variability presents unique challenges for space- borne instrumentationbecause of the necessity to combine data sets of 3- to 5-year lifetimes. Before the first Special SensorMicrowave Imager (SSMI), which was launched on the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program(DMSP) F8 spacecraft in July 1987, stopped recording wind speed in December 1991, another SSMIwas launched on DMSP F10 in December 1991. Interpretation of the 1987 - 1993 composite timeseries is dependent upon the space and time characteristics of the differences between concurrent F8and F10 SSMI measurements. This paper emphasizes large geographical regions and 1-month timescale. The F8-F10 area-weighted difference between 60 degrees S and 60 degrees S during 305 daysof 1991 (-0.12 m s^(-1)) was comparable to the year-to-year wind speed variations during 1988-1991. The 10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 difference was negative (positive) forwind speeds less (greater) than 7.9 m s^(-1), reaching - 0.43(0.32) m s^(-1) at 5(10) m s^(-1). The10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 bias had considerable variations throughout the yearand between 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, with the largest temporal variation (1.4 m s^(-1)) in the 50degrees - 60 degrees N region from February to April. The 1991 average value of the monthly meanroot-mean-square (rms) difference between F8 and F10 daily wind speeds in 10 degree-longitudinalbands was 2.0 m s^(-1) over 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, the amplitude of the annual cycle of therms difference was largest in the northern hemisphere middle latitudes, and the rms difference wasrelated to the wind speed (e.g., at 6 and 10 m s^(-1), the rms difference was 1.7 and 2.7 m s^(-1),respectively). The relationship between monthly mean 1/3 degrees x 1/3 degrees F8-F10 SSMI windspeed differences and integrated water vapor and liquid water content in the atmosphere is discussed.

  11. Increasing Climate Literacy in Introductory Oceanography Classes Using Ocean Observation Data from Project Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hams, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    This session will present educational activities developed for an introductory Oceanography lecture and laboratory class by NOAA Teacher-at-Sea Jacquelyn Hams following participation in Leg 3 of Project DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) in November-December 2011. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is an important tropical weather phenomenon with origins in the Indian Ocean that impacts many other global climate patterns such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Northern Hemisphere monsoons, tropical storm development, and pineapple express events. The educational activities presented include a series of lessons based on the observational data collected during Project DYNAMO which include atmospheric conditions, wind speeds and direction, surface energy flux, and upper ocean turbulence and mixing. The lessons can be incorporated into any introductory Oceanography class discussion on ocean properties such as conductivity, temperature, and density, ocean circulation, and layers of the atmosphere. A variety of hands-on lessons will be presented ranging from short activities used to complement a lecture to complete laboratory exercises.

  12. The Indigo V Indian Ocean Expedition: a prototype for citizen microbial oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauro, Federico; Senstius, Jacob; Cullen, Jay; Lauro, Rachelle; Neches, Russell; Grzymski, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Microbial Oceanography has long been an extremely expensive discipline, requiring ship time for sample collection and thereby economically constraining the number of samples collected. This is especially true for under-sampled water bodies such as the Indian Ocean. Specialised scientific equipment only adds to the costs. Moreover, long term monitoring of microbial communities and large scale modelling of global biogeochemical cycles requires the collection of high-density data both temporally and spatially in a cost-effective way. Thousands of private ocean-going vessels are cruising around the world's oceans every day. We believe that a combination of new technologies, appropriate laboratory protocols and strategic operational partnerships will allow researchers to broaden the scope of participation in basic oceanographic research. This will be achieved by equipping sailing vessels with small, satcom-equipped sampling devices, user-friendly collection techniques and a 'pre-addressed-stamped-envelope' to send in the samples for analysis. We aim to prove that 'bigger' is not necessarily 'better' and the key to greater understanding of the world's oceans is to forge the way to easier and cheaper sample acquisition. The ultimate goal of the Indigo V Expedition is to create a working blue-print for 'citizen microbial oceanography'. We will present the preliminary outcomes of the first Indigo V expedition, from Capetown to Singapore, highlighting the challenges and opportunities of such endeavours.

  13. The International System of Units (SI) in Oceanography. Report of IAPSO Working Group on Symbols, Units and Nomenclature in Physical Oceanography (SUN). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 45. IAPSO Publication Scientifique No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report introduces oceanographers to the International System of Units (SI) in physical oceanography. The SI constitutes a universal language, designed to be understood by all scientists. It facilitates their mutual comprehension and exchange of views and results of their work. The first part of the report is devoted to physical quantities,…

  14. Autonomous profiling buoy system: a new powerful tool for research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aracri, Simona; Borghini, Mireno; Canesso, Devis; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Durante, Sara; Griffa, Annalisa; Schroeder, Katrin; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Vetrano, Anna; Kitawaza, Yuji; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Nakamura, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    Oceanography is nowadays a fast-changing field. The scientific community is orienting towards the implementation of a growing array of satellite-borne or mobile and moored high-tech devices and sensors, while sending fewer scientists at sea to collect measurements, minimizing the expensive ship-time costs. In other words, oceanography is now moving from a platform-centric sensing system to a net-centric distributed sensing system. Integration with operational ocean models, providing the best estimate of the ocean state by means of data assimilation, is the step forward, with nowadays mature initiatives at global scale and at regional scale in the Mediterranean Sea. While the ocean still remains a complex system, largely undersampled, multiplatform-integration, improvements in tools capabilities and assimilation in models represents one way to reduce uncertainties in marine areas. In this context, and differently from mobile platforms (e.g, gliders, argos), fixed-point moorings nicely provide long term point wise time-series, but limited by a low vertical resolution. Technology is fast evolving towards the implementation of automatic profilers, which partially overcome this limitation. In June 2013 the Institute of Marine Sciences of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-ISMAR) started the test phase of one of the very few Mediterranean autonomous profiling systems installed in a open-sea mooring, transmitting, daily, hydrological vertical profiles in real time through satellite communication. The selected site was the Corsica Channel, a narrow passage between Corsica and Capraia islands, connecting the two main regions of the western Mediterranean: the Tyrrhenian and the Liguro-Provençal basins. The Corsica Channel represents a 'choke point' for the study of the dynamics and evolution of the western Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies in this passage indicate an annual and seasonal cycle with northward winter fluxes representing about the 60% of the total

  15. Seasonal oceanography from physics to micronekton in the south-west Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menkes, C. E.; Allain, V.; Rodier, M.; Gallois, F.; Lebourges-Dhaussy, A.; Hunt, B. P. V.; Smeti, H.; Pagano, M.; Josse, E.; Daroux, A.; Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Kestenare, E.; Lorrain, A.; Nicol, S.

    2015-03-01

    Tuna catches represent a major economic and food source in the Pacific Ocean, yet are highly variable. This variability in tuna catches remains poorly explained. The relationships between the distributions of tuna and their forage (micronekton) have been mostly derived from model estimates. Observations of micronekton and other mid-trophic level organisms, and their link to regional oceanography, however are scarce and constitute an important gap in our knowledge and understanding of the dynamics of pelagic ecosystems. To fill this gap, we conducted two multidisciplinary cruises (Nectalis1 and Nectalis2) in the New Caledonian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) at the southeastern edge the Coral Sea, in 2011 to characterize the oceanography of the region during the cool (August) and the hot (December) seasons. The physical and biological environments were described by hydrology, nutrients and phytoplankton size structure and biomass. Zooplankton biomass was estimated from net sampling and acoustics and micronecton was estimated from net sampling, the SEAPODYM ecosystem model, a dedicated echosounder and non-dedicated acoustics. Results demonstrated that New Caledonia is located in an oligotrophic area characterized by low nutrient and low primary production which is dominated by a high percentage of picoplankton cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus (>90%). The area exhibits a large-scale north-south temperature and salinity gradient. The northern area is influenced by the equatorial Warm Pool and the South Pacific Convergence Zone and is characterized by higher temperature, lower salinity, lower primary production and micronekton biomass. The southern area is influenced by the Tasman Sea and is characterized by cooler temperature, higher salinity, higher primary production and micronekton biomass. The dynamic oceanography and the complex topography create a myriad of mesoscale features including eddies, inducing patchy structures in the ecosystem. During the cool season, a

  16. The ARMADA Project: Bringing Oceanography and the Arctic to the Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazol, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the fall of 2009, I spent 6 weeks aboard the Coast Guard Icebreaker Healy on a mapping expedition in the Arctic Ocean, through participation in the University of Rhode Island's ARMADA Project. Because I grew up in the Midwest, went to college here, and teach in the Chicago suburbs, I had limited first-hand experience in oceanography, as did most of my students. During my time aboard the ship, I primarily served as a member of the mapping team, collecting bathymetric and seismic data. My other science activities included aiding geologists and acoustic engineers in dredging projects and deployment of under-ice recording devices. I collected water data, sent off weather balloons, and assisted marine mammal observers. For the ARMADA Project I kept an on-line journal, which had a far-reaching impact. Students in many schools kept track of my activities and communicated with me via e-mail. Colleagues and friends shared the journal through other media, such as Facebook. Several of my entries were published in blogs belonging to NOAA and the USGS. I received a grant for renting a satellite phone, and through it was able to make "Live from the Arctic" phone calls. After introductory PowerPoints I communicated with more than 420 students in 5 schools in 3 states. When I returned, I made a series of presentations about the Arctic and my adventures to hundreds of people and was featured in an educational magazine with a circulation of more than 90,000. I also participated in an in-depth mentoring program with a new teacher to help her succeed during the first years of her career. The results: My students and I now have a direct connection to the Arctic and to the fields of oceanography, acoustic engineering, and geology. On their own initiative, students have developed individual projects exploring aspects of my research. They have attended presentations from the Extreme Ice Center and have become involved in drilling issues in the Chukchi Sea. A group of students is

  17. Review of the physical oceanography of the Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Region. Volume 1. Literature synthesis. Appendix A. Annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.E.; Berger, T.J.; Boicourt, W.C.; Churchill, J.H.; Earle, M.D.

    1993-10-01

    The report, second in a three set series, is an annotated bibliography of the pertinent literature, primarily from 1970 to the present. The literature discusses the physical oceanography of the complex region offshore of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina as it relates to the ocean circulation and fate of any discharges resulting from offshore oil and gas activity.

  18. Learning about Oceanography. Superific Science Book VII. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based upon the recognition that the sea has great potential as a future source of energy, minerals, and water, this document was developed to provide students with learning experiences in oceanography. It contains background information about ocean tides, waves, chemistry, depths, and plant and animal life. The book provides the teacher with…

  19. What Is Physical Oceanography? A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 217. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    This unit is concerned with an overview of physical oceanography - the study of currents, tides, waves, and particle movements. The activities are designed for use by junior high school age students. Included in the unit are activities related to properties of sea water, physical phenomena of the ocean, and physical features of the ocean.…

  20. Active-Learning Methods To Improve Student Performance and Scientific Interest in a Large Introductory Oceanography Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuretich, Richard F.; Khan, Samia A.; Leckie, R. Mark; Clement, John J.

    2001-01-01

    Transfers the environment of a large enrollment oceanography course by modifying lectures to include cooperative learning via interactive in-class exercises and directed discussion. Results of student surveys, course evaluations, and exam performance demonstrate that learning of the subject under these conditions has improved. (Author/SAH)

  1. Operation Pathfinder: Oceanography, Coastal Processes for Elementary, Middle School Teachers--Program Reaches Minority Students, Puts 'AAAH' into Ocean Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sharon H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a 12-day teacher inservice course in oceanography and coastal processes that focuses on enhanced content knowledge, improved teaching strategies, role modeling, and leadership development. The primary objective is improving the teaching techniques of elementary and middle school teachers of predominantly minority students. Strategies…

  2. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  3. How the Coast and Geodetic Survey Contributed to Twentieth Century Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theberge, A. E.

    2002-05-01

    At the turn of the Twentieth Century, the Coast and Geodetic Survey was one of the major physical science agencies in the United States Federal Government. Nautical charting, with the attendant generation of large ocean-depth data holdings, required expertise in navigation techniques, physical oceanography, and geodetic surveying. This expertise was coupled with the development of systems and methods that led to many serendipitous discoveries by the Coast and Geodetic Survey or by its collaboration with other institutions and individuals. Many of these fundamental discoveries were built upon by the American ocean science community in developing modern earth science theories as well as in improving techniques and methods of ocean exploration. This work continues today through many offices in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that are direct descendants of the old Coast and Geodetic Survey.

  4. The EOSDIS Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center for physical oceanography and air-sea interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, Jeffrey E.; Collins, Donald J.; Nichols, David A.

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will support scientists specializing in physical oceanography and air-sea interaction. As part of the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System Version 0 the DAAC will build on existing capabilities to provide services for data product generation, archiving, distribution and management of information about data. To meet scientist's immediate needs for data, existing data sets from missions such as Seasat, Geosat, the NOAA series of satellites and the Global Positioning Satellite system will be distributed to investigators upon request. In 1992, ocean topography, wave and surface roughness data from the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter mission will be archived and distributed. New data products will be derived from Topex/Poseidon and other sensor systems based on recommendations of the science community. In 1995, ocean wind field measurements from the NASA Scatterometer will be supported by the DAAC.

  5. Data catalog for JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, Susan

    1995-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory contains satellite data sets and ancillary in-situ data for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Geophysical parameters available from the archive include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, surface-wind speed, surface-wind stress vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, integrated water vapor, phytoplankton pigment concentration, heat flux, and in-situ data. PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System and is the United States distribution site for TOPEX/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  6. Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography, 5th, London, England, Sept. 3-7, 1990, Preprints

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on satellite meteorology and oceanography discusses climate and clouds, retrieval algorithms, air-sea phenomenology, oceanographic applications, SSM/I, mesoscale, synoptic, and NWP applications, and future satellites and systems. Attention is given to the properties of cirrus clouds measured by satellites and lidars, the geographical variation of the diurnal cycle of clouds from ISCCP, the susceptibility of cloud reflectance to pollution, and a global analysis of aerosol-cloud interactions. Topics addressed include precision intercomparisons between MSU channel 2 and radiosonde data over the U.S., humidity estimates from Meteosat observations, the assimilation of altimeter observations into a global wave model, and atmospheric stratification effects on scatterometer model functions. Also discussed are observations of Indian Ocean eddy variability, the deconvolution of GOES infrared data, short-range variations in total cloud cover in the tropics, and rainfall monitoring by the SSM/I in middle latitudes.

  7. Making Data Available via the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office - Implementation Details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C. L.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created from the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS) and the U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) Data Management Offices. The BCO-DMO is a NSF funded project that provides support for scientists funded by either the NSF's Biological or Chemical Oceanography Program Office to facilitate making their projects' data publically accessible. To extend the domains of the U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs and to enable new capabilities, the BCO-DMO formalized our metadata collection efforts and designed and created the BCO-DMO metadata database. This database, together with our new website content (http://www.bco-dmo.org) and a geospatial interface based on the University of Minnesota's MapServer software, currently provide access to information and data from nine science programs and their associated 27 projects. This poster highlights some of the details of our system's design decisions that support the data discoverability, access, display, download and interoperability features, and capabilities of the BCO-DMO data interface. Initial efforts to use existing metadata schemas were unsuccessful as they did not address our specific needs or were overly generalized and therefore more complicated than necessary. The database design has evolved over time as we have learned more about what information needs to be preserved to support multiple interfaces and to enable machine-to-machine interoperability. Our latest enhancements include database tables to store additional information about the field or variable names that further describe the experimental, at sea, and historical data in order to support our new geospatial interface. Other features will facilitate data interoperability, provide flexibility in supporting different input data formats, capture data provenance information and allow creation of metadata records that are in compliance with community adopted

  8. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  9. Space data research center all-union research institute of marine fisheries and oceanography (VNIRO) ussr ministry of fisheries. Current status and future of space data application in fishery oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyushin, G. P.; Zonov, Yu. V.; Potaiohuk, S. I.

    The soale of operations oarried out by the USSR Ministry of Fisheries' fishing fleet requires a sound scientific basis. Such a basis is provided by "fishery oceanography" - a branch of science that studies the environmental factors which exert influence on fishing conditions. Remote sensing satellites are a new source of data on oceanic conditions for fishery oceanography. The USSR Ministry of Fisheries is developing space data service for its own needs. At present the main output of the Service are sea surface temperature maps which are distributed between the Ministry' users. Other types of information are results of interpretation of vides imagery in different spectral regions. A joint analysis of all the available data is employed by fishery oceanographers for managing search and fishing fleet operations.

  10. Virtual Research Expeditions along Plate Margins: Examples from an Online Oceanography Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.; Moore, G. F.; Bangs, N. L.; Tobin, H. J.

    2010-12-01

    An undergraduate online course in oceanography is based on the participation of each student in a series of virtual, at-sea, research expeditions, two of which are used to examine the tectonic processes at plate boundaries. The objective is to leverage the results of major federal research initiatives in the ocean sciences into effective learning tools with a long lifespan for use in undergraduate geoscience courses. These web-based expeditions examine: (1) hydrothermal vents along the divergent plate boundary at the Explorer Ridge and (2) the convergent plate boundary fault along the Nankai Trough, which is the objective of the multi-year NanTroSEIZE drilling program. Here we focus on the convergent plate boundary in NanTroSEIZE 3-D, which is based on a seismic survey supported through NSF-MARGINS, IODP and CDEX in Japan to study the properties of the plate boundary fault system in the upper limit of the seismogenic zone off Japan. The virtual voyage can be used in undergraduate classes at anytime, since it is not directly tied to the finite duration of a specific seagoing project, and comes in two versions, one that is being used in geoscience major courses and the other in non-major courses, such as the oceanography course mentioned above and a lower-division global studies course with a science emphasis. NanTroSEIZE in 3-D places undergraduate learning in an experiential framework as students participate on the expedition and carry out research on the structure of the plate boundary fault. Students learn the scientific background of the program, especially the critical role of international collaboration, and meet the chief scientists before joining the 3-D seismic imaging expedition to identify the active faults that were the likely sources of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis in Japan in 1944 and 1948. The initial results of phase I ODP drilling that began in 2007 are also reviewed. Students document their research on a worksheet that accompanies the

  11. NASA's Student Airborne Research Program as a model for effective professional development experience in Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, S. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Clinton, N. E.; Atkins, N.; Austerberry, D.; Johnson, M.; McGonigle, J.; McIntosh, K.; O'Shea, J. J.; Shirshikova, Z.; Singer, N.; Snow, A.; Woods, R.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    With over half of the current earth and space science workforce expected to retire within the next 15 years, NASA has responded by cultivating young minds through programs such as the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). SARP is a competitive internship that introduces upper-level undergraduates and early graduate students to Earth System Science research and NASA's Airborne Science Program. The program serves as a model for recruitment of very high caliber students into the scientific workforce. Its uniqueness derives from total vertical integration of hands-on experience at every stage of airborne science: aircraft instrumentation, flight planning, mission participation, field-work, analysis, and reporting of results in a competitive environment. At the conclusion of the program, students presented their work to NASA administrators, faculty, mentors, and the other participants with the incentive of being selected as best talk and earning a trip to the fall AGU meeting to present their work at the NASA booth. We hope lessons learned can inform the decisions of scientists at the highest levels seeking to broaden the appeal of research. In 2011, SARP was divided into three disciplinary themes: Oceanography, Land Use, and Atmospheric Chemistry. Each research group was mentored by an upper-level graduate student who was supervised by an expert faculty member. A coordinator managed the program and was supervised by a senior research scientist/administrator. The program is a model of knowledge transfer among the several levels of research: agency administration to the program coordinator, established scientific experts to the research mentors, and the research mentors to the pre-career student participants. The outcomes from this program include mission planning and institutional knowledge transfer from administrators and expert scientists to the coordinator and research mentors; personnel and project management from the coordinator and expert scientists to the

  12. Current and future prospects for the application of systematic theoretical methods to the study of problems in physical oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, A.; Johnson, R. S.

    2016-09-01

    This essay is a commentary on the pivotal role of systematic theoretical methods in physical oceanography. At some level, there will always be a conflict between theory and experiment/data collection: Which is pre-eminent? Which should come first? This issue appears to be particularly marked in physical oceanography, to the extreme detriment of the development of the subject. It is our contention that the classical theory of fluids, coupled with methods from the theory of differential equations, can play a significant role in carrying the subject, and our understanding, forward. We outline the philosophy behind a systematic theoretical approach, highlighting some aspects of equatorial ocean dynamics where these methods have already been successful, paving the way for much more in the future and leading, we expect, to the better understanding of this and many other types of ocean flow. We believe that the ideas described here promise to reveal a rich and beautiful dynamical structure.

  13. Assessment of Superflux relative to marine science and oceanography. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake Bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    A general assessment of the Superflux project is made in relation to marine science and oceanography. It is commented that the program clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of state-of-the-art technology required to study highly dynamic estuarine plumes, and the necessity of a broadly interdisciplinary, interactive remote sensing and shipboard program required to significantly advance the understanding of transport processes and impacts of estuarine outflows.

  14. The R/V EL PUMA and JUSTO SIERRA impact on the development of oceanography in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia, A.

    2007-05-01

    The acquisition of the two research vessels (R/V EL PUMA AND R/V JUSTO SIERRA) of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México represented a milestone for the development of oceanography and capacity building in Mexico. These boats were designed to conduct multi and interdisciplinary research in the Economic Exclusive Zone of Mexico in the main areas of oceanography (Physics, Geology, Chemistry and Biology). Its use, by different institutions, resulted in a substantial advancement of the knowledge of Marine ecosystems of Mexico. About 460 oceanographic campaigns, with more than 8700 participants, have been conducted since the boats arrived. These covered a wide array of topics of the marine ecosystem from the inner shelf to deep sea. Extensive research was done on current patterns, primary productivity and pollution monitoring of the Mexican Pacific, Sea of Cortez, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean sea. Marine biodiversity studies were also carried which discovered more than 180 new species in Mexican seas. Ecological characterization and paleo-oceanographic research from continental shelf to deep sea also registered a substantial advance. The vessels are now renewed with hi-tech equipment for sea bottom, water column and navigation that increased their research capacity, representing again a new milestone in the history of oceanography in Mexico. This improved capacity is very promising and opens new and sound opportunities for carrying modern oceanographic in order to improve knowledge of the Mexican Economic Exclusive Zone.

  15. Use of ERTS-1 pictures in coastal oceanography in British Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gower, J. F. R.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS-1 color composite picture of the Vancouver-Victoria region illustrates the value of ERTS data for coastal oceanography. The water of the Fraser River plume which is so clearly visible in the center of the scene has been of interest to oceanographers on the west coast of Canada for a long time as an easily visible tracer of surface water circulation in the strait of Georgia. Maps of the plume at different states of the tide and with different river flow and weather were compiled from oblique aerial photographs in 1950 and used in the siting of sewage and other outfalls in the Vancouver area. More recently high level aerial photomosaics have been used to map the plume area, but the plume can spread over distances of 30 to 40 miles and many photographs, with the uneven illumination inherent in wide angle coverage, are needed for the mosaic. The ERTS satellite gives the first complete view of the plume area. Electronic enhancement of the images shows that the satellite's narrow angle coverage allows very weak surface turbidity features to be made visible to give information on surface currents over a wide area.

  16. The plume of the Yukon River in relation to the oceanography of the Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Kenneson G.; Mcroy, C. Peter; Ahlnas, Kristina; Springer, Alan

    1989-01-01

    The ecosystem of the northern Bering-Sea shelf was studied using data from the NOAA Very High Resolution Radiometer and AVHRR and the Landsat MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) in conjunction with shipboard measurements. Emphasis was placed on the influence of the Yukon River on this inner shelf environment and on the evaluation of the utility of the new Landsat TM data for oceanography. It was found that the patterns of water mass distribution obtained from satellite images agreed reasonably well with the areal patterns of temperature, salinity, and phytoplankton distributions. The AVHRR, MSS, and TM data show that the Yukon-River discharge is warmer and more turbid than the surrounding coastal water that originates to the south; thus, the Yukon water contributes to the higher temperatures and lower transmissivity of the coastal water. The high resolution of the TM thermal IR band made it possible to observe complex patterns and structures in the surface water that could not be resolved on previous data sets.

  17. An electronic atlas on the oceanography of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostov, I. D.; Moroz, V. V.; Rudykh, N. I.; Rostov, V. I.

    2009-12-01

    The digital atlas on CD ROM includes a set of generalized data on the South China Sea oceanography. The data is presented in the form of spreadsheets, graphics, and text. The atlas contains a brief annotated description of the main physical-geographical characteristics and the particularities of the hydrological regime, water masses, tidal phenomena, and water mass circulation. The atlas is an interactive information-reference system including elements of dynamic data visualization. It contains a body of data on the long-term observations of the temperature and salinity; gridded blocks of the average annual, seasonal, and monthly data at the standard depth horizons; and data on the hydrochemical characteristics and water currents obtained by automatic buoy stations (ABS). A list of existing open access data bases and web sites is given where additional online and archived information on a range of special issues and problems related to regional studies and exploitation is provided. The system allows for fast access to specifically selected online or generalized reference information (via the Internet) and for its imaging.

  18. Earth Remote Sensing Center of Excellence at Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    2000-01-01

    We developed advanced communications and networking capability and satellite reception systems for Earth science to improve the ability of scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) to conduct interdisciplinary research. With matching funds from the SIO Director's office we implemented a "virtual center" utilizing modern networking hardware and software to enhance access for researchers and students to unique satellite and in situ data sets. The center provides facilities and data access to graduate students as well as research scientists at SIO, and outside SIO. Our private sector partners installed and testes and advanced X-band data acquisition system for satellite data capture relevant for Earth science research and applications. Some of the commercial applications of these partners have been developed (or are under development) with NASA SBIR resources. The X-band system collected RADARSAT, ERS-2 and MODIS imagery. Perhaps most importantly, this COE brought together - for the first time - an interdisciplinary team of SIO scientists with interests in Earth remote sensing. The collaboration extended beyond our infrastructure and research accomplishments leading to a dialog that resulted in a report with strong recommendations to the SIO community for enhancing satellite remote sensing at SIO.

  19. 15 Years of Oceanography in the Azores: From Oceanographic Cruises to an Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliano, M. F.; Alves, M.; Simões, A.; Rodeia, J.

    2006-07-01

    Oceanographic research in the Azores has only started 15 years ago. Nevertheless, it has been possible to evolve from the typical "research cruise approach" to a more versatile and integrated approach, that has proofed to be further rewarding and adequate for the size and resources of the group. The Azorean Oceanographers have participated and conducted several research cruises since 1990, and anticipating the importance of correlating in situ data with satellite data has lead us to plan the last of these, so that there was a coincidence of transects, moorings and satellite ground tracks. On the other hand, the group has invested in data processing and merging hydrological historical data with the results from the above mentioned oceanographic cruises, creating a hydrological database for the whole Atlantic Ocean. Also, through the application of a novel methodology and approach, the group has contributed to a new vision of the currents systems in the South Atlantic Ocean, namely with the newly found St. Helena Current, the congener of the Azores Current. As a result of this continued shift in methodology, the group is now using an integrated approach where field data, model output and processed altimeter data are merged to produce operational oceanography products, such as sea state charts and daily oceanic current charts.

  20. Multi-Standard Metadata Retrieval Framework at the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, N. T.; Huang, T.; Armstrong, E. M.; Gangl, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    With the vast amount of Earth Science data available, providing the user community with high quality metadata to facilitate information retrieval and exchange is integral to scientific research. The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archives and distributes data products along with metadata pertinent to the physical state of the ocean. As one of the Earth Science data center for NASA, PO.DAAC is expected to work with multiple metadata standards. Since there is no single metadata standard that meets everyone's needs, a web-based framework has been designed and integrated as part of PO.DAAC's scalable Core Data System to enable users to quickly retrieve metadata in the format that they need. Currently, the framework supports the Open Search specification for data discovery, ISO 19115-2, Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata standards, with new metadata standards still being added. In this talk we will present the architecture behind the framework that makes it possible to support various metadata standards as well as the challenges we encountered.

  1. Toxic red tides and harmful algal blooms: A practical challenge in coastal oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.

    1995-07-01

    The debate over the relative value of practical or applied versus fundamental research has heated up considerably in recent years, and oceanography has not been spared this re-evaluation of science funding policy. Some federal agencies with marine interests have always focused their resources on practical problems, but those with a traditional commitment to basic research such as the National Science Foundation have increasingly had to fight to maintain their freedom to fund quality science without regard to practical or commercial applications. Within this context, it is instructive to highlight the extent to which certain scientific programs can satisfy both sides of this policy dilemma—i.e. address important societal issues through advances in fundamental or basic research. One clear oceanographic example of such a program involves the phenomena called "red tides" or "harmful algal blooms". This paper describes the nature and extent of the problems caused by these outbreaks, emphasizing the alarming expansion in their incidence and their impacts in recent years, both in the U.S. and worldwide. The objective is to highlight fundamental physical, biological, and chemical oceanographic question that must be addressed if we are to achieve the practical goal of scientifically based management of fisheries resources, public health, and ecosystem health in regions threatened by toxic and harmful algae.

  2. Development of 3D interactive visual objects using the Scripps Institution of Oceanography's Visualization Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilb, D.; Reif, C.; Peach, C.; Keen, C. S.; Smith, B.; Mellors, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Within the last year scientists and educators at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), the Birch Aquarium at Scripps and San Diego State University have collaborated with education specialists to develop 3D interactive graphic teaching modules for use in the classroom and in teacher workshops at the SIO Visualization center (http://siovizcenter.ucsd.edu). The unique aspect of the SIO Visualization center is that the center is designed around a 120 degree curved Panoram floor-to-ceiling screen (8'6" by 28'4") that immerses viewers in a virtual environment. The center is powered by an SGI 3400 Onyx computer that is more powerful, by an order of magnitude in both speed and memory, than typical base systems currently used for education and outreach presentations. This technology allows us to display multiple 3D data layers (e.g., seismicity, high resolution topography, seismic reflectivity, draped interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images, etc.) simultaneously, render them in 3D stereo, and take a virtual flight through the data as dictated on the spot by the user. This system can also render snapshots, images and movies that are too big for other systems, and then export smaller size end-products to more commonly used computer systems. Since early 2002, we have explored various ways to provide informal education and outreach focusing on current research presented directly by the researchers doing the work. The Center currently provides a centerpiece for instruction on southern California seismology for K-12 students and teachers for various Scripps education endeavors. Future plans are in place to use the Visualization Center at Scripps for extended K-12 and college educational programs. In particular, we will be identifying K-12 curriculum needs, assisting with teacher education, developing assessments of our programs and products, producing web-accessible teaching modules and facilitating the development of appropriate teaching tools to be

  3. An Introduction to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO- DMO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C.; Glover, D.; Groman, R.; Wiebe, P.

    2007-12-01

    The BCO-DMO (http://www.bco-dmo.org) was created to serve PIs funded by the NSF Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections as a facility where marine biogeochemical and ecological data and information developed in the course of scientific research can easily be disseminated, protected, and stored on short and intermediate time-frames. The Data Management Office also strives to provide research scientists and others with the tools and systems necessary to work with marine biogeochemical and ecological data from heterogeneous sources with increased efficacy. To accomplish this, two data management offices (former- U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC) have been united and enhanced to provide a venue for contribution of electronic data/metadata and other information for open distribution via the World Wide Web. The JGOFS/GLOBEC Client/Server distributed data management system software is used to serve data and information to every investigator, regardless of computing platform. In addition, Web services are provided for data discovery, and development has begun on a machine-to-machine application programming interface (API) to allow interoperability between Web-based data systems. The BCO-DMO will manage existing and new data sets from individual scientific investigators, collaborative groups of investigators, and data management offices of larger multi-institutional projects via any standard Web browser. The office will work with principal investigators on data quality control; maintain an inventory and program thesaurus of strictly defined field names; generate metadata (e.g. Directory Interchange Format (DIF) ) records required by Federal agencies; ensure submission of data to national data centers; support and encourage data synthesis by providing new, online, Web-based display tools; facilitate interoperability among different data portals; and facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange.

  4. Fisheries Oceanography in the Virgin Islands: Preliminary Results from a Collaborative Research Endeavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. H.; Gerard, T. L.; Johns, E. M.; Lamkin, J. T.

    2008-05-01

    economically important species were recovered at the near-shore sites, south of St. Thomas, St. John, and British Virgin Islands and not on the reef /shelf-break sites as expected. Concurrent Lagrangian drifter trajectories and shipboard ADCP measurements showed a high degree of variability in regional surface water flow. Possible transport pathways as related to the spatial distribution of the larvae collected and the physical oceanography observed will be discussed.

  5. The ESA SMOS+SOS Project: Oceanography using SMOS for innovative air-sea exchange studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Chris; Gommenginger, Christine; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reul, Nicolas; Martin, Matthew; Ash, Ellis; Reverdin, Gilles; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    We report on the work plan of the SMOS+Surface Ocean Salinity and Synergy (SMOS+SOS) project. SMOS+SOS is funded through the Support to Science Element (STSE) component of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Earth Observation Envelope Programme. The SMOS+SOS consortium consists of four organisations namely the National Oceanography Centre (UK), the LOCEAN/IFREMER/CATDS research team (France), the Met Office (UK) and Satellite Oceanographic Consultants Ltd (UK). The end of the SMOS+SOS project will be marked by a final open workshop most likely hosted by the UK Met Office in September/October 2014. The project is concerned with demonstrating the performance and scientific value of SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) products through a number of well-defined case studies. The case studies include: Amazon/Orinoco plumes (freshwater outflow); Agulhas and Gulf Stream (strong water mass boundary); Tropical Pacific/Atlantic (strong precipitation regime); sub-tropical North Atlantic (ie SPURS; strong evaporative regime); and Equatorial Pacific (equatorial upwelling). With SMOS measuring the SSS in the top cm of the ocean, validating SMOS against in situ salinity data taken typically at a few meters depth introduces assumptions about the vertical structure of salinity in the upper ocean. To address these issues, the project will examine and quantify discrepancies between SMOS and in situ surface salinity data at various depths in different regions characterised by strong precipitation or evaporation regimes. Equally, data editing and spatio-temporal averaging play a central role in determining the quality, errors and correlations in SMOS SSS data. The project will explore various processing and spatio-temporal averaging choices to define the SMOS SSS products that best address the needs of the oceanographic and data assimilation user community. One key aspect of this project is to determine how one can achieve useful accuracy/uncertainty in SSS without jeopardising SMOS's ability

  6. From Scientist to Educator: Oceanography in the Formal and Informal Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. H.; Jasnow, M.; Srinivasan, M. S.; Rosmorduc, V.; Blanc, F.

    2002-12-01

    the role of the ocean in sustaining life on Earth. Activities on the back of the poster can be used as supplemental material in a middle school Earth science curriculum, and are suitable for individual instruction and for classroom or group exercises. This poster will be published in both English and French. Educational research indicates that an inquiry-based method of student engagement is an appropriate and effective teaching tool. These posters offer a fun and instructive environment to promote student interest in Earth Science in general and particularly in oceanography.

  7. Extracting physical parameters from marine seismic data: New methods in seismic oceanography and velocity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Will F. J.

    The utility and meaning of a geophysical dataset is dependent on good interpretation informed by high-quality data, processing, and attribute examination via technical methodologies. Active source marine seismic reflection data contains a great deal of information in the location, phase, and amplitude of both pre- and post-stack seismic reflections. Using pre- and post-stack data, this work has extracted useful information from marine reflection seismic data in novel ways in both the oceanic water column and the sub-seafloor geology. In chapter 1 we develop a new method for estimating oceanic turbulence from a seismic image. This method is tested on synthetic seismic data to show the method's ability to accurately recover both distribution and levels of turbulent diffusivity. Then we apply the method to real data offshore Costa Rica where we observe lee waves. Our results find elevated diffusivities near the seafloor as well as above the lee waves five times greater than surrounding waters and 50 times greater than open ocean diffusivities. Chapter 2 investigates subsurface geology in the Cascadia Subduction Zone and outlines a workflow for using pre-stack waveform inversion to produce highly detailed velocity models and seismic images. Using a newly developed inversion code, we achieve better imaging results as compared to the product of a standard, user-intensive method for building a velocity model. Our results image the subduction interface ~30 km farther landward than previous work and better images faults and sedimentary structures above the oceanic plate as well as in the accretionary prism. The resultant velocity model is highly detailed, inverted every 6.25 m with ~20 m vertical resolution, and will be used to examine the role of fluids in the subduction system. These results help us to better understand the natural hazards risks associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Chapter 3 returns to seismic oceanography and examines the dynamics of nonlinear

  8. Oceanography in Second Life: Use of a Virtual Reality to Enhance Undergraduate Education in Marine Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villareal, T. A.; Jarmon, L.; Triggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    Shipboard research is a fundamental part of oceanography, but has numerous legal and practical constraints virtually eliminate it as a regular part of large-enrollment programs in marine science. The cost of a properly equipped research vessel alone can prevent student access. While much can be learned by active exploration of archived data by students, the limitations placed on real oceanographic programs by distance, vessel speed, and time are difficult to reproduce in exercises. Pre-cruise planning and collaboration between investigators are likewise a challenge to incorporate. We have used design students in the College of Liberal Arts to construct a oceanographic expedition in Second Life for use in a marine science course (Fall 2009). Second Life is a highly collaborative environment with a variety of tools that allow users to create their own environment and interact with it. Second LIfe is free, highly portable, and inherently amenable to distance or remote teaching. In our application, the research vessel exists as an moving platform with sampling abilities. Software code queries an external MySQL database that contains information from the World Ocean Atlas for the entire ocean, and returns strings of data from standard depths. Students must plan the cruise track to test hypothesis about the ocean, collaborate with other teams to develop the big picture and use standard oceanographic software (Ocean Data Viewer; ODV) to analyze the data. Access to the entire database in ODV then allows comparison to the actual properties and distributions. The effectiveness of this approach is being evaluated by a pre- and post-class surveys and post semester focus group interviews. Similar surveys of the design students that created the environment noted that use of Second Life created a learning experience that was both more immersive and process oriented than traditional college courses. Initial impressions in the marine science class indicate that the strong social

  9. Transition of R&D into Operations at Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) plays a significant role in the National capability for operational weather and ocean prediction through its operation of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean. FNMOC uniquely satisfies the military's requirement for a global operational weather prediction capability based on software certified to DoD Information Assurance standards and operated in a secure classified computer environment protected from outside intrusion by DoD certified firewalls. FNMOC operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense, other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high- resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Other models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, sea-ice characteristics, and other data. Fleet Numerical operates at the leading edge of science and technology, and benefits greatly from collocation with its supporting

  10. Designing and Implementing Service Learning Projects in an Introductory Oceanography Course Using the ``8-Block Model''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, E. P.; Field, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Campus Compact for New Hampshire (Gordon, 2003) introduced a practical model for designing service-learning exercises or components for new or existing courses. They divided the design and implementation process into eight concrete areas, the “8-Block Model”. Their goal was to demystify the design process of service learning courses by breaking it down into interconnected components. These components include: project design, community partner relations, the problem statement, building community in the classroom, building student capacity, project management, assessment of learning, and reflection and connections. The project design component of the “8-Block Model” asks that the service performed be consistent with the learning goals of the course. For science courses students carry out their work as a way of learning science and the process of science, not solely for the sake of service. Their work supports the goals of a community partner and the community partner poses research problems for the class in a letter on their letterhead. Linking student work to important problems in the community effectively engages students and encourages them to work at more sophisticated levels than usually seen in introductory science classes. Using team-building techniques, the classroom becomes a safe, secure learning environment that encourages sharing and experimentation. Targeted lectures, labs, and demonstrations build the capacity of students to do their research. Behind the scenes project management ensures student success. Learning is assessed using a variety of tools, including graded classroom presentations, poster sessions, and presentations and reports to community partners. Finally, students reflect upon their work and make connections between their research and its importance to the well being of the community. Over the past 10 years, we have used this approach to design and continually modify an introductory oceanography course for majors and non

  11. Using Geophysical Data in the Texas High School Course, Geology, Meteorology, and Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K.; Olson, H.; Pulliam, J.; Schott, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Science educators working directly with scientists to develop inquiry-based instructional materials in Earth science yield some of the best results. The TEXTEAMS (Texas Teachers Empowered for Achievement in Mathematics and Science) Leadership Training for the Texas high school science course, Geology, Meteorology and Oceanography (GMO) is one example of a successful program that provides high-quality training to master teachers using geophysical data collected by scientists at The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). TEXTEAMS is a certification program of professional development and leadership training sponsored by the National Science Foundation that is part of the Texas Statewide Systemic Initiative. UTIG scientists teamed with science educators at the Charles A. Dana Center for Mathematics and Science Education at UT and the Texas Education Agency to develop inquiry-based instructional materials for eight GMO modules. Our learning activities help students and teachers understand how Earth scientists interpret the natural world and test their hypotheses, and provide opportunities for the use of technology in classroom science learning; they are aligned with national and state teaching standards. Examples of TEXTEAMS GMO learning activities that use geophysical data. 1. Neotectonics: radiocarbon dates and elevation above current sea level of raised coral reefs in the New Georgia Islands are used to calculate rates of tectonic uplift and as a basis for the development of a conceptual model to explain the pattern of uplift that emerges from the data. 2. Large Igneous Provinces:geophysical logging data collected on ODP Leg 183 (Kerguelen Plateau) are analyzed to identify the transition from sediment to basement rock. 3. The Search for Black Gold: petroleum exploration requires the integration of geology, geophysics, petrophysics and geochemistry. Knowledge gained in previous GMO modules is combined with fundamental knowledge about economics to

  12. Merging observations with numerical models in oceanography: some approaches and experiences gained within ECCO (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbach, P.

    2009-12-01

    The problem of extracting information of the state of the polar ice sheets and their evolution through time from sparse observations and with poorly known surface and basal boundary conditions is not unlike the one faced by oceanographers who seek to estimate the global time-varying ocean circulation. Through concerted sea-going campaigns during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and through the advent of satellite remote sensing dedicated to oceanography the oceanographic community had for the first time nearly global, time-continuous, but diverse, data sets as well as rapidly improving general circulation models (GCMs). Observations remain mostly limited to the near-surface though, cannot be readily compared with each other (altimetry and gravity, for example, measure very different properties and scales), and a quantitative link to the very limited set of in-situ observations, particularly at depth, is difficult. The need to fully exploit the data and models for the purpose of describing and understanding the global ocean circulation and its variability led the establishment of the consortium Estimating the Ocean Circulation and Climate (ECCO). ECCO has sought three-dimensional time-evolving oceanographic estimates which were fully consistent with the available observations, and with the particular GCM being used (primarily the MITgcm), in turn subject to central conservation principles (volume, energy, fresh water, etc.) and, to the degree the GCM was dynamically consistent, with time evolution not subject to artificial jumps or the injection of unphysical sources and sinks e.g. of heat. The science goals of ECCO include the understanding and explanation of the transfers of enthalpy and fresh water to and from the atmosphere and sea ice fields, and so consistency with basic conservation laws is essential. An estimation method which fulfills this requirement, pursued initially by the MIT/SIO and recently by the MIT/AER groups is the adjoint or

  13. SWOT: A high-resolution wide-swath altimetry mission for oceanography and hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Rosemary; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2013-04-01

    A new satellite mission called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) has been developed jointly by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. Based on the success of nadir-looking altimetry missions in the past, SWOT will use the technique of radar interferometry to make wide-swath altimetric measurements of the elevation of surface water on land and the ocean's surface topography. The new measurements will provide information on the changing ocean currents that are key to the prediction of climate change, as well as the shifting fresh water resources resulting from climate change. Conventional satellite altimetry has revolutionized oceanography by providing nearly two decades' worth of global measurements of ocean surface topography. However, the noise level of radar altimeters limits the along-track spatial resolution to 50-100 km over the oceans. The large spacing between the satellite ground tracks limits the resolution of 2D gridded data to 200 km. Yet most of the kinetic energy of ocean circulation takes place at the scales unresolved by conventional altimetry. About 50% of the vertical transfer of heat and chemical properties of the ocean (e.g., dissolved CO2 and nutrients) is also accomplished by processes at these scales. SWOT observations will provide the critical new information at these scales for developing and testing ocean models that are designed for predicting future climate change. SWOT measurements will be in Ka band (~35 GHZ), chosen for the radar to achieve high precision with a much shorter inteferometry baseline of 10 m. Small look angles (~ 4 degrees) are required to minimize elevation errors, which limits the swath width to 120 km. An orbit with inclination of 78 degrees and 22 day repeat period was chosen for gapless coverage and good tidal aliasing properties. With this configuration, SWOT is expected to achieve 1 cm precision at 1 km x 1 km pixels over the ocean and 10 cm

  14. Putting the Deep Biosphere on the Map for Oceanography Courses: Gas Hydrates As a Case Study for the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.

  15. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico coastal and marine ecosystem program: Data search and synthesis, annotated bibliography. Appendix A: Physical oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This study summarizes environmental and socioeconomic information related to the Florida Panhandle Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). It contains a conceptual model of active processes and identification of information gaps that will be useful in the design of future environmental studies in the geographic area. The annotated bibliography for this study is printer in six volumes, each pertaining to a specific topic. They are as follows: Appendix A--Physical Oceanography; Appendix B--Meteorology; Appendix C--Geology; Appendix D--Chemistry; Appendix E--Biology; and Appendix F--Socioeconomics. This volume contains bibliographic references pertaining to physical oceanography.

  16. The social oceanography of top oceanic predators and the decline of sharks: A call for a new field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Peter J.

    2010-07-01

    The decline of top oceanic predators (TOPs), such as great sharks, and worldwide erosion of the marine food web is among the most important functional changes in marine systems. Yet, even though human pressures on sharks are one of the most important factors in the collapse of TOPs, the social science of shark fishing has not kept pace with the biophysical science. Such a gap highlights the need for a marine social science, and this paper uses the case of sharks to illustrate some advances that a coherent marine social science community could bring to science and sustainability, and calls for the development of this new field. Social oceanography is proposed as a “discursive space” that will allow multiple social science and humanities disciplines to holistically study and bring insight to a diverse but essential community. Such a community will not provide answers for the physical sciences, but it will add a new understanding of the contingencies that riddle social behavior that ultimately interact with marine systems. Such a field should reflect the broad and diverse approaches, epistemologies, philosophies of science and foci that are in the human disciplines themselves. Social oceanography would complete the triumvirate of biological and physical oceanography where human systems profoundly impact these other areas. This paper tests the theory that institutional rules are contingent on social priorities and paradigms. I used content analysis of all available (1995-2006) State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) reports from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) to measure the symbolic behavior-i.e., what they say-as an indication of the value of sharks in world fisheries. Similar tests were also performed for marine journals and the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals to corroborate these findings. Then, I present an institutional analysis of all international capacity building and regulatory institutions as they

  17. An Assessment of Student Learning in an Online Oceanography Course: Five Years After Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    The results of assessing student learning in an online oceanography class offered over the past five years are compiled to reveal several general trends. In order to understand the context of these trends, it is important to first note that SJSU has a two-tiered general education program consisting of a category of core courses for frosh and sophomores and an advanced category for juniors and seniors, most of whom are community college transfers. The course described in this study is in the latter category and therefore composed largely of seniors. Enrollments in the course have exploded from 6 students in a pilot section offered during the 1998 fall semester to over 170 students in the summer semester of 2002. The course is now offered in both semesters of the academic year with four sections offered during 2002 summer session as part of a system-wide conversion to year-round operation. No other course, be it classroom, hybrid or online, in the general education category has experienced the level of student demand as this online course. All sections of the online course reach enrollment limits in the first days of registration with an equal or greater number of students turned away each semester. More female, students of color, returning students and K-12 in-service teachers enroll in the online sections than in the equivalent classroom sections of the course. Students enroll in the online section for the convenience of self-paced learning since attending a classroom section is not a viable option. Enrollments in concurrent classroom sections have not been negatively impacted by the addition of online sections. Enrollment attrition is higher in the first few days of the online course, but similar to that experienced in the classroom sections, once the class is underway. However, student requests for incompletes tend to be somewhat higher in the online course, especially during the summer offerings. Learning outcomes are reviewed at the beginning of the course and

  18. CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre: A service for operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the

  19. Smooth 2-D ocean sound speed from Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion of seismic oceanography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacic, Tanya M.; Jun, Hyunggu; Rosado, Hayley; Shin, Changsoo

    2016-02-01

    In seismic oceanography, processed images highlight small temperature changes, but inversion is needed to obtain absolute temperatures. Local search-based full waveform inversion has a lower computational cost than global search but requires accurate starting models. Unfortunately, most marine seismic data have little associated hydrographic data and the band-limited nature of seismic data makes extracting the long wavelength sound speed trend directly from seismic data inherently challenging. Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion (LDI) can use rudimentary starting models without prior information about the medium. Data are transformed to the Laplace domain, and a smooth sound speed model is extracted by examining the zero and low frequency components of the damped wavefield. We applied LDI to five synthetic data sets based on oceanographic features and recovered smoothed versions of our synthetic models, showing the viability of LDI for creating starting models suitable for more detailed inversions.

  20. The MIT/WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography and Applied Ocean Science and Engineering: An Ongoing Experiment in Graduate Education and the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming Influence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    On May 8, 1968 Paul M. Fye, President of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Howard W. Johnson, President of Massachusetts Institute of Oceanography, signed a Memorandum of Agreement of one and one-half pages in which both partner institutions "have each approved the creation of a Joint Graduate Program in Oceanography for which there will be established appropriate graduate degrees to be conferred jointly by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution." The partnership brought together the MIT experience with formal graduate education in sciences and engineering involving classroom instruction and more traditional academic advising with the less formal one to one "apprenticeship" or European tutorial style of education at WHOI. During the first year the graduate program involved only the physical sciences with the MIT home being in the Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Department. Ocean Engineering was added the following year with the MIT home being the Ocean Engineering Department. Biological Oceanography was added in 1970 with the MIT home being the Biology Department. The existing graduate curricula of the home departments at MIT, the inclusion of ocean engineering, and the fact that several of the early program instructors and advisers at WHOI entered oceanography after formal graduate training in more traditional disciplines such as chemistry, geology, physics, biology and mathematics was not conducive to an automatic adoption of the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming paradigm of core courses that predominated in other leading graduate programs in oceanography. Despite this caveat, the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming paradigm has influenced the learning environment in the Joint Program. Taking into account lessons learned in the process, some suggestions for the future of graduate education in ocean sciences and ocean engineering will be presented.

  1. Centre of Excellence in Observational Oceanography: Nippon Foundation and POGO Supported Programme at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, F. G.; Sathyendranath, S.; Frouin, R.; Knap, T.

    2008-05-01

    Building on previous experience in capacity building for ocean observations, the Nippon Foundation (NF) and the Partnership for Observations of the Global Oceans (POGO) have announced a new Centre of Excellence (C of E) at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS). The goals of the C of E are to expand the world-wide capacity and expertise to observe the oceans and to expand capacity-building projects and promote international collaboration and networking in ocean sciences. Over the past 104 years, BIOS has built a global reputation in blue-water oceanography, coral reef ecology, and the relationships between ocean health and human health coupled with high quality education programmes that provide direct, hands-on experience with BIOS-based research. The C of E at BIOS will build upon this model to establish a new, graduate-level education and training programme in operational oceanography. The 10 month Programme will offer course modules in ocean disciplines with a focus on observatory sciences complemented by hands-on training in observational methods and techniques based on the multi-disciplinary expertise of BIOS and BIOS-affiliated scientists who direct ongoing, ocean observational programmes such as: - Hydrostation S, since 1954; - Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study, since 1988; - Oceanic Flux Program sediment trap time-series, since 1978; - Bermuda Test-Bed and Science Mooring, since 1994; - Bermuda Microbial Observatory, since 1997; - Bermuda Bio-Optics Program, since 1992; - Atmospheric chemistry and air-sea fluxes, since 1990 Additional areas of BIOS research expertise will be incorporated in the C of E to broaden the scope of education and training. These include the nearshore observational network of the BIOS Marine Environmental Program and the environmental air-water chemistry network of the Bermuda Environmental Quality Program. A key resource of the C of E is the newly acquired 168 ft. research vessel, the RV Atlantic Explorer, which was

  2. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  3. Oceanography at coastal scales: Introduction to the special issue on results from the EU FP7 FIELD_AC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Wolf, Judith; Monbaliu, Jaak

    2014-09-01

    The high-resolution and coupled forecasting of wind, waves and currents, in restricted coastal domains, offer a number of important challenges; these limit the quality of predictions, in the present state-of-the-art. This paper presents the main results obtained for such coastal domains, with reference to a variety of modelling suites and observing networks for: a) Liverpool Bay; b) German Bight; c) Gulf of Venice; and d) the Catalan coast. All of these areas are restricted domains, where boundary effects play a significant role in the resulting inner dynamics. This contribution addresses also the themes of the other papers in this Special Issue, ranging from observations to simulations. Emphasis is placed upon the physics controlling such restricted areas. The text deals also with the transfer to end-users and other interested parties, since the requirements on resolution, accuracy and robustness must be linked to their applications. Finally, some remarks are included on the way forward for coastal oceanography and the synergetic combination of in-situ and remote measurements, with high-resolution 3D simulations.

  4. Constructing Knowledge of Marine Sediments in Introductory Geology and Oceanography Courses Using DSDP, ODP, and IODP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. John, K. E.; Leckie, R. M.; Jones, M. H.; Pound, K. S.; Pyle, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    Lithologic data from 40 DSDP, ODP, and IODP scientific ocean drilling cores from the Pacific and North Atlantic oceans are the basis for an inquiry-based classroom exercise module for college introductory geology and oceanography courses. Part 1 of this exercise module is designed as an initial inquiry aimed at drawing out student beliefs and prior knowledge. In Parts 2-3 students observe and describe the physical characteristics of sediment cores using digital core photos, and determine the sediment composition using smear slide data and a decision tree. In Part 4 students combine their individual site data to construct a map showing the distribution of the primary marine sediment types of the Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, and develop hypotheses to explain the distribution of the sediment types shown on their map. The transportable skills of observation, forming questions, plotting data, interpreting data, and scientific synthesis are embedded in this module, benefitting non-majors as well as majors. The exercise module was tested in the 2008 School of Rock program and the 2008 Urbino Summer School for Paleoceanography, and is currently being tested in undergraduate courses at James Madison University, North Hennipen Community College, St. Cloud State University and University of Massachusetts, Amherst in classes that range in size from 16 students to >150 students. The student worksheets, instructor guide, and preliminary evaluation data will be presented.

  5. Distribution and Support of Aquarius/SAC-D Data through the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Vazquez, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Center (PO.DAAC) serves as the designated NASA repository and distribution node for all Aquarius/SAC-D data products in close collaboration with the project. Here we report on the status of Aquarius data holdings at PO.DAAC, observed patterns of usage of these datasets, and the range of data services and access tools that we provide in support of this mission. These currently include dataset discovery and access via the PO.DAAC web-portal, an interactive L3-browser tool for online visualization, and user services that span help-desk support, Aquarius user guide documentation, and reader software development. In anticipation of the release of the Aquarius science quality dataset by the end of 2012 and as the project transitions out of the current calibration/evaluation phase, additional PO.DAAC tools and services that will be leveraged for Aquarius are described. These range from OPeNDAP and THREDDS data access services, web-based visualization via PO.DAAC's SOTO tool and LAS, to our advanced L2 subsetting tool called HITIDE.

  6. Online teaching and learning in oceanography: A look back at 15 years of undergraduate general education (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D.

    2013-12-01

    Online courses in higher education have garnered a growing presence in the popular media, yet misperceptions abound. Consequently, a retrospective examination of the evolution of an online oceanography class, first offered to undergraduates at the San Jose State University in the fall semester of 1998, may be especially relevant to the development of future efforts in this field. Since that initial offering, the development of the course, involving the creation of virtual field experiences whereby students take on the role of practicing research oceanographers, has been supported through several awards from the National Science Foundation, principally the Division of Undergraduate Education and the Geoscience Directorate. The online material, organized into expeditions, which focus on the nature of scientific discovery, has evolved over time from a static graphics and text-based format to include video, largely available through YouTube, and animations that take advantage of social media, all to highlight contemporary ocean research. To sustain the project beyond NSF funding, the course has been offered throughout the academic year, and in winter and summer special sessions, to more the 4000 students over the 15 year period since its initial offering. The materials have always been openly available through the course website (http://oceansjsu.com) to institutions throughout the world, long in advance of current MOOC movement. Just as the course format, and available content, have evolved, so have the students enrolled in the class, which now more closely mirror the university student body as a whole. Future efforts in course development should span multi-campus university systems to take advantage of the collective scientific expertise available and to leverage the effort across a larger number of courses and disciplines.

  7. The biological oceanography of the East Australian Current and surrounding waters in relation to tuna and billfish catches off eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. W.; Hobday, A. J.; Campbell, R. A.; Kloser, R. J.; Bonham, P. I.; Clementson, L. A.; Lansdell, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    The surface and sub-surface biological oceanography of tuna fishing grounds within the East Australian Current (EAC) was compared in 2004 with two other fishing areas further offshore. Our aim was to determine whether the biological oceanography of the region could explain the distribution and intensity of pelagic fishery catches inside and outside the EAC at that time. The EAC fishing area was noticeably warmer, less saline and lower in nutrients than waters in the other fishing areas. The EAC waters were dominated by large diatoms, the biomass of which was significantly higher than in the seamount and offshore areas, apparently the result of a cold core eddy beneath the EAC surface filament. Over the seamount and offshore more typical Tasman Sea waters prevailed, although the presence of a relatively deeper oxygen minimum layer over the seamount suggested topographically induced mixing in the area. Notably, sub-surface zooplankton and micronekton biomass was significantly higher around the seamount than in the two other areas. The offshore region was characterised by frontal activity associated with the Tasman front. Micronekton net biomass was generally highest in surface waters in this region. Examination of tuna catch records at that time showed yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) dominated the catches of the EAC, whereas swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) and bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) were the main species caught offshore. We suggest the yellowfin tuna concentrate in waters that are not only warmer but where prey species are concentrated near the surface. Offshore, deeper living species such as swordfish and bigeye tuna ( T. obesus) can take advantage of prey species that are distributed deeper in the water column and along the flanks of the many seamounts in the region, or that are concentrated at fronts associated with the Tasman Front. Although only a snapshot of the region, relatively consistent catch data over time suggests the underlying biological

  8. Deep Thermal Front (southeastern Brazilian coast) see through acoustics: a preliminary study from an operational oceanography perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsoni, L.; Hermand, J.-P.; da Silveira, I. C. A.

    2012-04-01

    éia region (state of São Paulo) is presented. Theorical temperature and salinity fields with differents conditions of DTF position are used for the calculations. Notable variations in the transmission loss field, rays propagations and time arrivals are found when the DTF is moving. These results support the idea that acoustics can be an interesting tool in monitoring and tracking of DTF movement, especially in the context of an intregrated program of observational oceanography and numerical ocean modeling.

  9. Late winter oceanography off the Sabrina and BANZARE coast (117-128°E), East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. D.; Meijers, A. J. S.; Poole, A.; Mathiot, P.; Tamura, T.; Klocker, A.

    2011-05-01

    We report on the late winter oceanography observed beneath the Antarctic sea ice offshore from the Sabrina and BANZARE coast of Wilkes Land, East Antarctica (117-128°E) in September-October 2007 during the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystem eXperiment (SIPEX). A pilot program using specifically designed 'through-ice' conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) and acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP) systems was conducted to opportunistically measure water mass properties and ocean currents at major ice stations. Additional water mass properties across the survey region were collected from Ice-Argo floats deployed during the voyage north of the 3000 m isobath. The mean drift of the floats was along the slope to the west with the Antarctic Slope Current. Vertical profiles of the potential temperature reveal the deepest (˜350-400m) winter mixed layer (WML) in the western sector of the survey northwest of the Dalton Iceberg Tongue polynya. The meridional structure of the Antarctic Slope Front, i.e. the monotonic shoaling of the WML across the upper continental slope, is found to be similar to the previous observations in summer. A strong bottom-intensified intrusion of modified Circumpolar Deep Water (mCDW) as warm as 0 °C was detected beneath the fast ice south of the continental shelf break at 118°E. An mCDW intrusion of similar strength was detected near this location in the austral summer of 1996. We hypothesise that there is a persistent supply of mCDW and associated ocean heat flux to this region of the continental shelf that is capable of migrating to the grounding lines of the nearby Totten Glacier and Moscow University Ice Shelf. There was no detection of locally formed dense shelf water capable of forming Antarctic Bottom Water at the shelf break locations sampled despite the number of minor polynyas across this region. Ocean current measurements, limited to a maximum period of 24 h and 50-100 m depth by the relative scarcity of backscatter, found increased

  10. Center of Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE) Initiatives Toward Promoting Diversity in the Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B. C.

    2007-05-01

    The ocean sciences suffer from a lack of diversity, particularly among indigenous peoples, despite the fact that indigenous peoples often have deep, cultural knowledge about the marine environment. Nowhere is this inequity more glaring than in Hawaii. Traditional knowledge in marine science enabled Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) to become world leaders in transpacific canoe voyaging, aquaculture, and fisheries. Yet today, NHPI are severely underrepresented in the ocean sciences (and in STEM fields in general) at all levels of education and employment. When compared to other ethnic and racial groups in Hawaii, NHPI students as a group have among the poorest educational performance, indicated in part by underrepresentation in college enrolment and pre-college gifted and talented programs, as well as overrepresentation in eligibility for special education and free and reduced lunch programs. The Center of Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE), a NSF-funded, multi-institutional Science and Technology Center based at the University of Hawai (UH), is determined to address this inequity. C- MORE is committed to increasing diversity in the ocean sciences, particularly among NHPI, at all levels of education and research. Our approach is to work with existing programs with a track record of increasing diversity among NHPI. We are currently developing culturally relevant materials including educational games for K-12 students, mentorships for high school and community college students, and laboratory and shipboard experiences for teachers and undergraduates in partnership with minority-serving organizations. Some of our main partners are EPSCoR (Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research), Ka `Imi `Ike (an NSF- funded program to recruit and retain NHPI undergraduates in geosciences), Upward Bound (an enrichment program for economically disadvantaged high school students which includes intensive summer courses), the UH Center on

  11. Short-term variability during an anchor station study in the southern Benguela upwelling system: Chemical and physical oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, G. W.; Chapman, P.

    During March and April 1987, an anchor station experiment was conducted in 45m water depth in St Helena Bay (32°30‧S) on the west coast of South Africa, “downstream” of a major upwelling centre at Cape Columbine. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll and nutrient concentrations were measured at seven depths down to 43m at four-hourly intervals over a 30 day period. These measurements were accompanied by current metering and weather station observations. Additional biological measurements of primary and secondary productivity were also carried out (see other papers in this suite). The period of the anchor station covered one major upwelling/decay cycle during the first fortnight of the experiment, followed by a second upwelling-favourable period. Throughout the experiment, stratification was observed in all parameters. The physical oceanography data suggested that the gyral circulation in the area tends to trap organic matter on the shelf as part of a two-layer system. Coastally-trapped internal waves and tidal periodicity control the relative importance of surface and bottom layers, which show considerable shear across the interface, because of the difference in cross-shelf circulation in the two layers. Despite sudden changes in bottom current velocities, little change was found in the distribution of chemical parameters below the thermocline, suggesting that relatively little net advection occurs into the bay, in contrast to the steeper slope regime. Chemical parameters showed consistent variability over the inertial period (22.5h). The inverse relationship between nitrate, phosphate or silicate and dissolved oxygen confirmed the importance of nutrient regeneration in the bottom mixed layer (BML), although considerable differences existed between nitrate and the other two nutrients. Rates of uptake during phytoplankton growth and replenishment during upwelling suggests that minimum upwelling rates in the Cape Columbine area were of the order of 0

  12. Capturing Excitement: Oceanography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert E.; Butts, David P.

    1971-01-01

    Describes four elementary school earth science activities. Each student experience is designed to help children answer questions about the ocean floor, continental drift, volcanism and mountain chains. Includes a bibliography of related articles, books, and maps. (JM)

  13. Oceanography of East Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiasa, John

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - September 2008) in Southern and Eastern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. A total of 102 CTD stations were conducted along selected hydrographical transects and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, the first section between latitude 25o-26oS showed sea surface temperature values ranging between 25oC to 15oC upper 250m depth. As part of the south-west, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the tip south of the Island coast. In contrast of the west coast, in all transects performed along the south and the east coast, in most cases, the isotherms showed non stratified waters from the coast to offshore. The presence of the upwelling system in the south-east coast modifies drastically the patterns of all measured parameters. Fluorescence had a maximum values (0.25 µg/l) at surface near the coast in 2nd to 5th transects. Inversely, low temperature values were observed along the south and south-east with minimum values in the range of 18. 5oC-11oC at 50-250 m depth. These conditions were consistent along and between the 2nd to 5th transects, with more variation observed at transect 5. The salinity values (5 m depth) decreased from 35.7 psu in the south to 34.5 psu in the east. The horizontal distribution of oxygen showed non homogenous conditions with values between 5 ml/l (south) and 2.5 ml/l (south-east). Also starting from the coast to offshore, surface temperatures and surface salinities, surface fluorescence and dissolved oxygen showed non homogenous patterns.

  14. Oceanography of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Bemiasa

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

  15. Comparative Magma Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John H.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stop is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of mar (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of An contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (1) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (approx. 4.55 b.y.); (2) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (3) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle.

  16. Comparative Magma Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stage is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of martian (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of Mars contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (i) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (about 4.55 b.y.); (ii) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (iii) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle. The easiest way to explain the ages and diverse isotopic compositions of martian basalts is to postulate that Mars had an early magma ocean. Cumulates of this magma ocean were later remelted to form the SNC meteorite suite and some of these melts assimilated crustal materials enriched in incompatible elements. The REE pattern of the crust assimilated by these SNC magmas was LREE enriched. If this pattern is typical of the crust as a whole, the martian crust is probably similar in composition to melts generated by small degrees of partial melting (about 5%) of a primitive source. Higher degrees of partial melting would cause the crustal LREE pattern to be essentially flat. In the context of a magma ocean model, where large degrees of partial melting presumably prevailed, the crust would have to be dominated by late-stage, LREE-enriched residual liquids. Regardless of the exact physical setting, Nd and W isotopic evidence indicates that martian geochemical reservoirs must have formed early and that they have not been efficiently remixed since. The important point is that in both the Moon and Mars we see evidence of a magma ocean phase and that we recognize it as such. Several lines of theoretical inference point to an early Earth that was also hot and, perhaps, mostly molten. The Giant Impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon offers a tremendous input of thermal energy and the same could be true for core formation. And current solar system models favor the formation of a limited number of large (about 1000 km) planetesimals that, upon accreting to Earth, would cause great heating, being lesser versions of the Giant Impact. Several lines of geochemical evidence do not favor this hot early Earth scenario. (i) Terrestrial man-tle xenoliths are sometimes nearly chondritic in their major element compositions, suggesting that these rocks have never been much molten. Large degrees of partial melting probably promote differentiation rather than homogenization. (ii) Unlike the case of Mars, the continental crust probably did not form as a highly fractionated residual liquid from a magma ocean (about 99% crystallization), but, rather, formed in multiple steps. [The simplest model for the formation of continental crust is complicated: (a) about 10% melting of a primitive mantle, making basalt; (b) hydrothermal alteration of that basalt, converting it to greenstone; and (c) 10% partial melting of that greenstone, producing tonalite.] This model is reinforced by the recent observation from old (about 4.1 b.y.) zircons that the early crust formed from an undepleted mantle having a chondritic Lu/Hf ratio. (iii) If the mantle were once differentiated by a magma ocean, the mantle xenolith suite requires that it subsequently be homogenized. The Os isotopic compositions of fertile spinel lherzolites place constraints on the timing of that homogenization. The Os isotopic composition of spinel lherzolites approaches that of chondrites and correlates with elements such as Lu and Al. As Lu and Al concentrations approach those of the primitive mantle, Os isotopic compositions approach chondritic. The Re and Os in these xenoliths were probably added as a late veneer. Thus, the mantle that received the late veneer must have been nearly chondritic in terms of its major elements (excluding Fe). If the mantle that the veneer was mixed into was not al-ready homogenized, then Os isotopes should not correlate with incompatible elements such as Al. Consequently, either early differentiation of the mantle did not occur or the homogenization of this differentiation must have occurred before the late veneer was added. The timing of the late veneer is itself uncertain but presumably postdated core formation at about 4.45 b.y. and did not postdate the 3.8-3.9 b.y. late bombardment of the Moon. This timing based on siderophile elements is consistent with the Hf isotopic evidence cited above. If the Earth, Moon and Mars had magma oceans, the Earth subsequently rehomogenized whereas the Moon and Mars did not. The simplest solution to this observation is that homogenization of igneous differentiates was never necessary on Earth, either because the hypothetical magma ocean never occurred or because this event did not produce mantle differentiation.

  17. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  18. Oceanography from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. S.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that oceanographers have benefited from the space program mainly through the increased efficiency it has brought to ship operations. For example, the Transit navigation system has enabled oceanographers to compile detailed maps of sea-floor properties and to more accurately locate moored subsurface instrumentation. General descriptions are given of instruments used in satellite observations (altimeter, color scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar). It is pointed out that because of the large volume of data that satellite instruments generate, the development of algorithms for converting the data into a form expressed in geophysical units has become especially important.

  19. Methods of satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  20. Oceanography from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Active and passive spaceborne instruments that can observe the sea are discussed. Attention is given to satellite observations of ocean surface temperature and heating, wind speed and direction, ocean currents, wave height, ocean color, and sea ice. Specific measurements now being made from space are described, the accuracy of various instruments is considered, and problems associated with the analysis of satellite data are examined. It is concluded that the satellites and techniques used by different nations should be sufficiently standard that data from one satellite can be directly compared with data from another and that accurate calibration and overlap of satellite data are necessary to confirm the continuity and homogeneity of the data.

  1. Advances in satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  2. Chemical Sensors in Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Peter G.

    About 40 years ago, I served as graduate student labor on the International Indian Ocean Expedition, where I carried out what seemed to be vast numbers of routine chemical analyses of sea water. I vowed, as have many others, that on my return I would find a better way. From this effort, the first uses of “autoanalyzers” for sea water emerged. Over the years, the demand for fundamental scientific data from the oceans has increased enormously, as has the range of properties and the need for precision and rapidity. The recent global ocean survey of carbon dioxide and related properties carried out by the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, and World Ocean Circulation Experiment, cruises is but one example of the huge effort involved. There has long been a desire for a set of sophisticated yet robust sensors that would do the job with minimum labor and produce data of maximum quality in environments ranging from the sea surface to the ocean floor. This is quite a tall order!

  3. Satellite observations of the ice cover of the Kuril Basin region of the Okhotsk Sea and its relation to the regional oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakatsuchi, Masaaki; Martin, Seelye

    1990-01-01

    For the period 1978-1982, this paper examines the nature of the sea ice which forms over the Kuril Basin of the Okhotsk Sea and describes the impact of this ice on the regional oceanography. The oceanographic behavior during the heavy ice season associated with the cold 1979 winter is compared with the behavior during the lighter ice years of 1980 and 1982. Examination of the oceanography in the Okhotsk and the adjacent Pacific shows that the early summer water column structure depends on the heat loss from the Okhotsk during the preceding ice season, the total amount of Okhotsk ice formation, and, specifically, the amount of the ice formation in the Kuril Basin. Following the 1979 ice season, the upper 200-300 m of the Kuril Basin waters were cooler, less saline, and richer in oxygen than for the other years. This modification appears to be a process local to the Kuril Basin, driven by eddy-induced mixing, local cooling, and ice melting.

  4. European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up

  5. Soviet books and publications on geological and chemical oceanography, hydrology, and other subjects acquired during the second international oceanographic congress, Moscow, June 1966: titles and some translated contents and notes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.

    1966-01-01

    The listed publications represent a selection, by no means complete, of recent Soviet work in geological and chemical oceanography. Some works on hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the continents, as well as a few publications on other subjects, such as geology, geophysics, and biology, also are included.

  6. Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM): A Research Programme. Reports of the Organizing Committee Meeting (Paris, August 1984), and the Scientific Workshop (Lucerne, October 1984). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    The ultimate goal of the Program for the Exploration of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM) is to reach a comprehensive knowledge of the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean. Such knowledge is an essential basis for environmental management, resource exploration, and marine operations. The overall scientific…

  7. Computational physical oceanography -- A comprehensive approach based on generalized CFD/grid techniques for planetary scale simulations of oceanic flows. Final report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Beddhu, M.; Jiang, M.Y.; Whitfield, D.L.; Taylor, L.K.; Arabshahi, A.

    1997-02-20

    The original intention for this work was to impart the technology that was developed in the field of computational aeronautics to the field of computational physical oceanography. This technology transfer involved grid generation techniques and solution procedures to solve the governing equations over the grids thus generated. Specifically, boundary fitting non-orthogonal grids would be generated over a sphere taking into account the topography of the ocean floor and the topography of the continents. The solution methodology to be employed involved the application of an upwind, finite volume discretization procedure that uses higher order numerical fluxes at the cell faces to discretize the governing equations and an implicit Newton relaxation technique to solve the discretized equations. This report summarizes the efforts put forth during the past three years to achieve these goals and indicates the future direction of this work as it is still an ongoing effort.

  8. Real-Time Access to Altimetry and Operational Oceanography Products via OPeNDAP/LAS Technologies : the Example of Aviso, Mercator and Mersea Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudel, S.; Blanc, F.; Jolibois, T.; Rosmorduc, V.

    2004-12-01

    The Products and Services (P&S) department in the Space Oceanography Division at CLS is in charge of diffusing and promoting altimetry and operational oceanography data. P&S is so involved in Aviso satellite altimetry project, in Mercator ocean operational forecasting system, and in the European Godae /Mersea ocean portal. Aiming to a standardisation and a common vision and management of all these ocean data, these projects led to the implementation of several OPeNDAP/LAS Internet servers. OPeNDAP allows the user to extract via a client software (like IDL, Matlab or Ferret) the data he is interested in and only this data, avoiding him to download full information files. OPeNDAP allows to extract a geographic area, a period time, an oceanic variable, and an output format. LAS is an OPeNDAP data access web server whose special feature consists in the facility for unify in a single vision the access to multiple types of data from distributed data sources. The LAS can make requests to different remote OPeNDAP servers. This enables to make comparisons or statistics upon several different data types. Aviso is the CNES/CLS service which distributes altimetry products since 1993. The Aviso LAS distributes several Ssalto/Duacs altimetry products such as delayed and near-real time mean sea level anomaly, absolute dynamic topography, absolute geostrophic velocities, gridded significant wave height and gridded wind speed modulus. Mercator-Ocean is a French operational oceanography centre which distributes its products by several means among them LAS/OPeNDAP servers as part of Mercator Mersea-strand1 contribution. 3D ocean description (temperature, salinity, current and other oceanic variables) of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean are real-time available and weekly updated. LAS special feature consisting in the possibility of making requests to several remote data centres with same OPeNDAP configurations particularly fitted to Mersea strand-1 problematics. This European

  9. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  10. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kupferman, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  11. Educational Experiences in Oceanography through Hands-On Involvement with Surface Drifters: an Introduction to Ocean Currents, Engineering, Data Collection, and Computer Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Northeast Fisheries Science Center's (NEFSC) Student Drifters Program is providing education opportunities for students of all ages. Using GPS-tracked ocean drifters, various educational institutions can provide students with hands-on experience in physical oceanography, engineering, and computer science. In building drifters many high school and undergraduate students may focus on drifter construction, sometimes designing their own drifter or attempting to improve current NEFSC models. While learning basic oceanography younger students can build drifters with the help of an educator and directions available on the studentdrifters.org website. Once drifters are deployed, often by a local mariner or oceanographic partner, drifter tracks can be visualised on maps provided at http://nefsc.noaa.gov/drifter. With the lesson plans available for those interested in computer science, students may download, process, and plot the drifter position data with basic Python code provided. Drifter tracks help students to visualize ocean currents, and also allow them to understand real particle tracking applications such as in search and rescue, oil spill dispersion, larval transport, and the movement of injured sea animals. Additionally, ocean circulation modelers can use student drifter paths to validate their models. The Student Drifters Program has worked with over 100 schools, several of them having deployed drifters on the West Coast. Funding for the program often comes from individual schools and small grants but in the future will preferably come from larger government grants. NSF, Sea-Grant, NOAA, and EPA are all possible sources of funding, especially with the support of multiple schools and large marine education associations. The Student Drifters Program is a unique resource for educators, students, and scientists alike.

  12. The role of sedimentology, oceanography, and alteration on the δ56Fe value of the Sokoman Iron Formation, Labrador Trough, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raye, Urmidola; Pufahl, Peir K.; Kyser, T. Kurtis; Ricard, Estelle; Hiatt, Eric E.

    2015-09-01

    The Sokoman Formation is a ca. 100-m-thick succession of interbedded iron formation and fine-grained siliciclastics deposited at 1.88 Ga. Accumulation occurred on a dynamic paleoshelf where oxygen stratification, coastal upwelling of hydrothermally derived Fe and Si, microbial processes, tide and storm currents, diagenesis, and low-grade prehnite-pumpellyite metamorphism controlled lithofacies character and produced complex associations of multigenerational chert, hematite, magnetite, greenalite, stilpnomelane and Fe carbonate. Hematite-rich facies were deposited along suboxic segments of the coastline where photosynthetic oxygen oases impinged on the seafloor. Hematitic, cross-stratified grainstones were formed by winnowing and reworking of freshly precipitated Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide and opal-A by waves and currents into subaqueous dunes. Magnetite-rich facies contain varying proportions of greenalite and stilpnomelane and record deposition in anoxic middle shelf environments beneath an oxygen chemocline. Minor negative Ce anomalies in hematitic facies, but prominent positive Ce and Eu anomalies and high LREE/HREE ratios in magnetite-rich facies imply the existence of a weakly oxygenated surface ocean above anoxic bottom waters. The Fe isotopic composition of 31 whole rock (-0.46 ⩽ δ56Fe ⩽ 0.47‰) and 21 magnetite samples (-0.29 ⩽ δ56Fe ⩽ 0.22‰) from suboxic and anoxic lithofacies was controlled primarily by the physical oceanography of the paleoshelf. Despite low-grade metamorphism recorded by the δ18O values of paragenetically related quartz and magnetite, the Sokoman Formation preserves a robust primary Fe isotopic signal. Coastal upwelling is interpreted to have affected the isotopic equilibria between Fe2+aq and Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide in open marine versus coastal environments, which controlled the Fe isotopic composition of lithofacies. Unlike previous work that focuses on microbial and abiotic fractionation processes with little regard for

  13. National Weather Service, Emergency Medical Services, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/UCSD and California EPA Collaboration on Heat Health Impact and Public Notification for San Diego County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardy, A. O.; Corcus, I.; Guirguis, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has issued official heat alerts in the form of either a heat advisory or excessive heat warning product to the public and core partners for many years. This information has traditionally been developed through the use of triggers for heat indices which combine humidity and temperature. The criteria typically used numeric thresholds and did not consider impact from a particular heat episode, nor did it factor seasonality or population acclimation. In 2013, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego in collaboration with the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, of the California Environmental Protection Agency and the NWS completed a study of heat health impact in California, while the NWS San Diego office began modifying their criteria towards departure from climatological normal with much less dependence on humidity or heat index. The NWS changes were based on initial findings from the California Department of Public Health, EpiCenter California Injury Data Online system which documents heat health impacts. Results from the UCSD study were finalized and published in 2014; they supported the need for significant modification of the traditional criteria. In order to better understand the impacts of heat on community health, medical outcome data were provided by the County of San Diego Emergency Medical Services Branch, which is charged by the County's Public Health Officer to monitor heat-related illness and injury daily from June through September. The data were combined with UCSD research to inform the modification of local NWS heat criteria and establish trigger points to pilot new procedures for the issuance of heat alerts. Finally, practices and procedures were customized for each of the county health departments in the NWS area of responsibility across extreme southwest California counties in collaboration with their Office of Emergency Services. The end result of the

  14. Oceanography: Coastal oceanic nitrogen loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamdrup, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones crop up along the eastern boundaries of ocean basins in the low latitudes. A survey of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific points to the coastal zone as a hotspot for anammox-driven marine nitrogen loss.

  15. TOPEX watershed coming in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleven, G. C.; Neilson, R. A.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The NASA Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) will use precision radar altimetry to determine topographic features of the global oceans from which currents may be deduced. TOPEX will coincide with the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), which will be conducted at the end of this decade and shall involve ships, fixed and drifting buoys, aircraft observations, and satellite remote sensing, to resolve fundamental questions about the flow of water in the global ocean. TOPEX will contribute to WOCE the measurement of satellite height above the sea surface, and the precise radial position above a reference ellipsoid for the earth. The combination of these two measurements with the marine geoid yields the topographic data sought. Three years of topographic data, together with conventional oceanographic data and theoretical ocean models, will be needed to derive the mean and variable components of ocean circulation.

  16. Commercial applications of satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that in the next decade the oceans' commercial users will require an operational oceanographic satellite system or systems capable of maximizing real-time coverage over all ocean areas. Seasat studies suggest that three spacecraft are required to achieve this. Here, the sensor suite would measure surface winds, wave heights (and spectral energy distribution), ice characteristics, sea-surface temperature, ocean colorimetry, height of the geoid, salinity, and subsurface thermal structure. The importance of oceanographic data being distributed to commercial users within two hours of observation time is stressed. Also emphasized is the importance of creating a responsive oceanographic satellite data archive. An estimate of the potential dollar benefits of such an operational oceanographic satellite system is given.

  17. Remote sensing in biological oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The main attribute of remote sensing is seen as its ability to measure distributions over large areas on a synoptic basis and to repeat this coverage at required time periods. The way in which the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, by showing the distribution of chlorophyll a, can locate areas productive in both phytoplankton and fishes is described. Lidar techniques are discussed, and it is pointed out that lidar will increase the depth range for observations.

  18. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

  19. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  20. Oceanography: Carbon cycle at depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Katrina J.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of a microbial community in the ocean crust has long been hypothesized. Isotopic evidence indicates that a deep biosphere of microbes both scrubs oceanic fluids of organic matter and produces new, yet old, organic carbon in situ.

  1. Questions about Careers in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Aubrey L.

    Knowing the relationship of the ocean to man, the weather and climate, availability of resources from the ocean, use of the ocean in transporation, waste disposal, and defense, and developing an understanding of the impact on the oceans of human activity are all goals of oceanographers. The goal of this brochure is to provide concise informative…

  2. Physical oceanography of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of petroleum products and crude oil from ship accidents and damaged platforms into the ocean remains a significant problem. Weather systems of nearly all sizes and time scales may have strong effects on oil slick movement and dispersal. Thunderstorms, local weather systems, mid-latitude high- and low-pressure systems, tropical cyclones, and the trade winds and prevailing westerlies of the planetary wind system are all potentially important agents in the movement and dispersal of oil slicks. Currents driven by these wind systems are influenced by the rotation of the earth, which causes them to veer to the right of the wind in the northern hemisphere. Wind shifts or sudden decreases in wind stress induce circular or inertial oscillations whose period varies with latitude. Near the shore these effects are severely damped by the blocking action of the coast, causing the flow to run more or less parallel to the coastal boundary. All these effects will in turn exert significant control over the movement of entrained oil slicks. In the near-field region of an oil spill tidal currents can also be of considerable importance. Rotary currents, characteristic of open-shelf waters and effective dispersal agents of oil, arise from the influence of the rotation of the earth on the tidal current. Another such interaction between rotation of the earth and the tide produces Kelvin waves, which result in unusually high tidal ranges along the coast to the right of the tidal wave propagation. Both effects have been important in recent oil spills. All these oceanographic processes, reviewed in this talk, have played key roles in major spills over the last 15 years from the Torrey Canyon to the Mega-Borg.

  3. Climatology of the oceanography in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters: Observations from satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Wong, G. T.; Tai, J.; Ho, T.

    2013-12-01

    By using the observations from multiple satellite sensors, the climatology of the oceanography, including the surface wind vector, sea surface temperature (SST), surface chlorophyll a concentration (Chl_a), and vertically integrated net primary production (PPeu), in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters is evaluated. Regional and sub-regional mechanisms in driving the coastal processes, which influence the spatial and temporal distributional patterns in water component, are assessed. Seasonal vertical convective mixing by wind and surface heating/cooling is the primary force in driving the annual changes in SST and Chl_a in the open South China Sea (SCS), in which highly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and moderately positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind speed are found. Together, the seasonal variations in SST and wind speed account for about 80% of the seasonal variation in Chl_a. In the NoSoCS as a whole, however, the contribution is reduced to about 40%, primarily due to the effect of the Pearl River plume. A tongue of water extending eastward from the mouth of the River into the middle shelf with positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and around zero or slightly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind is the most striking feature in the NoSoCS. The westward and eastward propagations of the Pearl River plume are both very small during the northeast monsoonal season, driven primarily by the Coriolis effect. The abrupt increase in the areal coverage of the River plume, which is much more pronounced in the eastward propagation, between June and August can be attributed to the prevailing southwest monsoon as well as the annual peak of the river flow. Coastal upwelling is another sub-regional phenomenon in the NoSoCS. The upwelling at the shelf edge off the Taiwan Bank may be characterized by its elevated Chl_a. Its areal coverage and average Chl_a do not vary

  4. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: A STEM Partnership Between Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Office of Naval Research and Middle School Science Students Bringing Next Generation Science Standards into the Classroom through Ocean Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice, D.; Appelgate, B., Jr.; Mauricio, P.

    2014-12-01

    Now in its tenth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with Next Generation Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO),Office of Naval Research (ONR), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With a generous grant from ONR, students are able to tour the SIO Ships and spend a day at sea doing real oceanographic data collection and labs. Through real-time and near-realtime broadcasts and webcasts, students are able to share data with scientists and gain an appreciation for the value of Biogeochemical research in the field as it relates to their classroom studies. Interaction with scientists and researchers as well as crew members gives students insights into not only possible career paths, but the vital importance of cutting edge oceanographic research on our society. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, Skype, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum models the Next Generation Science Standards encouraging active inquiry and critical thinking with intellectually stimulating problem- solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as

  5. Active Inquiry, Web-based Oceanography Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckels-Martin, Ellen E.; Howell, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses using web sites to develop active inquiry lessons that mimic some of the tasks and thought processes scientists use everyday. The exercises available at the web sites are designed to develop science process skills and convey basic course content. Exercises stress the interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. (Author/SAH)

  6. Mentoring Program for Women in Physical Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozier, M. Susan

    2006-03-01

    Efforts over the past several decades toward increasing the number of women entering science and engineering fields have largely been successful, with undergraduate and graduate school enrollments averaging between 30 and 50 percent women (see Nelson Diversity Survey, http://cheminfo.chem.ou.edu/faculty/djn/diversity/ top50.html). Ph.D. attainments show similar progress. However, the percentage of women occupying tenure-track positions has not risen commensurably. Across the board, women in science and engineering fill on average only 15 to 25 percent of academic positions. Since the number of women in graduate school has been sufficiently large for at least a decade, it is difficult to ascribe the lower percentage of women in faculty positions to a small pool of potential candidates. As reported in the Chronicle of Higher Education (3 December 2004), the disparity between the number of women trained in a field and the number of women occupying positions in that field is instead attributed by some to subtle biases that keep women out of research or academic positions; others, according to the report, argue that women are simply staying away of their own accord from these positions.

  7. Microprocessor-based interface for oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean floor imaging system incorporates five identical microprocessor-based interface units each assigned to specific sonar instrument to simplify system. Central control module based on same microprocessor eliminates need for custom tailoring hardware interfaces for each instrument.

  8. Chemical oceanography: The ocean's pressure cooker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaupré, Steven R.

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms that destroy the oldest organic molecules found in seawater. Field and laboratory observations suggest that these molecules are destroyed by the heat and pressure of deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  9. Gulf of Mexico Oceanography Atlas available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The second full-color volume of the Atlas Oceanogáfico del Golfo de México has recently been published by the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas of México (GEO-IIE) (see Eos, Feb. 20, 1990, for announcement of volume 1). This second of an eight-volume series describes the hydrography, baroclinic flows and transports, water masses distributions, and the kinematic properties of anticyclonic-cyclonic ring pairs (modons) of the central and western Gulf of Mexico (26°-20°40‧N, 97°40‧-93°W). The data presented and analyzed in this volume were collected during the Argos 86-1 oceanographic cruise conducted by the GEO-IIE aboard the R/V Justo Sierra during October and November 1986. Authors of the volume are Víctor M. V. Vidal, Francisco V. Vidal, and Abel Hernández. It has 16 chapters in 715 pages, including 248 full-page color plates and 35 tables.

  10. Oceanography. Vertical mixing in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Webb, D J; Suginohara, N

    2001-01-01

    The thermohaline circulation of the ocean results primarily from downwelling at sites in the Nordic and Labrador Seas and upwelling throughout the rest of the ocean. The latter is often described as being due to breaking internal waves. Here we reconcile the difference between theoretical and observed estimates of vertical mixing in the deep ocean by presenting a revised view of the thermohaline circulation, which allows for additional upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the separation of the North Atlantic Deep Water cell from the Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The changes also mean that much less wind and tidal energy needs to be dissipated in the deep ocean than was originally thought. PMID:11343103

  11. Oceanography: Leading the hiatus research surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    2016-04-01

    The recent slowdown in global warming challenged our understanding of climate dynamics and anthropogenic forcing. An early study gave insight to the mechanisms behind the warming slowdown and highlighted the ocean's role in regulating global temperature.

  12. Multichannel forward scattering meter for oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    An instrument was designed and built that measures the light scattered at several angles in the forward direction simultaneously. The instrument relies on an optical multiplexing technique for frequency encoding of the different channels suitable for detection by a single photodetector. A Mie theory computer program was used to calculate the theoretical volume scattering function for a suspension of polystyrene latex spheres. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental volume scattering functions is taken as a verification of the calibration technique used.

  13. Orbit analysis for coastal zone oceanography observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. F.; Green, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    A study has been performed to define the orbital characteristics of a satellite dedicated to monitoring the coastal zones of the United States. The primary area of coverage is the east coast with secondary coverage of the west coast. Since no one orbital inclination fits both coasts, the inclination was determined by the east coast to be 63 deg. This inclination was found to give better coverage of the east coast than either its retrograde counterpart or a sun synchronous orbit. The two coasts require quite different orbits to maximize the coverage. The use of a small propulsive maneuver could be used to compromise the coverage between the two coastlines and change from one type orbit to the other.

  14. Oceanography in the formal and informal classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A.; Jasnow, M.; Srinivasan, M.; Rosmorduc, V.; Blanc, F.

    2002-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 ocean altimeter missions offer the educator in the middle school or informal education venue a unique opportunity for reinforcing ocean science studies. An educational poster from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales provide teachers and students a tool to examine topics such as the dynamics of ocean circulation, ocean research, and the oceans' role in climate.

  15. Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benada, J. Robert

    1997-01-01

    This new TOPEX/POSEIDON product provides the full mission data set in a new format with many data quality improvements brought about by the work of many scientists during the mission. It is a revised form to the MGDR-A CD-ROM set which covered data from the beginning of the mission, Septermber 22, 1992 to April 23, 1996.

  16. Physical Oceanography: Big Science, New Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The recent Mid-Ocean Dynamic Experiment demonstrated large, coordinated research programs could be conducted. It also demonstrated use of many new instruments that have been under development for the last decade. (RH)

  17. How To...Activities in Physical Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly oceanology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) comparison of water hardness; (2) preparation of fresh water from sea water; (3) determination of water pressure; (4)…

  18. Applications of adenine nucleotide measurements in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm-Hansen, O.; Hodson, R.; Azam, F.

    1975-01-01

    The methodology involved in nucleotide measurements is outlined, along with data to support the premise that ATP concentrations in microbial cells can be extrapolated to biomass parameters. ATP concentrations in microorganisms and nucleotide analyses are studied.

  19. Microbial oceanography: Viral strategies at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingstad, T. Frede; Bratbak, Gunnar

    2016-03-01

    The finding that marine environments with high levels of host microbes have fewer viruses per host than when host abundance is low challenges a theory on the relative roles of lysogenic and lytic viral-survival strategies. See Article p.466

  20. Data management in Oceanography at SOCIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joaquin, Tintoré; March, David; Lora, Sebastian; Sebastian, Kristian; Frontera, Biel; Gómara, Sonia; Pau Beltran, Joan

    2014-05-01

    SOCIB, the Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System (http://www.socib.es), is a Marine Research Infrastructure, a multiplatform distributed and integrated system, a facility of facilities that extends from the nearshore to the open sea and provides free, open and quality control data. SOCIB is a facility o facilities and has three major infrastructure components: (1) a distributed multiplatform observing system, (2) a numerical forecasting system, and (3) a data management and visualization system. We present the spatial data infrastructure and applications developed at SOCIB. One of the major goals of the SOCIB Data Centre is to provide users with a system to locate and download the data of interest (near real-time and delayed mode) and to visualize and manage the information. Following SOCIB principles, data need to be (1) discoverable and accessible, (2) freely available, and (3) interoperable and standardized. In consequence, SOCIB Data Centre Facility is implementing a general data management system to guarantee international standards, quality assurance and interoperability. The combination of different sources and types of information requires appropriate methods to ingest, catalogue, display, and distribute this information. SOCIB Data Centre is responsible for directing the different stages of data management, ranging from data acquisition to its distribution and visualization through web applications. The system implemented relies on open source solutions. In other words, the data life cycle relies in the following stages: • Acquisition: The data managed by SOCIB mostly come from its own observation platforms, numerical models or information generated from the activities in the SIAS Division. • Processing: Applications developed at SOCIB to deal with all collected platform data performing data calibration, derivation, quality control and standardization. • Archival: Storage in netCDF and spatial databases. • Distribution: Data web services using Thredds, Geoserver and RESTful own services. • Catalogue: Metadata is provided through the ncISO plugin in Thredds and Geonetwork. • Visualization: web and mobile applications to present SOCIB data to different user profiles. SOCIB data services and applications have been developed to provide response to science and society needs (eg. European initiatives such as Emodnet or Copernicus), by targeting different user profiles (eg. researchers, technicians, policy and decision makers, educators, students, and society in general). For example, SOCIB has developed applications to: 1) allow researchers and technicians to access oceanographic information; 2) provide decision support for oil spills response; 3) disseminate information about the coastal state for tourists and recreational users; 4) present coastal research in educational programs; and 5) offer easy and fast access to marine information through mobile devices. In conclusion, the organizational and conceptual structure of SOCIB's Data Centre and the components developed provide an example of marine information systems within the framework of new ocean observatories and/or marine research infrastructures.

  1. Tools of Oceanography. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Florence

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  2. Drilling probes Mediterranean climate and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ODP Legs 160; 161 Shipboard Scientific Party

    Marine sediments are an important repository of information on climatic change, and retrieving sediment sequences from climate-sensitive areas is an important aspect of paleoclimate research. In the spring of 1995, over 7000 m of sediments that reach back more than 5 million years to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary were recovered in the Mediterranean by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 160 and 161. Because the Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed, land-locked basin with restricted, open-ocean water exchange, the composition of these sediments is especially sensitive to climate change, and environmental signals are preserved in great detail.

  3. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 2: Examples from the Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. E.; Collier, R.; Cowles, S.

    2004-12-01

    We will share experiences and specific examples from an ongoing Ocean Science and Math Collaborative Project between OSU faculty and Community College instructors from the Oregon system of adult education and workforce development. The participants represent such diverse instructional programs as workforce training, workplace education (cannery workers), adult basic education, adult secondary education (GED preparation), English to Speakers of Other Languages, Family Literacy, and Tribal Education (Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Indians). This collaborative project is designed to integrate ocean sciences into the science, math, and critical thinking curriculum through the professional development activities of adult educators. Our strategy is to tailor new and existing ocean science resources to the needs of adult education instructors. This project provides a wide range of opportunities in time and effort for scientist involvement. Some scientists have chosen to participate in short interviews or conversations with adult educators, which give added value through real-world connections in the context of the larger project. Other participating scientists have made larger time investments, which include presentations at workshops, hosting teacher-at-sea opportunities and leading project planning and implementation efforts. This project serves as an efficient model for scientists to address the broader impact goals of their research. It takes advantage of a variety of established educational outreach resources funded through NSF (e.g. the national COSEE network and GeoEducation grants), NOAA (e.g. SeaGrant education and Ocean Explorer) as well as State and Federal adult education programs (e.g. The National Institute for Literacy Science and Numeracy Special Collection). We recognize the value and creativity inherent in these resources, and we are developing a model to "tune" their presentation, as well as their connection to new oceanographic research, in a manner that fits the needs of the adult education community.

  4. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  5. The Oceanography and Ecology of the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walker O.; Ainley, David G.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Dinniman, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea exhibits substantial variations in physical forcing, ice cover, and biological processes on a variety of time and space scales. Its circulation is characterized by advective inputs from the east and exchanges with off-shelf regions via the troughs along the northern portions. Phytoplankton biomass is greater there than anywhere else in the Antarctic, although nitrate is rarely reduced to levels below 10 μmol L-1. Overall growth is regulated by irradiance (via ice at the surface and by the depths of the mixed layers) and iron concentrations. Apex predators reach exceptional abundances, and the world's largest colonies of Adélie and emperor penguins are found there. Krill are represented by two species (Euphausia superba near the shelf break and Euphausia crystallorophias throughout the continental shelf region). Equally important and poorly known is the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), which is also consumed by most upper-trophic-level predators. Future changes in the Ross Sea environment will have profound and unpredictable effects on the food web.

  6. Fishing and the oceanography of a stratified shelf sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharples, Jonathan; Ellis, Jim R.; Nolan, Glenn; Scott, Beth E.

    2013-10-01

    Fishing vessel position data from the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) were used to investigate fishing activity in the Celtic Sea, a seasonally-stratifying, temperate region on the shelf of northwest Europe. The spatial pattern of fishing showed that three main areas are targeted: (1) the Celtic Deep (an area of deeper water with fine sediments), (2) the shelf edge, and (3) an area covering several large seabed banks in the central Celtic Sea. Data from each of these regions were analysed to examine the contrasting seasonality of fishing activity, and to highlight where the spring-neap tidal cycle appears to be important to fishing. The oceanographic characteristics of the Celtic Sea were considered alongside the distribution and timing of fishing, illustrating likely contrasts in the underlying environmental drivers of the different fished regions. In the central Celtic Sea, fishing mainly occurred during the stratified period between April and August. Based on evidence provided in other papers of this Special Issue, we suggest that the fishing in this area is supported by (1) a broad increase in primary production caused by lee-waves generated by seabed banks around spring tides driving large supplies of nutrients into the photic zone, and (2) greater concentrations of zooplankton within the region influenced by the seabed banks and elevated primary production. In contrast, while the shelf edge is a site of elevated surface chlorophyll, previous work has suggested that the periodic mixing generated by an internal tide at the shelf edge alters the size-structure of the phytoplankton community which fish larvae from the spawning stocks along the shelf edge are able to exploit. The fishery for Nephrops norvegicus in the Celtic Deep was the only one to show a significant spring-neap cycle, possibly linked to Nephrops foraging outside their burrows less during spring tides. More tentatively, the fishery for Nephrops correlated most strongly with a localised shift in the tidal current polarisation, suggesting that the muddy seabed required by Nephrops is controlled by rotational constraints on the extent of the bottom boundary layer.

  7. Review of the physical oceanography of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, L.; Zimmerman, J. T. F.; Furnes, G. K.; Mork, M.; Saetre, R.; Becker, G.

    After a general consideration of the physical factors that are of special interest to ecology, the typical character of the North Sea is discussed. The emphasis is on the processes that are responsible for the physical environment. The dominant feature is the tidal motion. This is not only a mechanism for vertical and horizontal mixing. The tidal residuals also contribute to a basic circulation pattern that together with the long-term net effects of the wind-driven circulation and the baroclinic effects results in an overall transport that determines the major features of the distribution of the water properties. Superimposed on this there are variations (mainly wind-induced) and regional differences in a wide range of time- and length-scales. Some typical features of both the southern and northern part of the North Sea are discussed. The review is concluded with a discussion on the long-term variations in the physical conditions of the North Sea. These are mainly to changes in temperature, salinity and sea-level.

  8. Chemical oceanography. Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Nam; Lee, Kitack; Gruber, Nicolas; Karl, David M; Bullister, John L; Yang, Simon; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2014-11-28

    The recent increase in anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen from northeastern Asia and the subsequent enhanced deposition over the extensive regions of the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) have led to a detectable increase in the nitrate (N) concentration of the upper ocean. The rate of increase of excess N relative to phosphate (P) was found to be highest (~0.24 micromoles per kilogram per year) in the vicinity of the Asian source continent, with rates decreasing eastward across the NPO, consistent with the magnitude and distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. This anthropogenically driven increase in the N content of the upper NPO may enhance primary production in this N-limited region, potentially leading to a long-term change of the NPO from being N-limited to P-limited. PMID:25430767

  9. From the Hensen net toward four-dimensional biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Peter H.; Benfield, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    The development of quantitative zooplankton collecting systems began with Hensen (1887 Berichte der Kommssion wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung der deutschen Meere in Kiel5, 1-107; 1895 Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition der Humbolt-Stiftung. Kiel and Leipzig: Lipsius and Tischer ). Non-opening closing nets, opening closing nets (mostly messenger based), high-speed samplers, and planktobenthos net systems all had their start in his era - the late 1800s and early 1900s. This was also an era in which many of the fundamental questions about the structure and dynamics of the plankton in the worlds oceans were first posed. Fewer new systems were introduced between 1912 and 1950 apparently due in part to the two World Wars. The continuous plankton recorder stands out as a truly innovative device developed during this period ( Hardy 1926b Nature, London118, 630 ). Resurgence in development of mechanically-based instruments occurred during the 1950s and 1960s. A new lineage of high-speed samplers, the Gulf series, began in the 1950s and a number of variants were developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Net systems specifically designed to collect neuston first appeared in the late 1950s. During the 1960s, many focused field and experimental tank experiments were carried out to investigate the hydrodynamics of nets, and much of our knowledge concerning net design and construction criteria was developed. The advent of reliable electrical conducting cables and electrically-based control systems during this same period gave rise first to a variety of cod-end samplers and then to the precursors of the acoustically and electronically-controlled multi-net systems and environmental sensors, which appeared in the 1970s. The decade of the 1970s saw a succession of multi-net systems based both on the Bé multiple plankton sampler and on the Tucker trawl. The advent of the micro-computer stimulated and enabled the development of sophisticated control and data logging electronics for these systems in the 1980s. In the 1990s, acoustic and optical technologies gave rise to sensor systems that either complement multiple net systems or are deployed without nets. Multi-sensor systems with high data telemetry rates through electro-optical cable are now being deployed in towed bodies and on remotely operated vehicles. In the offing are new molecular technologies to identify species in situ, and realtime data analysis, image processing, and 3D/4D display. In the near future, it is likely that the use of multi-sensor systems deployed on autonomous vehicles will yield world wide coverage of the distribution and abundance of zooplankton.

  10. Deep-Sea Mining: Integrating Geology, Oceanography, and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. Michael; Halbach, Peter E.; Martens, Peer N.; Hein, James R.; Scott, Steve

    2008-09-01

    Shaping the Future: Deep-Sea Minerals and Mining Congress; Aachen, Germany, 9-13 March 2008; A strong increase in the global demand for metallic raw materials, coupled with rising market prices, has heightened interest in marine seabed mineral deposits and the feasibility of their extraction for many marine scientists, engineers, and mining companies. This interest focuses not only on base and precious metals but also on strategically important elements needed for high-technology applications, such as cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, titanium, gallium, selenium, telurium, indium, and the rare earth elements.

  11. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on physical factors influencing life in the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the ocean floor; (2) tides; (3) ocean waves; (4) ocean currents; (5)…

  12. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Seven and Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 7 and 8. The unit, focusing on life in the sea and the physical factors which influence that life, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the theory of plate tectonics; (2) ocean floor…

  13. Oceanography for Divers: Waves, Tides, and Currents. Diver Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Lee H.

    To dive safely, it is suggested that the diver have a working knowledge of waves, tides, currents, and water quality. Lack of understanding and respect for ocean currents and surf can be of serious consequence to the diver. This paper on the diving environment is designed to provide the diver with a general understanding of the physical…

  14. Baseline data on the oceanography of Cook Inlet, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatto, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Regional relationships between river hydrology, sediment transport, circulation and coastal processes were analyzed utilizing aircraft, ERTS-1 and N.O.A.A. -2 and -3 imagery and corroborative ground truth data. The use of satellite and aircraft imagery provides a means of acquiring synoptic information for analyzing the dynamic processes of Cook Inlet in a fashion not previously possible.

  15. Can Education and This Nation Survive? American Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Tom, Ed.

    Brief descriptions of 9 marine science programs for students at various educational levels are given in this special issue. Most of the accounts describe the procedures followed by the center concerned, but some specify the objectives that guide the work. Most of the projects described involve students using the facilities in active research,…

  16. Oceanography Field Practicum, Spring Half-Term, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Edward C.; And Others

    A description of the course and the facilities for the course are given. The Course Log which lists the lectures, cruises, and other activities available to students is also given. The abstract or the paper of each students' individual research project has also been printed. The subjects of these projects range through all fields of earth science…

  17. Computer-Oriented Laboratory Exercises for Geology and Oceanography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, William T.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the use of computers equipped with plotters to predict tides using the known period, phase, and amplitude of the major tidal components. Other demonstrations and projects are described. (RR)

  18. On the use of a single blue band in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1970-01-01

    The selection of a single blue band to quantitatively measure ocean chlorophyll is dependent upon the altitude and spectral bandwidth of the filter. These relationships are discussed, and the conclusion made that a blue band from 0.44 to 0.50 microns would best serve this oceanographic application.

  19. European initiatives to develop information systems in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Grand, P.

    2009-04-01

    Various initiatives are currently in preparation or ongoing at the European level to improve information systems in Earth Sciences and oceanographic systems are at the forefront of these efforts. Europe is playing a leading role in the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) that aims to implement the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The GEO Architecture and Data Committee, oversees the development of the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) which consists of a web-based portal, a clearinghouse for searching data, information and services, registries containing information about GEOSS components and associated standards and best practices. This development is detailed in the various tasks of the GEO Work Plan . Several European projects in the marine domain funded under the research framework program participate in the development of the GEOSS. EMODNET is another initiative to develop a system that will allow a better identification and access to marine data that are being collected, that will permit the identification of data gaps and that will shape a data collection and monitoring infrastructure directly suited to multiple applications. A number of measures have already been taken at EU level - the INSPIRE Directive obliges Member States to facilitate discovery of data holdings, the Environmental Information Directive requires them to release the data when asked, the Public Sector Information Directive facilitates the re-use of public data and the revised Data Collection Regulation has improved the availability of fisheries data. Moreover, prototype marine data catalogues and quality procedures for measurement laboratories have been developed through successive EU research programmes. EMODNET is complementary to other EU initiatives in the marine domain. Parameters made available through EMODNET will facilitate the GMES marine core service which aims to deliver both short term and seasonal forecasts, hindcasts, nowcasts, and time series and climate change scenario simulations. EMODNET will provide the access to raw and processed data necessary to calculate the indicators that Member States are obliged to provide through WISE-Marine to meet the requirements of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Moving to the definitive EMODNET will require significant funding. Given that EMODNET is very much focused on a sea-basin scale and given the impetus accorded to territorial cohesion by the EU maritime policy, discussions will begin to determine whether cohesion funding could support the initiative. At the same time moves will begin to integrate EMODNET with initiatives under the EU's research infrastructure programmes and the Common Fisheries Policy Data Collection Regulation. The objective is to achieve by 2014 an operational and sustainable EMODNET with earmarked funding and an agreed governance structure.

  20. The use of remotely sensed data for operational fisheries oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiuza, Armando F. G.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data are used under two contexts in fisheries: as a tool for fisheries research and as a means to provide operational support to fishing activities. Fishing operations need synoptic data provided timely; fisheries research needs that type of data and, also, good short-term climatologies. A description is given of several experiences conducted around the world which have employed or are using satellite data for operational fisheries problems. An overview is included of the Portuguese program for fisheries support using remotely sensed data provided by satellites and in situ observations conducted by fishermen. Environmental products useful for fisheries necessarily combine satellite and in situ data. The role of fishermen as a source of good, near-real-time in situ environmental data is stressed; so far, this role seems to have been largely overlooked.

  1. A review of applications of microwave radiometry to oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, T. T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Following a review of the essential physics of microwave radiative transfer, oceanographic applications of this background physics are discussed using data from electrically scanning microwave radiometers on the Nimbus 5 and 6 satellites operating at 1.55-cm and 8-mm wavelengths, respectively. These data are interpreted in terms of rain rate, ice coverage, and first-year versus multiyear ice determination. It is shown that multifrequency radiometer measurements make it possible to separate the surface and atmospheric effects and to obtain useful measurements of sea surface temperature, surface wind speed, and atmospheric parameters along with improved measurements of rain and ice.

  2. Sequential estimation and satellite data assimilation in meteorology and oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.

    1986-01-01

    The central theme of this review article is the role that dynamics plays in estimating the state of the atmosphere and of the ocean from incomplete and noisy data. Objective analysis and inverse methods represent an attempt at relying mostly on the data and minimizing the role of dynamics in the estimation. Four-dimensional data assimilation tries to balance properly the roles of dynamical and observational information. Sequential estimation is presented as the proper framework for understanding this balance, and the Kalman filter as the ideal, optimal procedure for data assimilation. The optimal filter computes forecast error covariances of a given atmospheric or oceanic model exactly, and hence data assimilation should be closely connected with predictability studies. This connection is described, and consequences drawn for currently active areas of the atmospheric and oceanic sciences, namely, mesoscale meteorology, medium and long-range forecasting, and upper-ocean dynamics.

  3. Sequential estimation and satellite data assimilation in meteorology and oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.

    1986-01-01

    The role of dynamics in estimating the state of the atmosphere and ocean from incomplete and noisy data is discussed and the classical applications of four-dimensional data assimilation to large-scale atmospheric dynamics are presented. It is concluded that sequential updating of a forecast model with continuously incoming conventional and remote-sensing data is the most natural way of extracting the maximum amount of information from the imperfectly known dynamics, on the one hand, and the inaccurate and incomplete observations, on the other.

  4. A review of applications of microwave radiometry to oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, T. T., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The emissivity of sea ice and atmospheric precipitation was investigated. Using the above physics, the data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometers (ESMR's) on the Nimbus-5 and Nimbus-6 satellites operating at wavelengths of 1.55 cm and 8mm, respectively, can be interpreted in terms of rain rate, ice coverage, and first year versus multi-year ice determination. The rain rate data is being used to establish a climatology of rainfall over the oceans. Both ice and rain data sets have been generated for the Global Atmospheric Research Project Data Systems Test.

  5. Magma oceanography. I - Thermal evolution. [of lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Longhi, J.

    1977-01-01

    Fractional crystallization and flotation of cumulate plagioclase in a cooling 'magma ocean' provides the simplest explanation for early emplacement of a thick feldspar-rich lunar crust. The complementary mafic cumulates resulting from the differentiation of such a magma ocean have been identified as the ultimate source of mare basalt liquids on the basis or rare-earth abundance patterns and experimental petrology studies. A study is conducted concerning the thermal evolution of the early differentiation processes. A range of models of increasing sophistication are considered. The models developed contain the essence of the energetics and the time scale for magma ocean differentiation. Attention is given to constraints on a magma ocean, modeling procedures, single-component magma oceans, fractionating magma oceans, and evolving magma oceans.

  6. Analytic approximations to the modon dispersion relation. [in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Three explicit analytic approximations are given to the modon dispersion relation developed by Flierl et al. (1980) to describe Gulf Stream rings and related phenomena in the oceans and atmosphere. The solutions are in the form of k(q), and are developed in the form of a power series in q for small q, an inverse power series in 1/q for large q, and a two-point Pade approximant. The low order Pade approximant is shown to yield a solution for the dispersion relation with a maximum relative error for the lowest branch of the function equal to one in 700 in the q interval zero to infinity.

  7. TOPEX/Poseidon - An international satellite oceanography mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, W. F.; Fellous, J.-L.

    1986-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon mission, a joint NASA-CNES effort, strives to provide highly accurate global ocean topography measurements over a three year period utilizing highly advanced satellite radar altimetry techniques. Scheduled for launch in late 1991, the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite, together with ESA's first European remote sensing satellite and NASA's scatterometer, promises to provide a fundamental breakthrough in the present knowledge of how the oceans work as a global system. As part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, TOPEX/Poseidon measurements will aid in the determination of the three-dimensional current structure of the global oceans.

  8. The closure problem for turbulence in meteorology and oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, W. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The dependent variables used for computer based meteorological predictions and in plans for oceanographic predictions are wave number and frequency filtered values that retain only scales resolvable by the model. Scales unresolvable by the grid in use become 'turbulence'. Whether or not properly processed data are used for initial values is important, especially for sparce data. Fickian diffusion with a constant eddy diffusion is used as a closure for many of the present models. A physically realistic closure based on more modern turbulence concepts, especially one with a reverse cascade at the right times and places, could help improve predictions.

  9. Marine resources. [coastal processes, ice, oceanography, and living marine resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1974-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for defining coastal circulation patterns using sediment as a natural tracer, allowing the formulation of new circulation concepts in some geographical areas and, in general, a better capability for defining the seasonal characteristics of coastal circulation. An analytical technique for measurement of absolute water depth based upon the ratios of two MSS channels has been developed. Suspended sediment has found wide use as a tracer, but a few investigators have reported limited success in measuring the type and amount of sediment quantitatively from ERTS-1 digital data. Significant progress has been made in developing techniques for using ERTS-1 data to locate, identify, and monitor sea and lake ice. Ice features greater than 70 meters in width can be detected, and both arctic and antarctic icebergs have been identified. In the application area of living marine resources, the use of ERTS-1 image-density patterns as a potential indicator of fish school location has been demonstrated for one coastal commercial resource, menhaden. ERTS-1 data have been used to locate ocean current boundaries using ERTS-1 image-density enhancement, and some techniques are under development for measurement of suspended particle concentration and chlorophyll concentration. The interrelationship of water color and surface characteristics (sea state) are also being studied to improve spectral and spatial interpretive techniques.

  10. (abstract) TOPEX/Poseidon: Four Years of Synoptic Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1996-01-01

    Exceeding all expectations of measurement precision and accuracy, the US/France TOPEX/Poseidon satellite mission is now in its 5th year. Returning more than 98 percent of the altimetric data, the measured global geocentric height of the sea surface has provided unprecedented opportunities to address a host of scientific problems ranging from the dynamics of ocean circulation to the distribution of internal tidal energy. Scientific highlights of this longest-running altimetric satellite mission include improvements in our understanding of the dynamics and thermodynamics of the large-scale ocean variability, such as, the properties of planetary waves; the energetics of basin-wide gyres; the heat budget of the ocean; and the ocean's response to wind forcing. For the first time, oceanographers have quantitative descriptions of a dynamic variable of the physical state of the global oceans available in near-real-time.

  11. Arctic paleo-oceanography in late cenozoic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, Y.

    1970-01-01

    Sediment cores from the Arctic Ocean yield significant faunal and lithologic evidence of alternating cold and milder periods for the last 6 million years. Although high-latitude continental glaciation commenced prior to 6 million years ago, the Arctic Ocean remained free of permanent pack ice up to approximately 0.7 million years ago, after which successive ice-covered and ice-free conditions existed.

  12. Under Pressure: A Study of Issues in Oceanography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Diana

    2006-01-01

    The world's greatest cities and centers of civilization arose near or along major waterways providing access to the sea. Many people, no matter where they live, find the ocean and the life associated with it a fascinating topic. Although the ocean is characterized by high taxonomic diversity (over 90% of the animal phyla are represented in the…

  13. Changing coastal oceanography of the Black Sea II: Mediterranean effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmazin, D.

    The behavior and physical mechanisms during the Mediterranean flow, entering the Black Sea from the Bosphorus, are described using existing field observations and hydrodynamic models for the vertical and along axis circulation in the strait. Soviet studies in the 1960-1970's showed that a well-defined sill north of the Bosphorus does not prevent the overflow of dense Mediterranean water onto the shelf even during unfavorable conditions (high surface elevation in the Black Sea and strong northerly winds). The stream makes a sharp westward turn after exiting from the strait and then starts its track downward to the shelf slope. Intensive dispersion of the Mediterranean water occurs at a distance of 25-50 km from the strait. Recent laboratory and mathematical models have been reviewed to describe the behavior of the density and current interfaces in the strait and the role of temporary blockage of the dense flow upon the Mediterranean effluent. Two hypothetic physical mechanisms for sill overflow are discussed. One is associated with bifurcation of the coastal flows, approaching the strait orifice, and formation of a diversion zone in the upper layer which facilitates the flow over the sill. Another hypothesis suggests that the sill exercises frictionless rotational hydraulic control in the short, 4 km continuation of the strait channel. Persistent northeasterly or southerly winds can substantially affect the intensity of the Mediterranean effluent by modifying the average flow fields and density structures in the strait. TS-analysis of far-field property distribution shows that the Mediterranean water contributes to the laminated structure of the Black Sea water column. Under average conditions, the Mediterranean waters follow the mainstream of the Black Sea current system along the Turkish coast, reaching the deepest strata in the southeastern corner of the sea. Ongoing Soviet diversions of fresh water from the northern slope of the Black Sea and projected damming of the major estuaries and the Azov Sea will intensify the Mediterranean effluent and, at the same time, will increase the vertical mixing due to more effective convective overturn. These phenomena will lead to partial or complete disappearance of the H 2S layer and general warming of the water column.

  14. Interpretation of remotely sensed data and its applications in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Tanaka, K.; Inostroza, H. M.; Verdesio, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology of interpretation of remote sensing data and its oceanographic applications are described. The elements of image interpretation for different types of sensors are discussed. The sensors utilized are the multispectral scanner of LANDSAT, and the thermal infrared of NOAA and geostationary satellites. Visual and automatic data interpretation in studies of pollution, the Brazil current system, and upwelling along the southeastern Brazilian coast are compared.

  15. Chemical oceanography of the Indian Ocean, north of the equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. Sen; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    Chemical oceanographic studies in the North Indian Ocean have revealed several interesting and unique features. These are caused by the diverse conditions prevailing in the area which include immense river runoff in the northeast (Bay of Bengal) and a large excess of evaporation over precipitation and runoff in the northwest (Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf and Red Sea), resulting in the formation of several low- and high-salinity water masses. The occurrence of coastal upwelling seasonally makes the region highly fertile, and the existence of Asian landmass, forming the northern boundary, prevents quick renewal of subsurface layers. Consequently, dissolved oxygen gets severely depleted below the thermocline and reducing conditions prevail at intermediate depths (ca. 150-1200m) resulting in the reduction of nitrate (denitrification). The North Indian Ocean may contribute up to 10% of the global marine denitrification. The "denitrified" nitrogen, when combined with the rate of photosynthetic production reaching below the euphotic zone, gives the average residence time of water between 75 and 1200m as 43-51 years. The inorganic nutrient concentrations in the subsurface layers are very high in close proximity of the euphotic zone. The two-layered circulation leads to an active recycling of nutrients. The presence of organic fractions of nitrogen and phosphorus in significant concentrations in the deep water suggest that oxidation of organic matter is incomplete even great depths. The relationships between the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and nutrients and the stoichiometric composition of organic matter, deduced from the oxidative ratios and by analysis of plankton, are not very different from other oceanic areas. Higher nutrients and lower oxygen concentrations occur in the bottom layer as compared to the overlying water column in deep waters of the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, suggesting that considerable quantities of organic matter reach the deep-sea floor, probably as fecal pellets, and get oxidized in the bottom layer. Very high silicate concentrations occur in the bottom water, especially in the Arabian Sea, decreasing steadily southward, indicating the solution of diatomaceous sediments from the sea floor. The silicate-rich waters appear to move southward over the north-bound, silicate-poor bottom water, resulting in the occurrence of a deep silicate maximum. The calcium: chlorinity ratio in the North Indian Ocean is appreciably higher than the oceanic averages. This is probably due to: (1) a high rate of river runoff in relatively small area; and (2) excessive stripping of calcium at the surface associated with a high biological productivity and its subsequent addition and regeneration in the bottom waters. The upward flux of calcium appears to be higher than in other oceanic areas. Other major constituents investigated (fluoride and magnesium) do not show any anomally. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in surface waters of the North Indian Ocean is higher than that in the atmosphere which results in a net flux of carbon dioxide from the sea to the atmosphere. Stagnation of intermediate layers, coupled with high organic productivity at the surface, results in high total carbon dioxide content at these levels. An increase in carbonate ion concentration occurs with depth in deep waters (>1000m). Calcite saturation depth varies from 1000 to 3000m, increasing proressively southward. The lysocline lies at about 4000m depth, while the carbonate critical depth is located at 4000-5100m. The lysocline appears to be related to the "critical carbonate ion concentration" of 90±5 μm kg -1.

  16. Coastal oceanography sets the pace of rocky intertidal community dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Menge, B. A.; Lubchenco, J.; Bracken, M. E. S.; Chan, F.; Foley, M. M.; Freidenburg, T. L.; Gaines, S. D.; Hudson, G.; Krenz, C.; Leslie, H.; Menge, D. N. L.; Russell, R.; Webster, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    The structure of ecological communities reflects a tension among forces that alter populations. Marine ecologists previously emphasized control by locally operating forces (predation, competition, and disturbance), but newer studies suggest that inputs from large-scale oceanographically modulated subsidies (nutrients, particulates, and propagules) can strongly influence community structure and dynamics. On New Zealand rocky shores, the magnitude of such subsidies differs profoundly between contrasting oceanographic regimes. Community structure, and particularly the pace of community dynamics, differ dramatically between intermittent upwelling regimes compared with relatively persistent down-welling regimes. We suggest that subsidy rates are a key determinant of the intensity of species interactions, and thus of structure in marine systems, and perhaps also nonmarine communities. PMID:14512513

  17. Oceanography for Divers: Hazardous Marine Life. Diver Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Lee H.

    Most people find that the life of the marine environment is beautiful and fascinating. Of the thousands of marine animals and plants, relatively few constitute a real hazard to the diver. Although some species are dangerous and may, in some instances, inflict serious wounds, with a few exceptions marine animals are not aggressive. Most…

  18. Oceanography and life history predict contrasting genetic population structure in two Antarctic fish species.

    PubMed

    Young, Emma F; Belchier, Mark; Hauser, Lorenz; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Meredith, Michael P; Murphy, Eugene J; Pascoal, Sonia; Rock, Jennifer; Tysklind, Niklas; Carvalho, Gary R

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the key drivers of population connectivity in the marine environment is essential for the effective management of natural resources. Although several different approaches to evaluating connectivity have been used, they are rarely integrated quantitatively. Here, we use a 'seascape genetics' approach, by combining oceanographic modelling and microsatellite analyses, to understand the dominant influences on the population genetic structure of two Antarctic fishes with contrasting life histories, Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii. The close accord between the model projections and empirical genetic structure demonstrated that passive dispersal during the planktonic early life stages is the dominant influence on patterns and extent of genetic structuring in both species. The shorter planktonic phase of C. gunnari restricts direct transport of larvae between distant populations, leading to stronger regional differentiation. By contrast, geographic distance did not affect differentiation in N. rossii, whose longer larval period promotes long-distance dispersal. Interannual variability in oceanographic flows strongly influenced the projected genetic structure, suggesting that shifts in circulation patterns due to climate change are likely to impact future genetic connectivity and opportunities for local adaptation, resilience and recovery from perturbations. Further development of realistic climate models is required to fully assess such potential impacts. PMID:26029262

  19. The physical oceanography of upwelling systems and the development of harmful algal blooms

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, G.C.; Figueiras, F.G.; Hickey, B.M.; Moita, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The upwelling systems of the eastern boundaries of the world’s oceans are susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) because they are highly productive, nutrient-rich environments, prone to high-biomass blooms. This review identifies those aspects of the physical environment important in the development of HABs in upwelling systems through description and comparison of bloom events in the Benguela, California and Iberia systems. HAB development is dictated by the influence of wind stress on the surface boundary layer through a combination of its influence on surface mixed-layer characteristics and shelf circulation patterns. The timing of HABs is controlled by windstress fluctuations and buoyancy inputs at the seasonal, event and interannual scales. Within this temporal framework, various mesoscale features that interrupt typical upwelling circulation patterns, determine the spatial distribution of HABs. The inner shelf in particular provides a mosaic of shifting habitats, some of which favour HABs. Changes in coastline configuration and orientation, and bottom topography are important in determining the distribution of HABs through their influence on water stratification and retention. A spectrum of coastline configurations, including headlands, capes, peninsulas, Rías, bays and estuaries, representing systems of increasing isolation from the open coast and consequent increasing retention times, are assessed in terms of their vulnerability to HABs. PMID:22053120

  20. The physical oceanography of Jones Bank: A mixing hotspot in the Celtic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Matthew R.; Inall, Mark E.; Sharples, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    New measurements are presented of the currents and hydrography at Jones Bank in the Celtic Sea. These measurements, collected during the summer of 2008, identify a highly energetic internal wavefield generated by the local interaction of seasonally stratified flow with topography. Observations close to the bank crest reveal internal waves of up to 40 m amplitude; approaching 50% of the local water depth. These waves occur during spring periods and are predominantly associated with off-bank tidal flow. We provide evidence that these waves are the result of hydraulic control of the tidal currents which result in supercritical flow in the bottom mixed layer (bml) on the upper slopes of the bank. The waning tide produces a transition from super to subcritical flow, identifiable as a regular hydraulic jump on the bank slope. Microstructure measurements identify a turbulent 'bore' associated with such jumps that increases bml turbulence by several orders of magnitude and produces a regular burst of enhanced mixing at the base of the ever-present thermocline. Additional mixing in the surface mixed layer is provided during gale force conditions during the first of the two spring tides observed, occurring at the start of our three-week measurement period. The average thermocline mixing rate during stormy spring tide conditions is 1.9 (±1.0, 95%) × 10-3 m2 s-1, driven by both surface mixing and hydraulic jumps. During the later calm spring period the average thermocline mixing rate is 3.3 (±1.7) × 10-4 m2 s-1, dominated by jump associated events. By comparison, the intervening neap tide period produces no hydraulic jumps and is characterised by relatively calm weather. A strong shear layer is however maintained during this 'quiet' period sufficient to enhance thermocline turbulence by a factor 1000 above background levels. A short lived peak in thermocline turbulence during the neap period produces diapycnal mixing as high as 1.6 × 10-2 m2 s-1 however a more representative 'background' thermocline mixing rate is 2.8 (±0.6) × 10-5 m2 s-1.

  1. Atmospheric Pressure Corrections in Geodesy and Oceanography: a Strategy for Handling Air Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponte, Rui M.; Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Global pressure data are often needed for processing or interpreting modern geodetic and oceanographic measurements. The most common source of these data is the analysis or reanalysis products of various meteorological centers. Tidal signals in these products can be problematic for several reasons, including potentially aliased sampling of the semidiurnal solar tide as well as the presence of various modeling or timing errors. Building on the work of Van den Dool and colleagues, we lay out a strategy for handling atmospheric tides in (re)analysis data. The procedure also offers a method to account for ocean loading corrections in satellite altimeter data that are consistent with standard ocean-tide corrections. The proposed strategy has immediate application to the on-going Jason-1 and GRACE satellite missions.

  2. Paleoceanographic insights on recent oxygen minimum zone expansion: lessons for modern oceanography.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Sarah E; Moffitt, Russell A; Sauthoff, Wilson; Davis, Catherine V; Hewett, Kathryn; Hill, Tessa M

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) expansions in the geologic record provide an opportunity to characterize the spatial and temporal scales of OMZ change. Here we investigate OMZ expansion through the global-scale warming event of the most recent deglaciation (18-11 ka), an event with clear relevance to understanding modern anthropogenic climate change. Deglacial marine sediment records were compiled to quantify the vertical extent, intensity, surface area and volume impingements of hypoxic waters upon continental margins. By integrating sediment records (183-2,309 meters below sea level; mbsl) containing one or more geochemical, sedimentary or microfossil oxygenation proxies integrated with analyses of eustatic sea level rise, we reconstruct the timing, depth and intensity of seafloor hypoxia. The maximum vertical OMZ extent during the deglaciation was variable by region: Subarctic Pacific (~600-2,900 mbsl), California Current (~330-1,500 mbsl), Mexico Margin (~330-830 mbsl), and the Humboldt Current and Equatorial Pacific (~110-3,100 mbsl). The timing of OMZ expansion is regionally coherent but not globally synchronous. Subarctic Pacific and California Current continental margins exhibit tight correlation to the oscillations of Northern Hemisphere deglacial events (Termination IA, Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas and Termination IB). Southern regions (Mexico Margin and the Equatorial Pacific and Humboldt Current) exhibit hypoxia expansion prior to Termination IA (~14.7 ka), and no regional oxygenation oscillations. Our analyses provide new evidence for the geographically and vertically extensive expansion of OMZs, and the extreme compression of upper-ocean oxygenated ecosystems during the geologically recent deglaciation. PMID:25629508

  3. Oceanography and life history predict contrasting genetic population structure in two Antarctic fish species

    PubMed Central

    Young, Emma F; Belchier, Mark; Hauser, Lorenz; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Meredith, Michael P; Murphy, Eugene J; Pascoal, Sonia; Rock, Jennifer; Tysklind, Niklas; Carvalho, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the key drivers of population connectivity in the marine environment is essential for the effective management of natural resources. Although several different approaches to evaluating connectivity have been used, they are rarely integrated quantitatively. Here, we use a ‘seascape genetics’ approach, by combining oceanographic modelling and microsatellite analyses, to understand the dominant influences on the population genetic structure of two Antarctic fishes with contrasting life histories, Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii. The close accord between the model projections and empirical genetic structure demonstrated that passive dispersal during the planktonic early life stages is the dominant influence on patterns and extent of genetic structuring in both species. The shorter planktonic phase of C. gunnari restricts direct transport of larvae between distant populations, leading to stronger regional differentiation. By contrast, geographic distance did not affect differentiation in N. rossii, whose longer larval period promotes long-distance dispersal. Interannual variability in oceanographic flows strongly influenced the projected genetic structure, suggesting that shifts in circulation patterns due to climate change are likely to impact future genetic connectivity and opportunities for local adaptation, resilience and recovery from perturbations. Further development of realistic climate models is required to fully assess such potential impacts. PMID:26029262

  4. Transforming Research in Oceanography through Education, Ethnography and Rapidly Evolving Technologies: An NSF-INSPIRE project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Pallant, A.; Mirmalek, Z.; Jasanoff, S.; Rajan, K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will discuss a new NSF-INSPIRE project that brings together research conducted in the fields of Ocean Sciences, Education & Human Resources and Computer and Information Science & Engineering. Specifically, our objective is to investigate new methods by which telepresence can be used to conduct cutting edge research and provide authentic educational experiences to undergraduate students, remotely. We choose to conduct this research in an Oceanographic context for two reasons: first with the move toward smaller research ships in the national Oceanographic research fleet, we anticipate that access to berth space at sea will continue to be at a premium. Any component of traditional oceanographic research that can be ported to shore without loss of effectiveness would be of immediate benefit to the Ocean Sciences. Equally, however, we argue that any improvements to work place and/or education practices that we can identify while delivering research and education from the bottom of the deep ocean should be readily mappable to any other scientific or engineering activities that seek to make use of telepresence in less extreme remote environments. Work on our TREET project, to-date, has included recruitment of 6 early career scientists keen to take advantage of the research opportunity provided, together with two senior science mentors with experience using Telepresence and a cohort of undergraduate students at three of the ECS partner Universities, spanning 4 time zones across the continental US. Following a 12-week synchronous on-line seminar series taught in Spring-Summer 2014, the entire team joined together at the Inner Space Center in Sept-Oct 2014 to participate, virtually, in a cruise of research and exploration to the Kick'Em Jenny underwater volcano and adjacent cold seep sites, conducted by the Ocean Exploration Trust's ROV Hercules aboard the Exploration Vessel Nautilus. Our presentation will include preliminary results from that cruise.

  5. Gene flow in Antarctic fishes: the role of oceanography and life history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Emma; Rock, Jenny; Carvalho, Gary; Murphy, Eugene; Meredith, Michael; Hutchinson, Bill

    2010-05-01

    Marine organisms with pelagic larvae are generally assumed to experience high gene flow and low levels of population differentiation. However, variability in life history and environmental characteristics, in particular oceanographic flow fields, can significantly influence dispersal, and their relative effects are frequently unclear. Our research examines the influence of oceanographic and life history variability on gene flow in two species of Antarctic fish: Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii. These species are broadly sympatric in their distribution, but differ in aspects of life history that are expected to strongly affect their dispersal capabilities. Our research has used two complementary techniques. Genetic analyses, specifically mtDNA and microsatellite markers, have been used to examine historic and contemporary gene flow and thus describe patterns of population differentiation at the circumpolar scale. These analyses have been compared with predicted larval transport from a global oceanographic model (OCCAM) combined with individual based particle tracking models. In using these complementary techniques, the relative influences of early life history and oceanographic variability can be elucidated. Here we present the key findings of our research, including evidence for inter-specific variation in mitochondrial gene flow at the circumpolar level and a limited degree of genetic structuring within the Scotia Sea.

  6. Clipperton Atoll (eastern Pacific): oceanography, geomorphology, reef-building coral ecology and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. W.; Veron, J. E. N.; Wellington, G. M.

    1996-06-01

    Coral reef geomorphology and community composition were investigated in the tropical northeastern Pacific during April 1994. Three areas were surveyed in the Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico), and an intensive study was conducted on Clipperton Atoll (1,300 km SW of Acapulco), including macro-scale surface circulation, sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, geomorphology, coral community structure, zonation, and biogeography. Satellite-tracked drifter buoys from 1979 1993 demonstrated complex patterns of surface circulation with dominantly easterly flow (North Equatorial Counter Current, NECC), but also westerly currents (South Equatorial Current, SEC) that could transport propagules to Clipperton from both central and eastern Pacific regions. The northernmost latitude reached by the NECC is not influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, but easterly flow velocity evidently is accelerated at such times. Maximum NECC flow rates indicate that the eastern Pacific barrier can be bridged in 60 to 120 days. SST anomalies at Clipperton occur during ENSO events and were greater at Clipperton in 1987 than during 1982 1983. Shallow (15 18 m)and deep (50 58 m) terraces are present around most of Clipperton, probably representing Modern and late Pleistocene sea level stands. Although Clipperton is a well developed atoll with high coral cover, the reef-building fauna is depauperate, consisting of only 7 species of scleractinian corals belonging to the genera Pocillopora, Porites, Pavona and Leptoseris, and 1 species of hydrocoral in the genus Millepora. The identities of the one Pocilpopora species and one of the two Porites species are still unknown. Two of the remaining scleractinians ( Pavona minuta, Leptoseris scabra) and the hydrocoral ( Millepora exaesa), all formerly known from central and western Pacific localities, represent new eastern Pacific records. Scleractinian corals predominate (10 100% cover) over insular shelf depths of 8 to 60m, and crustose coralline algae are dominant (5 40% cover) from 0.5 to 7m. Spur and groove features, constructed of alternating frameworks of Pocillopora and Porites, and veneered with crustose coralline algae, are generally well developed around most atoll exposures. Although crustose coralline algae predominate in the breaker zone (with up to 100% cover), a prominent algal ridge is absent with only a slight buildup (ca. 10 cm) to seaward. Frequent grazing by the pufferfish Arothron meleagris results in the removal of large amounts of live tissue and skeleton from Porites lobata. Acanthaster planci is present, but rare. The grazing of large diadematid sea urchins, (2 species each of Diadema and Echinothrix) on dead corals cause extensive erosion in some areas. Large numbers of corals on the 15 18 m terrace had recently suffered partial ( P. lobata, 60 70% maximum of all colonies sampled) or total ( Pocillopora sp., 80% maximum) mortality. The lengths of regenerating knobs and the rates of linear skeletal growth in P. lobata, determined by sclerochronologic analysis, indicated a period of stress during 1987. Massive skeletal growth is significantly higher at intermediate (16 17 m) than shallow (6 8 m) depths with mean extension rates of 1.5 mm yr-1 in P. lobata and 1.4 mm yr-1 in P. minuta at intermediate depths. Skeletal growth in P. lobata was depressed during the 1987 El Nifio event at Clipperton. The branching coral Pocillopora sp. demonstrated high and similar skeletal growth rates at both shallow (25.4 mm yr-1) and intermediate (26.5 mm yr-1) depths. The presence of widely distributed Indo-Pacific zooxanthellate corals at Clipperton and the Revillagigedo Islands indicates that these NE Pacific Islands probably serve as a stepping stone for dispersal into the far eastern Pacific region.

  7. The 1850 Ma Sudbury Impact Event in Northern Michigan and Changing Paleoproterozoic Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pufahl, P. K.; Hiatt, E. E.; Morrow, J. R.; Kyser, T. K.; Stanley, C. R.; Nelson, G. J.; Edwards, C. T.

    2009-05-01

    An ejecta layer produced by the Sudbury impact event at ca. 1.85 Ga occurs within the Baraga Group of northern Michigan and provides an excellent record of impact-related depositional processes. This newly discovered, 2 to 4-m-thick horizon accumulated during the onset of sulfidic ocean conditions, an event thought to coincide with the demise of continental margin-type iron formation and the end of the Earth's first phosphogenic episode. Common ejecta clasts include shock-metamorphosed quartz grains, splash-form tektites, accretionary lapilli, and glassy shards, suggesting sedimentation near the terminus of the continuous ejecta blanket. Lithofacies associations in the Baraga Group indicate that ejecta was deposited in a peritidal setting along this portion of the Nuna margin. Deeper water hemipelagic paleoenvironments contain interbedded iron formation and variably pyritiferous prodelta siltstone and sandstone. A sharp increase in pyrite abundance and a pronounced 6 ‰ positive shift in pyrite δ34S immediately following ejecta deposition suggest that the transition to sulfidic ocean conditions occurred just after the impact. Thus, this transition appears to have been rapid, likely occurring at ca. 1.85 Ga. Although the change to a sulfidic ocean is generally regarded as marking the beginning of a long lull in eukaryote evolution, the effects of a bolide impact during this critical stage in Earth history have not been addressed. Documenting and interpreting the detailed characteristics of the Sudbury ejecta horizon in Michigan has yielded a fingerprint to identify this chronostratigraphic marker in other Paleoproterozoic basins. For the first time a foundation exists to assess the consequences of the Sudbury impact on Precambrian ocean chemistry and early life.

  8. Oceanography and Yacht Racing - A Handful of Competitors, Millions of Spectators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, D.; Cresswell, G.; Badcock, K.; Cahill, M.; Rathbone, C.; Turner, P.

    2006-07-01

    Satellite altimeter measurements of sea level have proven to be far more accurate, and useful, than was hope for when the missions were designed, especially when data from several instruments are combines. In the regard, the experimental missions (ERS1 and 2, Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and GFO) have all been a resounding success. Why then, are there not plans already in place to continue and improve on the recent missions? One reason is surely that end-user uptake of the mission products has not yet convincingly justified the costs of future missions. At CSIRO we sought to maximise the awareness, amongst all marine sectors, that mapping ocean currents with sufficient accuracy and detail for operational use is indeed possible, so that the societal benefits of the system would become clear as quickly as possible. We did this using a well know marketing too - sport.

  9. Paleoceanographic Insights on Recent Oxygen Minimum Zone Expansion: Lessons for Modern Oceanography

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Sarah E.; Moffitt, Russell A.; Sauthoff, Wilson; Davis, Catherine V.; Hewett, Kathryn; Hill, Tessa M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) expansions in the geologic record provide an opportunity to characterize the spatial and temporal scales of OMZ change. Here we investigate OMZ expansion through the global-scale warming event of the most recent deglaciation (18-11 ka), an event with clear relevance to understanding modern anthropogenic climate change. Deglacial marine sediment records were compiled to quantify the vertical extent, intensity, surface area and volume impingements of hypoxic waters upon continental margins. By integrating sediment records (183-2,309 meters below sea level; mbsl) containing one or more geochemical, sedimentary or microfossil oxygenation proxies integrated with analyses of eustatic sea level rise, we reconstruct the timing, depth and intensity of seafloor hypoxia. The maximum vertical OMZ extent during the deglaciation was variable by region: Subarctic Pacific (~600-2,900 mbsl), California Current (~330-1,500 mbsl), Mexico Margin (~330-830 mbsl), and the Humboldt Current and Equatorial Pacific (~110-3,100 mbsl). The timing of OMZ expansion is regionally coherent but not globally synchronous. Subarctic Pacific and California Current continental margins exhibit tight correlation to the oscillations of Northern Hemisphere deglacial events (Termination IA, Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas and Termination IB). Southern regions (Mexico Margin and the Equatorial Pacific and Humboldt Current) exhibit hypoxia expansion prior to Termination IA (~14.7 ka), and no regional oxygenation oscillations. Our analyses provide new evidence for the geographically and vertically extensive expansion of OMZs, and the extreme compression of upper-ocean oxygenated ecosystems during the geologically recent deglaciation. PMID:25629508

  10. Topex/Poseidon: A United States/France mission. Oceanography from space: The oceans and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate change. Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' produced as a result of human activities could generate a global warming, followed by an associated rise in sea level. The satellite will use radar altimetry to measure sea-surface height and will be tracked by three independent systems to yield accurate topographic maps over the dimensions of entire ocean basins. The satellite data, together with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) measurements, will be analyzed by an international scientific team. By merging the satellite observations with TOGA and WOCE findings, the scientists will establish the extensive data base needed for the quantitative description and computer modeling of ocean circulation. The ocean models will eventually be coupled with atmospheric models to lay the foundation for predictions of global climate change.

  11. High resolution satellite observations of mesoscale oceanography in the Tasman Sea, 1978 - 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Hornibrook, M.; Latham, A. R.; Speechley, G. C.; Scully-Power, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Of the Nearly 1000 standard infrared photographic images received, 273 images were on computer compatible tape. It proved necessary to digitally enhance the scene contrast to cover only a select few degrees K over the photographic grey scale appropriate to the scene-specific range of sea surface temperature (SST). Some 178 images were so enhanced. Comparison with sea truth show that SST, as seen by satellite, provides a good guide to the ocean currents and eddies off East Australia, both in summer and winter. This is in contrast, particularly in summer, to SST mapped by surface survey, which usually lacks the necessary spatial resolution.

  12. An overview of new insights from satellite salinity missions on oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reul, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched on 2 November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the need for global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables describing the Earth's water cycle and having been identified as Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). After five years of satellite Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) monitoring from SMOS data, we will present an overview of the scientific highlights these data have brougtht to the oceanographic communities. In particular, we shall review the impact of SMOS SSS and brightness tempeaerture data for the monitoring of: -Mesoscale variability of SSS (and density) in frontal structures, eddies, -Ocean propagative SSS signals (e.g. TIW, planetary waves), -Freshwater flux Monitoring (Evaportaion minus precipitation, river run off), -Large scale SSS anomalies related to climate fluctuations (e.g. ENSO, IOD), -Air-Sea interactions (equatorial upwellings, Tropical cyclone wakes) -Temperature-Salinity dependencies, -Sea Ice thickness, -Tropical Storm and high wind monitoring, -Ocean surface bio-geo chemistry.

  13. Physical Oceanography: Project Earth Science. Material for Middle School Teachers in Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. Sean

    This book is one in a series of Earth science books and contains a collection of 18 hands-on activities/demonstrations developed for the middle/junior high school level. The activities are organized around three key concepts. First, students investigate the unique properties of water and how these properties shape the ocean and the global…

  14. Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1983-06-01

    A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

  15. Learning Oceanography from a Computer Simulation Compared with Direct Experience at Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William; Stahr, Frederick; Sarason, Christian; Fruland, Ruth; Oppenheimer, Peter; Lee, Yen-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from "traditional" classes. Little research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from direct experience in the real environment on which the simulations are based. This study compared two…

  16. Oceanography of Glacier Bay, Alaska: Implications for biological patterns in a glacial fjord estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etherington, L.L.; Hooge, P.N.; Hooge, E.R.; Hill, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska, U.S.A, is one of the few remaining locations in the world that has fjords that contain temperate idewater glaciers. Studying such estuarine systems provides vital information on how deglaciation affects oceanographic onditions of fjords and surrounding coastal waters. The oceanographic system of Glacier Bay, Alaska, is of particular interest ue to the rapid deglaciation of the Bay and the resulting changes in the estuarine environment, the relatively high oncentrations of marine mammals, seabirds, fishes, and invertebrates, and the Bay’s status as a national park, where ommercial fisheries are being phased out. We describe the first comprehensive broad-scale analysis of physical and iological oceanographic conditions within Glacier Bay based on CTD measurements at 24 stations from 1993 to 2002. easonal patterns of near-surface salinity, temperature, stratification, turbidity, and euphotic depth suggest that freshwater nput was highest in summer, emphasizing the critical role of glacier and snowmelt to this system. Strong and persistent tratification of surface waters driven by freshwater input occurred from spring through fall. After accounting for seasonal nd spatial variation, several of the external physical factors (i.e., air temperature, precipitation, day length) explained a large mount of variation in the physical properties of the surface waters. Spatial patterns of phytoplankton biomass varied hroughout the year and were related to stratification levels, euphotic depth, and day length. We observed hydrographic atterns indicative of strong competing forces influencing water column stability within Glacier Bay: high levels of freshwater ischarge promoted stratification in the upper fjord, while strong tidal currents over the Bay’s shallow entrance sill enhanced ertical mixing. Where these two processes met in the central deep basins there were optimal conditions of intermediate tratification, higher light levels, and potential nutrient renewal. These conditions were associated with high and sustained hlorophylla levels observed from spring through fall in these zones of the Bay and provide a framework for understanding he abundance patterns of higher trophic levels within this estuarine system.

  17. A Science Teacher's Wisdom of Practice in Teaching Inquiry-Based Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Tamara Holmlund

    Inquiry-based research is recommended as a method for helping more students understand the nature of science as well as learn the substance of scientific knowledge, yet there is much to learn about how teachers might adapt inquiry for science teaching and what teachers need to know in order to do this. This case study of an exemplary teacher's…

  18. Annual, orbital, and enigmatic variations in tropical oceanography recorded by the Equatorial Atlantic amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Equatorial Atlantic surface waters respond directly to changes in zonal and meridional lower tropospheric winds forced by annual insolation. This mechanism has its maximum effect along the equatorial wave guide centered on 10 deg W. The result is to amplify even subtle tropical climate changes such that they are recorded by marked amplitude changes in the proxy signals. Model realizations, NCAR AGCM and OGCM for 0 Ka and 126 Ka (January and July), and paleoceanographic proxy data show that these winds are also forced by insolation changes at the orbital periods of precession and obliquity. Perhelion in boreal summer produces a strengthened monsoon, e.g., increase meridional and decrease zonal wind stress. This reduces oceanic Ekman divergence and thermocline/nutricline shallowing. The result, in the equatorial Atlantic, is reduced primary productivity and higher euphotic zone temperatures; vice versa for perihelion in boreal winter. Perihelion is controlled by precession. Thus, the dominant period in spectra from a stacked SST record (0-252 Ka BP) at the site of the equatorial Atlantic amplifier is 23 Ky (53 percent of the total variance). This precessional period is coherent (k = 0.920) and in phase with boreal summer insolation. Oscillations of shorter period are present in records from cores sited beneath the amplifier region. These occur between 12.5 and 74.5 Ka BP, when eccentricity modulation of precession is at a minimum. Within this time interval there are 21 cycles with mean periods of 3.0 plus or minus 0.5 Ky. Similar periods have been documented from high latitude regions, e.g., Greenland ice cores from Camp Century. The Camp Century signal in this same time interval contains 21 cycles. A subjective correlation was made between the Camp Century and the equatorial records; the signals were statistically similar, r = 0.722 and k = 0.960.

  19. The potential impact of scatterometry on oceanography - A wave forecasting case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Cardone, V. J.

    1981-01-01

    A series of observing system simulation experiments have been performed in order to assess the potential impact of marine surface wind data on numerical weather prediction. In addition to conventional data, the experiments simulated the time-continuous assimilation of remotely sensed marine surface wind or temperature sounding data. The wind data were fabricated directly for model grid points intercepted by a Seasat-1 scatterometer swath and were assimilated into the lowest active level (945 mb) of the model using a localized successive correction method. It is shown that Seasat wind data can greatly improve numerical weather forecasts due to better definition of specific features. The case of the QE II storm is examined.

  20. On the use of the earth resources technology satellite /LANDSAT-1/ in optical oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A.; Gordon, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of the Gulf Stream System in the Gulf of Mexico were obtained in synchronization with LANDSAT-1. Computer enhanced images, which are necessary to extract useful oceanic information, show that the current can be observed by color (diffuse radiance) or sea state (specular radiance) effects associated with the cyclonic boundary even in the absence of a surface thermal signature. The color effect relates to the spectral variations in the optical properties of the water and its suspended particles, and is studied by radiative transfer theory. Significant oceanic parameters identified are: the probability of forward scattering, and the ratio of scattering to total attenuation. Several spectra of upwelling diffuse light are computed as a function of the concentration of particles and yellow substance.

  1. Magma oceanography. II - Chemical evolution and crustal formation. [lunar crustal rock fractional crystallization model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an empirical model of fractional crystallization which predicts that slightly modified versions of certain of the proposed whole moon compositions can reproduce the major-element chemistry and mineralogy of most of the primitive highland rocks through equilibrium and fractional crystallization processes combined with accumulation of crystals and trapping of residual liquids. These compositions contain sufficient Al to form a plagioclase-rich crust 60 km thick on top of a magma ocean that was initially no deeper than about 300 km. Implicit in the model are the assumptions that all cooling and crystallization take place at low pressure and that there are no compositional or thermal gradients in the liquid. Discussions of the cooling and crystallization of the proposed magma ocean show these assumptions to be disturbingly naive when applied to the ocean as a whole. However, the model need not be applied to the whole ocean, but only to layers of cooling liquid near the surface.

  2. Physical oceanography from satellites: Currents and the slope of the sea surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturges, W.

    1974-01-01

    A global scheme using satellite altimetry in conjunction with thermometry techniques provides for more accurate determinations of first order leveling networks by overcoming discrepancies between ocean leveling and land leveling methods. The high noise content in altimetry signals requires filtering or correction for tides, etc., as well as carefully planned sampling schemes.

  3. Prospects for altimetry and scatterometry in the 90's. [satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Current NASA plans for altimetry and scatterometry of the oceans using spaceborne instrumentation are outlined. The data of interest covers geostrophic and wind-driven circulation, heat content, the horizontal heat flux of the ocean, and the interactions between atmosphere and ocean and ocean and climate. A proposed TOPEX satellite is to be launched in 1991, carrying a radar altimeter to measure the ocean surface topography. Employing dual-wavelength operation would furnish ionospheric correction data. Multibeam instruments could also be flown on the multiple-instrument polar orbiting platforms comprising the Earth Observation System. A microwave radar scatterometer, which functions on the basis of Bragg scattering of microwave energy off of wavelets, would operate at various view angles and furnish wind speeds accurate to 1.5 m/sec and directions accurate to 20 deg.

  4. Sailing the Seas of Titan : Meteorology and Oceanography of Ligeia Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph; Tokano, T.; Stofan, E.

    2010-10-01

    Ligiea Mare, about 500km across, is the second-largest sea on Titan and is the nominal target for the proposed TiME (Titan Mare Explorer) mission, which would arrive at Titan in 2023 (Ls= 160o). A numerical model of tides in Titan seas and lakes (Tokano, 2010) has now been applied to Ligeia, and shows a tide that rotates anti-clockwise around the sea with a maximum amplitude of 1.2m (at the Eastern edge of Ligeia, and assuming no crustal response to tides). Recent work (Hayes et al., 2010) at Ontario Lacus suggests that such depth changes may be observable in Cassini RADAR data. The magnitude of tidal currents is rather small and depends on the depth. Ligeia's bathymetry is not known (except that its overall radar darkness requires depths >6m) but assuming a 200m central depth by scaling with terrestrial lake basins , tidal currents are of the order of 1 cm/s. The Global Circulation Model of Tokano (2009) predicts surface winds of 0-1 m/s in this season : the wind pattern is affected by global-scale wind, tidal winds, and the local effects of the thermal contrast between the dark hydrocarbon sea and its surrounds (sea breeze). Rainfall preferentially occurs in summer and may be slightly more intense than outside the sea.For vehicles with equal cross-section above and below the waterline, the drift velocity will be about 1/10th of the windspeed (from simple drag balance, and the 100:1 difference between air and sea density). Given the winds above, the drift of the TiME capsule will 10km per 24 hours. However, the net drift depends on the variation of wind direction during a Titan day, so an epicyclic trajectory may result with a lower overall drift rate. We examine the possibility of drag modulation to control direction and speed of net drift.

  5. Skidaway Institute of Oceanography Library and University of Georgia Marine Institute Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Tom A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes two special libraries which operate as branch libraries of the University of Georgia and which deal entirely with marine sciences. Topics include historical background; meeting the information needs of researchers and educators; responsibilities of the librarians; networked resources and library automation; access via the Internet; and…

  6. Evaluation of SIR-B imagery for geologic and geomorphic mapping, hydrology, and oceanography in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honey, F. R.; Simpson, C. J.; Huntington, J.; Horwitz, R.; Byrne, G.; Nilsson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of a study to evaluate the potential of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) imagery for various applications are outlined. Specific goals include: the development of techniques for registration multiple acquisition, varied illumination, and incidence-angle SIR-B imagery, and a model for estimation of the relative contributions to the backscattered radiation of topography, surface roughness, and dielectric and conductivity components; (2) the evaluation of SIR-B imagery for delineation of agricultural lands affected by secondary salinity in the southwest and southeast agricultural regions of Australia; (3) the development of techniques for application of SIR-B imagery for geologic, geomorphologic and soils mapping and mineral exploration; and (4) the evaluation of the use of SIR-B imagery in determining ocean currents, current shear patterns, internal waves and bottom features for specific locations off the Australian coast.

  7. Modeling loggerhead turtle movement in the Mediterranean: importance of body size and oceanography.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Scott A; Moore, Jeffrey E; Dunn, Daniel C; van Buiten, Ricardo Sagarminaga; Eckert, Karen L; Halpin, Patrick N

    2008-03-01

    Adapting state-space models (SSMs) to telemetry data has been helpful for dealing with location error and for modeling animal movements. We used a combination of two hierarchical Bayesian SSMs to estimate movement pathways from Argos satellite-tag data for 15 juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the western Mediterranean Sea, and to probabilistically assign locations to one of two behavioral movement types and relate those behaviors to environmental features. A Monte Carlo procedure helped propagate location uncertainty from the first SSM into the estimation of behavioral states and environment--behavior relationships in the second SSM. Turtles using oceanic habitats of the Balearic Sea (n = 9 turtles) within the western Mediterranean were more likely to exhibit "intensive search" behavior as might occur during foraging, but only larger turtles responded to variations in sea-surface height. This suggests that they were better able than smaller turtles to cue on environmental features that concentrate prey resources or were more dependent on high-quality feeding areas. These findings stress the importance of individual heterogeneity in the analysis of movement behavior and, taken in concert with descriptive studies of Pacific loggerheads, suggest that directed movements toward patchy ephemeral resources may be a general property of larger juvenile loggerheads in different populations. We discovered size-based variation in loggerhead distribution and documented use of the western Mediterranean Sea by turtles larger than previously thought to occur there. With one exception, only individuals > 57 cm curved carapace length used the most westerly basin in the Mediterranean (western Alborán Sea). These observations shed new light on loggerhead migration phenology. PMID:18488597

  8. RuCool Operational Oceanography: Using a Fleet of Autonomous Ocean Gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graver, J.; Jones, C.; Glenn, S.; Kohut, J.; Schofield, O.; Roarty, H.; Aragon, D.; Kerfoot, J.; Haldeman, C.; Yan, A.

    2007-05-01

    At the Rutgers University Coastal Ocean Observation Lab (RU-COOL), we have constructed a shelf-wide ocean observatory to characterize the physical forcing of continental shelf primary productivity in the New York Bight (NYB). The system is anchored by four enabling technologies, which include the international constellation of ocean color satellites, multi-static high frequency long-range surface current radar, real-time telemetry moorings, and long duration autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Operation of the observatory is through a centralized computer network dedicated to receiving, processing and visualizing the real-time data and then disseminating results to both field scientists and ocean forecasters over the World Wide Web. The system was designed to conduct cutting edge research requiring the addition of rapidly evolving technologies, and to serve society by providing sustained data delivered in real-time. Rutgers COOL continues to work closely with Webb Research Corporation (WRC) in testing and development of the Slocum underwater gliders and continues to apply Slocum gliders in field operations spanning the globe. The continued strong collaboration between WRC and Rutgers has led to advances in glider operations and applications. These include deployment/recovery techniques, improvements in durability and reliability, integrated sensors suites, salinity spike removal, and adaptive controls utilized to optimize mission goals and data return. The gliders have gathered numerous data sets including salt intrusions as seen off of New Jersey, plume tracking, biological water sample matching, and operation through Hurricane Ernesto in 2006. This talk will detail recent oceanographic experiments in which the fleet has been deployed and improvements in the operation of these novel robotic vehicles. These experiments, in locations around the world, have resulted in significant new work in operation of underwater gliders and have gathered new and unique data sets. Recent accomplishments include deployment of a glider in Antarctica for LTER, control of a fleet of gliders during the ONR sponsored Shallow Water 06, RIMPAC, LATTE, ASAP, and the continuation of long-term observation at the LEO-15 New Jersey site Endurance Line. To date Rutgers has flown close to 100 glider missions, with over 27,000 km flown over 760 calendar days and 1,350 glider days in the water. Operations around the world are orchestrated remotely from COOL at Rutgers. Computer networking allows for command and control of the glider fleet from the COOL Lab or remotely via the internet. This system has enabled new oceanographic experiments at significantly reduced cost, with increased reliability, and with extended continuous operational deployments in the global oceans since 2003.

  9. Oceanography of the Subtropical Shelf Front Zone in the SW-Atlantic Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muelbert, J. H.; Acha, M.; Berasategui, A.; Bersano, J. G.; Braga, E. S.; Eichler, P.; Garcia, V. M.; Gomez-Erache, M.; Guerrero, R.; Mianzan, H.; Reta, R.; Ramirez, F.

    2005-05-01

    Only physical aspects of the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) have been described for the Southwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. The main goal of this paper is to present results of an integrated physical, chemical and biological study at the STSF conducted during the winter of 2003 and summer of 2004. A cross section was established at the historical determined location of the STSF. Nine stations were sampled during the winter cruise and 7 stations during summer. Each section included a series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations fitted with dissolved oxygen and turbidity sensors. Selected water samples were filtered and frozen at -20oC for nutrient determination. Samples for chlorophyll were concentrated on filters and these were stored frozen for later processing. Plankton net tows were carried out above and below pycnocline. Surface benthic foraminifera were collected with a bottom snapper. Results revealed that winter was marked by an inner shelf salinity front and the STSF located in the mid-shelf. Inner salinity showed the strong influence of freshwater, with high silicate (71.98 μM), phosphate (2.70 μM), nitrate (1.01 μM), Total Dissolved Nitrogen (22.98 μM) and suspended matter (44.80 mg/L). With distance from the coast and reduction of terrestrial input, subsurface high values of nutrients were associated with SACW upwelling. As a result, chlorophyll a concentration decreased from coastal well-mixed waters, where values up to 3.0 mg.m3 are registered, to offshore waters. Zooplankton abundance and biomass, and ichthyoplankton abundance follows the same trend. Zoo and ichthyoplankton abundance revealed the presence of 3 groups associated to the inner, mid and offshore shelf region. Benthic foraminifera composition suggested that shallow stations are dominated by few large freshwater species, while offshore stations presented smaller forms and higher species diversity. During summer, the halocline extended over the shelf and joined the STSF in the upper layer. The concentration of inorganic nutrients is reduced in the shallow waters in relation to the winter period, but high values are observed between 40 and 60 m depth and offshore deep waters. Zooplankton biomass was not as high as during winter, and largest values are observed around the STSF. Zoo and ichthyoplankton presented 3 groups, separated by the presence of the STSF. Despite less influence of freshwater during this season, benthic foraminifera were still marked by the presence of freshwater species. The results from this study suggest that during winter, freshwater influence is strong and physical-chemical-biological interactions develop in the front along its plume. However, during summer, when the presence of freshwater is less intense, these interactions seem to take place at the STSF.

  10. Oceanography. Centennial changes in North Pacific anoxia linked to tropical trade winds.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Curtis; Berelson, William; Thunell, Robert; Weber, Thomas; Tems, Caitlin; McManus, James; Crusius, John; Ito, Taka; Baumgartner, Timothy; Ferreira, Vicente; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    Climate warming is expected to reduce oxygen (O2) supply to the ocean and expand its oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). We reconstructed variations in the extent of North Pacific anoxia since 1850 using a geochemical proxy for denitrification (δ(15)N) from multiple sediment cores. Increasing δ(15)N since ~1990 records an expansion of anoxia, consistent with observed O2 trends. However, this was preceded by a longer declining δ(15)N trend that implies that the anoxic zone was shrinking for most of the 20th century. Both periods can be explained by changes in winds over the tropical Pacific that drive upwelling, biological productivity, and O2 demand within the OMZ. If equatorial Pacific winds resume their predicted weakening trend, the ocean's largest anoxic zone will contract despite a global O2 decline. PMID:25104384

  11. Offshore Wind Guidance Document: Oceanography and Sediment Stability (Version 1) Development of a Conceptual Site Model.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

    2014-06-01

    This guidance document provide s the reader with an overview of the key environmental considerations for a typical offshore wind coastal location and the tools to help guide the reader through a thoro ugh planning process. It will enable readers to identify the key coastal processes relevant to their offshore wind site and perform pertinent analysis to guide siting and layout design, with the goal of minimizing costs associated with planning, permitting , and long - ter m maintenance. The document highlight s site characterization and assessment techniques for evaluating spatial patterns of sediment dynamics in the vicinity of a wind farm under typical, extreme, and storm conditions. Finally, the document des cribe s the assimilation of all of this information into the conceptual site model (CSM) to aid the decision - making processes.

  12. EGO: Towards a global glider infrastructure for the benefit of marine research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testor, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In the 1990 s, while gliders were being developed and successfully passing first tests, their potential use for ocean research started to be discussed in international conferences because they could help us improve the cost-effectiveness, sampling, and distribution of the ocean observations (see OceanObs'99 Conference Statement - UNESCO). After the prototype phase, in the 2000 s, one could only witness the growing glider activity throughout the world. The first glider experiments in Europe brought together several teams that were interested in the technology and a consortium formed naturally from these informal collaborations. Since 2006, Everyone's Gliding Observatories (EGO - http://www.ego-network.org) Workshops and Glider Schools have been organized, whilst becoming the international forum for glider activities. Some key challenges have emerged from the expansion of the glider system and require now setting up a sustainable European as well as a global system to operate glider and to ensure a smooth and sustained link to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Glider technology faces many scientific, technological and logistical issues. In particular, it approaches the challenge of controlling many steerable probes in a variable environment for better sampling. It also needs the development of new formats and procedures in order to build glider observatories at a global level. Several geographically distributed teams of oceanographers now operate gliders, and there is a risk of fragmentation. We will here present results from our consortium who intends to solve most of these issues through scientific and technological coordination and networking. This approach is supported by the ESF through Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). The COST Action ES0904 "EGO" started in July 2010 aiming to build international cooperation and capacities at the scientific, technological, and organizational levels, for sustained observations of the oceans with gliders. A major impact of this Action was the elaboration of the EU Collaborative Project GROOM, Gliders for Research, Ocean Observation and Management for the FP7 call "Capacities - Research Infrastructures", which addresses the topic "design studies for research infrastructures in all S&T fields" (see http://www.groom-fp.eu).

  13. Oceanography north of 60°N from World Ocean Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidov, D.; Antonov, J. I.; Arzayus, K. M.; Baranova, O. K.; Biddle, M.; Boyer, T. P.; Johnson, D. R.; Mishonov, A. V.; Paver, C.; Zweng, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) has produced high-resolution regional ocean climatologies that reveal much greater detail than previously available in selected regions. A pilot study based on the NODC Arctic Regional Climatology (ARC) was carried out to track multidecadal ocean climate variability of the oceans and seas north of 60°N (referred to as Northern Waters). The structure and data coverage for the Northern Waters provided by this climatology are discussed. Multidecadal variability of the Northern Waters is analyzed with one- and quarter-degree resolutions. Our analysis indicates that although the Northern Waters are warming as a whole, the overall climatic trend and spatial distribution of warming and cooling areas are rather intricate and patchy, with some areas even having intermittent cooling episodes. Complex relations of the upper ocean warming and two major climate indices-the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-are discussed based on new ocean heat content calculations for the Greenland-Norwegian-Iceland Seas (GINS) and Arctic Ocean. Preliminary estimates suggest that multidecadal variability in the Northern Waters is more closely correlated with the AMO than the NAO, especially in the GINS.

  14. Matching genetics with oceanography: directional gene flow in a Mediterranean fish species.

    PubMed

    Schunter, C; Carreras-Carbonell, J; Macpherson, E; Tintoré, J; Vidal-Vijande, E; Pascual, A; Guidetti, P; Pascual, M

    2011-12-01

    Genetic connectivity and geographic fragmentation are two opposing mechanisms determining the population structure of species. While the first homogenizes the genetic background across populations the second one allows their differentiation. Therefore, knowledge of processes affecting dispersal of marine organisms is crucial to understand their genetic distribution patterns and for the effective management of their populations. In this study, we use genetic analyses of eleven microsatellites in combination with oceanographic satellite and dispersal simulation data to determine distribution patterns for Serranus cabrilla, a ubiquitous demersal broadcast spawner, in the Mediterranean Sea. Pairwise population F(ST) values ranged between -0.003 and 0.135. Two genetically distinct clusters were identified, with a clear division located between the oceanographic discontinuities at the Ibiza Channel (IC) and the Almeria-Oran Front (AOF), revealing an admixed population in between. The Balearic Front (BF) also appeared to dictate population structure. Directional gene flow on the Spanish coast was observed as S. cabrilla dispersed from west to east over the AOF, from north to south on the IC and from south of the IC towards the Balearic Islands. Correlations between genetic and oceanographic data were highly significant. Seasonal changes in current patterns and the relationship between ocean circulation patterns and spawning season may also play an important role in population structure around oceanographic fronts. PMID:22097887

  15. Reply [to “Comment on ‘Operational oceanography: Shall we dance?’”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, Christopher N. K.

    Stan Wilson and Muriel Cole have provided an instructive comment on my original essay (It was interesting to learn that they are performing ballet and not opera, and doing the jitterbug and tango and not the waltz and foxtrot, as could have been feared.)For example, they revealed that at least 1,317 NOAA employees (i.e., approximately 10% of their total workforce) are “operational oceanographers.” ( I would like to assume that they individually recognize their professional or functional identity) When taken together with Richard Spinrad's declared estimate of 2,800 “operational oceanographers” working for the Navy the United States has (neglecting any that may work for other agencies or the private sector) a minimum of 4,000 “operational oceanographers, ”which I believe the research and academic oceanographers will find surprisingly yet interestingly large.

  16. Evaluating Student Success and Outcomes in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography REU Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranes, J. L.; Kohne, L.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF foundation-wide REU program exists to help attract and retain a diverse pool of talented undergraduate students in STEM fields. These goals are particularly relevant in earth and marine sciences because relatively few minority students traditionally seek careers in these fields and only account for an extremely small percentage of Ph.D. degrees earned. The Scripps Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) REU program is a 10-week summer program currently in its third year of funding. The SURF program invites 10-15 undergraduate students from across the country to Scripps to participate in high quality collaborative research with Scripps faculty and researchers. Program components also include research seminars, career and graduate school preparation, GRE-prep courses, field trips and social activities. The project's goal, broadly, is to increase the participation of underrepresented minorities in marine science and related disciplines at a national level. Our program includes a comprehensive evaluation and assessment plan to help us understand the impact of this REU experience on the student participant. Our assessment consists of paired pre- and post-survey questions to estimate student growth in the following areas as related to earth and marine sciences: (1) increased knowledge and skills (2) increased confidence in ability to conduct research (3) improved attitudes and interest in the field and (4) more ambitious career goals. Assessment results from the last two cohorts have helped refine our recruitment and selection strategies. In the first year of our program, we focused almost exclusively on recruiting underrepresented minority students; over of the participants represented ethic groups considered to be underrepresented in STEM fields. However, participants did not demonstrate overall significant pre/post gains in any of the goal areas, mostly because pre-survey scores indicated that the students were already very strong in all goal areas. In years 2 and 3 our recruitment has continued to target underrepresented minorities, but our selection criteria now includes the following factors in order to better identify students who would most greatly benefit from the program: (1) students who have not had significant research experience (2) students who have not yet had significant exposure to the field (3) first-generation college students and (4) students who may not be as high achieving as other applicants, but who might have more opportunity for growth in the program. This modified selection and recruitment strategy has been successful, our 2012 cohort recorded higher demonstrated and perceived impacts in all goal areas. Our experience has demonstrated that, in order to have the most significant impact, REU Sites must be active in recruiting and involving students who are not already well positioned for success in STEM careers.

  17. OCEANOGRAPHY. Contrasting futures for ocean and society from different anthropogenic CO₂ emissions scenarios.

    PubMed

    Gattuso, J-P; Magnan, A; Billé, R; Cheung, W W L; Howes, E L; Joos, F; Allemand, D; Bopp, L; Cooley, S R; Eakin, C M; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Kelly, R P; Pörtner, H-O; Rogers, A D; Baxter, J M; Laffoley, D; Osborn, D; Rankovic, A; Rochette, J; Sumaila, U R; Treyer, S; Turley, C

    2015-07-01

    The ocean moderates anthropogenic climate change at the cost of profound alterations of its physics, chemistry, ecology, and services. Here, we evaluate and compare the risks of impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems—and the goods and services they provide—for growing cumulative carbon emissions under two contrasting emissions scenarios. The current emissions trajectory would rapidly and significantly alter many ecosystems and the associated services on which humans heavily depend. A reduced emissions scenario—consistent with the Copenhagen Accord's goal of a global temperature increase of less than 2°C—is much more favorable to the ocean but still substantially alters important marine ecosystems and associated goods and services. The management options to address ocean impacts narrow as the ocean warms and acidifies. Consequently, any new climate regime that fails to minimize ocean impacts would be incomplete and inadequate. PMID:26138982

  18. Survival of high latitude fringing corals in extreme temperatures: Red Sea oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, M. Z.; Moustafa, M. S.; Moustafa, Z. D.; Moustafa, S. E.

    2014-04-01

    This multi-year study set out to establish a comprehensive knowledgebase for a fringing coral reef in the Gulf of Suez, while also investigating the link between coral reef survivability and the extreme environmental conditions present in the region. The Gulf of Suez is a narrow branch of the northern Red Sea for which all forms of environmental and scientific data are severely lacking. Monitoring oceanographic and meteorological data provides evidence of both seasonal variability and interannual variability in this region, and may reveal correlations between reef health and prevailing climate conditions. Specifically, this research sought to document the environmental conditions under which Zaki's Reef, a small fringing coral reef (29.5°N and 32.4°E) that lies at the northernmost limit of tropical reefs worldwide, is able to survive, in order to determine how extreme the conditions are. Results of observed seawater temperature revealed that coral species at Zaki's Reef regularly experience 2-4 °C and 10-15 °C daily and seasonal temperature variations, respectively. Seawater temperature monthly means reached a minimum of 14 °C in February and a maximum of 33 °C in August. Monthly mean sea surface temperature climatology obtained from satellite measurements was comparable to observed seawater temperatures, while annual air and seawater temperature means were identical at 22 °C. Observed seawater temperatures exceeded established coral bleaching thresholds for extended periods of time, suggesting that coral species at this location may have developed a mechanism to cope with such extreme temperatures. Further scrutiny of these species and the mechanisms by which they are able to thrive is recommended.

  19. Linking Shore with the Ocean Floor in Real Time in Archeological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Robert D.

    2004-04-01

    In ocean exploration, physically transporting human beings in small numbers to remote regions of the world, and then taking them to the bottom of the ocean in very smaller numbers for short periods of time to explore short stretches of the sea floor, is clearly a costly and inefficient way to explore these vast regions of our planet.Recently, however, during an expedition to the Black Sea, Internet2 and a high-bandwidth satellite link made it possible for scientists to work on the ocean floor without ever having to leave the comfort of their university laboratory.

  20. UNESCO, URI, and Archaeology in the Deep Blue Sea: Archaeological Ethics and Archaeological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, William H.; Buxton, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Multiple groups have interests that intersect within the field of deep submergence (beyond the 50 meter range of SCUBA) archaeology. These groups' differing priorities present challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly as there are no established guidelines for best practices in such scenarios. Associating the term `archaeology' with projects directed at underwater cultural heritage that are guided by archaeologists poses a real risk to that heritage. Recognizing that the relevant professional organizations, local laws, and conventions currently have little ability to protect pieces of cultural heritage across disciplines and international boundaries, the authors propose institution-specific mechanisms, called Archaeology Review Boards, guided by local and international laws and conventions concerning cultural heritage, as the best means to provide oversight for academically centered archaeological activities at the local level.

  1. AUV Reveals Deep-Water Coral Mound Distribution, Morphology and Oceanography in the Florida Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmueck, M.; Eberli, G. P.; Viggiano, D. A.; Correa, T.; Rathwell, G.; Luo, J.

    2006-12-01

    Since the 1960's dredge sampling and submersible dives have discovered numerous mound-forming deep- water corals in water depths of 400-800 m in the Straits of Florida. This extensive collection of samples and observations however can not be put into a geomorphologic context as existing bathymetric charts do not resolve coral mounds. To make progress in understanding the distribution and genesis of coral mounds, maps of morphology and oceanographic conditions resolving features at the 1-10 m scale are needed. On 11-18 December 2005 the C-Surveyor II(TM) mapped five sites ranging from 14-48 km2 in 590-875 m water acquiring 1-3 m resolution bathymetry and acoustic backscatter together with subbottom profiles, current vectors, salinity, and temperature. The areas mapped with the AUV contain hundreds of coral mounds with heights of 1-120 m. Mound distribution, morphology and currents are different for each survey site. Coral mounds develop on off-bank transported sediment ridges and slump features at the toe-of-slope of Great Bahama bank, while chevron pattern ridges and sinusoidal ridges are found further east in the Straits. Currents range from 0.1-0.5 m/s. At two sites currents reversed every 6 hours indicating tidal control. The AUV surveys and subsequent ground truthing with a drop camera and a submersible revealed a surprising abundance and diversity of deep-water coral habitats. The boundaries between mound fields and the barren muddy or sandy seafloor are sharp. Hull- mounted multi-beam reconnaissance mapping helped us select the most promising coral mound areas to optimize the use of valuable AUV time. Such combined use of hull-mounted and AUV-based mapping enables efficient environmental characterization of large deep-water regions such as the Florida Straits. The synoptic high-resolution datasets acquired by the multiple sensors on board the AUV enable for the first time a comprehensive assessment of deep-water coral mound ecosystems. Utilization of such state-of-the-art deepwater exploration tools is essential to understand and protect these slow growing and fragile oases which are resources for seafood, new medicines and long-term climate records. The AUV data will guide future sampling and monitoring to critical locations and provide the geospatial framework for making inventories of mound resources and designing research and management plans.

  2. Oil Spill! An Event-Based Science Module. Student Edition. Oceanography Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school students to learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research, hands-on investigations, and…

  3. Oil Spill!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Oceanography Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science or general science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  4. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing learning activities that link ocean sciences with real-life issues relevant to employment, environment and economic concerns.

  5. Physical oceanography and acoustic propagation during LADC experiment in the Gulf of Mexico in 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Sergey; Caruthers, Jerald W.; Rayborn, Grayson H.; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.; Sidorovskaia, Natalia A.; Rypina, Irina I.; Newcomb, Joal J.; Fisher, Robert A.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.

    2003-04-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) deployed three environmental and acoustic moorings in a downslope line just off the Mississippi River Delta in the northern Gulf of Mexico in an area of a large concentration of sperm whales in July 2001. The measurement of whale vocalizations and, more generally, ambient noise, were the objectives of the experiment. Each mooring had a single hydrophone autonomously recording Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) obtained from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office and modified to recorded signals up to 5859 Hz continuously for 36 days. Also, self-recording, environmental sensors were attached to the moorings to obtain profiles of time series data of temperature and salinity. Satellite imagery and NOAA mooring data were gathered for an analysis of eddy formations and movement in the Gulf. This paper will discuss the possible environmental impact of two events that occurred during the experiment: the passage of Tropical Storm Barry and the movement of the remnants of an eddy in the area. Discussed also will be the expected effects of these events on acoustic propagation based on modeling, which are carried out for long range and low frequency (300 km and 500 Hz) using the normal-mode acoustic model SWAMP (Shallow Water Acoustic Modal Propagation by M. F. Werby and N. A. Sidorovskaia) and for short range and high frequency (10 km and 5000 Hz) using the parabolic-equation acoustic model RAM (Range-dependent Acoustic model by M. Collins). [Work supported by ONR.

  6. Earth resources programs at the Langley Research Center. Part 2: Coastal zone oceanography program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The approaches used to develop the coastal zone oceanic research program are outlined, and activities in the areas of satellite application, estuaries, continental shelf and environmental modeling are briefly described.

  7. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  8. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  9. A New Concept for an Ocean Bottom Pressure Meter for Precision Long-Term Monitoring in Marine Geodesy and Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villinger, H. W.; Gennerich, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term vertical seafloor displacements and geostrophic changes in the water column height could be easily monitored if pressure meters were less susceptible to drift. Currently, these signals, which have typical amplitudes from decimeters to less than 1 mm/yr, cannot be differentiated from instrumental drift. In this paper, we introduce and outline a new constructional concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter that aims for unequivocal detection and monitoring of long-term trends. The concept is based on a differential pressure sensor that measures the pressure difference between the environment and a reference pressure within a sealed volume. This sealed volume conserves the instantaneous pressure at the moment of its closure at the monitoring location in a temperature-compensated manner. Furthermore, the approach enables easy in situ calibration of the differential pressure gauge by simply opening the reference pressure chamber to the environment and checking the zero point offset.

  10. Ocean Front Detection from MERIS and OLCI Ocean Colour Data Applied to Marine Conservation and Global Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Peter I.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean front detection and aggregation techniques were recently applied to 300m resolution Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) satellite ocean colour data for the first time, to describe frequently occurring shelf-sea fronts near to the Scottish coast (Miller et al., in press). This resolution enabled the location of smaller frontal zones and those in close proximity to a convoluted coastline, and was used to identify zones of ecological importance that could assist the process of defining marine protected areas. Frequent front zones are associated with higher abundance of plankton, certain pelagic fish and megafauna. This paper anticipates the improved insights into submesoscale sediment and plankton dynamics that will result from application of these techniques to the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on Sentinel-3a and 3b. Looking to the global scale, we show global chlorophyll-a fronts, eddies and other structures detected from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative daily 4 km resolution merged dataset derived from MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS data. This emphasises the importance of the Sentinel missions to improving study of both physical and biological ocean processes.

  11. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dyble, Julianne; Bienfang, Paul; Dusek, Eva; Hitchcock, Gary; Holland, Fred; Laws, Ed; Lerczak, James; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Minnett, Peter; Moore, Stephanie K; O'Kelly, Charles; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Wang, John D

    2008-01-01

    Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges. PMID:19025676

  12. From Supernovae To Equatorial Ionosphere, Following a Tortuous Path Through Computer Sciences, Oceanography, and Much, Much More

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Beaujardiere, O.

    2002-12-01

    From as early as I can remember, I always wanted to be a scientist. My interests were oriented towards cataclysmic and catastrophic events. I first wanted to study volcanoes, then earthquakes. As I ended my PhD, my interests had gone a little higher, towards supernovae and the Crab Nebula. This was in Paris. I then immigrated to the US. My first job in the US was in computer sciences. I joined a team who made one of the first computer movies. I then switched fields once more. I went into ionospheric physics, where I stayed for more than 2 decades. I then did two "tours of duty" at National Sciences Foundation. I was first in the Magnetospheric Program. Then I started a multidisciplinary program that covered all sciences related to the arctic - from the bottom o f the ocean to the confines of the magnetosphere, passing through biology, glaciology, etc. Presently, I lead a team of about 20 scientists at the Air Force Research Laboratory. We work on basic and applied ionospheric sciences problems as they relate to communications and navigation. As a woman scientist, the hardest obstacle I had to overcome was probably the permanent guilt of not staying home with my children. I raised 3 boys, and, although they are happy, successful and well adjusted, I continue to feel guilt about not staying home for them, and working so long hours and with so much intensity. When they were small, society was not too accepting of working mothers. In one of my kids' first grade class, he was the only child whose mother was working. As a teenager I also had to overcome rejection from boys who "could not stand" girls who studied science. My own father was not too encouraging to continue studies, warning me that women who are too bright have a hard time finding husbands. One University professor told the class that women were wasting taxpayers' money since they would never put their degree to use. My greatest support was my husband, always there, sharing chores, and understanding my ups and downs. The saying that the difficult period in a woman's life is only between the ages of 7 and 70 gives me solace. I can't wait to be 70.

  13. Middle pleistocene mollusks from St. Lawrence Island and their significance for the paleo-oceanography of the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, D.M.; Rowland, R.W.; Patton, W.W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Drift, evidently of Illinoian age, was deposited on St. Lawrence Island at the margin of an ice cap that covered the highlands of the Chukotka Peninsula of Siberia and spread far eastward on the continental shelf of northern Bering Sea. Underlying the drift on the northwestward part of the island are mollusk-bearing beds deposited during the Kotzebuan Transgression. A comparison of mollusk faunas from St. Lawrence Island, Chukotka Peninsula, and Kotzebue Sound suggests that the present northward flow through Bering and Anadyr Straits was reversed during the Kotzebuan Transgression. Cold arctic water penetrated southward and southwestward bringing an arctic fauna to the Gulf of Anadyr. Warmer Pacific water probably entered eastern Bering Sea, passed eastward and northeastward around eastern and northern St. Lawrence Island, and then became entrained in the southward currents that passed through Anadyr Strait. ?? 1972.

  14. Customer Support Operations In Support Of The NASA/JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, S. L.; Chen, Y. M.

    2004-12-01

    PO.DAAC is responsible for the ingest, archive and distribution of data relevant to the physical state of the ocean. The PO.DAAC provides a level of service for customer support for core Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) missions such as TOPEX/POSEIDON, Jason, SeaWinds on QuikSCAT, SeaWinds on ADEOS-II, NOAA AVHRR and MODIS. PO.DAAC's level of support has broadened recently to include missions outside of the EOSDIS including, WindSat, GHRSST, Naval Oceanographic, Monterey Bay Aquarium, AirSAR and GOES. Customer support operations is managed and conducted in partnership between Raytheon ITSS and JPL and includes a full complement of services to accommodate the various PO.DAAC and Earth Observing System user communities. Customer support activities are ubiquitous to service industries from banking to shopping and this presentation will detail how two operational applications have been adopted for use in Earth Science data communities. Customer Response Management Operations System Integrated system that combines PO.DAAC's communications channels including web, email, phone and personal interactions into one intelligent knowledge base. The knowledge is shared with customers and the entire team to deliver consistent and timely information. The system allows 24 x 7 customer support service via extensive on-line searchable knowledge base. PO.DAAC has customized the system to fully integrate with PO.DAAC's existing legacy database and order tracking system. Website Communication Channel The newly redesigned PO.DAAC website (http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov) is the central gateway to all of the Data, Tools and Services offered at the data center. The consistent look and feel was developed to enhance the ease of searching and ordering earth science data in particular. Data is accessible within a few clicks using the improved dynamic data catalog interface. New data products and information are delivered quickly to customers via the dynamic system and templates.

  15. Environmental Studies, Section V: Oceanography. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.15: Pollution of the Oceans. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on pollution of the oceans. The slides,…

  16. Synoptic oceanography of San Jorge Gulf (Argentina): A template for Patagonian red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri) spatial dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glembocki, Nora Gabriela; Williams, Gabriela Noemí; Góngora, María Eva; Gagliardini, Domingo Antonio; Orensanz, José María (Lobo)

    2015-01-01

    An extensive series of high-resolution satellite images from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWIFS) was used in a synoptic oceanographic characterization of San Jorge Gulf (SJG, Argentine Patagonia), an area of great significance for marine conservation and commercial fishing. Remotely sensed information was combined with on-board observer's data and published information to investigate the role of distinctive oceanographic features in relation to the life cycle of the Patagonian red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri), main target of the industrial fleet in SJG. Three frontal systems-North, South and Outer SJG-are characterized. The North and South SJG fronts are associated with shrimp reproductive aggregations during late spring and summer. While both function as spawning/nursery grounds, they differ from each other in many respects. The thermohaline South SJG front has its maximum expression during the winter, reflecting the influence of the low-salinity Magellanic Plume, while the thermal North SJG front develops during spring and summer as the water column becomes stratified in the central basin of the gulf. Wind-related down-welling inshore of the front prevails in the North SJG, and upwelling in the South SJG frontal area. Chlorophyll a is concentrated near the thermocline on the stratified side of the North SJG, and for that reason, it is not detected by remote sensors during the spring bloom and the summer but becomes apparent offshore from the location of the front when the thermocline deepens during the fall (May). In the South SJG front, Chl-a concentration is apparent inshore from the front all year-round, related in part to upwelling-mediated resuspension. The northern end of the outer front coincides in time and space with a recurrent non-reproductive aggregation of red shrimp between November and January and is presumably related to foraging. It is argued that keeping the North and South SJG frontal systems off-limits to fishing is a central precautionary requisite for the sustainability of the shrimp fishery.

  17. Biologging, Remotely-Sensed Oceanography and the Continuous Plankton Recorder Reveal the Environmental Determinants of a Seabird Wintering Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Jérôme; Beaugrand, Grégory; Grémillet, David; Phillips, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Marine environments are greatly affected by climate change, and understanding how this perturbation affects marine vertebrates is a major issue. In this context, it is essential to identify the environmental drivers of animal distribution. Here, we focused on the little auk (Alle alle), one of the world’s most numerous seabirds and a major component in Arctic food webs. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we show how little auks adopt specific migratory strategies and balance environmental constraints to optimize their energy budgets. Miniature electronic loggers indicate that after breeding, birds from East Greenland migrate >2000 km to overwinter in a restricted area off Newfoundland. Synoptic data available from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) indicate that this region harbours some of the highest densities of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus found in the North Atlantic during winter. Examination of large-scale climatic and oceanographic data suggests that little auks favour patches of high copepod abundance in areas where air temperature ranges from 0°C to 5°C. These results greatly advance our understanding of animal responses to extreme environmental constraints, and highlight that information on habitat preference is key to identifying critical areas for marine conservation. PMID:22815967

  18. Hadean Oceanography: Experimental Constraints on the Development of the Terrestrial Hydrosphere and the Origin of Life on Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J

    2003-02-06

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of the world's oldest mineral grains, zircon, have recently been used to infer the compositions of the rocks from which they crystallized. The results appear to require a source that had once experienced isotopic fractionation between clay minerals and liquid water, thereby implying the presence of liquid water at the Earth's surface prior to 4.4 billion years ago, less than 2 million years after accretion. This observation has important implications for the development of the Earth's continental crust. The inferred composition of the zircon source rock is directly dependent upon the oxygen isotopic fractionation between zircon and melt, and zircon and water. These fractionation factors have not been determined experimentally, however, constituting the weak link in this argument. A series of experiments to measure these fractionation factors has been conducted. The experiments consist of finely powdered quartz, a polished single crystal of zircon and isotopically-enriched or isotopically normal water to provide a range of isotopic compositions. The experiments will be run until quartz is in isotopic equilibrium with water. Zircon was expected to partially equilibrate producing an oxygen isotopic diffusion profile perpendicular to the surface. Ion probe spot analysis of quartz and depth profiling of zircon will determine the bulk and surface isotopic compositions of the phases, respectively. The well-known quartz-water isotopic fractionation factors can be used to calculate the oxygen isotopic composition of the fluid, and with the zircon surface composition, the zircon-water fractionation factor. Run at temperatures up to 1000 C for as long as 500 hours have not produced diffusion profiles longer than 50 nm. The steep isotopic gradient at the samples surface precludes use of the diffusion profile for estimation on the surface isotopic composition. The short profiles may be the result of surface dissolution, although such dissolution cannot be resolved in SEM images. The sluggish nature of diffusion in zircon may require that fractionation factors be determined by direct hydrothermal synthesis of zircon rather than by mineral-fluid exchange.

  19. Matching oceanography and genetics at the basin scale. Seascape connectivity of the Mediterranean shore crab in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiavina, M; Marino, I A M; Zane, L; Melià, P

    2014-11-01

    Investigating the interactions between the physical environment and early life history is crucial to understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic structure of marine populations. Here, we assessed the genetic differentiation in a species with larval dispersal, the Mediterranean shore crab (Carcinus aestuarii) in the Adriatic Sea (central Mediterranean), and we investigated the role of oceanic circulation in shaping population structure. To this end, we screened 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 431 individuals collected at eight different sites. We found a weak, yet significant, genetic structure into three major clusters: a northern Adriatic group, a central Adriatic group and one group including samples from southern Adriatic and Ionian seas. Genetic analyses were compared, under a seascape genetics approach, with estimates of potential larval connectivity obtained with a coupled physical-biological model that integrates a water circulation model and a description of biological traits affecting dispersal. The cross-validation of the results of the two approaches supported the view that genetic differentiation reflects an oceanographic subdivision of the Adriatic Sea into three subbasins, with circulation patterns allowing the exchange of larvae through permanent connections linking north Adriatic sites and ephemeral connections like those linking the central Adriatic with northern and southern locations. PMID:25294324

  20. Continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, L P

    1980-02-29

    Progress is reported on research conducted from June, 1979 to May, 1980 on various oceanographic aspects of the South Atlantic Bight. Research topics included: (1) A flashing model of Onslow Bay, North Carolina based on intrusion volumes; (2) A description of a bottom intrusion in Onslow Bay, North Carolina; (3) Detailed observations of a Gulf Stream spin-off eddy on the Georgia continental shelf; (4) Pelagic tar of Georgia and Florida; (5) A surface diaton bloom in response to eddy-forced upwelling; and (6) Hydrographic observations off Savannah and Brunswick, Georgia.

  1. Investigating the influence of regional climate and oceanography on marine radiocarbon reservoir ages in southwest New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Moy, Christopher M.; Prior, Christine A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Wilson, Gary S.

    2015-12-01

    The New Zealand fjords are located at a latitude where distinct oceanic and atmospheric fronts separate carbon reservoirs of varying residence time. The marine radiocarbon reservoir age in this region is likely to deviate from the global average reservoir age over space and time as frontal boundaries migrate north and south. Here we present new estimates of modern radiocarbon reservoir age using the radiocarbon content of bivalve shells collected live before 1950. Multiple measurements from hydrographically distinct sites support the use of a ΔR, defined as the regional offset between measured and modeled marine radiocarbon reservoir age, of 59 ± 35 years for the New Zealand fjords. We also assess the radiocarbon content of bulk surface sediments throughout the fjord region. Sediment with a higher proportion of marine organic carbon has relatively less radiocarbon than more terrestrial sediment, suggesting a short residence time of organic carbon on land before deposition in the fjords. Additionally, we constrain reservoir age variability throughout the Holocene using coeval terrestrial and marine macrofossils. Although our modern results suggest spatial consistency in ΔR throughout the fjords, large deviations from the global average marine radiocarbon reservoir age exist in the paleo record. We find four ancient ΔR values, extending back to ˜10.2 cal kyr BP, to be negative or near zero. A likely cause of younger radiocarbon reservoir ages at select intervals throughout the Holocene is the increased influence of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, which cause extreme precipitation in the region that delivers terrestrial carbon, enriched in radiocarbon, to fjord basins. However, bivalve depth habitat may also influence radiocarbon content due to a stratified water column containing distinct carbon pools. This work highlights the need for thorough assessment of local radiocarbon cycling in similar regions of dynamic ocean/atmosphere frontal zones, especially fjords and other semi-restricted estuaries.

  2. Effective Use of the Sea, Report of the Panel on Oceanography of the President's Science Advisory Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Science Advisory Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report is concerned with the marine activities of the nation and how these activities contribute to the national well-being. Opportunities for the future are identified and discussed. The report centered around four main objectives: (1) to assess current and planned ocean programs for technical soundness, adequacy of scope, balance of…

  3. Linking basin-scale connectivity, oceanography and population dynamics for the management of marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Vincent; Dubois, Mélodie; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Lopez, Cristobal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    A major challenge in marine ecology is to describe properly larval dispersal and marine connectivity since they structure marine populations and are thus crucial criteria to design Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Focusing on larval dispersal by ocean currents in the entire Mediterranean Sea, I present a new approach coupling Lagrangian modeling and Network Theory tools to characterize broad-scale connectivity of marine populations. The Mediterranean basin is subdivided into an ensemble of sub-regions that are interconnected through oceanic transport. Passive larvae of different pelagic durations and seasons are advected in a simulated surface flow from which a network of connected areas is constructed. First, the global analysis of the transport network using a community detection algorithm enables the extraction of hydrodynamical provinces which are delimited by frontiers matching multiscale oceanographic features. By examining the repeated occurrence of such boundaries, we identify the spatial scales and geographic structures that control larval dispersal across the entire seascape. We also analyze novel connectivity metrics for the existing marine reserves and we discussed our results in the context of ocean biogeography and MPAs design. Secondly, we studied the local properties of the network with the computation of proxies commonly used in population ecology to measure local retention, self-recruitment and larval sources/sinks. Our results confirmed that retention processes are favored along certain coastlines due to specific oceanographic conditions while they are weak in the open ocean. Moreover, we found that divergent (convergent) oceanic zones resulting from Ekman theory are systematically characterized by larval sources (sinks). Finally, although these proxies are often studied separately in the literature, we suggest they are inter-related under certain conditions. Their integrated interpretation leads to a better understanding of population dynamics and persistence, informing both genetic and demographic connectivities. Our basin-scale results have also managerial implications, especially considering the growing interests for offshore MPAs, as they are useful to evaluate existing MPAs and to implement futures ones.

  4. Oceanography in northwestern Europe during the last interglacial from intrashell δ 18O ranges in Littorina littorea gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Johan; Påsse, Tore

    2008-07-01

    Coastal sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-surface salinity (SSS), including seasonality, in northwest (NW) Europe during the early phase of the Eemian interglacial ca. 125 ka ago were reconstructed from Littorina littorea (common periwinkle) gastropods. The results were based on intra-annual δ 18O analyses in recent and fossil shells, mainly originating from the sea of Kattegat (Sweden) and the English Channel (United Kingdom), and confined to intertidal settings. The Eemian L. littorea shells indicated annual SSTs in the range 8-18°C for the English Channel and 8-26°C for Kattegat. All specimens from the Eemian sites experienced summer SSTs of ca. 1-3°C above recent conditions. The estimated winter SST in the English Channel during the Eemian was comparable to modern measurements of ca. 8°C. However, the Kattegat region displayed Eemian winter SST approximately 8°C warmer than today, and similar to conditions in the western English Channel. The recent-fossil isotope analogue approach indicated high SSS above 35 practical salinity units (psu) for a channel south of England in full contact with the North Atlantic Ocean during the last interglacial. In addition, the Kattegat shells indicated a SSS of ca. 29 psu, which points out a North Sea affinity for this region during the Eemian.

  5. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator); Hollman, R.; Alexander, J.; Nuzzi, R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photo-optical additive color quantitative measurements were made of ERTS-1 reprocessed positives of New York Bight and Block Island Sound. Regression of these data on almost simultaneous ship sample data of water's physical, chemical, biological, and optical properties showed that ERTS bands 5 and 6 can be used to predict the absolute value of the total number of particles and bands 4 and 5 to predict the relative extinction coefficient in New York Bight. Water masses and mixing patterns in Block Island Sound heretofore considered transient were found to be persistent phenomena requiring revision of existing mathematical and hydraulic models.

  6. An introduction to wavelet analysis in oceanography and meteorology - With application to the dispersion of Yanai waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Steven D.; Kelly, B. G.; O'Brien, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Wavelet analysis is a relatively new technique that is an important addition to standard signal analysis methods. Unlike Fourier analysis that yields an average amplitude and phase for each harmonic in a dataset, the wavelet transform produces an instantaneous estimate or local value for the amplitude and phase of each harmonic. This allows detailed study of nonstationary spatial or time-dependent signal characteristics. The wavelet transform is discussed, examples are given, and some methods for preprocessing data for wavelet analysis are compared. By studying the dispersion of Yanai waves in a reduced gravity equatorial model, the usefulness of the transform is demonstrated. The group velocity is measured directly over a finite range of wavenumbers by examining the time evolution of the transform. The results agree well with linear theory at higher wavenumber but the measured group velocity is reduced at lower wavenumbers, possibly due to interaction with the basin boundaries.

  7. Three Decades of Precision Orbit Determination Progress, Achievements, Future Challenges and its Vital Contribution to Oceanography and Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Zelensky, Nikita; Beckley, Brian; Klosko, Steve; Chinn, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Although satellite altimetry has been around for thirty years, the last fifteen beginning with the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon (TP) have yielded an abundance of significant results including: monitoring of ENS0 events, detection of internal tides, determination of accurate global tides, unambiguous delineation of Rossby waves and their propagation characteristics, accurate determination of geostrophic currents, and a multi-decadal time series of mean sea level trend and dynamic ocean topography variability. While the high level of accuracy being achieved is a result of both instrument maturity and the quality of models and correction algorithms applied to the data, improving the quality of the Climate Data Records produced from altimetry is highly dependent on concurrent progress being made in fields such as orbit determination. The precision orbits form the reference frame from which the radar altimeter observations are made. Therefore, the accuracy of the altimetric mapping is limited to a great extent by the accuracy to which a satellite orbit can be computed. The TP mission represents the first time that the radial component of an altimeter orbit was routinely computed with an accuracy of 2-cm. Recently it has been demonstrated that it is possible to compute the radial component of Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm. Additionally, still further improvements in TP orbits are being achieved with new techniques and algorithms largely developed from combined Jason and TP data analysis. While these recent POD achievements are impressive, the new accuracies are now revealing subtle systematic orbit error that manifest as both intra and inter annual ocean topography errors. Additionally the construction of inter-decadal time series of climate data records requires the removal of systematic differences across multiple missions. Current and future efforts must focus on the understanding and reduction of these errors in order to generate a complete and consistent time series of improved orbits across multiple missions and decades required for the most stringent climate-related research. This presentation discusses the POD progress and achievements made over nearly three decades, and presents the future challenges, goals and their impact on altimetric derived ocean sciences.

  8. An interdisciplinary study of the estaurine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E.; Hollman, R.; Alexander, J.; Nuzzi, R.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 photographic data products have been analyzed using additive color viewing and electronic image analysis techniques. Satellite data were compared to water sample data collected simultaneously with the data of ERTS-1 coverage in New York Bight. Prediction of the absolute value of total suspended particles can be made using composites of positives of MSS bands 5 and 6 which have been precisely made using the step wedge supplied on the imagery. Predictions of the relative value of the extinction coefficient can be made using bands 4 and 5. Thematic charts of total suspended particles (particles per litre) and extinction coefficient provide scientists conducting state and federal water sampling programs in New York Bight with data which improves the performance of these programs.

  9. Continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress report, 1 June 1979-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, L P

    1980-02-29

    The papers included in this progress report summarize some significant developments in understanding the South Atlantic Bight. Some of the results are summarized as follows: Onslow Bay flushing rates can be determined using a model based on an exponential dilution model; eddy induced nitrate flux accounts for most input of new nitrogen into shelf waters; and tarballs in the Gulf Stream are not transported to the nearshore because of an apparent inner shelf density front.

  10. The Relationship among Oceanography, Prey Fields, and Beaked Whale Foraging Habitat in the Tongue of the Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Elliott L.; Nowacek, Douglas P.; St. Laurent, Louis; Halpin, Patrick N.; Moretti, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Beaked whales, specifically Blainville's (Mesoplodon densirostris) and Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), are known to feed in the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. These whales can be reliably detected and often localized within the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) acoustic sensor system. The AUTEC range is a regularly spaced bottom mounted hydrophone array covering >350 nm2 providing a valuable network to record anthropogenic noise and marine mammal vocalizations. Assessments of the potential risks of noise exposure to beaked whales have historically occurred in the absence of information about the physical and biological environments in which these animals are distributed. In the fall of 2008, we used a downward looking 38 kHz SIMRAD EK60 echosounder to measure prey scattering layers concurrent with fine scale turbulence measurements from an autonomous turbulence profiler. Using an 8 km, 4-leaf clover sampling pattern, we completed a total of 7.5 repeat surveys with concurrently measured physical and biological oceanographic parameters, so as to examine the spatiotemporal scales and relationships among turbulence levels, biological scattering layers, and beaked whale foraging activity. We found a strong correlation among increased prey density and ocean vertical structure relative to increased click densities. Understanding the habitats of these whales and their utilization patterns will improve future models of beaked whale habitat as well as allowing more comprehensive assessments of exposure risk to anthropogenic sound. PMID:21556355

  11. Geophysics in the Affairs of Man: A Personalized History of Exploration Geophysics and Its Allied Sciences of Seismology and Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    This book traces the developments of the applications of the geophysical sciences to a variety of societal needs from misty beginnings to now, with emphasis on the “golden age,” the early 1920s through the 1960s. The phrase “applied geophysics” is so often taken as synonymous with “geophysical exploration” that the broader viewpoint of this work is especially welcome. The authors certainly devoted much of their treatment to exploration geophysics, as is appropriate in view of the large commitment of human and financial resources to this endeavor and the practical importance of the results. However, they have also included interesting sketches of military applications of geophysical techniques and the important technological advances that have come from these, as well as much material on ocean science. Atmospheric and space science receives less detailed coverage.

  12. Satellite data relay and platform locating in oceanography. Report of the In Situ Ocean Science Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R.; Cote, C.; Davis, R. E.; Dugan, J.; Frame, D. D.; Halpern, D.; Kerut, E.; Kirk, R.; Mcgoldrick, L.; Mcwilliams, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The present and future use of satellites to locate offshore platforms and relay data from in situ sensors to shore was examined. A system of the ARGOS type will satisfy the increasing demand for oceanographic information through data relay and platform location. The improved ship navigation provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) will allow direct observation of currents from underway ships. Ocean systems are described and demand estimates on satellite systems are determined. The capabilities of the ARGOS system is assessed, including anticipated demand in the next decade.

  13. Moving toward finer scales in oceanography: Predictive linear functional model of Chlorophyll a profile from light data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayle, Séverine; Monestiez, Pascal; Guinet, Christophe; Nerini, David

    2015-05-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a key role in ocean-atmosphere carbon dioxide fluxes. Estimation of carbon exchanges between ocean and atmosphere must rely on accurate estimations of primary productivity which require measurements of phytoplankton concentration within the water column. In this paper, we are interested in relationships between primary productivity and light in the Antarctic ocean. The originality of this work is twofold. Starting from physical hypothesis, a statistical model is constructed for the prediction of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) profiles where light profiles are used as a covariate. Taking into account of the functional nature of the data, solutions are proposed to estimate continuous vertical profiles from discrete data sampled by elephant seals equipped with a new generation of oceanographic tags. Bootstrapped prediction intervals show a good quality of prediction of Chl a profiles, giving access to the shape of the profiles along depth and to the submesoscale structure of phytoplankton within the euphotic layer of the Southern Ocean.

  14. Reproductive success of kittiwakes and murres in sequential stages of the nesting period: Relationships with diet and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Heather M.; Drummond, Brie A.; Benson, Anna-Marie; Paredes, Rosana

    2014-11-01

    Reproductive success is one of the most easily-measured and widely studied demographic parameters of colonial nesting seabirds. Nevertheless, factors affecting the sequential stages (egg laying, incubation, chick-rearing) of reproductive success are less understood. We investigated the separate sequential stages of reproductive success in piscivorous black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) using a 36-year dataset (1975-2010) on the major Pribilof Islands (St. Paul and St. George), which have recently had contrasting population trajectories. Our objectives were to evaluate how the proportion of successful nests varied among stages, and to quantify factors influencing the probability of nest success at each stage in each island. We modeled the probability of nest success at each stage using General Linear Mixed Models incorporating broad-scale and local climate variables, and diet as covariates as well as other measures of reproduction such as timing of breeding and reproductive output in the previous year and previous stage. For both species we found: (1) Success in previous stages of the breeding cycle and success in the prior year better explained overall success than any environmental variables. Phenology was also an important predictor of laying success for kittiwakes. (2) Fledging success was lower when chick diets contained oceanic fish found farther from the colonies and small invertebrates, rather than coastal fish species. (3) Differences in reproductive variables at St. Paul and St. George islands did not correspond to population trends between the two islands. Our results highlight the potential importance of adult condition and annual survival to kittiwake and murre productivity and ultimately, populations. Adult condition carrying over from the previous year ultimately seems to drive annual breeding success in a cascade effect. Furthermore, condition and survival appear to be important contributors to population dynamics at each island. Therefore, adult condition and survival prior to breeding, and factors that influence these parameters such as foraging conditions in the non-breeding season, may be important datasets for understanding drivers of seabird demography at the Pribilof Islands.

  15. The impacts of the great Mississippi/Atchafalaya River flood on the oceanography of the Atchafalaya Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, Alexander S.; Li, Chunyan; Walker, Nan D.; Pilley, Chet; Ameen, Alexander D.; Boxer, Georgia; Ramatchandirane, Cyndhia; Ullah, Mohammad; Williams, Kelly A.

    2014-09-01

    Rivers are the primary means by which water, sediment, and dissolved material are transported from the continents to the ocean. Despite previous advances, much remains to be learned about the dynamics of large shelf-discharging rivers, and their functional differences with deep water-discharging rivers, particularly with respect to the distribution of sediments in the coastal zone. The great Mississippi/Atchafalaya River flood of 2011 provided an excellent opportunity to examine the impacts of a large, shelf-discharging river on the coastal ocean, and the role that event pulses from such rivers play in the delivery of sediment to the inner continental shelf. Vessel-based surveys were conducted on the inner-continental shelf within the Atchafalaya and Mississippi River plume regions, providing in situ measurements of salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, particle size, and current velocity profiles. MODIS satellite images and 7Be measurements were used to assist in data interpretation. We demonstrate that the Atchafalaya River plume produced intense vertical gradients in temperature, salinity, oxygen and turbidity. This occurred despite the shallow bathymetry of this system and the presence of winds, which alternated between onshore to offshore, and that might have otherwise mixed systems with less freshwater. Sedimentation rates along the inner-continental shelf were about 5-10 times greater than those measured previously during smaller “typical” floods. This large deposit is likely to be preserved, at least in the near term, because sedimentation occurred beyond normal depths of wave reworking and the intense stratification induced by this flood likely reduced mixing at the time of sedimentation. A sediment budget for this system reveals that sediment fluxes to the coastal zone during 2011 were similar to those observed in previous years, suggesting that this system is supply limited, rather than transport limited. As such, we postulate that the major impact of this flood was to change the location of the depocenter of Atchafalaya River sediments, rather than increase the annual flux of sediments to the coastal zone. These findings imply that extreme flood events may not be an ideal analog for coastal restoration along this deltaic coast.

  16. A Downscaling Analysis of the Urban Influence on Rainfall: TRMM Satellite Component AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Burian, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    A recent publication by Shepherd et al. (2002) demonstrated the feasibility of using TRMM precipitation radar (PR) estimates to identify precipitation anomalies caused by urbanization. The approach is particularly useful for investigating this global process because TRMM data span large portions of the globe and comprise an extended temporal dataset. Recent literature suggests that urbanized regions of Houston, Texas may be influencing lightning and precipitation formation over and downwind of the city. Possible mechanisms include: (1) enhanced convergence through interactions between the sea breeze, Galveston bay breeze, and urban heat island circulations, (2) enhanced convergence due to increased surface roughness over the city and/or destabilization of the boundary layer by the UHI, or (3) enhanced cloud condensation nuclei due to urban and industrial aerosol sources. In this study, a downscaling analysis of spatial and temporal trends in rainfall around the Houston Area is being conducted. The downscaling analysis concept involves identifying and quantifying urban rainfall anomalies at progressively smaller spatial and temporal scales using the TRMM satellite, ground-based radar, and a dense network of rain gauges. The goal is to test the hypothesis that the Houston urban district and regions in the climatological downwind region of the city exhibit enhanced rainfall amounts relative to the climatological upwind regions. TRMM was launched in 1997 and currently operates in a low-inclination (35 deg), non-sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 402 km (350 km prior to August 2001). The satellite analysis follows the methodologies described in Shepherd et al. (2002). Nearly five years of TRMM PR-derived mean monthly rainfall estimates are utilized to produce annual and warm season isohyetal analyses around Houston. Early results indicate that rainfall rates (mm/h) for the entire period are largest within 100 km northeast and east of Houston (e.g. the "hypothesized downwind region"). The mean rainfall rate over the Houston urban center is 30.5% larger than the upwind control region. The mean rainfall rate in the downwind region is 34.4% larger than the upwind region. An analysis of a parameter called the urban rainfall ratio (URR) illustrates that 65% (88%) of the satellite-derived rainfall rates in the downwind (upwind control) region are greater (less) than the mean background rainfall rate of the entire study region. When the data is stratified by summer months from 1998 to 2001 (June-August), even greater influence over and downwind of the urban area is observed in the statistics. This result is consistent with published reports of urban-generated rainfall being more prevalent in the warm season. The research demonstrates that the evolving TRMM satellite climatology is a credible way to detect mesoscale precipitation signatures that may be linked to urbanization. Early results also corroborate recent findings on Houston-induced convection/drainfall anomalies. Burian and Shepherd will report on other aspects of the downscaling analysis in future forums, but early rain gauge results are consistent with the satellite-based observations.

  17. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE. PMID:26506023

  18. D. Carlos de Braganca, a Pioneer of Experimental Marine Oceanography: Filling the Gap between Formal and Informal Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Claudia; Pereira, Goncalo; Chagas, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The activities presented in this paper are part of a wider project that investigates the effects of infusing the history of science in science teaching, toward students' learning and attitude. Focused on the work of D. Carlos de Braganca, King of Portugal from 1889 to 1908, and a pioneer oceanographer, the activities are addressed at the secondary…

  19. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mapping reveals coral mound distribution, morphology, and oceanography in deep water of the Straits of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmueck, Mark; Eberli, Gregor P.; Viggiano, David A.; Correa, Thiago; Rathwell, Glenda; Luo, Jiangang

    2006-12-01

    To make progress in understanding the distribution and genesis of coral mounds in cold and dark water, maps of morphology and oceanographic conditions resolving features at the 1-10 m scale are needed. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) cruising 40 m above the seafloor surveyed a 48 km2 coral mound field in 600-800 m water depth at the base of slope of Great Bahama Bank. The AUV acquired 1-3 meter resolution acoustic backscatter and bathymetry together with current vectors, salinity, and temperature. The multibeam bathymetry resolved more than 200 coral mounds reaching up to 90 m height. Mound morphology is surprisingly diverse and mound distribution follows E-W oriented off-bank ridges. Bottom currents reverse every 6 hours indicating tidal flow decoupled from the north flowing surface current. The AUV data fill the gap between low-resolution surface-based mapping and visual observations on the seafloor, revealing the dynamic environment and spatial relationships of an entire coral mound field.

  20. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The synoptic repetitive coverage of the multispectral imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite, when photographically reprocessed using the state-of-the-art techniques, has given indication of spectral differences in Block Island and adjacent New England waters which were heretofore unknown. Of particular interest was the possible detection of relatively small amounts of phytoplankton prior to the occurrence of the red tide in Massachusetts waters. Preparation of spatial and temporal hydrographic charts using ERTS-1 imagery and ground truth analysis will hopefully determine the environmental impact on New York coastal waters.

  1. Influence of habitat discontinuity, geographical distance, and oceanography on fine-scale population genetic structure of copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus).

    PubMed

    Johansson, M L; Banks, M A; Glunt, K D; Hassel-Finnegan, H M; Buonaccorsi, V P

    2008-07-01

    The copper rockfish is a benthic, nonmigratory, temperate rocky reef marine species with pelagic larvae and juveniles. A previous range-wide study of the population-genetic structure of copper rockfish revealed a pattern consistent with isolation-by-distance. This could arise from an intrinsically limited dispersal capability in the species or from regularly-spaced extrinsic barriers that restrict gene flow (offshore jets that advect larvae offshore and/or habitat patchiness). Tissue samples were collected along the West Coast of the contiguous USA between Neah Bay, WA and San Diego, CA, with dense sampling along Oregon. At the whole-coast scale (approximately 2200 km), significant population subdivision (F(ST) = 0.0042), and a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distance were observed based on 11 microsatellite DNA loci. Population divergence was also significant among Oregon collections (approximately 450 km, F(ST) = 0.001). Hierarchical amova identified a weak but significant 130-km habitat break as a possible barrier to gene flow within Oregon, across which we estimated that dispersal (N(e)m) is half that of the coast-wide average. However, individual-based Bayesian analyses failed to identify more than a single population along the Oregon coast. In addition, no correlation between pairwise population genetic and geographical distances was detected at this scale. The offshore jet at Cape Blanco was not a significant barrier to gene flow in this species. These findings are consistent with low larval dispersal distances calculated in previous studies on this species, support a mesoscale dispersal model, and highlight the importance of continuity of habitat and adult population size in maintaining gene flow. PMID:18522692

  2. Second international conference on air-sea interaction and on meteorology and oceanography of the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held September 22--27, 1994 in Lisbon, Portugal. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on air-sea interactions. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. A study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. ERTS-1 imagery was received from NASA in both positive and negative form. This imagery was analyzed to determine the hydrologic features of the water mass, including current patterns, particulate in suspension, and the contacts between different water masses, as well as coastal marsh characteristics. A Spectral Data Model 64 multispectral projector/viewer was used for the analysis. Quick look analysis of the second generation negatives indicated that: (1) green spectral band lacked contrast and was overexposed; (2) red spectral had acceptable contrast, but somewhat overexposed; and (3) infrared bands overexposed for land areas, but exposure good for water. Analysis of second generation positives indicated that; (1) green spectral band extremely flat; (2) red spectral band of acceptable contrast, but too dense for projection; and (3) infrared bands lacked detail in both water and land areas. Photographs indicate that it is necessary to expose and process the multispectral imagery for the scene brightness range under consideration.

  4. A new concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter capable of precision long-term monitoring in marine geodesy and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennerich, Hans-Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Long-term vertical seafloor displacements and geostrophic changes in the water column height could be easily monitored if pressure meters were less susceptible to drift. Currently, these signals, which have typical amplitudes from decimeters to less than 1 mm/yr, cannot be differentiated from instrumental drift. In this paper, we introduce and outline a new constructional concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter that aims for unequivocal detection and monitoring of long-term trends. The concept is based on a differential pressure sensor that measures the pressure difference between the environment and a reference pressure within a sealed volume. This sealed volume conserves the instantaneous pressure at the moment of its closure at the monitoring location in a temperature-compensated manner. Furthermore, the approach enables easy in situ calibration of the differential pressure gauge by simply opening the reference pressure chamber to the environment and checking the zero point offset.

  5. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment. A report prepared by the Panel on Monitoring Persistent Pesticides in the Marine Environment of the Committee on Oceanography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panel on Monitoring Persistent Pesticides in the Marine Environment; Goldberg, E.D.; Butler, P.; Meier, P.; Menzel, D.; Paulik, G.; Risebrough, R.; Stickel, L.F.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS : The oceans are an ultimate accumulation site for the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. As much as 25 percent of the DDT compounds produced to date may have been transferred to the sea. The amount of DDT compounds in the marine biota is estimated to be less than 0.1 percent of total production, yet this amount has produced a demonstrable impact upon the marine environment. Populations of fish-eating birds have experienced reproductive failure and decline. With continued accumulations of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine ecosystem, additional species will be threatened. Continued release of these pollutants to the environment can only accelerate the accumulation of unacceptable levels of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the tissues of marine food fish. Certain risks in the utilization of chlorinated hydrocarbons are especially hard to quantify, but they require serious consideration. The rate at which such substances degrade to harmless products in the marine system is unknown; the half-lives of some of the more persistent materials are certainly of the order of years, and perhaps even of decades or centuries. If most of the remaining 75 percent of the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons is now in reservoirs that will in time transfer their contents to the sea, we may expect an increased level of these substances in marine organisms, despite future improvements of manufacturing practices. In fact, if these compounds degrade with half-lives of decades or longer, there will be no opportunity to redress the consequences. The more the problems are studied, the more unexpected effects are identified. In view of the findings of the past decade, our prediction of the potential hazards of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment may be vastly underestimated. The Panel makes the following recommendations, which will be developed and expanded in the remainder of the report: ? A massive national effort should be made immediately to effect a drastic reduction of the escape of persistent toxicants into the environment, with the ultimate aim of achieving virtual cessation in the shortest possible time. ? Programs should be designed both to determine the rates of entry of each pollutant into the marine environment and to make base-line determinations of the distribution of the pollutants among the components of that environment, These should be followed by a program of monitoring long-term trends in order to record progress and to document possible disaster. ? The laws relating to the registration of chemical substances and the release of production figures by government should be examined and perhaps revised in light of evidence of environmental deterioration caused by some of these substances.

  6. Stable Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Live Benthic Foraminifera from the Okhotsk Sea: Effects of Oceanography, Food Supply, and Microhabitat Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Bubenshchikova, N.; Erlenkeuser, H.; Dullo, W.

    2008-12-01

    Paleoceanographic studies use benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes as proxies for interpretations of numerous parameters such as past oceanic circulation patterns, food supply, primary productivity, etc. However, only few studies have used live (rose Bengal-stained) populations to reliably calibrate stable isotope characteristics to bottom water and sediment chemistry of the surrounding environment. We report results from a study in the Okhotsk Sea, a region characterized by extreme climatic and oceanographic settings. Not only does this marginal basin of the NW-Pacific experience the southermost extent of seasonal ice cover in the entire Northern Hemisphere, it also shows extremely high primary productivity. These boundary conditions lead many to consider the Okhotsk Sea both as a modern analog for ecological and oceanographic conditions in ocean basins during past and a sensitive recorder of potential future climate change in high latitudes. We compare results of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the most abundant taxa to oxygen isotopic compositions of bottom water and carbon isotopes of bottom water DIC, nutrient inventories from the water column and productivity proxy-data from sediment surface profiles (chlorines, TOC, biogenic opal). Multicorer samples from the upper 10 cm at 15 sites were taken from a variety of settings with water depths ranging from less than 100 m to more than 3200 m. Results obtained show a wide range of interspecific carbon isotope values exceeding 2 per mil variability within neighbouring samples. Minimum values occur in deep endobenthic groups like Globobulima spp., whereas species living in a relatively wide depth range like V. sadonica or U. peregrina exhibit intermediate values between -0.7 and -1 per mil. Most measurements conducted to address intraspecific variability remain within a narrow range of less than 0.4 per mil. However, we do observe vertical trends with both increasing and decreasing carbon isotope gradients within the sediment column. Obtained carbon isotope values from both living and dead specimen of widely used the Cibicides spp. group stay within the range of bottom water DIC, with no systematic negative phytodetritus- effect occuring throughout the sample set despite etremely pronounced seasonality in organic matter supply on most sites. Combined with a proxy-dataset about primary productivity, we give an evaluation of benthic-pelagic coupling and the impact on benthic species adaption to the pronounced subarctic seasonal cycle and the strongly pulsed food fluxes to the ocean floor.

  7. Stable Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Live Benthic Foraminifera from the Okhotsk Sea: Effects of Oceanography, Food Supply and Microhabitat Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Bubenshchikova, N.; Erlenkeuser, H.

    2009-04-01

    Paleoceanographic studies use benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes as proxies for interpretations of numerous parameters such as past oceanic circulation patterns, food supply, primary productivity, etc. However, only few studies have used live (rose Bengal-stained) populations to reliably calibrate stable isotope characteristics to bottom water and sediment chemistry of the surrounding environment. We report data from a study in the Okhotsk Sea, a region characterized by extreme climatic and oceanographic settings. Not only does this marginal basin of the NW-Pacific experience the southermost extent of seasonal ice cover in the entire Northern Hemisphere, it also shows extremely high primary productivity. These boundary conditions lead many to consider the Okhotsk Sea both as a modern analog for ecological and oceanographic conditions in ocean basins during past and a sensitive recorder of potential future climate change in high latitudes. We compare results of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the most abundant taxa to oxygen isotopic compositions of bottom water and carbon isotopes of bottom water DIC, nutrient inventories from the water column and productivity proxy-data from sediment surface profiles (chlorines, TOC, biogenic opal). Multicorer samples from the upper 10 cm at 15 sites were taken from a variety of settings with water depths ranging from less than 100 m to more than 3200 m. Results obtained show a wide range of interspecific carbon isotope values exceeding 2 per mil variability within neighbouring samples. Minimum values occur in deep endobenthic groups like Globobulima spp., whereas species living in a relatively wide depth range like V. sadonica or U. peregrina exhibit intermediate values between -0.7 and -1 per mil. Most measurements conducted to address intraspecific variability remain within a narrow range of less than 0.4 per mil. However, we do observe vertical trends with both increasing and decreasing carbon isotope gradients within the sediment column. Obtained carbon isotope values from both living and dead specimen of widely used the Cibicides spp. group stay within the range of bottom water DIC, with no systematic negative phytodetritus-effect occuring throughout the sample set despite etremely pronounced seasonality in organic matter supply on most sites. Combined with a proxy-dataset about primary productivity, we give an evaluation of benthic-pelagic coupling and the impact on benthic species adaption to the pronounced subarctic seasonal cycle and the strongly pulsed food fluxes to the ocean floor.

  8. Meeting summary - Coastal meteorology and oceanography: Report of the third prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and NSF

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotunno, R.; Pietrafesa, L.J.; Allen, J.S.; Colman, B.R.; Dorman, C.M.; Kreitzberg, C.W.; Lord, S.J.; McPhee, M.G.; Mellor, G.L.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Niiler, P.P.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Powell, M.D.; Rogers, D.P.; Smith, J.D.; Xie, Lingtian; Carbone, R.

    1996-01-01

    U.S. Weather Research Program (USWRP) prospectus development teams (PDTs) are small groups of scientists that are convened by the USWRP lead scientist on a one-time basis to discuss critical issues and to provide advice related to future directions of the program. PDTs are a principal source of information for the Science Advisory Committee, which is a standing committee charged with the duty of making recommendations to the Program Office based upon overall program objectives. PDT-1 focused on theoretical issues, and PDT-2 on observational issues; PDT-3 is the first of several to focus on more specialized topics. PDT-3 was convened to identify forecasting problems related to U.S. coastal weather and oceanic conditions, and to suggest likely solution strategies. There were several overriding themes that emerged from the discussion. First, the lack of data in and over critical regions of the ocean, particularly in the atmospheric boundary layer, and the upper-ocean mixed layer were identified as major impediments to coastal weather prediction. Strategies for data collection and dissemination, as well as new instrument implementation, were discussed. Second, fundamental knowledge of air-sea fluxes and boundary layer structure in situations where there is significant mesoscale variability in the atmosphere and ocean is needed. Companion field studies and numerical prediction experiments were discussed. Third, research prognostic models suggest that future operational forecast models pertaining to coastal weather will be high resolution and site specific, and will properly treat effects of local coastal geography, orography, and ocean state. The view was expressed that the exploration of coupled air-sea models of the coastal zone would be a particularly fruitful area of research. PDT-3 felt that forecasts of land-impacting tropical cyclones, Great Lakes-affected weather, and coastal cyclogenesis, in particular, would benefit from such coordinated modeling and field efforts. Fourth, forecasting for Arctic coastal zones is limited by our understanding of how sea ice forms. The importance of understanding air-sea fluxes and boundary layers in the presence of ice formation was discussed. Finally, coastal flash flood forecasting via hydrologic models is limited by the present accuracy of measured and predicted precipitation and storm surge events. Strategies for better ways to improve the latter were discussed.

  9. In situ spectroradiometric calibration of EREP imagery and estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island sound and adjacent New York coastal waters. [Willcox, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The first part of the study resulted in photographic procedures for making multispectral positive images which greatly enhance the color differences in land detail using an additive color viewer. An additive color analysis of the geologic features near Willcox, Arizona using enhanced black and white multispectral positives allowed compilation of a significant number of unmapped geologic units which do not appear on geologic maps of the area. The second part demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing Skylab remote sensor data to monitor and manage the coastal environment by relating physical, chemical, and biological ship sampled data to S190A, S190B, and S192 image characteristics. Photographic reprocessing techniques were developed which greatly enhanced subtle low brightness water detail. Using these photographic contrast-stretch techniques, two water masses having an extinction coefficient difference of only 0.07 measured simultaneously with the acquisition of S190A data were readily differentiated.

  10. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF COASTAL WATERS SURROUNDING THE GULF OF MEXICO IAPSO INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY MEETING, LA PLATA, ARGENTINA, OCTOBER 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of the Ecological Condition of Coastal Waters Surrounding the Gulf of Mexico (Abstract). To be presented at the Joint IAPSO/IABO Assembly: 2001 An Ocean Odyssey, 21-26 October 2001, Mar del Plata, Argentina. 1 p. (ERL,GB R844).

    The purpose of the Environmental ...

  11. D. Carlos de Bragança, a Pioneer of Experimental Marine Oceanography: Filling the Gap Between Formal and Informal Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Cláudia; Pereira, Gonçalo; Chagas, Isabel

    2012-06-01

    The activities presented in this paper are part of a wider project that investigates the effects of infusing the history of science in science teaching, toward students' learning and attitude. Focused on the work of D. Carlos de Bragança, King of Portugal from 1889 to 1908, and a pioneer oceanographer, the activities are addressed at the secondary Biology curriculum (grade 10, ages 15, 16). The proposed activities include a pre-visit orientation task, two workshops performed in a science museum and a follow-up learning task. In class, students have to analyse original historical excerpts of the king's work, in order to discuss and reflect about the nature of science. In the museum, students actively participate in two workshops: biological classification and specimen drawing. All students considered the project relevant for science learning, stating that it was important not only for knowledge acquisition but also for the understanding of the nature of science. As a final remark we stress the importance of creating activities informed by the history of science as a foundation for improving motivation, sustaining effective science teaching and meaningful science learning, and as a vehicle to promote a closer partnership between schools and science museums.

  12. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or chemistry.…

  13. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... of field and laboratory studies in biology, chemistry, and physical oceanography, as well as studies... vacancies in the following disciplines: Biological oceanography/marine biology; social science;...

  14. Reading in Marine Science, A Partially Annotated Bibliography for Young Readers, Nonprofessionals, and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Oceanography.

    Included is a partially annotated bibliography of mostly non-technical books for non-professional readers, young readers, and teachers. There are about 300 entries grouped into these subjects: general references, historical and exploration, biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, geological oceanography, and physical oceanography. (PR)

  15. Analysis of 236U and plutonium isotopes, 239,240Pu, on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, as a potential tool in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Elena; López-Lora, Mercedes; Villa, María; Casacuberta, Núria; López-Gutiérrez, José María; Pham, Mai Khanh

    2015-10-01

    The performance of the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA (Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Seville, Spain) for 236U and 239,240Pu measurements has been extensively investigated. A very promising 236U/238U abundance sensitivity of about 3 × 10-11 has been recently achieved, and background figures for 239Pu of about 106 atoms were reported in the past. These promising results lead to the use of conventional low energy AMS systems for the analysis of 236U and 239Pu and its further application in environmental studies. First 236U results obtained on our AMS system for marine samples (sediments and water) are presented here. Results of two new IAEA reference materials (IAEA-410 and IAEA-412, marine sediments from Pacific Ocean) are reported. The obtained 236U/239Pu atom ratios, of 0.12 and 0.022, respectively, show a dependency with the contamination source (i.e. local fallout from the US tests performed at the Bikini Atoll and general fallout). The results obtained for a third IAEA reference material (IAEA-381, seawater from the Irish Sea), are also presented. In the following, the uranium and plutonium isotopic compositions obtained on a set of 5 intercomparison seawater samples from the Arctic Ocean provided by the ETH Zürich are discussed. By comparing them with the obtained results on the 600 kV AMS facility Tandy at the ETH Zürich, we demonstrate the solidity of the CNA technique for 236U/238U determinations at, at least, 7 × 10-10 level. Finally, these results are discussed in their environmental context.

  16. Remote sensing for oceanography, hydrology and agriculture; Proceedings of Symposia A5, A3 and A9 of the COSPAR 29th Plenary Meeting, Washington, Aug. 28-Sept. 5, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gower, J. F. R. (Editor); Salomonson, V. V. (Editor); Engman, E. T. (Editor); Ormsby, J. P. (Editor); Gupta, R. K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    New results from satellite studies of the ocean and radar mapping of the earth are presented. Atttention is given to data from the ERS-1 satellite. Synthetic aperture radar mapping of land surface features and sea ice, radar backscatter measurements, and orbit altitude measurements are discussed. The use of remote sensing in hydrology, soil moisture determination, precipitation measurement, agricultural meteorology, and crop growth estimation is reviewed.

  17. Oceanography, bathymetry and syndepositional tectonics of a Precambrian intracratonic basin: integrating sediments, storms, earthquakes and tsunamis in the Belt Supergroup (Helena Formation, ca. 1.45 Ga), western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Brian R.

    2001-06-01

    The carbonate-dominated Helena Formation of the Mesoproterozoic Belt Supergroup of western North America provides an instructive example of how a range of regional depositional and environmental characteristics of an ancient sea can be deduced on the basis of micron- to metre-scale features. Particularly revealing is the window opened by the presence of abundant molar-tooth structure onto the paleoceanography, paleobathymetry, paleoclimate and tectonic regime of this intracratonic Precambrian basin. The facies hosting molar-tooth structure is composed dominantly of lime mud with substantial subangular quartz and feldspar silt and clay derived from the western and southwestern side of the basin. These are low-energy tempestites deposited on a remarkably flat sea bottom at the limit of storm-wave base, at about 50 m. Sporadic domical, stromatolite patch reefs confirm that the sea bottom was normally within the photic zone. The ubiquity of molar-tooth structure suggests frequent, near-field seismic activity during subsidence, which generated ground motion sufficient to liquefy granular lime mud and terrigenous silt. Sporadic tsunamis from major submarine faults far to the west pounded the shallow-water platform to the east. Tsunami off-surge swept ooids and rounded, coarse-grained, feldspathic quartz sand westward into deeper water, and created strongly erosive currents that left gutter casts composed of lags of preferentially cemented molar-tooth structure in otherwise relatively low-energy facies. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence, confirms that the Belt basin was marine. Organic matter was essentially fully oxidized in the water column. Original high-Mg composition and cementation of lime mud in molar-tooth structure indicate that calcite precipitated above the thermocline in supersaturated seawater under tropical conditions. Scattered bimineralic ooids in allochthonous grainstones indicate that shoals on the platform to the east were intermittently above a shallow aragonite compensation depth in warm water. Rare vestiges of halite and gypsum demonstrate occasional, temporary salinity stratification for periods of up to a few years. Unaltered feldspar and mica grains point to a generally arid climate, but the large volume of clay is suggestive of protracted weathering and transport.

  18. Comment on: "Bachmann, R. W., M. V. Hoyer, and D. E. Canfield. 2013. The extent that natural lakes in the United States of America have been changed by cultural eutrophication. Limnology and Oceanography 58:945-950."

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a recent paper, Bachmann et al. (2013) conclude, based on paleolimnological reconstructions, that lakes in the conterminous U.S. have undergone very little cultural eutrophication. They go on to suggest that their results invalidate the efforts of the U.S. EPA to establish num...

  19. The Chemical Oceanographer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses career opportunities in oceanography for chemists. These include opportunities related to food, physical oceanography, mining, drugs, and other areas. Educational background needed and degree program are considered. (JN)

  20. Barely Afloat, or Please Pass the Plankton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Leone

    1974-01-01

    Although oceanography is included in most elementary school curricula, there are few easily read oceanography books for the school library. An annotated list of 70 recommended titles is included. (PF)

  1. Seasonality and variability of coccolithophore fluxes in response to diverse oceanographic regimes in the Bay of Bengal: sediment trap results. M.V.S. Gupthaa & b, Lina P. Mergulhaoa,*, Daniela Ungerc and V.S.N. Murtyd a National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India b 62, Sagar Society, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India c Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstrasse 6, D 28359 Bremen, Germany d National Institute of Oceanography, 176, Lawsons Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam - 530 017, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medimi, M.

    2011-12-01

    A study on coccolithophores both in shallow and deep sediment trap samples, collected over a period of one year (January 1992 - December 1992) from three trap locations in the Bay of Bengal were used to understand their production and export processes in relation to diverse oceanographic regimes associated with reversing monsoons. A total of 25 species of coccolithophores were identified, which includes some of the important species, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Florisphaera profunda, Umbellosphaera irregularis, Emiliania huxleyi, Oolithotus antillarum, Umbellosphaera tenuis, Helicosphaera carteri and Calcidiscus leptoporus. The total coccolithophore fluxes increased from the northern to southern Bay of Bengal where G. oceanica, U. sibogae¬ and E. huxleyi were dominant species displaying seasonality with peak fluxes occurring during southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons reflecting their affinity for nutrient-rich waters brought in by river plumes, divergences and cyclonic eddies. U. irregularis, an indicator of oligotrophic/warm water, recorded peak abundance fluxes only during the spring intermonsoon period at all trap locations thus inferring its preference for oligotrophic conditions caused by increased Sea Surface Temperature (SST), stratification and lack of nutrient supply due to weak wind velocities. The deep dwelling species, F. profunda recorded high fluxes during the fall intermonsoon (October/November) in the northern and southern traps and during the spring intermonsoon. The peak fluxes during the spring intermonsoon (April/May) in the central and southern traps indicated the prevalence of a deep nutricline when oligotrophic conditions prevailed at the surface. Interestingly, dissolution was encountered throughout the year evidenced by the presence of corroded coccoliths.

  2. 78 FR 55754 - Second Call for Nominations: North Slope Science Initiative, Science Technical Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... disciplines: North Slope traditional and local knowledge, landscape ecology, petroleum engineering, civil engineering, geology, sociology, cultural anthropology, economics, ornithology, oceanography,...

  3. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    James Yoder, vice president for academic programs and dean at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., has been selected as a fellow of the Oceanography Society (TOS) “for his innovative and visionary application of satellite ocean color technologies to interdisciplinary oceanography and his extraordinary service to oceanography.” TOS also has three new councilors. Blanche Meeson of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., is TOS's education councilor; Janet Sprintall, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., is TOS's councilor for physical biology; and Deborah Steinberg, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, Gloucester Point, is biological oceanography councilor.

  4. Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

  5. 77 FR 74169 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... in engineering, earth sciences, oceanography, meteorology, fisheries science, and other related... credit hours of science, engineering, or other disciplines related to NOAA's missions (including...

  6. 77 FR 40341 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for Appointment in the NOAA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... professionals trained in engineering, earth sciences, oceanography, meteorology, fisheries science, and other... credit hours of science, engineering, or other disciplines related to NOAA's missions (including...

  7. 78 FR 38358 - Call for Nominations: North Slope Science Initiative, Science Technical Advisory Panel, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... limited to, the following disciplines: North Slope traditional and local knowledge, landscape ecology..., oceanography, fisheries, marine biology, landscape ecology, and climatology. Duties of the Science...

  8. Final Report for Research Conducted at The Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego from 2/2002 to 8/2003 for ''Aerosol and Cloud-Field Radiative Effects in the Tropical Western Pacific: Analyses and General Circulation Model Parameterizations''

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelmann, A. M.

    2004-01-27

    OAK-B135 Final report from the University of California San Diego for an ongoing research project that was moved to Brookhaven National Laboratory where proposed work will be completed. The research uses measurements made by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to quantify the effects of aerosols and clouds on the Earth's energy balance in the climatically important Tropical Western Pacific.

  9. Status on U.S. Marine Research. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oceanography of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on U.S. Marine Scientific Research Capabilities Oversight (September 26, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries.

    These hearings focused on the major problems and opportunities in marine research and on the role of both the government and the scientific community in responding to future needs. Included are statements by: James Baker; Donald Boesch; Robert Corell; Tudor Davies; M. Grant Gross; G. Ross Heath; Joel Pritchard; David Ross; J. R. Schubel; Gerry…

  10. The Association of Pre-storm Ground Wetness with Inland Penetration of Monsoon Depressions : A Study Using Self Organizing Maps (SOM) C.M. Kishtawal Meteorology and Oceanography Group, Space Applications Center, Ahmedabad, INDIA Dev Niyogi2 Department of Agronomy, and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishtawal, C. M.; Niyogi, D.

    2009-12-01

    Monsoon depressions (MDs)are probably the most important rain bearing systems that occur during the Indian summer monsoon season. The unique topography of Indian peninsula and Indo-china region favor the formation and development of MDs in the warm and moist air over the Bay of Bengal. After formation the MDs move in a north-northwest track along the monsoon trough to the warmer and drier heat low regions of Northwest India and Pakistan. The dynamic structure of MDs is largely maintained by convergence of atmospheric water vapor flux coupled with the lower tropospheric divergent circulation (Chen et al., 2005), and they weaken rapidly after landfall due to the lack of surface moisture fluxes (Dastoor and Krishnamurti, 1991). In the present study we explored the association between pre-storm wetness conditions and the post-landfall situation of MDs using 54-year long observations (1951-2004) of 183 MDs and daily surface rainfall. Our analysis suggests that the MD’s post-landfall behavior is most sensitive to mean inland rainfall between To-1 to To-8 days (the pre-storm rainfall), where To is the day of formation of MD in the Bay of Bengal. Further, pre-storm rainfall over a broad region along the monsoon trough is found to exhibit the maximum association with the MDs inland lifespan. We further carried out the unsupervised classification of pre-storm rainfall patterns using Self Organizing Map(SOM), a topology preserving map that maps data from higher dimensions onto a two dimensional grid(Kohenen, 1990). The SOM patterns of rainfall indicate that pre-storm wetness is strongly associated with the inland penetration length of MDs with wetter conditions supporting MDs to survive longer after the landfall. Although the pre-storm inland wetness has not been found to be associated with the formation of MDs and a number of MDs form during relatively dry inland conditions during the early (June) and late (September) phases of monsoon, the inland-penetration and post-landfall lifespan of these MDs was found significantly smaller compared to those formed under wetter inland conditions. Interestingly, the formation of a considerably larger number of MDs was associated with axially concentrated (around monsoon trough) patterns of pre-storm rainfall than the wide-spread patterns. The inland rainfall patterns are possibly the manifestation of the strength and orientation of Tropical Convergence Zone (TCZ) that also supports the genesis of MDs through the enhancement of barotropic instability. References Chen T.C., J.H. Yoon, and S.Y. Wang, 2005 : Westward propagation of the Indian monsoon depression. Tellus, 57A, 758-769. Dastoor A., and T.N. Krishnamurti, 1991: The landfall and structure of a tropical cyclone : The sensitivity of model predictions to soil moisture parameterizations. Boundary Layer Meteorol., 55, 345-380. Kohenen, T., 1990 : The self organizing map. Proc IEEE .78(9):1464-1480.

  11. Introduction to ocean optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Smith, R. C.; Zaneveld, J. R. V.

    1984-01-01

    In this introductory survey of optical oceanography, the fundamental inherent and apparent optical properties of natural waters are presented. Relationships between these inherent and apparent optical properties, as related through the radiative transfer equation, are then examined. Following the first three theoretical sections, brief discussions describing the application of ocean optics to geophysics, biological oceanography, and ocean remote sensing are then presented.

  12. Marine Science Syllabus for Secondary Schools. Report of an IOC Workshop on the Preparation of a Marine Science Syllabus for Secondary Schools. Unesco Reports in Marine Science, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    Presented is a syllabus for introducing oceanography and the marine environment into the secondary school curricula of all IOC Member States, whether developed or developing. The main purpose of the syllabus is to promote an understanding of oceanography and the marine environment. The syllabus is action- and output-oriented, as well as…

  13. Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Ronald B.; Schnitger, Ronald L.

    This guide provides teachers with copies of the materials given to students participating in the oceanography program of the Orange County Floating Laboratory Program and provides information concerning colleges and universities offering courses in oceanography and marine science, source of films, and sources of publications concerning the Navy's…

  14. Education in Marine Science and Technology--Historical and Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Robert B.

    This review of marine science and technology education and related issues was presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27, 1967. Areas reviewed include manpower supply and demand, oceanography education history, oceanography and the social sciences, training of technicians, the ocean engineer, education for…

  15. Marine and Environmental Studies Field Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    This laboratory manual was developed for a field-oriented high school oceanology program. The organization of the units includes a selection of supplementary activities to allow students to explore ocean studies in more depth. Included are 19 units. The units include biological oceanography, physical oceanography, and some social science topics. A…

  16. Some Thoughts on Free Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The author publishes and freely distributes three online textbooks. "Introduction to Physical Oceanography" is available as a typeset book in Portable Document Format (PDF) or as web pages. "Our Ocean Planet: Oceanography in the 21st Century" and "Environmental Science in the 21st Century" are both available as web pages. All three books, which…

  17. EOSDIS Data for Oceans Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, S.; Collins, D.

    1995-01-01

    The JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is one of nine centers processing data for the Earth Observation System. As the physical oceanography data center, it archives, processes, and distributes data to researchers from various satellites. Data holdings can be searched through the Global Change Master Directory, and an advanced information management system is now in prototype.

  18. An update on EUMETSAT programmes and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaes, K. D.; Holmlund, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    EUMETSAT supports operational meteorology and climate monitoring with its mandatory programmes, in the geostationary and polar sun-synchronous orbits. Optional programmes support further tasks like altimetry and oceanography. Satellite data from other agencies' satellites which are of interest to the user community are provided through third party programmes. This paper provides an overview over current EUMETSAT programmes, and the status and plans of future systems. This includes the mandatory geostationary and polar systems, as well as third party and Oceanography missions. Programmes currently under development are the Meteosat Third Generation and EPS Second Generation programmes and also the Oceanography missions related to Jason and Copernicus. Related services are addressed as well.

  19. Ten Days at Sea: For Grades K through 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Marian

    1977-01-01

    Outlines a 10-day unit in oceanography for the primary grades. Suggest stories, chalkboard work, topics for discussion, coloring projects, experiments, films, reference books, and topics for research projects. (CS)

  20. Earth Observing System. Volume 1, Part 2: Science and Mission Requirements. Working Group Report Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Areas of global hydrologic cycles, global biogeochemical cycles geophysical processes are addressed including biological oceanography, inland aquatic resources, land biology, tropospheric chemistry, oceanic transport, polar glaciology, sea ice and atmospheric chemistry.

  1. A Semester of Geology in Bermuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestana, Harold R.

    1982-01-01

    Described is a nine-week undergraduate semester program (12 credit hours) conducted at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research which included three courses: introductory oceanography, sedimentology, and independent field study. Brief descriptions of sample student projects are included. (DC)

  2. Make or take scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    An assessment of future ecosystem services and human well-being in the Great Barrier Reef region, led by social-ecological system scientist Erin Bohensky, draws on expertise in ecology, economics, sociology, geography, hydrology and oceanography.

  3. Mission Possible: The Sea Semester Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saveland, Robert N.; Stoner, Allan W.

    1985-01-01

    The "Research Vessel Westward" provides a sea-going research laboratory for students from various disciplines to learn oceanography concepts and research techniques while earning university credit. Descriptions of equipment, organizational structure, and student research responsibilities are presented. (DH)

  4. Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Listed are some new programs added in different institutions. Topics listed are oceanography, environmental education, interdisciplinary education, computer assisted instruction in chemistry laboratory, elementary education and FORTRAN IV for beginning students. (PS)

  5. Progress in the Determination of the Earth's Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics addressed include: global gravity model development; methods for approximation of the gravity field; gravity field measuring techniques; global gravity field applications and requirements in geophysics and oceanography; and future gravity missions.

  6. Introduction to ocean optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Smith, R. C.; Zaneveld, J. R. V.

    1980-01-01

    The fundamental inherent and apparent optical properties of natural waves are reviewed and relationships between these properties, as related through the radiative transfer equation, are examined. Applications of ocean optics to geophysics, biological oceanography, and ocean remote sensing are discussed.

  7. 30 CFR 585.646 - What information and certifications must I submit with my GAP to assist BOEM in complying with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CZMA: (1) 15 CFR part 930, subpart D, for noncompetitive leases; (2) 15 CFR part 930, subpart E, for...: Type of information: Including: (a) Hazard information Meteorology, oceanography, sediment...

  8. 30 CFR 585.646 - What information and certifications must I submit with my GAP to assist BOEM in complying with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CZMA: (1) 15 CFR part 930, subpart D, for noncompetitive leases; (2) 15 CFR part 930, subpart E, for...: Type of information: Including: (a) Hazard information Meteorology, oceanography, sediment...

  9. 30 CFR 585.646 - What information and certifications must I submit with my GAP to assist BOEM in complying with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) 15 CFR part 930, subpart D, if the GAP is submitted prior to lease or grant issuance; (B) 15 CFR part... information: Including: (1) Hazard information Meteorology, oceanography, sediment transport, geology,...

  10. Updating the Vision for Marine Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, E. Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to update the content, philosophical stance, and pedagogy of marine education to reflect recent advances in these areas. Cites some developments in oceanography and ocean engineering. Proposes ways teachers can learn about and utilize this knowledge. (RT)

  11. Reid honored at Old Dominion University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Larry

    Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Oceanography Robert O. Reid of Texas A&M University (College Station, Tex.) was awarded an honorary Doctor of Science degree by Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Va., at the university's spring commencement on May 7, 1988. Reid delivered the ceremony's keynote address to 1540 bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degree recipients.Reid, a native of Milford, Conn., earned a master's degree in oceanography from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, Calif.) in 1948. His professional interests include tides, tsunamis, wave mechanics, and ocean circulation. He taught at Texas A&M from 1951 until his retirement in 1987 and served as chairman of the Oceanography Department from 1981-1987.

  12. Lesson 1: Wind, waves, and weather, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book acquaints rig crews with the environment they will encounter offshore; covers basic meteorology and oceanography, effects of the environment on offshore operations, and safety procedures to be followed in severe weather and sea conditions.

  13. The Great Hydrometer Construction Contest!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, James Randy; Padilla, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between specific gravity, salinity, and density in brine solutions is investigated. Students construct hydrometers to reinforce concepts learned in oceanography. Background information, salt requirements for the unknowns, directions, and reproducible worksheets are included. (KR)

  14. Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

    1970-01-01

    Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

  15. Building Websites for Science Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welborn, Victoria; Kanar, Bryn

    2000-01-01

    Suggests guidelines for evaluating and organizing Websites on scientific concepts that are developed from definitions of science literacy and science information literacy. Includes a sample webilography and a sample search strategy on the topic of acoustical oceanography. (Author/LRW)

  16. Science at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Mary Nied

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week inservice teacher education program that involves two sessions of preparatory classes ashore in nautical science and oceanography, and concludes with a nine-day sea voyage. (ASK)

  17. New Species Found!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinemann, Deborah; Thomas, Jolie

    2003-01-01

    Explains a 4th grade lesson on oceans in which students create imaginary marine animals. Creatively assesses student understanding of habitat and adaptation. Overviews 14 lessons in the oceanography unit. (SOE)

  18. Elective Program Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Christelle

    1976-01-01

    Outlined is an interdisciplinary program in Ecology and Oceanography for grades six through eight. Numerous student projects are suggested in the outline and the course requirements and the project system are explained. (MA)

  19. Early Adolescence: Active Science for Middle Schoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Michael; Griffin, Nancy

    1980-01-01

    Describes activities appropriate for involving middle school students as active participants in the learning process. Topics discussed include archaeology, bulletin boards, dramatizations, physics experiments using the human body, oceanography, and ecology. (CS)

  20. MAOS: An Innovative Way to Teach High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harray, Nancy; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an innovative high school program that uses oceanography, mathematics, and science as common threads in the instructional program. The program utilizes an innovative class structure, community involvement, and hands on activities. (DDR)

  1. A Model for Teaching the Dynamical Theory of Tides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railsback, L. Bruce

    1991-01-01

    The dynamical theory of tides is often neglected in teaching oceanography because students have difficulty in visualizing the movements of the tides across the glove. A schematic diagram portraying amphidromic systems as mechanical gears helps overcome these problems. (Author)

  2. Centering on Sea Life in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruendike, Janis L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an oceanography learning center for elementary/middle school students, focusing on use of games (review jeopardy), instructional tapes, flash cards, activity felt boards, picture puzzles, reading materials, science displays, and experiment stations. (JN)

  3. Remote sensing applied to crop disease control, urban planning, and monitoring aquatic plants, oil spills, rangelands, and soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to land management, urban planning, agriculture, oceanography, and environmental monitoring is discussed. The results of various projects are presented along with cost effective considerations.

  4. Comparative Research Productivity Measures for Economic Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettner, David A.; Clark, William

    1997-01-01

    Develops a simple theoretical model to evaluate interdisciplinary differences in research productivity between economics departments and related subjects. Compares the research publishing statistics of economics, finance, psychology, geology, physics, oceanography, chemistry, and geophysics. Considers a number of factors including journal…

  5. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic bight

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Yoder, J.A.

    1980-01-31

    Progress is reported on research conducted during 1979 on the biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. The presentation consists of a number of published articles and abstracts of oral presentations. (ACR)

  6. Robust Control Problems Associated with the Multilayer Quasi-Geostrophic Equations of the Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Medjo, T. Tachim

    2005-05-15

    In this article we study some robust control problems associated with the multilayer quasi-geostrophic equations of the ocean and related to data assimilation in oceanography.We prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions using a general framework.

  7. Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Environmental characteristics and human interaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deslarzes, K.J.P.

    1998-10-01

    This report is a multidisciplinary update of various topics concerning the Banks -- oceanography, meteorology, commercial fishing, recreation, military activities, hydrocarbon development, and potential environmental impacts. The area surrounding the Flower Garden Banks is increasingly active with oil and gas development.

  8. North Atlantic Deep Water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, T. (Editor); Broecker, W. S. (Editor); Hansen, J. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various studies concerning differing aspects of the North Atlantic are presented. The three major topics under which the works are classified include: (1) oceanography; (2) paleoclimate; and (3) ocean, ice and climate modeling.

  9. Catalog of Computer Programs Used in Undergraduate Geological Education. Second Edition. Installment 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, H. Robert

    1984-01-01

    Describes 70 computer programs related to (1) structural geology; (2) sedimentology and stratigraphy; and (3) the environment, groundwater, glacial geology, and oceanography. Potential use(s), language, required hardware, and sources are included. (JM)

  10. Significant accomplishments in science and technology, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1974. [proceedings - NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Topics covered are: (1) earth resources (climatology, oceanography, soils, strip mines), and (2) astronomy (magnetic fields and atmospheres of the planets and the sun; galactic and interstellar gas; cosmic and X-ray radiation). Photographs of satellite observations are included.

  11. Observing earth from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Skylab technology and observations of earth resources are discussed. Special attention was given to application of Skylab data to mapmaking, geology/geodesy, water resources, oceanography, meteorology, and geography/ecology.

  12. Practical utility of the blue spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some aspects of multispectral photography in the blue region are discussed briefly, and sample images are submitted to demonstrate the potential utility of the blue multispectral record for oceanography.

  13. Ocean Studies Board annual report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July, 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. The goals of the Ocean Studies Board are: to promote the advancement of scientific understanding of the ocean by overseeing the health of ocean sciences and stimulating their progress; to encourage the wise use of the ocean and its resources through the application of scientific knowledge; to lead in the formulation of national and international marine policy and to clarify scientific issues that affect this policy; and to promote international cooperation in oceanographic research and to improve scientific and technical assistance to developing countries. The Ocean Studies Board is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering, and marine policy. This report reviews existing projects and discusses the progress of ocean research programs.

  14. Teaching marine science to the next generation: Innovative programs for 6th”8th Graders gain momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebbens, S. F.; Coble, P. G.; Greely, T.

    Three educational outreach programs designed for middle school students (grades 6, 7, and 8) by faculty at the University of South Florida (USF) Department of Marine Science are turning kids onto science. The programs are bringing marine science research and its various technologies into the classroom, where students follow up with hands-on activities. Project Oceanography (PO) is an interactive broadcast that exposes students to the concepts and tools of current marine science research. The Oceanography Camp for Girls (OCG) boosts girls' curiosity and interest in science and nature. And teachers become better equipped to present current marine science topics and technology to their students at the Teachers Oceanography Workshop (TOW). All of the programs created by USF are provided at no cost to students or their institutions.

  15. Techniques for integrating the animations, multimedia, and interactive features of NASA’s climate change website, Climate Change: NASA’s Eyes on the Earth, into the classroom to advance climate literacy and encourage interest in STEM disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, L. F.; Jackson, R.; Greene, M.

    2009-12-01

    I developed a variety of educational content for the "Climate Change: NASA’s Eyes on the Earth" website, notably an interactive feature for the "Key Indicators: Ice Mass Loss" link that includes photo pair images of glaciers around the world, changes in Arctic sea ice extent videos, Greenland glacial calving time lapse videos, and Antarctic ice shelf break up animations, plus news pieces and a Sea Level Quiz. I integrated these resources and other recent NASA and JPL climate and oceanography data and information into climate change components of Oceanography Lab exercises, Oceanography lectures and Introduction to Environmental Technology courses. I observed that using these Internet interactive features in the classroom greatly improved student participation, topic comprehension, scientific curiosity and interest in Earth and climate science across diverse student populations. Arctic Sea Ice Extent Summer 2007 Credit: NASA

  16. Ocean Studies Board. Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. It is a unit of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources of the National REsearch Council (NRC). The OSB is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering and marine policy. The OSB provides leadership, builds consensus, and gives timely, proactive advice to the nation on ocean science and policy issues. OSB activities fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security. A brief description of 1992 activities along with activities planned in 1993 is presented.

  17. Ocean Studies Board. Annual report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. It is a unit of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources of the National REsearch Council (NRC). The OSB is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering and marine policy. The OSB provides leadership, builds consensus, and gives timely, proactive advice to the nation on ocean science and policy issues. OSB activities fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security. A brief description of 1993 activities along with activities planned in 1994 is presented.

  18. Measuring the Oceans From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Seelye

    Given the growth in the number and complexity of ocean satellite systems since the launch of Seasat in 1978, combined with the fact that about twenty-five countries are now involved in such observations, this is an appropriate time for a new book on satellite oceanography (Disclosure: the book reviewer has also just published an ocean remote sensing book.). The present book is an expanded version of Robinson's 1985 book, Satellite Oceanography.It consists of two parts: fundamentals of satellite oceanography and remote sensing techniques. Although Robinson originally planned to include a third part on ocean applications, because of the length of the current book, that section will be published separately in 2005. The present book discusses for the ice-free ocean “what is measured and how it is done.”

  19. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hann, R.W. Jr.; Randall, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the environmental conditions found by the principal investigators during the predisposal study conducted from September 1977 through February 1980 prior to the start of brine discharge in March 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management. Volume 1 describes the results of the predisposal study, and it is divided into eight chapters entitled: Physical Oceanography, Analsyis of the Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Nekton, Benthos, Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, and Data Management. Volume 2 consists of appendices which contain additional supporting data in the form of figures and tables.

  20. Lindstrom Receives 2013 Ocean Sciences Award: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Lagerloef, Gary S. E.

    2014-09-01

    Eric J. Lindstrom's record over the last 3 decades exemplifies both leadership and service to the ocean science community. Advancement of ocean science not only depends on innovative research but is enabled by support of government agencies. As NASA program scientist for physical oceanography for the last 15 years, Eric combined his proven scientific knowledge and skilled leadership abilities with understanding the inner workings of our government bureaucracy, for the betterment of all. He is a four-time NASA headquarters medalist for his achievements in developing a unified physical oceanography program that is well integrated with those of other federal agencies.

  1. Remote sensing of atmosphere and oceans; Proceedings of Symposium 1 and of the Topical Meeting of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschke, E. (Editor); Ghazi, A. (Editor); Gower, J. F. R. (Editor); Mccormick, P. (Editor); Gruber, A. (Editor); Hasler, A. F. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Papers are presented on the contribution of space remote sensing observations to the World Climate Research Program and the Global Change Program, covering topics such as space observations for global environmental monitoring, experiments related to land surface fluxes, studies of atmospheric composition, structure, motions, and precipitation, and remote sensing for oceanography, observational studies of the atmosphere, clouds, and the earth radiation budget. Also, papers are given on results from space observations for meteorology, oceanography, and mesoscale atmospheric and ocean processes. The topics include vertical atmospheric soundings, surface water temperature determination, sea level variability, data on the prehurricane atmosphere, linear and circular mesoscale convective systems, Karman vortex clouds, and temporal patterns of phytoplankton abundance.

  2. Closing Note: A Tribute to Fridtjof Nansen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Untersteiner, Norbert

    The purpose of the Nansen symposium and volume has been to report the results of scientific research, to celebrate the memory of Fridtjof Nansen, and to remind ourselves of his exemplary life as a scientist and humanitarian. In this context it seems appropriate for the international community to remember that the Norwegian Sea and the Arctic Ocean were the cradle of modern oceanography. Mohn, Knudsen, Helland-Hansen, Nansen, Ekman, Fjeldstad, Sverdrup, and many others from this part of the world did their work in the North and became the "founding fathers" of oceanography.

  3. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    S. Bradley Moran has taken a post as assistant director, ocean sciences, for the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. He will focus on implementing the U.S. Ocean Science Policy and assume responsibility for a broad range of ocean, coastal, and marine resource-related matters. Moran is on leave as a professor at the University of Rhode Island's Graduate School of Oceanography. He most recently served as program director in the chemical oceanography program at the National Science Foundation.

  4. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hann, R.W. Jr.; Randall, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the environmental conditions found by the principal investigators during the predisposal study conducted from September 1977 through February 1980 prior to the start of brine discharge in March 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management. Volume 1 describes the results of the predisposal study, and it is divided into eight chapters entitled: Physical Oceanography, Analysis of the Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Nekton, Benthos, Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, and Data Management. Volume 2 consists of appendices which contain additional supporting data in the form of figures and tables.

  5. 2006 Ocean Sciences Meeting Travel Grant opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travel support for students participating in the 2006 Ocean Sciences Meeting (20-24 February, Honolulu, Hawaii) is being offered through two programs. The 2006 Ocean Sciences Meeting is jointly sponsored by AGU, the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), and The Oceanography Society (TOS).Student Travel Grant Program: Students presenting first-author papers at the Ocean Sciences Meeting are eligible to apply for partial travel support through the Student Travel Grant program. Support for this program has been made available by a grant from the U.S. National Oceanographic Partnership Program (www.nopp.org), with additional contributions from AGU and ASLO.

  6. Highlights of the 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Jonathan; Briscoe, Melbourne; Itsweire, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting was the 17th biennial gathering since the inception of ocean sciences meetings in 1982. A joint venture of the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), The Oceanography Society (TOS), and the Ocean Sciences section of AGU, the meeting was by far the largest ever: More than 5600 attendees made this meeting more than 30% larger than any previous one. Forty percent of attendees live outside the United States, hailing from 55 countries, showing the importance of this meeting as an international gathering of ocean scientists.

  7. A Progress Report on an Individualized-Integrated Science Course for Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Eugene S.

    This is a progress report of an individualized three-year science course for use in the senior high school. The course integrates biology, chemistry, and physics with smaller amounts of astronomy, geology, meteorology, oceanography and space exploration. The course is currently in the second year of tryout in the Elk River, Minnesota, school…

  8. US National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA

    1991-01-01

    An authoritative record of contributions of geophysical research in the U.S. during 1987-1990 is reported. Major areas of research include atmospheric sciences, geodesy, hydrology, planetology, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, volcanology, geochemistry, petrology, oceanography, seismology, tectonophysics, and solar-planetary relations.

  9. Reports to the Nation on our changing planet. Winter 1991 No. 1: The climate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This pamphlet is a semi-annual report for the period April 1992 through September 1992 dealing with the study of climatology. This introductory pamphlet treats in the simplest of terms such topics as climate change, the greenhouse effect, the global heat engine, hydrology, oceanography, computers and climatology, ice ages, and global warming. Informative charts are included.

  10. Natural Resources Technologies: A Suggested Post High School Program Development Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soles, Robert L.

    This post high school program development guide considers the following natural resources technological areas: air pollution control, forest, rangeland, minerals and mineral fuels, geological, outdoor recreation, soil, urban-regional planning, landscape, water, wastewater, oceanography, wildlife, fish, and marine life. Within each area, the…

  11. 46 CFR 11.920 - Subjects for MODU endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... obstruction lights X X X X Meteorology and oceanography: Synoptic chart weather forecasting X X X X X X Characteristics of weather systems X X X X X X X Ocean current systems X X X X X X Tide and tidal current... X X X X Maneuvering and handling: Anchoring and anchor handling X X X X Heavy weather operations X...

  12. 46 CFR 11.920 - Subjects for MODU endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... obstruction lights X X X X Meteorology and oceanography: Synoptic chart weather forecasting X X X X X X Characteristics of weather systems X X X X X X X Ocean current systems X X X X X X Tide and tidal current... X X X X Maneuvering and handling: Anchoring and anchor handling X X X X Heavy weather operations X...

  13. 46 CFR 11.920 - Subjects for MODU endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... obstruction lights X X X X Meteorology and oceanography: Synoptic chart weather forecasting X X X X X X Characteristics of weather systems X X X X X X X Ocean current systems X X X X X X Tide and tidal current... X X X X Maneuvering and handling: Anchoring and anchor handling X X X X Heavy weather operations X...

  14. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  15. Proceedings of the fifth annual NEA-seabed working group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D. R.

    1980-09-01

    European Communities, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States on national policies and positions on seabed disposal are summarized. Task group reports on systems analysis, site assessment, canisters, waste forms, sediment and rocks, physical oceanography, and biology are presented. (DMC)

  16. Employment Outlook, Environmental Scientists, Geologists, Geophysicists, Meteorologists, Oceanographers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Described is employment in four branches of earth science: geology, geophysics, meteorology, and oceanography. Considered for each employment area is the nature of the work, places of employment, type of training and qualifications for advancement, employment outlook, and earnings and working conditions. The demand for specialists in these four…

  17. What On Earth? Teacher's Guide. An Instructional Television Series for Eighth-Grade Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Fred L.

    This publication is intended to serve as a teacher's guide for the instructional television series entitled "What On Earth?" The program, a one-year course for eighth-grade students, is composed of units on the earth as a body in space, meteorology, oceanography, and geology. Each topic is covered through a series of television programs. In the…

  18. UN and the Sea. UNITAR News, Vol. 6 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Christina, Ed.

    This publication presents news and views related to the governance of ocean space, and includes two papers related to the Law of the Sea, main issues before the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. A list of sample activities related to marine pollution is presented, as well as activities related to Oceanography--Meteorology,…

  19. 78 FR 60852 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16239 and 17312

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... (77 FR 60966 and 78 FR 23538) for No. 16239 and No. 17312, respectively, that requests for permits to... issued to Dan Engelhaupt, Ph.D., HDR EOC, 5700 Lake Wright Drive, Norfolk, VA 23502- 1859, and Scripps Institution of Oceanography [Responsible Party: John Hildebrand, Ph.D.], University of California,...

  20. SSC marks anniversary of Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At the Hurricane Katrina observance held Aug. 29 in the StenniSphere auditorium, Stennis Space Center Deputy Director David Throckmorton (left) and RAdm. Timothy McGee, Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, unveil a plaque dedicated to SSC employees.

  1. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  2. 30 CFR 250.261 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... indirect impacts (including those from accidents, cooling water intake structures, and those identified in..., oceanography, geology, and shallow geological or manmade hazards; (2) Air and water quality; (3) Benthic... (including major sources of supplies, services, energy, and water), types of contractors or vendors that...

  3. 30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (including those from accidents, cooling water intake structures, and those identified in relevant ESA..., oceanography, geology, and shallow geological or manmade hazards; (2) Air and water quality; (3) Benthic... and coastal infrastructure (including major sources of supplies, services, energy, and water),...

  4. Applied programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This document overviews the areas of current research at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Technology transfer and the user facilities are discussed. Current topics are presented in the areas of applied physics, chemical science, material science, energy efficiency and conservation, environmental health and mathematics, biosystems and process science, oceanography, and nuclear energy. (GHH)

  5. Marine Program Annual Report 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Marine Program.

    This report describes the activities of a program designed to develop the information and systems necessary for managing the Continental Shelf and Coastal Zone of Northern New England. Ten research areas or projects are discussed: aquaculture, biology and ecology, coastal oceanography, buoy systems studies, man in the sea, marine platforms and…

  6. The Chemistry of Seashells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinard, W. Frank

    1980-01-01

    Describes the use of infrared and atomic absorption spectrometry in an introductory chemical oceanography course to introduce students to carbonate mineralogy by having them determine both the crystal structure and the magnesium content of seashells that they have collected. (Author/JN)

  7. Understanding Our Changing Planet: NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, 1995 Catalog of Education Programs and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is an integrated, sustainable environmental education program that focuses on the concept of Earth system science which integrates fields like meteorology, oceanography, atmospheric science, geology, and biology. The program has the following objectives: training the next generation of scientists to use an…

  8. ECOHAB - HYDROGRAPHY AND BIOLOGY TO PROVIDE INFORMATION FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A MODEL TO PREDICT THE INITIATION, MAINTANENCE AND DISPERSAL OF RED TIDE ON THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program is part of a larger program called ECOHAB: Florida that includes this study as well as physical oceanography, circulation patterns, and shelf scale modeling for predicting the occurrence and transport of Karenia brevis (=Gymnodinium breve) red tides. The physical par...

  9. Ecosystem Effects of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multidecadal variability in the Atlantic Ocean and its importance to the Earth’s climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillati...

  10. Dive-in for Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Ellsworth

    1973-01-01

    Describes the Florida Ocean Sciences Institute program which is designed to rehabilitate delinquent teenagers. Problem teenage boys, including high school dropouts and drug addicts, are involved in a nine-month program in oceanography and maritime skills. Students develop the attitudes and skills necessary to become responsible and productive…

  11. Computer Programs in Marine Science: Key to Oceanographic Records Documentation No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Mary A.

    Presented are abstracts of 700 computer programs in marine science. The programs listed are categorized under a wide range of headings which include physical oceanography, chemistry, coastal and estuarine processes, biology, pollution, air-sea interaction and heat budget, navigation and charting, curve fitting, and applied mathematics. The…

  12. Satellite observations of temporal terrestrial features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabchevsky, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of satellite data to earth resources and environmental studies and the effects of resolution of the photographs and imagery are discussed. The nature of the data acquired by manned space flight and unmanned satellites is described. Specific applications of remotely sensed data for oceanography, hydrology, geography, and geology are examined.

  13. U.S. National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1987-1990; Proceedings of the IUGG General Assembly, 20th, Vienna, Austria, Aug. 11-24, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, Margaret A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    An authoritative record of contributions of geophysical research in the U.S. during 1987-1990 is reported. Major areas of research include atmospheric sciences, geodesy, hydrology, planetology, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, volcanology, geochemistry, petrology, oceanography, seismology, tectonophysics, and solar-planetary relations.

  14. Remote Sensing of Earth and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertler, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of remote sensing applications and five areas of the earth resources survey program: agriculture and forestry production; geography, cartography, cultural resources; geology and mineral resources; hydrology and water resources; and oceanography and marine resources. Indicates that information acquisition is the first…

  15. Geophysics: The Earth in Space. A Guide for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

    Geophysics is the application of physics, chemistry, and mathematics to the problems and processes of the earth, from its innermost core to its outermost environs in space. Fields within geophysics include the atmospheric sciences; geodesy; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; hydrology; oceanography; planetology; seismology; solar-planetary…

  16. 78 FR 33811 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...NMFS has received an application from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), a part of the University of California at San Diego, for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (seismic) survey in the tropical western Pacific Ocean, September to October 2013. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal......

  17. Teaching as Coaching: A Case Study of Awareness and Learning in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gynnild, Vidar; Holstad, Anders; Myrhaug, Dag

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a number of case studies in Oceanography, an optional module in the third/fourth year of a Master of Science programme at Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The main objective was to gain more thorough insights into student learning by examining two sets of individual oral examinations. In addition, all students…

  18. A Comparative Model of Field Investigations: Aligning School Science Inquiry with the Practices of Contemporary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windschitl, Mark; Dvornich, Karen; Ryken, Amy E.; Tudor, Margaret; Koehler, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Field investigations are not characterized by randomized and manipulated control group experiments; however, most school science and high-stakes tests recognize only this paradigm of investigation. Scientists in astronomy, genetics, field biology, oceanography, geology, and meteorology routinely select naturally occurring events and conditions and…

  19. Earth Systems Science: An Analytic Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John

    2011-01-01

    Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…

  20. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environmental Studies, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books and articles dealing with the earth and environmental studies. Specific categories are geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. Items are indexed only by title but information about author, source, and date of publication is also noted. (BL)

  1. Mentor Master and the Game Show: It's Academic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Patricia D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews an authoring system for courseware development (Applesoft Basic) consisting of a programed template allowing preparation of instructional units composed of text, questions, and graphics. A higher-priced version includes a game. Geology, oceanography, space science, meteorology, human/plant anatomy, and cells/genetics diagrams are available…

  2. U.S. Federal Agency Implementation Overviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Hi Tech, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Describes roles of eight federal agencies in the Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) that will gather information concerning natural resources, agriculture and forestry, climate, earth science and geophysics, oceanography, defense issues, energy and atmospheric concerns, land management, environmental pollution, aeronautics and…

  3. From Presentation to Programming: Doing Something Different, Not the Same Thing Differently.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galas, Cathleen

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of multimedia software and the need to apply constructivist theories so students become more involved with the software, progressing from simply watching presentations to creating simulations. A project-based learning environment that uses MicroWorlds software is described that focuses on marine biology and oceanography. (LRW)

  4. Marine Science Teaching at the University Level. Report of the Unesco Workshop on University Curricula. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    A group of marine science education educators from several countries were requested to provide guidelines for the education and training of marine scientists and formulate recommended curricula in the following disciplines: marine biology (including fisheries biology), physical oceanography, and marine geology. Included in the report are: (1)…

  5. Sensational Studies in Marine Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, E. C., Jr.; Schroyer, Fred C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a description of a five-week summer course in marine biology and oceanography offered to college-bound, secondary students with varied physical handicaps. Summarizes insights gained after four summer sessions related to communication problems, physical arrangements for the wheelchair-bound, and handicap-proof maps; evaluates the course's…

  6. Core Journal Networks and Cocitation Maps in the Marine Sciences: Tools for Information Management in Interdisciplinary Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Katherine W.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates the interrelationship between two traditionally separate literatures, i.e., marine biology and physical oceanography, and develops a joint core journal list. The use of journal intercitation data from "Journal Citation Reports" for "Science Citation Index" and from SCISEARCH on DIALOG to create a cocitation map is described. (15…

  7. January Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Frank; White, Marjorie

    1976-01-01

    A transdisciplinary course in marine biology and oceanography is described. The course was conducted during an experimental educational venture in which the school calendar was organized into two shortened semesters and a one-month miniterm in January. The field experience involved activities in the Florida Keys during the miniterm. (EB)

  8. Student Enrollment in Geoscience Departments. 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geological Inst., Washington, DC.

    Presented in table format are student enrollment data for geoscience disciplines at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. Subfields for both countries include: geology; geophysics; oceanography; marine science; geological engineering; geophysical engineering; geochemistry; hydrology; mineralogy; paleontology; soil science;…

  9. Today's Youth in Tomorrow's Sea. Another Title in the Series "Marine Careers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Harold L.

    A discussion of many career possibilities related to the sea is presented. The false impressions many people have about the sea and about marine careers are dispelled. Among the career areas examined are offshore industry careers such as oil and gas drilling, careers in fishing, in seafaring, marine recreation, oceanography, aquaculture,…

  10. Calibration Of Airborne Visible/IR Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. A.; Chrien, T. G.; Miller, E. A.; Reimer, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) applied to all AVIRIS science data collected in 1987. Describes instrumentation and procedures used and demonstrates that calibration accuracy achieved exceeds design requirements. Developed for use in remote-sensing studies in such disciplines as botany, geology, hydrology, and oceanography.

  11. A Review of Online Physical Sciences and Mathematics Databases. Part 3: Astronomy, Earth Sciences, and Materials Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.

    1985-01-01

    Last article in a series reviews online databases in fields of astronomy, earth sciences (geology, oceanography, other geosciences), and materials science (interdisciplinary subject encompassing ceramics, polymers, metals, glasses, etc.), noting coverage and search strategies. A table of 28 databases citing major subjects, producers, and starting…

  12. LEARNER RESPONSE, FEEDBACK, AND REVIEW IN FILM PRESENTATION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLEN, WILLIAM H.; AND OTHERS

    IN A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS ON LEARNING OF A FILM ON OCEANOGRAPHY, 477 GRADE 6 STUDENTS WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO A CONTROL GROUP NOT VIEWING THE FILM AND TO 12 TREATMENT GROUPS. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES WERE RESPONSE MODE, FEEDBACK (IN FORMS THAT PRESENTED AUDIOVISUAL OR AUDIO-ONLY FEEDBACK, PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF CORRECT ANSWERS, AND SPACED OR…

  13. Marine Science Careers. A Sea Grant Guide to Ocean Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono.

    This document, which is intended for high school students who are considering a marine science career, contains 38 profiles of individuals employed in one of the following occupations: marine biologist, environmental educator, fishery biologist, marine ecologist, aquaculture microbiologist, geological oceanography, environmental consultant, ocean…

  14. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  15. Marine Education in a Land-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Hounshell, Paul B.

    1980-01-01

    Develops a rationale for integrating oceanography and marine education in land-oriented curriculum at the secondary level. Examples of topics with a multidisciplinary approach are described in the areas of acoustics and music, aquaria, archeology, art, astronomy, literature, careers, ecology, gastronomy, geology, and topics on various aquatic…

  16. History of Science and Science Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Cláudia; Guilherme, Elsa; Gaspar, Raquel; Boaventura, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The activities presented in this paper, which are addressed to elementary school, are focused on the pioneering work of the Portuguese King Carlos I in oceanography and involve the exploration of the exhibits belonging to two different science museums, the Aquarium Vasco da Gama and the Maritime Museum. Students were asked to study fish…

  17. SOURCES OF EARTH SCIENCE INFORMATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATTHEWS, WILLIAM H., III

    U.S. AND CANADIAN SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT EARTH SCIENCE FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ARE CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL. MAJOR SECTIONS ARE DEVOTED TO ASTRONOMY, GEOLOGY, METEOROLOGY, OCEANOGRAPHY, AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. EACH SECTION CONTAINS LISTS OF (1) DEGREE-GRANTING DEPARTMENTS IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, (2) GOVERNMENT…

  18. The Community Service-Minded Geographer: Geography and the Boy Scouts of America Merit Badge Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Robin R.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that geographers can serve their communities as Boy Scout merit badge counselors. Identifies several merit badge projects that are closely related to geography topics. Discusses projects involving (1) environmental science; (2) geology; (3) oceanography; (4) orienteering; (5) weather; (6) U.S. cultures; (7) community citizenship; and (8)…

  19. PLANETARIUMS, OBSERVATORIES AND EARTH SCIENCE EXHIBITS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATTHEWS, WILLIAM H., III

    THIS EARTH SCIENCE CURRICULUM PROJECT (ESCP) REFERENCE SERIES PROVIDES INFORMATION ON SOURCES OF MATERIALS, CLASSROOM TEACHING AIDS, LABORATORY AND FIELD PROJECT SUGGESTIONS, AND OTHER RELATED TOPICS IN THE FIELDS OF (1) ASTRONOMY, (2) GEOLOGY, (3) METEOROLOGY, (4) OCEANOGRAPHY, AND (5) PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. THESE PAMPHLETS ARE INTENDED TO AID THE…

  20. Project Marco Polo: Bridging the Gap between Natural and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bein, Frederick L.; Rea, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Describes Project Marco Polo in which students, teachers, and staff from "National Geographic" and the U.S. Navy traveled to Japan. Reports that they studied Japanese culture, oceanography, and natural science while on the trip. Includes excerpts from field journals kept by the participants, photographs of the trip, and a map. (DK)

  1. Beyond the Classroom--Students Taste Excitement and Frustrations of True Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowenhoven, Nick

    1980-01-01

    Reported is a program of undergraduate research in limnology and oceanography at the University of New Hampshire. The program, The Ocean Projects Course, involves students in all aspects of the research project, from drafting and defending a budget to summarizing and reporting their findings in a final report. (CO)

  2. World of Work. Exemplary Project in Vocational Education. Volume 2: Learning Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Charles

    Volume II of the Project World of Work Packets contains lesson plans for the Industriology, or second, level of the program. It includes units on Papermaking (Grades 7 and 8), and Leathercraft (no grade level specified), by McPherson, Harkins, and Rivest; Oceanography (no grade level specified), by Miller and Beisel; and Home Economics (Grades 7…

  3. Arctic Science, Engineering and Education. Awards: Fiscal Years 1987 and 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This document summarizes the dispersal of funds on Arctic research by the National Science Foundation during fiscal years 1987 and 1988. Major areas considered were: atmospheric sciences; oceanography; biological sciences; earth sciences; science and engineering education; small business research; engineering and permafrost; Arctic information and…

  4. Science Selections. Accounts of Ongoing Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornberg, Warren, Ed.

    This publication is intended to present science teachers with an opportunity to communicate to students the idea that science is an ongoing and never-ending process. The booklet contains supplemental materials, valuable as enrichment materials. A selection of ongoing research in the biological sciences, physics and astronomy, oceanography,…

  5. Topex: Observing the Oceans from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Measurement of global ocean topography by a radar altimeter aboard the TOPEX satellite is discussed. Technical aspects of satellite altimetry as they pertain to the measurement of ocean circulation are described. The TOPEX mission is explained and a general history of oceanography is included.

  6. What is marine biology?: Defining a science in the United States in the mid 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Marine biology and biological oceanography are two disciplinary subfields that have long struggled with their definitions. Should marine biology simply be considered a part of biology that takes place in the marine environment or is it a distinct entity, with conceptual problems and methodological approaches all its own? Similarly, biological oceanography could be seen as a necessary adjunct to physical and chemical oceanography or it could be defined more as an extension of biology into the marine realm. In the United States, these issues were directly addressed from the mid 1950s through the mid 1960s in a series of events that shed light on how marine biologists came to a working definition of their field that provided a broad methodological tent for practitioners and, at the same time, allied the field to oceanography during a period in which exploration of uncharted areas drew considerable funding from the post-WWII federal agencies charged with keeping American science at the forefront. PMID:18822664

  7. Remote sensing and the pelagic fisheries environment off Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearcy, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Remote sensing oceanography at Oregon State University is part of a multidisciplinary research program: (1) to learn more about nearshore oceanographic processes and how they affect the production of marine life and the availability of albacore tuna; and (2) to provide fishermen with information in near real time that will be useful in scouting for albacore concentrations.

  8. Making Science Come Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitford, Dennis J.; Eisman, Greg A.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Naval Academy oceanography major is bucking the nationwide trend toward declining enrollments in science majors study tracks. Nontraditional approaches used include interdisciplinary and applied science, significant instructor experience in applying the major outside academia, hands-on laboratories in all classes, and an oceanography…

  9. Assessment of Evidence in University Students' Scientific Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takao, Allison Y.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Examines uses of evidence in university students' writing of scientific argument in an introductory-level oceanography course. Provides students with an interactive CD-ROM entitled 'Our Dynamic Planet' to write a scientific technical paper. Discusses ways of teaching students the construction of argument in scientific writing. (KHR)

  10. Partnering with Faculty To Interweave Internet Instruction into College Coursework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Topsy N.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how librarians can interact with faculty members to incorporate Internet instruction into college coursework. Active learning and creating Web pages are discussed, and a six-page appendix presents an example of a Web-based exercise for a basic oceanography course. (LRW)

  11. Underwater Web Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wighting, Mervyn J.; Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers search for ways to enhance oceanography units in the classroom. There are many online resources available to help one explore the mysteries of the deep. This article describes a collection of Web sites on this topic appropriate for middle level classrooms.

  12. Sea Floor off San Diego, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Ocean-floor image generated from multibeam-bathymetry data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Fugro Pelagos. To learn more, visit http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2007/2959/.

  13. TOPEX - Observing the oceans from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, G. H.; Wunsch, C.; Yamarone, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of global ocean topography by a radar altimeter aboard the TOPEX satellite is discussed. Technical aspects of satellite altimetry as they pertain to the measurement of ocean circulation are described. The TOPEX mission is explained and a general history of oceanography is included.

  14. Evaluation of the NJROTC Multimedia Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devin, Phillip D.; Robyn, Abby E.

    The Navy Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps (NJROTC) provides high school students with academic training and military leadership experience. The academic portion of the program consists of a 4-year naval science curriculum that includes these subjects: naval history, sea power, maritime geography, navigation, citizenship, oceanography,…

  15. Literature and the Sea. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the Marine Science Center, Newport, Oregon, May 8, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astro, Richard, Ed.

    This document is a collection of eight papers presented at a conference held at the Marine Science Center, Newport, Oregon, May 8, 1976. The conference concluded a course offered jointly by the School of Oceanography and the Department of English at Oregon State University. The conference had two purposes: (1) focus on the relationship between…

  16. Marine Science Technician Second Class, 15-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational and technical education, was designed to provide the theory portion of the Marine Science Technician Program. It includes a review of basic subjects, marine biology, oceanography, as well as meteorologic observations and recording. The course consists of a lesson book…

  17. 75 FR 64996 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), a part of the University of California, to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine geophysical survey in the eastern tropical Pacific......

  18. Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

  19. Maurycy Pius Rudzki and the birth of geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackowski, Antoni; Krzemień, Kazimierz

    2016-02-01

    The article describes briefly the life and fundamental work of Rudzki in geology, geography, seismology, oceanography and meteorology. In 1895 he became head of the world's first department of geophysics and meteorology at the Jagiellonian University of Kraków, the second oldest university north of the Alps (Prague being the oldest).

  20. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…