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1

The structure of CrgA from Neisseria meningitidis reveals a new octameric assembly state for LysR transcriptional regulators  

PubMed Central

LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) form the largest family of bacterial regulators acting as both auto-repressors and activators of target promoters, controlling operons involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. The LTTR, CrgA, from the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, is upregulated during bacterial–host cell contact. Here, we report the crystal structures of both regulatory domain and full-length CrgA, the first of a novel subclass of LTTRs that form octameric rings. Non-denaturing mass spectrometry analysis and analytical ultracentrifugation established that the octameric form of CrgA is the predominant species in solution in both the presence and absence of an oligonucleotide encompassing the CrgA-binding sequence. Furthermore, analysis of the isolated CrgA–DNA complex by mass spectrometry showed stabilization of a double octamer species upon DNA binding. Based on the observed structure and the mass spectrometry findings, a model is proposed in which a hexadecameric array of two CrgA oligomers binds to its DNA target site. PMID:19474343

Sainsbury, Sarah; Lane, Laura A.; Ren, Jingshan; Gilbert, Robert J.; Saunders, Nigel J.; Robinson, Carol V.; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.

2009-01-01

2

Crystal Structure of a Two-Subunit TrkA Octameric Gating Ring Assembly.  

PubMed

The TM1088 locus of T. maritima codes for two proteins designated TM1088A and TM1088B, which combine to form the cytosolic portion of a putative Trk K+ transporter. We report the crystal structure of this assembly to a resolution of 3.45 Å. The high resolution crystal structures of the components of the assembly, TM1088A and TM1088B, were also determined independently to 1.50 Å and 1.55 Å, respectively. The TM1088 proteins are structurally homologous to each other and to other K+ transporter proteins, such as TrkA. These proteins form a cytosolic gating ring assembly that controls the flow of K+ ions across the membrane. TM1088 represents the first structure of a two-subunit Trk assembly. Despite the atypical genetics and chain organization of the TM1088 assembly, it shares significant structural homology and an overall quaternary organization with other single-subunit K+ gating ring assemblies. This structure provides the first structural insights into what may be an evolutionary ancestor of more modern single-subunit K+ gating ring assemblies. PMID:25826626

Deller, Marc C; Johnson, Hope A; Miller, Mitchell D; Spraggon, Glen; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A; Lesley, Scott A

2015-01-01

3

Crystal Structure of a Two-Subunit TrkA Octameric Gating Ring Assembly  

PubMed Central

The TM1088 locus of T. maritima codes for two proteins designated TM1088A and TM1088B, which combine to form the cytosolic portion of a putative Trk K+ transporter. We report the crystal structure of this assembly to a resolution of 3.45 Å. The high resolution crystal structures of the components of the assembly, TM1088A and TM1088B, were also determined independently to 1.50 Å and 1.55 Å, respectively. The TM1088 proteins are structurally homologous to each other and to other K+ transporter proteins, such as TrkA. These proteins form a cytosolic gating ring assembly that controls the flow of K+ ions across the membrane. TM1088 represents the first structure of a two-subunit Trk assembly. Despite the atypical genetics and chain organization of the TM1088 assembly, it shares significant structural homology and an overall quaternary organization with other single-subunit K+ gating ring assemblies. This structure provides the first structural insights into what may be an evolutionary ancestor of more modern single-subunit K+ gating ring assemblies. PMID:25826626

Deller, Marc C.; Johnson, Hope A.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Spraggon, Glen; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A.; Lesley, Scott A.

2015-01-01

4

De novo design of an RNA tile that self-assembles into a homo-octameric nanoprism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rational, de novo design of RNA nanostructures can potentially integrate a wide array of structural and functional diversities. Such nanostructures have great promises in biomedical applications. Despite impressive progress in this field, all RNA building blocks (or tiles) reported so far are not geometrically well defined. They are generally flexible and can only assemble into a mixture of complexes with different sizes. To achieve defined structures, multiple tiles with different sequences are needed. In this study, we design an RNA tile that can homo-oligomerize into a uniform RNA nanostructure. The designed RNA nanostructure is characterized by gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy and cryogenic electron microscopy imaging. We believe that development along this line would help RNA nanotechnology to reach the structural control that is currently associated with DNA nanotechnology.

Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Zhiyu; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Guansong; Mao, Chengde

2015-01-01

5

Slow Folding-Unfolding Kinetics of an Octameric ?-Peptide Bundle  

PubMed Central

?-Peptide foldamers offer attractive frameworks for examining the effect of backbone flexibility on the dynamics of protein folding. Herein, we study the folding-unfolding kinetics of a ?-peptide, Acid-1Y,1 which folds in aqueous solution into an octameric bundle of peptides in a conformation known as the 14-helix. Acid-1Y is comprised exclusively of ?-amino acids, which differ from ?-amino acids by the addition of a single methylene into the backbone. We aim to understand how the additional degree of freedom and increased backbone flexibility in the ?-amino acid affect folding dynamics and to measure folding rates of this octameric ?-peptide. Previously, we found that the T-jump induced relaxation kinetics of a monomeric ?-peptide that forms a monomeric 14-helix occurred on the nanosecond time scale2 and are noticeably slower than a similar alanine-based ?-helical peptide.3 Additionally, in comparison to similar ?-helices, the relaxation rates showed a weaker dependence on temperature. Here, we find that the T-jump induced relaxation kinetics of the octameric ?-peptide occurs on an even slower time scale (minutes) and the unfolding relaxation rates show a large dependence on temperature. These differences indicate that folding energy landscapes of ?-peptide secondary and quaternary structure are markedly distinct from one another and also from their ?-helical counterparts. PMID:24164344

Montalvo, Geronda L.; Gai, Feng; Roder, Heinrich; DeGrado, William F.

2013-01-01

6

Structural basis of hAT transposon end recognition by Hermes, an octameric DNA transposase from Musca domestica.  

PubMed

Hermes is a member of the hAT transposon superfamily that has active representatives, including McClintock's archetypal Ac mobile genetic element, in many eukaryotic species. The crystal structure of the Hermes transposase-DNA complex reveals that Hermes forms an octameric ring organized as a tetramer of dimers. Although isolated dimers are active in vitro for all the chemical steps of transposition, only octamers are active in vivo. The octamer can provide not only multiple specific DNA-binding domains to recognize repeated subterminal sequences within the transposon ends, which are important for activity, but also multiple nonspecific DNA binding surfaces for target capture. The unusual assembly explains the basis of bipartite DNA recognition at hAT transposon ends, provides a rationale for transposon end asymmetry, and suggests how the avidity provided by multiple sites of interaction could allow a transposase to locate its transposon ends amidst a sea of chromosomal DNA. PMID:25036632

Hickman, Alison B; Ewis, Hosam E; Li, Xianghong; Knapp, Joshua A; Laver, Thomas; Doss, Anna-Louise; Tolun, Gökhan; Steven, Alasdair C; Grishaev, Alexander; Bax, Ad; Atkinson, Peter W; Craig, Nancy L; Dyda, Fred

2014-07-17

7

Iron Binding at Specific Sites within the Octameric HbpS Protects Streptomycetes from Iron-Mediated Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

The soil bacterium Streptomyces reticuli secretes the octameric protein HbpS that acts as a sensory component of the redox-signalling pathway HbpS-SenS-SenR. This system modulates a genetic response on iron- and haem-mediated oxidative stress. Moreover, HbpS alone provides this bacterium with a defence mechanism to the presence of high concentrations of iron ions and haem. While the protection against haem has been related to its haem-binding and haem-degrading activity, the interaction with iron has not been studied in detail. In this work, we biochemically analyzed the iron-binding activity of a set of generated HbpS mutant proteins and present evidence showing the involvement of one internal and two exposed D/EXXE motifs in binding of high quantities of ferrous iron, with the internal E78XXE81 displaying the tightest binding. We additionally show that HbpS is able to oxidize ferrous to ferric iron ions. Based on the crystal structure of both the wild-type and the mutant HbpS-D78XXD81, we conclude that the local arrangement of the side chains from the glutamates in E78XXE81 within the octameric assembly is a pre-requisite for interaction with iron. The data obtained led us to propose that the exposed and the internal motif build a highly specific route that is involved in the transport of high quantities of iron ions into the core of the HbpS octamer. Furthermore, physiological studies using Streptomyces transformants secreting either wild-type or HbpS mutant proteins and different redox-cycling compounds led us to conclude that the iron-sequestering activity of HbpS protects these soil bacteria from the hazardous side effects of peroxide- and iron-based oxidative stress. PMID:24013686

Wedderhoff, Ina; Kursula, Inari; Groves, Matthew R.; Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío

2013-01-01

8

A unique octameric structure of Axe2, an intracellular acetyl-xylooligosaccharide esterase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.  

PubMed

Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 is a thermophilic, Gram-positive soil bacterium that possesses an extensive and highly regulated hemicellulolytic system, allowing the bacterium to efficiently degrade high-molecular-weight polysaccharides such as xylan, arabinan and galactan. As part of the xylan-degradation system, the bacterium uses a number of side-chain-cleaving enzymes, one of which is Axe2, a 219-amino-acid intracellular serine acetylxylan esterase that removes acetyl side groups from xylooligosaccharides. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that Axe2 belongs to the lipase GDSL family and represents a new family of carbohydrate esterases. In the current study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of Axe2 is reported, as determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the selenomethionine derivative Axe2-Se was initially determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction techniques at 1.70?Å resolution and was used for the structure determination of wild-type Axe2 (Axe2-WT) and the catalytic mutant Axe2-S15A at 1.85 and 1.90?Å resolution, respectively. These structures demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of the Axe2 monomer generally corresponds to the SGNH hydrolase fold, consisting of five central parallel ?-sheets flanked by two layers of helices (eight ?-helices and five 310-helices). The catalytic triad residues, Ser15, His194 and Asp191, are lined up along a substrate channel situated on the concave surface of the monomer. Interestingly, the Axe2 monomers are assembled as a `doughnut-shaped' homo-octamer, presenting a unique quaternary structure built of two staggered tetrameric rings. The eight active sites are organized in four closely situated pairs, which face the relatively wide internal cavity. The biological relevance of this octameric structure is supported by independent results obtained from gel-filtration, TEM and SAXS experiments. These data and their comparison to the structural data of related hydrolases are used for a more general discussion focusing on the structure-function relationships of enzymes of this category. PMID:24531461

Lansky, Shifra; Alalouf, Onit; Solomon, Hodaya Vered; Alhassid, Anat; Govada, Lata; Chayen, Naomi E; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

2014-02-01

9

SEPT12 orchestrates the formation of mammalian sperm annulus by organizing core octameric complexes with other SEPT proteins.  

PubMed

Male infertility has become a worldwide health problem, but the etiologies of most cases are still unknown. SEPT12, a GTP-binding protein, is involved in male fertility. Two SEPT12 mutations (SEPT12(T89M) and SEPT12(D197N)) have been identified in infertile men who have a defective sperm annulus with a bent tail. The function of SEPT12 in the sperm annulus is still unclear. Here, we found that SEPT12 formed a filamentous structure with SEPT7, SEPT 6, SEPT2 and SEPT4 at the sperm annulus. The SEPT12-based septin core complex was assembled as octameric filaments comprising the SEPT proteins 12-7-6-2-2-6-7-12 or 12-7-6-4-4-6-7-12. In addition, the GTP-binding domain of SEPT12 was crucial for its interaction with SEPT7, and the N- and C-termini of SEPT12 were required for the interaction of SEPT12 with itself to polymerize octamers into filaments. Mutant mice carrying the SEPT12(D197N) mutation, which disrupts SEPT12 filament formation, showed a disorganized sperm annulus, bent tail, reduced motility and loss of the SEPT ring structure at the sperm annulus. These phenotypes were also observed in an infertile man carrying SEPT12(D197N). Taken together, our results demonstrate the molecular architecture of SEPT12 filaments at the sperm annulus, their mechanical support of sperm motility, and their correlation with male infertility. PMID:25588830

Kuo, Yung-Che; Shen, Yi-Ru; Chen, Hau-Inh; Lin, Ying-Hung; Wang, Ya-Yun; Chen, Yet-Ran; Wang, Chia-Yih; Kuo, Pao-Lin

2015-03-01

10

TEMPLATE BASED HIGH PACKING DENSITY ASSEMBLY FOR MICROCHIP SOLID STATE  

E-print Network

TEMPLATE BASED HIGH PACKING DENSITY ASSEMBLY FOR MICROCHIP SOLID STATE COOLING APPLICATION Kerwin 98195 Abstract. 100% dry assembly using shape matching and van der Waals attraction for parts transfer has been performed to achieve high density parts packing (up to 92%) of thermoelectric cooling

11

Stability of the Octameric Structure Affects Plasminogen-Binding Capacity of Streptococcal Enolase  

PubMed Central

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen that has the potential to cause invasive disease by binding and activating human plasmin(ogen). Streptococcal surface enolase (SEN) is an octameric ?-enolase that is localized at the GAS cell surface. In addition to its glycolytic role inside the cell, SEN functions as a receptor for plasmin(ogen) on the bacterial surface, but the understanding of the molecular basis of plasmin(ogen) binding is limited. In this study, we determined the crystal and solution structures of GAS SEN and characterized the increased plasminogen binding by two SEN mutants. The plasminogen binding ability of SENK312A and SENK362A is ~2- and ~3.4-fold greater than for the wild-type protein. A combination of thermal stability assays, native mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography approaches shows that increased plasminogen binding ability correlates with decreased stability of the octamer. We propose that decreased stability of the octameric structure facilitates the access of plasmin(ogen) to its binding sites, leading to more efficient plasmin(ogen) binding and activation. PMID:25807546

Law, Ruby H. P.; Casey, Lachlan W.; Valkov, Eugene; Bertozzi, Carlo; Stamp, Anna; Jovcevski, Blagojce; Aquilina, J. Andrew; Whisstock, James C.; Walker, Mark J.; Kobe, Bostjan

2015-01-01

12

A novel open-barrel structure of octameric translin reveals a potential RNA entryway.  

PubMed

The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)/RNA binding protein translin was suggested to be involved in chromosomal translocations, telomere metabolism, and mRNA transport and translation. Oligonucleotide binding surfaces map within a closed cavity of translin octameric barrels, raising the question as to how DNA/RNA gain access to this inner cavity, particularly given that, to date, none of the barrel structures reported hint to an entryway. Here, we argue against a mechanism by which translin octamers may "dissociate and reassemble" upon RNA binding and report a novel "open"-barrel structure of human translin revealing a feasible DNA/RNA entryway into the cavity. Additionally, we report that translin not only is confined to binding of ssDNA oligonucleotides, or single-stranded extensions of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), but also can bind single-stranded sequences internally embedded in dsDNA molecules. PMID:25433126

Eliahoo, Elad; Marx, Ailie; Manor, Haim; Alian, Akram

2015-02-27

13

Using Markov state models to study self-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Markov state models (MSMs) have been demonstrated to be a powerful method for computationally studying intramolecular processes such as protein folding and macromolecular conformational changes. In this article, we present a new approach to construct MSMs that is applicable to modeling a broad class of multi-molecular assembly reactions. Distinct structures formed during assembly are distinguished by their undirected graphs, which are defined by strong subunit interactions. Spatial inhomogeneities of free subunits are accounted for using a recently developed Gaussian-based signature. Simplifications to this state identification are also investigated. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on two different coarse-grained models for virus self-assembly. We find good agreement between the dynamics predicted by the MSMs and long, unbiased simulations, and that the MSMs can reduce overall simulation time by orders of magnitude.

Perkett, Matthew R.; Hagan, Michael F.

2014-06-01

14

Influence of the Phase State of Self-Assembling Redox Mediators on their Electrochemical Activity  

PubMed Central

Self-assembling redox mediators have the potential to be broadly useful in a range of interfacial electrochemical contexts because the oxidation state and state of assembly of the mediator are closely coupled. In this paper, we report an investigation of the self-assembly of single- and double-tailed ferrocenyl amphiphiles (FTMA and BFDMA, respectively) at the surfaces of Pt electrodes and the impact of the dynamic assembled state of the amphiphiles on their rate of oxidation. We conclude that frozen aggregates of BFDMA adsorb to the surfaces of the Pt electrodes, and that slow dynamics of reorganization BFDMA within these aggregates limits the rate of electrooxidation of BFDMA. In contrast, FTMA, while forming assemblies on the surfaces of Pt electrodes, is characterized by fast reorganization dynamics and a corresponding rate of oxidation that is an order of magnitude greater than BFDMA. PMID:24882870

Muller, John P. E.; Aytar, Burcu S.; Kondo, Yukishige; Lynn, David M.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

2014-01-01

15

Strategies for solid-state NMR investigations of supramolecular assemblies with large subunit sizes.  

PubMed

Solid-state NMR is a versatile tool to study structure and dynamics of insoluble and non-crystalline biopolymers. Supramolecular protein assemblies are formed by self-association of multiple copies of single small-sized proteins. Because of their high degree of local order, solid-state NMR spectra of such systems exhibit an unusually high level of resolution, rendering them an ideal target for solid-state NMR investigations. Recently, our group has solved the structure of one particular supramolecular assembly, the type-iii-secretion-system needle. The needle subunit comprises around 80 residues. Many interesting supramolecular assemblies with unknown structure have subunits larger in size, which requires development of tailored solid-state NMR strategies to address their structures. In this "Perspective" article, we provide a view on different approaches to enhance sensitivity and resolution in biological solid-state NMR with a focus on the possible application to supramolecular assemblies with large subunit sizes. PMID:25487122

Fricke, Pascal; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Shi, Chaowei; Lange, Adam

2015-04-01

16

Solid-State NMR Studies of HIV-1 Capsid Protein Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

In mature HIV-1 virions, the 26.6 kDa CA protein is assembled into a characteristic cone-shaped core (capsid) that encloses the RNA viral genome. The assembled capsid structure is best described by a fullerene cone model that is made up from a hexameric lattice containing a variable number of CA pentamers, thus allowing for closure of tubular or conical structures. In this paper, we present a solid-state NMR analysis of the wild-type HIV-1 CA protein, prepared as conical and spherical assemblies that are stable and are not affected by magic angle spinning of the samples at frequencies between 10 and 25 kHz. Multidimensional homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra of CA assemblies of uniformly 13C,15Nlabeled CA exhibit narrow lines, indicative of the conformational homogeneity of the protein in these assemblies. For the conical assemblies, partial residue-specific resonance assignments were obtained. Analysis of the NMR spectra recorded for the conical and spherical assemblies indicates that the CA protein structure is not significantly different in the different morphologies. The present results demonstrate that the assemblies of CA protein are amenable to detailed structural analysis by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

Han, Yun; Ahn, Jinwoo; Concel, Jason; Byeon, In-Ja L.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Yang, Jun; Polenova, Tatyana E.

2010-02-17

17

Structural and functional characterization of TesB from Yersinia pestis reveals a unique octameric arrangement of hotdog domains.  

PubMed

Acyl-CoA thioesterases catalyse the hydrolysis of the thioester bonds present within a wide range of acyl-CoA substrates, releasing free CoASH and the corresponding fatty-acyl conjugate. The TesB-type thioesterases are members of the TE4 thioesterase family, one of 25 thioesterase enzyme families characterized to date, and contain two fused hotdog domains in both prokaryote and eukaryote homologues. Only two structures have been elucidated within this enzyme family, and much of the current understanding of the TesB thioesterases has been based on the Escherichia coli structure. Yersinia pestis, a highly virulent bacterium, encodes only one TesB-type thioesterase in its genome; here, the structural and functional characterization of this enzyme are reported, revealing unique elements both within the protomer and quaternary arrangements of the hotdog domains which have not been reported previously in any thioesterase family. The quaternary structure, confirmed using a range of structural and biophysical techniques including crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography, exhibits a unique octameric arrangement of hotdog domains. Interestingly, the same biological unit appears to be present in both TesB structures solved to date, and is likely to be a conserved and distinguishing feature of TesB-type thioesterases. Analysis of the Y. pestis TesB thioesterase activity revealed a strong preference for octanoyl-CoA and this is supported by structural analysis of the active site. Overall, the results provide novel insights into the structure of TesB thioesterases which are likely to be conserved and distinguishing features of the TE4 thioesterase family. PMID:25849407

Swarbrick, C M D; Perugini, M A; Cowieson, N; Forwood, J K

2015-04-01

18

Multimeric assembly and biochemical characterization of the Trax?translin endonuclease complex  

SciTech Connect

Trax-Translin heteromers, also known as C3PO, have been proposed to activate the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by facilitating endonucleolytic cleavage of the siRNA passenger strand. We report on the crystal structure of hexameric Drosophila C3PO formed by truncated translin and Trax, along with electron microscopic and mass spectrometric studies on octameric C3PO formed by full-length translin and Trax. Our studies establish that Trax adopts the translin fold, possesses catalytic centers essential for C3PO's endoRNase activity and interacts extensively with translin to form an octameric assembly. The catalytic pockets of Trax subunits are located within the interior chamber of the octameric scaffold. Truncated C3PO, like full-length C3PO, shows endoRNase activity that leaves 3'-hydroxyl-cleaved ends. We have measured the catalytic activity of C3PO and shown it to cleave almost stoichiometric amounts of substrate per second.

Tian, Yuan; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Ascano, Manuel; Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Park, Ah Young; Juranek, Stefan A.; Rice, William J.; Yin, Qian; Robinson, Carol V.; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J. (Weill-Med); (MSKCC); (Rockefeller); (HHMI); (Oxford)

2011-09-16

19

Multimeric Assembly and Biochemical Characterization of the Trax-translin Endonuclease complex  

SciTech Connect

Trax-translin heteromers, also known as C3PO, have been proposed to activate the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by facilitating endonucleolytic cleavage of the siRNA passenger strand. We report on the crystal structure of hexameric Drosophila C3PO formed by truncated translin and Trax, along with electron microscopic and mass spectrometric studies on octameric C3PO formed by full-length translin and Trax. Our studies establish that Trax adopts the translin fold, possesses catalytic centers essential for C3PO's endoRNase activity and interacts extensively with translin to form an octameric assembly. The catalytic pockets of Trax subunits are located within the interior chamber of the octameric scaffold. Truncated C3PO, like full-length C3PO, shows endoRNase activity that leaves 3'-hydroxyl-cleaved ends. We have measured the catalytic activity of C3PO and shown it to cleave almost stoichiometric amounts of substrate per second.

Y Tian; D Simanshu; M Ascano; R Diaz-Avalos; A Park; S Juranek; W Rice; Q Yin; C Robinson; et al.

2011-12-31

20

78 FR 29318 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly...the Administrative Conference of the United States AGENCY: Administrative Conference of the United States. ACTION:...

2013-05-20

21

78 FR 69640 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly...the Administrative Conference of the United States AGENCY: Administrative Conference of the United States. ACTION:...

2013-11-20

22

Ready to Assemble: Grading State Higher Education Accountability Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States need strong higher education systems, now more than ever. In the tumultuous, highly competitive 21st century economy, citizens and workers need knowledge, skills, and credentials in order to prosper. Yet many colleges and universities are falling short. To give all students the best possible postsecondary education, states must create…

Aldeman, Chad; Carey, Kevin

2009-01-01

23

Probing the Oligomeric Assemblies of Pea Porphobilinogen Synthase by Analytical Ultracentrifugation†  

PubMed Central

The enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) can exist in different non-additive homo-oligomeric assemblies and, under appropriate conditions, the distribution of these assemblies can respond to ligands such as metals or substrate. PBGS from most organisms was believed to be octameric until work on a rare allele of human PBGS revealed an alternate hexameric assembly, which is also available to the wild type enzyme at elevated pH. Herein, we establish that the distribution of pea PBGS quaternary structures also contains octamers and hexamers, using both sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium experiments. We report results in which the octamer dominates under purification conditions and discuss conditions that influence the octamer:hexamer ratio. As predicted by PBGS crystal structures from related organisms, in the absence of magnesium, the octameric assembly is significantly destabilized and the oligomeric distribution is dominated largely by the hexameric assembly. Although the PBGS hexamer-to-octamer oligomeric rearrangement is well document under some conditions, both assemblies are very stable (under AUC conditions) in the timeframe of our ultracentrifuge experiments. PMID:18795796

Kokona, Bashkim; Rigotti, Daniel J.; Wasson, Andrew S.; Lawrence, Sarah H.; Jaffe, Eileen K.; Fairman, Robert

2008-01-01

24

Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers  

E-print Network

Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers (ISAM) of a Polyviologena-Galva´n, Harry W. Gibson, James R. Heflin* Introduction Electrochromic (EC) devices undergo reversible absorbance/ transmittance change on application of external voltage.[1] Since the first major report on electrochromism

Heflin, Randy

25

Steady-State Theory of the Interference of GTP Hydrolysis in the Mechanism of Microtubule Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented for the interference of GTP hydrolysis in the mechanism of microtubule assembly. This model is suggested by previous results showing that both GTP and GDP are present at microtubule ends because of GTP hydrolysis and that tubulin does not bind to a GDP-bound end. The analytical theory developed here is aimed at calculation of the steady-state

Terrell L. Hill; Marie-France Carlier

1983-01-01

26

Internal states of model isotropic granular packings. I. Assembling process, geometry, and contact networks.  

PubMed

This is the first paper of a series of three, in which we report on numerical simulation studies of geometric and mechanical properties of static assemblies of spherical beads under an isotropic pressure. The influence of various assembling processes on packing microstructures is investigated. It is accurately checked that frictionless systems assemble in the unique random close packing (RCP) state in the low pressure limit if the compression process is fast enough, higher solid fractions corresponding to more ordered configurations with traces of crystallization. Specific properties directly related to isostaticity of the force-carrying structure in the rigid limit are discussed. With frictional grains, different preparation procedures result in quite different inner structures that cannot be classified by the sole density. If partly or completely lubricated they will assemble like frictionless ones, approaching the RCP solid fraction Phi_{RCP} approximately 0.639 with a high coordination number: z* approximately =6 on the force-carrying backbone. If compressed with a realistic coefficient of friction mu=0.3 packings stabilize in a loose state with Phi approximately 0.593 and z* approximately =4.5 . And, more surprisingly, an idealized "vibration" procedure, which maintains an agitated, collisional regime up to high densities results in equally small values of z* while Phi is close to the maximum value Phi_{RCP}. Low coordination packings have a large proportion (>10%) of rattlers--grains carrying no force--the effect of which should be accounted for on studying position correlations, and also contain a small proportion of localized "floppy modes" associated with divalent grains. Low-pressure states of frictional packings retain a finite level of force indeterminacy even when assembled with the slowest compression rates simulated, except in the case when the friction coefficient tends to infinity. Different microstructures are characterized in terms of near neighbor correlations on various scales, and some comparisons with available laboratory data are reported, although values of contact coordination numbers apparently remain experimentally inaccessible. PMID:18233840

Agnolin, Ivana; Roux, Jean-Noël

2007-12-01

27

A Quaternary Mechanism Enables the Complex Biological Functions of Octameric Human UDP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase, a Key Enzyme in Cell Metabolism.  

PubMed

In mammals, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) is the only enzyme capable of activating glucose-1-phosphate (Glc-1-P) to UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc), a metabolite located at the intersection of virtually all metabolic pathways in the mammalian cell. Despite the essential role of its product, the molecular basis of UGP function is poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of human UGP in complex with its product UDP-Glc. Beyond providing first insight into the active site architecture, we describe the substrate binding mode and intermolecular interactions in the octameric enzyme that are crucial to its activity. Importantly, the quaternary mechanism identified for human UGP in this study may be common for oligomeric sugar-activating nucleotidyltransferases. Elucidating such mechanisms is essential for understanding nucleotide sugar metabolism and opens the perspective for the development of drugs that specifically inhibit simpler organized nucleotidyltransferases in pathogens. PMID:25860585

Führing, Jana Indra; Cramer, Johannes Thomas; Schneider, Julia; Baruch, Petra; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Fedorov, Roman

2015-01-01

28

Structure-driven remanent high-spin state in metallosupramolecular assemblies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile approach designing supramolecular assemblies for molecular magnetism relies on metallosupramolecular polyelectrolyte amphiphile complexes, which are self-assembled from ditopic bisterpyridine ligands, transition metal ions, and amphiphilic molecules. We report on measurements at powdered samples using energy-dispersive small angle x-ray scattering, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and magnetic measurements. We observe a spin crossover of the Fe2+ ions into a remanent state above room temperature driven and stabilized by a structural phase transition of the two dimensional amphiphilic matrix of the supramolecular complex. The temperature of spin crossover scales with the number of amphiphilic molecules attached to the polyelectrolyte backbone. The spin crossover itself can be rationalized by a transition of the Fe2+ ions from a S=0 , t2g6eg0 low-spin state to a magnetic S=2 , t2g4eg2 high-spin state and is independent from the number of amphiphiles per unit. The remanence in powdered samples might be caused by the disorder and interdigitation of amphiphilic molecules. Low temperature measurements suggest a possible antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe2+ ions.

Bodenthin, Y.; Schwarz, G.; Tomkowicz, Z.; Nefedov, A.; Lommel, M.; Möhwald, H.; Haase, W.; Kurth, D. G.; Pietsch, U.

2007-08-01

29

Steady state temperature profiles in two simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications  

SciTech Connect

Temperature data from steady state tests in two parallel, simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications have been compared to determine the extent to which they agree. In general, good agreement was found in data at low flows and in bundle-center data at higher flows. Discrepancies in the data wre noted near the bundle edges at higher flows. An analysis of bundle thermal boundary conditions showed that the possible eccentric placement of one bundle within the housing could account for these discrepancies.

Levin, A.E.; Carbajo, J.J.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Rose, S.D.; Wantland, J.L.

1985-01-01

30

19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United...United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to shape (but...

2014-04-01

31

19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United...United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to shape (but...

2012-04-01

32

19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United...United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to shape (but...

2011-04-01

33

19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United...United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to shape (but...

2013-04-01

34

Synthesis of ?-Glucan in Mycobacteria Involves a Hetero-octameric Complex of Trehalose Synthase TreS and Maltokinase Pep2  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence established that the cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacillus causing tuberculosis (TB), is coated by an ?-glucan-containing capsule that has been implicated in persistence in a mouse infection model. As one of three known metabolic routes to ?-glucan in mycobacteria, the cytoplasmic GlgE-pathway converts trehalose to ?(1 ? 4),?(1 ? 6)-linked glucan in 4 steps. Whether individual reaction steps, catalyzed by trehalose synthase TreS, maltokinase Pep2, and glycosyltransferases GlgE and GlgB, occur independently or in a coordinated fashion is not known. Here, we report the crystal structure of M. tuberculosis TreS, and show by small-angle X-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation that TreS forms tetramers in solution. Together with Pep2, TreS forms a hetero-octameric complex, and we demonstrate that complex formation markedly accelerates maltokinase activity of Pep2. Thus, complex formation may act as part of a regulatory mechanism of the GlgE pathway, which overall must avoid accumulation of toxic pathway intermediates, such as maltose-1-phosphate, and optimize the use of scarce nutrients. PMID:23901909

2013-01-01

35

Structural and dynamical characterization of tubular HIV-1 capsid protein assemblies by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

The wild-type HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) self-assembles in vitro into tubular structures at high ionic strength. We report solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron microscopy measurements on these tubular CA assemblies, which are believed to contain a triangular lattice of hexameric CA proteins that is similar or identical to the lattice of capsids in intact HIV-1. Mass-per-length values of CA assemblies determined by dark-field transmission electron microscopy indicate a variety of structures, ranging from single-wall tubes to multiwall tubes that approximate solid rods. Two-dimensional (2D) solid state 13C—13C and 15N—13C NMR spectra of uniformly 15N,13C-labeled CA assemblies are highly congested, as expected for a 25.6 kDa protein in which nearly the entire amino acid sequence is immobilized. Solid state NMR spectra of partially labeled CA assemblies, expressed in 1,3-13C2-glycerol medium, are better resolved, allowing the identification of individual signals with line widths below 1 ppm. Comparison of crosspeak patterns in the experimental 2D spectra with simulated patterns based on solution NMR chemical shifts of the individual N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains indicates that NTD and CTD retain their individual structures upon self-assembly of full-length CA into tubes. 2D 1H-13C NMR spectra of CA assemblies recorded under solution NMR conditions show relatively few signals, primarily from segments that link the ?-helices of NTD and CTD and from the N- and C-terminal ends. Taken together, the data support the idea that CA assemblies contain a highly ordered 2D protein lattice in which the NTD and CTD structures are retained and largely immobilized. PMID:20095046

Chen, Bo; Tycko, Robert

2010-01-01

36

State filling and time-resolved photoluminescence of excited states in InxGa1-xAs\\/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present radiative lifetime measurements of excited states in semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots. By increasing the photoexcitation intensity, excited-state interband transitions up to n=5 can be observed in photoluminescence. The dynamics of the interband transitions and the intersublevel relaxation in these zero-dimensional energy levels lead to state filling of the lower-energy states, allowing the Fermi level to be raised by

S. Raymond; S. Fafard; P. J. Poole; A. Wojs; P. Hawrylak; S. Charbonneau; D. Leonard; R. Leon; P. M. Petroff; J. L. Merz

1996-01-01

37

A two-state stochastic model for nanoparticle self-assembly: theory, computer simulations and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a stochastic cooperative model for particle deposition and evaporation relevant to ionic self-assembly of nanoparticles with applications in surface fabrication and nanomedicine, and present a method for mapping our model onto the Ising model. The mapping process allows us to use the established results for the Ising model to describe the steady-state properties of our system. After completing the mapping process, we investigate the time dependence of particle density using the mean field approximation. We complement this theoretical analysis with Monte Carlo simulations that support our model. These techniques, which can be used separately or in combination, are useful as pedagogical tools because they are tractable mathematically and they apply equally well to many other physical systems with nearest-neighbour interactions including voter and epidemic models.

Schwen, E. M.; Mazilu, I.; Mazilu, D. A.

2015-03-01

38

Encapsulated discrete octameric water cluster, 1D water tape, and 3D water aggregate network in diverse MOFs based on bisimidazolium ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four new metal-organic frameworks, [Zn(2-mBIM)2(SO3CF3)2·(H2O)4] (1), [Zn(BMIE)(1,4-BDC)]·(H2O)3 (2), [Cd(BIM)2(OH)(H2O)2(PF6)]·(H2O)4 (3), and [Cd(PA-BIM)2 (ClO4)2]·11.33H2O (4) (2-mBIM = bis(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methane, BMIE = 1,2-bis[1-(2-methylimidazole)-diethoxy]ethane, BIM = bis(imidazol-1-yl)methane, and PA-BIM = 1,1-bis [(2-phenylazo)imidazol-1-yl]methane) have been prepared and structurally characterized. Complex 1 exhibits an infinite 1D cationic beaded-chain structure, which encapsulated discrete octameric water clusters that are comprised of a chair-like hexameric water cluster with two extra water molecules dangling on two diagonal vertices of the chair. Complex 2 forms a 1D infinite zigzag metal-organic chain structure with a 1D T4(0)A(4) water tape. Complexes 3 show a 2D grid-like sheet structure with the 1D water tape T4(0)A(0)2(0) motif. Complex 4 is a porous 3D MOF with tetrahedron-coordinated Cd(II) centers and trans-conformation PA-BIM ligands. These holes are occupied by a fascinating three-dimensional water clathrate network, which consists of cage-shaped structural tetradecameric water cluster (H2O)14 units and six independent bridged water molecules. The results suggest that the bisimidazolium ligands and anions play crucial roles in the formation of the different host structures and different guest water aggregations. Additionally, the thermal stabilities and photoluminescence spectra of the complexes have been discussed.

Shi, Ruo-Bing; Pi, Min; Jiang, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Chuan-Ming

2014-08-01

39

77 FR 69434 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States will hold a meeting to consider three proposed recommendations and to conduct other business. This meeting will be open to the...

2012-11-19

40

Development of a Solid-State Resistance Weld for Joining Dual-Burst Disk Assemblies to Vessel Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this program was to develop a solid-state resistance plug weld for installation of dual-burst disk assemblies in a set of tritium storage vessels. This is a cooperative effort with the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos designed the vessels and also designed a supplied ten pairs of tests parts for development. Following development of the weld, a

W. R. Jr. Kanne; G. J. McKinney

1998-01-01

41

Manipulation of two-electron states by the electric field in stacked self-assembled dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pair of electrons in vertically stacked self-assembled quantum dots is studied and the singlet-triplet energy splitting is calculated in an external electric field using the configuration-interaction method. We show that for double quantum dots the dependence of the singlet energy levels on the electric field involves multiple avoided crossings of three energy levels. The exchange interaction, i.e., the energy difference of the lowest triplet and lowest singlet states, can be tuned by an electric field in a wide range of several tens of meV. For electric fields exceeding a threshold value the exchange interaction becomes a linear function of the field when the two electrons in the singlet state start to occupy the same dot. We also consider non-symmetric confinement, non-perfectly aligned dots, in horizontal as well as vertical field orientation. In a stack of three vertically coupled dots the depth of the confinement in the central dot can be used to enhance the exchange interaction. For a deeper central dot the dependence of the exchange interaction on the electric field is anomalous—it initially decreases when the field is applied in both directions parallel and antiparallel to the axis of the stack. Such a behavior is never observed for a pair of quantum dots.

Nowak, M. P.; Szafran, B.; Peeters, F. M.

2008-10-01

42

Development of a Solid-State Resistance Weld for Joining Dual-Burst Disk Assemblies to Vessel Bodies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to develop a solid-state resistance plug weld for installation of dual-burst disk assemblies in a set of tritium storage vessels. This is a cooperative effort with the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos designed the vessels and also designed a supplied ten pairs of tests parts for development. Following development of the weld, a set of about eight vessels will be fabricated for tritium storage tests. These tests will demonstrate functioning of the dual-burst disk assembly in addition to demonstrating long-term compatibility of the plug weld for tritium service.

Kanne, W.R. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); McKinney, G.J.

1998-04-01

43

Layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes into ionic current rectifying solid-state nanopores: insights from theory and experiment.  

PubMed

Molecular design of ionic current rectifiers created on the basis of single conical nanopores is receiving increasing attention by the scientific community. Part of the appeal of this topic relies on the interest in sensors and fluidic nanoactuators based on the transport of ions and molecules through nanopore architectures that can readily be integrated into functional systems. The chemical modification of the pore walls controls not only the diameter of these nanoarchitectures but also their selectivity and transport properties. In order to confer selectivity to solid-state nanopores, it is necessary to develop and explore new methods for functionalizing the pore walls. Hence, the creation of functional nanopores capable of acting as selective ion channels or smart nanofluidic sensors depends critically on our ability to assemble and build up molecular architectures in a predictable manner within confined geometries with dimensions comparable to the size of the building blocks themselves. In this context, layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes offers a straightforward process for creating nanoscopic supramolecular assemblies displaying a wide variety of functional features. In this work, we describe for the first time the integration of layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte assemblies into single conical nanopores in order to study and explore the functional features arising from the creation of charged supramolecular assemblies within the constrained geometry of the nanofluidic device. To address this challenging topic, we used a combined experimental and theoretical approach to elucidate and quantify the electrostatic changes taking place inside the nanopore during the supramolecular assembly process. The multilayered films were built up through consecutive layer-by-layer adsorption of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) on the pore surface. Our results show that the charge transport properties of single conical nanopores functionalized with PAH/PSS assemblies are highly dependent on the number of layers assembled on the pore wall. In contrast to what happens with PAH/PSS films deposited on planar surfaces (quantitative charge reversal), the surface charge of the pore walls decreases dramatically with the number of PAH/PSS layers assembled into the nanopore. This behavior was attributed to the nanoconfinement-induced structural reorganization of the polyelectrolyte layers, leading to the efficient formation of ion pairs and promoting a marked decrease in the net fixed charges on the nanopore walls. We consider that these results are of paramount relevance for the modification of nanopores, nanopipets, and nanoelectrodes using charged supramolecular assemblies, as well as of importance in "soft nanotechnology" provided that structural complexity, induced by nanoconfinement, can define the functional properties of self-assembled polymeric nanostructures. PMID:20518503

Ali, Mubarak; Yameen, Basit; Cervera, Javier; Ramírez, Patricio; Neumann, Reinhard; Ensinger, Wolfgang; Knoll, Wolfgang; Azzaroni, Omar

2010-06-23

44

Cytotoxin ClyA from Escherichia coli assembles to a 13-meric pore independent of its redox-state  

PubMed Central

ClyA is a pore-forming toxin from virulent Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains. Here, we show that the intrinsic hemolytic activity of ClyA is independent of its redox state, and that the assembly of both reduced and oxidized ClyA to the ring-shaped oligomer is triggered by contact with lipid or detergent. A rate-limiting conformational transition in membrane-bound ClyA monomers precedes their assembly to the functional pore. We obtained a three-dimensional model of the detergent-induced oligomeric complex at 12 Å resolution by combining cryo- and negative stain electron microscopy with mass measurements by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The model reveals that 13 ClyA monomers assemble into a cylinder with a hydrophobic cap region, which may be critical for membrane insertion. PMID:16688219

Eifler, Nora; Vetsch, Michael; Gregorini, Marco; Ringler, Philippe; Chami, Mohamed; Philippsen, Ansgar; Fritz, Andrea; Müller, Shirley A; Glockshuber, Rudi; Engel, Andreas; Grauschopf, Ulla

2006-01-01

45

Cooperatively assembling donor-acceptor superstructures direct energy into an emergent charge separated state.  

PubMed

A novel supramolecular system composed of diketopyrrolopyrrole electron donors and perylene derived bisimide (PDI) electron acceptors forms superstructures that undergo fast photoinduced charge separation following assembly. This bioinspired route toward functional hierarchical structures, whereby assembly and electronic properties are closely coupled, could lead to new materials for artificial photosynthesis and organic electronics. PMID:24846757

Ley, David; Guzman, Carmen X; Adolfsson, Karin H; Scott, Amy M; Braunschweig, Adam B

2014-06-01

46

An all-atom model of the pore-like structure of hexameric VP40 from Ebola: Structural insights into the monomer–hexamer transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The matrix protein VP40 is an indispensable component of viral assembly and budding by the Ebola virus. VP40 is a monomer in solution, but can fold into hexameric and octameric states, two oligomeric conformations that play central roles in the Ebola viral life cycle. While the X-ray structures of monomeric and octameric VP40 have been determined, the structure of hexameric

Tam Luong Nguyen; Guy Schoehn; Winfried Weissenhorn; Ann R. Hermone; James C. Burnett; Rekha G. Panchal; Connor McGrath; Dan W. Zaharevitz; M. Javad Aman; Rick Gussio; Sina Bavari

2005-01-01

47

Long-term self-assembly of inorganic layered materials influenced by the local states of the interlayer cations.  

PubMed

A wide variety of parameters as, e.g., temperature, humidity, particle size, and cation state are known to influence the agglomeration process of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, called self-assembly, in inorganic layered materials. The detailed studies on which parameters are decisive and how they influence the self-assembly, however, have not been performed yet. Here, the long-term self-assembly was studied for layered stevensite and hectorite, and compared with our previous data of saponite for elucidating an influence of local states of the interlayer cations. The results were analyzed with respect to a recently established rheological model, in which 2D nanosheets migrate parallel to the layer direction aided by water molecules as lubricants [K. Sato et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116, 22954]. With decreasing the strength of the local electric fields facing to the interlayer spaces, cation positions split into two or three, which makes the distribution of water molecules more uniformly. These water molecules enhance the rheological motion of the 2D nanosheets parallel to the layer direction, thus accelerating the self-assembly process. PMID:24770790

Sato, Kiminori; Numata, Kazuomi; Dai, Weili; Hunger, Michael

2014-06-14

48

Conserved features of intermediates in amyloid assembly determine their benign or toxic states  

E-print Network

Some amyloid-forming polypeptides are associated with devastating human diseases and others provide important biological functions. For both, oligomeric intermediates appear during amyloid assembly. Currently we have few ...

Krishnan, Rajaraman

49

Synthesis and solution state self-assembly of linear-dendritic block copolymers  

E-print Network

Linear-dendritic block copolymers consisting of a poly(styrene) linear block and poly(amidoamine) dendrimer block were synthesized and examined for their ability to self-assemble in both aqueous environments and organic/aqueous ...

Stokes, Kristoffer Keith

2007-01-01

50

Excited state dynamics and structures of functionalized phthalocyanines. 1. Self-regulated assembly of zinc helicenocyanine.  

PubMed

Recently synthesized zinc helicenocyanine (ZnHc), where four helicene groups are fused with a phthalocyanine (Pc) core through all-carbon linkages, exhibits an unusually strong tendency of forming soluble molecular aggregates in organic solvents. The aggregation results in a strong optical absorption across most of the visible region, which is drastically different from that of its monomer. The aggregation is suppressed by dissolving ZnHc in a liquid crystal, octylbiphenylcarbonitrile (OBCN), where the monomer ZnHc dominates and exhibits a typical optical absorption spectrum of monomeric zinc phthalocyanine, except red shift in both Q- and B- bands due to pi-conjugation expansion. This study correlates optical properties and excited state dynamics of ZnHc with intra- and intermolecular electronic interactions, using quantum mechanical calculations and ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. Structural details of the aggregates are revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to be uniformly dimers with alkoxy chains wrapped around the core of a face-to-face dimer. The results suggest that while the peripheral helicene moieties in ZnHc are electronically coupled to the Pc core via expansion of the pi-conjugation of the macrocycle, the coupling is attenuated by the "lock washer" conformation of the nonplanar peripheral helicenes which prevents pi-conjugation throughout the entire macrocycle. The interplay between pi-conjugation expansion in the macrocyle plane and the pi-pi stacking out of the macrocyle plane produces a structure that facilitates the unique optical properties and self-regulated assembly into nanoscale structures in solution. These novel optical properties are explored for potential applications in various areas. PMID:16853112

Chen, Lin X; Shaw, George B; Tiede, David M; Zuo, Xiaobing; Zapol, Peter; Redfern, Paul C; Curtiss, Larry A; Sooksimuang, Thanasat; Mandal, Braja K

2005-09-01

51

Solid-State Nanostructured Materials from Self-Assembly of a Globular Protein-Polymer Diblock Copolymer  

PubMed Central

Self-assembly of three-dimensional solid-state nanostructures containing approximately 33% by weight globular protein is demonstrated using a globular protein-polymer diblock copolymer, providing a route to direct nanopatterning of proteins for use in bioelectronic and biocatalytic materials. A mutant red fluorescent protein, mCherryS131C, was prepared by incorporation of a unique cysteine residue and site-specifically conjugated to end-functionalized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) through thiol-maleimide coupling to form a well-defined model protein-polymer block copolymer. The block copolymer was self-assembled into bulk nanostructures by solvent evaporation from concentrated solutions. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy illustrated the formation of highly disordered lamellae or hexagonally perforated lamellae depending upon the selectivity of the solvent during evaporation. Solvent annealing of bulk samples resulted in a transition towards lamellar nanostructures with mCherry packed in a bilayer configuration and a large improvement in long range ordering. Wide-angle X-ray scattering indicated that mCherry did not crystallize within the block copolymer nanodomains and that the ?-sheet spacing was not affected by self-assembly. Circular dichroism showed no change in protein secondary structure after self-assembly, while UV-vis spectroscopy indicated approximately 35% of the chromophore remained optically active. PMID:21696135

Thomas, Carla S.; Glassman, Matthew J.; Olsen, Bradley D.

2014-01-01

52

Seal assembly  

DOEpatents

A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

Johnson, Roger Neal (Hagaman, NY); Longfritz, William David (Fonda, NY)

2001-01-01

53

Conserved and Cooperative Assembly of Membrane-Bound ?-Helical States of Islet Amyloid Polypeptide †  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of soluble protein into ‚-sheet-rich amyloid fibers is the hallmark of a number of serious diseases. Precursors for many of these systems (e.g., A‚ from Alzheimer's disease) reside in close association with a biological membrane. Membrane bilayers are reported to accelerate the rate of amyloid assembly. Furthermore, membrane permeabilization by amyloidogenic peptides can lead to toxicity. Given the

Jefferson D. Knight; James A. Hebda; Andrew D. Miranker

2006-01-01

54

Enhanced carrier collection efficiency and reduced quantum state absorption by electron doping in self-assembled quantum dot solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced quantum dot (QD) absorption due to state filling effects and enhanced electron transport in doped QDs are demonstrated to play a key role in solar energy conversion. Reduced QD state absorption with increased n-doping is observed in the self-assembled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs QDs from high resolution below-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement, which is a direct consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. We also show that besides partial filling of the quantum states, electron-doping produces negatively charged QDs that exert a repulsive Coulomb force on the mobile electrons, thus altering the electron trajectory and reducing the probability of electron capture, leading to an improved collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, as indicated by an absolute above-bandgap EQE measurement. The resulting redistribution of the mobile electron in the planar direction is further validated by the observed photoluminescence intensity dependence on doping.

Li, Tian; Lu, Haofeng; Fu, Lan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Dagenais, Mario

2015-02-01

55

Structure of the light-harvesting bacteriochlorophyll c assembly in chlorosomes from Chlorobium limicola determined by solid-state NMR  

PubMed Central

We have determined the atomic structure of the bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) assembly in a huge light-harvesting organelle, the chlorosome of green photosynthetic bacteria, by solid-state NMR. Previous electron microscopic and spectroscopic studies indicated that chlorosomes have a cylindrical architecture with a diameter of ?10 nm consisting of layered BChl molecules. Assembly structures in huge noncrystalline chlorosomes have been proposed based mainly on structure-dependent chemical shifts and a few distances acquired by solid-state NMR, but those studies did not provide a definite structure. Our approach is based on 13C dipolar spin-diffusion solid-state NMR of uniformly 13C-labeled chlorosomes under magic-angle spinning. Approximately 90 intermolecular CC distances were obtained by simultaneous assignment of distance correlations and structure optimization preceded by polarization-transfer matrix analysis. It was determined from the ?90 intermolecular distances that BChl c molecules form piggyback-dimer-based parallel layers. This finding rules out the well known monomer-based structures. A molecular model of the cylinder in the chlorosome was built by using this structure. It provided insights into the mechanisms of efficient light harvesting and excitation transfer to the reaction centers. This work constitutes an important advance in the structure determination of huge intact systems that cannot be crystallized. PMID:17215361

Egawa, Ayako; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Kakitani, Yoshinori; Koyama, Yasushi; Akutsu, Hideo

2007-01-01

56

Alternative stable states and alternative endstates of community assembly through intra- and interspecific positive and negative interactions.  

PubMed

Positive and negative interactions within and between species may occur simultaneously, with the net effect depending on population densities. For instance, at low densities plants may ameliorate stress, while competition for resources dominates at higher densities. Here, we propose a simple two-species model in which con- and heterospecifics have a positive effect on per capita growth rate at low densities, while negative interactions dominate at high densities. The model thus includes both Allee effects (intraspecific positive effects) and mutualism (interspecific positive effects), as well as intra- and interspecific competition. Using graphical methods we derive conditions for alternative stable states and species coexistence. We show that mutual non-invasibility (i.e. the inability of each species to invade a population of the other) is more likely when species have a strong positive effect on the own species or a strong negative effect on the other species. Mutual non-invasibility implies alternative stable states, however, there may also be alternative stable states at which species coexist. In the case of species symmetry (i.e. when species are indistinguishable), such alternative coexistence states require that if the positive effect exerted at low densities at the own species is stronger than on the other species, the negative effect at higher densities is also stronger on the own species than on the other species, or, vice versa, if the interspecific positive effects at low densities are stronger than the intraspecific effects, the negative effects at higher densities are also stronger between species than within species. However, the reachability of alternative stable states is restricted by the frequency and density at which species are introduced during community assembly, so that alternative stable states do not always represent alternative endstates of community assembly. PMID:25018053

Gerla, Daan J; Mooij, Wolf M

2014-09-01

57

Helical vesicles, segmented semivesicles, and noncircular bilayer sheets from solution-state self-assembly of ABC miktoarm star terpolymers.  

PubMed

Multicompartment micelles, especially nanostructured vesicles, offer tremendous potential as delivery vehicles of therapeutic agents and nanoreactors. Solution-state self-assembly of miktoarm star terpolymers provides a versatile and powerful route to obtain multicompartment micelles. Here we report simulations of solution-state self-assembly of ABC star terpolymers composed of a solvophilic A arm and two solvophobic B and C arms. A variety of multicompartment micelles are predicted from the simulations. Phase diagrams for typical star terpolymers are constructed. It is discovered that the overall micelle morphology is largely controlled by the volume fraction of the solvophilic A arms, whereas the internal compartmented and/or segregated structures depend on the ratio between the volume fractions of the two solvophobic arms. The polymer-solvent and polymer-polymer interactions can be used to tune the effective volume fraction of the A-arm and, thereby, induce morphological transitions. For terpolymers with equal or nearly equal length of B and C arms, several previously unknown structures, including vesicles with novel lateral structures (helices or stacked donuts), segmented semivesicles, and elliptic or triangular bilayer sheets, are discovered. When the lengths of B and C arms are not equal, novel micelles such as multicompartment disks and onions are observed. PMID:19476352

Kong, Weixin; Li, Baohui; Jin, Qinghua; Ding, Datong; Shi, An-Chang

2009-06-24

58

The ABRF-MIRG’02 Study: Assembly State, Thermodynamic, and Kinetic Analysis of an Enzyme/Inhibitor Interaction  

PubMed Central

Fully characterizing the interactions involving biomolecules requires information on the assembly state, affinity, kinetics, and thermodynamics associated with complex formation. The analytical technologies often used to measure biomolecular interactions include analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In order to evaluate the capabilities of core facilities to implement these technologies, the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG) developed a standardized model system and distributed it to a panel of AUC, ITC, and SPR operators. The model system was composed of a well-characterized enzyme-inhibitor pair, namely bovine carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and 4-carboxybenzenesulfonamide (CBS). Study participants were asked to measure one or more of the following: (1) the molecular mass, homogeneity, and assembly state of CA II by AUC; (2) the affinity and thermodynamics for complex formation by ITC; and (3) the affinity and kinetics of complex formation by SPR. The results from this study provide a benchmark for comparing the capabilities of individual laboratories and for defining the utility of the different instrumentation. PMID:14715884

Myszka, D. G.; Abdiche, Y. N.; Arisaka, F.; Byron, O.; Eisenstein, E.; Hensley, P.; Thomson, J. A.; Lombardo, C. R.; Schwarz, F.; Stafford, W.; Doyle, M. L.

2003-01-01

59

Management and Labor Relations Techniques of Japanese-Owned Automotive Assembly Plants in the United States  

E-print Network

or Chrysler ? collectively the ?Big Three.? Today, the market share of the Big Three has sunk to 57% (Maynard 2005), so it is nearly as likely that one will pass a Toyota, Honda or Nissan as often as a Chevrolet, Ford or Dodge. However, while the Toyota... Camry in the next lane has a Japanese nameplate, it was most likely built by Americans in Georgetown, Kentucky, with a high percentage of components also built by Americans in the Midwest or South. Toyota?s Georgetown assembly plant is one of fifteen...

Pitney, Paul

2005-12-16

60

Modeling capsid kinetics assembly from the steady state distribution of multi-sizes aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of aggregation for particles of various sizes depends on their diffusive arrival and fusion at a specific nucleation site. We present here a mean-field approximation and a stochastic jump model for aggregates at equilibrium. This approach is an alternative to the classical Smoluchowski equations that do not have a close form and are not solvable in general. We analyze these mean-field equations and obtain the kinetics of a cluster formation. Our approach provides a simplified theoretical framework to study the kinetics of viral capsid formation, such as HIV from the self-assembly of the structural proteins Gag.

Hozé, Nathanaël; Holcman, David

2014-01-01

61

A Solid-State Compressor for Integration of CO2 Removal and Reduction Assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integration of CO2 removal and reduction assemblies in a spacecraft air revitalization system requires an interface with the functionality of a vacuum pump/compressor and a buffer tank. The compressor must meet the vacuum needs of the CO2 removal unit and the pressure needs of the CO2 reduction device, and must also store sufficient CO2 to accommodate the differences in cycle times of the two processes. In this presentation, we describe the design and operation of an adsorption-based device sized for use on the International Space Station. The adsorption compressor functions at a power level approximately ten times lower than a comparable mechanical compression/buffer tank system. The unit is also smaller, lighter, and quieter than its mechanical counterpart.

Mulloth, Lila M.; Finn, John E.; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

62

Amplification of light collection in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells via the antenna effect through supramolecular assembly.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates that the concept of molecular antenna is a relevant strategy to improve the power conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by extending their spectral sensitivity over a broad region of the solar spectrum. In this work, we have associated a BODIPY antenna to a bi-chromophoric sensitizer made of a squaraine unit linked to a zinc porphyrin by axial ligation onto the zinc. Using steady-state and transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, we demonstrate that efficient energy transfers occur from the antenna to the dyad, extending its visible photosensitivity. We also show that direct electron injection from the antenna to TiO2 is possible. A drastic improvement in the device performance by a factor of three is observed under illumination using the spiro-OMeTAD molecular glass as the solid-state electrolyte, leading to a panchromatic response of the device. The influence of the solid-state hole transporter on the supramolecular assembly is also discussed. PMID:25776534

Louahem M'Sabah, Bilel; Boucharef, Mourad; Warnan, Julien; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Lucas, Bruno; Odobel, Fabrice; Bouclé, Johann

2015-04-01

63

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self-assembled multilayers  

E-print Network

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self The electrochromic switching times of solid state conducting polymer devices fabricated by the ionic self shown to decrease with the active area of the electrochromic device suggesting that even faster

Heflin, Randy

64

Selection of conformational states in self-assembled surface structures formed from an oligo(naphthylene-ethynylene) 3-bit binary switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supra-molecular self-assembly on surfaces often involves molecular conformational flexibility which may act to enrich the variation and complexity of the structures formed. However, systematic and explicit investigations of how molecular conformational states are selected in surface self-assembly processes are relatively scarce. Here, we use a combination of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to investigate self-assembly for a custom-designed molecule capable of assuming eight distinct surface conformations (four enantiomeric pairs). The conformations result from binary positions of n = 3 naphtalene units on a linear oligo(naphthylene-ethynylene) backbone. On Au(111), inter-molecular interactions involving carboxyl and bulky tert-butyl-phenyl functional groups induce the molecules to form two ordered phases with brick-wall and lamella structure, respectively. These structures each involve molecules in two conformational states, and there is a clear separation between the conformers involved in the two types of structures. On Cu(111), individual molecules isolated by carboxylate-substrate binding show a distribution involving all possible conformational states. Together these observations imply selection and adaptation of conformational states upon molecular self-assembly. From DFT modeling and statistical analysis of the molecular conformations, the observed selection of conformational states is attributed to steric interaction between the naphthalene units. The present study enhances our understanding of how ordering and selection of molecular conformations is controlled by intermolecular interactions in a complex situation with many distinct conformational states for the participating molecules.

Ning, Y.; Cramer, J. R.; Nuermaimaiti, A.; Svane, K.; Yu, M.; Lægsgaard, E.; Besenbacher, F.; Xue, Q.-K.; Ma, X.; Hammer, B.; Gothelf, K. V.; Linderoth, T. R.

2015-03-01

65

Independent saturation of three TrpRS subsites generates a partially assembled state similar to those observed in molecular simulations  

SciTech Connect

Two new crystal structures of Bacillus stearothermophilus tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) afford evidence that a closed interdomain hinge angle requires a covalent bond between AMP and an occupant of either pyrophosphate or tryptophan subsite. They also are within experimental error of a cluster of structures observed in a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation showing partial active-site assembly. Further, the highest energy structure in a minimum action pathway computed by using elastic network models for Open and Pretransition state (PreTS) conformations for the fully liganded TrpRS monomer is intermediate between that simulated structure and a partially disassembled structure from a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics trajectory for the unliganded PreTS. These mutual consistencies provide unexpected validation of inferences drawn from molecular simulations.

Laowanapiban, Poramaet; Kapustina, Maryna; Vonrhein, Clemens; Delarue, Marc; Koehl, Patrice; Carter Jr., Charles W.; (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); (GPL); (UCD); (UNC)

2009-03-05

66

Disulfide-Bond Scanning Reveals Assembly State and ?-Strand Tilt Angle of PFO ?-Barrel  

PubMed Central

Perfringolysin O (PFO), a bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, binds to a mammalian cell membrane, oligomerizes into a circular prepore complex (PPC), and forms a 250-Å transmembrane ?-barrel pore in the cell membrane. Each PFO monomer has two sets of 3 short ?-helices that unfold and ultimately refold into two transmembrane ?-hairpin (TMH) components of the membrane-embedded ?-barrel. Inter-strand disulfide bond scanning revealed that ?-strands in a fully assembled PFO?-barrel were strictly aligned and tilted at 20 ° to the membrane perpendicular. In contrast, in a low temperature-trapped PPC intermediate, the TMHs were unfolded and had sufficient freedom of motion to interact transiently with each other; yet the TMHs were not aligned or stably hydrogen-bonded. The PFO PPC-to-pore transition therefore converts TMHs in a dynamic folding intermediate far above the membrane into transmembrane ?-hairpins that are hydrogen bonded to those of adjacent subunits in the bilayer-embedded ?-barrel. PMID:23563525

Sato, Takehiro K.; Tweten, Rodney K.; Johnson, Arthur E.

2013-01-01

67

Structural Basis for Dodecameric Assembly States and Conformational Plasticity of the Full-Length AAA+ ATPases Rvb1·Rvb2.  

PubMed

As building blocks of diverse macromolecular complexes, the AAA+ ATPases Rvb1 and Rvb2 are crucial for many cellular activities including cancer-related processes. Their oligomeric structure and function remain unclear. We report the crystal structures of full-length heteromeric Rvb1·Rvb2 complexes in distinct nucleotide binding states. Chaetomium thermophilum Rvb1·Rvb2 assemble into hexameric rings of alternating molecules and into stable dodecamers. Intriguingly, the characteristic oligonucleotide-binding (OB) fold domains (DIIs) of Rvb1 and Rvb2 occupy unequal places relative to the compact AAA+ core ring. While Rvb1's DII forms contacts between hexamers, Rvb2's DII is rotated 100° outward, occupying lateral positions. ATP was retained bound to Rvb1 but not Rvb2 throughout purification, suggesting nonconcerted ATPase activities and nucleotide binding. Significant conformational differences between nucleotide-free and ATP-/ADP-bound states in the crystal structures and in solution suggest that the functional role of Rvb1·Rvb2 is mediated by highly interconnected structural switches. Our structures provide an atomic framework for dodecameric states and Rvb1·Rvb2's conformational plasticity. PMID:25661652

Lakomek, Kristina; Stoehr, Gabriele; Tosi, Alessandro; Schmailzl, Monika; Hopfner, Karl-Peter

2015-03-01

68

Subunit Conformations and Assembly States of a DNA Translocating Motor: The Terminase of Bacteriophage P22  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophage P22, a podovirus infecting strains of Salmonella typhimurium, packages a 42 kbp genome using a headful mechanism. DNA translocation is accomplished by the phage terminase, a powerful molecular motor consisting of large and small subunits. Although many of the structural proteins of the P22 virion have been well characterized, little is known about the terminase subunits and their molecular mechanism of DNA translocation. We report here structural and assembly properties of ectopically expressed and highly purified terminase large and small subunits. The large subunit (gp2), which contains the nuclease and ATPase activities of terminase, exists as a stable monomer with an ?/? fold. The small subunit (gp3), which recognizes DNA for packaging and may regulate gp2 activity, exhibits a highly ?-helical secondary structure and self-associates to form a stable oligomeric ring in solution. For wildtype gp3, the ring contains nine subunits, as demonstrated by hydrodynamic measurements, electron microscopy and native mass spectrometry. We have also characterized a gp3 mutant (Ala 112 ? Thr) that forms a ten subunit ring, despite a subunit fold indistinguishable from wildtype. Both the nonameric and decameric gp3 rings exhibit nonspecific DNA binding activity, and gp2 is able to bind strongly to the DNA/gp3 complex but not to DNA alone. We propose a scheme for the roles of P22 terminase large and small subunits in the recruitment and packaging of viral DNA and discuss the model in relation to proposals for terminase-driven DNA translocation in other phages. PMID:17945256

N?me?ek, Daniel; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Kang, Sebyung; Prevelige, Peter E.; Casjens, Sherwood; Thomas, George J.

2007-01-01

69

ccsd00001566, Internal state of granular assemblies near random close packing  

E-print Network

physics [1, 2], with practical motivations in soil mechanics and material processing, as well or the solid volume fraction #8;. Its im- portance was recognized, e.g. in soil mechanics [1, 4 sphere packings in mechanical equilibrium in prescribed stress states, as studied by molecular dynamics

70

The dynamical state of dark matter haloes in cosmological simulations - I. Correlations with mass assembly history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a statistical sample of dark matter haloes drawn from a suite of cosmological N-body simulations of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, we quantify the impact of a simulated halo's mass accretion and merging history on two commonly used measures of its dynamical state, the virial ratio eta and the centre of mass offset Deltar. Quantifying this relationship is

Chris Power; Alexander Knebe; Steffen R. Knollmann

2012-01-01

71

New Morphologies by Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Diblocks in Solution - Comparisons with the Solid State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the area of self-assembly of block copolymers in solution have enabled us to obtain micelle-like aggregates of various structures from highly asymmetric polystyrene (PS) based amphiphilic diblocks such as PS-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). (L. Zhang and A. Eisenberg, Science 268, 1728 (1995); J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 3168 (1996); L. Zhang, K. Yu and A. Eisenberg, Science 272, 1777 (1996); K. Yu, L. Zhang and A. Eisenberg, Langmuir 12, 5984 (1996); Y. Yu and A. Eisenberg, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 8383 (1997); L. Zhang, C. Bartels, Y. Yu, H. Shen and A. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. in press) The identified morphologies include spheres, rods, vesicles, nanotubules, lamellae and several reverse micellar structures. The morphology depends on various parameters, such as the copolymer composition and concentration, the nature of the solvent mixtures, the concentration of added ions and the temperature. The morphogenic effects of various parameters can, in general, be ascribed to their influence on the force balance controlling the structures of the aggregates which involves the stretching of the core-forming blocks in the core, the core/corona interfacial tension and the repulsive interactions among the corona chains. For example, as the length of corona-forming blocks decreases, the morphology of the aggregates in dilute solution may change progressively from spheres to rods and then to bilayers. A further decrease of the block length leads to the formation of reverse micellar structures, in which the former corona blocks form swollen microdomains in a PS matrix. The inverted structures consist of large compound vesicles, hexagonally packed hollow rods or hoops in a PS matrix, and large compound micelles in order of decreasing soluble block length. Of particular interest are the mesosize aggregates with an internal structure of hexagonally packed hollow hoops, which have been prepared very recently from PS-b- PAA diblocks. The formation of the hoop morphology suggests that the end-capping energy of a rod is more important than the curvature energy on the size scale of several hundred nanometers. A study of the change of the aggregate structures from disordered to ordered also shows an existence of strong inter-dependence between the external shape and the internal structure in these mesosize particles.

Eisenberg, Adi

1998-03-01

72

In-situ stress state measurements during chip-on-board assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, die stresses in wire bonded chip-on-board (COB) packages have been measured using special (111) silicon stress test chips. The test die incorporate an array of optimized eight-element dual polarity piezoresistive sensor rosettes, which are uniquely capable of evaluating the complete stress state (six stress components) at points on the surface of the die. Sensor resistance measurements were

Yida Zou; Jeffrey C. Suhling; R. Wayne Johnson; Richard C. Jaeger; A. K. M. Mian

1999-01-01

73

EXTENSION ADMINISTRATION AND STATE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS--A CASE STUDY OF THE 71ST MISSOURI GENERAL ASSEMBLY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO GAIN UNDERSTANDING OF MISSOURI'S LEGISLATIVE PROCESS AND AID ADMINISTRATORS OF THE EXTENSION DIVISION, THE AUTHOR INVESTIGATED THE 71ST GENERAL ASSEMBLY. HE READ PUBLICATIONS, INTERVIEWED LOBBYISTS, AND CONDUCTED OPEN ENDED DEPTH INTERVIEWS WITH LEGISLATORS SELECTED TO COMPRISE THE LEADERSHIP OF THE ASSEMBLY. HIS DISSERTATION PRESENTS THE…

KYD, STIRLING

74

Nucleosome assembly and epigenetic inheritance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In eukaryotic cells, histones are packaged into octameric core particles with DNA wrapping around to form nucleosomes, which\\u000a are the basic units of chromatin (Kornberg and Thomas, 1974). Multicellular organisms utilise chromatin marks to translate\\u000a one single genome into hundreds of epigenomes for their corresponding cell types. Inheritance of epigenetic status is critical\\u000a for the maintenance of gene expression profile

Mo Xu; Bing Zhu

2010-01-01

75

d(CGGTGGT) forms an octameric parallel G-quadruplex via stacking of unusual G(:C):G(:C):G(:C):G(:C) octads  

PubMed Central

Among non-canonical DNA secondary structures, G-quadruplexes are currently widely studied because of their probable involvement in many pivotal biological roles, and for their potential use in nanotechnology. The overall quadruplex scaffold can exhibit several morphologies through intramolecular or intermolecular organization of G-rich oligodeoxyribonucleic acid strands. In particular, several G-rich strands can form higher order assemblies by multimerization between several G-quadruplex units. Here, we report on the identification of a novel dimerization pathway. Our Nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, UV, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry studies on the DNA sequence dCGGTGGT demonstrate that this sequence forms an octamer when annealed in presence of K+ or NH4+ ions, through the 5?-5? stacking of two tetramolecular G-quadruplex subunits via unusual G(:C):G(:C):G(:C):G(:C) octads. PMID:21715378

Borbone, Nicola; Amato, Jussara; Oliviero, Giorgia; D’Atri, Valentina; Gabelica, Valérie; De Pauw, Edwin; Piccialli, Gennaro; Mayol, Luciano

2011-01-01

76

Neural assembly computing.  

PubMed

Spiking neurons can realize several computational operations when firing cooperatively. This is a prevalent notion, although the mechanisms are not yet understood. A way by which neural assemblies compute is proposed in this paper. It is shown how neural coalitions represent things (and world states), memorize them, and control their hierarchical relations in order to perform algorithms. It is described how neural groups perform statistic logic functions as they form assemblies. Neural coalitions can reverberate, becoming bistable loops. Such bistable neural assemblies become short- or long-term memories that represent the event that triggers them. In addition, assemblies can branch and dismantle other neural groups generating new events that trigger other coalitions. Hence, such capabilities and the interaction among assemblies allow neural networks to create and control hierarchical cascades of causal activities, giving rise to parallel algorithms. Computing and algorithms are used here as in a nonstandard computation approach. In this sense, neural assembly computing (NAC) can be seen as a new class of spiking neural network machines. NAC can explain the following points: 1) how neuron groups represent things and states; 2) how they retain binary states in memories that do not require any plasticity mechanism; and 3) how branching, disbanding, and interaction among assemblies may result in algorithms and behavioral responses. Simulations were carried out and the results are in agreement with the hypothesis presented. A MATLAB code is available as a supplementary material. PMID:24806763

Ranhel, João

2012-06-01

77

Self-Assembling Finite Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a model of self-assembling finite automata. An automaton is assembled on demand during its computation from copies out of a finite set of items. The items are pieces of a finite automaton which are connected to the already existing automaton by overlaying states. Depending on the allowed number of such interface states, the degree, infinite hierarchies of properly

Andreas Klein; Martin Kutrib

2002-01-01

78

Joint assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

2010-01-01

79

Supraspliceosomes at Defined Functional States Portray the Pre-Assembled Nature of the Pre-mRNA Processing Machine in the Cell Nucleus  

PubMed Central

When isolated from mammalian cell nuclei, all nuclear pre-mRNAs are packaged in multi-subunit large ribonucleoprotein complexes—supraspliceosomes—composed of four native spliceosomes interconnected by the pre-mRNA. Supraspliceosomes contain all five spliceosomal U snRNPs, together with other splicing factors, and are functional in splicing. Supraspliceosomes studied thus far represent the steady-state population of nuclear pre-mRNAs that were isolated at different stages of the splicing reaction. To analyze specific splicing complexes, here, we affinity purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage 7 (PP7)-tagged splicing complexes assembled in vivo on Adenovirus Major Late (AdML) transcripts at specific functional stages, and characterized them using molecular techniques including mass spectrometry. First, we show that these affinity purified splicing complexes assembled on PP7-tagged AdML mRNA or on PP7-tagged AdML pre-mRNA are assembled in supraspliceosomes. Second, similar to the general population of supraspliceosomes, these defined supraspliceosomes populations are assembled with all five U snRNPs at all splicing stages. This study shows that dynamic changes in base-pairing interactions of U snRNA:U snRNA and U snRNA:pre-mRNA that occur in vivo during the splicing reaction do not require changes in U snRNP composition of the supraspliceosome. Furthermore, there is no need to reassemble a native spliceosome for the splicing of each intron, and rearrangements of the interactions will suffice. PMID:24983480

Kotzer-Nevo, Hani; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Rappsilber, Juri; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth

2014-01-01

80

The enzymology of a viral genome packaging motor is influenced by the assembly state of the motor subunits.  

PubMed

Terminase enzymes are responsible for the excision of a single genome from a concatemeric precursor (genome maturation) and concomitant packaging of DNA into the capsid shell. Here, we demonstrate that lambda terminase can be purified as a homogeneous "protomer" species, and we present a kinetic analysis of the genome maturation and packaging activities of the protomeric enzyme. The protomer assembles into a distinct maturation complex at the cos sequence of a concatemer. This complex rapidly nicks the duplex to form the mature left end of the viral genome, which is followed by procapsid binding, activation of the packaging ATPase, and translocation of the duplex into the capsid interior by the terminase motor complex. Genome packaging by the protomer shows high fidelity with only the mature left end of the duplex inserted into the capsid shell. In sum, the data show that the terminase protomer exhibits catalytic activity commensurate with that expected of a bone fide genome maturation and packaging complex in vivo and that both catalytically competent complexes are composed of four terminase protomers assembled into a ringlike structure that encircles duplex DNA. This work provides mechanistic insight into the coordinated catalytic activities of terminase enzymes in virus assembly that can be generalized to all of the double-stranded DNA viruses. PMID:23134123

Andrews, Benjamin T; Catalano, Carlos Enrique

2012-11-20

81

The Enzymology of a Viral Genome Packaging Motor is Influenced by the Assembly State of the Motor Subunits  

PubMed Central

Terminase enzymes are responsible for the excision of a single genome from a concatemeric precursor (genome maturation) and concomitant packaging of DNA into the capsid shell. Here, we demonstrate that lambda terminase can be purified as a homogenous “protomer” species and we present a kinetic analysis of the genome maturation and packaging activities of the protomeric enzyme. The protomer assembles into a distinct maturation complex at the cos sequence of a concatemer. This complex rapidly nicks the duplex to form the mature left end of the viral genome, which is followed by procapsid binding, activation of the packaging ATPase, and translocation of the duplex into the capsid interior by the terminase motor complex. Genome packaging by the protomer shows high fidelity with only the mature left end of the duplex inserted into the capsid shell. In sum, the data show that the terminase protomer exhibits catalytic activity commensurate that expected of a bone fide genome maturation and packaging complex in vivo and that both catalytically-competent complexes are composed of four terminase protomers assembled into a ring-like structure that encircles duplex DNA. This work provides mechanistic insight into the coordinated catalytic activities of terminase enzymes in virus assembly that are generalizable to all of the dsDNA viruses. PMID:23134123

Andrews, Benjamin T.; Catalano, Carlos Enrique

2012-01-01

82

Geometric reasoning about assembly tools  

SciTech Connect

Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

Wilson, R.H.

1997-01-01

83

Preliminary Experiments and Determination of the Thermal Gradient in a 12.7 mm CaF2 Furnace Assembly, Humboldt State University Piston-Cylinder Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 12.7 mm piston-cylinder laboratory has been established at Humboldt State University. A series of double-thermocouple (DTC) experiments were performed to measure the thermal profile of the furnace assembly following the procedures of Pickering et al. (1998, Amer. Min.). Furnace assemblies consist of a 304 stainless base plug, CaF&_{2} sleeve, straight-walled graphite heater tube, crushable MgO inner parts, and lower graphite plug and ring which allow for extrusion of the graphite heater tube during shortening of the sleeve and MgO pieces. Careful measurement of pre- and post-run assembly parts indicate an average 30-35% shortening of the assembly. DTC results show a thermal peak that is displaced \\sim2.0 mm above the center of the effective furnace, defined as the length of inner MgO pieces post-run. This offset is in the same direction (upward, toward base plug), but slightly less than the offset described by Pickering et al. (1998). A secondary measure of the thermal profile using spinel growth via reaction between MgO and Al_{2}O_{3} assembly parts (e.g., Watson et al., 2002, CMP) is underway. A single partial melting experiment was performed at 1.0 GPa and 1330\\degC for 72 hours using intermediate peridotite starting material INT-A in a graphite-lined Pt capsule with vitreous carbon spheres as a melt sink. Phase compositions were determined by electron microprobe and mass balance calculations were made to determine melt fraction and mineral mode. Initial calculations yield glass:olivine:cpx:opx:spinel proportions of: 5.0:54.2:15.9:23.9:1.1. These preliminary results correspond well with previous work performed at the University of Oregon on the same starting material (Schwab and Johnston, 2001). The best match is with a 1315\\degC experiment (INT-A13) in terms of mode (6.9:53.7:13.4:25.0:1.0) and glass composition, indicating that the temperature of this initial experiment may be slightly cooler than the target temperature, however the results of this interlaboratory comparison are still within the \\pm10-15\\deg$C temperature uncertainty of the piston cylinder apparatus. Additional calibration experiments are ongoing.

Schwab, B. E.

2004-12-01

84

LptE binds to and alters the physical state of LPS to catalyze its assembly at the cell surface  

PubMed Central

The assembly of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the surface of Gram-negative bacterial cells is essential for their viability and is achieved by the seven-protein LPS transport (Lpt) pathway. The outer membrane (OM) lipoprotein LptE and the ?-barrel membrane protein LptD form a complex that assembles LPS into the outer leaflet of the OM. We report a crystal structure of the Escherichia coli OM lipoprotein LptE at 2.34 Å. The structure reveals homology to eukaryotic LPS-binding proteins and allowed for the prediction of an LPS-binding site, which was confirmed by genetic and biophysical experiments. Specific point mutations at this site lead to defects in OM biogenesis. We show that wild-type LptE disrupts LPS–LPS interactions in vitro and that these mutations decrease the ability of LptE to disaggregate LPS. Transmission electron microscopic imaging shows that LptE can disrupt LPS aggregates even at substoichiometric concentrations. We propose a model in which LptE functions as an LPS transfer protein in the OM translocon by disaggregating LPS during transport to allow for its insertion into the OM. PMID:24938785

Maloj?i?, Goran; Andres, Dorothee; Grabowicz, Marcin; George, Alexander H.; Ruiz, Natividad; Silhavy, Thomas J.; Kahne, Daniel

2014-01-01

85

Very large assemblies: Optimizing for automatic generation of assembly sequences  

SciTech Connect

Sandia's Archimedes 3.0{copyright} Automated Assembly Analysis System has been applied successfully to several large industrial and weapon assemblies. These have included Sandia assemblies such as portions of the B61 bomb, and assemblies from external customers such as Cummins Engine Inc., Raytheon (formerly Hughes) Missile Systems and Sikorsky Aircraft. While Archimedes 3.0{copyright} represents the state-of-the-art in automated assembly planning software, applications of the software made prior to the technological advancements presented here showed several limitations of the system, and identified the need for extensive modifications to support practical analysis of assemblies with several hundred to a few thousand parts. It was believed that there was substantial potential for enhancing Archimedes 3.0{copyright} to routinely handle much larger models and/or to handle more modestly sized assemblies more efficiently. Such a mature assembly analysis capability was needed to support routine application to industrial assemblies that overstressed the system, such as full nuclear weapon assemblies or full-scale aerospace or military vehicles.

CALTON,TERRI L.

2000-02-01

86

Generation of precedence relations for mechanical assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning of assembly sequences is essential to the manufacturing system design process. Several methodologies have been proposed to represent all the feasible assembly sequences. In this thesis, three algorithms are presented to generate three sets of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks, all the infeasible assembly states, and all the feasible assembly sequences, respectively. The equivalence of the resulting sets of precedence relations to the AND/OR graph is established. A new property, the real time property, of a representation of assembly sequences is defined and discussed. A representation of assembly sequences is said to have the real time property, if it is possible to generate the next assembly task by testing locally in the representation, and it will guarantee that the generated assembly task will not lead the assembly sequence to a dead end situation, in which no feasible assembly task can be performed any more. It is shown that the correctness and completeness of one representation can not guarantee the real time property of the representation. It is proven that the directed graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly states have the real time property, while the AND/OR graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks do not have the real time property. Finally in the thesis, the PLEIDEAS system, a PLanning Environment for Integrated DEsign of Assembly Systems, is described and illustrated by an example.

Zhang, Hui; Sanderson, A. C.

1989-01-01

87

System behaviour of wood truss assemblies  

E-print Network

System behaviour of wood truss assemblies Rakesh Gupta Oregon State University, USA Summary Wood of literature on single trusses and joints is relatively huge, the system behaviour of truss assemblies has assemblies. Key words: load sharing; system effects; repetitive-member behaviour; wood structural systems

Gupta, Rakesh

88

Revealing molecular self-assembly and geometry of non-covalent halogen bonding by solid-state NMR spectroscopyw  

E-print Network

structures for which single crystal X-ray diffraction data are not available. Benzyl-di(4-iodobenzyl. This prompted us to use solid- state NMR spectroscopy. So far the formation of halogen- bonded complexes has

89

Hinge assembly  

DOEpatents

A hinge assembly is disclosed having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf. 8 figs.

Vandergriff, D.H.

1999-08-31

90

Latch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing.

Frederickson, James R. (Richland, WA); Harper, William H. (Richland, WA); Perez, Raymond (Lynnwood, WA)

1986-01-01

91

Latch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing. 2 figs.

Frederickson, J.R.; Harper, W.H.; Perez, R.

1984-08-17

92

Electron transfer dynamics and excited state branching in a charge-transfer platinum(II) donor-bridge-acceptor assembly.  

PubMed

A linear asymmetric Pt(ii) trans-acetylide donor-bridge-acceptor triad designed for efficient charge separation, NAP[triple bond, length as m-dash]Pt(PBu3)2[triple bond, length as m-dash]Ph-CH2-PTZ (), containing strong electron acceptor and donor groups, 4-ethynyl-N-octyl-1,8-naphthalimide (NAP) and phenothiazine (PTZ) respectively, has been synthesised and its photoinduced charge transfer processes characterised in detail. Excitation with 400 nm, ?50 fs laser pulse initially populates a charge transfer manifold stemming from electron transfer from the Pt-acetylide centre to the NAP acceptor and triggers a cascade of charge and energy transfer events. A combination of ultrafast time-resolved infrared (TRIR) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopies, supported by UV-Vis/IR spectroelectrochemistry, emission spectroscopy and DFT calculations reveals a self-consistent photophysical picture of the excited state evolution from femto- to milliseconds. The characteristic features of the NAP-anion and PTZ-cation are clearly observed in both the TRIR and TA spectra, confirming the occurrence of electron transfer and allowing the rate constants of individual ET-steps to be obtained. Intriguingly, has three separate ultrafast electron transfer pathways from a non-thermalised charge transfer manifold directly observed by TRIR on timescales ranging from 0.2 to 14 ps: charge recombination to form either the intraligand triplet (3)NAP with 57% yield, or the ground state, and forward electron transfer to form the full charge-separated state (3)CSS ((3)[PTZ(+)-NAP(-)]) with 10% yield as determined by target analysis. The (3)CSS decays by charge-recombination to the ground state with ?1 ns lifetime. The lowest excited state is (3)NAP, which possesses a long lifetime of 190 ?s and efficiently sensitises singlet oxygen. Overall, molecular donor-bridge-acceptor triad demonstrates excited state branching over 3 different pathways, including formation of a long-distant (18 Å) full charge-separated excited state from a directly observed vibrationally hot precursor state. PMID:25361227

Scattergood, Paul A; Delor, Milan; Sazanovich, Igor V; Bouganov, Oleg V; Tikhomirov, Sergei A; Stasheuski, Alexander S; Parker, Anthony W; Greetham, Gregory M; Towrie, Michael; Davies, E Stephen; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Weinstein, Julia A

2014-12-21

93

Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.  

SciTech Connect

The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-06-07

94

Assembling GRETINA  

SciTech Connect

GRETINA is the most sensitive gamma-ray detector ever built for studies of the nucleus, including how the natural elements were made in stars and supernovae, and the properties of artificial superheavy elements. GRETINA, now being assembled at Berkeley Lab's 88-Inch Cyclotron, is the first stage of GRETA, the even more powerful Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking Array.

Lee, I-Yang

2010-01-01

95

Furnace assembly  

DOEpatents

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

96

J-aggregation, its impact on excited state dynamics and unique solvent effects on macroscopic assembly of a core-substituted naphthalenediimide.  

PubMed

Herein we reveal a straightforward supramolecular design for the H-bonding driven J-aggregation of an amine-substituted cNDI in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals sub-ps intramolecular electron transfer in isolated NDI molecules in a THF solution followed by a fast recombination process, while a remarkable extension of the excited state lifetime by more than one order of magnitude occurred in methylcyclohexane likely owing to an increased charge-separation as a result of better delocalization of the charge-separated states in J-aggregates. We also describe unique solvent-effects on the macroscopic structure and morphology. While J-aggregation with similar photophysical characteristics was noticed in all the tested aliphatic hydrocarbons, the morphology strongly depends on the "structure" of the solvents. In linear hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane or n-dodecane), formation of an entangled fibrillar network leads to macroscopic gelation while in cyclic hydrocarbons (methylcyclohexane or cyclohexane) although having a similar polarity, the cNDI exhibits nanoscale spherical particles. These unprecedented solvent effects were rationalized by establishing structure-dependent specific interactions of the solvent molecules with the cNDI which may serve as a general guideline for solvent-induced morphology-control of structurally related self-assembled materials. PMID:25805563

Kar, Haridas; Gehrig, Dominik W; Laquai, Frédéric; Ghosh, Suhrit

2015-04-01

97

Self-assembly of liquid crystal block copolymer PEG-b-smectic polymer in pure state and in dilute aqueous solution  

E-print Network

A series of amphiphilic LC block copolymers, in which the hydrophobic block is a smectic polymer poly(4-methoxyphenyl 4-(6-acryloyloxy-hexyloxy)-benzoate) (PA6ester1) and the hydrophilic block is polyethyleneglycol (PEG), were synthesized and characterized. The self-assembly of one of them in both the pure state and the dilute aqueous solution was investigated in detail. Nano-structures in the pure state were studied by SAXS and WAXS on samples aligned by a magnetic field. A hexagonal cylindrical micro-segregation phase was observed with a lattice distance of 11.2 nm. The PEG blocks are in the cylinder, while the smectic polymer blocks form a matrix with layer spacing 2.4 nm and layer normal parallel to the long axis of the cylinders. Faceted unilamellar polymer vesicles, polymersomes, were formed in water, as revealed by cryo-TEM. In the lyotropic bilayer membrane of these polymersomes, the thermotropic smectic order in the hydrophobic block is clearly visible with layer normal parallel to the membrane surface.

B. Xu; R. Pinol; M. Nono-Djamen; S. Pensec; P. Keller; P. -A. Albouy; D. Levy; M. -H. Li

2009-09-03

98

Sequence assembly  

E-print Network

nucleotide sequences • Most of what we have looked at so far has been related to amino acid sequences –Sequence alignment works on nucleotide sequences, too, but if they are known coding sequences, using the translation works better for most tasks. • Other informatics tasks related to only nucleotide sequences: –Sequence assembly –Gene finding and genomic sequence annotation –Promoter recognition The sequence assembly problem • Sequencing machines are able to handle only 500-1000 base fragments at a time (a read) • These fragments must be assembled into a single continuous genomic sequence. • There are two broad approaches to this problem: –Use of a map, or ordered set of markers along a sequence –Use of many overlapping sequences (high coverage) to infer ordering directly from the sequences themselves. • Generally, used together in varying degrees The basic idea • Assembling fragments into contigs requires the detection of significant overlapping regions at the ends of each fragment: 2 contigs • How much overlap is required? –Assume long enough fragment end sequences appear exactly once in the genome. If we see such a sequence in two fragments, they overlap. –Assembly is then the “shortest common superstring” problem. A simple model • Imagine a sequence is random and drawn from an equiprobable distribution of nucleotides • P(seq) =.25 n, n is the length of the sequence. • P(seq occurs exactly once) =.25 n * (m-n) where m is length of genome, n of sequence. • How long does a sequence have to be to have p.25 n * (m-n), or n=12 for 100kb, 18 for

Lawrence Hunter Ph. D

99

PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-4,5-BISPHOSPHATE PROMOTES BUDDING YEAST SEPTIN FILAMENT ASSEMBLY AND ORGANIZATION  

PubMed Central

Septins are a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins that assemble into symmetric linear hetero-oligomeric complexes, which, in turn, are able to polymerize into apolar filaments and higher-order structures. In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and other eukaryotes, proper septin organization is essential for processes that involve membrane remodeling, such as the execution of cytokinesis. In yeast, four septin subunits form a Cdc11-Cdc12-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Cdc12-Cdc11 hetero-octameric rod that polymerizes into filaments that are thought to form a collar around the bud neck in close contact with the inner surface of the plasma membrane. To explore septin-membrane interaction, we examined the effect of lipid monolayers on septin organization at the ultrastructural level using electron microcopy. Using this methodology we have acquired new insights concerning the potential effect of septin-membrane interactions on filament assembly, and more specifically on the role of phosphoinositides. Our studies demonstrate that budding yeast septins interact specifically with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and indicate that the N-terminus of Cdc10 makes a major contribution to the interaction of septin filaments with PIP2. Furthermore, we found that presence of PIP2 promotes filament polymerization and organization on monolayers, even under conditions or for mutants that prevent filament formation in solution. In the extreme case of septin complexes lacking the normally terminal subunit Cdc11, or the normally central Cdc10 doublet, the combination of the PIP2-containing monolayer and nucleotide permitted filament formation in vitro via atypical Cdc12-Cdc12 and Cdc3-Cdc3 interactions, respectively. PMID:20951708

Bertin, Aurélie; McMurray, Michael A.; Thai, Luong; Garcia, Galo; Votin, Violet; Grob, Patricia; Allyn, Theresa; Thorner, Jeremy; Nogales, Eva

2010-01-01

100

Cartwheel assembly  

PubMed Central

The cartwheel is a subcentriolar structure consisting of a central hub and nine radially arranged spokes, located at the proximal end of the centriole. It appears at the initial stage of the centriole assembly process as the first ninefold symmetrical structure. The cartwheel was first described more than 50 years ago, but it is only recently that its pivotal role in establishing the ninefold symmetry of the centriole was demonstrated. Significant progress has since been made in understanding its fine structure and assembly mechanism. Most importantly, the central part of the cartwheel, from which the ninefold symmetry originates, is shown to form by self-association of nine dimers of the protein SAS-6. This finding, together with emerging data on other components of the cartwheel, has opened new avenues in centrosome biology. PMID:25047612

Hirono, Masafumi

2014-01-01

101

TIGER: tiled iterative genome assembler  

PubMed Central

Background With the cost reduction of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, genomics has provided us with an unprecedented opportunity to understand fundamental questions in biology and elucidate human diseases. De novo genome assembly is one of the most important steps to reconstruct the sequenced genome. However, most de novo assemblers require enormous amount of computational resource, which is not accessible for most research groups and medical personnel. Results We have developed a novel de novo assembly framework, called Tiger, which adapts to available computing resources by iteratively decomposing the assembly problem into sub-problems. Our method is also flexible to embed different assemblers for various types of target genomes. Using the sequence data from a human chromosome, our results show that Tiger can achieve much better NG50s, better genome coverage, and slightly higher errors, as compared to Velvet and SOAPdenovo, using modest amount of memory that are available in commodity computers today. Conclusions Most state-of-the-art assemblers that can achieve relatively high assembly quality need excessive amount of computing resource (in particular, memory) that is not available to most researchers to achieve high quality results. Tiger provides the only known viable path to utilize NGS de novo assemblers that require more memory than that is present in available computers. Evaluation results demonstrate the feasibility of getting better quality results with low memory footprint and the scalability of using distributed commodity computers. PMID:23281792

2012-01-01

102

Beginning Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Now it’s time to see the efforts of your labor take shape, literally. In this and the next three chapters, we’ll walk you\\u000a through the process of assembling the basic framework of the 3D printer. The electronics (including the motors) will come\\u000a later, but for now you’ll need to grab some basic tools such as Philips and slot screwdrivers (electric\\/portable

Patrick Hood-Daniel; James Floyd Kelly

103

Dump assembly  

DOEpatents

A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

Goldmann, Louis H. (Benton City, WA)

1986-01-01

104

Galaxy Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a Lambda CDM Universe, galaxies grow in mass both through star formation\\u000aand through addition of already-formed stars in galaxy mergers. Because of this\\u000apartial decoupling of these two modes of galaxy growth, I discuss each\\u000aseparately in this biased and incomplete review of galaxy assembly; first\\u000agiving an overview of the cosmic-averaged star formation history, and then\\u000amoving

Eric F. Bell

2004-01-01

105

Sensor assembly  

DOEpatents

A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

2004-04-13

106

Bistable molecular self-assembling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembled aggregates made up of molecules taking different geometrical conformational states are discussed. Besides the well-known order–disorder conformational transition involving the hydrophobic tails, the review focuses on the geometrical variations occurring in the head group region and on the related changes of the whole assembly. These effects are particularly relevant in amphiphile molecules carrying bulky and flexible headgroups like the

Antonio Raudino; Laura Cantù; Mario Corti; Elena Del Favero

2000-01-01

107

Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Critical Assemblies Facility of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been in existence for thirty-five years. In that period, many thousands of measurements have been made on assemblies of /sup 235/U, /sup 233/U, and /sup 239/Pu in various configurations, including the nitrate, sulfate, fluoride, carbide, and oxide chemical compositions and the solid, liquid, and gaseous states. The present complex of eleven operating machines is described, and typical applications are presented.

Malenfant, R.E.

1981-06-01

108

Heptanuclear antiferromagnetic Fe(III)-D-(-)-quinato assemblies with an S = 3/2 ground state-pH-specific synthetic chemistry, spectroscopic, structural, and magnetic susceptibility studies.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential metal ion with numerous roles in biological systems and advanced abiotic materials. D-(-)-quinic acid is a cellular metal ion chelator, capable of promoting reactions with metal M(II,III) ions under pH-specific conditions. In an effort to comprehend the chemical reactivity of well-defined forms of Fe(III)/Fe(II) toward ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, pH-specific reactions of: (a) [Fe3O(CH3COO)6(H2O)3]·(NO3)·4H2O with D-(-)-quinic acid in a molar ratio 1:3 at pH 2.5 and (b) Mohr's salt with D-(-)-quinic acid in a molar ratio 1:3 at pH 7.5, respectively, led to the isolation of the first two heptanuclear Fe(III)-quinato complexes, [Fe7O3(OH)3(C7H10O6)6]·20.5H2O (1) and (NH4)[Fe7(OH)6(C7H10O6)6]·(SO4)2·18H2O (2). Compounds 1 and 2 were characterized by analytical, spectroscopic (UV-vis, FT-IR, EPR, and Mössbauer) techniques, CV, TGA-DTG, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The X-ray structures of 1 and 2 reveal heptanuclear assemblies of six Fe(III) ions bound by six doubly deprotonated quinates and one Fe(III) ion bound by oxido- and hydroxido-bridges (1), and hydroxido-bridges (2), all in an octahedral fashion. Mössbauer spectroscopy on 1 and 2 suggests the presence of Fe(III) ions in an all-oxygen environment. EPR measurements indicate that 1 and 2 retain their structure in solution, while magnetic measurements reveal an overall antiferromagnetic behavior with a ground state S = 3/2. The collective physicochemical properties of 1 and 2 suggest that the (a) nature of the ligand, (b) precursor form of iron, (c) pH, and (d) molecular stoichiometry are key factors influencing the chemical reactivity of the binary Fe(II,III)-hydroxycarboxylato systems, their aqueous speciation, and ultimately through variably emerging hydrogen bonding interactions, the assembly of multinuclear Fe(III)-hydroxycarboxylato clusters with distinct lattice architectures of specific dimensionality (2D-3D) and magnetic signature. PMID:24266671

Menelaou, M; Vournari, E; Psycharis, V; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Tangoulis, V; Sanakis, Y; Mateescu, C; Salifoglou, A

2013-12-16

109

Pushrod assembly  

DOEpatents

A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing said magnet away from said carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

Potter, Jerry D. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

110

Pushrod assembly  

DOEpatents

A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved is described. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing magnet away from the carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

Potter, J.D.

1984-03-30

111

Dump assembly  

DOEpatents

This is a claim for a dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough. 4 figs.

Goldmann, L.H.

1984-12-06

112

Self-assembly of cationic rod-like poly(2,5-pyridine) by acidic bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide in the hydrated state: A highly-ordered self-assembled protonic conductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that acid–base complexation of rod-like poly(2,5-pyridine) (PPY) by bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (TFSI) leads to highly-ordered lamellar self-assemblies in the hydrated films and shows relatively high room temperature conductivity of ca. 10?4 S\\/cm. Thin films with different nominal degrees of complexation were studied using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, conductivity measurements, and polarised optical microscopy. We propose that

M. Vilkman; A. Lankinen; N. Volk; P. Kostamo; O. Ikkala

2010-01-01

113

Toward robotizing powertrain assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the recent progress of using robotics in automotive powertain assembly manufacturing processes. After briefly describing force control and vision-guided robot (VGR), we introduce successful implementation of robotic assembly for transmission torque converters, VGR-based engine head assembly, transmission valve body assembly and engine piston installation. Then we discuss other robotic assembly related technologies such as visual servoing and

Dave Gravel; Frank Maslar; George Zhang; Srini Nidamarthi; Heping Chen; Tom Fuhlbrigge

2008-01-01

114

Assembly Planning Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research programme at the CSIRO has led to the development of a professional software package for assembly system design and management. This product is now being trialed in various manufacturing organisations. The research activity focused on part attributes for assembly, the generic assembly tasks involved, the issue of precedence in assembly, the equipment requirements, the assembly times, and the

S. Grewal; P. Tran; A. Bhaskare; L. Farmer

1995-01-01

115

Perceptions and viewpoints on proceedings of the Fifteenth Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union Debate on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Development, 25–27 July 2010, Kampala, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Out of 358000 maternal deaths that occurred globally in 2008, 57.8% occurred in continental Africa. Africa had a maternal\\u000a mortality ratio of 590 compared to 14 in developed regions, 68 in Latin America and Caribbean, and 190 in Asia. This article\\u000a reflects on the discussions held during the Fifteenth Assembly of the Heads of State and Government of the African

Luis Gomes Sambo; Joses Muthuri Kirigia; Georges Ki-Zerbo

2011-01-01

116

Swivel assembly  

DOEpatents

A swivel assembly for a downhole tool string comprises a first and second coaxial housing cooperatively arranged. The first housing comprises a first transmission element in communication with surface equipment. The second housing comprises a second transmission element in communication with the first transmission element. The second housing further comprises a third transmission element adapted for communication with a network integrated into the downhole tool string. The second housing may be rotational and adapted to transmit a signal between the downhole network and the first housing. Electronic circuitry is in communication with at least one of the transmission elements. The electronic circuitry may be externally mounted to the first or second housing. Further, the electronic circuitry may be internally mounted in the second housing. The electronic circuitry may be disposed in a recess in either first or second housing of the swivel.

Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael; Bartholomew, David B.; McPherson, James

2007-03-20

117

Transmission assembly  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a transmission assembly. It comprises a first automatic transmission having a forward end adapted to be coupled to an internal combustion engine and a rearward end, the first automatic transmission including a drive shaft; a second automatic transmission having a forward end and a rearward end, and including a stator plate having a forward portion and a rearward portion. The stator plate located adjacent the forward end of the second automatic transmission, the drive shaft connecting the first automatic transmission in driving relation with the second automatic transmission; a coupling plate for connecting the rearward end of the first automatic transmission with the forward end of the second automatic transmission. The coupling plate rotatably supporting the drive shaft; and means for providing communication of pressurized transmission fluid between the first and second automatic transmissions.

Klazura, K.

1990-08-28

118

Micromanifold assembly  

DOEpatents

A micromanifold for connecting external capillaries to the inlet and/or outlet ports of a microfluidic device can employ a ferrule/capillary assembly that includes: (a) a ferrule comprising an elongated member and having a bore traversing from a proximal end to a distal end of the member, wherein the bore has an inner surface and wherein the distal end of the ferrule has a tapered, threaded exterior surface, and (b) a capillary that is positioned within the bore wherein the capillary's outer surface is in direct contact with the bore's inner surface. No mating sleeve is required for the one-piece ferrule. Alternatively, the capillaries can be bonded to channels that traverse the manifold and therefore obviate the need for a ferrule.

Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA); Ferko, Scott M. (Livermore, CA)

2012-04-24

119

Micromanifold assembly  

DOEpatents

A micromanifold for connecting external capillaries to the inlet and/or outlet ports of a microfluidic device can employ a ferrule/capillary assembly that includes: (a) a ferrule comprising an elongated member and having a bore traversing from a proximal end to a distal end of the member, wherein the bore has an inner surface and wherein the distal end of the ferrule has a tapered, threaded exterior surface, and (b) a capillary that is positioned within the bore wherein the capillary's outer surface is in direct contact with the bore's inner surface. No mating sleeve is required for the one-piece ferrule. Alternatively, the capillaries can be bonded to channels that traverse the manifold and therefore obviate the need for a ferrule.

Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracey, CA); Ferko, Scott (Livermore, CA)

2009-06-30

120

Current challenges in de novo plant genome sequencing and assembly  

PubMed Central

Genome sequencing is now affordable, but assembling plant genomes de novo remains challenging. We assess the state of the art of assembly and review the best practices for the community. PMID:22546054

2012-01-01

121

IAHS Third Scientific Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) convened its Third Scientific Assembly in Baltimore, Md., May 10-19, 1989. The Assembly was attended by about 450 scientists and engineers. The attendance was highest from the U.S., as could be expected; 37 were from Canada; 22 each, Netherlands and United Kingdom; 14, Italy; 12, China; 10, Federal Republic of Germany; 8 each from France, the Republic of South Africa, and Switzerland; 7, Austria; 6 each, Finland and Japan; others were scattered among the remainder of 48 countries total.one of the cosponsors and also handled business matters for the Assembly. Other cosponsors included the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and U.K. Overseas Development Authority (ODA). U.S. federal agencies serving as cosponsors included the Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, National Weather Service, Department of Agriculture, Department of State, and U.S. Geological Survey.

122

International Space Station Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

1999-01-01

123

Microsphere assembly of TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with highly exposed (101) facets and application in a light-trapping quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

The morphology of nano-titania has a significant effect on the photoelectric properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this study, microsphere assembly of a TiO2 mesoporous nanosheet constructed by nanocuboids was conducted via a simple hydrothermal process. The XRD pattern indicated that the hierarchical mesoporous microspheres are anatase phase with decreased (004) peaks. Raman spectrum shows enhanced Eg peaks at 143 and 638 cm(-1) caused by the symmetric stretching vibration of O-Ti-O of the (101) crystalline facet in anatase TiO2. FESEM and TEM images show that well monodispersed TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of 2 ?m are assembled by TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with exposed (101) facets. The oriented attachment of TiO2 nanocuboids along the (101) direction leads to the formation of mesoporous titania nanosheets. The UV-Vis spectrum shows that the mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets have high scattering ability and light absorption by dye. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells that incorporate these microspheres into the top scattering layers exhibit a prominent improvement in the power conversion efficiency of 7.51%, which shows a 45.8% increase in the overall conversion efficiency when compared with the spine hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (5.15%). There is the potential application for microsphere assembly of mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with excellent stability. PMID:25631573

Tao, Xiyun; Ruan, Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Hongxia; Zhou, Xingfu

2015-02-12

124

ASSEMBLY METHODS OTTER -TRAWL NETS  

E-print Network

ASSEMBLY METHODS for OTTER - TRAWL NETS - ..- - --- --- - #12;United States Department- of the Int ··......... .·...... ... ........·· 4 4 Top and Bottom Views of Iceland-Otter Tr awl .......... ..... 5 5 Diagram of l~epr es entative Otter Trawls ·.·.............. .·. 7 6 \\Jeb Sections of Iceland-TravTl Net .·..·..·................ · 8

125

Radiation Chemistry in Organized Assemblies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expands the basic concepts regarding the radiation chemistry of simple aqueous systems to more complex, but well defined, organized assemblies. Discusses the differences in behavior in comparison to simple systems. Reviews these techniques: pulse radiolysis, laser flash, photolysis, and steady state irradiation by gamma rays or light. (CS)

Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S.

1981-01-01

126

Latching relay switch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

1991-01-01

127

Dual flapper valve assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a dual flapper valve assembly for limiting the loss of completion fluid in connection with a well service operation. The valve assembly consists of: tubular support means defining a flow passage; a first flapper valve assembly connected in series flow relation with the support means, the first flapper valve assembly having a valve closure member movable between

S. R. Clary; F. Jr. Giusti; R. M. Sproul

1989-01-01

128

Self-Assembly Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a quick game about self-assembly. Like the molecules of DNA, learners will self-assemble into a pattern by following a simple set of rules. The icebreaker game is part of a larger self-assembly lesson plan, and additional self-assembly game ideas and a video can be found in the related links.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

129

Inlet nozzle assembly  

DOEpatents

An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Precechtel, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Smith, Bob G. (Richland, WA); Knight, Ronald C. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

130

Inlet nozzle assembly  

DOEpatents

An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Knight, R.C.; Precechtel, D.R.; Smith, B.G.

1985-09-09

131

Some Assembly Required: Putting the Epithelial Sodium  

E-print Network

implicated in the pathogenesis of several dis- ease states, including forms of salt-sensitive hypertension co-assemble with -, -, and -ENaC has also been described (6). Given its essential roles in fluid

Weisz, Ora A.

132

Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly  

DOEpatents

A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

2012-01-24

133

Modeling and design of a new core-moderator assembly and neutron beam ports for the Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is for modeling and designing a new reactor core-moderator assembly and new neutron beam ports that aimed to expand utilization of a new beam hall of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The PSBR is a part of the Radiation Science and Engineering Facility (RSEC) and is a TRIGA MARK III type research reactor with a movable core placed in a large pool and is capable to produce 1MW output. This reactor is a pool-type reactor with pulsing capability up to 2000 MW for 10-20 msec. There are seven beam ports currently installed to the reactor. The PSBR's existing core design limits the experimental capability of the facility, as only two of the seven available neutron beam ports are usable. The finalized design features an optimized result in light of the data obtained from neutronic and thermal-hydraulics analyses as well as geometrical constraints. A new core-moderator assembly was introduced to overcome the limitations of the existing PSBR design, specifically maximizing number of available neutron beam ports and mitigating the hydrogen gamma contamination of the neutron beam channeled in the beam ports. A crescent-shaped moderator is favored in the new PSBR design since it enables simultaneous use of five new neutron beam ports in the facility. Furthermore, the crescent shape sanctions a coupling of the core and moderator, which reduces the hydrogen gamma contamination significantly in the new beam ports. A coupled MURE and MCNP5 code optimization analysis was performed to calculate the optimum design parameters for the new PSBR. Thermal-hydraulics analysis of the new design was achieved using ANSYS Fluent CFD code. In the current form, the PSBR is cooled by natural convection of the pool water. The driving force for the natural circulation of the fluid is the heat generation within the fuel rods. The convective heat data was generated at the reactor's different operating powers by using TRIGSIMS, the fuel management code of the PSBR core. In the CFD modeling, the amount of heat generated by the fuel is assumed to be transferred totally into the coolant. Therefore, the surface heat flux is applied to the fuel cladding outer surface by considering the depleted fuel composition of each individual fuel rod under a reference core loading condition defined as; 53H at 1MW full power. In order to model the entire PSBR reactor, fine mesh discretization was achieved with 22 millions structured and unstructured computational meshes. The conductive heat transfer inside the fuel rods was ignored in order to decrease the computational mesh requirement. Since the PSBR core operates in the subcooled nucleate boiling region, the CFD simulation of new PSBR design was completed utilizing an Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase flow formulation and RPI wall boiling model. The simulation results showed that the new moderator tank geometry results in secondary flow entering into the core due to decrease in the cross-flow area. Notably, the radial flow improves the local heat transfer conditions by providing radial-mixing in the core. Bubble nucleation occurs on the heated fuel rods but bubbles are collapsing in the subcooled fluid. Furthermore, the bulk fluid properties are not affected by the bubble formation. Yet, subcooled boiling enhances the heat transfer on the fuel rods. Five neutron beam ports are designed for the new reactor. The geometrical configuration, filter and collimator system designs of each neutron beam ports are selected based on the requirements of the experimental facilities. A cold neutron beam port which utilizes cold neutrons from three curved guide tubes is considered. Therefore, there will be seven neutron beams available in the new facility. The neutronic analyses of the new beam port designs were achieved by using MCNP5 code and Burned Coupled Simulation Tool for the PSBR. The MCNP simulation results showed that thermal neutron flux was increased by a factor of minimum 1.23 times and maximum 2.68 times in the new beam port compared to the existing BP4 design. Besides total gamma dose was decreased by a factor

Ucar, Dundar

134

Electronic states of InAs vertically-assembled quantum disks in magnetic fields and two-electron quantum-disk qubit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the single-electron and two-electron vertically-assembled quantum disks in an axial magnetic field using the effective mass approximation. The electron interaction is treated accurately by the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix. We calculate the six energy levels of single-electron quantum disks and the two lowest energy levels of two-electron quantum disks in an axial magnetic field. The

Qing-Rui Dong; Zhi-Chuan Niu

2004-01-01

135

Firearm trigger assembly  

DOEpatents

A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

Crandall, David L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watson, Richard W. (Blackfoot, ID)

2010-02-16

136

Coarse-grained Simulations of Viral Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of viral capsids is a marvel of natural engineering and design. A large number (from 60 to thousands) of protein subunits assemble into complete, reproducible structures under a variety of conditions while avoiding kinetic and thermodynamic traps. Small single-stranded RNA viruses not only assemble their coat proteins in this fashion but also package their genome during the self-assembly process. Recent experiments have shown that the coat proteins are competent to assemble not merely around their own genomes but heterologous RNA, synthetic polyanions and even functionalized gold nanoparticles. Remarkably these viruses can even assemble around cargo not commensurate with their native state by adopting different morphologies. Understanding the properties that confer such exquisite precision and flexibility to the assembly process could aid biomedical research in the search for novel antiviral remedies, drug-delivery vehicles and contrast agents used in bioimaging. At the same time, viral assembly provides an excellent model system for the development of a statistical mechanical understanding of biological self-assembly, in the hopes of that we will identify some universal principles that underly such processes. This work consists of computational studies using coarse-grained representations of viral coat proteins and their cargoes. We find the relative strength of protein-cargo and protein-protein interactions has a profound effect on the assembly pathway, in some cases leading to assembly mechanisms that are markedly different from those found in previous work on the assembly of empty capsids. In the case of polymeric cargo, we find the first evidence for a previously theorized mechanism in which the polymer actively participates in recruiting free subunits to the assembly process through cooperative polymer-protein motions. We find that successful assembly is non-monotonic in protein-cargo affinity, such affinity can be detrimental to assembly if it becomes strong enough to stabilize frustrated intermediates that are incompatible with the ground state structure. In cases where the subunits are capable of assembly into different morphologies, we find that maintaining the precise spatial arrangement of subunits seen in the crystal structure is possible even if non-native interactions are disfavored by as little as the thermal energy.

Elrad, Oren M.

2011-12-01

137

Molecular Self-Assembly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students interact with 12 models to observe emergent phenomena as molecules assemble themselves. Investigate the factors that are important to self-assembly, including shape and polarity. Try to assemble a monolayer by "pushing" the molecules to the substrate (it's not easy!). Rotate complex molecules to view their structure. Finally, create your own nanostructures by selecting molecules, adding charges to them, and observing the results of self-assembly.

2012-07-19

138

Rubisco: Assembly and Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (Rubisco, E.C. 4.1.1.39) is unique to photosynthetic metabolism. Two intensively studied aspects of Rubisco physiology are covered in this chapter, its post-translational assembly and its mechanism of action. Bacterial Rubisco can be assembled in vitro and in bacterial hosts but, as yet, assembly in vitro of higher-plant Rubiscos has not been reported. This focuses attention on the assembly

Harry Roy; T. John Andrews

139

Latching relay switch assembly  

SciTech Connect

A latching relay switch assembly is described which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly. 9 figures.

Duimstra, F.A.

1991-03-05

140

The physical and chemical state of phosphoric acid fuel cell assemblies after long term operation: surface and near-surface analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt was made to correlate performance losses with materials compatibility and compositional changes in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) electrode assemblies as a function of operation time. Westinghouse PAFC stacks were run under a constant operating regime and portions of some of the single cells were analyzed after stack operation for 5000 and 16 000 h along with appropriate reference samples. The PAFC assemblies were disassembled, sectioned where appropriate and analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), electron microprobe analysis (EMP), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The profiles of the Pt catalyst in both the anode and the cathode layer did not show any preferential loss or peaking. The most pronounced change in cell composition detected following stack operation for 5000 and 16 000 h was the increase in Pt/C ratio, that was related to loss of carbon from the cathode electrocatalyst. In contrast, the anode catalyst layer maintains the same ratio of Pt:C following 16 000 h of operation. The loss of carbon is thought to occur by an electrochemical mechanism and is enhanced at the higher potentials experienced by the air cathode in the fuel cell. In addition, TEM results clearly demonstrate the well recognized phenomenon of Pt particle agglomeration in the cathode catalyst layer, which is seen to be quite substantial after 5000 h of stack operation. This behavior was not observed at the anode electrocatalyst layer. The mechanical integrity of the assemblies was found to be quite satisfactory after 5000 h, but much less so after 16 000 h. Questions regarding carbon and Pt corrosion, Pt migration, and the chemical and physical integrity of the PAFC structures are addressed and are all postulated to be contributing to the observed cell performance losses.

Paffett, M. T.; Hutchinson, W.; Farr, J. D.; Papin, P.; Beery, J. G.; Gottesfeld, S.; Feret, J.

141

The physical and chemical state of Westinghouse Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell assemblies after long term operation: Surface and near-surface analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt was made to correlate performance losses with materials compatibility and compositional changes in Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) electrode assemblies as a function of operation time. Westinghouse PAFC stacks were run under a constant operating regime and portions of some of the single cells were analysed after stack operation for 5000 and 16,000 hrs along with appropriate reference samples. The PAFC assemblies were disassembled, sectioned where appropriate and analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), electron microprobe analysis (EMP), and x ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The profiles of the Pt catalyst in both the anode and the cathode layer did not show any preferential loss or peaking. The most pronounced change in cell composition detected following stack operation for 5000 and 16,000 hours was the increase in Pt/C ratio, that was related to loss of carbon from the cathode electrocatalyst. In contrast, the anode catalyst layer maintains the same ratio of Pt/C following 16,000 hours of operation. The loss of carbon is thought to occur by an electrochemical mechanism and is enhanced at the higher potentials experienced by the air cathode in the fuel cell. In addition, TEM results clearly demonstrate the well recognized phenomenon of Pt particle agglomeration in the cathode catalyst layer, which is seen to be quite substantial after 5000 hours of stack operation. The mechanical integrity of the assemblies was found to be quite satisfactory after 5000 hours, but much less so after 16,000 hours. Questions regarding carbon and Pt corrosion, Pt migration, and the mechanical and physical integrity of the PAFC structures are addressed and are all postulated to be contributing to the observed cell performance losses.

Paffett, M. T.; Hutchinson, W.; Farr, J. D.; Papin, P.; Beery, J. G.; Gottesfeld, S.; Feret, J.

1990-03-01

142

Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies  

DOEpatents

Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

Miller, David H. (Redondo Beach, CA)

2012-04-10

143

Folding intermediates of SNARE complex assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) proteins assemble into a stable complex essential for vesicle–membrane fusion. To further understand SNARE function we have used solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterize three assembly states of a yeast SNARE complex: first, the 'closed' conformation of Sso1; second, the binary complex of Sso1 and Sec9; and third, the ternary complex of

Klaus M. Fiebig; Luke M. Rice; Elizabeth Pollock; Axel T. Brunger

1999-01-01

144

Photovoltaic assemblies and methods for transporting  

DOEpatents

A PV assembly including framework, PV laminate(s), and a stiffening device. The framework includes a perimeter frame at least 10 feet in length and at least 5 feet in width. The PV laminate(s) are assembled to the perimeter frame to define a receiving zone having a depth of not more than 8 inches. The stiffening device is associated with the framework and is configured to provide a first state and a second state. In the first state, an entirety of the stiffening device is maintained within the receiving zone. In the second state, at least a portion of the stiffening device projects from the receiving zone. The stiffening device enhances a stiffness of the PV assembly in a plane of the perimeter frame, and can include rods defining truss structures.

Almy, Charles; Campbell, Matt; Sandler, Reuben; Wares, Brian; Wayman, Elizabeth

2014-08-05

145

Photovoltaic assemblies and methods for transporting  

DOEpatents

A PV assembly including framework, PV laminate(s), and a stiffening device. The framework includes a perimeter frame at least 10 feet in length and at least 5 feet in width. The PV laminate(s) are assembled to the perimeter frame to define a receiving zone having a depth of not more than 8 inches. The stiffening device is associated with the framework and is configured to provide a first state and a second state. In the first state, an entirety of the stiffening device is maintained within the receiving zone. In the second state, at least a portion of the stiffening device projects from the receiving zone. The stiffening device enhances a stiffness of the PV assembly in a plane of the perimeter frame, and can include rods defining truss structures.

Almy, Charles; Campbell, Matt; Sandler, Reuben; Wares, Brian; Wayman, Elizabeth

2013-09-17

146

Sequence Assembly Validation by Restriction Digest Fingerprint  

E-print Network

University 700 S. Euclid Avenue Saint Louis, MO 63110 Ecr@ibc.wustl.edu States@ibc.wustl.edu #12;- -1 Abstract DNA sequence analysis depends on the accurate assembly of fragment reads for the determination, Missouri 63110 ecr@ibc.wustl.edu states@ibc.wustl.edu #12;- -3 Introduction Genomic sequence analysis

Rouchka, Eric

147

Programmable Self-Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembly is the phenomenon in which a collection of particles spontaneously arrange themselves into a coherent structure. Self-assembly is ubiquitous in nature. In this article we consider the task of programming active self-assembling and self-organizing systems at the level of interactions among particles in the system. To demonstrate the approach, we use it to control an experimental system called the

Eric Klavins

2007-01-01

148

Linux Assembly HOWTO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial "describes how to program in assembly language using free programming tools, focusing on development for or from the Linux Operating System." For applications that are closely related to the underlying computer architecture, assembly language programming can be very important. The instructive material is aimed at people who have at least a basic understanding of conventional, high-level programming styles but have little to no experience with assembly. Hence, it serves as a general introduction to the topic, mainly useful for understanding what situations lend themselves to assembly programming.

Boldyshev, Konstantin.

149

Ex vivo DNA Assembly  

PubMed Central

Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid, and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods. PMID:25024067

Fisher, Adam B.; Canfield, Zachary B.; Hayward, Laura C.; Fong, Stephen S.; McArthur, George H.

2013-01-01

150

Composite turbine bucket assembly  

DOEpatents

A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

2014-05-20

151

High-performance all-solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor arrays with layer-by-layer assembled MWNT/MnO(x) nanocomposite electrodes.  

PubMed

In this study, we report on the fabrication of high performance planar-type flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) arrays using Au electrodes coated with a functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) film and a layer of MWNT-COOH/MnOx nanoparticle (NP) composite on top. The MWNT thin film was formed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of MWNTs functionalized with amine groups and MWNTs with carboxylic acid groups in water. The hydrothermally synthesized composite of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NPs was coated on top of the MWNT film (LbL-MWNT). The addition of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NP composite as a top layer enhanced the performance of the MSCs dramatically, resulting in a volumetric capacitance of 50 F cm(-3) at a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1) and a coulombic efficiency of ?100%. By contrast, a volumetric capacitance of 3.6 F cm(-3) was obtained when using only the LbL-MWNT film. After repetitive operation up to ?10(4) times, the capacitance remained at ?88.3% of the original value. With a deliberate circuit design consisting of serially connected MSC arrays, various light-emitting diodes operating at different bias voltages could be lit. The MSC circuit fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film showed stable electrochemical properties upon 1000 cycles of bending deformation. PMID:24990386

Lee, Geumbee; Kim, Daeil; Yun, Junyeong; Ko, Yongmin; Cho, Jinhan; Ha, Jeong Sook

2014-08-21

152

Exploring contribution of intermolecular interactions in supramolecular layered assembly of naphthyridine co-crystals: Insights from Hirshfeld surface analysis of their crystalline states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-crystals of 1a and 1b have been prepared by slow evaporation of the solutions of mixtures of 2,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine (1), urea (a) and thiourea (b). The structures of the complexes are determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction and a detailed investigation of the crystal packing and classification of intermolecular interactions is presented by means of Hirshfeld surface analysis which is of considerable current interest in crystal engineering. The X-ray study reveals that the co-crystal formers are envisioned to produce N-H⋯N hydrogen bond as well as N-H⋯O/N-H⋯S pair-wise hydrogen bonds and also the weaker aromatic ?⋯? interactions which cooperatively take part in the crystal packing. The recurring feature of the self-assembly in the compounds is the appearance of the molecular ribbon through multiple hydrogen bonding which are further stacked into molecular layers by ?⋯? stacking interactions. Hirshfeld surface analysis for visually analyzing intermolecular interactions in crystal structures employing molecular surface contours and 2D Fingerprint plots have been used to examine molecular shapes. Crystal structure analysis supported with the Hirshfeld surface and fingerprint plots enabled the identification of the significant intermolecular interactions.

Seth, Saikat Kumar; Das, Nirmal Kumar; Aich, Krishnendu; Sen, Debabrata; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Goswami, Shyamaprasad

2013-09-01

153

High-performance all-solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor arrays with layer-by-layer assembled MWNT/MnOx nanocomposite electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we report on the fabrication of high performance planar-type flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) arrays using Au electrodes coated with a functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) film and a layer of MWNT-COOH/MnOx nanoparticle (NP) composite on top. The MWNT thin film was formed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of MWNTs functionalized with amine groups and MWNTs with carboxylic acid groups in water. The hydrothermally synthesized composite of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NPs was coated on top of the MWNT film (LbL-MWNT). The addition of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NP composite as a top layer enhanced the performance of the MSCs dramatically, resulting in a volumetric capacitance of 50 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a coulombic efficiency of ~100%. By contrast, a volumetric capacitance of 3.6 F cm-3 was obtained when using only the LbL-MWNT film. After repetitive operation up to ~104 times, the capacitance remained at ~88.3% of the original value. With a deliberate circuit design consisting of serially connected MSC arrays, various light-emitting diodes operating at different bias voltages could be lit. The MSC circuit fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film showed stable electrochemical properties upon 1000 cycles of bending deformation.In this study, we report on the fabrication of high performance planar-type flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) arrays using Au electrodes coated with a functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) film and a layer of MWNT-COOH/MnOx nanoparticle (NP) composite on top. The MWNT thin film was formed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of MWNTs functionalized with amine groups and MWNTs with carboxylic acid groups in water. The hydrothermally synthesized composite of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NPs was coated on top of the MWNT film (LbL-MWNT). The addition of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NP composite as a top layer enhanced the performance of the MSCs dramatically, resulting in a volumetric capacitance of 50 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a coulombic efficiency of ~100%. By contrast, a volumetric capacitance of 3.6 F cm-3 was obtained when using only the LbL-MWNT film. After repetitive operation up to ~104 times, the capacitance remained at ~88.3% of the original value. With a deliberate circuit design consisting of serially connected MSC arrays, various light-emitting diodes operating at different bias voltages could be lit. The MSC circuit fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film showed stable electrochemical properties upon 1000 cycles of bending deformation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02035a

Lee, Geumbee; Kim, Daeil; Yun, Junyeong; Ko, Yongmin; Cho, Jinhan; Ha, Jeong Sook

2014-07-01

154

High speed door assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors

1993-01-01

155

High speed door assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is comprised of a high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous

1991-01-01

156

High speed door assembly  

DOEpatents

A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01

157

High speed door assembly  

DOEpatents

A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

Shapiro, C.

1993-04-27

158

High speed door assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a

Carolyn

1993-01-01

159

Permanent magnet assembly  

DOEpatents

A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

2006-12-12

160

Differential fill valve assembly  

SciTech Connect

A differential fill valve assembly for application in float collars or shoes in well casing. The valve assembly comprises a back pressure flapper valve disposed within a substantially tubular upper housing, and a lower housing containing an activating sleeve slidably disposed therein above a double flapper valve assembly. The activating sleeve initially extends into the upper housing to a sufficient extent to maintain the flapper valve in an open position; the activating sleeve is maintained in this position through use of shear pins, by which it is secured to the lower housing. The double flapper valve comprises a first flapper responsive to pressure below the valve assembly, and a second flapper responsive to force applied from above. A tripping ball is dropped to seat in the activating sleeve when it is desired to release the back pressure flapper valve; pressure applied on the ball moves the activating sleeve downward, releasing the back pressure flapper valve and swinging the double flapper valve assembly out of the flow path through the differential fill assembly, after which the tripping ball exits the bottom of the assembly. A lock ring maintains the activating sleeve in its lower position, while a shear screw riding in a longitudinal channel in the lower housing prevents rotation of the activating sleeve during its longitudinal movement prior to its contacting the double flapper valve assembly.

Freeman, T. A.

1984-10-02

161

Liquid rocket valve assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

1973-01-01

162

Laser bottom hole assembly  

DOEpatents

There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

2014-01-14

163

Turbine disc sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

Diakunchak, Ihor S.

2013-03-05

164

Respiratory neuronal assemblies.  

PubMed

This review describes results from in vivo experiments on brain stem network mechanisms that control breathing. Multi-array recording technology and computational methods were used to test predictions derived from simulations of respiratory network models. This highly efficient approach has the advantage that many simultaneously recorded neurons are subject to shared stimulus, history, and state-dependent conditions. Our results have provided evidence for concurrent or parallel network interactions in the generation and modulation of the respiratory motor pattern. Recent data suggest that baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, nociceptors, and airway cough receptors shape the respiratory motor pattern, at least in part, through a system of shared coordinated 'multifunctional' neurons distributed in the brain stem. The 'gravity method' for the analysis and representation of multi-neuron data has demonstrated respiratory phase-dependent impulse synchrony among neurons with no respiratory modulation of their individual firing rates. The detection of this emergent property motivated the development of pattern detection methods that subsequently identified repeated transient configurations of these 'correlational assemblies'. These results support the view that information can be 'coded' in the nervous system by spike timing relationships, in addition to firing rate changes that traditionally have been measured by neurophysiologists. PMID:10967343

Lindsey, B G; Morris, K F; Segers, L S; Shannon, R

2000-09-01

165

PrP assemblies  

PubMed Central

The “protein only” hypothesis states that the key phenomenon in prion pathogenesis is the conversion of the host protein (PrPC) into a ?-sheet enriched polymeric and pathogenic conformer (PrPSc). However the region of PrP bearing the information for structural transfer is still controversial. In a recent report, we highlighted the role of the C terminal part i.e., the helixes H2 and H3, using mutation approaches on recombinant PrP. The H2H3 was shown to be the minimal region necessary to reproduce the oligomerization pattern of the full-length protein. The oligomers produced from isolated H2H3 domain presented the same structural characteristics as the oligomers formed from the full-length PrP. Combining other groups' results, this paper further discusses the relative, direct or indirect role of different PrP regions in assembly. The H2H3 region represents the core of PrP oligomers and fibrils, whereas the N terminus could explain divergences among different aggregates. Finally this review evocates the possibility to separate the domain involved in prion information transference (i.e., prion replication) from the domain bearing the cytotoxicity properties. PMID:21788728

Prigent, Stéphanie

2011-01-01

166

Mechanisms of virus assembly  

E-print Network

Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

Jason D Perlmutter; Michael F Hagan

2014-07-15

167

Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly  

PubMed Central

I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

2014-01-01

168

Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

1998-05-19

169

Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

1997-03-11

170

Constrained space camera assembly  

DOEpatents

A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

Heckendorn, Frank M. (Aiken, SC); Anderson, Erin K. (Augusta, GA); Robinson, Casandra W. (Trenton, SC); Haynes, Harriet B. (Aiken, SC)

1999-01-01

171

Automated Assembly Using Feature Localization  

E-print Network

Automated assembly of mechanical devices is studies by researching methods of operating assembly equipment in a variable manner; that is, systems which may be configured to perform many different assembly operations ...

Gordon, Steven Jeffrey

1986-12-01

172

High-sensitivity Orbitrap mass analysis of intact macromolecular assemblies.  

PubMed

The analysis of intact protein assemblies in native-like states by mass spectrometry offers a wealth of information on their biochemical and biophysical properties. Here we show that the Orbitrap mass analyzer can be used to measure protein assemblies of molecular weights approaching one megadalton with sensitivity down to the detection of single ions. Minor instrumental modifications enabled the measurement of various protein assemblies with outstanding mass-spectral resolution. PMID:23064518

Rose, Rebecca J; Damoc, Eugen; Denisov, Eduard; Makarov, Alexander; Heck, Albert J R

2012-11-01

173

Superstructure-dependent optical and electrical properties of an unusual face-to-face, pi-stacked, one-dimensional assembly of dehydrobenzo[12]annulene in the crystalline state.  

PubMed

To develop a novel pi-conjugated molecule-based supramolecular assembly, we designed and synthesized trisdehydrotribenzo[12]annulene ([12]DBA) derivative 2 with three carboxyl groups at the periphery. Recrystallization of 2 from DMSO gave a crystal of the solvate 23 DMSO. Crystallographic analysis revealed, to our surprise, that a face-to-face pi-stacked one-dimensional (1D) assembly of 2 was achieved and that the DMSO molecule played a significant role as a "structure-dominant element" in the crystal. This is the first example of [12]DBA to stack completely orthogonal to the columnar axis. To reveal its superstructure-dependent optical and electrical properties, 2 and its parent molecule 1, which crystallizes in a herringbone fashion, were subjected to fluorescence spectroscopic analysis and charge-carrier mobility measurements in crystalline states. The 1D stacked structure of 2 provides a red-shifted, broadened, weakened fluorescence profile (lambda(max) = 545 nm, phi(F) = 0.01), compared to 1 (lambda(max) = 491 nm, phi(F) = 0.12), due to strong interactions between the p orbitals of the stacked molecules. The charge-carrier mobility of the single crystal of 23 DMSO, as well as 1, was determined by flash photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (FP-TRMC) measurements. The single crystal of 23 DMSO revealed significantly-anisotropic charge mobility (sigma(mu) = 1.5x10(-1) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) along the columnar axis (crystallographic c axis). This value is 12 times larger than that along the orthogonal axis (the a axis). PMID:18399533

Hisaki, Ichiro; Sakamoto, Yuu; Shigemitsu, Hajime; Tohnai, Norimitsu; Miyata, Mikiji; Seki, Shu; Saeki, Akinori; Tagawa, Seiichi

2008-01-01

174

Cluster-assembled metallic glasses  

PubMed Central

A bottom-up approach to nanofabricate metallic glasses from metal clusters as building blocks is presented. Considering metallic glasses as a subclass of cluster-assembled materials, the relation between the two lively fields of metal clusters and metallic glasses is pointed out. Deposition of selected clusters or collections of them, generated by state-of-the-art cluster beam sources, could lead to the production of a well-defined amorphous material. In contrast to rapidly quenched glasses where only the composition of the glass can be controlled, in cluster-assembled glasses, one can precisely control the structural building blocks. Comparing properties of glasses with similar compositions but differing in building blocks and therefore different in structure will facilitate the study of structure–property correlation in metallic glasses. This bottom-up method provides a novel alternative path to the synthesis of glassy alloys and will contribute to improving fundamental understanding in the field of metallic glasses. It may even permit the production of glassy materials for alloys that cannot be quenched rapidly enough to circumvent crystallization. Additionally, gaining deeper insight into the parameters governing the structure–property relation in metallic glasses can have a great impact on understanding and design of other cluster-assembled materials. PMID:23899019

2013-01-01

175

Self-assembled plasmonic metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays for the sake of convenience most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated by top-down nanofabrication technologies. This offers great degrees of freedom to tailor the geometry with unprecedented precision. However, it often causes disadvantages as well. The structures available are usually planar and periodically arranged. Therefore, bulk plasmonic structures are difficult to fabricate and the periodic arrangement causes undesired effects, e.g., strong spatial dispersion is observed in metamaterials. These limitations can be mitigated by relying on bottom-up nanofabrication technologies. There, self-assembly methods and techniques from the field of colloidal nanochemistry are used to build complex functional unit cells in solution from an ensemble of simple building blocks, i.e., in most cases plasmonic nanoparticles. Achievable structures are characterized by a high degree of nominal order only on a short-range scale. The precise spatial arrangement across larger dimensions is not possible in most cases; leading essentially to amorphous structures. Such self-assembled nanostructures require novel analytical means to describe their properties, innovative designs of functional elements that possess a desired near- and far-field response, and entail genuine nanofabrication and characterization techniques. Eventually, novel applications have to be perceived that are adapted to the specifics of the self-assembled nanostructures. This review shall document recent progress in this field of research. Emphasis is put on bottom-up amorphous metamaterials. We document the state-of-the-art but also critically assess the problems that have to be overcome.

Mühlig, Stefan; Cunningham, Alastair; Dintinger, José; Scharf, Toralf; Bürgi, Thomas; Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, Carsten

2013-07-01

176

Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: Pt and PEDOT:PSS counter electrodes applied to gel electrolyte assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an attempt to substitute liquid electrolyte (LC) dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by quasi-solid-state constructions (SC) for semi-transparency application adopting organic\\/inorganic gels in combination with standard (Pt based) and alternative (PEDOT:PSS based) counter electrodes. Gel polymer electrolytes are prepared by incorporating a liquid electrolyte into a polymer matrix such as polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) using propylene carbonate (PC)

Matteo Biancardo; Keld West; Frederik C. Krebs

2007-01-01

177

Dynamic Nanoparticles Assemblies  

PubMed Central

CONSPECTUS Importance Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple sizes of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously formed superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the ‘bottom-up’ fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Classification Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces) are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable superstructures with a nearly constant number same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation and/or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of a molecule from atoms. Finer classification of NP assemblies in accord with established conventions in the field may include different size dimensionalities: discrete assemblies (artificial molecules), one-dimensional (spaced chains) and two-dimensional (sheets) and three-dimensional (superlattices, twisted structures) assemblies. Notably, these dimensional attributes must be regarded as primarily topological in nature because all of these superstructures can acquire complex three-dimensional shapes. Preparation We discuss three primary strategies used to prepare NP superstructures: (1) anisotropy-based assemblies utilizing either intrinsic force field anisotropy around NPs or external anisotropy associated with templates and/or applied fields; (2) assembly methods utilizing uniform NPs with isotropic interactions; and (3) methods based on mutual recognition of biomolecules, such as DNA and antigen-antibody interactions. Applications We consider optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of dynamic superstructures, focusing primarily on multiparticle effects in NP superstructures as represented by surface plasmon resonance, NP-NP charge transport, and multibody magnetization. Unique properties of NP superstructures are being applied to biosensing, drug delivery, and nanoelectronics. For both Class 1 and Class 2 dynamic assemblies, biosensing is the most dominant and well-developed area of dynamic nanostructures being successfully transitioned into practice. We can foresee the rapid development of dynamic NP assemblies toward applications in harvesting of dissipated energy, photonics, and electronics. The final part of the review is devoted to the fundamental questions facing dynamic assemblies of NPs in the future. PMID:22449243

WANG, LIBING; XU, LIGUANG; KUANG, HUA; XU, CHUANLAI; KOTOV, NICHOLAS A.

2012-01-01

178

Dual flapper valve assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dual flapper valve assembly for limiting the loss of completion fluid in connection with a well service operation. The valve assembly consists of: tubular support means defining a flow passage; a first flapper valve assembly connected in series flow relation with the support means, the first flapper valve assembly having a valve closure member movable between first and second positions for closing and opening the flow passage; a second flapper valve assembly connected in series flow relation in the support means, the second flapper valve assembly having a valve closure member movable between open and closed passage positions for closing and opening the flow passage; a prop sleeve mounted within the support means, the prop sleeve being movable from an extended position in which it props the closure member of one flapper valve in the open passage position to a retracted position in which the closure member is disengaged and released for movement to the closed passage position, the valve closure member of one of the flapper valve assemblies being engageable by a wash pipe extending through the flow passage to prop the valve closure member in the open passage position, and being movable to the closed passage position upon retraction of the wash pipe out of the flow passage.

Clary, S.R.; Giusti, F. Jr.; Sproul, R.M.

1989-07-11

179

United Nations General Assembly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UN Department of Public Information has recently created a site which features comprehensive information on its General Assembly. The core of the site is a collection of facts and documents relating to the current (52nd) meeting of the General Assembly. Users find the Agenda and Programme of Work, recent press releases, links to documents, and information on committees, elections, and appointments. Information and documents from previous regular and special sessions are also available. An added feature is a general description of the Assembly itself: its background, functions, sessions, and main committees.

180

Protective helmet assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is a protective helmet assembly with improved safety and impact resistance, high resistance to ignition and combustion, and reduced offgassing. The assembly comprises a hard rigid ballistic outer shell with one or more impact absorbing pads fitted to the interior surface. The pads are made of open cell flexible polyimide foam material, each of which is attached to the inner surface of the ballistic outer shell by cooperative VELCRO fastener strips of hook-and-loop material affixed respectively to the rigid outer shell and the impact absorbing pads. The helmet assembly with shell and pads is sized to fit relatively close over a wearer's head.

Dawn, Frederic S. (inventor); Weiss, Fred R. (inventor); Eck, John D. (inventor)

1992-01-01

181

Fluid valve assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A valve assembly is reported for controlling the flow of fluids between the inlet and outlet of a fluid valve. The valve assembly contains a barrier element which is porous for providing fluid communication between the valve inlet and outlet. The valve assembly also includes a sealing element that is movable relative to the barrier element between a first position, in which fluid flow through the porous portion of the barrier element is blocked preventing fluid communication between the valve inlet and outlet, and a second position, in which the porous portion is unblocked, permitting fluid communication between the valve inlet and outlet.

Huber, W. C. (inventor)

1978-01-01

182

Protective jacket assembly  

SciTech Connect

For use in production of oil, gas and other fluid materials from subsurface formations, a crush and abrasion resistant protective jacket assembly adapted to be suspended in an oil or gas well is described which may have a corrosive, high temperature, high pressure gas and/or liquid environment. The protective jacket assembly is sufficiently flexible to permit reeling and unreeling during manufacture and installation in a well bore and bending to accommodate well bore deviation. A method is described of manufacturing a protective jacket assembly having longitudinal structural elements connected at opposed sides thereof.

Kendall, C.E. Jr.; Moore, B.B.

1986-09-16

183

An investigation of Hebbian phase sequences as assembly graphs.  

PubMed

Hebb proposed that synapses between neurons that fire synchronously are strengthened, forming cell assemblies and phase sequences. The former, on a shorter scale, are ensembles of synchronized cells that function transiently as a closed processing system; the latter, on a larger scale, correspond to the sequential activation of cell assemblies able to represent percepts and behaviors. Nowadays, the recording of large neuronal populations allows for the detection of multiple cell assemblies. Within Hebb's theory, the next logical step is the analysis of phase sequences. Here we detected phase sequences as consecutive assembly activation patterns, and then analyzed their graph attributes in relation to behavior. We investigated action potentials recorded from the adult rat hippocampus and neocortex before, during and after novel object exploration (experimental periods). Within assembly graphs, each assembly corresponded to a node, and each edge corresponded to the temporal sequence of consecutive node activations. The sum of all assembly activations was proportional to firing rates, but the activity of individual assemblies was not. Assembly repertoire was stable across experimental periods, suggesting that novel experience does not create new assemblies in the adult rat. Assembly graph attributes, on the other hand, varied significantly across behavioral states and experimental periods, and were separable enough to correctly classify experimental periods (Naïve Bayes classifier; maximum AUROCs ranging from 0.55 to 0.99) and behavioral states (waking, slow wave sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep; maximum AUROCs ranging from 0.64 to 0.98). Our findings agree with Hebb's view that assemblies correspond to primitive building blocks of representation, nearly unchanged in the adult, while phase sequences are labile across behavioral states and change after novel experience. The results are compatible with a role for phase sequences in behavior and cognition. PMID:24782715

Almeida-Filho, Daniel G; Lopes-dos-Santos, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Nivaldo A P; Miranda, José G V; Tort, Adriano B L; Ribeiro, Sidarta

2014-01-01

184

An investigation of Hebbian phase sequences as assembly graphs  

PubMed Central

Hebb proposed that synapses between neurons that fire synchronously are strengthened, forming cell assemblies and phase sequences. The former, on a shorter scale, are ensembles of synchronized cells that function transiently as a closed processing system; the latter, on a larger scale, correspond to the sequential activation of cell assemblies able to represent percepts and behaviors. Nowadays, the recording of large neuronal populations allows for the detection of multiple cell assemblies. Within Hebb's theory, the next logical step is the analysis of phase sequences. Here we detected phase sequences as consecutive assembly activation patterns, and then analyzed their graph attributes in relation to behavior. We investigated action potentials recorded from the adult rat hippocampus and neocortex before, during and after novel object exploration (experimental periods). Within assembly graphs, each assembly corresponded to a node, and each edge corresponded to the temporal sequence of consecutive node activations. The sum of all assembly activations was proportional to firing rates, but the activity of individual assemblies was not. Assembly repertoire was stable across experimental periods, suggesting that novel experience does not create new assemblies in the adult rat. Assembly graph attributes, on the other hand, varied significantly across behavioral states and experimental periods, and were separable enough to correctly classify experimental periods (Naïve Bayes classifier; maximum AUROCs ranging from 0.55 to 0.99) and behavioral states (waking, slow wave sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep; maximum AUROCs ranging from 0.64 to 0.98). Our findings agree with Hebb's view that assemblies correspond to primitive building blocks of representation, nearly unchanged in the adult, while phase sequences are labile across behavioral states and change after novel experience. The results are compatible with a role for phase sequences in behavior and cognition. PMID:24782715

Almeida-Filho, Daniel G.; Lopes-dos-Santos, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Nivaldo A. P.; Miranda, José G. V.; Tort, Adriano B. L.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

2014-01-01

185

Self-assembled DNA Structures for Nanoconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a number of research groups have begun developing nanofabrication methods based on DNA self-assembly. Here we review our recent experimental progress to utilize novel DNA nanostructures for self-assembly as well as for templates in the fabrication of functional nano-patterned materials. We have prototyped a new DNA nanostructure known as a cross structure. This nanostructure has a 4-fold symmetry which promotes its self-assembly into tetragonal 2D lattices. We have utilized the tetragonal 2D lattices as templates for highly conductive metallic nanowires and periodic 2D protein nano-arrays. We have constructed and characterized a DNA nanotube, a new self-assembling superstructure composed of DNA tiles. We have also demonstrated an aperiodic DNA lattice composed of DNA tiles assembled around a long scaffold strand; the system translates information encoded in the scaffold strand into a specific and reprogrammable barcode pattern. We have achieved metallic nanoparticle linear arrays templated on self-assembled 1D DNA arrays. We have designed and demonstrated a 2-state DNA lattice, which displays expand/contract motion switched by DNA nanoactuators. We have also achieved an autonomous DNA motor executing unidirectional motion along a linear DNA track.

Yan, Hao; Yin, Peng; Park, Sung Ha; Li, Hanying; Feng, Liping; Guan, Xiaoju; Liu, Dage; Reif, John H.; LaBean, Thomas H.

2004-09-01

186

COMPOUND DYNAMIC EVENT METAMODELS FOR ELECTRONIC ASSEMBLY LINE SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the assembly line systems of the electronics industry, production controls based on steady-state conditions have proved ineffectual in coping with dynamic events, such as machine breakdowns, part supply shortages, and high priority job order processing, which can occur individually or simultaneously.There are few tools that give results quickly as to how many assemblies will be delayed by a dynamic

JEFFERY K. COCHRAN; LI LIN

1993-01-01

187

Complete Genome Assembly of Staphylococcus epidermidis AmMS 205  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis causes a large number of catheter-related sepsis infections annually in the United States. We present the 2.54-Mbp complete genome assembly of reference strain S. epidermidis AmMS 205, including a single 37.7-kbp plasmid. The annotated assembly is available in GenBank under accession numbers CP009046 and CP009047. PMID:25377697

Davenport, K. W.; Daligault, H. E.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Redden, C. L.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Scholz, M. B.; Teshima, H.

2014-01-01

188

Technology for the assembly and testing of space vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological aspects of the assembly, testing, and control of state-of-the-art space vehicles and their components are examined. In particular, attention is given to the assembly of sealed and nonsealed compartments, tanks, and truss structures; fabrication of space vehicle components, panels, and compartments of composite materials; application of thermal insulation coatings; and functional and strength testing of space vehicle components and systems. The discussion also covers pneumatic and hydraulic testing of space vehicle assemblies, determination of the moments of inertia, final assembly of space vehicles, electrical testing of space vehicle systems, and solution of technological problems in the design of space vehicles.

Beliakov, Ivan T.; Zernov, Igor'a.; Antonov, Evgenii G.; Baklunov, A. M.; Bronfman, V. Iu.; Voitkov, N. I.; Gorbunov, N. M.; Zaretskii, Iu. M.; Isachenko, V. A.; Kulik, Iu. P.

189

Swipe transfer assembly  

DOEpatents

The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately 240.degree. relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of 120.degree. from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

Christiansen, Robert M. (Blackfoot, ID); Mills, William C. (McKeesport, PA)

1992-01-01

190

Core assembly storage structure  

DOEpatents

A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

Jones, Jr., Charles E. (Northridge, CA); Brunings, Jay E. (Chatsworth, CA)

1988-01-01

191

Magnetic assisted statistical assembly  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to develop a process using magnetic forces to assemble micro-components into recesses on silicon based integrated circuits. Patterned SmCo magnetic thin films at the bottom of recesses are ...

Cheng, Diana I

2008-01-01

192

Flexseal Insulator Test Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small-scale version of solid-fuel rocket motor flexseal nozzle bearing assembly instrumented and tested in compression-testing fixture simulating conditions during rocket motor operation described in report.

Buchanan, Eric

1995-01-01

193

Magnetostrictive valve assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetostrictive valve assembly includes a housing that defines a passage with a seat being formed therein. A magnetically-biased and axially-compressed magnetostrictive assembly slidingly fitted in the passage is configured as a hollow and open-ended conduit adapted to support a flow of a fluid therethrough. Current-carrying coil(s) disposed about the passage in the region of the magnetostrictive assembly generate a magnetic field in the passage when current flows through the coil(s). A hollow valve body with side ports is coupled on one end thereof to an axial end of the magnetostrictive assembly. The other end of the valve body is designed to seal with the seat formed in the housing's passage when brought into contact therewith.

Richard, James A. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

194

Steam separator latch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Kobsa, Irvin R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01

195

Integrated thruster assembly program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program is reported which has provided technology for a long life, high performing, integrated ACPS thruster assembly suitable for use in 100 typical flights of a space shuttle vehicle over a ten year period. The four integrated thruster assemblies (ITA) fabricated consisted of: propellant injector; a capacitive discharge, air gap torch type igniter assembly; fast response igniter and main propellant valves; and a combined regen-dump film cooled chamber. These flightweight 6672 N (1500 lb) thruster assemblies employed GH2/GO2 as propellants at a chamber pressure of 207 N/sq cm (300 psia). Test data were obtained on thrusted performance, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, dynamic response in pulsing, and cycle life. One thruster was fired in excess of 42,000 times.

1973-01-01

196

Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

Martin, Jeff [DOE Joint Genome Institute

2010-06-03

197

Steam separator latch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

1994-02-01

198

Recuperator assembly and procedures  

DOEpatents

A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan Jr., Robert D.

2006-06-27

199

Recuperator assembly and procedures  

DOEpatents

A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

Kang, Yungmo (La Canada Flintridge, CA); McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D. (Westlake Village, CA)

2008-08-26

200

Self Assembly of Colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are exploring the self assembly of colloidal matter using building blocks with complex shapes and functionalities. Our toolbox includes particles with tunable cavities and protrusions, particles with flexible ball-and-socket joints, colloidal cubes and particles with magnetic patches. Using these building blocks and a variety of interactions, including chemical, steric, magnetic and lock-and-key shape recognition, we aim to develop new assembly schemes to build structures with a reconfigurable structural arrangement.

Sacanna, Stefano

2012-02-01

201

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

202

High speed door assembly  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

Shapiro, C.

1991-12-31

203

Resolution and measurement of heteronuclear dipolar couplings of a noncrystalline protein immobilized in a biological supramolecular assembly by proton-detected MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional 15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift and three-dimensional 1H-15N dipolar coupling/15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift MAS solid-state NMR correlation spectra of the filamentous bacteriophage Pf1 major coat protein show single-site resolution in noncrystalline, intact-phage preparations. The high sensitivity and resolution result from 1H detection at 600 MHz under 50 kHz magic angle spinning using ?0.5 mg of perdeuterated and uniformly 15N-labeled protein in which the exchangeable amide sites are partially or completely back-exchanged (reprotonated). Notably, the heteronuclear 1H-15N dipolar coupling frequency dimension is shown to select among 15N resonances, which will be useful in structural studies of larger proteins where the resonances exhibit a high degree of overlap in multidimensional chemical shift correlation spectra.

Park, Sang Ho; Yang, Chen; Opella, Stanley J.; Mueller, Leonard J.

2013-12-01

204

Tennessee General Assembly House Education Committee  

E-print Network

Tennessee General Assembly House Education Committee Nashville, TN March 26, 2003 Testimony Education The Pennsylvania State University Good morning. I want to thank the House Education Committee at their core the goal of equalizing educational opportunity for all students, regardless of family income

Heller, Don

205

Auxiliary shock absorber assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an auxiliary shock absorber assembly adapted to be secured to the frame of a vehicle and to the vehicle suspension system for providing additional shock absorption in the event of the vehicle impacts an irregularity in the roadway. The assembly comprises a shock absorber having a piston rod extending from one end and includes means disposed for biasing the piston rod outwardly; means carried by the shock absorber for securing the shock absorber to the frame of the vehicle such that the piston rod extends downwardly, a first stop member carried by to the piston rod adjacent the end. A second stop member carries by the piston rod and spaced from the first stop member; and a bracket assembly defining means for securing the bracket assembly to the vehicle suspension system and means for slidably receiving the portion of the piston rod disposed between the stop members. The shock absorber is secured to the frame of the vehicle and the bracket to the vehicle suspension system with the piston rod slideably through assembly between the stop members. Sufficient upward movement of the vehicle suspension system responds to the vehicle impacting an irregularity in the roadway causing the bracket assembly to abut the second stop member and urge the piston rod into the shock absorber providing additional shock absorbtion for the vehicle.

Hetherington, T.G.

1987-07-07

206

Theseus Assembly Sequence #3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Theseus prototype research aircraft being assembled at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

1996-01-01

207

Theseus Assembly Sequence #2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew members are seen here assembling the tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

1996-01-01

208

8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate and octanesulphonate co-assembled layered double hydroxide and its controllable solid-state luminescence by hydrothermal synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

8-Hydroxy-pyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate (HPTS) and octanesulphonate (OS) have been co-intercalated into the ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) host by a hydrothermal co-precipitation method, with samples denoted as HPTS (x%)-OS/Zn2Al-LDH (x stands for the molar percentage content of HPTS with respect to total amount of HPTS and OS). The structure and chemical compositions of the as-prepared compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elemental analysis. The steady-state and time-decay fluorescent studies show that HPTS (2%)-OS/Zn2Al-LDH has the optimal luminous emission and the longest fluorescent lifetime. Moreover, these samples exhibit controllable dual fluorescence between the blue and green regions upon changing the interlayer HPTS content, external pH values, and host-guest interaction, illustrating that these organic-inorganic samples have potential application in the field of tunable solid luminescent materials.

Dang, Sile; Yan, Dongpeng; Lu, Jun

2012-01-01

209

Oligomeric structure of muscarinic receptors is shown by photoaffinity labeling: subunit assembly may explain high- and low-affinity agonist states.  

PubMed Central

The potent muscarinic photoaffinity reagent N-methyl-4-piperidyl p-azidobenzilate (azido-4NMPB) was used to covalently label specific muscarinic binding sites in various brain regions and in the heart. In the cortex and hippocampus, a single specifically labeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 86,000 daltons was detected by gel electrophoresis. In the medulla pons, cerebellum, and cardiac atria, there was a 160,000-dalton band in addition to the 86,000-dalton polypeptide. Under certain conditions, alkali or hydroxylamine treatment dissociated both macromolecules into a single 40,000-dalton polypeptide. These results suggest that the muscarinic receptor exists in oligomeric forms and that a dimer and tetramer of a basic 40,000-dalton peptide may exist as interconvertible species. We propose a model to explain the biological architecture of the muscarinic receptors and suggest a possible correlation between the azido-4NMPB-labeled polypeptides and the two states of the receptor observed in agonist binding experiments. PMID:6571990

Avissar, S; Amitai, G; Sokolovsky, M

1983-01-01

210

Human Assisted Assembly Processes  

SciTech Connect

Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative automation has shown the effectiveness of humans and machines directly interacting to perform tasks. To continue to advance this area of robotics, effective means need to be developed to allow natural ways for people to communicate and cooperate with robots just as they do with one another.

CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

2000-01-01

211

MetaVelvet-SL: an extension of the Velvet assembler to a de novo metagenomic assembler utilizing supervised learning  

PubMed Central

The assembly of multiple genomes from mixed sequence reads is a bottleneck in metagenomic analysis. A single-genome assembly program (assembler) is not capable of resolving metagenome sequences, so assemblers designed specifically for metagenomics have been developed. MetaVelvet is an extension of the single-genome assembler Velvet. It has been proved to generate assemblies with higher N50 scores and higher quality than single-genome assemblers such as Velvet and SOAPdenovo when applied to metagenomic sequence reads and is frequently used in this research community. One important open problem for MetaVelvet is its low accuracy and sensitivity in detecting chimeric nodes in the assembly (de Bruijn) graph, which prevents the generation of longer contigs and scaffolds. We have tackled this problem of classifying chimeric nodes using supervised machine learning to significantly improve the performance of MetaVelvet and developed a new tool, called MetaVelvet-SL. A Support Vector Machine is used for learning the classification model based on 94 features extracted from candidate nodes. In extensive experiments, MetaVelvet-SL outperformed the original MetaVelvet and other state-of-the-art metagenomic assemblers, IDBA-UD, Ray Meta and Omega, to reconstruct accurate longer assemblies with higher N50 scores for both simulated data sets and real data sets of human gut microbial sequences. PMID:25431440

Afiahayati; Sato, Kengo; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

2015-01-01

212

Assemblies of Conformal Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assemblies of tanks having shapes that conform to each other and/or conform to other proximate objects have been investigated for use in storing fuels and oxidizers in small available spaces in upper stages of spacecraft. Such assemblies might also prove useful in aircraft, automobiles, boats, and other terrestrial vehicles in which space available for tanks is limited. The basic concept of using conformal tanks to maximize the utilization of limited space is not new in itself: for example, conformal tanks are used in some automobiles to store windshield -washer liquid and coolant that overflows from radiators. The novelty of the present development lies in the concept of an assembly of smaller conformal tanks, as distinguished from a single larger conformal tank. In an assembly of smaller tanks, it would be possible to store different liquids in different tanks. Even if the same liquid were stored in all the tanks, the assembly would offer an advantage by reducing the mechanical disturbance caused by sloshing of fuel in a single larger tank: indeed, the requirement to reduce sloshing is critical in some applications. The figure shows a prototype assembly of conformal tanks. Each tank was fabricated by (1) copper plating a wax tank mandrel to form a liner and (2) wrapping and curing layers of graphite/epoxy composite to form a shell supporting the liner. In this case, the conformal tank surfaces are flat ones where they come in contact with the adjacent tanks. A band of fibers around the outside binds the tanks together tightly in the assembly, which has a quasi-toroidal shape. For proper functioning, it would be necessary to maintain equal pressure in all the tanks.

DeLay, Tom

2009-01-01

213

VideoLab: Assembling a Nanowheel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Self-assembly is a powerful means of preparing structurally intricate nanomaterials. However, the challenge of forming large, ring-shaped nanomolecules this way is entropically steep. By using a flow reactor system, Miras et al. observed how (3.5 nm in diameter) form with the help of temporary template molecules. These transient templates form, help assemble the ring-shaped molecules around them, and then leave once the wheel is fully formed and reduced to its final electronic state. This animation shows a model of the templating process.

Haralampos N. Miras (The University of Glasgow, Glasgow; WestCHEM, Department of Chemistry)

2010-01-01

214

60. SUPPORT CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY AT ISLIP CANYON SHOWING CURVED RAILS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. SUPPORT CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY AT ISLIP CANYON SHOWING CURVED RAILS AND FLOATING BARGE IN BACKGROUND, February 16, 1948. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

215

35. OUTLET WORKS: GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY. Sheet 44, August 20, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. OUTLET WORKS: GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY. Sheet 44, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/84(?). - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

216

Directed Liquid Phase Assembly of Highly Ordered Metallic Nanoparticle Arrays  

E-print Network

, Newark, New Jersey 07102, United States § Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge NationalDirected Liquid Phase Assembly of Highly Ordered Metallic Nanoparticle Arrays Yueying Wu, Nanyi. Rack,§, * Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Kondic, Lou

217

International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

Knox, James C.

2000-01-01

218

Supramolecular Lego assembly towards three-dimensional multi-responsive hydrogels.  

PubMed

Inspired by the assembly of Lego toys, hydrogel building blocks with heterogeneous responsiveness are assembled utilizing macroscopic supramolecular recognition as the adhesion force. The Lego hydrogel provides 3D transformation upon pH variation. After disassembly of the building blocks by changing the oxidation state, they can be re-assembled into a completely new shape. PMID:24975743

Ma, Chunxin; Li, Tiefeng; Zhao, Qian; Yang, Xuxu; Wu, Jingjun; Luo, Yingwu; Xie, Tao

2014-08-27

219

Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer from an enclosed assembly of thin vertical cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady state heat transfer by natural convection was investigated experimentally from an enclosed assembly of thin vertical cylinders at high Rayleigh numbers. The published literature lacks any information regarding such a study in the turbulent boundary layer regime. All the available literature is for the laminar region for an enclosed assembly. The enclosed assembly consisted of a 3 × 3 array of

Muhammad Arshad; Mansoor Hameed Inayat; Imran Rafiq Chughtai

2011-01-01

220

Active Self-Assembly Daniel Arbuckle and Aristides A. G. Requicha  

E-print Network

; swarm robotics; intelligent self-assembly; nanofabrication; state-space reduction; partially specified-assembly, a process in which components autonomously assemble themselves. For example, many life processes involve the construction of biomolecules from other molecules that recognize each other when they meet under thermal

Southern California, University of

221

Photovoltaic self-assembly.  

SciTech Connect

This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

2010-10-01

222

Constrained space camera assembly  

DOEpatents

A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity is disclosed. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras. 17 figs.

Heckendorn, F.M.; Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.

1999-05-11

223

Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

Phillips, Harry L. (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

1997-01-01

224

Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

1998-01-01

225

Assembly Test Article (ATA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The assembly test article (ATA) consisted of two live loaded redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) segments which were assembled and disassembled to simulate the actual flight segment stacking process. The test assembly joint was flight RSRM design, which included the J-joint insulation design and metal capture feature. The ATA test was performed mid-November through 24 December 1987, at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The purpose of the test was: certification that vertical RSRM segment mating and separation could be accomplished without any damage; verification and modification of the procedures in the segment stacking/destacking documents; and certification of various GSE to be used for flight assembly and inspection. The RSRM vertical segment assembly/disassembly is possible without any damage to the insulation, metal parts, or seals. The insulation J-joint contact area was very close to the predicted values. Numerous deviations and changes to the planning documents were made to ensure the flight segments are effectively and correctly stacked. Various GSE were also certified for use on flight segments, and are discussed in detail.

Ricks, Glen A.

1988-01-01

226

Self-assembled nanostructures of oligopyridine molecules.  

PubMed

The high potential of self-assembly processes of molecular building blocks is reflected in the vast variety of different functional nanostructures reported in the literature. The constituting units must fulfill several requirements like synthetic accessibility, presence of functional groups for appropriate intermolecular interactions and depending on the type of self-assembly processsignificant chemical and thermal stability. It is shown that oligopyridines are versatile building blocks for two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) self-assembly. They can be employed for building up different architectures like gridlike metal complexes in solution. By the appropriate tailoring of the heterocycles, further metal coordinating and/or hydrogen bonding capabilities to the heteroaromatic molecules can be added. Thus, the above-mentioned architectures can be extended in one-step processes to larger entities, or in a hierarchical fashion to infinite assemblies in the solid state, respectively. Besides the organizational properties of small molecules in solution, 2D assemblies on surfaces offer certain advantages over 3D arrays. By precise tailoring of the molecular structures, the intermolecular interactions can be fine-tuned expressed by a large variety of resulting 2D patterns. Oligopyridines prove to be ideal candidates for 2D assemblies on graphite and metal sufaces, respectively, expressing highly ordered structures. A slight structural variation in the periphery of the molecules leads to strongly changed 2D packing motifs based on weak hydrogen bonding interactions. Such 2D assemblies can be exploited for building up host-guest networks which are attractive candidates for manipulation experiments on the single-molecule level. Thus, "erasing" and "writing" processes by the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip at the liquid/solid interface are shown. The 2D networks are also employed for performing coordination chemistry experiments at surfaces. PMID:18989910

Ziener, Ulrich

2008-11-27

227

Microcomponent assembly for efficient contacting of fluid  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a fundamental method and apparatus of a microcomponent assembly that overcomes the inherent limitations of state of the art chemical separations. The fundamental element enabling miniaturization is the porous contactor contained within a microcomponent assembly for mass transfer of a working compound from a first medium to a second medium. The porous contactor has a thickness, and a plurality of pores extending through the thickness. The pores are of a geometry cooperating with a boundary tension of one or the other or both of the media thereby preventing migration of one, other or both through the microporous contactor while permitting passage of the working compound. In the microcomponent assembly, the porous contactor is placed between a first laminate such that a first space or first microplenum is formed between the microporous contactor and the first laminate. Additionally, a cover sheet provides a second space or second plenum between the porous contactor and the cover sheet.

Drost, Monte K. (Richland, WA); Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Friedrich, Michele (Prosser, WA); Hanna, William T. (Gahanna, OH); Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA); Kurath, Dean E. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

228

OSIRIS-REx OCAMS detector assembly characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission carries a suite of three cameras referred to as OCAMS. The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) at Utah State University is providing the CCD-based detector assemblies for OCAMS to the Lunar Planetary Lab (LPL) at the University of Arizona. Working with the LPL, SDL has designed the electronics to operate a 1K by 1K frame transfer Teledyne DALSA Multi-Pinned Phase (MPP) CCD. The detector assembly electronics provides the CCD clocking, biasing, and digital interface with the OCAMS payload Command Control Module (CCM). A prototype system was built to verify the functionality of the detector assembly design and to characterize the detector system performance at the intended operating temperatures. The characterization results are described in this paper.

Hancock, J.; Crowther, B.; Whiteley, M.; Burt, R.; Watson, M.; Nelson, J.; Fellows, C.; Rizk, B.; Kinney-Spano, E.; Perry, M.; Hunten, M.

2013-09-01

229

Fire resistant PV shingle assembly  

SciTech Connect

A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

Lenox, Carl J.

2012-10-02

230

Power module assembly  

DOEpatents

A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

Campbell, Jeremy B. (Torrance, CA); Newson, Steve (Redondo Beach, CA)

2011-11-15

231

Liaison based assembly design  

SciTech Connect

Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

1996-12-01

232

Floating assembly of diatom Coscinodiscus sp. microshells.  

PubMed

Diatoms have silica frustules with transparent and delicate micro/nano scale structures, two dimensional pore arrays, and large surface areas. Although, the diatom cells of Coscinodiscus sp. live underwater, we found that their valves can float on water and assemble together. Experiments show that the convex shape and the 40 nm sieve pores of the valves allow them to float on water, and that the buoyancy and the micro-range attractive forces cause the valves to assemble together at the highest point of water. As measured by AFM calibrated glass needles fixed in manipulator, the buoyancy force on a single floating valve may reach up to 10 ?N in water. Turning the valves over, enlarging the sieve pores, reducing the surface tension of water, or vacuum pumping may cause the floating valves to sink. After the water has evaporated, the floating valves remained in their assembled state and formed a monolayer film. The bonded diatom monolayer may be valuable in studies on diatom based optical devices, biosensors, solar cells, and batteries, to better use the optical and adsorption properties of frustules. The floating assembly phenomenon can also be used as a self-assembly method for fabricating monolayer of circular plates. PMID:22387476

Wang, Yu; Pan, Junfeng; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Deyuan

2012-03-30

233

Phylogenetic Comparative Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent high throughput sequencing technologies are capable of generating a huge amount of data for bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although current sequence assemblers successfully merge the overlapping reads, often several contigs remain which cannot be assembled any further. It is still costly and time consuming to close all the gaps in order to acquire the whole genomic sequence. Here we propose an algorithm that takes several related genomes and their phylogenetic relationships into account to create a contig adjacency graph. From this a layout graph can be computed which indicates putative adjacencies of the contigs in order to aid biologists in finishing the complete genomic sequence.

Husemann, Peter; Stoye, Jens

234

Low inductance connector assembly  

DOEpatents

A busbar connector assembly for coupling first and second terminals on a two-terminal device to first and second contacts on a power module is provided. The first terminal resides proximate the first contact and the second terminal resides proximate the second contact. The assembly comprises a first bridge having a first end configured to be electrically coupled to the first terminal, and a second end configured to be electrically coupled to the second contact, and a second bridge substantially overlapping the first bridge and having a first end electrically coupled to the first contact, and a second end electrically coupled to the second terminal.

Holbrook, Meghan Ann; Carlson, Douglas S

2013-07-09

235

Assembling an aesthetic.  

PubMed

Recent research informing and related to the study of three-dimensional scientific models is assembled here in a way that explores an aesthetic, specifically, of touch. I concentrate on the materiality of models, drawing on insights from the history and philosophy of science, design and metaphysics. This article chronicles the ways in which touch, or material interactions, operate in the world of 3D models, and its role in what models mean and do. I end with a call for greater attention to scientific process, described as assembly of and within science, which is revealed by this focus on touch. PMID:23176974

Candela, Emily

2012-12-01

236

Modeling Self Assembly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers self-assembly of molecules. Two activity are contained in this lesson. The first is "a hands-on modeling activity designed to introduce students to the area of nanotechnology and give them a basic understanding of how researchers build very small devices by the self-assembly of molecules." The second activity follows up on the first and gives "the students a chance to practice and demonstrate what they have learned." Two Teacher Preparation Guides and Two Student Guides are included. 

237

Magnetic click colloidal assembly.  

PubMed

We introduce a new class of spherical colloids that reversibly self-assemble into well-defined nonlinear structures by virtue of "magnetic patches". This assembly is driven by tunable magnetostatic binding forces that originate from microscopic permanent magnets embedded underneath the surface of the particles. The resulting clusters form spontaneously in the absence of external magnetizing fields, and their geometry is determined by an interplay between magnetic, steric, and electrostatic interactions. Imposing an external magnetic field enables the clusters to unbind or change their geometry allowing, in principle, the creation of materials with a reconfigurable structural arrangement. PMID:22449143

Sacanna, Stefano; Rossi, Laura; Pine, David J

2012-04-11

238

Genome assembly forensics: finding the elusive mis-assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first collection of tools aimed at automated genome assembly validation. This work formalizes several mechanisms\\u000a for detecting mis-assemblies, and describes their implementation in our automated validation pipeline, called amosvalidate. We demonstrate the application of our pipeline in both bacterial and eukaryotic genome assemblies, and highlight several\\u000a assembly errors in both draft and finished genomes. The software described

Adam M Phillippy; Michael C Schatz; Mihai Pop

2008-01-01

239

Effects of calcination treatment on the morphology, crystallinity, and photoelectric properties of all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells assembled by TiO2 nanorod arrays.  

PubMed

TiO2 has been extensively investigated due to its unique photoelectric properties. In this study, oriented single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were synthesized and then calcined at different temperatures in the atmosphere. The morphology and crystalline characterization indicated that the length of TiO2 nanorods increased rapidly and the nanorods became aggregated and fragile after calcination, yet the sintering treatment seemed to have almost no effect on the crystallinity. To obtain the all-solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a newly reported solid inorganic semiconductor, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was employed as the electrolyte, and the Pt deposited on the conductive side of the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate was used as the counter-electrode. The effects of the calcination treatment on the photoelectric properties of the solar cells, including external quantum efficiency (EQE), open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short-circuit current (J(SC)), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (?), were investigated under the illumination of a solar simulator. As a result, all of the EQE, V(OC), J(SC), and ? values of the cells first increased and then declined with the increase of calcination temperatures, and the highest ? of 2.81% was obtained by the cell assembled with its TiO2 electrode sintered at 450 °C for 3 h, a value almost 2.5 times that of the non-sintered sample (1.1%). PMID:24071636

Sun, Xianmiao; Sun, Qiong; Li, Yang; Sui, Lina; Dong, Lifeng

2013-11-14

240

Multicomponent assembly of nanocrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed chemical-based methods to produce binary assemblies of nanocrystals. The ordered arrays that result are superlattices that mimic the structures of known crystal phases. Applications of this new type of material extends into the realm of optical science and technology. The model is of single component nanocrystals in the 5-20 nm range, which build multicomponent structures of micrometer

Elena Shevchenko; Franz Redl; Ming Yin; Christopher B. Murray; Stephen P. O'Brien

2004-01-01

241

Walking boot assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A walking boot assembly particularly suited for use with a positively pressurized spacesuit is presented. A bootie adapted to be secured to the foot of a wearer, an hermetically sealed boot for receiving the bootie having a walking sole, an inner sole, and an upper portion adapted to be attached to an ankle joint of a spacesuit, are also described.

Vykukal, H. C.; Chambers, A. B.; Stjohn, R. H. (inventors)

1977-01-01

242

Beyond the Assembly Line.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how Hughes Aircraft trainers followed four steps in meeting the challenges of a flexible manufacturing environment: needs assessment, design strategy, pilot evaluation, and follow-through. Within this environment, 50 self-paced training products were developed for one of the company's wire and back plane harness assembly departments. (CT)

Weitz, Rebecca; Guild, Todd

1985-01-01

243

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

2013-08-13

244

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Alvarez, Patricio D. (Richmond, TX)

2010-09-21

245

Segmented stator assembly  

DOEpatents

An electric machine and stator assembly are provided that include a continuous stator portion having stator teeth, and a tooth tip portion including tooth tips corresponding to the stator teeth of the continuous stator portion, respectively. The tooth tip portion is mounted onto the continuous stator portion.

Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Quirion, Owen Scott

2013-04-02

246

Electronics Assembly Work Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and potential to enter a training program in electronics assembly or in a similar program. Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for completing the work sample, and lists related occupations and DOT…

Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

247

SPRINGFIELD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ASSEMBLY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A DESCRIPTION OF AN ASSEMBLY PROGRAM FOR SIXTH GRADE STUDENTS WHICH FOCUSES ON AREAS OF GOVERNMENT THAT DIRECTLY AFFECT STUDENTS IS PRESENTED. STUDENTS AND TEACHERS OF THE 85 SIXTH GRADE CLASSES IN THE CITY WERE ASKED TO SUGGEST TOPICS OF INTEREST TO THEM IN THE AREA OF "OUR SCHOOLS AND OUR GOVERNMENT." THESE SUGGESTIONS WERE INCORPORATED INTO A…

DONAHOE, THOMAS J.; MARTIN G.

248

Uniform Test Assembly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In educational practice, a test assembly problem is formulated as a system of inequalities induced by test specifications. Each solution to the system is a test, represented by a 0-1 vector, where each element corresponds to an item included (1) or not included (0) into the test. Therefore, the size of a 0-1 vector equals the number of items "n"…

Belov, Dmitry I.

2008-01-01

249

Corium protection assembly  

DOEpatents

A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Sirtori, IT)

1994-01-01

250

Modeling Protein Self Assembly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the structure and function of proteins is an important part of the standards-based science curriculum. Proteins serve vital roles within the cell and malfunctions in protein self assembly are implicated in degenerative diseases. Experience indicates that this topic is a difficult one for many students. We have found that the concept…

Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck; Hull, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

251

Solar energy assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector and heat exchanger assembly is described comprising a housing having a transparent top, a transparent wall within the housing parallel to the top to divide the housing into upper and lower chambers, the upper chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet, the lower chamber having a liquid inlet interconnected by a conduit to a

1979-01-01

252

Predicting bottomhole assembly performance  

SciTech Connect

A computer program for prediction of bottomhole assembly (BHA) performance has been developed. Input parameters include formation dip angle, hole and collar size, and stabilizer spacing. The predictions are in drilling terms: hole curvature, hole angle, weight on bit (WOB), etc. Results of extensive parametric studies and field use are presented.

Williamson, J.S.; Lubinski, A.

1987-03-01

253

Helical assemblies: Structure determinants.  

PubMed

Protein structural motifs such as helical assemblies and ??? barrels combine secondary structure elements with various types of interactions. Helix-helix interfaces of assemblies - Ankyrin, ARM/HEAT, PUM, LRR, and TPR repeats - exhibit unique amino acid composition and patterns of interactions that correlate with curvature of solenoids, surface geometry and mutual orientation of the helical edges. Inner rows of ankyrin, ARM/HEAT, and PUM-HD repeats utilize edges (i-1, i) and (i+1, i+2) for the interaction of the given ?-helix with preceding and following helices correspondingly, whereas outer rows of these proteins and LRR repeats invert this pattern and utilize edges (i-1, i) and (i-3, i-2). Arrangement of contacts observed in protein ligands that bind helical assemblies has to mimic the assembly pattern to provide the same curvature as a determinant of binding specificity. These characteristics are important for understanding fold recognition, specificity of protein-protein interactions, and design of new drugs and materials. PMID:25613414

Kurochkina, Natalya A; Iadarola, Michael J

2015-03-21

254

Space assembly fixtures and aids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concepts and requirements for assembly fixtures and aids necessary for the assembly and maintenance of spare platforms were studied. Emphasis was placed on erectable and deployable type structures with the shuttle orbiter as the assembly base. Both single and multiple orbiter flight cases for the platform assembly were considered. Applicable space platform assembly studies were reviewed to provide a data base for establishing the assembly fixture and aids design requirements, assembly constraints, and the development of representative design concepts. Conclusions indicated that fixture requirements will vary with platform size. Larger platforms will require translation relative to the orbiter RMS working volume. The installation of platform payloads and subsystems (e.g., utility distribution) must also be considered in the specification of assembly fixtures and aids.

Bloom, K. A.; Lillenas, A. N.

1980-01-01

255

HIV1 assembly in macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected

Philippe Benaroch; Elisabeth Billard; Raphaël Gaudin; Michael Schindler; Mabel Jouve

2010-01-01

256

Exploring Fabrication: Self-Assembly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners participate in several full-body interactive games to model the process of self-assembly in nature and nanotechnology. Through these activities learners assemble into a ring, a capsule, and a snowflake. Learners discover that self-assembly is a process by which molecules and cells form themselves into functional structures. Note: this activity requires at least nine learners.

Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

2010-01-01

257

An Assembly Funnel Makes Biomolecular Complex Assembly Efficient  

PubMed Central

Like protein folding and crystallization, the self-assembly of complexes is a fundamental form of biomolecular organization. While the number of methods for creating synthetic complexes is growing rapidly, most require empirical tuning of assembly conditions and/or produce low yields. We use coarse-grained simulations of the assembly kinetics of complexes to identify generic limitations on yields that arise because of the many simultaneous interactions allowed between the components and intermediates of a complex. Efficient assembly occurs when nucleation is fast and growth pathways are few, i.e. when there is an assembly “funnel”. For typical complexes, an assembly funnel occurs in a narrow window of conditions whose location is highly complex specific. However, by redesigning the components this window can be drastically broadened, so that complexes can form quickly across many conditions. The generality of this approach suggests assembly funnel design as a foundational strategy for robust biomolecular complex synthesis. PMID:25360818

Zenk, John; Schulman, Rebecca

2014-01-01

258

Fuel nozzle assembly  

DOEpatents

A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC); Lacey, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); York, William David (Greer, SC); Stevenson, Christian Xavier (Inman, SC)

2011-08-30

259

Solution deposition assembly  

DOEpatents

Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

2014-01-21

260

Low inductance busbar assembly  

DOEpatents

A busbar assembly for electrically coupling first and second busbars to first and second contacts, respectively, on a power module is provided. The assembly comprises a first terminal integrally formed with the first busbar, a second terminal integrally formed with the second busbar and overlapping the first terminal, a first bridge electrode having a first tab electrically coupled to the first terminal and overlapping the first and second terminals, and a second tab electrically coupled to the first contact, a second bridge electrode having a third tab electrically coupled to the second terminal, and overlapping the first and second terminals and the first tab, and a fourth tab electrically coupled to the second contact, and a fastener configured to couple the first tab to the first terminal, and the third tab to the second terminal.

Holbrook, Meghan Ann (Manhattan Beach, CA)

2010-09-21

261

Ingestion resistant seal assembly  

DOEpatents

A seal assembly limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a gas turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus associated with a blade structure including a row of airfoils. The seal apparatus includes an annular inner shroud associated with adjacent stationary components, a wing member, and a first wing flange. The wing member extends axially from the blade structure toward the annular inner shroud. The first wing flange extends radially outwardly from the wing member toward the annular inner shroud. A plurality of regions including one or more recirculation zones are defined between the blade structure and the annular inner shroud that recirculate working gas therein back toward the hot gas path.

Little, David A. (Chuluota, FL)

2011-12-13

262

Ignition system monitoring assembly  

DOEpatents

An ignition system monitoring assembly for use in a combustion engine is disclosed. The assembly includes an igniter having at least one positioning guide with at least one transmittal member being maintained in a preferred orientation by one of the positioning guides. The transmittal member is in optical communication with a corresponding target region, and optical information about the target region is conveyed to the reception member via the transmittal member. The device allows real-time observation of optical characteristics of the target region. The target region may be the spark gap between the igniter electrodes, or other predetermined locations in optical communication with the transmittal member. The reception member may send an output signal to a processing member which, in turn, may produce a response to the output signal.

Brushwood, John Samuel

2003-11-04

263

Desmosome assembly and dynamics.  

PubMed

Desmosomes are intercellular junctions that anchor intermediate filaments (IFs) to the plasma membrane, forming a supracellular scaffold that provides mechanical resilience to tissues. This anchoring function is accomplished by specialized members of the cadherin family and associated cytoskeletal linking proteins, which together form a highly organized membrane core flanked by mirror-image cytoplasmic plaques. Due to the biochemical insolubility of desmosomes, the mechanisms that govern assembly of these components into a functional organelle remained elusive. Recently developed molecular reporters and live cell imaging approaches have provided powerful new tools to monitor this finely tuned process in real time. Here we discuss studies that are beginning to decipher the machinery and regulation governing desmosome assembly and homeostasis in situ and how these mechanisms are affected during disease pathogenesis. PMID:23891292

Nekrasova, Oxana; Green, Kathleen J

2013-11-01

264

Infrared floodlight assembly  

DOEpatents

An infrared floodlight assembly (10) including a cast aluminum outer housing (11) defining a central chamber (15) therein. A floodlight (14), having a tungsten halogen lamp as the light source, is spacedly positioned within a heat conducting member (43) within chamber (15) such that the floodlight is securedly positioned in an aligned manner relative to the assembly's filter (35) and lens (12) components. The invention also includes venting means (51) to allow air passage between the interior of the member (43) and the adjacent chamber (15), as well as engagement means (85) for engaging a rear surface of the floodlight (14) to retain it firmly against an internal flange of the member (43). A reflector (61), capable of being compressed to allow insertion or removal, is located within the heat conducting member's interior between the floodlight (14) and filter (35) to reflect infrared radiation toward the filter (35) and spaced lens (12).

Wierzbicki, Julian J. (Peabody, MA); Chakrabarti, Kirti B. (Danvers, MA)

1987-09-22

265

Mechanical seal assembly  

DOEpatents

An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2001-01-01

266

Mechanical seal assembly  

DOEpatents

An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2002-01-01

267

Vacuum breaker valve assembly  

DOEpatents

Breaker valve assemblies for a simplified boiling water nuclear reactor are described. The breaker valve assembly, in one form, includes a valve body and a breaker valve. The valve body includes an interior chamber, and an inlet passage extends from the chamber and through an inlet opening to facilitate transporting particles from outside of the valve body to the interior chamber. The breaker valve is positioned in the chamber and is configured to substantially seal the inlet opening. Particularly, the breaker valve includes a disk which is sized to cover the inlet opening. The disk is movably coupled to the valve body and is configured to move substantially concentrically with respect to the valve opening between a first position, where the disk completely covers the inlet opening, and a second position, where the disk does not completely cover the inlet opening. 1 fig.

Thompson, J.L.; Upton, H.A.

1999-04-27

268

Hearing Aid Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

269

Vacuum breaker valve assembly  

DOEpatents

Breaker valve assemblies for a simplified boiling water nuclear reactor are described. The breaker valve assembly, in one form, includes a valve body and a breaker valve. The valve body includes an interior chamber, and an inlet passage extends from the chamber and through an inlet opening to facilitate transporting particles from outside of the valve body to the interior chamber. The breaker valve is positioned in the chamber and is configured to substantially seal the inlet opening. Particularly, the breaker valve includes a disk which is sized to cover the inlet opening. The disk is movably coupled to the valve body and is configured to move substantially concentrically with respect to the valve opening between a first position, where the disk completely covers the inlet opening, and a second position, where the disk does not completely cover the inlet opening.

Thompson, Jeffrey L. (San Jose, CA); Upton, Hubert Allen (Morgan Hill, CA)

1999-04-27

270

Compressor diaphragm assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in a combustion turbine having a casing, one or more slots of a first predetermined cross-section formed circumferentially within the casing at a compressor portion of the turbine, and a compressor diaphragm assembly adapted to be suspended from each of the one or more slots to provide a labyrinth seal with a plurality of compressor discs, a method of forming each compressor diaphragm assembly. It comprises: providing a plurality of vane airfoils each of which have an inner shroud formed integrally with the vane airfoil, and an outer portion attached to the vane airfoil; providing outer ring means for suspending each of the plurality of van airfoils at a stagger angle; suspending the plurality of vane airfoils from the outer ring means, thereby disposing each the vane airfoil and its respective outer portion at the stagger angle; and providing seal carrier means for engagement with each the inner shroud.

Scalzo, A.

1989-12-26

271

HSPES membrane electrode assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

2000-01-01

272

Pull rod assembly  

DOEpatents

A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

Cioletti, Olisse C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1990-01-01

273

Assembling crystals from clusters  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the stability of a cluster can be substantially enhanced by changing its size and/or composition so as to take advantage of the electronic shell filling as well as close atomic packing. The interaction between two such clusters is found to be weak and can form the basis for synthesizing a new class of cluster-assembled crystals with uncommong properties.

Khanna, S.N.; Jena, P. (Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284-2000 (United States))

1992-09-14

274

Fibronectin Aggregation and Assembly  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN aggregate induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the aggregate formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited aggregation, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the aggregate and the unfolding of III2 played a role in aggregation, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced aggregation. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN aggregation and assembly. PMID:21949131

Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.

2011-01-01

275

Disconnectable production riser assembly  

SciTech Connect

A production riser assembly for producing oil to a floating platform includes a central riser and plurality of production risers annularly spaced around the central riser. The central riser has a flexible joint with a hydraulic connector therebelow. Each production riser has a flexible hose at lower end which is connectable to flowline subs located in spaced relation from the central riser connector. Hydraulically operated connectors are located at the bottom end of each flexible pipe, each riser is independently tensioned.

Hettinger, F.L.

1983-08-09

276

Magnetic control assembly reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are summarized of the qualification level vibration tests performed on the magnet control assembly (MCA) for Nimbus and ERTS satellites. The MCA electronics and probe units have demonstrated the capability to survive qualification sinusoidal and random vibration levels. The functional testing indicated normal operation of the units after each axis of vibration. Visual inspection indicated no evidence of degradation. Post vibration acceptance testing verified normal operation of the MCA.

Stickler, A. C.

1972-01-01

277

Pull rod assembly  

DOEpatents

A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

Cioletti, O.C.

1988-04-21

278

Nuclear core and fuel assemblies  

DOEpatents

A fast flux nuclear core of a plurality of rodded, open-lattice assemblies having a rod pattern rotated relative to a rod support structure pattern. Elongated fuel rods are oriented on a triangular array and laterally supported by grid structures positioned along the length of the assembly. Initial inter-assembly contact is through strongbacks at the corners of the support pattern and peripheral fuel rods between adjacent assemblies are nested so as to maintain a triangular pitch across a clearance gap between the other portions of adjacent assemblies. The rod pattern is rotated relative to the strongback support pattern by an angle .alpha. equal to sin .sup.-1 (p/2c), where p is the intra-assembly rod pitch and c is the center-to-center spacing among adjacent assemblies.

Downs, Robert E. (Monroeville, PA)

1981-01-01

279

Multiple oiler assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an oiler assembly for the delivery of oil lubricant from supply means to lubrication points, a valve member corresponding to each lubrication point, each valve member having a laterally extending first bore that opens to one side of the member, a sleeve on the valve member projecting laterally from the side of the valve member opposite from the opening of the bore. The sleeve provides a second bore that opens to the remote end of the sleeve and extends generally coaxially with the first bore and communicates therewith to form a transverse oil lubricant through-passage in each the valve member. Each valve member has a valved passage communicating with the through-passage to provide each lubrication point with the oil lubricant, the sleeve of each valve member having an outside diameter generally corresponding to the diameter of the first bore such that the sleeve of each valve member can be sealingly plugged into the first bore of the next preceding valve member to form a gang mounted valve member arrangement, and a needle assembly on each valve member and including a needle member for controlling the flow of oil lubricant through the corresponding valved passage. The needle assembly extends generally normal to and being interlocked with the sleeve of the next succeeding valve member to thereby prevent involuntary separation between the adjacent valve members.

Berrend, R.E.

1986-09-02

280

Retractable Visual Indicator Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A retractable indicator assembly may be mounted on a container which transmits air through the container and removes deleterious gases with an activated charcoal medium in the container. The assembly includes: an elongate indicator housing has a chamber therein; a male adaptor with an external threads is used for sealing engagement with the container; a plug located at the upper end of the housing; a housing that includes a transparent wall portion for viewing at least a portion of the chamber; a litmus indicator, moveable by a retractable rod from a retracted position within the container to an extended position within the chamber of the housing; and an outer housing that is secured to the upper end of the rod, and protects the indicator housing while the litmus indicator is in its normally retracted position. The assembly may be manually manipulated between its extended position wherein the litmus indicator may be viewed through the transparent wall of the indicator housing, and a retracted position wherein the outer housing encloses the indicator housing and engages the exterior of the container.

Hackler, George R. (Inventor); Gamboa, Ronald J. (Inventor); Dominquez, Victor (Inventor)

1998-01-01

281

Engineered Self-Assembly of Plasmonic Nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical need in nanotechnology is the development of new tools and methods to organize, connect, and integrate solid-state nanocomponents. Self-assembly -- where components spontaneously organize themselves -- can be carried out on a massively parallel scale to construct large-scale architectures using solid-state nanocrystal building blocks. I will present our recent work on the synthesis and self-assembly of nanocrystals for plasmonics, where light is propagated, manipulated, and confined by solid-state components that are smaller than the wavelength of light itself. We show the organization of polymer-grafted metal nanocrystals into hierarchical nanojunction arrays that possess intense ``hot spots'' due to electromagnetic field localization. We also show that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can serve as a new class of plasmonic building blocks, where shape and carrier density can be actively tuned to engineer plasmon resonances. These examples demonstrate that nanocrystals possess unique electromagnetic properties that rival top-down structures, and the potential of self-assembly for fabricating designer plasmonic materials.

Tao, Andrea

2013-03-01

282

Autonomous Mechanical Assembly on the Space Shuttle: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle will be equipped with a pair of 50 ft. manipulators used to handle payloads and to perform mechanical assembly operations. Although current plans call for these manipulators to be operated by a human teleoperator. The possibility of using results from robotics and machine intelligence to automate this shuttle assembly system was investigated. The major components of an autonomous mechanical assembly system are examined, along with the technology base upon which they depend. The state of the art in advanced automation is also assessed.

Raibert, M. H.

1979-01-01

283

Multispecies population dynamics of prebiotic compositional assemblies.  

PubMed

Present life portrays a two-tier phenomenology: molecules compose supramolecular structures, such as cells or organisms, which in turn portray population behaviors, including selection, evolution and ecological dynamics. Prebiotic models have often focused on evolution in populations of self-replicating molecules, without explicitly invoking the intermediate molecular-to-supramolecular transition. Here, we explore a prebiotic model that allows one to relate parameters of chemical interaction networks within molecular assemblies to emergent population dynamics. We use the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, which simulates the network dynamics within amphiphile-containing molecular assemblies, and exhibits quasi-stationary compositional states termed compotype species. These grow by catalyzed accretion, divide and propagate their compositional information to progeny in a replication-like manner. The model allows us to ask how molecular network parameters influence assembly evolution and population dynamics parameters. In 1000 computer simulations, each embodying different parameter set of the global chemical interaction network parameters, we observed a wide range of behaviors. These were analyzed by a multi species logistic model often used for analyzing population ecology (r-K or Lotka-Volterra competition model). We found that compotypes with a larger intrinsic molecular repertoire show a higher intrinsic growth (r) and lower carrying capacity (K), as well as lower replication fidelity. This supports a prebiotic scenario initiated by fast-replicating assemblies with a high molecular diversity, evolving into more faithful replicators with narrower molecular repertoires. PMID:24831416

Markovitch, Omer; Lancet, Doron

2014-09-21

284

Bridger: a new framework for de novo transcriptome assembly using RNA-seq data.  

PubMed

We present a new de novo transcriptome assembler, Bridger, which takes advantage of techniques employed in Cufflinks to overcome limitations of the existing de novo assemblers. When tested on dog, human, and mouse RNA-seq data, Bridger assembled more full-length reference transcripts while reporting considerably fewer candidate transcripts, hence greatly reducing false positive transcripts in comparison with the state-of-the-art assemblers. It runs substantially faster and requires much less memory space than most assemblers. More interestingly, Bridger reaches a comparable level of sensitivity and accuracy with Cufflinks. Bridger is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/rnaseqassembly/files/?source=navbar. PMID:25723335

Chang, Zheng; Li, Guojun; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Yu; Ashby, Cody; Liu, Deli; Cramer, Carole L; Huang, Xiuzhen

2015-01-01

285

Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The ability to assemble NPs into ordered structures that are expected to yield collective physical or chemical properties has afforded new and exciting opportunities in the field of nanotechnology. Among the various configurations of nanoparticle assemblies, two-dimensional (2D) NP patterns and one-dimensional (1D) NP arrays on surfaces are regarded as the ideal assembly configurations for many technological devices, for example, solar cells, magnetic memory, switching devices, and sensing devices, due to their unique transport phenomena and the cooperative properties of NPs in assemblies. To realize the potential applications of NP assemblies, especially in nanodevice-related applications, certain key issues must still be resolved, for example, ordering and alignment, manipulating and positioning in nanodevices, and multicomponent or hierarchical structures of NP assemblies for device integration. Additionally, the assembly of NPs with high precision and high levels of integration and uniformity for devices with scaled-down dimensions has become a key and challenging issue. Two-dimensional NP patterns and 1D NP arrays are obtained using traditional lithography techniques (top-down strategies) or interfacial assembly techniques (bottom-up strategies). However, a formidable challenge that persists is the controllable assembly of NPs in desired locations over large areas with high precision and high levels of integration. The difficulty of this assembly is due to the low efficiency of small features over large areas in lithography techniques or the inevitable structural defects that occur during the assembly process. The combination of self-assembly strategies with existing nanofabrication techniques could potentially provide effective and distinctive solutions for fabricating NPs with precise position control and high resolution. Furthermore, the synergistic combination of spatially mediated interactions between nanoparticles and prestructures on surfaces may play an increasingly important role in the controllable assembly of NPs. In this Account, we summarize our approaches and progress in fabricating spatially confined assemblies of NPs that allow for the positioning of NPs with high resolution and considerable throughput. The spatially selective assembly of NPs at the desired location can be achieved by various mechanisms, such as, a controlled dewetting process, electrostatically mediated assembly of particles, and confined deposition and growth of NPs. Three nanofabrication techniques used to produce prepatterns on a substrate are summarized: the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning technique, e-beam lithography (EBL), and nanoimprint lithography (NPL). The particle density, particle size, or interparticle distance in NP assemblies strongly depends on the geometric parameters of the template structure due to spatial confinement. In addition, with smart design template structures, multiplexed NPs can be assembled into a defined structure, thus demonstrating the structural and functional complexity required for highly integrated and multifunction applications. PMID:25244100

Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng

2014-10-21

286

On Constraints in Assembly Planning  

SciTech Connect

Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

1998-12-17

287

Removable feedwater sparger assembly  

DOEpatents

A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith.

Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

288

Precision Robotic Assembly Machine  

SciTech Connect

The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

2009-08-14

289

Precision Robotic Assembly Machine  

ScienceCinema

The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

None

2010-09-01

290

Robotic Thumb Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

2013-01-01

291

Removable feedwater sparger assembly  

DOEpatents

A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith. 8 figs.

Challberg, R.C.

1994-10-04

292

Seeing Circuits Assemble  

PubMed Central

Developmental neurobiology has been greatly invigorated by a recent string of breakthroughs in molecular biology and optical physics that permit direct in vivo observation of neural circuit assembly. The imaging done thus far suggests that as brains are built, a significant amount of unbuilding is also occurring. We offer the view that this tumult is the result of the intersecting behaviors of the many single-celled creatures (i.e., neurons, glia, and progenitors) that inhabit brains. New tools will certainly be needed if we wish to monitor the myriad cooperative and competitive interactions at play in the cellular society that builds brains. PMID:18995818

Lichtman, Jeff W.; Smith, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

293

Self-Assembling Dessert Toppings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) about self-assembly, the ability of molecules to assemble themselves according to certain rules. Learners will use food-grade components to create delicious dessert topping-filled gel capsules, macroscale relatives of the capsules nanoscientists make in a lab to carry medicine to targeted cells of the body. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Self-Assembly.

2012-12-27

294

An Architecture for Agile Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper outlines new hardware and softwaretechnologies and methods being developed forautomated assembly of precision high-value productssuch as magnetic storage devices, palmtop and wearablecomputers and other high-density equipment.Our Agile Assembly Architecture (AAA) supportsthe creation of miniature assembly factories (minifactories)built from small modular robotic components.The goals are to substantially reduce designand deployment times and product changeovertimes,...

Arthur Quaid; Ralph L. Hollis

1995-01-01

295

Conformational Changes in the Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Are Consistent with a Role for Allostery in Virus Assembly  

SciTech Connect

In infected cells, virus components must be organized at the right place and time to ensure assembly of infectious virions. From a different perspective, assembly must be prevented until all components are available. Hypothetically, this can be achieved by allosterically controlling assembly. Consistent with this hypothesis, here we show that the structure of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein dimer, which can spontaneously self-assemble, is incompatible with capsid assembly. Systematic differences between core protein dimer and capsid conformations demonstrate linkage between the intradimer interface and interdimer contact surface. These structures also provide explanations for the capsid-dimer selectivity of some antibodies and the activities of assembly effectors. Solution studies suggest that the assembly-inactive state is more accurately an ensemble of conformations. Simulations show that allostery supports controlled assembly and results in capsids that are resistant to dissociation. We propose that allostery, as demonstrated in HBV, is common to most self-assembling viruses.

Packianathan, Charles; Katen, Sarah P.; Dann, III, Charles E.; Zlotnick, Adam (Indiana)

2010-01-12

296

Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly  

DOEpatents

An airfoil and nozzle assembly including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached.

Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL); Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA)

1997-01-01

297

Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly  

DOEpatents

An airfoil and nozzle assembly are disclosed including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached. 5 figs.

Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

1997-06-03

298

Methanation assembly using multiple reactors  

DOEpatents

A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

2007-07-24

299

Multi-position photovoltaic assembly  

DOEpatents

The invention is directed to a PV assembly, for use on a support surface, comprising a base, a PV module, a multi-position module support assembly, securing the module to the base at shipping and inclined-use angles, a deflector, a multi-position deflector support securing the deflector to the base at deflector shipping and deflector inclined-use angles, the module and deflector having opposed edges defining a gap therebetween. The invention permits transport of the PV assemblies in a relatively compact form, thus lowering shipping costs, while facilitating installation of the PV assemblies with the PV module at the proper inclination.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2003-03-18

300

Mechanisms of kinetic trapping in self-assembly and phase transformation  

PubMed Central

In self-assembly processes, kinetic trapping effects often hinder the formation of thermodynamically stable ordered states. In a model of viral capsid assembly and in the phase transformation of a lattice gas, we show how simulations in a self-assembling steady state can be used to identify two distinct mechanisms of kinetic trapping. We argue that one of these mechanisms can be adequately captured by kinetic rate equations, while the other involves a breakdown of theories that rely on cluster size as a reaction coordinate. We discuss how these observations might be useful in designing and optimising self-assembly reactions. PMID:21932884

Hagan, Michael F.; Elrad, Oren M.; Jack, Robert L.

2011-01-01

301

Multicomponent assembly of nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed chemical-based methods to produce binary assemblies of nanocrystals. The ordered arrays that result are superlattices that mimic the structures of known crystal phases. Applications of this new type of material extends into the realm of optical science and technology. The model is of single component nanocrystals in the 5-20 nm range, which build multicomponent structures of micrometer dimensions. The method presents the opportunity to choose from a variety of inorganic nanocrystals (e.g. semiconducting, magnetic) in order to prepare superlattices with uniquely tunable properties. Transition metal and transition metal oxide nanocrystals are nanometer dimension crystals composed of one or more metals from the d block of the periodic table, and oxygen. The nanocrystals have capping groups which render them discrete, stable, and enable them to be manipulated in a variety of media such as solvents or polymers. The nanocrystals are ideally monodisperse, uniform in composition, crystalline, and can be prepared over a range of sizes from 5-20 nm. The selection of composition for the nanocrystals is based on materials with known interesting properties (optical, electronic or electrical) in the bulk phase. Once fully characterized, the nanocrystals can be considered as components for the assembly of a nanostructured composite material designed to exhibit interesting collective properties with tunable control at the nanoscale.

Shevchenko, Elena; Redl, Franz; Yin, Ming; Murray, Christopher B.; O'Brien, Stephen P.

2004-10-01

302

Modular impact ripper assembly  

SciTech Connect

An improved ripper assembly (12) is joined to and drawn by a draft device (10) and includes a mounting structure (14), a ripper element (16), and an impactor apparatus (18). The mounting structure (14) includes an upper flange (20) and a lower flange (22) joined together by a pair of side plates (23). Aligned openings (24,26) in the flanges (20,22) permit attachment thereof to the draft device (10) and allows pivoting about a vertical pivot axis (28) when pins (30,32) are installed. The ripper element (16) is pivotable about a horizontal pivot axis (38) and is secured to the mounting structure (14) by a pivot pin (40). The impact apparatus (18) imparts intermittent blows to the ripper element (16) and is joined to the mounting structure (14) by a single upper support pin (44) and two, aligned lower support pins (46). The upper and lower support pins (44,46) are disposed adjacent the upper and lower flanges (20,22), respectively, while the pivot axis (38) extends through the side plates (23) intermediate the upper and lower flanges (20,22). The relative disposition of the component interconnections of the impact ripper assembly (12) and the independent nature of the connections permit separate removal of the ripper element (16) and/or the impactor apparatus (18).

Roussin, M.A.

1984-06-12

303

Microchannel heat sink assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

Bonde, Wayne L. (Livermore, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

1992-01-01

304

Bottom head assembly  

DOEpatents

A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

Fife, A.B.

1998-09-01

305

Bottom head assembly  

DOEpatents

A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

Fife, Alex Blair (San Jose, CA)

1998-01-01

306

Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly  

DOEpatents

A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

Carl, Jr., Ralph James (Clifton Park, NY); Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY); Jansen, Patrick Lee (Scotia, NY); Dawson, Richard Nils (Voorheesville, NY); Qu, Ronghai (Clifton Park, NY); Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich (Moscow, RU)

2009-08-11

307

Pressure regulating and relief valve assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure regulating and relief valve assembly, such as an assembly positionable in a lower portion of a well casing are disclosed. The valve assembly has a main relief valve assembly or back pressure regulator that is designed to open when the steam pressure exceeds a first predetermined value. A secondary relief valve assembly is provided to vent excess pressure

W. J. Nicholl; J. H. Leggett; J. R. Shychick

1984-01-01

308

Assembling thefacebook: Using heterogeneity to understand online social network assembly  

E-print Network

Online social networks represent a popular and highly diverse class of social media systems. Despite this variety, each of these systems undergoes a general process of online social network assembly, which represents the complicated and heterogeneous changes that transform newly born systems into mature platforms. However, little is known about this process. For example, how much of a network's assembly is driven by simple growth? How does a network's structure change as it matures? How does network structure vary with adoption rates and user heterogeneity, and do these properties play different roles at different points in the assembly? We investigate these and other questions using a unique dataset of online connections among the roughly one million users at the first 100 colleges admitted to Facebook, captured just 20 months after its launch. We first show that different vintages and adoption rates across this population of networks reveal temporal dynamics of the assembly process, and that assembly is onl...

Jacobs, Abigail Z; Ugander, Johan; Clauset, Aaron

2015-01-01

309

40 CFR 1033.630 - Staged-assembly and delegated assembly exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Staged-assembly and delegated assembly exemptions. 1033.630 Section 1033.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...FROM LOCOMOTIVES Special Compliance Provisions § 1033.630 Staged-assembly and delegated assembly...

2012-07-01

310

Biogenesis and Assembly of Eukaryotic Cytochrome c Oxidase Catalytic Core  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. COX is a multimeric enzyme formed by subunits of dual genetic origin which assembly is intricate and highly regulated. The COX catalytic core is formed by three mitochondrial DNA encoded subunits, Cox1, Cox2 and Cox3, conserved in the bacterial enzyme. Their biogenesis requires the action of messenger-specific and subunit-specific factors which facilitate the synthesis, membrane insertion, maturation or assembly of the core subunits. The study of yeast strains and human cell lines from patients carrying mutations in structural subunits and COX assembly factors has been invaluable to identify these ancillary factors. Here we review the current state of knowledge of the biogenesis and assembly of the eukaryotic COX catalytic core and discuss the degree of conservation of the players and mechanisms operating from yeast to human. PMID:21958598

Soto, Ileana C.; Fontanesi, Flavia; Liu, Jingjing; Barrientos, Antoni

2011-01-01

311

Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies  

SciTech Connect

A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

2000-06-27

312

Reinforcement Learning of Assembly Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to learning a compliance control law for robotic assembly tasks. In this approach, a task performance index of assembly operations is defined and the adaptive reinforcement learning algorithm [1] is applied for real-time learning. A simple box palletizing task is used as an example, where a robot is required to move a rectangular part

Boo-ho Yang; Haruhiko Asada

1993-01-01

313

Haptic feedback for virtual assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assembly operations require high speed and precision with low cost. The manufacturing industry has recently turned attenuation to the possibility of investigating assembly procedures using graphical display of CAD parts. For these tasks, some sort of feedback to the person is invaluable in providing a real sense of interaction with virtual parts. This research develops the use of a commercial

Greg R. Luecke; Naci Zafer

1998-01-01

314

Next-generation transcriptome assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcriptomics studies often rely on partial reference transcriptomes that fail to capture the full catalogue of transcripts and their variations. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and assembly algorithms have facilitated the reconstruction of the entire transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), even without a reference genome. However, transcriptome assembly from billions of RNA-seq reads, which are often very short, poses

Jeffrey A. Martin; Zhong Wang

2011-01-01

315

Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies  

DOEpatents

A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichart, Anke (Albany, CA)

2000-01-01

316

Fuel cell sub-assembly  

DOEpatents

A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

Chi, Chang V. (Brookfield, CT)

1983-01-01

317

The Forgotten Freedom of Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freedom of assembly has been at the heart of some of the most important social movements in American history: antebellum abolitionism, women's suffrage in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the labor movement in the Progressive Era and after the New Deal, and the civil rights movement. Claims of assembly stood against the ideological tyranny that exploded during the first

John D. Inazu

2010-01-01

318

Stator and method of assembly  

DOEpatents

The present application provides a stator. The stator may include a number of poles and a stator tip and cooling assembly. The stator tip and cooling assembly may include a number of stator tips with a number of cooling tubes adjacent thereto such that the stator tips align with the poles and the cooling tubes cool the poles.

Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Shen, Xiaochun

2013-06-18

319

Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

2013-05-01

320

Building polyhedra by self-assembly: theory and experiment.  

PubMed

We investigate the utility of a mathematical framework based on discrete geometry to model biological and synthetic self-assembly. Our primary biological example is the self-assembly of icosahedral viruses; our synthetic example is surface-tension-driven self-folding polyhedra. In both instances, the process of self-assembly is modeled by decomposing the polyhedron into a set of partially formed intermediate states. The set of all intermediates is called the configuration space, pathways of assembly are modeled as paths in the configuration space, and the kinetics and yield of assembly are modeled by rate equations, Markov chains, or cost functions on the configuration space. We review an interesting interplay between biological function and mathematical structure in viruses in light of this framework. We discuss in particular: (i) tiling theory as a coarse-grained description of all-atom models; (ii) the building game-a growth model for the formation of polyhedra; and (iii) the application of these models to the self-assembly of the bacteriophage MS2. We then use a similar framework to model self-folding polyhedra. We use a discrete folding algorithm to compute a configuration space that idealizes surface-tension-driven self-folding and analyze pathways of assembly and dominant intermediates. These computations are then compared with experimental observations of a self-folding dodecahedron with side 300 ?m. In both models, despite a combinatorial explosion in the size of the configuration space, a few pathways and intermediates dominate self-assembly. For self-folding polyhedra, the dominant intermediates have fewer degrees of freedom than comparable intermediates, and are thus more rigid. The concentration of assembly pathways on a few intermediates with distinguished geometric properties is biologically and physically important, and suggests deeper mathematical structure. PMID:25148546

Kaplan, Ryan; Klobušický, Joseph; Pandey, Shivendra; Gracias, David H; Menon, Govind

2014-01-01

321

Crank shaft support assembly  

DOEpatents

A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

Natkin, Robert J. (Canton, MI); Oltmans, Bret (Stacy, MN); Allison, John E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Heater, Thomas J. (Milford, MI); Hines, Joy Adair (Plymouth, MI); Tappen, Grant K. (Washington, MI); Peiskammer, Dietmar (Rochester, MI)

2007-10-23

322

Tuned exhaust processor assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust processor assembly. It comprises a housing formed to include an inlet and an outlet, a partition positioned within the housing to define first and second flow passages extending through the housing to provide communication between the inlet and the outlet of the housing, a substrate situated in the first flow passage and configured to collect particulate matter entrained in combustion product introduced into the first flow passage through the inlet, and a muffler situated in the second flow passage to attenuate noise generated by combustion product passing through the second flow passage toward the outlet, the muffler including a plurality of baffles defining a plurality of muffler chambers and at least one tube configured and positioned to interconnect selected muffler chambers to define means for conducting combustion product introduced into the muffler toward the housing outlet.

Howe, M.G.; Arthur, J.C.; Usleman, R.T.

1991-09-17

323

Well slip assemblies  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed an hydraulically set well packer wherein sleeves carried about a tubular member which is connected as part of a tubing string are adapted to be moved from axially extended to axially retracted position in order to expand packing and slip elements carried about one of the sleeves into engagement with the well bore in which the string is disposed. The packer also includes means which forms an atmospheric chamber including a piston on one of the sleeves, and a means for locking the sleeves in retracted position is disposed within such chamber. The slip assembly carried by the packer includes upper and lower bowls and upper and lower sets of interconnected slips which are carried by the bowls for sliding thereover between radially contracted and expanded positions in response to movement of the slip bowls toward and away from one another as the sleeves move between extended and retracted positions.

Akkerman, N.H.

1984-04-03

324

Photovoltaic cell assembly  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

Beavis, Leonard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

325

Rotatable seal assembly  

DOEpatents

An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA); Garibaldi, Jack L. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

326

Flexible cloth seal assembly  

DOEpatents

A seal assembly having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch therebetween which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal.

Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar (Niskayuna, NY); Taura, Joseph Charles (Clifton Park, NY); Aksit, Mahmut Faruk (Troy, NY); Demiroglu, Mehmet (Troy, NY); Predmore, Daniel Ross (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01

327

Assembling a holographic scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of art projects that use multiplex holography as a medium to combine and spatially animate multiple photographic perspectives are presented. Through the process of image collection and compilation into holograms, several concepts are explored. The animate spatial qualities of multiplex holograms are used to express an urban gaze of moving through cites and the multiplicity of perceptual experience. A question of how we understand ourselves to be located and the complexity of this sense is also addressed. The ability to assemble multiple photographic views together into a scene is considered as a method to document the collective experience of event. How these holographic scenes are viewed is compared to the compositional activity, showing both how the holographic medium inspired the compositions and is used as a means of expression.

Mrongovius, Martina

2013-03-01

328

19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United...assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United...States. (a) No article (except a textile article, apparel article,...

2012-04-01

329

19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United...assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United...States. (a) No article (except a textile article, apparel article,...

2014-04-01

330

19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United...assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United...States. (a) No article (except a textile article, apparel article,...

2013-04-01

331

Advanced gray rod control assembly  

DOEpatents

An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

2013-09-17

332

Solid state switch  

DOEpatents

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

333

The distributed control and experiments of directional self-assembly for modular swarm robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembly is a process during which pre-existing components are autonomously organized into some special patterns or structures without human intervention. In this paper, we propose a new control algorithm on distributed self-assembly which is implemented on the Sambot robot platform. A directional self-assembly control model is proposed, in which a configuration connection state table is used to represent the configuration

Hongxing Wei; Dezhong Li; Jindong Tan; Tianmiao Wang

2010-01-01

334

ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed into the cask unloading pool. In the cask unloading pool the DPC is removed from the cask and placed in an overpack and the DPC lid is severed and removed. Assemblies are removed from either an open cask or DPC and loaded into assembly baskets positioned in the basket staging rack in the assembly unloading pool. A method called ''blending'' is utilized to load DCs with a heat output of less than 11.8 kW. This involves combining hotter and cooler assemblies from different baskets. Blending requires storing some of the hotter fuel assemblies in fuel-blending inventory pools until cooler assemblies are available. The assembly baskets are then transferred from the basket staging rack to the assembly handling cell and loaded into the assembly drying vessels. After drying, the assemblies are removed from the assembly drying vessels and loaded into a DC positioned below the DC load port. After installation of a DC inner lid and temporary sealing device, the DC is transferred to the DC decontamination cell where the top area of the DC, the DC lifting collar, and the DC inner lid and temporary sealing device are decontaminated, and the DC is evacuated and backfilled with inert gas to prevent prolonged clad exposure to air. The DC is then transferred to the Disposal Container Handling System for lid welding. In another cask preparation and decontamination area, lids are replaced on the empty transportation casks and DPC overpacks, the casks and DPC overpacks are decontaminated, inspected, and transferred to the Carrier/Cask Handling System for shipment off-site. All system equipment is designed to facilitate manual or remote operation, decontamination, and maintenance. The system interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Handling System for incoming and outgoing transportation casks and DPCs. The system also interfaces with the Disposal Container Handling System, which prepares the DC for loading and subsequently seals the loaded DC. The system support interfaces are the Waste Handling Building System and other internal WHB support systems.

B. Gorpani

2000-06-26

335

Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.  

PubMed

Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5. PMID:24675810

Töpfer, Armin; Marschall, Tobias; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Schönhuth, Alexander; Beerenwinkel, Niko

2014-03-01

336

Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays.  

PubMed

Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 ?m) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. PMID:23786830

Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng

2013-09-01

337

Virus protein assembly in microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coat of polyomavirus is composed of three proteins that can self-assemble to form an icosahedral capsid. VP1 represents 75% of the virus capsid protein and the VP1 capsomere subunits are capable of self assembly to form a capsid-like structure. Ground-based and orbiter studies were conducted with VP1 protein cloned in an expression vector and purified to provide ample quantities for capsomere-capsid assembly. Flight studies were conducted on STS-37 on April 5-9, 1991. Assembly initiated when a VP1 protein solution was interfaced with a Ca+2 buffer solution (pH 5.0). After four days a second alignment terminated the assembly process and allowed for glutaraldehyde fixation. Flight and ground-based samples were analyzed by electron microscopy. Ground-based experiments revealed the assembly of VP1 into capsid-like structures and a heterogenous size array of capsomere subunits. Samples reacted in microgravity, however, showed capsomeres of a homogenous size, but lack of capsid-like assembly.

Chang, D.; Paulsen, A.; Johnson, T. C.; Consigli, R. A.

1993-07-01

338

Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly  

DOEpatents

A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

Sun, Zongxuan (Troy, MI)

2010-02-23

339

Cooling assembly for fuel cells  

DOEpatents

A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet.

Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Werth, John (Princeton, NJ)

1990-01-01

340

NASA AMES infrared detector assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon: Gallium infrared detector assemblies were designed, fabricated, and tested using techniques representative of those employed for hybrid arrays to determine the suitability of this candidate technology for infrared astronomical detector array applications. Both the single channel assembly and the assembly using a 32 channel CMOS multiplexer are considered. The detector material was certified to have a boron background of less than 10 to the 13th power atoms/sq cm counter doped with phosphorus. The gallium concentration is 2 x 10 to the 16th power atoms/cu cm.

1979-01-01

341

Developmental self-assembly of a DNA tetrahedron.  

PubMed

Kinetically controlled isothermal growth is fundamental to biological development, yet it remains challenging to rationally design molecular systems that self-assemble isothermally into complex geometries via prescribed assembly and disassembly pathways. By exploiting the programmable chemistry of base pairing, sophisticated spatial and temporal control have been demonstrated in DNA self-assembly, but largely as separate pursuits. By integrating temporal with spatial control, here we demonstrate the "developmental" self-assembly of a DNA tetrahedron, where a prescriptive molecular program orchestrates the kinetic pathways by which DNA molecules isothermally self-assemble into a well-defined three-dimensional wireframe geometry. In this reaction, nine DNA reactants initially coexist metastably, but upon catalysis by a DNA initiator molecule, navigate 24 individually characterizable intermediate states via prescribed assembly pathways, organized both in series and in parallel, to arrive at the tetrahedral final product. In contrast to previous work on dynamic DNA nanotechnology, this developmental program coordinates growth of ringed substructures into a three-dimensional wireframe superstructure, taking a step toward the goal of kinetically controlled isothermal growth of complex three-dimensional geometries. PMID:24720462

Sadowski, John P; Calvert, Colby R; Zhang, David Yu; Pierce, Niles A; Yin, Peng

2014-04-22

342

Mitotic spindle assembly by two different pathways in vitro  

PubMed Central

We have used Xenopus egg extracts to study spindle morphogenesis in a cell-free system and have identified two pathways of spindle assembly in vitro using methods of fluorescent analogue cytochemistry. When demembranated sperm nuclei are added to egg extracts arrested in a mitotic state, individual nuclei direct the assembly of polarized microtubule arrays, which we term half-spindles; half-spindles then fuse pairwise to form bipolar spindles. In contrast, when sperm nuclei are added to extracts that are induced to enter interphase and arrested in the following mitosis, a single sperm nucleus can direct the assembly of a complete spindle. We find that microtubule arrays in vitro are strongly biased towards chromatin, but this does not depend on specific kinetochore-microtubule interactions. Indeed, although we have identified morphological and probably functional kinetochores in spindles assembled in vitro, kinetochores appear not to play an obligate role in the establishment of stable, bipolar microtubule arrays in either assembly pathway. Features of the two pathways suggest that spindle assembly involves a hierarchy of selective microtubule stabilization, involving both chromatin-microtubule interactions and antiparallel microtubule-microtubule interactions, and that fundamental molecular interactions are probably the same in both pathways. This in vitro reconstitution system should be useful for identifying the molecules regulating the generation of asymmetric microtubule arrays and for understanding spindle morphogenesis in general. PMID:1999463

1991-01-01

343

Assembled monolayer nanorod heterojunctions.  

PubMed

Compositional and interfacial control in heterojunction thin films is critical to the performance of complex devices that separate or combine charges. For high performance, these applications require epitaxially matched interfaces, which are difficult to produce. Here, we present a new architecture for producing low-strain, single-crystalline heterojunctions using self-assembly and in-film cation exchange of colloidal nanorods. A systematic set of experiments demonstrates a cation exchange procedure that lends precise control over compositional depths in a monolayer film of vertically aligned nanorods. Compositional changes are reflected by electrical performance as rectification is induced, quenched, and reversed during cation exchange from CdS to Cu(2)S to PbS. As an additional benefit, we achieve this single-crystal architecture via an inherently simple and low-temperature wet chemical process, which is general to a variety of chemistries. This permits ensemble measurement of transport through a colloidal nanoparticle film with no interparticle charge hopping. PMID:21469653

Rivest, Jessy B; Swisher, Sarah L; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Zheng, Haimei; Alivisatos, A Paul

2011-05-24

344

Downhole bearing assembly  

SciTech Connect

A sealed downhole bearing assembly is described which consists of: an outer tube adapted to be connected to a first portion of a drill string; an inner tube adapted to be connected to a second portion of a drill string and disposed within the outer tube to define an enclosed annular space therebetween; at least one bearing mounted in the annular space between the outer and inner tubes to allow relative rotation therebetween; at least one high pressure seal mounted in the annular space between the outer and inner tubes to divide the annular space into first and second chambers; first and second abrasion resistant, metal-to-metal seals mounted between the inner and outer tubes to seal the first and second chambers, respectively, the first seal in fluid communication with an outer region exterior of the outer tube and the second seal in fluid communication with an inner region interior of the inner tube, the metal-to-metal seals adapted to seal effectively when in contact with drilling mud; first and second pressure balancing systems in communication with the first and second chambers, respectively, the first pressure balancing system also in communication with the outer region to balance pressure in the first chamber with respect to the outer region, the second pressure balancing system also in communication with the inner region to balance pressure in the second chamber with respect to the inner region; each of the pressure balancing systems comprising respective flexible, variable volume containers.

Lingafelter, J.

1986-06-10

345

Transmission shift control assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

Dzioba, D.L.

1989-04-18

346

Gearbox assembly for vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A gearbox assembly is described for a vehicle for transmitting an output of an engine to driving wheels of the vehicle, comprising: a main gearbox receiving the output and having plural forward gear-shift steps; a shift lever; a sub gearbox coupled to an output of the main gearbox having at least two relatively high and low speed gearshift steps (GH,GL) and a reverse transmission system (GR), the two steps and the reverse transmission system being selectively established through switching operation of the shift lever; wherein the sub gearbox further comprises: a rotary member connected to the shift lever for selecting one of the steps and the reverse transmission system according to its rotation; a stopper mechanism engaging the rotary member for preventing the rotary member from rotating to a position where the reverse transmission system is established; and interlinking means between the stopper mechanism and the main gearbox for releasing the stopper mechanism only when the main gearbox is in neutral or in a low speed gear-shift step; wherein the stopper mechanism comprises: a cam rotatable in response to the gear-shift operation of the main gearbox; a stopper lever one end of which faces the periphery of the cam and the other end facing the rotary member, the stopper lever being pivotally supported at its middle portion; and a spring urging the stopper level to abut against the periphery of the cam.

Imaizumi, M.; Masumura, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Hosoya, E.

1987-01-13

347

Flexible Foot Test Assembly  

SciTech Connect

A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

1987-04-27

348

Mis-Assembled ``Segmental Duplications'' in Two Versions of the Bos taurus Genome  

E-print Network

a challenge to genome assembly, particularly when the duplications are recent and the copied sequences, United States of America Abstract We analyzed the whole genome sequence coverage in two versions Duplications (HFDs). The two assemblies were Btau 4.2, produced by the Human Genome Sequencing Center at Baylor

Yorke, James

349

Plastic and Moldable Metals by Self-Assembly of Sticky Nanoparticle Aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformable, spherical aggregates of metal nanoparticles connected by long-chain dithiol ligands self-assemble into nanostructured materials of macroscopic dimensions. These materials are plastic and moldable against arbitrarily shaped masters and can be thermally hardened into polycrystalline metal structures of controllable porosity. In addition, in both plastic and hardened states, the assemblies are electrically conductive and exhibit Ohmic characteristics down to ~20

Rafal Klajn; Marcin Fialkowski; Maciej Paszewski; Christopher J. Campbell; Timothy P. Gray; Bartosz A. Grzybowski

2007-01-01

350

Computer simulation of natural convection heat transfer from an assembly of vertical cylinders of PARR2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a Computer Code COSINAC (Computer Simulation of Natural Convection from Assembly of vertical Cylinders) has been developed to simulate the natural convection heat transfer from an assembly of vertical cylinders of Pakistan Research Reactor-2 (PARR-2), under the steady state reactor operation. The momentum and energy equations in cylindrical co-ordinates, representing the thermal hydraulic behavior of a typical

M. Abdul Basit; Muhammad Rafique; Imran R. Chughtai; Mansoor H. Inayat

2007-01-01

351

Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Dendrimers Based on Aliphatic Polyether-Type Dendritic Cores  

E-print Network

Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Dendrimers Based on Aliphatic Polyether-Type Dendritic Manuscript Received February 22, 2004 ABSTRACT: We have prepared a series of amphiphilic dendrimers-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments. Amphiphilic dendrimer self-assembly in the solid state

Gruner, Sol M.

352

Analysis of avian communities in Lake Guri, Venezuela, using multiple assembly rule models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the distribution of resident, forest-interior bird species nesting on islands in Lake Guri, Venezuela using several different community assembly rule models. The models that were tested included Diamond's Assembly Rules, Size Structure, Guild Proportionality, Favored States, and Nestedness. It was determined that the species composition of the study communities was only weakly influenced by competition, but that

Kenneth Feeley

2003-01-01

353

Accomplishments in Field Period Assembly for NCSX* This is how we did it  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was a collaborative effort between ORNL and PPPL. PPPL provided the assembly techniques with guidance from ORNL to meet design criteria. The individual vacuum vessel segments, modular coils, trim coils, and toroidal field coils components were delivered to the Field Period Assembly (FPA) crew who then would complete the component assemblies and then assemble the final three field period assemblies, each consisting of two sets of three modular coils assembled over a 120o vacuum vessel segment with the trim coils and toroidal field coils providing the outer layer. The requirements for positioning the modular coils were found to be most demanding. The assembly tolerances required for accurate positioning of the field coil windings in order to generate sufficiently accurate magnetic fields strained state of the art techniques in metrology and alignment and required constant monitoring of assembly steps with laser trackers, measurement arms, and photogrammetry. The FPA activities were being performed concurrently while engineering challenges were being resolved. For example, it was determined that high friction electrically isolated shims were needed between the modular coil interface joints and low distortion welding was required in the nose region of those joints. This took months of analysis and development yet the assembly was not significantly impacted because other assembly tasks could be performed in parallel with ongoing assembly tasks as well as tasks such as advance tooling setup preparation for the eventual welding tasks. The crew technicians developed unique, accurate time saving techniques and tooling which provided significant cost and schedule savings. Project management displayed extraordinary foresight and every opportunity to gain advanced knowledge and develop techniques was taken advantage of. Despite many risk concerns, the cost and schedule performance index was maintained nearly 1.0 during the assembly phase until project cancellation. In this paper, the assembly logic, the engineering challenges, solutions to those challenges and some of the unique and clever assembly techniques, will be presented.

Michael Viola, J. Edwards, T. Brown, L. Dudek, R. Ellis, P. Heitzenroeder, R. Strykowsky and Michael Cole

2009-09-14

354

Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

2014-07-22

355

Additive assembly of digital materials  

E-print Network

This thesis develops the use of additive assembly of press-fit digital materials as a new rapid-prototyping process. Digital materials consist of a finite set of parts that have discrete connections and occupy discrete ...

Ward, Jonathan (Jonathan Daniel)

2010-01-01

356

Analysis of Illumina Microbial Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Since the emerging of second generation sequencing technologies, the evaluation of different sequencing approaches and their assembly strategies for different types of genomes has become an important undertaken. Next generation sequencing technologies dramatically increase sequence throughput while decreasing cost, making them an attractive tool for whole genome shotgun sequencing. To compare different approaches for de-novo whole genome assembly, appropriate tools and a solid understanding of both quantity and quality of the underlying sequence data are crucial. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis of short-read Illumina sequence assembly strategies for bacterial and archaeal genomes. Different types of Illumina libraries as well as different trim parameters and assemblers were evaluated. Results of the comparative analysis and sequencing platforms will be presented. The goal of this analysis is to develop a cost-effective approach for the increased throughput of the generation of high quality microbial genomes.

Clum, Alicia; Foster, Brian; Froula, Jeff; LaButti, Kurt; Sczyrba, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Woyke, Tanja

2010-05-28

357

Protein crystal growth tray assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A protein crystal growth tray assembly includes a tray that has a plurality of individual crystal growth chambers. Each chamber has a movable pedestal which carries a protein crystal growth compartment at an upper end. The several pedestals for each tray assembly are ganged together for concurrent movement so that the solutions in the various pedestal growth compartments can be separated from the solutions in the tray's growth chambers until the experiment is to be activated.

Carter, Daniel C. (inventor); Miller, Teresa Y. (inventor)

1992-01-01

358

Fuel cell design and assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a novel bipolar cooling plate, fuel cell design and method of assembly of fuel cells. The bipolar cooling plate used in the fuel cell design and method of assembly has discrete opposite edge and means carried by the plate defining a plurality of channels extending along the surface of the plate toward the opposite edges. At least one edge of the channels terminates short of the edge of the plate defining a recess for receiving a fastener.

Myerhoff, Alfred (Greensburg, PA)

1984-01-01

359

Self-assembly and nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular self-assembly is a strategy for nanofabrication that involves designing molecules and supramolecular entities so that shape-complementarity causes them to aggregate into desired structures. Self-assembly has a number of advantages as a strategy: first, it carries out many of the most difficult steps in nanofabrication -- those involving atomic-level modification of structure -- using the very highly developed techniques of

George M. Whitesides

1996-01-01

360

Wafer scale micromachine assembly method  

DOEpatents

A method for fusing together, using diffusion bonding, micromachine subassemblies which are separately fabricated is described. A first and second micromachine subassembly are fabricated on a first and second substrate, respectively. The substrates are positioned so that the upper surfaces of the two micromachine subassemblies face each other and are aligned so that the desired assembly results from their fusion. The upper surfaces are then brought into contact, and the assembly is subjected to conditions suited to the desired diffusion bonding.

Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

361

Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with scale. Not in use August 1994. Turntable rotated with engine and tender on balance by two persons, one on either side at ground level - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

362

Epoxy adhesive behaviour on ceramic surfaces in commercial optoelectronic assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and physical variability in the as-received state of aluminium oxide and aluminium nitride ceramic substrate materials used in optoelectronic modules currently leads to a process yield less than 100% when adhesives are used for assembly and interconnection. The phenomenon of epoxy bleed is a contributing factor to this yield and steps are not yet taken in the industry to

O. Williams; C. Liu; D. P. Webb; P. Firth

2010-01-01

363

Phosphorescent self-assembled Pt(II) tetranuclear metallocycles.  

PubMed

A series of rigid Pt(II) diimine diacetylide complexes and their corresponding metallocyclic derivatives were synthesized through coordination-driven self-assembly. The photophysical properties of these complexes have been studied in detail, revealing exceptionally high RT phosphorescence quantum yields and lifetimes when the excited state becomes localized on the ?-conjugated bridging-ligand following intramolecular charge-transfer sensitization. PMID:21373692

Goeb, Sébastien; Prusakova, Valentina; Wang, Xianghuai; Vézinat, Aurélie; Sallé, Marc; Castellano, Felix N

2011-04-21

364

Templated self-assembly for complex pattern fabrication  

E-print Network

The long-term goal of my Ph.D. study has been controlling the self-assembly of various materials using state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques. Electron-beam lithography has been used for decades to generate nanoscale ...

Chang, Jae-Byum

2014-01-01

365

Quantum assembly semantics: The fallacious lingo of occupation numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usual heuristic description of quantum mechanical assemblies features so-called “occupation numbers” interpreted quite literally. This essay critically compares that point of view with a more rigorous understanding of composite systems based upon a principal lesson of Einstein's paradox and Bell's inequality, viz., that it is fallacious to regard a subsystem as possessing or “occupying” any state whatever.

Park, James L.

1991-01-01

366

Reference-assisted chromosome assembly.  

PubMed

One of the most difficult problems in modern genomics is the assembly of full-length chromosomes using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. To address this problem, we developed "reference-assisted chromosome assembly" (RACA), an algorithm to reliably order and orient sequence scaffolds generated by NGS and assemblers into longer chromosomal fragments using comparative genome information and paired-end reads. Evaluation of results using simulated and real genome assemblies indicates that our approach can substantially improve genomes generated by a wide variety of de novo assemblers if a good reference assembly of a closely related species and outgroup genomes are available. We used RACA to reconstruct 60 Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) chromosome fragments from 1,434 SOAPdenovo sequence scaffolds, of which 16 chromosome fragments were homologous to complete cattle chromosomes. Experimental validation by PCR showed that predictions made by RACA are highly accurate. Our results indicate that RACA will significantly facilitate the study of chromosome evolution and genome rearrangements for the large number of genomes being sequenced by NGS that do not have a genetic or physical map. PMID:23307812

Kim, Jaebum; Larkin, Denis M; Cai, Qingle; Asan; Zhang, Yongfen; Ge, Ri-Li; Auvil, Loretta; Capitanu, Boris; Zhang, Guojie; Lewin, Harris A; Ma, Jian

2013-01-29

367

Self-Assembly with Nanomanufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students learn the "necessary conditions for self-assembly (random motion and molecular stickiness), play with some example models of self-assembling biological structures (quartenary structures such as hemoglobin, fibers, and microtubules), and then design their own self-assembly structures." Upon completion of this activity students should be able to identify and manipulate two key characteristics of molecules that allow them to self assemble; describe the effect of temperature on self-assembly; and give examples of the effect of molecular shape on the larger structures built by self-assembly. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity, a test and rubric, central concepts, and their correlation to AAAS standards.

368

Heat exchange assembly  

DOEpatents

A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

2004-06-08

369

Hear Exchange Assembly  

SciTech Connect

A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey (Rocky Hill, NJ); Tonon, Thomas S. (Princeton, NJ)

2003-05-27

370

Gravity Probe B Assembled  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

2000-01-01

371

A virtual environment for collaborative assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

To allow geographical dispersed engineers to perform an assembly task together, a virtual environment for collaborative assembly (VECA) has been developed to build a typical collaborative virtual assembly system. This presents the key parts of VECA, such as system architecture, HLA-based (high level architecture) communication and collaboration, motion guidance based on collision detection and assembly constraints recognition, data translation from

Xiaowu Chen; Nan Xu; Ying Li

2005-01-01

372

LDRD final report: Automated planning and programming of assembly of fully 3D mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of assembly planning research under the LDRD. The assembly planning problem is that of finding a sequence of assembly operations, starting from individual parts, that will result in complete assembly of a device specified as a CAD model. The automated assembly programming problem is that of automatically producing a robot program that will carry out a given assembly sequence. Given solutions to both of these problems, it is possible to automatically program a robot to assemble a mechanical device given as a CAD data file. This report describes the current state of our solutions to both of these problems, and a software system called Archimedes 2 we have constructed to automate these solutions. Because Archimedes 2 can input CAD data in several standard formats, we have been able to test it on a number of industrial assembly models more complex than any before attempted by automated assembly planning systems, some having over 100 parts. A complete path from a CAD model to an automatically generated robot program for assembling the device represented by the CAD model has also been demonstrated.

Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

1996-11-01

373

Reproducible EnzymeReproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticAssembly and Catalytic  

E-print Network

Reproducible EnzymeReproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticAssembly and Catalytic Activity Accomplishments #12;Reproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticReproducible Enzyme Assembly and Catalytic Activity in Reusable BioMEMSActivity in Reusable BioMEMS Accomplishment Pro-tagged Pfs enzymes are spatially assembled

Rubloff, Gary W.

374

Integrated synthesis of assembly and fixture scheme for properly constrained assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated approach to design an assembly, fixture schemes, and an assembly sequence, such that the dimensional integrity of the assembly is insensitive to the dimensional variations of individual parts. The adjustability of critical dimensions and the proper constraining of parts during assembly process are the keys in achieving the dimensional integrity of the final assembly. A

Byungwoo Lee; Kazuhiro Saitou

2005-01-01

375

Meta assembler enhancements and generalized linkage editor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A meta Assembler for NASA was developed. The initial development of the Meta Assembler for the SUMC was performed. The capabilities included assembly for both main and micro level programs. A period of checkout and utilization to verify the performance of the Meta Assembler was undertaken. Additional enhancements were made to the Meta Assembler which expanded the target computer family to include architectures represented by the PDP-11, MODCOMP 2, and Raytheon 706 computers.

1979-01-01

376

Helically assembled ?-conjugated polymers with circularly polarized luminescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the recent progress in the field of helically assembled ?-conjugated polymers, focusing on aromatic conjugated polymers with interchain helical ?-stacking that exhibit circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). In Part 1, we discuss optically active polymers with white-colored CPL and the amplification of the circular polarization through liquid crystallinity. In Part 2, we focus on the stimuli-responsive CPL that results from changes in the conformation and aggregation state of ?-conjugated molecules and polymers. In Part 3, we discuss the self-assembly of achiral cationic ?-conjugated polymers into circularly polarized luminescent supramolecular nanostructures with the aid of other chiral molecules.

Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Akagi, Kazuo

2014-08-01

377

Buckling Instability of Self-Assembled Colloidal Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended, slender self-assembled domains of magnetically responsive colloids are observed to buckle in microgravity. Upon cessation of the magnetic field that drives their assembly, these columns expand axially and buckle laterally. This phenomenon resembles the buckling of long beams due to thermal expansion; however, linear stability analysis predicts that the colloidal columns are inherently susceptible to buckling because they are freely suspended in a Newtonian fluid. The dominant buckling wavelength increases linearly with column thickness and is quantitatively described using an elastohydrodynamic model and the suspension thermodynamic equation of state.

Swan, James W.; Vasquez, Paula A.; Furst, Eric M.

2014-09-01

378

[The effect of the working conditions on the health status of female assemblers and their children].  

PubMed

The study covered work conditions and health state of female assemblers and their children. The authors represent the results and evaluate gonadotoxic and embryotoxic effects of lead-tin solder in experiments on animals. PMID:8689067

Salangina, L I; Dube?kovskaia, L S; Sladkova, Iu N

1995-01-01

379

OSU Team Assembles X-Hab Loft - Duration: 0:32.  

NASA Video Gallery

This time lapse video shows the Oklahoma State University team in the process of assembling and inflating the loft they've built for the first X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge. OSU is one of thr...

380

Geometric and elastic properties and mechanical phase separation phenomena in self-assembling mesoscopic helical springs  

E-print Network

Helical ribbons with pitch angles of either 11? or 54? self-assemble in a wide variety of quaternary surfactant-phospholipid/fatty acid-sterol-water systems. In all of the systems studied, the thermodynamically stable state ...

Smith, Brice Christopher, 1976-

2003-01-01

381

Rapid in Vitro Assembly of Caulobacter crescentus FtsZ Protein at pH 6.5 and 7.2*  

E-print Network

Rapid in Vitro Assembly of Caulobacter crescentus FtsZ Protein at pH 6.5 and 7.2* Received than other bacteria. Results: We assayed assembly of CcFtsZ and found that it reached steady state in 5. Significance: CcFtsZ assembly kinetics are similar to those of other bacteria. FtsZ from most bacteria

Erickson, Harold P.

382

Occupational Education in the Large Five Cities. Statement before the New York State Assembly Education Committee (Albany, New York, March 2, 1988). Capsule Report 88-11-CR-A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports the policy statement of the President of the University of the State of New York regarding vocational education in the five largest cities in the state. The statement provides background on how changes in the economy and the organization of work will affect the skills needed by the work force of the future. It also indicates…

Sobol, Thomas

383

mRNP granules. Assembly, function, and connections with disease.  

PubMed

Messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granules are dynamic, self-assembling structures that harbor non-translating mRNAs bound by various proteins that regulate mRNA translation, localization, and turnover. Their importance in gene expression regulation is far reaching, ranging from precise spatial-temporal control of mRNAs that drive developmental programs in oocytes and embryos, to similarly exquisite control of mRNAs in neurons that underpin synaptic plasticity, and thus, memory formation. Analysis of mRNP granules in their various contexts has revealed common themes of assembly, disassembly, and modes of mRNA regulation, yet new studies continue to reveal unexpected and important findings, such as links between aberrant mRNP granule assembly and neurodegenerative disease. Continued study of these enigmatic structures thus promises fascinating new insights into cellular function, and may also suggest novel therapeutic strategies in various disease states. PMID:25531407

Buchan, J Ross

2014-08-01

384

Comparing open and closed molecular self-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically in the present work the self-assembly of molecules in an open system, which is fed by monomers and depleted in partial or complete clusters. Such a scenario is likely to occur for example in the context of viral self-assembly. We provide a general formula for the mean-field size distribution which is valid both at equilibrium in a closed system, and in the stationary state in an open system. This allows us to explore in a simple way out-of-equilibrium features for self-assembly and compare them to equilibrium properties. In particular, we identify a region of parameter space for which the out-of-equilibrium size distribution in the presence of external fluxes is equal to the equilibrium size distribution in the absence of external fluxes, up to a constant renormalization factor. The range of validity of this result and its consequences are discussed.

Castelnovo, M.; Verdier, T.; Foret, L.

2014-01-01

385

Microtubule Motors in Eukaryotic Spindle Assembly and Maintenance  

PubMed Central

The main function of the mitotic spindle is to accurately segregate replicated chromosomes during cell division. This dynamic, microtubule-based structure is assembled by a dividing cell and facilitates the orchestrated movement of chromosomes that is the hallmark of mitosis. Steady-state spindle size and morphology are relatively constant for cells of a specified type but vary considerably from one cell type to the next. Despite these differences, all eukaryotic spindles share basic architectural similarities, perhaps the most important of which is bipolar symmetry. At its core, assembling a bipolar spindle is a mechanical process that requires dynamic microtubules be moved and arranged to realize some ultimate functional form. These movements are the result of forces generated either by microtubule polymer dynamics or molecular motors. In this review we focus specifically on the motor-dependent mechanisms that shape the spindle and defer a more comprehensive treatment of spindle assembly and other motor functions during mitosis to others [1]. PMID:20109569

Bloom, Kerry

2010-01-01

386

The Archimedes 2 mechanical assembly planning system  

SciTech Connect

We describe the implementation and performance of Archimedes 2, an integrated mechanical assembly planning system. Archimedes 2 includes two planners, two assembly sequence animation facilities, and an associated robotic workcell. Both planners use full 3 dimensional data. A rudimentary translator from high level assembly plans to control code for the robotic workcell has also been implemented. We can translate data from a commercial CAD system into input data for the system, which has allowed us to plan assembly sequences for many industrial assemblies. Archimedes 2 has been used to plan sequences for assemblies consisting of 5 to 109 parts. We have also successfully taken a CAD model of an assembly, produced an optimized assembly sequence for it, and translated the plan into robot code, which successfully assembles the device specified in the model.

Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

1996-03-01

387

Analysis of large space structures assembly: Man/machine assembly analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for analyzing large space structures assembly via three primary modes: manual, remote and automated are outlined. Data bases on each of the assembly modes and a general data base on the shuttle capabilities to support structures assembly are presented. Task element times and structure assembly component costs are given to provide a basis for determining the comparative economics of assembly alternatives. The lessons learned from simulations of space structures assembly are detailed.

1983-01-01

388

Dynamics of assembly production flow  

E-print Network

Despite recent developments in management theory, maintaining a manufacturing schedule remains difficult because of production delays and fluctuations in demand and supply of materials. The response of manufacturing systems to such disruptions to dynamic behavior has been rarely studied. To capture these responses, we investigate a process that models the assembly of parts into end products. The complete assembly process is represented by a directed tree, where the smallest parts are injected at leaves and the end products are removed at the root. A discrete assembly process, represented by a node on the network, integrates parts, which are then sent to the next downstream node as a single part. The model exhibits some intriguing phenomena, including overstock cascade, phase transition in terms of demand and supply fluctuations, nonmonotonic distribution of stockout in the network, and the formation of a stockout path and stockout chains. Surprisingly, these rich phenomena result from only the nature of distr...

Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

2015-01-01

389

The elegans of spindle assembly  

PubMed Central

The Caenorhabditis elegans one-cell embryo is a powerful system in which to study microtubule organization because this large cell assembles both meiotic and mitotic spindles within the same cytoplasm over the course of 1 h in a stereotypical manner. The fertilized oocyte assembles two consecutive acentrosomal meiotic spindles that function to reduce the replicated maternal diploid set of chromosomes to a single-copy haploid set. The resulting maternal DNA then unites with the paternal DNA to form a zygotic diploid complement, around which a centrosome-based mitotic spindle forms. The early C. elegans embryo is amenable to live-cell imaging and electron tomography, permitting a detailed structural comparison of the meiotic and mitotic modes of spindle assembly. PMID:20339898

Greenan, Garrett; O’Toole, Eileen

2010-01-01

390

Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

391

FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER TEST SIMULATION  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the modeling of a PWR fuel assembly under dynamic shock loading in support of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) shaker test campaign. The focus of the test campaign is on evaluating the response of used fuel to shock and vibration loads that a can occur during highway transport. Modeling began in 2012 using an LS-DYNA fuel assembly model that was first created for modeling impact scenarios. SNL’s proposed test scenario was simulated through analysis and the calculated results helped guide the instrumentation and other aspects of the testing. During FY 2013, the fuel assembly model was refined to better represent the test surrogate. Analysis of the proposed loads suggested the frequency band needed to be lowered to attempt to excite the lower natural frequencies of the fuel assembly. Despite SNL’s expansion of lower frequency components in their five shock realizations, pretest predictions suggested a very mild dynamic response to the test loading. After testing was completed, one specific shock case was modeled, using recorded accelerometer data to excite the model. Direct comparison of predicted strain in the cladding was made to the recorded strain gauge data. The magnitude of both sets of strain (calculated and recorded) are very low, compared to the expected yield strength of the Zircaloy-4 material. The model was accurate enough to predict that no yielding of the cladding was expected, but its precision at predicting micro strains is questionable. The SNL test data offers some opportunity for validation of the finite element model, but the specific loading conditions of the testing only excite the fuel assembly to respond in a limited manner. For example, the test accelerations were not strong enough to substantially drive the fuel assembly out of contact with the basket. Under this test scenario, the fuel assembly model does a reasonable job of approximating actual fuel assembly response, a claim that can be verified through direct comparison of model results to recorded test results. This does not offer validation for the fuel assembly model in all conceivable cases, such as high kinetic energy shock cases where the fuel assembly might lift off the basket floor to strike to basket ceiling. This type of nonlinear behavior was not witnessed in testing, so the model does not have test data to be validated against.a basis for validation in cases that substantially alter the fuel assembly response range. This leads to a gap in knowledge that is identified through this modeling study. The SNL shaker testing loaded a surrogate fuel assembly with a certain set of artificially-generated time histories. One thing all the shock cases had in common was an elimination of low frequency components, which reduces the rigid body dynamic response of the system. It is not known if the SNL test cases effectively bound all highway transportation scenarios, or if significantly greater rigid body motion than was tested is credible. This knowledge gap could be filled through modeling the vehicle dynamics of a used fuel conveyance, or by collecting acceleration time history data from an actual conveyance under highway conditions.

Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

2013-05-30

392

Fixture for aligning motor assembly  

DOEpatents

An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

2009-12-08

393

Carbon nanotube devices: Sorting, Assembling, Characterizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes have been studied extensively over the last decade. Various exceptional properties have been revealed which still drive the vision about using carbon nanotube in future electronics, for instance as molecular nanoscale transistors or electromigration resistant interconnects. For many years a major obstacle was the inability to grow nanotubes with defined dimensions (length, diameter) and electronic properties (metallic,semiconducting). Recently those problems have been solved to a large extent by advanced sorting techniques. Today the challenge is to assemble nanotubes devices with defined properties to form a complex circuitry. As progress is made in making highly-integrated nanotube device arrays new characterization techniques have to be developed which allow testing large number of devices within an acceptable time. Along this line I will report on the state-of-the-art of sorting of carbon nanotube, as a base for nanotube device fabrication [1]. I will then explain our strategy to assemble high-density arrays of nanotube devices [2] and discuss a new characterization technique for nanotube devices [3]. Finally I will introduce a novel device engineering tool [4]. [4pt] [1] R. Krupke et al., ``Separation techniques for carbon nanotubes'' in Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes, p.129-139, American Scientific Publishers 2008[0pt] [2] A. Vijayaraghavan et al., ``Ultra-Large-Scale Directed Assembly of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Devices'', Nano Lett. 7 (2007) 1556-1560[0pt] [3] A. Vijayaraghavan et al., ``Imaging Electronic Structure of Carbon Nanotubes by Voltage-Contrast Scanning Electron Microscopy'', Nano Resarch 1 (2008) 321-332[0pt] [4] C. W. Marquardt et al., ``Reversible metal-insulator transitions in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes'', Nano Lett. 9 (2008) 2767-2772

Krupke, Ralph

2009-03-01

394

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Ladder Assembly Sequences  

SciTech Connect

This is an abridged version of the assembly sequence described by the DO assembly subgroup of Cooper, Hrycyk, Kowalski, Rapidis, and Ratzmann. This primarily is used to indicate major steps during the sequence and to list fixturing requirements. Assembly - (1) Place support rails in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. The two rails get held under vacuum. (2) Apply adhesive to the region where contact will be made with the beryllium substrates. (3) Place underside beryllium pieces (active and dummy ends) into the (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. These pieces get placed in the fixture against the appropriate pins to mimic final positioning in the bulkhead. Apply vacuum to the beryllium pieces. Allow to cure? (4) Align silicon in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. Reference features on the fixture will be parameterized. Holes in the fixture near the silicon center line will be targeted to set the silicon axis relative to the beryllium slot edge. Z positioning of the detectors will be achieved by shimming between the detectors and butting up the end of the silicon against the fixture. (5) Remove silicon detectors and apply adhesive to the rails and upper surfaces of the beryllium. (6) Replace silicon and check final position of the detectors. (7) Release vacuum on the rails so they cure in a stress-free state. Allow adhesive to cure. (8) Apply adhesive and align HDI to the silicon using (2) 3 Chip HDI Gluing fixture. The HDI will have tabs which are held by the fixture for location relative to the detectors. Allow adhesive to cure. (9) Move ladder to (3) 3 Chip Wirebonding Fixture. Transfer fixture to the wirebonder and bond chip-silicon and silicon-silicon.

Ratzmann, Paul; /Fermilab

1994-08-17

395

A data model for an assembly planning software system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple data model for assembly planning as a foundation for the construction of an innovative task-based assembly planning software system has been designed. The model uses ‘assembly task’ as its central object to which associations with other assembly objects such as ‘part’, ‘assembly’, ‘assembly machine’ and ‘assembly tool’ are made. It was used to derive a data template-based database

Phong Tran; Simmy Grewal

1997-01-01

396

Photoluminescence spectra of self-assembling helical supramolecular assemblies: a theoretical study.  

PubMed

The reversible assembly of helical supramolecular polymers of chiral molecular building blocks is known to be governed by the interplay between mass action and the competition between weakly and strongly bound states of these building blocks. The highly co-operative transition from free monomers at high temperatures to long helical aggregates at low temperatures can be monitored by photoluminescence spectroscopy that probes the energetically lowest-lying optical excitations in the assemblies. In order to provide the interpretation of obtained spectroscopic data with a firm theoretical basis, we present a comprehensive model that combines a statistical theory of the equilibrium polymerization with a quantum-mechanical theory that not only accounts for the conformational properties of the assemblies but also describes the impact of correlated energetic disorder stemming from deformations within the chromophores and their interaction with solvent molecules. The theoretical predictions are compared to fluorescence spectra of chiral oligo(p-phenylene-vinylene) molecules in the solvent dodecane and we find them to qualitatively describe the red-shift of the main fluorescence peak and its decreasing intensity upon aggregation. PMID:18783197

van Dijk, Leon; Kersten, Sander P; Jonkheijm, Pascal; van der Schoot, Paul; Bobbert, Peter A

2008-10-01

397

Structural mechanisms of inflammasome assembly.  

PubMed

Inflammasomes are supramolecular signaling complexes that activate a subset of caspases known as the inflammatory caspases, an example of which is caspase 1. Upon stimulation by microbial and damage-associated signals, inflammasomes assemble to elicit the first line of host defense via the proteolytic maturation of cytokines interleukin-1? and interleukin-18, and by induction of pyroptotic cell death. Inflammasome assembly requires activation of an upstream sensor, a downstream effector and, in most cases, an adaptor molecule such as apoptosis-associate speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC). Depending on whether ASC is required, inflammasomes can be categorized into ASC-dependent and ASC-independent inflammasomes. Here, we review current understandings of the structures of inflammasomes, as probed using traditional structural methods, as well as biochemical, biophysical and single-molecule methods. The key structural scaffold for inflammasome assembly is composed of filaments of Pyrin domains and caspase recruitment domains (CARD) in the sensor, adaptor and effector components. Nucleated polymerization appears to govern the ordered assembly process from activation of a Pyrin domain-containing sensor such as AIM2 by dsDNA or NLRP3 by extracellular particulates, to recruitment of the Pyrin domain and CARD-containing adaptor ASC, and finally to activation of CARD-containing caspase 1. The underlying filamentous architecture of inflammasomes and the cooperativity in the assembly may explain the 'all-or-none' response in inflammasome activation. Inflammasomes are tightly regulated by a number of cytosolic inhibitors, which may change the morphology and assembly kinetics of inflammasomes. Biochemical and cellular studies suggest that Pyrin domain and CARD filaments possess prion-like properties in propagating inflammasome activation within and between cells. PMID:25354325

Lu, Alvin; Wu, Hao

2015-02-01

398

DNA-templated assembly of droplet-derived PEG microtissues  

PubMed Central

Patterning multiple cell types is a critical step for engineering functional tissues, but few methods provide three-dimensional positioning at the cellular length scale. Here, we present a “bottom-up” approach for fabricating multicellular tissue constructs that utilizes DNA-templated assembly of 3D cell-laden hydrogel microtissues. A flow focusing-generated emulsion of photopolymerizable prepolymer is used to produce 100 ?m monodisperse microtissues at rates of 100 Hz (105/hr). Multiple cell types, including suspension and adherently cultured cells, can be encapsulated into the microtissues with high viability (~97%). We then use a DNA coding scheme to self-assemble microtissues “bottom-up” from a template that is defined using “top-down” techniques. The microtissues are derivatized with single-stranded DNA using a biotin-streptavidin linkage to the polymer network, and are assembled by sequence-specific hybridization onto spotted DNA microarrays. Using orthogonal DNA codes, we achieve multiplexed patterning of multiple microtissue types with high binding efficiency and >90% patterning specificity. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to organize multicomponent constructs composed of epithelial and mesenchymal microtissues while preserving each cell type in a 3D microenvironment. The combination of high throughput microtissue generation with scalable surface-templated assembly offers the potential to dissect mechanisms of cell-cell interaction in three dimensions in healthy and diseased states as well as provides a framework for templated assembly of larger structures for implantation. PMID:21776518

Li, Cheri Y.; Wood, David K.; Hsu, Caroline M.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

2012-01-01

399

Synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials under magnetic fields.  

PubMed

Traditionally, magnetic field has long been regarded as an important means for studying the magnetic properties of materials. With the development of synthesis and assembly methods, magnetic field, similar to conventional reaction conditions such as temperature, pressure, and surfactant, has been developed as a new parameter for synthesizing and assembling special structures. To date, magnetic fields have been widely employed for materials synthesis and assembly of one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) aggregates. In this review, we aim to provide a summary on the applications of magnetic fields in this area. Overall, the objectives of this review are: (1) to theoretically discuss several factors that refer to magnetic field effects (MFEs); (2) to review the magnetic-field-induced synthesis of nanomaterials; the 1D structure of various nanomaterials, such as metal oxides/sulfide, metals, alloys, and carbon, will be described in detail. Moreover, the MFEs on spin states of ions, magnetic domain and product phase distribution will be also involved; (3) to review the alignment of carbon nanotubes, assembly of magnetic nanomaterials and photonic crystals with the help of magnetic fields; and (4) to sketch the future opportunities that magnetic fields can face in the area of materials synthesis and assembly. PMID:25338267

Hu, Lin; Zhang, Ruirui; Chen, Qianwang

2014-11-01

400

Self-Assembled Peptide Nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular self-assembly is a powerful approach being explored for novel supramolecular nanostructures and bio-inspired nanomaterials. In this article, we focus on recent research concerning the self-assembly of de novo designed artificial peptides and peptidomimetics into nanofiber structures, specifically towards developing a new class of soft-materials. These nanofiber architectures have potential use not only in biomedical applications, such as 3D-matrix scaffolds for tissue engineering and biomineralization, but also in nanotechnology such as nano-templates and dimension-regulated functional nano-objects.

Higashi, Nobuyuki; Koga, Tomoyuki

401

Circuit breaker lock out assembly  

DOEpatents

A lock out assembly for a circuit breaker which consists of a generally step-shaped unitary base with an aperture in the small portion of the step-shaped base and a roughly "S" shaped retaining pin which loops through the large portion of the step-shaped base. The lock out assembly is adapted to fit over a circuit breaker with the handle switch projecting through the aperture, and the retaining pin projecting into an opening of the handle switch, preventing removal.

Gordy, Wade T. (Jackson, SC)

1984-01-01

402

Automated solar panel assembly line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial stage of the automated solar panel assembly line program was devoted to concept development and proof of approach through simple experimental verification. In this phase, laboratory bench models were built to demonstrate and verify concepts. Following this phase was machine design and integration of the various machine elements. The third phase was machine assembly and debugging. In this phase, the various elements were operated as a unit and modifications were made as required. The final stage of development was the demonstration of the equipment in a pilot production operation.

Somberg, H.

1981-01-01

403

High speed rotor assembly shroud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved rotor assembly shroud includes at least one reinforcing flange on the upper surface of the shroud. The strength provided by the reinforcing flange allows for a smaller shroud thickness resulting in a net reduction of shroud mass. The lower shroud mass reduces the centrifugal stress on the rotor assembly blade during operation. The strength provided by the reinforcing flanges also significantly reduces the centrifugal bending stress on the shroud during operation. The shroud mass may be further reduced by tapering the shroud leading and trailing edges or, for shrouds incorporating a damper, by providing a damper cavity with a lower diameter surface defining an opening therethrough.

Miller, Jeff H. (Inventor); Zheng, Xinhong J. (Inventor); Grota, Steven P. (Inventor); Phui, Khin C. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

404

DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies  

DOEpatents

In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

2013-07-16

405

TIGRA: a targeted iterative graph routing assembler for breakpoint assembly.  

PubMed

Recent progress in next-generation sequencing has greatly facilitated our study of genomic structural variation. Unlike single nucleotide variants and small indels, many structural variants have not been completely characterized at nucleotide resolution. Deriving the complete sequences underlying such breakpoints is crucial for not only accurate discovery, but also for the functional characterization of altered alleles. However, our current ability to determine such breakpoint sequences is limited because of challenges in aligning and assembling short reads. To address this issue, we developed a targeted iterative graph routing assembler, TIGRA, which implements a set of novel data analysis routines to achieve effective breakpoint assembly from next-generation sequencing data. In our assessment using data from the 1000 Genomes Project, TIGRA was able to accurately assemble the majority of deletion and mobile element insertion breakpoints, with a substantively better success rate and accuracy than other algorithms. TIGRA has been applied in the 1000 Genomes Project and other projects and is freely available for academic use. PMID:24307552

Chen, Ken; Chen, Lei; Fan, Xian; Wallis, John; Ding, Li; Weinstock, George

2014-02-01

406

TIGRA: A targeted iterative graph routing assembler for breakpoint assembly  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in next-generation sequencing has greatly facilitated our study of genomic structural variation. Unlike single nucleotide variants and small indels, many structural variants have not been completely characterized at nucleotide resolution. Deriving the complete sequences underlying such breakpoints is crucial for not only accurate discovery, but also for the functional characterization of altered alleles. However, our current ability to determine such breakpoint sequences is limited because of challenges in aligning and assembling short reads. To address this issue, we developed a targeted iterative graph routing assembler, TIGRA, which implements a set of novel data analysis routines to achieve effective breakpoint assembly from next-generation sequencing data. In our assessment using data from the 1000 Genomes Project, TIGRA was able to accurately assemble the majority of deletion and mobile element insertion breakpoints, with a substantively better success rate and accuracy than other algorithms. TIGRA has been applied in the 1000 Genomes Project and other projects and is freely available for academic use. PMID:24307552

Chen, Ken; Chen, Lei; Fan, Xian; Wallis, John; Ding, Li; Weinstock, George

2014-01-01

407

Next generation sequence assembly with AMOS.  

PubMed

A Modular Open-Source Assembler (AMOS) was designed to offer a modular approach to genome assembly. AMOS includes a wide range of tools for assembly, including the lightweight de novo assemblers Minimus and Minimo, and Bambus 2, a robust scaffolder able to handle metagenomic and polymorphic data. This protocol describes how to configure and use AMOS for the assembly of Next Generation sequence data. Additionally, we provide three tutorial examples that include bacterial, viral, and metagenomic datasets with specific tips for improving assembly quality. PMID:21400694

Treangen, Todd J; Sommer, Dan D; Angly, Florent E; Koren, Sergey; Pop, Mihai

2011-03-01

408

Next Generation Sequence Assembly with AMOS  

PubMed Central

A Modular Open-Source Assembler (AMOS) was designed to offer a modular approach to genome assembly. AMOS includes a wide range of tools for assembly, including lightweight de novo assemblers Minimus and Minimo, and Bambus 2, a robust scaffolder able to handle metagenomic and polymorphic data. This protocol describes how to configure and use AMOS for the assembly of Next Generation sequence data. Additionally, we provide three tutorial examples that include bacterial, viral, and metagenomic datasets with specific tips for improving assembly quality. PMID:21400694

Treangen, Todd J; Sommer, Dan D; Angly, Florent E; Koren, Sergey; Pop, Mihai

2011-01-01

409

Two criteria for the selection of assembly plans - Maximizing the flexibility of sequencing the assembly tasks and minimizing the assembly time through parallel execution of assembly tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors introduce two criteria for the evaluation and selection of assembly plans. The first criterion is to maximize the number of different sequences in which the assembly tasks can be executed. The second criterion is to minimize the total assembly time through simultaneous execution of assembly tasks. An algorithm that performs a heuristic search for the best assembly plan over the AND/OR graph representation of assembly plans is discussed. Admissible heuristics for each of the two criteria introduced are presented. Some implementation issues that affect the computational efficiency are addressed.

Homem De Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

1991-01-01

410

Channel selective tunnelling through a nanographene assembly.  

PubMed

We report selective tunnelling through a nanographene intermolecular tunnel junction achieved via scanning tunnelling microscope tip functionalization with hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) molecules. This leads to an offset in the alignment between the energy levels of the tip and the molecular assembly, resulting in the imaging of a variety of distinct charge density patterns in the HBC assembly, not attainable using a bare metallic tip. Different tunnelling channels can be selected by the application of an electric field in the tunnelling junction, which changes the condition of the HBC on the tip. Density functional theory-based calculations relate the imaged HBC patterns to the calculated molecular orbitals at certain energy levels. These patterns bear a close resemblance to the ?-orbital states of the HBC molecule calculated at the relevant energy levels, mainly below the Fermi energy of HBC. This correlation demonstrates the ability of an HBC functionalized tip as regards accessing an energy range that is restricted to the usual operating bias range around the Fermi energy with a normal metallic tip at room temperature. Apart from relating to molecular orbitals, some patterns could also be described in association with the Clar aromatic sextet formula. Our observations may help pave the way towards the possibility of controlling charge transport between organic interfaces. PMID:22322294

Wong, H S; Feng, X; Müllen, K; Chandrasekhar, N; Durkan, C

2012-03-01

411

Self-assembling holographic biosensors and biocomputers.  

SciTech Connect

We present concepts for self-assembly of diffractive optics with potential uses in biosensors and biocomputers. The simplest such optics, diffraction gratings, can potentially be made from chemically-stabilized microtubules migrating on nanopatterned tracks of the motor protein kinesin. We discuss the fabrication challenges involved in patterning sub-micron-scale structures with proteins that must be maintained in aqueous buffers to preserve their activity. A novel strategy is presented that employs dry contact printing onto glass-supported amino-silane monolayers of heterobifunctional crosslinkers, followed by solid-state reactions of these cross-linkers, to graft patterns of reactive groups onto the surface. Successive solution-phase addition of cysteine-mutant proteins and amine-reactive polyethylene glycol allows assembly of features onto the printed patterns. We present data from initial experiments showing successful micro- and nanopatterning of lines of single-cysteine mutants of kinesin interleaved with lines of polyethylene, indicating that this strategy can be employed to arrays of features with resolutions suitable for gratings.

Light, Yooli Kim; Bachand, George David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Trent, Amanda M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-01

412

Minimus: a fast, lightweight genome assembler  

PubMed Central

Background Genome assemblers have grown very large and complex in response to the need for algorithms to handle the challenges of large whole-genome sequencing projects. Many of the most common uses of assemblers, however, are best served by a simpler type of assembler that requires fewer software components, uses less memory, and is far easier to install and run. Results We have developed the Minimus assembler to address these issues, and tested it on a range of assembly problems. We show that Minimus performs well on several small assembly tasks, including the assembly of viral genomes, individual genes, and BAC clones. In addition, we evaluate Minimus' performance in assembling bacterial genomes in order to assess its suitability as a component of a larger assembly pipeline. We show that, unlike other software currently used for these tasks, Minimus produces significantly fewer assembly errors, at the cost of generating a more fragmented assembly. Conclusion We find that for small genomes and other small assembly tasks, Minimus is faster and far more flexible than existing tools. Due to its small size and modular design Minimus is perfectly suited to be a component of complex assembly pipelines. Minimus is released as an open-source software project and the code is available as part of the AMOS project at Sourceforge. PMID:17324286

Sommer, Daniel D; Delcher, Arthur L; Salzberg, Steven L; Pop, Mihai

2007-01-01

413

Valve assembly for inflatable packer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a valve assembly for controlling the flow of fluid from within casing into a bladder element of an inflatable packer for use in a wellbore. The bladder element has bladder port means. The valve assembly is mountable within a single cavity in a body member in the wall of casing or a casing coupling. The body member has casing port means communicating with the cavity for communicating casing fluid to the bladder port means so that the casing fluid can flow through the bladder port means to inflate the bladder element and the body member having overpressure port means communicating with the cavity for communicating part of the fluid flowing into the bladder element back to the cavity and to the valve assembly. The valve assembly comprises: control piston means movably mounted within the cavity, restraint means for insuring that the control piston means initially moves only when the pressure of the casing fluid reaches a predetermined level, and closing piston means movably mounted within the cavity and responsive to the pressure of the fluid in the bladder element, and the control piston means and the closing piston movable about stem means disposed in the cavity.

Stringfellow, W.D.

1987-12-08

414

Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly  

DOEpatents

A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

1985-01-01

415

Assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures  

DOEpatents

A method and system for assembling a quasicrystalline heterostructure. A plurality of particles is provided with desirable predetermined character. The particles are suspended in a medium, and holographic optical traps are used to position the particles in a way to achieve an arrangement which provides a desired property.

Grier, David G. (New York, NY); Roichman, Yael (New York, NY); Man, Weining (Princeton, NJ); Chaikin, Paul Michael (Pennington, NJ); Steinhardt, Paul Joseph (Princeton, NJ)

2011-07-19

416

J-2 Engine Assembly Line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

J-2 engines for the Saturn IB/Saturn V launch vehicles are lined up in the assembly area at Rocketdyne's manufacturing plant in Canoga Park, California. Five J-2 engines provided more than 1,000,000 pounds of thrust to accelerate the second stage toward a Moon trajectory.

1963-01-01

417

Automated Inspection of Electronic Assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant technological advances in the design and production of electronic assemblies have sizably increased their reliability and durability while greatly reducing their physical size. New manufacturing technologies have been developed which markedly increase the speed and accuracy of production. Such advances in production greatly complicate the inspection of these devices by humans. Essentially, the techniques used 10 years ago are

Charles A. Harlow; Scott E. Henderson; Dennis A. Rayfield; R. J. Johnston

1975-01-01

418

In Vitro Assembly of Catalase*  

PubMed Central

Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process. PMID:25148685

Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars

2014-01-01

419

Refinement of optical map assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Genomic mutations and variations provide insightful informationaboutthefunctionalityofsequenceelementsandtheirasso- ciation with human diseases. Traditionally, variations are identified through analysis of short DNA sequences, usually shorter than 1000 bp per fragment. Optical maps provide both faster and more cost-efficient means for detecting such differences, because a single map can span over 1 million bp. Optical maps are assembled to cover the whole

Anton Valouev; Yu Zhang; David C. Schwartz; Michael S. Waterman

2006-01-01

420

Macroscopic assemblies of aligned nanotubes  

E-print Network

1 Macroscopic assemblies of aligned nanotubes studied by X-ray diffraction and microdiffraction-walled carbon nanotube carpets Growth mechanisms 3. Single-walled carbon nanotube fibers Mechanical properties versus structural properties 4. Conclusion #12;4 1. Introduction Single-Walled carbon Nanotube (SWNT

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

421

Self-Assembled Monolayers of  

E-print Network

-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are one- molecule thin, ordered films of compounds · Covalent, ligand, intermolecular and voltages #12;Instrument · Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) · Tip sends a current to the sample · Tip.810 nm · Twisting dark and light ribbons #12;Reproduction · Column width appeared uniform · Average

Petta, Jason

422

Dynamics of assembly production flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite recent developments in management theory, maintaining a manufacturing schedule remains difficult because of production delays and fluctuations in demand and supply of materials. The response of manufacturing systems to such disruptions to dynamic behavior has been rarely studied. To capture these responses, we investigate a process that models the assembly of parts into end products. The complete assembly process is represented by a directed tree, where the smallest parts are injected at leaves and the end products are removed at the root. A discrete assembly process, represented by a node on the network, integrates parts, which are then sent to the next downstream node as a single part. The model exhibits some intriguing phenomena, including overstock cascade, phase transition in terms of demand and supply fluctuations, nonmonotonic distribution of stockout in the network, and the formation of a stockout path and stockout chains. Surprisingly, these rich phenomena result from only the nature of distributed assembly processes. From a physical perspective, these phenomena provide insight into delay dynamics and inventory distributions in large-scale manufacturing systems.

Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

2015-06-01

423

Muscle assembly: a titanic achievement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of perfectly aligned myofibrils in striated muscle represents a dramatic example of supramolecular assembly in eukaryotic cells. Recently, considerable progress has been made in deciphering the roles that titin, the third most abundant protein in muscle, has in this process. An increasing number of sarcomeric proteins (ligands) are being identified that bind to specific titin domains. Titin may

Carol C Gregorio; Henk Granzier; Hiroyuki Sorimachi; Siegfried Labeit

1999-01-01

424

Corner-cutting mining assembly  

DOEpatents

A mining assembly includes a primary rotary cutter mounted on one end of a support shaft and four secondary rotary cutters carried on the same support shaft and positioned behind the primary cutters for cutting corners in the hole cut by the latter.

Bradley, John A. (San Antonio, TX)

1983-01-01

425

Small Parts Assembler Work Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and potential to enter a training program in small parts assembly or in a similar job. Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for completing the work sample, and lists related occupations and DOT codes.…

Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

426

Assembling solar-cell arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified 70 mm movie film editor automatically attaches solar cells to flexible film substrate. Machine can rapidly and inexpensively assemble cells for solar panels at rate of 250 cells per minute. Further development is expected to boost production rate to 1000 cells per minute.

Bloch, J. T.; Hanger, R. T.; Nichols, F. W.

1979-01-01

427

Hot hollow cathode gun assembly  

DOEpatents

A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, J.D.

1983-11-22

428

Simulated nuclear reactor fuel assembly  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for electrically simulating a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. It includes a heater assembly having a top end and a bottom end and a plurality of concentric heater tubes having electrical circuitry connected to a power source, and radially spaced from each other. An outer target tube and an inner target tube is concentric with the heater tubes and with each other, and the outer target tube surrounds and is radially spaced from the heater tubes. The inner target tube is surrounded by and radially spaced from the heater tubes and outer target tube. The top of the assembly is generally open to allow for the electrical power connection to the heater tubes, and the bottom of the assembly includes means for completing the electrical circuitry in the heater tubes to provide electrical resistance heating to simulate the power profile in a nuclear reactor. The embedded conductor elements in each heater tube is split into two halves for a substantial portion of its length and provided with electrical isolation such that each half of the conductor is joined at one end and is not joined at the other end.

Berta, Victor T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01

429

Simulated nuclear reactor fuel assembly  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for electrically simulating a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. It includes a heater assembly having a top end and a bottom end and a plurality of concentric heater tubes having electrical circuitry connected to a power source, and radially spaced from each other. An outer target tube and an inner target tube is concentric with the heater tubes and with each other, and the outer target tube surrounds and is radially spaced from the heater tubes. The inner target tube is surrounded by and radially spaced from the heater tubes and outer target tube. The top of the assembly is generally open to allow for the electrical power connection to the heater tubes, and the bottom of the assembly includes means for completing the electrical circuitry in the heater tubes to provide electrical resistance heating to simulate the power profile in a nuclear reactor. The embedded conductor elements in each heater tube is split into two halves for a substantial portion of its length and provided with electrical isolation such that each half of the conductor is joined at one end and is not joined at the other end.

Berta, V.T.

1993-04-06

430

Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel having the configuration of an assembly having a combustion chamber portion connected to a nozzle portion through a throat portion is wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The width of the tape is positioned at an angle of 30 to 50 deg. to the axis of the mandrel such that one edge of the tape contacts the mandrel while the other edge is spaced from the mandrel. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined to provide a frusto-conical surface extending at an angle of 15 to 30 deg. with respect to the axis of the mandrel for starting a second wrap on the mandrel to cover the throat portion. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape having its width positioned at a angle of 5 to 20 deg. from the axis of the mandrel. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined to provide a smooth outer surface. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

431

Assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures  

DOEpatents

A method and system for assembling a quasicrystalline heterostructure. A plurality of particles is provided with desirable predetermined character. The particles are suspended in a medium, and holographic optical traps are used to position the particles in a way to achieve an arrangement which provides a desired property.

Grier, David G.; Roichman, Yael; Man, Weining; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Steinhardt, Paul Joseph

2013-03-12

432

Student Assembly Offices Student Assembly Representatives: There are four representatives per class to the Student Assembly. Their duties are to  

E-print Network

Student Assembly Offices Student Assembly Representatives: There are four representatives per class to the Student Assembly. Their duties are to: Represent the student body of the Medical College of Wisconsin-section of the student body. Fairly administer and distribute all funds including those designated as Student Activity

433

19 CFR 10.16 - Assembly abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...soldering, riveting, force fitting, gluing, laminating, sewing, or the use of fasteners, and may be preceded, accompanied...assembled, the assembled unit is placed in a transfer molding machine, where, by use of the pellet, molten epoxy is...

2014-04-01

434

19 CFR 10.16 - Assembly abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...soldering, riveting, force fitting, gluing, laminating, sewing, or the use of fasteners, and may be preceded, accompanied...assembled, the assembled unit is placed in a transfer molding machine, where, by use of the pellet, molten epoxy is...

2012-04-01

435

19 CFR 10.16 - Assembly abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...soldering, riveting, force fitting, gluing, laminating, sewing, or the use of fasteners, and may be preceded, accompanied...assembled, the assembled unit is placed in a transfer molding machine, where, by use of the pellet, molten epoxy is...

2013-04-01

436

19 CFR 10.16 - Assembly abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...soldering, riveting, force fitting, gluing, laminating, sewing, or the use of fasteners, and may be preceded, accompanied...assembled, the assembled unit is placed in a transfer molding machine, where, by use of the pellet, molten epoxy is...

2010-04-01

437

19 CFR 10.16 - Assembly abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...soldering, riveting, force fitting, gluing, laminating, sewing, or the use of fasteners, and may be preceded, accompanied...assembled, the assembled unit is placed in a transfer molding machine, where, by use of the pellet, molten epoxy is...

2011-04-01

438

Transplanting assembly of individual carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

Handling and assembling individual nanostructures to bigger scale systems such as MEMS have been the biggest challenge. A deterministic assembly of individual carbon nanotubes by transplanting them to MEMS structures is ...

Kim, Soohyung

2009-01-01

439

President Mandela Address to Constitutional Assembly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Full text of the new South African Constitution, adopted by the Constitutional Assembly on May 8, 1996, and the full text of President Nelson Mandela's address to the Constitutional Assembly upon its adoption, are available via the Web.

Mandela, Nelson, 1918-.

1996-01-01

440

Self-assembled DNA Structures for Nanoconstruction  

E-print Network

nanotechnology in recent years [1-3], especially in self-assembled nanostructures [4-6], nanorobotics [7- 16-assembled DNA structures for nanofabrication and nanorobotics, and we also discuss their applications

Yin, Peng

441

Oligomeric state and membrane binding behaviour of creatine kinase isoenzymes: Implications for cellular function and mitochondrial structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane binding properties of cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes are reviewed in this article. Differences between both dimeric and octameric mitochondrial creatine kinase (Mi-CK) attached to membranes and the unbound form are elaborated with respect to possible biological function. The formation of crystalline mitochondrial inclusions under pathological conditions and its possible origin in the membrane attachment capabilities of

Olaf Stachowiak; Uwe Schlattner; Max Dolder; Theo Wallimann

1998-01-01

442

Non-latching relay switch assembly  

DOEpatents

A non-latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes a permanent magnet and an electromagnet. The respective sections are arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch has a "normal" position and is selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly. The switch returns to the "normal" position when the overriding electromagnetic assembly is inactive.

Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

1991-01-01

443

Self-assembly of discrete metallosupramolecular luminophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the metal-directed self-assembly of luminescent metallosupramolecular structures. A brief overview of the self-assembly process is followed by a discussion of the various types of assemblies based on the nuclearity of the luminophore: dinuclear, trinuclear, tetranuclear and higher nuclearity species. The final assemblies are discussed in light of their synthesis, their photophysical properties, and the role that the

Michael W. Cooke; Daniel Chartrand; Garry S. Hanan

2008-01-01

444

In-space assembly-servicing requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for developing the requirements for in-space assembly, servicing, and checkout of the proposed Mars space transfer vehicles is discussed. Required in-space operations and functions are identified in relation to various Earth to Orbit (ETO) vehicles by looking at the manifesting options of baseline Mars Space Transfer Vehicles (STV). Each operation is then reduced to a minimum complexity state resulting in a set of operational primitive functions. These primitive functions are used to assess the tradeoffs between robotic, telerobotic, and EVA operations. The study demonstrates that the complexity of the in-space operations remains stable with ETO vehicle size, and therefore the functions, and ultimately the infrastructure required to support proposed missions, are relatively unaffected by varying the ETO vehicle size within the range considered for this study.

Cockrell, Charles E.

1993-01-01

445

Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

Bollinger, L.R.

1982-03-17

446

CLASH: Assembly Histories of Brightest Cluster Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) rank among the most massive and luminous galaxies in the Universe. Using state-of-the-art population synthesis modeling techniques, we infer the ages, stellar metallicities, and stellar mass content for a sample of 15 BCGs from the multi-wavelength Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) observations. We do this analysis over many spatial resolution elements for each BCG, to construct two-dimensional maps for each of these properties, and to test the hypothesis from galaxy formation models that the stellar populations within BCGs form at high redshift, whereas the BCGs themselves assemble their stellar mass hierarchically by accreting and merging with less massive galaxies at lower redshift.

Moustakas, John; Donahue, M.; Ford, H.; Kelson, D.; Moustakas, L. A.; Postman, M.; CLASH Collaboration

2014-01-01

447

Algorithm for genome contig assembly. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm was developed for genome contig assembly which extended the range of data types that could be included in assembly and which ran on the order of a hundred times faster than the algorithm it replaced. Maps of all existing cosmid clone and YAC data at the Human Genome Information Resource were assembled using ICA. The resulting maps are summarized.

NONE

1995-09-01

448

Self-Assembly: How Nature Builds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-assembly or spontaneous assembly is a process in which materials build themselves without assistance. This process plays a central role in the construction of biological structures and materials such as cells, viruses, and bone, and also in abiotic processes like phase transitions and crystal formation. The principles of self-assembly help…

Jones, M. Gail; Falvo, Michael R.; Broadwell, Bethany; Dotger, Sharon

2006-01-01

449

THE FAKS ABOUT BLOOD VESSEL ASSEMBLY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potential role of FAK in blood vessel assembly. The process of vessel assembly can be dissected into discernible steps (A), and there is evidence to suggest that FAK is involved throughout. In FAK-/- mutants (B), blood vessel assembly is arrested during tubulogenesis, suggesting that the primary rol...

450

49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186 Transportation...Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is part of the...

2013-10-01

451

49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186 Transportation...Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is part of the...

2010-10-01

452

49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186 Transportation...Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is part of the...

2012-10-01

453

49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186 Transportation...Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is part of the...

2011-10-01

454

Building industrialization: robotized assembly of modular products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The increasing of mechanization levels used in tasks execution in construction, as a way to increase productivity, requires its rationalization, the adoption of new assembly-ready materials and methods, and the application of robotics capabilities. In this way, using concepts as design for manufacture and assembly and lean construction, modular products can be developed for their assembly by robotics

Santiago Martinez; Alberto Jardon; Jose Maria Navarro; Patricia Gonzalez

2008-01-01

455

Getting to First Base in Proteasome Assembly  

PubMed Central

Assembly of complex structures such as the eukaryotic 26S proteasome requires intricate mechanisms that ensure precise subunit arrangements. Recent studies have shed light on the pathway for ordered assembly of the base of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome by identifying new precursor complexes and four dedicated chaperones involved in its assembly. PMID:19596233

Besche, Henrike C.; Peth, Andreas; Goldberg, Alfred L.

2013-01-01

456

Regulation of histone synthesis and nucleosome assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histone deposition onto nascent DNA is the first step in the process of chromatin assembly during DNA replication. The process of nucleosome assembly represents a daunting task for S-phase cells, partly because cells need to rapidly package nascent DNA into nucleosomes while avoiding the generation of excess histones. Consequently, cells have evolved a number of nucleosome assembly factors and regulatory

Akash Gunjan; Johanna Paik; Alain Verreault

2005-01-01

457

Simultaneous Assembly of Multiple Test Forms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An algorithm for the assembly of multiple test forms is proposed in which the multiple-form problem is reduced to a series of computationally less intensive two-form problems. At each step one form is assembled to its true specifications; the other form is a dummy assembled only to maintain a balance between the quality of the current form and the…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Adema, Jos J.

458

49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192 Transportation...Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head...

2010-10-01

459

49 CFR 572.182 - Head assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.182 Section 572.182 Transportation...Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.182 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (drawing...

2010-10-01

460

49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112 Transportation...Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing...

2010-10-01

461

The Archimedes 2 mechanical assembly planning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the implementation and performance of Archimedes 2, an integrated mechanical assembly planning system. Archimedes 2 includes two planners, two assembly sequence animation facilities, and an associated robotic workcell. Both planners use fully 3 dimensional data. A rudimentary translator from high level assembly plans to control code for the robotic workcell has also been implemented. We can translate data

S. G. Kaufmann; R. H. Wilson; R. E. Jones; T. L. Calton; A. L. Ames

1996-01-01

462

Mini-Brayton heat source assembly development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work accomplished on the Mini-Brayton Heat Source Assembly program is summarized. Required technologies to design, fabricate and assemble components for a high temperature Heat Source Assembly (HSA) which would generate and transfer the thermal energy for a spaceborne Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) were developed.

Wein, D.; Zimmerman, W. F.

1978-01-01

463

Composite nozzle design for reactor fuel assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite nozzle is described for a fuel assembly adapted for installation on the upper or lower end thereof and which is constructed from two components. The first component includes a casting weldment or forging designed to carry handling loads, support fuel assembly weight and flow loads, and interface with structural members of both the fuel assembly and reactor internal

G. R. Marlatt; D. K. Allison

1984-01-01

464

Self-Assembling Behavior and Inhibition Effect of Dodecanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers on Copper Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-assembling behavior and inhibition effect of dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on copper surface were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical methods. The assembling process was monitored by AFM phase images. The assembling time influences the corrosion protection efficiency of dodecanethiol SAMs. Surface friction significantly decreases when the copper surface is covered by SAMs.

Zhang, Xiulan; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Yihong; Chen, Zhenyu

2013-08-01

465

Involvement of ezrin/moesin in de novo actin assembly on phagosomal membranes  

PubMed Central

The current study focuses on the molecular mechanisms responsible for actin assembly on a defined membrane surface: the phagosome. Mature phagosomes were surrounded by filamentous actin in vivo in two different cell types. Fluorescence microscopy was used to study in vitro actin nucleation/polymerization (assembly) on the surface of phagosomes isolated from J774 mouse macrophages. In order to prevent non–specific actin polymerization during the assay, fluorescent G–actin was mixed with thymosin ?4. The cytoplasmic side of phagosomes induced de novo assembly and barbed end growth of actin filaments. This activity varied cyclically with the maturation state of phagosomes, both in vivo and in vitro. Peripheral membrane proteins are crucial components of this actin assembly machinery, and we demonstrate a role for ezrin and/or moesin in this process. We propose that this actin assembly process facilitates phagosome/endosome aggregation prior to membrane fusion. PMID:10637224

Defacque, Hélène; Egeberg, Morten; Habermann, Anja; Diakonova, Maria; Roy, Christian; Mangeat, Paul; Voelter, Wolfgang; Marriott, Gerard; Pfannstiel, Jens; Faulstich, Heinz; Griffiths, Gareth

2000-01-01

466

Dissection of pilus tip assembly by the FimD usher monomer.  

PubMed

Type 1 pili are representative of a class of bacterial surface structures assembled by the conserved chaperone/usher pathway and used by uropathogenic Escherichia coli to attach to bladder cells during infection. The outer membrane assembly platform-the usher-is critical for the formation of pili, catalysing the polymerisation of pilus subunits and enabling the secretion of the nascent pilus. Despite extensive structural characterisation of the usher, a number of questions about its mechanism remain, notably its oligomerisation state, and how it orchestrates the ordered assembly of pilus subunits. We demonstrate here that the FimD usher is able to catalyse in vitro pilus assembly effectively in its monomeric form. Furthermore, by establishing the kinetics of usher-catalysed reactions between various pilus subunits, we establish a complete kinetic model of tip fibrillum assembly, able to account for the order of subunits in native type 1 pili. PMID:23295826

Allen, William J; Phan, Gilles; Hultgren, Scott J; Waksman, Gabriel

2013-03-11

467

Direct assembly of preformed nanoparticles and graft copolymer for the fabrication of micrometer-thick, organized TiO2 films: high efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with 7.1% efficiency at 100 mW/cm(2) is reported, one of the highest observed for N719 dye. Excellent performance was achieved via a graft copolymer-templated, organized mesoporous TiO(2) film with a large surface area using spindle-shaped, preformed TiO(2) nanoparticles and solid polymer electrolyte. PMID:22213245

Ahn, Sung Hoon; Chi, Won Seok; Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Jong Kwan; Roh, Dong Kyu; Kim, Jong Hak

2012-01-24

468

Spatial Extent of Charge Repulsion Regulates Assembly Pathways for Lysozyme Amyloid Fibrils  

PubMed Central

Formation of large protein fibrils with a characteristic cross ?-sheet architecture is the key indicator for a wide variety of systemic and neurodegenerative amyloid diseases. Recent experiments have strongly implicated oligomeric intermediates, transiently formed during fibril assembly, as critical contributors to cellular toxicity in amyloid diseases. At the same time, amyloid fibril assembly can proceed along different assembly pathways that might or might not involve such oligomeric intermediates. Elucidating the mechanisms that determine whether fibril formation proceeds along non-oligomeric or oligomeric pathways, therefore, is important not just for understanding amyloid fibril assembly at the molecular level but also for developing new targets for intervening with fibril formation. We have investigated fibril formation by hen egg white lysozyme, an enzyme for which human variants underlie non-neuropathic amyloidosis. Using a combination of static and dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy and circular dichroism, we find that amyloidogenic lysozyme monomers switch between three different assembly pathways: from monomeric to oligomeric fibril assembly and, eventually, disordered precipitation as the ionic strength of the solution increases. Fibril assembly only occurred under conditions of net repulsion among the amyloidogenic monomers while net attraction caused precipitation. The transition from monomeric to oligomeric fibril assembly, in turn, occurred as salt-mediated charge screening reduced repulsion among individual charged residues on the same monomer. We suggest a model of amyloid fibril formation in which repulsive charge interactions are a prerequisite for ordered fibril assembly. Furthermore, the spatial extent of non-specific charge screening selects between monomeric and oligomeric assembly pathways by affecting which subset of denatured states can form suitable intermolecular bonds and by altering the energetic and entropic requirements for the initial intermediates emerging along the monomeric vs. oligomeric assembly path. PMID:21483680

Hill, Shannon E.; Miti, Tatiana; Richmond, Tyson; Muschol, Martin

2011-01-01

469

Solid state switch  

DOEpatents

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

1994-07-19

470

1 SulA Inhibits Assembly of FtsZ by a Simple Sequestration Mechanism 2 Yaodong Chen,  

E-print Network

1 SulA Inhibits Assembly of FtsZ by a Simple Sequestration Mechanism 2 Yaodong Chen, Sara L. Milam 27710-3709, United States 4 ABSTRACT: We have investigated the inhibition by SulA of the assembly of 5 Escherichia coli FtsZ. Using quantitative GTPase and fluorescence assays, we 6 found that SulA inhibition

Erickson, Harold P.

471

Nanobiocatalytic assemblies for artificial photosynthesis.  

PubMed

Natural photosynthesis, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion process, occurs through a series of photo-induced electron transfer reactions in nanoscale architectures that contain light-harvesting complexes, protein-metal clusters, and many redox biocatalysts. Artificial photosynthesis in nanobiocatalytic assemblies aims to reconstruct man-made photosensitizers, electron mediators, electron donors, and redox enzymes for solar synthesis of valuable chemicals through visible light-driven cofactor regeneration. The key requirement in the design of biocatalyzed artificial photosynthetic process is an efficient and forward electron transfer between each photosynthetic component. This review describes basic principles in combining redox biocatalysis with photocatalysis, and highlights recent research outcomes in the development of nanobiocatalytic assemblies that can mimic natural photosystems I and II, respectively. Current issues in biocatalyzed artificial photosynthesis and future perspectives will be briefly discussed. PMID:24832068

Kim, Jae Hong; Nam, Dong Heon; Park, Chan Beum

2014-08-01

472

Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials.  

PubMed

We introduce composite materials made by reversibly assembling a three-dimensional lattice of mass-produced carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite parts with integrated mechanical interlocking connections. The resulting cellular composite materials can respond as an elastic solid with an extremely large measured modulus for an ultralight material (12.3 megapascals at a density of 7.2 milligrams per cubic centimeter). These materials offer a hierarchical decomposition in modeling, with bulk properties that can be predicted from component measurements and deformation modes that can be determined by the placement of part types. Because site locations are locally constrained, structures can be produced in a relative assembly process that merges desirable features of fiber composites, cellular materials, and additive manufacturing. PMID:23950496

Cheung, Kenneth C; Gershenfeld, Neil

2013-09-13

473

Nuclear reactor composite fuel assembly  

DOEpatents

A core and composite fuel assembly for a liquid-cooled breeder nuclear reactor including a plurality of elongated coextending driver and breeder fuel elements arranged to form a generally polygonal bundle within a thin-walled duct. The breeder elements are larger in cross section than the driver elements, and each breeder element is laterally bounded by a number of the driver elements. Each driver element further includes structure for spacing the driver elements from adjacent fuel elements and, where adjacent, the thin-walled duct. A core made up of the fuel elements can advantageously include fissile fuel of only one enrichment, while varying the effective enrichment of any given assembly or core region, merely by varying the relative number and size of the driver and breeder elements.

Burgess, Donn M. (Richland, WA); Marr, Duane R. (West Richland, WA); Cappiello, Michael W. (Richland, WA); Omberg, Ronald P. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

474

BIOCHEMISTRY: An Enzyme Assembly Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Fatty acid synthases and related megaenzymes are highly adaptable to new functions as a result of their modular architecture. The fundamental polymers of biology--proteins, DNA, and RNA--are products of repetitive condensation of simple amino acid or nucleotide building blocks and are comparatively easy to assemble. However, other biomolecules require additional reactions beyond condensation of building blocks. Examples are the fatty acids and the polyketide and nonribosomal peptide secondary metabolites. These molecules are produced by complex enzyme assembly lines that include multiple catalytic domains. Two new crystal structures--one reported recently (1), the other by Maier et al. on page 1315 of this issue (2)--enrich our understanding of how these mega-enzymes function as efficient factories to produce a remarkable range of metabolic products.

Janet L. Smith (University of Michigan; Life Sciences Institute; Department of Biological Chemistry)

2008-09-05

475

Lighting up cells with lanthanide self-assembled helicates  

PubMed Central

Lanthanide bioprobes and bioconjugates are ideal luminescent stains in view of their low propensity to photobleaching, sharp emission lines and long excited state lifetimes permitting time-resolved detection for enhanced sensitivity. We show here how the interplay between physical, chemical and biochemical properties allied to microfluidics engineering leads to self-assembled dinuclear lanthanide luminescent probes illuminating live cells and selectively detecting biomarkers expressed by cancerous human breast cells. PMID:24511387

Bünzli, Jean-Claude G.

2013-01-01

476

Functional Materials Based on Self-Assembly of Polymeric Supramolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembly of polymeric supramolecules is a powerful tool for producing functional materials that combine several properties and may respond to external conditions. We illustrate the concept using a comb-shaped architecture. Examples include the hexagonal self-organization of conjugated conducting polymers and the polarized luminance in solid-state films of rodlike polymers obtained by removing the hydrogen-bonded side chains from the aligned thermotropic

Olli Ikkala; Gerrit ten Brinke

2002-01-01

477

Model-checking and control of self-assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph grammars can be used to model highly distributed systems where local interaction rules control formation or self-assembly tasks. In this paper, we explore model-checking graph grammar systems, introducing the zero-one-many collapse as a way of reducing the usually enormous number of states and transitions produced by a graph grammar system. From this collapse, we also define a canonical initial

John-Michael McNew; Eric Klavins

2006-01-01

478

MYBPH inhibits NM IIA assembly via direct interaction with NMHC IIA and reduces cell motility  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MYBPH inhibits NMHC IIA assembly and cell motility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MYBPH interacts to assembly-competent NM IIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MYBPH inhibits RLC and NMHC IIA, independent components of NM IIA. -- Abstract: Actomyosin filament assembly is a critical step in tumor cell migration. We previously found that myosin binding protein H (MYBPH) is directly transactivated by the TTF-1 lineage-survival oncogene in lung adenocarcinomas and inhibits phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) of non-muscle myosin IIA (NM IIA) via direct interaction with Rho kinase 1 (ROCK1). Here, we report that MYBPH also directly interacts with an additional molecule, non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC IIA), which was found to occur between MYBPH and the rod portion of NMHC IIA. MYBPH inhibited NMHC IIA assembly and reduced cell motility. Conversely, siMYBPH-induced increased motility was partially, yet significantly, suppressed by blebbistatin, a non-muscle myosin II inhibitor, while more profound effects were attained by combined treatment with siROCK1 and blebbistatin. Electron microscopy observations showed well-ordered paracrystals of NMHC IIA reflecting an assembled state, which were significantly less frequently observed in the presence of MYBPH. Furthermore, an in vitro sedimentation assay showed that a greater amount of NMHC IIA was in an unassembled state in the presence of MYBPH. Interestingly, treatment with a ROCK inhibitor that impairs transition of NM IIA from an assembly-incompetent to assembly-competent state reduced the interaction between MYBPH and NMHC IIA, suggesting that MYBPH has higher affinity to assembly-competent NM IIA. These results suggest that MYBPH inhibits RLC and NMHC IIA, independent components of NM IIA, and negatively regulates actomyosin organization at 2 distinct steps, resulting in firm inhibition of NM IIA assembly.

Hosono, Yasuyuki [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Usukura, Jiro [Division of Integrated Project, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)] [Division of Integrated Project, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tomoya; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Motoshi [Division of M