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1

De novo design of an RNA tile that self-assembles into a homo-octameric nanoprism.  

PubMed

Rational, de novo design of RNA nanostructures can potentially integrate a wide array of structural and functional diversities. Such nanostructures have great promises in biomedical applications. Despite impressive progress in this field, all RNA building blocks (or tiles) reported so far are not geometrically well defined. They are generally flexible and can only assemble into a mixture of complexes with different sizes. To achieve defined structures, multiple tiles with different sequences are needed. In this study, we design an RNA tile that can homo-oligomerize into a uniform RNA nanostructure. The designed RNA nanostructure is characterized by gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy and cryogenic electron microscopy imaging. We believe that development along this line would help RNA nanotechnology to reach the structural control that is currently associated with DNA nanotechnology. PMID:25635537

Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Zhiyu; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Guansong; Mao, Chengde

2015-01-01

2

Biophysical and Structural Characterization of a Robust Octameric ?-Peptide Bundle  

PubMed Central

Proteins composed of ?-amino acids are essential components of the machinery required for life. Stanley Miller's renowned electric discharge experiment provided evidence that an environment of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen was sufficient to produce ?-amino acids. This reaction also generated other potential protein building blocks such as the ?-amino acid ?-glycine (also known as ?-alanine); however, the potential of these species to form complex ordered structures that support functional roles has not been widely investigated. In this report we apply a variety of biophysical techniques, including circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, analytical ultracentrifugation, NMR and X-ray crystallography, to characterize the oligomerization of two 12-mer ?3-peptides, Acid-1Y and Acid-1Y*. Like the previously reported ?3-peptide Zwit-1F, Acid-1Y and Acid-1Y* fold spontaneously into discrete, octameric quaternary structures that we refer to as ?-peptide bundles. Surprisingly, the Acid-1Y octamer is more stable than the analogous Zwit-1F octamer, in terms of both its thermodynamics and kinetics of unfolding. The structure of Acid-1Y, reported here to 2.3 Å resolution, provides intriguing hypotheses for the increase in stability. To summarize, in this work we provide additional evidence that nonnatural ?-peptide oligomers can assemble into cooperatively folded structures with potential application in enzyme design, and as medical tools and nanomaterials. Furthermore, these studies suggest that nature's selection of ?-amino acid precursors was not based solely on their ability to assemble into stable oligomeric structures. PMID:17985897

Goodman, Jessica L.; Petersson, E. James; Daniels, Douglas S.; Qiu, Jade X.; Schepartz, Alanna

2009-01-01

3

Slow Folding-Unfolding Kinetics of an Octameric ?-Peptide Bundle  

PubMed Central

?-Peptide foldamers offer attractive frameworks for examining the effect of backbone flexibility on the dynamics of protein folding. Herein, we study the folding-unfolding kinetics of a ?-peptide, Acid-1Y,1 which folds in aqueous solution into an octameric bundle of peptides in a conformation known as the 14-helix. Acid-1Y is comprised exclusively of ?-amino acids, which differ from ?-amino acids by the addition of a single methylene into the backbone. We aim to understand how the additional degree of freedom and increased backbone flexibility in the ?-amino acid affect folding dynamics and to measure folding rates of this octameric ?-peptide. Previously, we found that the T-jump induced relaxation kinetics of a monomeric ?-peptide that forms a monomeric 14-helix occurred on the nanosecond time scale2 and are noticeably slower than a similar alanine-based ?-helical peptide.3 Additionally, in comparison to similar ?-helices, the relaxation rates showed a weaker dependence on temperature. Here, we find that the T-jump induced relaxation kinetics of the octameric ?-peptide occurs on an even slower time scale (minutes) and the unfolding relaxation rates show a large dependence on temperature. These differences indicate that folding energy landscapes of ?-peptide secondary and quaternary structure are markedly distinct from one another and also from their ?-helical counterparts. PMID:24164344

Montalvo, Geronda L.; Gai, Feng; Roder, Heinrich; DeGrado, William F.

2013-01-01

4

Interaction of recombinant octameric hemoglobin with endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) may generate oxidative stress, vasoconstriction and inflammation. To reduce these undesirable vasoactive properties, we increased hemoglobin (Hb) molecular size by genetic engineering with octameric Hb, recombinant (r) Hb?G83C. We investigate the potential side effects of rHb?G83C on endothelial cells. The rHb?G83C has no impact on cell viability, and induces a huge repression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene transcription, a marker of vasomotion. No induction of Intermolecular-Adhesion Molecule 1 and E-selectin (inflammatory markers) transcription was seen. In the presence of rHb?G83C, the transcription of heme oxygenase-1 (oxidative stress marker) is weakly increased compared to the two other HBOCs (references) or Voluven (control). This genetically engineered octameric Hb, based on a human Hb ?G83C mutant, leads to little impact at the level of endothelial cell inflammatory response and thus appears as an interesting molecule for HBOC development. PMID:25543885

Gaucher, Caroline; Domingues-Hamdi, Élisa; Prin-Mathieu, Christine; Menu, Patrick; Baudin-Creuza, Véronique

2015-02-01

5

Iron Binding at Specific Sites within the Octameric HbpS Protects Streptomycetes from Iron-Mediated Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

The soil bacterium Streptomyces reticuli secretes the octameric protein HbpS that acts as a sensory component of the redox-signalling pathway HbpS-SenS-SenR. This system modulates a genetic response on iron- and haem-mediated oxidative stress. Moreover, HbpS alone provides this bacterium with a defence mechanism to the presence of high concentrations of iron ions and haem. While the protection against haem has been related to its haem-binding and haem-degrading activity, the interaction with iron has not been studied in detail. In this work, we biochemically analyzed the iron-binding activity of a set of generated HbpS mutant proteins and present evidence showing the involvement of one internal and two exposed D/EXXE motifs in binding of high quantities of ferrous iron, with the internal E78XXE81 displaying the tightest binding. We additionally show that HbpS is able to oxidize ferrous to ferric iron ions. Based on the crystal structure of both the wild-type and the mutant HbpS-D78XXD81, we conclude that the local arrangement of the side chains from the glutamates in E78XXE81 within the octameric assembly is a pre-requisite for interaction with iron. The data obtained led us to propose that the exposed and the internal motif build a highly specific route that is involved in the transport of high quantities of iron ions into the core of the HbpS octamer. Furthermore, physiological studies using Streptomyces transformants secreting either wild-type or HbpS mutant proteins and different redox-cycling compounds led us to conclude that the iron-sequestering activity of HbpS protects these soil bacteria from the hazardous side effects of peroxide- and iron-based oxidative stress. PMID:24013686

Wedderhoff, Ina; Kursula, Inari; Groves, Matthew R.; Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío

2013-01-01

6

A unique octameric structure of Axe2, an intracellular acetyl-xylooligosaccharide esterase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.  

PubMed

Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 is a thermophilic, Gram-positive soil bacterium that possesses an extensive and highly regulated hemicellulolytic system, allowing the bacterium to efficiently degrade high-molecular-weight polysaccharides such as xylan, arabinan and galactan. As part of the xylan-degradation system, the bacterium uses a number of side-chain-cleaving enzymes, one of which is Axe2, a 219-amino-acid intracellular serine acetylxylan esterase that removes acetyl side groups from xylooligosaccharides. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that Axe2 belongs to the lipase GDSL family and represents a new family of carbohydrate esterases. In the current study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of Axe2 is reported, as determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the selenomethionine derivative Axe2-Se was initially determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction techniques at 1.70?Å resolution and was used for the structure determination of wild-type Axe2 (Axe2-WT) and the catalytic mutant Axe2-S15A at 1.85 and 1.90?Å resolution, respectively. These structures demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of the Axe2 monomer generally corresponds to the SGNH hydrolase fold, consisting of five central parallel ?-sheets flanked by two layers of helices (eight ?-helices and five 310-helices). The catalytic triad residues, Ser15, His194 and Asp191, are lined up along a substrate channel situated on the concave surface of the monomer. Interestingly, the Axe2 monomers are assembled as a `doughnut-shaped' homo-octamer, presenting a unique quaternary structure built of two staggered tetrameric rings. The eight active sites are organized in four closely situated pairs, which face the relatively wide internal cavity. The biological relevance of this octameric structure is supported by independent results obtained from gel-filtration, TEM and SAXS experiments. These data and their comparison to the structural data of related hydrolases are used for a more general discussion focusing on the structure-function relationships of enzymes of this category. PMID:24531461

Lansky, Shifra; Alalouf, Onit; Solomon, Hodaya Vered; Alhassid, Anat; Govada, Lata; Chayen, Naomi E; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

2014-02-01

7

The Structure and Stability of an HLA-A*0201/Octameric Tax Peptide Complex with an Empty Conserved  

E-print Network

with of an octameric peptide, Tax8 (LFGYPVYV), from human T cell lymphotrophic virus-1 (HTLV-1) has been determined for lysis by some Tax-specific CTL from HTLV-1 infected individuals. The absence of a P1 peptide residue

Harrison, Stephen C.

8

A novel open-barrel structure of octameric translin reveals a potential RNA entryway.  

PubMed

The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)/RNA binding protein translin was suggested to be involved in chromosomal translocations, telomere metabolism, and mRNA transport and translation. Oligonucleotide binding surfaces map within a closed cavity of translin octameric barrels, raising the question as to how DNA/RNA gain access to this inner cavity, particularly given that, to date, none of the barrel structures reported hint to an entryway. Here, we argue against a mechanism by which translin octamers may "dissociate and reassemble" upon RNA binding and report a novel "open"-barrel structure of human translin revealing a feasible DNA/RNA entryway into the cavity. Additionally, we report that translin not only is confined to binding of ssDNA oligonucleotides, or single-stranded extensions of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), but also can bind single-stranded sequences internally embedded in dsDNA molecules. PMID:25433126

Eliahoo, Elad; Marx, Ailie; Manor, Haim; Alian, Akram

2015-02-27

9

Entangled spin states in self-assembled monolayer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the opportunity for creation of an entangled spin state in a self-assembled monolayer molecular system. A group of spin radicals can be transferred to the entangled state using resonant electromagnetic pulses. The magnetic dipole-dipole interaction within a group is taken into account while the same interaction between the groups is neglected. A high external magnetic field at low

Gennady P. Berman; Vladimir I. Tsifrinovich; David L. Allara

2002-01-01

10

Multidomain assembled states of Hck tyrosine kinase in solution  

PubMed Central

An approach combining small-angle X-ray solution scattering (SAXS) data with coarse-grained (CG) simulations is developed to characterize the assembly states of Hck, a member of the Src-family kinases, under various conditions in solution. First, a basis set comprising a small number of assembly states is generated from extensive CG simulations. Second, a theoretical SAXS profile for each state in the basis set is computed by using the Fast-SAXS method. Finally, the relative population of the different assembly states is determined via a Bayesian-based Monte Carlo procedure seeking to optimize the theoretical scattering profiles against experimental SAXS data. The study establishes the concept of basis-set supported SAXS (BSS-SAXS) reconstruction combining computational and experimental techniques. Here, BSS-SAXS reconstruction is used to reveal the structural organization of Hck in solution and the different shifts in the equilibrium population of assembly states upon the binding of different signaling peptides. PMID:20798061

Yang, Sichun; Blachowicz, Lydia; Makowski, Lee; Roux, Benoît

2010-01-01

11

Using Markov state models to study self-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Markov state models (MSMs) have been demonstrated to be a powerful method for computationally studying intramolecular processes such as protein folding and macromolecular conformational changes. In this article, we present a new approach to construct MSMs that is applicable to modeling a broad class of multi-molecular assembly reactions. Distinct structures formed during assembly are distinguished by their undirected graphs, which are defined by strong subunit interactions. Spatial inhomogeneities of free subunits are accounted for using a recently developed Gaussian-based signature. Simplifications to this state identification are also investigated. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on two different coarse-grained models for virus self-assembly. We find good agreement between the dynamics predicted by the MSMs and long, unbiased simulations, and that the MSMs can reduce overall simulation time by orders of magnitude.

Perkett, Matthew R.; Hagan, Michael F.

2014-06-01

12

Conformational States of Macromolecular Assemblies Explored by Integrative Structure Calculation  

PubMed Central

Summary A detailed description of macromolecular assemblies in multiple conformational states can be very valuable for understanding cellular processes. At present, structural determination of most assemblies in different biologically relevant conformations cannot be achieved by a single technique and thus requires an integrative approach that combines information from multiple sources. Different techniques require different computational methods to allow efficient and accurate data processing and analysis. Here, we summarize the latest advances and future challenges in computational methods that help the interpretation of data from two techniques—mass spectrometry and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy (with focus on alignment and classification of heterogeneous subtomograms from cryo-electron tomography). We evaluate how new developments in these two broad fields will lead to further integration with atomic structures to broaden our picture of the dynamic behavior of assemblies in their native environment. PMID:24010709

Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Pandurangan, Arun Prasad; Xu, Min; Alber, Frank; Topf, Maya

2013-01-01

13

Design of a miniaturized solid state laser for automated assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A miniaturized solid state laser for marking applications has been developed featuring novel assembly strategies to reduce size, cost and assembly effort. Design and setup have been laid out with future automation of the assembly in mind. Using a high precision robot the optical components composing the laser system are directly placed on a planar substrate providing accurate positioning and alignment within a few microns. No adjustable mounts for mirrors and lenses are necessary, greatly simplifying the setup. Consisting of either a ND:YAG or a Nd:YVO4 crystal pumped with a fiber coupled diode laser, a q-switch for pulse generation and a beam expander the entire assembly is confined in a 100ml space and delivers 4 W of continuous output power at 1.064 ?m with an efficiency greater than 40%. Pulse lengths of 10-20 ns and repetition rates of up to 150 kHz have been obtained with an acousto-optic modulator. In addition, a custom designed electro-optic modulator with integrated high voltage switch has been realized. A supply unit for the entire system, including scanner and water cooling, is integrated in a 19" industrial chassis and can be operated via a graphical user interface on a standard personal computer.

Funck, Max C.; Dolkemeyer, Jan; Morasch, Valentin; Loosen, Peter

2010-05-01

14

Impact of Assembly State on the Defect Tolerance of TMV-Based Light Harvesting Arrays  

E-print Network

-mail: francis@cchem.berkeley.edu Abstract: Self-assembling, light harvesting arrays of organic chromophores canImpact of Assembly State on the Defect Tolerance of TMV-Based Light Harvesting Arrays Rebekah A in the photosynthetic process is the collection of sunlight by an array of pigments within the light harvesting (LH

Geissler, Phillip

15

Strain-Induced Localized States Within the Matrix Continuum of Self-Assembled Quantum Dots  

SciTech Connect

Quantum dot-based infrared detectors often involve transitions from confined states of the dot to states above the minimum of the conduction band continuum of the matrix. We discuss the existence of two types of resonant states within this continuum in self-assembled dots: (i) virtual bound states, which characterize square wells even without strain and (ii) strain-induced localized states. The latter emerge due to the appearance of 'potential wings' near the dot, related to the curvature of the dots. While states (i) do couple to the continuum, states (ii) are sheltered by the wings, giving rise to sharp absorption peaks.

Popescu, V.; Bester, G.; Zunger, A.

2009-07-01

16

Dimerization of the CENP-A assembly factor HJURP is required for centromeric nucleosome deposition  

PubMed Central

The epigenetic mark of the centromere is thought to be a unique centromeric nucleosome that contains the histone H3 variant, centromere protein-A (CENP-A). The deposition of new centromeric nucleosomes requires the CENP-A-specific chromatin assembly factor HJURP (Holliday junction recognition protein). Crystallographic and biochemical data demonstrate that the Scm3-like domain of HJURP binds a single CENP-A–histone H4 heterodimer. However, several lines of evidence suggest that HJURP forms an octameric CENP-A nucleosome. How an octameric CENP-A nucleosome forms from individual CENP-A/histone H4 heterodimers is unknown. Here, we show that HJURP forms a homodimer through its C-terminal domain that includes the second HJURP_C domain. HJURP exists as a dimer in the soluble preassembly complex and at chromatin when new CENP-A is deposited. Dimerization of HJURP is essential for the deposition of new CENP-A nucleosomes. The recruitment of HJURP to centromeres occurs independent of dimerization and CENP-A binding. These data provide a mechanism whereby the CENP-A pre-nucleosomal complex achieves assembly of the octameric CENP-A nucleosome through the dimerization of the CENP-A chaperone HJURP. PMID:23771058

Zasadzi?ska, Ewelina; Barnhart-Dailey, Meghan C; Kuich, P Henning J L; Foltz, Daniel R

2013-01-01

17

EE101 Labs and ECEbot Assembly/Testing Instructions Montana State University  

E-print Network

EE101 Labs and ECEbot Assembly/Testing Instructions by Montana State University Department) is described in this manual. This document contains the ten lab experiments used in EE 101. The first five lab scale even on the highest resistance setting, simply write "> 20 M". You are now to connect a resistor

Dyer, Bill

18

CDK-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion coordinately control kinetochore assembly state  

PubMed Central

Accurate chromosome segregation requires assembly of the multiprotein kinetochore complex. Prior work has identified more than 100 different kinetochore components in human cells. However, little is known about the regulatory processes that specify their assembly upon mitotic entry and disassembly at mitotic exit. In this paper, we used a live-cell imaging–based assay to quantify kinetochore disassembly kinetics and systematically analyze the role of potential regulatory mechanisms in controlling kinetochore assembly state. We find that kinetochore assembly and disassembly was driven primarily by mitotic phosphorylation downstream of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). In addition, we demonstrate that nuclear exclusion of the Ndc80 complex helped restrict kinetochore formation to mitosis. Combining constitutive CDK-dependent phosphorylation of CENP-T and forced nuclear localization of the Ndc80 complex partially prevented kinetochore disassembly at mitotic exit and led to chromosome segregation defects in subsequent divisions. In total, we find that the coordinated temporal regulation of outer kinetochore assembly is essential for accurate cell division. PMID:23530067

Gascoigne, Karen E.

2013-01-01

19

Internal states of model isotropic granular packings. I. Assembling process, geometry, and contact networks.  

PubMed

This is the first paper of a series of three, in which we report on numerical simulation studies of geometric and mechanical properties of static assemblies of spherical beads under an isotropic pressure. The influence of various assembling processes on packing microstructures is investigated. It is accurately checked that frictionless systems assemble in the unique random close packing (RCP) state in the low pressure limit if the compression process is fast enough, higher solid fractions corresponding to more ordered configurations with traces of crystallization. Specific properties directly related to isostaticity of the force-carrying structure in the rigid limit are discussed. With frictional grains, different preparation procedures result in quite different inner structures that cannot be classified by the sole density. If partly or completely lubricated they will assemble like frictionless ones, approaching the RCP solid fraction Phi_{RCP} approximately 0.639 with a high coordination number: z* approximately =6 on the force-carrying backbone. If compressed with a realistic coefficient of friction mu=0.3 packings stabilize in a loose state with Phi approximately 0.593 and z* approximately =4.5 . And, more surprisingly, an idealized "vibration" procedure, which maintains an agitated, collisional regime up to high densities results in equally small values of z* while Phi is close to the maximum value Phi_{RCP}. Low coordination packings have a large proportion (>10%) of rattlers--grains carrying no force--the effect of which should be accounted for on studying position correlations, and also contain a small proportion of localized "floppy modes" associated with divalent grains. Low-pressure states of frictional packings retain a finite level of force indeterminacy even when assembled with the slowest compression rates simulated, except in the case when the friction coefficient tends to infinity. Different microstructures are characterized in terms of near neighbor correlations on various scales, and some comparisons with available laboratory data are reported, although values of contact coordination numbers apparently remain experimentally inaccessible. PMID:18233840

Agnolin, Ivana; Roux, Jean-Noël

2007-12-01

20

Multi-state lasing in self-assembled ring-shaped green fluorescent protein microcavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate highly efficient lasing from multiple photonic states in microcavities filled with self-assembled rings of recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in its solid state form. The lasing regime is achieved at very low excitation energies of 13 nJ and occurs from cavity modes dispersed in both energy and momentum. We attribute the momentum distribution to very efficient scattering of incident light at the surface of the eGFP rings. The distribution of lasing states in energy is induced by the large spectral width of the gain spectrum of recombinant eGFP (FWHM ? 25 nm).

Dietrich, Christof P.; Höfling, Sven; Gather, Malte C.

2014-12-01

21

Multimeric assembly and biochemical characterization of the Trax?translin endonuclease complex  

SciTech Connect

Trax-Translin heteromers, also known as C3PO, have been proposed to activate the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by facilitating endonucleolytic cleavage of the siRNA passenger strand. We report on the crystal structure of hexameric Drosophila C3PO formed by truncated translin and Trax, along with electron microscopic and mass spectrometric studies on octameric C3PO formed by full-length translin and Trax. Our studies establish that Trax adopts the translin fold, possesses catalytic centers essential for C3PO's endoRNase activity and interacts extensively with translin to form an octameric assembly. The catalytic pockets of Trax subunits are located within the interior chamber of the octameric scaffold. Truncated C3PO, like full-length C3PO, shows endoRNase activity that leaves 3'-hydroxyl-cleaved ends. We have measured the catalytic activity of C3PO and shown it to cleave almost stoichiometric amounts of substrate per second.

Tian, Yuan; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Ascano, Manuel; Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Park, Ah Young; Juranek, Stefan A.; Rice, William J.; Yin, Qian; Robinson, Carol V.; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J. (Weill-Med); (MSKCC); (Rockefeller); (HHMI); (Oxford)

2011-09-16

22

Multimeric Assembly and Biochemical Characterization of the Trax-translin Endonuclease complex  

SciTech Connect

Trax-translin heteromers, also known as C3PO, have been proposed to activate the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by facilitating endonucleolytic cleavage of the siRNA passenger strand. We report on the crystal structure of hexameric Drosophila C3PO formed by truncated translin and Trax, along with electron microscopic and mass spectrometric studies on octameric C3PO formed by full-length translin and Trax. Our studies establish that Trax adopts the translin fold, possesses catalytic centers essential for C3PO's endoRNase activity and interacts extensively with translin to form an octameric assembly. The catalytic pockets of Trax subunits are located within the interior chamber of the octameric scaffold. Truncated C3PO, like full-length C3PO, shows endoRNase activity that leaves 3'-hydroxyl-cleaved ends. We have measured the catalytic activity of C3PO and shown it to cleave almost stoichiometric amounts of substrate per second.

Y Tian; D Simanshu; M Ascano; R Diaz-Avalos; A Park; S Juranek; W Rice; Q Yin; C Robinson; et al.

2011-12-31

23

Solution-state polymer assemblies influence BCS class II drug dissolution and supersaturation maintenance.  

PubMed

Spray dried dispersions (SDDs), solid dispersions of polymer excipients and active pharmaceuticals, are important to the field of oral drug delivery for improving active stability, bioavailability, and efficacy. Herein, we examine the influence of solution-state polymer assemblies on amorphous spray-dried dispersion (SDD) performance with two BCS II model drugs, phenytoin and probucol. These drugs were spray dried with 4 model polymer excipients consisting of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP), N,N,-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), or 2-methacrylamido glucopyranose (MAG): amphiphilic diblock ter- and copolymers, PEP-P(DMA-grad-MAG) and PEP-PDMA, and their respective hydrophilic analogues, P(DMA-grad-MAG) and PDMA. Selective and nonselective solvents for the hydrophilic block of the diblock ter- and copolymers were used to induce or repress solution-state assemblies prior to spray drying. Prespray dried solution-state assemblies of these four polymers were probed with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and showed differences in solution assembly size and structure (free polymer versus aggregates versus micelles). Solid-state structures of spray dried dispersions (SDDs) showed a single glass transition event implying a homogeneous mixture of drug/polymer. Crystallization temperatures and enthalpies indicated that the drugs interact mostly with the DMA-containing portions of the polymers. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine SDD particle size and morphology for the various polymer-drug pairings. In vitro dissolution tests showed excellent performance for one system, spray-dried PEP-PDMA micelles with probucol. Dissolution structures were investigated through DLS to determine drug-polymer aggregates that lead to enhanced SDD performance. Forced aggregation of the polymer into regular micelle structures was found to be a critical factor to increase the dissolution rate and supersaturation maintenance of SDDs, and may be an attractive platform to exploit in excipient design for oral drug delivery. PMID:24328187

Dalsin, Molly C; Tale, Swapnil; Reineke, Theresa M

2014-02-10

24

An Amyloid Organelle, Solid-state NMR Evidence for Cross-? Assembly of Gas Vesicles*  

PubMed Central

Functional amyloids have been identified in a wide range of organisms, taking on a variety of biological roles and being controlled by remarkable mechanisms of directed assembly. Here, we report that amyloid fibrils constitute the ribs of the buoyancy organelles of Anabaena flos-aquae. The walls of these gas-filled vesicles are known to comprise a single protein, GvpA, arranged in a low pitch helix. However, the tertiary and quaternary structures have been elusive. Using solid-state NMR correlation spectroscopy we find detailed evidence for an extended cross-? structure. This amyloid assembly helps to account for the strength and amphiphilic properties of the vesicle wall. Buoyancy organelles thus dramatically extend the scope of known functional amyloids. PMID:22147705

Bayro, Marvin J.; Daviso, Eugenio; Belenky, Marina; Griffin, Robert G.; Herzfeld, Judith

2012-01-01

25

Steady state temperature profiles in two simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications  

SciTech Connect

Temperature data from steady state tests in two parallel, simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications have been compared to determine the extent to which they agree. In general, good agreement was found in data at low flows and in bundle-center data at higher flows. Discrepancies in the data wre noted near the bundle edges at higher flows. An analysis of bundle thermal boundary conditions showed that the possible eccentric placement of one bundle within the housing could account for these discrepancies.

Levin, A.E.; Carbajo, J.J.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Rose, S.D.; Wantland, J.L.

1985-01-01

26

Transport spectroscopy of non-equilibrium many-particle spin states in self-assembled quantum dots.  

PubMed

Self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) are prominent candidates for solid-state quantum information processing. For these systems, great progress has been made in addressing spin states by optical means. In this study, we introduce an all-electrical measurement technique to prepare and detect non-equilibrium many-particle spin states in an ensemble of self-assembled QDs at liquid helium temperature. The excitation spectra of the one- (QD hydrogen), two- (QD helium) and three- (QD lithium) electron configuration are shown and compared with calculations using the exact diagonalization method. An exchange splitting of 10 meV between the excited triplet and singlet spin states is observed in the QD helium spectrum. These experiments are a starting point for an all-electrical control of electron spin states in self-assembled QDs above liquid helium temperature. PMID:21343927

Marquardt, B; Geller, M; Baxevanis, B; Pfannkuche, D; Wieck, A D; Reuter, D; Lorke, A

2011-01-01

27

Surface tension-powered self-assembly of microstructures - the state-of-the-art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the low dimensional power of its force scaling law, surface tension is appropriate for carrying out reshaping and assembly in the microstructure size domain. This paper reviews work on surface tension powered self-assembly of microstructures. The existing theoretical approaches for rotational assembly are unified. The demonstrated fabrication processes are compared. Mechanisms for accurately determining the assembled shape are

Richard R. A. Syms; Eric M. Yeatman; Victor M. Bright; George M. Whitesides

2003-01-01

28

Self-assembled nanowire array capacitors: capacitance and interface state profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct characterization of the capacitance and interface states is very important for understanding the electronic properties of a nanowire transistor. However, the capacitance of a single nanowire is too small to precisely measure. In this work we have fabricated metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors based on a large array of self-assembled Si nanowires. The capacitance and conductance of the nanowire array capacitors are directly measured and the interface state profile is determined by using the conductance method. We demonstrate that the nanowire array capacitor is an effective platform for studying the electronic properties of nanoscale interfaces. This approach provides a useful and efficient metrology for the study of the physics and device properties of nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor structures.

Li, Qiliang; Xiong, Hao D.; Liang, Xuelei; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Diefeng; Ioannou, Dimitris E.; Baumgart, Helmut; Richter, Curt A.

2014-04-01

29

19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United...United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to shape (but...

2011-04-01

30

19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United...United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to shape (but...

2010-04-01

31

Encapsulated discrete octameric water cluster, 1D water tape, and 3D water aggregate network in diverse MOFs based on bisimidazolium ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four new metal-organic frameworks, [Zn(2-mBIM)2(SO3CF3)2·(H2O)4] (1), [Zn(BMIE)(1,4-BDC)]·(H2O)3 (2), [Cd(BIM)2(OH)(H2O)2(PF6)]·(H2O)4 (3), and [Cd(PA-BIM)2 (ClO4)2]·11.33H2O (4) (2-mBIM = bis(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methane, BMIE = 1,2-bis[1-(2-methylimidazole)-diethoxy]ethane, BIM = bis(imidazol-1-yl)methane, and PA-BIM = 1,1-bis [(2-phenylazo)imidazol-1-yl]methane) have been prepared and structurally characterized. Complex 1 exhibits an infinite 1D cationic beaded-chain structure, which encapsulated discrete octameric water clusters that are comprised of a chair-like hexameric water cluster with two extra water molecules dangling on two diagonal vertices of the chair. Complex 2 forms a 1D infinite zigzag metal-organic chain structure with a 1D T4(0)A(4) water tape. Complexes 3 show a 2D grid-like sheet structure with the 1D water tape T4(0)A(0)2(0) motif. Complex 4 is a porous 3D MOF with tetrahedron-coordinated Cd(II) centers and trans-conformation PA-BIM ligands. These holes are occupied by a fascinating three-dimensional water clathrate network, which consists of cage-shaped structural tetradecameric water cluster (H2O)14 units and six independent bridged water molecules. The results suggest that the bisimidazolium ligands and anions play crucial roles in the formation of the different host structures and different guest water aggregations. Additionally, the thermal stabilities and photoluminescence spectra of the complexes have been discussed.

Shi, Ruo-Bing; Pi, Min; Jiang, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Chuan-Ming

2014-08-01

32

Solid state assemblies and photophysical characteristics of linear and bent-core ?-conjugated oligophenylenevinylenes.  

PubMed

New classes of luminescent linear, bent-core, and star-shaped oligophenylenevinylenes (OPVs) having 1,4-para and 1,3-meta rigid aromatic cores were designed and developed. 3-Pentadecylphenol, a renewable resource molecule, was chosen as the flexible unit at the longitudinal or middle position of the OPV aromatic core for solid state ordering. Depending upon the nature of the ?-core, the OPVs exhibited either mosaic-type liquid crystalline textures or spherulitic crystalline solids. The enthalpies of melting transitions revealed that the bent-core OPV structure showed enhanced solid state packing compared to linear or star-shaped OPVs. Small and wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed layered-like assemblies in OPV molecules. Photophysical experiments such as excitation, emission, and time-resolved fluorescence decay dynamics were carried out to trace the molecular self-organization of OPV chromophores. Time correlated single photon counting technique (TCSPC) luminescent decay profiles and decay lifetimes (?1 and ?2 values) revealed that the OPV chromophores showed faster exciton decay in the tightly packed bent-core structure. The weakly packed star-shaped OPV showed enhanced excited state luminescence stability up to 10 ns. A direct correlation between the OPV chemical structure, solid state ordering, and photophysical characteristics was established. PMID:23716506

Singh, Harpreet; Balamurugan, A; Jayakannan, M

2013-06-26

33

Oligomerization of hydrophobin SC3 in solution: From soluble state to self-assembly  

PubMed Central

Hydrophobin SC3 is a protein with special self-association properties that differ depending on whether it is in solution, on an air/water interface or on a solid surface. Its self-association on an air/water interface and solid surface have been extensively characterized. The current study focuses on its self-association in water because this is the starting point for the other two association processes. Size-exclusion chromatography was used to fractionate soluble-state SC3. Real-time multiangular light scattering detection of the eluate indicated that SC3 mainly exists as a dimer in buffer, accompanied with a small amount of monomer, tetramer, and larger aggregates. Dimeric SC3 has very likely an elongated shape, as indicated by the hydrodynamic radius determined by using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence anisotropy measurements on dansyl-labeled SC3. Size-exclusion chromatography experiments also indicated that the protein oligomerizes very slowly at low temperature (4°C) but rather rapidly at room temperature. Ionic strength plays an important role in the oligomerization; a short-lived monomeric SC3 species could be observed in pure water. Oligomerization was not affected by low pH but was accelerated by high pH. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer showed that dissociation occurred when the protein concentration was lowered; a large population of oligomers, presumably dimers, dissociate when the protein concentration is <4.5 ?g/mL. This value is similar to the critical concentration for SC3 self-assembly. Therefore, dimeric SC3 is indicated to be the building block for both aggregation in solution and self-assembly at hydrophobic/hydrophilic interfaces. PMID:14978312

Wang, Xiaoqin; Graveland-Bikker, Johanna F.; De Kruif, Cornelis G.; Robillard, George T.

2004-01-01

34

Affordability of Higher Education: California and Other States. Presentation to the Assembly Higher Education Committee. Report 11-01  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a summary of a presentation to the Assembly Higher Education Committee on college fee and total cost comparisons of California public universities with comparator universities in other states. This summary also includes grant award estimates and net cost of college by family income.

Jones, Jessika

2011-01-01

35

Synthesis and solution state self-assembly of linear-dendritic block copolymers  

E-print Network

Linear-dendritic block copolymers consisting of a poly(styrene) linear block and poly(amidoamine) dendrimer block were synthesized and examined for their ability to self-assemble in both aqueous environments and organic/aqueous ...

Stokes, Kristoffer Keith

2007-01-01

36

Two equations of state assembled for basic analysis of multiphase CO 2 flow and in deep sedimentary basin conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study presented in this manuscript is to describe and make available two equation-of-state (EOS) algorithms assembled for multiphase flow and transport of carbon dioxide (CO2). The algorithms presented here calculate solubility, compressibility factor, density, viscosity, fugacity, and enthalpy of CO2 in gaseous and supercritical phases, and mixtures or solutions of CO2 in water, as functions of

Brian J. O. L. McPherson; Weon Shik Han; Barret S. Cole

2008-01-01

37

Fabrication of ultra-thin polyrotaxane-based films via solid-state continuous assembly of polymers.  

PubMed

Surface-confined ultra-thin polyrotaxane (PRX)-based films with tunable composition, surface topology and swelling characteristics were prepared by solid-state continuous assembly of polymers (ssCAP). The PRX-based films supported cell attachment, and their degradation in biological media could be tuned. This study provides a versatile nano-coating technology with potential applications in biomedicine, including tissue engineering and medical devices. PMID:25487812

Tan, Shereen; Nam, Eunhyung; Cui, Jiwei; Xu, Chenglong; Fu, Qiang; Ren, Jing M; Wong, Edgar H H; Ladewig, Katharina; Caruso, Frank; Blencowe, Anton; Qiao, Greg G

2015-01-22

38

Correction: High-performance all-solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor arrays with layer-by-layer assembled MWNT/MnOx nanocomposite electrodes.  

PubMed

Correction for 'High-performance all-solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor arrays with layer-by-layer assembled MWNT/MnOx nanocomposite electrodes' by Geumbee Lee et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 9655-9664. PMID:25365456

Lee, Geumbee; Kim, Daeil; Yun, Junyeong; Ko, Yongmin; Cho, Jinhan; Sook Ha, Jeong

2014-12-21

39

Correction: High-performance all-solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor arrays with layer-by-layer assembled MWNT/MnOx nanocomposite electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correction for `High-performance all-solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor arrays with layer-by-layer assembled MWNT/MnOx nanocomposite electrodes' by Geumbee Lee et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 9655-9664.

Lee, Geumbee; Kim, Daeil; Yun, Junyeong; Ko, Yongmin; Cho, Jinhan; Sook Ha, Jeong

2014-11-01

40

Creation of photo-modulated multi-state and multi-scale molecular assemblies via binary-state molecular switch  

E-print Network

to control molecular assembly involves pH,2 light,3 temperature,4 electric,5 redox,6 ultrasound,7 salinity,8 at various biological levels, photomorphogenesis, and conversion of light energy into chemical energy as physicochemical events.9 Second, in contrast to redox regent, pH change, salinity and stress, light signal can

Huang, Jianbin

41

Controlled Evaporative Assembly of Polymers from Confined Solutions Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011  

E-print Network

Controlled Evaporative Assembly of Polymers from Confined Solutions ZHIQUN LIN Department evaporative assembly; ordered structures; self-assembly; structure; surfaces INTRODUCTION In the process line of an evaporating drop becomes pinned. This ensures that liquid evaporating from the edge

Lin, Zhiqun

42

Alternative stable states and alternative endstates of community assembly through intra- and interspecific positive and negative interactions.  

PubMed

Positive and negative interactions within and between species may occur simultaneously, with the net effect depending on population densities. For instance, at low densities plants may ameliorate stress, while competition for resources dominates at higher densities. Here, we propose a simple two-species model in which con- and heterospecifics have a positive effect on per capita growth rate at low densities, while negative interactions dominate at high densities. The model thus includes both Allee effects (intraspecific positive effects) and mutualism (interspecific positive effects), as well as intra- and interspecific competition. Using graphical methods we derive conditions for alternative stable states and species coexistence. We show that mutual non-invasibility (i.e. the inability of each species to invade a population of the other) is more likely when species have a strong positive effect on the own species or a strong negative effect on the other species. Mutual non-invasibility implies alternative stable states, however, there may also be alternative stable states at which species coexist. In the case of species symmetry (i.e. when species are indistinguishable), such alternative coexistence states require that if the positive effect exerted at low densities at the own species is stronger than on the other species, the negative effect at higher densities is also stronger on the own species than on the other species, or, vice versa, if the interspecific positive effects at low densities are stronger than the intraspecific effects, the negative effects at higher densities are also stronger between species than within species. However, the reachability of alternative stable states is restricted by the frequency and density at which species are introduced during community assembly, so that alternative stable states do not always represent alternative endstates of community assembly. PMID:25018053

Gerla, Daan J; Mooij, Wolf M

2014-09-01

43

Herringbone and helical self-assembly of ?-conjugated molecules in the solid state through CH/? hydrogen bonds.  

PubMed

Self-organization of organic molecules through weak noncovalent forces such as CH/? interactions and creation of large hierarchical supramolecular structures in the solid state are at the very early stage of research. The present study reports direct evidence for CH/? interaction driven hierarchical self-assembly in ?-conjugated molecules based on custom-designed oligophenylenevinylenes (OPVs) whose structures differ only in the number of carbon atoms in the tails. Single-crystal X-ray structures were resolved for these OPV synthons and the existence of long-range multiple-arm CH/? interactions was revealed in the crystal lattices. Alignment of these ?-conjugated OPVs in the solid state was found to be crucial in producing either right-handed herringbone packing in the crystal or left-handed helices in the liquid-crystalline mesophase. Pitch- and roll-angle displacements of OPV chromophores were determined to trace the effect of the molecular inclination on the ordering of hierarchical structures. Furthermore, circular dichroism studies on the OPVs were carried out in the aligned helical structures to prove the existence of molecular self-assembly. Thus, the present strategy opens up new approaches in supramolecular chemistry based on weak CH/? hydrogen bonding, more specifically in ?-conjugated materials. PMID:22887776

Goel, Mahima; Jayakannan, Manickam

2012-09-17

44

Zinc chlorins for artificial light-harvesting self-assemble into antiparallel stacks forming a microcrystalline solid-state material  

PubMed Central

We introduce a concept to solve the structure of a microcrystalline material in the solid-state at natural abundance without access to distance constraints, using magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with X-ray powder diffraction and DFT calculations. The method is applied to a novel class of materials that form (semi)conductive 1D wires for supramolecular electronics and artificial light-harvesting. The zinc chlorins 3-devinyl-31-hydroxymethyl-132-demethoxycarbonylpheophorbide a (3?,5?-bis-dodecyloxy)benzyl ester zinc complex 1 and 3-devinyl-31-methoxymethyl-132-demethoxycarbonylpheophorbide a (3?,5?-bis-dodecyloxy)benzyl ester zinc complex 2, self-assemble into extended excitonically coupled chromophore stacks. 1H-13C heteronuclear dipolar correlation MAS NMR experiments provided the 1H resonance assignment of the chlorin rings that allowed accurate probing of ring currents related to the stacking of macrocycles. DFT ring-current shift calculations revealed that both chlorins self-assemble in antiparallel ?-stacks in planar layers in the solid-state. Concomitantly, X-ray powder diffraction measurements for chlorin 2 at 80 °C revealed a 3D lattice for the mesoscale packing that matches molecular mechanics optimized aggregate models. For chlorin 2 the stacks alternate with a periodicity of 0.68 nm and a 3D unit cell with an approximate volume of 6.28 nm3 containing 4 molecules, which is consistent with space group P21221. PMID:19587237

Ganapathy, Swapna; Sengupta, Sanchita; Wawrzyniak, Piotr K.; Huber, Valerie; Buda, Francesco; Baumeister, Ute; Würthner, Frank; de Groot, Huub J. M.

2009-01-01

45

Assembly States of FliM and FliG within the Flagellar Switch Complex.  

PubMed

At the base of the bacterial flagella, a cytoplasmic rotor (the C-ring) generates torque and reverses rotation sense in response to stimuli. The bulk of the C-ring forms from many copies of the proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN, which together constitute the switch complex. To help resolve outstanding issues regarding C-ring architecture, we have investigated interactions between FliM and FliG from Thermotoga maritima with X-ray crystallography and pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy (PDS). A new crystal structure of an 11-unit FliG:FliM complex produces a large arc with a curvature consistent with the dimensions of the C-ring. Previously determined structures along with this new structure provided a basis to test switch complex assembly models. PDS combined with mutational studies and targeted cross-linking reveal that FliM and FliG interact through their middle domains to form both parallel and antiparallel arrangements in solution. Residue substitutions at predicted interfaces disrupt higher-order complexes that are primarily mediated by contacts between the C-terminal domain of FliG and the middle domain of a neighboring FliG molecule. Spin separations among multi-labeled components fit a self-consistent model that agree well with electron microscopy images of the C-ring. An activated form of the response regulator CheY destabilizes the parallel arrangement of FliM molecules to perturb FliG alignment in a process that may reflect the onset of rotation switching. These data suggest a model of C-ring assembly in which intermolecular contacts among FliG domains provide a template for FliM assembly and cooperative transitions. PMID:25536293

Sircar, Ria; Borbat, Peter P; Lynch, Michael J; Bhatnagar, Jaya; Beyersdorf, Matthew S; Halkides, Christopher J; Freed, Jack H; Crane, Brian R

2015-02-27

46

Modeling capsid kinetics assembly from the steady state distribution of multi-sizes aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of aggregation for particles of various sizes depends on their diffusive arrival and fusion at a specific nucleation site. We present here a mean-field approximation and a stochastic jump model for aggregates at equilibrium. This approach is an alternative to the classical Smoluchowski equations that do not have a close form and are not solvable in general. We analyze these mean-field equations and obtain the kinetics of a cluster formation. Our approach provides a simplified theoretical framework to study the kinetics of viral capsid formation, such as HIV from the self-assembly of the structural proteins Gag.

Hozé, Nathanaël; Holcman, David

2014-01-01

47

Evaluation of a symmetry-based strategy for assembling protein complexes†  

PubMed Central

We evaluate a strategy for assembling proteins into large cage-like structures, based on the symmetry associated with the native protein’s quaternary structure. Using a trimeric protein, KDPG aldolase, as a building block, two fusion proteins were designed that could assemble together upon mixing. The fusion proteins, designated A-(+) and A-(?), comprise the aldolase domain, a short, flexible spacer sequence, and a sequence designed to form a heterodimeric antiparallel coiled-coil between A-(+) and A-(?). The flexible spacer is included to minimize constraints on the ability of the fusion proteins to assemble into larger structures. On incubating together, A-(+) and A-(?) assembled into a mixture of complexes that were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle laser light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Our analysis indicates that, despite the inherent flexibility of the assembly strategy, the proteins assemble into a limited number of globular structures. Dimeric and tetrameric complexes of A-(+) and A-(?) predominate, with some evidence for the formation of larger assemblies; e.g. octameric A-(+): A-(?) complexes. PMID:23293744

Patterson, Dustin P.; Desai, Ankur M.; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak; Marsh, E. Neil G.

2012-01-01

48

Papillomavirus E1 helicase assembly maintains an asymmetric state in the absence of DNA and nucleotide cofactors  

PubMed Central

Concerted, stochastic and sequential mechanisms of action have been proposed for different hexameric AAA+ molecular motors. Here we report the crystal structure of the E1 helicase from bovine papillomavirus, where asymmetric assembly is for the first time observed in the absence of nucleotide cofactors and DNA. Surprisingly, the ATP-binding sites adopt specific conformations linked to positional changes in the DNA-binding hairpins, which follow a wave-like trajectory, as observed previously in the E1/DNA/ADP complex. The protein's assembly thus maintains such an asymmetric state in the absence of DNA and nucleotide cofactors, allowing consideration of the E1 helicase action as the propagation of a conformational wave around the protein ring. The data imply that the wave's propagation within the AAA+ domains is not necessarily coupled with a strictly sequential hydrolysis of ATP. Since a single ATP hydrolysis event would affect the whole hexamer, such events may simply serve to rectify the direction of the wave's motion. PMID:17881379

Sanders, Cyril M.; Kovalevskiy, Oleg V.; Sizov, Dmytro; Lebedev, Andrey A.; Isupov, Michail N.; Antson, Alfred A.

2007-01-01

49

Monitoring intermediate filament assembly by small-angle x-ray scattering reveals the molecular architecture of assembly intermediates  

PubMed Central

Intermediate filaments (IFs), along with microtubules, microfilaments, and associated cross-bridging proteins, constitute the cytoskeleton of metazoan cells. While crystallographic data on the dimer representing the elementary IF “building block” have recently become available, little structural detail is known about both the mature IF architecture and its assembly pathway. Here, we have applied solution small-angle x-ray scattering to investigate the in vitro assembly of a 53-kDa human IF protein vimentin at pH 8.4 by systematically varying the ionic strength conditions, and complemented these experiments by electron microscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation. While a vimentin solution in 5 mM Tris·HCl (pH 8.4) contains predominantly tetramers, addition of 20 mM NaCl induces further lateral assembly evidenced by the shift of the sedimentation coeficient and yields a distinct octameric intermediate. Four octamers eventually associate into unit-length filaments (ULFs) that anneal longitudinally. Based on the small-angle x-ray scattering experiments supplemented by crystallographic data and additional structural constraints, 3D molecular models of the vimentin tetramer, octamer, and ULF were constructed. Within each of the three oligomers, the adjacent dimers are aligned exclusively in an approximately half-staggered antiparallel A11 mode with a distance of 3.2–3.4 nm between their axes. The ULF appears to be a dynamic and a relatively loosely packed structure with a roughly even mass distribution over its cross-section. PMID:17050693

Sokolova, Anna V.; Kreplak, Laurent; Wedig, Tatjana; Mücke, Norbert; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Herrmann, Harald; Aebi, Ueli; Strelkov, Sergei V.

2006-01-01

50

Laplace-Transform Deep-Level Spectroscopy Characterization of the Intrinsic and Deep-Level States in Self-Assembled InAs Quantum-Dot Structures  

SciTech Connect

The electron emission from the intrinsic and deep-level states in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum-dot structures is probed using the Laplace-transform deep-level transient spectroscopy. The technique shows sufficient resolution to resolve electron emission from the singly and doubly occupied QD s states. By applying an appropriate set of voltage pulses across the Schottky-diode structure, we identify the electron distribution profile in the quantum-dot intrinsic states.

Lin, S. W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Song, A. M.; Peaker, A. R. [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

2010-01-04

51

Resonant spectroscopy of II-VI self-assembled quantum dots: Excited states and exciton-longitudinal optical phonon coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using resonantly excited photoluminescence (PL) along with photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopies, we study the carrier excitation processes in CdTe/ZnTe and CdSe/ZnSe self-assembled quantum dots (QD’s). PLE spectra of single CdTe QD’s reflect two major mechanisms for carrier excitation: The first, associated with the presence of sharp and intense lines in the spectrum, is a direct excited-state-ground-state transition. The second, associated with the appearance of up to four much broader excitation lines, is a longitudinal optical (LO) phonon-assisted absorption directly into the QD ground states. LO phonons with energies of both QD’s and ZnTe barrier material are identified in the PLE spectra. Resonantly excited PL measurements for the QD ensemble as a function of excitation energy makes it possible to separate the contributions of these two mechanisms. We find that for CdTe QD’s the distribution of excited states coupled to the ground states reflects the energy distribution of the QD emission, but shifted up in energy by 100meV . This large splitting between excited and ground states in CdTe QD’s suggests strong spatial confinement. In contrast, the LO phonon-assisted absorption shows significant size selectivity. In the case of CdTe dots the exciton-LO phonon coupling is strongly enhanced for smaller-sized dots which have higher emission energies. In contrast, for CdSe QD’s the strength of exciton-LO phonon coupling is nearly uniform over the whole ensemble—that is, the dot energy distribution determines the intensities of LO phonon replicas. We show that for CdTe QD’s after annealing, that is, after an increase in the average dot size, the exciton-LO phonon interaction reflects the dot energy distribution, as observed for CdSe QD’s.

Nguyen, T. A.; Mackowski, S.; Jackson, H. E.; Smith, L. M.; Wrobel, J.; Fronc, K.; Karczewski, G.; Kossut, J.; Dobrowolska, M.; Furdyna, J. K.; Heiss, W.

2004-09-01

52

Resonant Spectroscopy of II-VI Self-Assembled Quantum Dots: Excited States and Exciton-LO Phonon Coupling  

E-print Network

Using resonantly excited photoluminescence along with photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies, we study the carrier excitation processes in CdTe/ZnTe and CdSe/ZnSe self-assembled quantum dots. Photoluminescence excitation spectra of single CdTe quantum dots reflect two major mechanisms for carrier excitation: The first, associated with the presence of sharp and intense lines in the spectrum, is a direct excited state ? ground state transition. The second, associated with the appearance of up to four much broader excitation lines, is a LO phonon-assisted absorption directly into the quantum dot ground states. LO phonons with energies of both quantum dots and ZnTe barrier material are identified in the photoluminescence excitation spectra. Resonantly excited PL measurements for the dot ensemble as a function of excitation energy makes it possible to separate the contributions of these two mechanisms. We find that for CdTe quantum dots the distribution of excited states coupled to the ground states reflects the energy distribution of the quantum dot emission, but shifted up in energy by 100 meV. This large splitting between excited and ground states in CdTe quantum dots suggests strong spatial confinement. In contrast, the LO phonon-assisted absorption shows significant size selectivity. In the case of CdTe dots the exciton-LO phonon coupling is strongly enhanced for smaller-sized dots which have higher emission energies. In contrast, for CdSe quantum dots the exciton-LO phonon coupling is uniform over the ensemble ? that is, the energy distribution determines the intensities of LO phonon replicas. We show that for CdTe quantum dots after annealing, that is after an increase in the average dot size, the exciton-LO phonon interaction reflects the dot energy distribution, as observed for CdSe quantum dots.

T. A. Nguyen; S. Mackowski; H. E. Jackson; L. M. Smith; J. Wrobel; K. Fronc; G. Karczewski; J. Kossut; M. Dobrowolska J. K. Furdyna; W. Heiss

2003-09-17

53

Structures of S. pombe phosphofructokinase in the F6P-bound and ATP-bound states  

PubMed Central

Phosphofructokinase (Pfk1; EC 2.7.1.11) is the third enzyme of the glycolytic pathway catalyzing the formation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate from fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) and ATP. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Pfk1 is a homo-octameric enzyme of 800 kDa molecular weight, distinct from its yeast counterparts which are mostly hetero-octameric enzymes composed of two different subunits. Having an “open” conformation and a tendency to aggregate into higher oligomeric structures, the S. pombe enzyme shows similarities to the mammalian muscle Pfk1. It has been proposed that due to the distinct N-terminal region of the S. pombe subunit, the oligomeric organization of subunits in this enzyme is different from other yeast phosphofructokinases. Electron microscopy studies were carried out to reveal the quaternary structure of the homo-octameric Pfk1 from S. pombe in the F6P-bound and in the ATP-bound state. Random conical tilt data sets have been collected from deep stain preparations of the enzyme in both states. The 0° tilt images have been separated into different classes and a 3D reconstruction has been calculated for each class from the high tilt images. Our results confirm the presence of a variety of views of the particle, most of which can be interpreted as views of the molecule rotating around its long axis. Despite the biochemical differences, the structure of phosphofructokinase from S. pombe in the presence of either F6P or ATP is similar to the hetero-octameric structure of phosphofructokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecule can be described as composed of two subdomains, connected by two well-defined densities. We have been able to establish a correlation between the kinetic behavior and the structural conformation of Pfk1. PMID:17643314

Benjamin, Shaun; Radermacher, Michael; Bär, Jörg; Edelmann, Anke; Ruiz, Teresa

2009-01-01

54

Computer simulation of model cohesive powders: Influence of assembling procedure and contact laws on low consolidation states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the structure and mechanical properties of a simple two-dimensional model of a cohesive granular material. Intergranular forces involve elasticity, Coulomb friction, and a short-range attraction akin to the van der Waals force in powders. The effects of rolling resistance (RR) at intergranular contacts are also studied. The microstructure of the cohesive packing under low pressure is shown to depend sensitively on the assembling procedure which is applied to the initially isolated particles of a granular gas. While a direct compression produces a final equilibrated configuration with a similar density to that of cohesionless systems, the formation of large aggregates prior to the application of an external pressure results in much looser stable packings. A crucial state variable is the ratio P*=Pa/F0 of applied pressure P , acting on grains of diameter a , to maximum tensile contact force F0 . At low P* the force-carrying structure and force distribution are sensitive to the level of velocity fluctuations in the early stages of cluster aggregation. The coordination number of packings with RR approaches 2 in the limit of low initial velocities or large rolling friction. In general the force network is composed of hyperstatic clusters, typically comprising four to a few tens of grains, in which forces reach values of the order of F0 , joined by barely rigid arms, where contact forces are very small. Under growing P* , it quickly rearranges into force chainlike patterns that are more familiar in dense systems. Density correlations are interpreted in terms of a fractal structure, up to a characteristic correlation length ? of the order of ten particle diameters for the studied solid fractions. The fractal dimension in systems with RR coincides, within measurement uncertainties, with the ballistic aggregation result, in spite of a possibly different connectivity, but is apparently higher without RR. Possible effects of micromechanical and assembling process parameters on mechanical strength of packings are evoked.

Gilabert, F. A.; Roux, J.-N.; Castellanos, A.

2007-01-01

55

Effects of self-assembled monolayers on solid-state CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are of interest for solar energy conversion because of their tunable band gap and promise of stable, low-cost performance. We have investigated the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state QDSSCs. CdS quantum dots ?2 to ?6 nm in diameter were grown on SAM-passivated planar or nanostructured TiO(2) surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and photovoltaic devices were fabricated with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole conductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements were employed to characterize the materials and the resulting device performance. The data indicate that the nature of the SAM tailgroup does not significantly affect the uptake of CdS quantum dots on TiO(2) nor their optical properties, but the presence of the SAM does have a significant effect on the photovoltaic device performance. Interestingly, we observe up to ?3 times higher power conversion efficiencies in devices with a SAM compared to those without the SAM. PMID:21299223

Ardalan, Pendar; Brennan, Thomas P; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Bakke, Jonathan R; Ding, I-Kang; McGehee, Michael D; Bent, Stacey F

2011-02-22

56

State-of-the-art silicon carbide optical telescope assembly for the JMAPS mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-3 Communications IOS-SSG (L-3 SSG) has recently completed development of an ultra low wavefront error and highly stable Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical payload for the Joint Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (JMAPS) mission. Selection of SiC as the opto-mechanical material was driven by the JMAPS requirements for extremely low residual optical aberrations and distortion, and state-of-the-art temporal and thermal stability. JMAPS utilizes a passively athermalized design, combining SiC optics with aggressively lightweighted SiC metering structures. The resulting hardware has been optically tested over temperature, demonstrating an exceptionally low and stable system level wavefront error. This exceptional performance, combined with the aggressively lightweighted sinterbonded SiC structures developed result in an instrument which represents the state-of-the-art from the perspective of optical performance and structural efficiency. We will provide an overview of the system, with emphasis on the SiC opto-mechanics, and system level test results.

Catropa, Dan; Azad, Farsh

2013-09-01

57

EXTENSION ADMINISTRATION AND STATE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS--A CASE STUDY OF THE 71ST MISSOURI GENERAL ASSEMBLY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO GAIN UNDERSTANDING OF MISSOURI'S LEGISLATIVE PROCESS AND AID ADMINISTRATORS OF THE EXTENSION DIVISION, THE AUTHOR INVESTIGATED THE 71ST GENERAL ASSEMBLY. HE READ PUBLICATIONS, INTERVIEWED LOBBYISTS, AND CONDUCTED OPEN ENDED DEPTH INTERVIEWS WITH LEGISLATORS SELECTED TO COMPRISE THE LEADERSHIP OF THE ASSEMBLY. HIS DISSERTATION PRESENTS THE…

KYD, STIRLING

58

Electronic band states of long-range ordered aromatic thione molecules assembled on Cu(100)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional long-range ordered organic molecule layers can be achieved by depositing thiols on single crystalline surfaces. The aromatic thione 2-mercaptobenzoxazole (MBO) molecule (C7H5NOS) presents a S-containing head which reacts with the Cu surface, and an aromatic ring originating lateral van der Waals interactions and molecular self-organization. A long-range-ordered p(2×2) structure of MBO on Cu(100) is obtained, by MBO sublimation in highly controlled ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. The MBO molecular orbitals and interface electronic levels have been identified, also comparing the room-temperature experiment with the low-temperature (100 K) physisorption data, by angular-resolved high-resolution UV photoelectron spectroscopy. The role of S as a chemical hook for the molecule to the Cu surface is evidenced, and comparison with similar compounds suggests that the adsorption mechanism and the related electronic structure are rather general results for ?-conjugated molecules with a S-containing head. We give striking evidence of energy-band formation of MBO-Cu interaction states, bringing to light molecule-Cu extended hybrid bands, with a bandwidth of 120 meV along one main azimuthal symmetry direction of the surface Brillouin zone.

Mariani, Carlo; Allegretti, Francesco; Corradini, Valdis; Contini, Giorgio; Castro, Valeria Di; Baldacchini, Chiara; Betti, Maria Grazia

2002-09-01

59

Assembly State of Proteasome Activator 28 in an Aqueous Solution as Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of quaternary structures of proteins in solution remains challenging, especially for those undergoing dynamic changes. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a potentially powerful method for addressing this issue with little perturbation resulting from irradiation damage. However, it is usually difficult to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structure of protein complexes at the atomic level on the basis of only SANS data. To cope with this difficulty, we developed a novel approach combining 3D homology modeling with SANS profile simulation, in which whole simulated SANS profiles were examined together with experimental SANS data. We herein demonstrate the feasibilty of our strategy using proteasome activator 28 (PA28) as a model system. PA28 is a hetero-oligomeric protein composed of homologous ?- and ?-subunits. Although the crystal structure of the homoheptameric ring of ?-subunits (PA28?7) has been reported, the physiologically relevant hetero-oligomeric structure remains to be elucidated. On the basis of the PA28?7 structure, we performed homology modeling to build hypothetical quaternary structures of the PA28 hetero-oligomer. By analyzing the SANS data of a PA28 mutant lacking a mobile loop in its ?-subunit, we successfully revealed that ?- and ?-subunits form heteroheptameric rings, about half of which are stacked back to back to form a double-ring structure. Thus, our SANS approach provides in-depth information on the assembly states of protein subunits in aqueous solutions.

Sugiyama, Masaaki; Kurimoto, Eiji; Morimoto, Yukio; Sahashi, Hiroki; Sakata, Eri; Hamada, Kei; Itoh, Keiji; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Minami, Yasufumi; Kato, Koichi

2009-12-01

60

Solid state NMR of a molecular self-assembly: multinuclear approach to the cyanuric acid-melamine system.  

PubMed

[see structure]. Trinuclear MAS NMR, involving naturally abundant (13C, 15N) and easily deuterated (2H) nuclei, is shown to offer newer opportunities to study molecular self-assembly in noncrystalline supramolecular systems. PMID:11405745

Damodaran, K; Sanjayan, G J; Rajamohanan, P R; Ganapathy, S; Ganesh, K N

2001-06-14

61

Evaluation of the influence of ionization states and spacers in the thermotropic phase behaviour of amino acid-based cationic lipids and the transfection efficiency of their assemblies.  

PubMed

The influence of both the ionization states and the hydrocarbon chain spacer of a series of amino acid-based cationic lipids was evaluated in terms of gene delivery efficiency and cytotoxicity to the COS-7 cell line and compared with that of Lipofectamine 2000. We synthesized a series of amino acid-based cationic lipids with different ionization states (i.e., -NH(2), -NH(3)(+)Cl(-) or -NH(3)(+)TFA(-)) in the lysine head group and different hydrocarbon chain spacers (i.e., 0, 3, 5 or 7 carbon atoms) between the hydrophilic head group and hydrophobic moieties. In the 3-carbon series, the cationic assemblies formed a micellar structure in the presence of -NH(3)(+)Cl(-) and a vesicular structure both in the presence of -NH(2) and -NH(3)(+)TFA(-). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data revealed a significantly lower (8.1°C) gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature for cationic assemblies bearing -NH(3)(+)TFA(-) when compared to their -NH(2) counterparts. Furthermore, the zeta potential of cationic assemblies having -NH(3)(+)TFA(-) in the hydrophilic head group was maximum followed by -NH(3)(+)Cl(-) and -NH(2) irrespective of their hydrocarbon chain spacer length. The gene delivery efficiency in relation to the ionization states of the hydrophilic head group was as follows: -NH(3)(+)TFA(-)>-NH(3)(+)Cl(-)>-NH(2). PMID:22079713

Sarker, Satya Ranjan; Arai, Satoshi; Murate, Motohide; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Takata, Masaki; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Takeoka, Shinji

2012-01-17

62

Bayesian transcriptome assembly.  

PubMed

RNA-seq allows for simultaneous transcript discovery and quantification, but reconstructing complete transcripts from such data remains difficult. Here, we introduce the Bayesembler, a novel probabilistic method for transcriptome assembly built on a Bayesian model of the RNA sequencing process. Under this model, samples from the posterior distribution over transcripts and their abundance values are obtained using Gibbs sampling. By using the frequency at which transcripts are observed during sampling to select the final assembly, we demonstrate marked improvements in sensitivity and precision over state-of-the-art assemblers on both simulated and real data. The Bayesembler is available at https://github.com/bioinformatics-centre/bayesembler. PMID:25367074

Maretty, Lasse; Sibbesen, Jonas; Krogh, Anders

2014-10-31

63

Supraspliceosomes at Defined Functional States Portray the Pre-Assembled Nature of the Pre-mRNA Processing Machine in the Cell Nucleus  

PubMed Central

When isolated from mammalian cell nuclei, all nuclear pre-mRNAs are packaged in multi-subunit large ribonucleoprotein complexes—supraspliceosomes—composed of four native spliceosomes interconnected by the pre-mRNA. Supraspliceosomes contain all five spliceosomal U snRNPs, together with other splicing factors, and are functional in splicing. Supraspliceosomes studied thus far represent the steady-state population of nuclear pre-mRNAs that were isolated at different stages of the splicing reaction. To analyze specific splicing complexes, here, we affinity purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage 7 (PP7)-tagged splicing complexes assembled in vivo on Adenovirus Major Late (AdML) transcripts at specific functional stages, and characterized them using molecular techniques including mass spectrometry. First, we show that these affinity purified splicing complexes assembled on PP7-tagged AdML mRNA or on PP7-tagged AdML pre-mRNA are assembled in supraspliceosomes. Second, similar to the general population of supraspliceosomes, these defined supraspliceosomes populations are assembled with all five U snRNPs at all splicing stages. This study shows that dynamic changes in base-pairing interactions of U snRNA:U snRNA and U snRNA:pre-mRNA that occur in vivo during the splicing reaction do not require changes in U snRNP composition of the supraspliceosome. Furthermore, there is no need to reassemble a native spliceosome for the splicing of each intron, and rearrangements of the interactions will suffice. PMID:24983480

Kotzer-Nevo, Hani; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Rappsilber, Juri; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth

2014-01-01

64

Geometric reasoning about assembly tools  

SciTech Connect

Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

Wilson, R.H.

1997-01-01

65

Conformational transitions in human translin enable nucleic acid binding  

PubMed Central

Translin is a highly conserved RNA- and DNA-binding protein that plays essential roles in eukaryotic cells. Human translin functions as an octamer, but in the octameric crystallographic structure, the residues responsible for nucleic acid binding are not accessible. Moreover, electron microscopy data reveal very different octameric configurations. Consequently, the functional assembly and the mechanism of nucleic acid binding by the protein remain unclear. Here, we present an integrative study combining small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical analysis and computational techniques to address these questions. Our data indicate a significant conformational heterogeneity for translin in solution, formed by a lesser-populated compact octameric state resembling the previously solved X-ray structure, and a highly populated open octameric state that had not been previously identified. On the other hand, our SAXS data and computational analyses of translin in complex with the RNA oligonucleotide (GU)12 show that the internal cavity found in the octameric assemblies can accommodate different nucleic acid conformations. According to this model, the nucleic acid binding residues become accessible for binding, which facilitates the entrance of the nucleic acids into the cavity. Our data thus provide a structural basis for the functions that translin performs in RNA metabolism and transport. PMID:23980029

Pérez-Cano, Laura; Eliahoo, Elad; Lasker, Keren; Wolfson, Haim J.; Glaser, Fabian; Manor, Haim; Bernadó, Pau; Fernández-Recio, Juan

2013-01-01

66

Assembly Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work individually to assemble a product and then work in teams to design, construct, test, and redesign an assembly line process whose product must meet specific quality control criteria. Learners reflect and compare the two approaches. Note: Page 14 is not in the correct position. It should actually be between pages 2 and 3.

Ieee

2014-05-22

67

Proteasome assembly.  

PubMed

In eukaryotic cells, proteasomes are highly conserved protease complexes and eliminate unwanted proteins which are marked by poly-ubiquitin chains for degradation. The 26S proteasome consists of the proteolytic core particle, the 20S proteasome, and the 19S regulatory particle, which are composed of 14 and 19 different subunits, respectively. Proteasomes are the second-most abundant protein complexes and are continuously assembled from inactive precursor complexes in proliferating cells. The modular concept of proteasome assembly was recognized in prokaryotic ancestors and applies to eukaryotic successors. The efficiency and fidelity of eukaryotic proteasome assembly is achieved by several proteasome-dedicated chaperones that initiate subunit incorporation and control the quality of proteasome assemblies by transiently interacting with proteasome precursors. It is important to understand the mechanism of proteasome assembly as the proteasome has key functions in the turnover of short-lived proteins regulating diverse biological processes. PMID:25107634

Gu, Zhu Chao; Enenkel, Cordula

2014-12-01

68

Assembly of NADPH Oxidase in Human Neutrophils Is Modulated by the Opacity-Associated Protein Expression State of Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus, Gc) triggers a potent inflammatory response and recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Gc survives exposure to neutrophils despite these cells' antimicrobial products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production in neutrophils is initiated by NADPH oxidase, which converts oxygen into superoxide. The subunits of NADPH oxidase are spatially separated between granules (gp91phox/p22phox) and the cytoplasm (p47phox, p67phox, and p40phox). Activation of neutrophils promotes the coassembly of NADPH oxidase subunits at phagosome and/or plasma membranes. While Gc-expressing opacity-associated (Opa) proteins can induce neutrophils to produce ROS, Opa-negative (Opa?) Gc does not stimulate neutrophil ROS production. Using constitutively Opa? and OpaD-positive (OpaD+) Gc bacteria in strain FA1090, we now show that the difference in ROS production levels in primary human neutrophils between these backgrounds can be attributed to differential assembly of NADPH oxidase. Neutrophils infected with Opa? Gc showed limited translocation of NADPH oxidase cytoplasmic subunits to cellular membranes, including the bacterial phagosome. In contrast, these subunits rapidly translocated to neutrophil membranes following infection with OpaD+ Gc. gp91phox and p22phox were recruited to Gc phagosomes regardless of bacterial Opa expression. These results suggest that Opa? Gc interferes with the recruitment of neutrophil NADPH oxidase cytoplasmic subunits to membranes, in particular, the p47phox “organizing” subunit, to prevent assembly of the holoenzyme, resulting in an absence of the oxidative burst. PMID:24343654

Smirnov, Asya; Daily, Kylene P.

2014-01-01

69

Molecular dynamics simulations and electronic excited state properties of a self-assembled peptide amphiphile nanofiber with metalloporphyrin arrays.  

PubMed

We have employed molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemistry methods to study the structures and electronic absorption properties of a novel type of photonic nanowire gel constructed by the self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles (PAs) and the chromophore-(PPIX)Zn molecules. Using molecular dynamics simulations, structures of the self-assembled fiber were determined with atomistic detail, including the distribution of chromophores along the nanofiber and the relative distances and orientations of pairs of chromophores. In addition, quantum chemistry calculations were used to determine the electronic structure and absorption properties of the chromophores in the fiber, so as to assess the capabilities of the nanofiber for photonics applications. The calculations show that the PA nanofiber provides an effective scaffold for the chromophores in which the chromophores form several clusters in which nearest neighbor chromophores are separated by less than 20 Å. The calculations also indicate that the chromophores can be in both the hydrophilic shell and hydrophobic core portions of the fiber. There are only small spectral shifts to the B-band of the porphyrins arising from the inhomogeneous microelectronic environment provided by the fiber. However, there are much stronger electronic interactions between nearby pairs of chromophores, leading to a more significant red shift of the B-band that is similar to what is found in the experiments and to significant excitonic coupling that is seen in circular dichroism spectra. This electronic interaction between chromophores associated with the PA nanofiber structure is crucial to future applications of these fibers for light-harvesting applications. PMID:24735017

Yu, Tao; Lee, One-Sun; Schatz, George C

2014-09-18

70

Fabrication and transfer assembly of microscale, solid-state light emitting diodes and solar cells for transparent and flexible electronics applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficiency metrics for some solid-state electronic materials systems have progressed to the point where theoretical limits are being approached. Gallium nitride-based lightemitting diodes and silicon solar cells, for example, have achieved such extraordinarily high performance metrics that only incremental improvements upon them are expected in the next decade of intense research. This pseudo-plateau in performance development means concentrated effort can now be placed on strategic implementation of these materials into platforms that fill a growing demand for high-performance consumer products. Such products have traditionally relied upon large-scale materials, but possibilities now exist for manipulating micro-scale, wafer-based devices in ways that promote improvements in areas of electrical current spreading, light absorption and extraction, and thermal management. To this end, my research has focused on routes to fabricating and assembling solid-state light-emitting diodes and solar cells of indium gallium nitride and single-crystalline silicon, respectively, in configurations which optimize characteristics of their performance. Specifically, I have worked, in collaboration with others, to achieve a processing strategy that creates dense arrays of indium gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on a silicon wafer of (111) orientation and assemble them onto transparent and flexible substrates. This work produced novel form factors for solid-state lighting where small, light-emitting devices were spatially distributed and integrated with color-converting phosphors in ways that controllably tuned their chromaticity. We also demonstrated that incredible passive heat dissipation with these micro-scale elements stemming naturally from their small size and integration with metal films serving dually as an electrically interconnecting medium. The cell design and etching strategies used were then transferred to a single-crystalline silicon system where small, ribbon-like solar cells were fabricated. This work improved upon previous studies creating similar devices by increasing critical solar cell performance metrics. The developed solar cell structure utilizes a highly robust manufacturing layer of thermally-grown silicon dioxide which naturally doubles as an anti-reflection and passivation layer. Other improvements to previous performance metrics comes from optimized cell assembly onto structures that recycle and redistribute incident irradiation.

Brueckner, Eric P.

71

Very large assemblies: Optimizing for automatic generation of assembly sequences  

SciTech Connect

Sandia's Archimedes 3.0{copyright} Automated Assembly Analysis System has been applied successfully to several large industrial and weapon assemblies. These have included Sandia assemblies such as portions of the B61 bomb, and assemblies from external customers such as Cummins Engine Inc., Raytheon (formerly Hughes) Missile Systems and Sikorsky Aircraft. While Archimedes 3.0{copyright} represents the state-of-the-art in automated assembly planning software, applications of the software made prior to the technological advancements presented here showed several limitations of the system, and identified the need for extensive modifications to support practical analysis of assemblies with several hundred to a few thousand parts. It was believed that there was substantial potential for enhancing Archimedes 3.0{copyright} to routinely handle much larger models and/or to handle more modestly sized assemblies more efficiently. Such a mature assembly analysis capability was needed to support routine application to industrial assemblies that overstressed the system, such as full nuclear weapon assemblies or full-scale aerospace or military vehicles.

CALTON,TERRI L.

2000-02-01

72

Solution Assembly of Conjugated Polymers.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation focuses on the solution-state polymer assembly of conjugated polymers with specific attention to nano- and molecular-scale morphology. Understanding how to control these structures… (more)

Bokel, Felicia

2013-01-01

73

Valence band offset, strain and shape effects on confined states in self-assembled InAs/InP and InAs/GaAs quantum dots.  

PubMed

I present a systematic study of self-assembled InAs/InP and InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-particle and many-body properties as a function of the quantum dot-surrounding matrix valence band offset. I use an atomistic, empirical tight-binding approach and perform numerically demanding calculations for half-million-atom nanosystems. I demonstrate that the overall confinement in quantum dots is a non-trivial interplay of two key factors: strain effects and the valence band offset. I show that strain effects determine both the peculiar structure of confined hole states of lens type InAs/GaAs quantum dots and the characteristic 'shell-like' structure of confined hole states in the commonly considered 'low-strain' lens type InAs/InP quantum dot. I also demonstrate that strain leads to single-band-like behavior of hole states of disk type ('indium flushed') InAs/GaAs and InAs/InP quantum dots. I show how strain and valence band offset affect quantum dot many-body properties: the excitonic fine structure, an important factor for efficient entangled photon pair generation, and the biexciton and charged exciton binding energies. PMID:24129261

Zieli?ski, M

2013-11-20

74

Valence band offset, strain and shape effects on confined states in self-assembled InAs/InP and InAs/GaAs quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a systematic study of self-assembled InAs/InP and InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-particle and many-body properties as a function of the quantum dot-surrounding matrix valence band offset. I use an atomistic, empirical tight-binding approach and perform numerically demanding calculations for half-million-atom nanosystems. I demonstrate that the overall confinement in quantum dots is a non-trivial interplay of two key factors: strain effects and the valence band offset. I show that strain effects determine both the peculiar structure of confined hole states of lens type InAs/GaAs quantum dots and the characteristic ‘shell-like’ structure of confined hole states in the commonly considered ‘low-strain’ lens type InAs/InP quantum dot. I also demonstrate that strain leads to single-band-like behavior of hole states of disk type (‘indium flushed’) InAs/GaAs and InAs/InP quantum dots. I show how strain and valence band offset affect quantum dot many-body properties: the excitonic fine structure, an important factor for efficient entangled photon pair generation, and the biexciton and charged exciton binding energies.

>M Zieli?ski,

2013-11-01

75

Electron transfer dynamics and excited state branching in a charge-transfer platinum(ii) donor-bridge-acceptor assembly.  

PubMed

A linear asymmetric Pt(ii) trans-acetylide donor-bridge-acceptor triad designed for efficient charge separation, NAP[triple bond, length as m-dash]Pt(PBu3)2[triple bond, length as m-dash]Ph-CH2-PTZ (), containing strong electron acceptor and donor groups, 4-ethynyl-N-octyl-1,8-naphthalimide (NAP) and phenothiazine (PTZ) respectively, has been synthesised and its photoinduced charge transfer processes characterised in detail. Excitation with 400 nm, ?50 fs laser pulse initially populates a charge transfer manifold stemming from electron transfer from the Pt-acetylide centre to the NAP acceptor and triggers a cascade of charge and energy transfer events. A combination of ultrafast time-resolved infrared (TRIR) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopies, supported by UV-Vis/IR spectroelectrochemistry, emission spectroscopy and DFT calculations reveals a self-consistent photophysical picture of the excited state evolution from femto- to milliseconds. The characteristic features of the NAP-anion and PTZ-cation are clearly observed in both the TRIR and TA spectra, confirming the occurrence of electron transfer and allowing the rate constants of individual ET-steps to be obtained. Intriguingly, has three separate ultrafast electron transfer pathways from a non-thermalised charge transfer manifold directly observed by TRIR on timescales ranging from 0.2 to 14 ps: charge recombination to form either the intraligand triplet (3)NAP with 57% yield, or the ground state, and forward electron transfer to form the full charge-separated state (3)CSS ((3)[PTZ(+)-NAP(-)]) with 10% yield as determined by target analysis. The (3)CSS decays by charge-recombination to the ground state with ?1 ns lifetime. The lowest excited state is (3)NAP, which possesses a long lifetime of 190 ?s and efficiently sensitises singlet oxygen. Overall, molecular donor-bridge-acceptor triad demonstrates excited state branching over 3 different pathways, including formation of a long-distant (18 Å) full charge-separated excited state from a directly observed vibrationally hot precursor state. PMID:25361227

Scattergood, Paul A; Delor, Milan; Sazanovich, Igor V; Bouganov, Oleg V; Tikhomirov, Sergei A; Stasheuski, Alexander S; Parker, Anthony W; Greetham, Gregory M; Towrie, Michael; Davies, E Stephen; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Weinstein, Julia A

2014-12-21

76

Hinge assembly  

DOEpatents

A hinge assembly is disclosed having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf. 8 figs.

Vandergriff, D.H.

1999-08-31

77

Hinge assembly  

DOEpatents

A hinge assembly having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf.

Vandergriff, David Houston (Powell, TN)

1999-01-01

78

Latch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing. 2 figs.

Frederickson, J.R.; Harper, W.H.; Perez, R.

1984-08-17

79

Latch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing.

Frederickson, James R. (Richland, WA); Harper, William H. (Richland, WA); Perez, Raymond (Lynnwood, WA)

1986-01-01

80

Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.  

SciTech Connect

The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-06-07

81

Self-assembly of liquid crystal block copolymer PEG-b-smectic polymer in pure state and in dilute aqueous solution  

E-print Network

A series of amphiphilic LC block copolymers, in which the hydrophobic block is a smectic polymer poly(4-methoxyphenyl 4-(6-acryloyloxy-hexyloxy)-benzoate) (PA6ester1) and the hydrophilic block is polyethyleneglycol (PEG), were synthesized and characterized. The self-assembly of one of them in both the pure state and the dilute aqueous solution was investigated in detail. Nano-structures in the pure state were studied by SAXS and WAXS on samples aligned by a magnetic field. A hexagonal cylindrical micro-segregation phase was observed with a lattice distance of 11.2 nm. The PEG blocks are in the cylinder, while the smectic polymer blocks form a matrix with layer spacing 2.4 nm and layer normal parallel to the long axis of the cylinders. Faceted unilamellar polymer vesicles, polymersomes, were formed in water, as revealed by cryo-TEM. In the lyotropic bilayer membrane of these polymersomes, the thermotropic smectic order in the hydrophobic block is clearly visible with layer normal parallel to the membrane surface.

B. Xu; R. Pinol; M. Nono-Djamen; S. Pensec; P. Keller; P. -A. Albouy; D. Levy; M. -H. Li

2009-09-03

82

The F1F0-ATP synthase complex influences the assembly state of the cytochrome bc1-cytochrome oxidase supercomplex and its association with the TIM23 machinery.  

PubMed

The enzyme complexes involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are organized into higher ordered assemblies termed supercomplexes. Subunits e and g (Su e and Su g, respectively) are catalytically nonessential subunits of the F1F0-ATP synthase whose presence is required to directly support the stable dimerization of the ATP synthase complex. We report here that Su g and Su e are also important for securing the correct organizational state of the cytochrome bc1-cytochrome oxidase (COX) supercomplex. Mitochondria isolated from the Delta su e and Delta su g null mutant strains exhibit decreased levels of COX enzyme activity but appear to have normal COX subunit protein levels. An altered stoichiometry of the cytochrome bc1-COX supercomplex was observed in mitochondria deficient in Su e and/or Su g, and a perturbation in the association of Cox4, a catalytically important subunit of the COX complex, was also detected. In addition, an increase in the level of the TIM23 translocase associated with the cytochrome bc1-COX supercomplex is observed in the absence of Su e and Su g. Together, our data highlight that a further level of complexity exists between the oxidative phosphorylation supercomplexes, whereby the organizational state of one complex, i.e. the ATP synthase, may influence that of another supercomplex, namely the cytochrome bc1-COX complex. PMID:18187422

Saddar, Sonika; Dienhart, Mary K; Stuart, Rosemary A

2008-03-14

83

Furnace assembly  

DOEpatents

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

84

Planning Assembly Of Large Truss Structures In Outer Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report dicusses developmental algorithm used in systematic planning of sequences of operations in which large truss structures assembled in outer space. Assembly sequence represented by directed graph called "assembly graph", in which each arc represents joining of two parts or subassemblies. Algorithm generates assembly graph, working backward from state of complete assembly to initial state, in which all parts disassembled. Working backward more efficient than working forward because it avoids intermediate dead ends.

De Mello, Luiz S. Homem; Desai, Rajiv S.

1992-01-01

85

Redox State of Pentraxin 3 as a Novel Biomarker for Resolution of Inflammation and Survival in Sepsis*  

PubMed Central

In an endotoxaemic mouse model of sepsis, a tissue-based proteomics approach for biomarker discovery identified long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) as the lead candidate for inflamed myocardium. When the redox-sensitive oligomerization state of PTX3 was further investigated, PTX3 accumulated as an octamer as a result of disulfide-bond formation in heart, kidney, and lung—common organ dysfunctions seen in patients with sepsis. Oligomeric moieties of PTX3 were also detectable in circulation. The oligomerization state of PTX3 was quantified over the first 11 days in critically ill adult patients with sepsis. On admission day, there was no difference in the oligomerization state of PTX3 between survivors and non-survivors. From day 2 onward, the conversion of octameric to monomeric PTX3 was consistently associated with a greater survival after 28 days of follow-up. For example, by day 2 post-admission, octameric PTX3 was barely detectable in survivors, but it still constituted more than half of the total PTX3 in non-survivors (p < 0.001). Monomeric PTX3 was inversely associated with cardiac damage markers NT-proBNP and high-sensitivity troponin I and T. Relative to the conventional measurements of total PTX3 or NT-proBNP, the oligomerization of PTX3 was a superior predictor of disease outcome. PMID:24958171

Cuello, Friederike; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Mayr, Ursula; Yin, Xiaoke; Marshall, Melanie; Suna, Gonca; Willeit, Peter; Langley, Sarah R.; Jayawardhana, Tamani; Zeller, Tanja; Terblanche, Marius; Shah, Ajay M.; Mayr, Manuel

2014-01-01

86

Redox state of pentraxin 3 as a novel biomarker for resolution of inflammation and survival in sepsis.  

PubMed

In an endotoxaemic mouse model of sepsis, a tissue-based proteomics approach for biomarker discovery identified long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) as the lead candidate for inflamed myocardium. When the redox-sensitive oligomerization state of PTX3 was further investigated, PTX3 accumulated as an octamer as a result of disulfide-bond formation in heart, kidney, and lung-common organ dysfunctions seen in patients with sepsis. Oligomeric moieties of PTX3 were also detectable in circulation. The oligomerization state of PTX3 was quantified over the first 11 days in critically ill adult patients with sepsis. On admission day, there was no difference in the oligomerization state of PTX3 between survivors and non-survivors. From day 2 onward, the conversion of octameric to monomeric PTX3 was consistently associated with a greater survival after 28 days of follow-up. For example, by day 2 post-admission, octameric PTX3 was barely detectable in survivors, but it still constituted more than half of the total PTX3 in non-survivors (p < 0.001). Monomeric PTX3 was inversely associated with cardiac damage markers NT-proBNP and high-sensitivity troponin I and T. Relative to the conventional measurements of total PTX3 or NT-proBNP, the oligomerization of PTX3 was a superior predictor of disease outcome. PMID:24958171

Cuello, Friederike; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Mayr, Ursula; Yin, Xiaoke; Marshall, Melanie; Suna, Gonca; Willeit, Peter; Langley, Sarah R; Jayawardhana, Tamani; Zeller, Tanja; Terblanche, Marius; Shah, Ajay M; Mayr, Manuel

2014-10-01

87

Single-molecule spectroscopy unmasks the lowest exciton state of the B850 assembly in LH2 from Rps. acidophila.  

PubMed

We have recorded fluorescence-excitation and emission spectra from single LH2 complexes from Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) acidophila. Both types of spectra show strong temporal spectral fluctuations that can be visualized as spectral diffusion plots. Comparison of the excitation and emission spectra reveals that for most of the complexes the lowest exciton transition is not observable in the excitation spectra due to the cutoff of the detection filter characteristics. However, from the spectral diffusion plots we have the full spectral and temporal information at hand and can select those complexes for which the excitation spectra are complete. Correlating the red most spectral feature of the excitation spectrum with the blue most spectral feature of the emission spectrum allows an unambiguous assignment of the lowest exciton state. Hence, application of fluorescence-excitation and emission spectroscopy on the same individual LH2 complex allows us to decipher spectral subtleties that are usually hidden in traditional ensemble spectroscopy. PMID:24806933

Kunz, Ralf; Timpmann, Kõu; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Freiberg, Arvi; Köhler, Jürgen

2014-05-01

88

Compactable control element assembly for a nuclear reactor. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a compactable control element assembly for a nuclear reactor in which the absorber pins of the assembly are compacted during downward movement of the pin and are returned to their uncompacted state when downward movement is stopped. The control element assembly comprises a support member longitudinally movable within a control assembly duct and a plurality

Dupen; C. F. G

1976-01-01

89

Cartwheel assembly  

PubMed Central

The cartwheel is a subcentriolar structure consisting of a central hub and nine radially arranged spokes, located at the proximal end of the centriole. It appears at the initial stage of the centriole assembly process as the first ninefold symmetrical structure. The cartwheel was first described more than 50 years ago, but it is only recently that its pivotal role in establishing the ninefold symmetry of the centriole was demonstrated. Significant progress has since been made in understanding its fine structure and assembly mechanism. Most importantly, the central part of the cartwheel, from which the ninefold symmetry originates, is shown to form by self-association of nine dimers of the protein SAS-6. This finding, together with emerging data on other components of the cartwheel, has opened new avenues in centrosome biology. PMID:25047612

Hirono, Masafumi

2014-01-01

90

Dump assembly  

DOEpatents

A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

Goldmann, Louis H. (Benton City, WA)

1986-01-01

91

Anion-controlled assembly of silver-di(aminophenyl)sulfone coordination polymers: Syntheses, crystal structures, and solid state luminescence  

SciTech Connect

Five silver coordination polymers, namely, ([Ag(3,3?-daps){sub 2}]·BF{sub 4}){sub n} (1), ([Ag(3,3?-daps){sub 2}]·NO{sub 3}){sub n} (2), [Ag(3,3?-daps)(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3})]{sub n} (3), ([Ag(4,4?-daps)]·CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub n} (4), and ([Ag(4,4?-daps)]·ClO{sub 4}){sub n} (5) (3,3?-daps=di(3?-aminodiphenyl)sulfone, and 4,4?-daps=di(4?-aminodiphenyl)sulfone) have been synthesized and structural characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Complex 1 displays a 1D ladder-like chain with four-connected Ag ions and bridged 3,3?-daps. Complex 2 shows other 1D ladder chain modified by tentacles. Complex 3 is a 2D layer structure with both Ag ions and 3,3?-daps are 3-connected nodes. Complex 4 is another 1D ladder chain with three-connected Ag ions and 4,4?-daps. Complex 5 shows a 2D 4{sup 4}-sql net with Ag ions and 4,4?-daps as 4-connected nodes. Moreover, their solid state luminescence and thermal stabilities also have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Pictogram: Synthetic procedures of the five anion controlled silver coordination polymers. We reported the synthetic procedures, structure, and luminescence property of the five anion controlled silver coordination polymers based on two novel di(aminophenyl)sulfone V-shaped ligands. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Five new silver coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized. • Two novel designed V-shaped di(aminophenyl)sulfone ligands were first introduced to coordination chemistry. • Anions play important roles in determining the five silver coordination polymers. • The structural diversity and photoluminescence property were also discussed.

Zhang, Qi-Long, E-mail: gzuqlzhang@126.com [Department of Chemistry, Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang 550004 (China); Hu, Peng [Department of Chemistry, Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang 550004 (China); Zhao, Yi [Key Laboratory of Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Feng, Guang-Wei [Department of Chemistry, Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang 550004 (China); Zhang, Yun-Qian; Zhu, Bi-Xue; Tao, Zhu [Key Laboratory of Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)

2014-02-15

92

Dump assembly  

DOEpatents

This is a claim for a dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough. 4 figs.

Goldmann, L.H.

1984-12-06

93

Pushrod assembly  

DOEpatents

A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing said magnet away from said carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

Potter, Jerry D. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

94

Thermocouple assembly  

DOEpatents

A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

Thermos, Anthony Constantine (Greer, SC); Rahal, Fadi Elias (Easley, SC)

2002-01-01

95

Self assembling magnetic tiles  

E-print Network

Self assembly is an emerging technology in the field of manufacturing. Inspired by nature's ability to self assembly proteins from amino acids, this thesis attempts to demonstrate self assembly on the macro-scale. The ...

Rabl, Jessica A. (Jessica Ann)

2006-01-01

96

Microsphere assembly of TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with highly exposed (101) facets and application in a light-trapping quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

The morphology of nano-titania has a significant effect on the photoelectric properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this study, microsphere assembly of a TiO2 mesoporous nanosheet constructed by nanocuboids was conducted via a simple hydrothermal process. The XRD pattern indicated that the hierarchical mesoporous microspheres are anatase phase with decreased (004) peaks. Raman spectrum shows enhanced Eg peaks at 143 and 638 cm(-1) caused by the symmetric stretching vibration of O-Ti-O of the (101) crystalline facet in anatase TiO2. FESEM and TEM images show that well monodispersed TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of 2 ?m are assembled by TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with exposed (101) facets. The oriented attachment of TiO2 nanocuboids along the (101) direction leads to the formation of mesoporous titania nanosheets. The UV-Vis spectrum shows that the mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets have high scattering ability and light absorption by dye. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells that incorporate these microspheres into the top scattering layers exhibit a prominent improvement in the power conversion efficiency of 7.51%, which shows a 45.8% increase in the overall conversion efficiency when compared with the spine hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (5.15%). There is the potential application for microsphere assembly of mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with excellent stability. PMID:25631573

Tao, Xiyun; Ruan, Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Hongxia; Zhou, Xingfu

2015-02-12

97

Bos taurus genome assembly  

PubMed Central

Background We present here the assembly of the bovine genome. The assembly method combines the BAC plus WGS local assembly used for the rat and sea urchin with the whole genome shotgun (WGS) only assembly used for many other animal genomes including the rhesus macaque. Results The assembly process consisted of multiple phases: First, BACs were assembled with BAC generated sequence, then subsequently in combination with the individual overlapping WGS reads. Different assembly parameters were tested to separately optimize the performance for each BAC assembly of the BAC and WGS reads. In parallel, a second assembly was produced using only the WGS sequences and a global whole genome assembly method. The two assemblies were combined to create a more complete genome representation that retained the high quality BAC-based local assembly information, but with gaps between BACs filled in with the WGS-only assembly. Finally, the entire assembly was placed on chromosomes using the available map information. Over 90% of the assembly is now placed on chromosomes. The estimated genome size is 2.87 Gb which represents a high degree of completeness, with 95% of the available EST sequences found in assembled contigs. The quality of the assembly was evaluated by comparison to 73 finished BACs, where the draft assembly covers between 92.5 and 100% (average 98.5%) of the finished BACs. The assembly contigs and scaffolds align linearly to the finished BACs, suggesting that misassemblies are rare. Genotyping and genetic mapping of 17,482 SNPs revealed that more than 99.2% were correctly positioned within the Btau_4.0 assembly, confirming the accuracy of the assembly. Conclusion The biological analysis of this bovine genome assembly is being published, and the sequence data is available to support future bovine research. PMID:19393050

Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Song, Xing-Zhi Henry; Jiang, Huaiyang; Shen, Yufeng; Durbin, K James; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew Peter; Sodeland, Marte; Ren, Yanru; Zhang, Lan; Sodergren, Erica; Havlak, Paul; Worley, Kim C; Weinstock, George M; Gibbs, Richard A

2009-01-01

98

Radiation Chemistry in Organized Assemblies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expands the basic concepts regarding the radiation chemistry of simple aqueous systems to more complex, but well defined, organized assemblies. Discusses the differences in behavior in comparison to simple systems. Reviews these techniques: pulse radiolysis, laser flash, photolysis, and steady state irradiation by gamma rays or light. (CS)

Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S.

1981-01-01

99

ASSEMBLY METHODS OTTER -TRAWL NETS  

E-print Network

ASSEMBLY METHODS for OTTER - TRAWL NETS - ..- - --- --- - #12;United States Department- of the Int ··......... .·...... ... ........·· 4 4 Top and Bottom Views of Iceland-Otter Tr awl .......... ..... 5 5 Diagram of l~epr es entative Otter Trawls ·.·.............. .·. 7 6 \\Jeb Sections of Iceland-TravTl Net .·..·..·................ · 8

100

Latching relay switch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

1991-01-01

101

Self-Assembly Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a quick game about self-assembly. Like the molecules of DNA, learners will self-assemble into a pattern by following a simple set of rules. The icebreaker game is part of a larger self-assembly lesson plan, and additional self-assembly game ideas and a video can be found in the related links.

2012-06-26

102

Inlet nozzle assembly  

DOEpatents

An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Precechtel, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Smith, Bob G. (Richland, WA); Knight, Ronald C. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

103

Modeling and design of a new core-moderator assembly and neutron beam ports for the Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is for modeling and designing a new reactor core-moderator assembly and new neutron beam ports that aimed to expand utilization of a new beam hall of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The PSBR is a part of the Radiation Science and Engineering Facility (RSEC) and is a TRIGA MARK III type research reactor with a movable core placed in a large pool and is capable to produce 1MW output. This reactor is a pool-type reactor with pulsing capability up to 2000 MW for 10-20 msec. There are seven beam ports currently installed to the reactor. The PSBR's existing core design limits the experimental capability of the facility, as only two of the seven available neutron beam ports are usable. The finalized design features an optimized result in light of the data obtained from neutronic and thermal-hydraulics analyses as well as geometrical constraints. A new core-moderator assembly was introduced to overcome the limitations of the existing PSBR design, specifically maximizing number of available neutron beam ports and mitigating the hydrogen gamma contamination of the neutron beam channeled in the beam ports. A crescent-shaped moderator is favored in the new PSBR design since it enables simultaneous use of five new neutron beam ports in the facility. Furthermore, the crescent shape sanctions a coupling of the core and moderator, which reduces the hydrogen gamma contamination significantly in the new beam ports. A coupled MURE and MCNP5 code optimization analysis was performed to calculate the optimum design parameters for the new PSBR. Thermal-hydraulics analysis of the new design was achieved using ANSYS Fluent CFD code. In the current form, the PSBR is cooled by natural convection of the pool water. The driving force for the natural circulation of the fluid is the heat generation within the fuel rods. The convective heat data was generated at the reactor's different operating powers by using TRIGSIMS, the fuel management code of the PSBR core. In the CFD modeling, the amount of heat generated by the fuel is assumed to be transferred totally into the coolant. Therefore, the surface heat flux is applied to the fuel cladding outer surface by considering the depleted fuel composition of each individual fuel rod under a reference core loading condition defined as; 53H at 1MW full power. In order to model the entire PSBR reactor, fine mesh discretization was achieved with 22 millions structured and unstructured computational meshes. The conductive heat transfer inside the fuel rods was ignored in order to decrease the computational mesh requirement. Since the PSBR core operates in the subcooled nucleate boiling region, the CFD simulation of new PSBR design was completed utilizing an Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase flow formulation and RPI wall boiling model. The simulation results showed that the new moderator tank geometry results in secondary flow entering into the core due to decrease in the cross-flow area. Notably, the radial flow improves the local heat transfer conditions by providing radial-mixing in the core. Bubble nucleation occurs on the heated fuel rods but bubbles are collapsing in the subcooled fluid. Furthermore, the bulk fluid properties are not affected by the bubble formation. Yet, subcooled boiling enhances the heat transfer on the fuel rods. Five neutron beam ports are designed for the new reactor. The geometrical configuration, filter and collimator system designs of each neutron beam ports are selected based on the requirements of the experimental facilities. A cold neutron beam port which utilizes cold neutrons from three curved guide tubes is considered. Therefore, there will be seven neutron beams available in the new facility. The neutronic analyses of the new beam port designs were achieved by using MCNP5 code and Burned Coupled Simulation Tool for the PSBR. The MCNP simulation results showed that thermal neutron flux was increased by a factor of minimum 1.23 times and maximum 2.68 times in the new beam port compared to the existing BP4 design. Besides total gamma dose was decreased by a factor

Ucar, Dundar

104

Firearm trigger assembly  

DOEpatents

A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

Crandall, David L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watson, Richard W. (Blackfoot, ID)

2010-02-16

105

Coarse-grained Simulations of Viral Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of viral capsids is a marvel of natural engineering and design. A large number (from 60 to thousands) of protein subunits assemble into complete, reproducible structures under a variety of conditions while avoiding kinetic and thermodynamic traps. Small single-stranded RNA viruses not only assemble their coat proteins in this fashion but also package their genome during the self-assembly process. Recent experiments have shown that the coat proteins are competent to assemble not merely around their own genomes but heterologous RNA, synthetic polyanions and even functionalized gold nanoparticles. Remarkably these viruses can even assemble around cargo not commensurate with their native state by adopting different morphologies. Understanding the properties that confer such exquisite precision and flexibility to the assembly process could aid biomedical research in the search for novel antiviral remedies, drug-delivery vehicles and contrast agents used in bioimaging. At the same time, viral assembly provides an excellent model system for the development of a statistical mechanical understanding of biological self-assembly, in the hopes of that we will identify some universal principles that underly such processes. This work consists of computational studies using coarse-grained representations of viral coat proteins and their cargoes. We find the relative strength of protein-cargo and protein-protein interactions has a profound effect on the assembly pathway, in some cases leading to assembly mechanisms that are markedly different from those found in previous work on the assembly of empty capsids. In the case of polymeric cargo, we find the first evidence for a previously theorized mechanism in which the polymer actively participates in recruiting free subunits to the assembly process through cooperative polymer-protein motions. We find that successful assembly is non-monotonic in protein-cargo affinity, such affinity can be detrimental to assembly if it becomes strong enough to stabilize frustrated intermediates that are incompatible with the ground state structure. In cases where the subunits are capable of assembly into different morphologies, we find that maintaining the precise spatial arrangement of subunits seen in the crystal structure is possible even if non-native interactions are disfavored by as little as the thermal energy.

Elrad, Oren M.

2011-12-01

106

Molecular Self-Assembly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students interact with 12 models to observe emergent phenomena as molecules assemble themselves. Investigate the factors that are important to self-assembly, including shape and polarity. Try to assemble a monolayer by "pushing" the molecules to the substrate (it's not easy!). Rotate complex molecules to view their structure. Finally, create your own nanostructures by selecting molecules, adding charges to them, and observing the results of self-assembly.

2012-07-19

107

Membrane module assembly  

DOEpatents

A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

Kaschemekat, Jurgen (Palo Alto, CA)

1994-01-01

108

Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40)

Harry L. Phillips; Thomas S. Elliott

1997-01-01

109

Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron

H. L. Phillips; T. S. Elliott

1998-01-01

110

Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron

H. L. Phillips; T. S. Elliott

1997-01-01

111

Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40)

Harry Lawrence Phillips; Thomas S. Elliott

1998-01-01

112

Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies  

DOEpatents

Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

Miller, David H. (Redondo Beach, CA)

2012-04-10

113

Probing electronic and vibronic states in cadmium telluride self-assembled quantum dots and cadmium sulfide nanowires using room temperature resonant Raman scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resonant Raman scattering (RRS) is a sensitive means to probe electronic and vibrational states in semiconductor nanostructures, even when such states are not accessible either through photoluminescence or transport techniques. In this thesis, resonant Raman scattering is used to probe the electronic and vibronic states of CdTe\\/ZnTe quantum dots and CdS nanowires at room temperature. In case of the CdTe\\/ZnTe

Amensisa Abdi Berato

2006-01-01

114

A framework for assembly sequence planning for computer aided design of mechanical assemblies  

E-print Network

15. Example 39 Reference Part Segments for Swivel Clamp Assembly: Stl, Csr CF, CAq BI, + B2r St2, + N, Data Structure for Initiating Search: START St I, CAr O 8l, + B2r St2, + N, Data Structure after Step One START SII, CA, Data... been assembled. The diamond graph for Swivel Clamp Assembly is shown in figure 18. The figure shows all the states (with out any repetitions) along with the open nodes list at each state. 42 Nil Open: Stl, CA St 1 Open: CA, BI+B2 CA Open: Stl...

Cheboli, Ramakrishna

2012-06-07

115

Photovoltaic assemblies and methods for transporting  

SciTech Connect

A PV assembly including framework, PV laminate(s), and a stiffening device. The framework includes a perimeter frame at least 10 feet in length and at least 5 feet in width. The PV laminate(s) are assembled to the perimeter frame to define a receiving zone having a depth of not more than 8 inches. The stiffening device is associated with the framework and is configured to provide a first state and a second state. In the first state, an entirety of the stiffening device is maintained within the receiving zone. In the second state, at least a portion of the stiffening device projects from the receiving zone. The stiffening device enhances a stiffness of the PV assembly in a plane of the perimeter frame, and can include rods defining truss structures.

Almy, Charles; Campbell, Matt; Sandler, Reuben; Wares, Brian; Wayman, Elizabeth

2014-08-05

116

Photovoltaic assemblies and methods for transporting  

DOEpatents

A PV assembly including framework, PV laminate(s), and a stiffening device. The framework includes a perimeter frame at least 10 feet in length and at least 5 feet in width. The PV laminate(s) are assembled to the perimeter frame to define a receiving zone having a depth of not more than 8 inches. The stiffening device is associated with the framework and is configured to provide a first state and a second state. In the first state, an entirety of the stiffening device is maintained within the receiving zone. In the second state, at least a portion of the stiffening device projects from the receiving zone. The stiffening device enhances a stiffness of the PV assembly in a plane of the perimeter frame, and can include rods defining truss structures.

Almy, Charles; Campbell, Matt; Sandler, Reuben; Wares, Brian; Wayman, Elizabeth

2013-09-17

117

Composite turbine bucket assembly  

DOEpatents

A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

2014-05-20

118

Linux Assembly HOWTO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial "describes how to program in assembly language using free programming tools, focusing on development for or from the Linux Operating System." For applications that are closely related to the underlying computer architecture, assembly language programming can be very important. The instructive material is aimed at people who have at least a basic understanding of conventional, high-level programming styles but have little to no experience with assembly. Hence, it serves as a general introduction to the topic, mainly useful for understanding what situations lend themselves to assembly programming.

Boldyshev, Konstantin.

119

A unified study of burst assembly in optical burst switching networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a comprehensive study of burst assembly in optical burst switching (OBS) networks. This investigation\\u000a aims to provide a unified study of burst assembly algorithms. After analyses of conventional assembly algorithms, we present\\u000a an adaptive burst assembly algorithm: data-length time-lag product assembly algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed\\u000a algorithm takes the real-time traffic state into account to

Chi Yuan; Zhenrong Zhang; Zhengbin Li; Yongqi He; Anshi Xu

2011-01-01

120

Statement on New Jersey State Assembly Resolution 135 The Institute for Advanced Study supports the preservation of the Princeton Battlefield and  

E-print Network

engagements were fought in New Jersey than in any5 other state; and6 WHEREAS, At the battles of Trenton the Battle of Princeton as a turning point in the Revolutionary War. June 14, 2011 phone (609) 734 and his15 troops marched to Trenton, attacked the garrison there, and16 captured approximately 900 Hessian

121

Probing self-assembled 1,3,5-benzenetrisamides in isotactic polypropylene by 13C DQ solid-state NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Using (13)C double quantum solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we were able to observe nuclei of a supramolecular BTA based additive on the nanoscale in a matrix of i-PP at a concentration of only 0.09 wt%. These nuclei exhibit the analogous structural features as the crystalline phase of the neat additive. PMID:23175351

Schmidt, Marko; Wittmann, Johannes J; Kress, Roman; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Senker, Jürgen

2013-01-11

122

Ingestion resistant seal assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seal assembly limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a gas turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus associated with a blade structure including a row of airfoils. The seal apparatus includes an annular inner shroud associated with adjacent stationary components, a wing member, and a first wing flange.

David A

2011-01-01

123

Laser bottom hole assembly  

DOEpatents

There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

2014-01-14

124

Turbine disc sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

Diakunchak, Ihor S.

2013-03-05

125

Powering through ribosome assembly  

PubMed Central

Ribosome assembly is required for cell growth in all organisms. Classic in vitro work in bacteria has led to a detailed understanding of the biophysical, thermodynamic, and structural basis for the ordered and correct assembly of ribosomal proteins on ribosomal RNA. Furthermore, it has enabled reconstitution of active subunits from ribosomal RNA and proteins in vitro. Nevertheless, recent work has shown that eukaryotic ribosome assembly requires a large macromolecular machinery in vivo. Many of these assembly factors such as ATPases, GTPases, and kinases hydrolyze nucleotide triphosphates. Because these enzymes are likely regulatory proteins, much work to date has focused on understanding their role in the assembly process. Here, we review these factors, as well as other sources of energy, and their roles in the ribosome assembly process. In addition, we propose roles of energy-releasing enzymes in the assembly process, to explain why energy is used for a process that occurs largely spontaneously in bacteria. Finally, we use literature data to suggest testable models for how these enzymes could be used as targets for regulation of ribosome assembly. PMID:19850913

Strunk, Bethany S.; Karbstein, Katrin

2009-01-01

126

Liquid rocket valve assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

1973-01-01

127

Self-Assembly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Self-assembly is the process of matter organizing autonomously and without human intervention (Whitesides, Mathias, and Seto 1991; Withesides and Boncheva 2002). The process of self-assembly can be introduced in a range of contexts in the natural and appl

Krajcik, Joseph S.; Sutherland, Leeann M.; Stevens, Shawn Y.

2009-10-14

128

Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

1998-05-19

129

Constrained space camera assembly  

DOEpatents

A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

Heckendorn, Frank M. (Aiken, SC); Anderson, Erin K. (Augusta, GA); Robinson, Casandra W. (Trenton, SC); Haynes, Harriet B. (Aiken, SC)

1999-01-01

130

Mechanisms of virus assembly  

E-print Network

Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

Jason D Perlmutter; Michael F Hagan

2014-07-15

131

Automated assembly in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The installation of robots and their use of assembly in space will create an exciting and promising future for the U.S. Space Program. The concept of assembly in space is very complicated and error prone and it is not possible unless the various parts and modules are suitably designed for automation. Certain guidelines are developed for part designing and for an easy precision assembly. Major design problems associated with automated assembly are considered and solutions to resolve these problems are evaluated in the guidelines format. Methods for gripping and methods for part feeding are developed with regard to the absence of gravity in space. The guidelines for part orientation, adjustments, compliances and various assembly construction are discussed. Design modifications of various fasteners and fastening methods are also investigated.

Srivastava, Sandanand; Dwivedi, Suren N.; Soon, Toh Teck; Bandi, Reddy; Banerjee, Soumen; Hughes, Cecilia

1989-01-01

132

Phonon density of states of self-assembled isolated Fe-rich Fe-Pt alloy nanoclusters B. Roldan Cuenya,1,2,* Jason R. Croy,1 L. K. Ono,1 A. Naitabdi,1 H. Heinrich,1,3 W. Keune,4,5 J. Zhao,6 W. Sturhahn,6  

E-print Network

Phonon density of states of self-assembled isolated Fe-rich Fe-Pt alloy nanoclusters B. RoldanPtx alloy nanoclusters NCs height: 2 nm, diameter: 8 nm supported on flat SiO2/Si 111 substrates has been-Ni nanoclusters NCs , the marten- sitic transition has been investigated experimentally18 and the absence

Kik, Pieter

133

Determining the role of metal binding in protein cage assembly.  

PubMed

Assembly of protein cages may require structural metal ions to nucleate or stabilize association of protein subunits. We describe here an approach to establishing the role of metal ions in protein cage assembly and stability, focusing on detecting the presence of structural metal ions as well as establishing oligomeric state. A colorimetric assay for detection of metal is described, along with a gel filtration assay to assess protein cage assembly and a fluorescence-based method for determining protein stability. PMID:25358776

Grove, Anne; Kushwaha, Ambuj K; Nguyen, Khoa H

2015-01-01

134

Automated Assembly Using Feature Localization  

E-print Network

Automated assembly of mechanical devices is studies by researching methods of operating assembly equipment in a variable manner; that is, systems which may be configured to perform many different assembly operations ...

Gordon, Steven Jeffrey

1986-12-01

135

State of metallic surfaces in systems of nuclear power plants with a series 1000 high-powered-water-cooled channel reactor after assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the state of the surfaces by examining, photographing, and collecting samples of surface contaminants at the open ends of piping system blocks. We performed a phase analysis of the samples taken in a 3,-resonance YaGRS-4M spectrometer. We determined the specific contamination of the inner surfaces of equipment and piping system by a weight method by mechanically removing oxides

V. M. Sedov; P. G. Krutikov; A. I. Grushanin; S. T. Zolotukhin; Yu. O. Zakharzhevskii; A. P. Eperin

1981-01-01

136

Enhancement of monobasal solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with polymer electrolyte assembling imidazolium iodide-functionalized silica nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alkyl imidazolium iodide-functionalized silica (SiO2-ImI)/PEO/PVDF nano-composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) is developed for the monobasal solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on a printable carbon counter electrode. The results indicate that the alkyl imidazolium iodide chemically engineered onto the surface of silica, and that the SiO2-ImI can be distributed more uniformly in the PEO/PVDF polymer matrix than bare SiO2 nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests reveal that the conductivity of SiO2-ImI CPE is greatly increased compared with pure polymer electrolyte or the bare SiO2 CPE. As a result, the highest ionic conductivity of 1.07 × 10-4 S cm-1 and a power conversion efficiency of 3.83% is obtained at AM 1.5 and 100 mW cm-2 with the 8 wt% SiO2-ImI CPE based monobasal solid-state DSSCs. Moreover, the preliminary stability tests indicate that SiO2-ImI CPE based monobasal solid-state DSSCs present better stability than bare SiO2 CPE devices.

Hu, Min; Sun, Jiazeng; Rong, Yaoguang; Yang, Ying; Liu, Linfeng; Li, Xiong; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Han, Hongwei

2014-02-01

137

Cluster-assembled metallic glasses  

PubMed Central

A bottom-up approach to nanofabricate metallic glasses from metal clusters as building blocks is presented. Considering metallic glasses as a subclass of cluster-assembled materials, the relation between the two lively fields of metal clusters and metallic glasses is pointed out. Deposition of selected clusters or collections of them, generated by state-of-the-art cluster beam sources, could lead to the production of a well-defined amorphous material. In contrast to rapidly quenched glasses where only the composition of the glass can be controlled, in cluster-assembled glasses, one can precisely control the structural building blocks. Comparing properties of glasses with similar compositions but differing in building blocks and therefore different in structure will facilitate the study of structure–property correlation in metallic glasses. This bottom-up method provides a novel alternative path to the synthesis of glassy alloys and will contribute to improving fundamental understanding in the field of metallic glasses. It may even permit the production of glassy materials for alloys that cannot be quenched rapidly enough to circumvent crystallization. Additionally, gaining deeper insight into the parameters governing the structure–property relation in metallic glasses can have a great impact on understanding and design of other cluster-assembled materials. PMID:23899019

2013-01-01

138

Cluster-assembled metallic glasses.  

PubMed

A bottom-up approach to nanofabricate metallic glasses from metal clusters as building blocks is presented. Considering metallic glasses as a subclass of cluster-assembled materials, the relation between the two lively fields of metal clusters and metallic glasses is pointed out. Deposition of selected clusters or collections of them, generated by state-of-the-art cluster beam sources, could lead to the production of a well-defined amorphous material. In contrast to rapidly quenched glasses where only the composition of the glass can be controlled, in cluster-assembled glasses, one can precisely control the structural building blocks. Comparing properties of glasses with similar compositions but differing in building blocks and therefore different in structure will facilitate the study of structure-property correlation in metallic glasses. This bottom-up method provides a novel alternative path to the synthesis of glassy alloys and will contribute to improving fundamental understanding in the field of metallic glasses. It may even permit the production of glassy materials for alloys that cannot be quenched rapidly enough to circumvent crystallization. Additionally, gaining deeper insight into the parameters governing the structure-property relation in metallic glasses can have a great impact on understanding and design of other cluster-assembled materials. PMID:23899019

Kartouzian, Aras

2013-01-01

139

DC source assemblies  

DOEpatents

Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

2013-02-26

140

Inverse Problem in Self-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By decorating colloids and nanoparticles with DNA, one can introduce highly selective key-lock interactions between them. This leads to a new class of systems and problems in soft condensed matter physics. In particular, this opens a possibility to solve inverse problem in self-assembly: how to build an arbitrary desired structure with the bottom-up approach? I will present a theoretical and computational analysis of the hierarchical strategy in attacking this problem. It involves self-assembly of particular building blocks (``octopus particles''), that in turn would assemble into the target structure. On a conceptual level, our approach combines elements of three different brands of programmable self assembly: DNA nanotechnology, nanoparticle-DNA assemblies and patchy colloids. I will discuss the general design principles, theoretical and practical limitations of this approach, and illustrate them with our simulation results. Our crucial result is that not only it is possible to design a system that has a given nanostructure as a ground state, but one can also program and optimize the kinetic pathway for its self-assembly.

Tkachenko, Alexei

2012-02-01

141

1974 Special Assemblies of IAMAP-IAPSO: Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Special Assemblies of the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics and the International Association of Physical Sciences of the Oceans were held in Melbourne, Australia, from January 14 to 25, 1974.Both assemblies were well attended. Of the approximately 500 delegates from 30 countries, 125 were from the United States, 22 were from Canada, and 2 were from Mexico.

James M. Rosen; Richard D. Cadle; D. G. Murcray; R. S. Quiroz; R. G. Roper; A. D. Belmont; J. H. E. Clark; D. M. Cunnold; G. R. Hilst; M. C. MacCracken; T. Sasamori; Gerd Wendler; K. O. L. F. Jayaweera; M. J. Rubin; Josef Podzimek; Tom Vonder Haar; S. Chandra; Kenneth L. Hunkins; Harold Solomon; John Hayes; Melbourne G. Briscoe; Bruce A. Warren; Feodor Ostapoff; Eric B. Kraus; Steve Neshyba; William R. Holland; Hans A. Panofsky; Stanley Ruttenberg; Theodore D. Foster

1974-01-01

142

Complete Genome Assembly of Staphylococcus epidermidis AmMS 205  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis causes a large number of catheter-related sepsis infections annually in the United States. We present the 2.54-Mbp complete genome assembly of reference strain S. epidermidis AmMS 205, including a single 37.7-kbp plasmid. The annotated assembly is available in GenBank under accession numbers CP009046 and CP009047. PMID:25377697

Davenport, K. W.; Daligault, H. E.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Redden, C. L.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Scholz, M. B.; Teshima, H.

2014-01-01

143

Managing Coil Epoxy Vacuum Impregnation Systems at the Manufacturing Floor Level To Achieve Ultimate Properties in State-of-the-Art Magnet Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Liquid epoxy resin impregnation systems remain a state-of-the-art polymer material for vacuum and vacuum/pressure impregnation applications in the manufacture of both advanced and conventional coil winding configurations. Epoxy resins inherent latitude in processing parameters accounts for their continued popularity in engineering applications, but also for the tendency to overlook or misinterpret the requisite processing parameters on the manufacturing floor. Resin system impregnation must be managed in detail in order to achieve device life cycle reliability. This closer look reveals how manufacturing floor level management of material acceptance, handling and storage, pre- and post- impregnation processing and cure can be built into a manufacturing plan to increase manufacturing yield, lower unit cost and ensure optimum life cycle performance of the coil.

J.G. Hubrig; G.H. Biallas

2005-05-01

144

Resolution and measurement of heteronuclear dipolar couplings of a noncrystalline protein immobilized in a biological supramolecular assembly by proton-detected MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Two-dimensional 15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift and three-dimensional 1H-15N dipolar coupling/15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift MAS solid-state NMR correlation spectra of the filamentous bacteriophage Pf1 major coat protein show single-site resolution in noncrystalline, intact-phage preparations. The high sensitivity and resolution result from 1H detection at 600 MHz under 50 kHz magic angle spinning using ~ 0.5 mg of perdeuterated and uniformly 15N-labeled protein in which the exchangeable amide sites are partially or completely back-exchanged (reprotonated). Notably, the heteronuclear 1H-15N dipolar coupling frequency dimension is shown to select among 15N resonances, which will be useful in structural studies of larger proteins where the resonances exhibit a high degree of overlap in multidimensional chemical shift correlation spectra. PMID:24225529

Park, Sang Ho; Yang, Chen; Opella, Stanley J.; Mueller, Leonard J.

2013-01-01

145

Resolution and measurement of heteronuclear dipolar couplings of a noncrystalline protein immobilized in a biological supramolecular assembly by proton-detected MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional 15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift and three-dimensional 1H-15N dipolar coupling/15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift MAS solid-state NMR correlation spectra of the filamentous bacteriophage Pf1 major coat protein show single-site resolution in noncrystalline, intact-phage preparations. The high sensitivity and resolution result from 1H detection at 600 MHz under 50 kHz magic angle spinning using ?0.5 mg of perdeuterated and uniformly 15N-labeled protein in which the exchangeable amide sites are partially or completely back-exchanged (reprotonated). Notably, the heteronuclear 1H-15N dipolar coupling frequency dimension is shown to select among 15N resonances, which will be useful in structural studies of larger proteins where the resonances exhibit a high degree of overlap in multidimensional chemical shift correlation spectra.

Park, Sang Ho; Yang, Chen; Opella, Stanley J.; Mueller, Leonard J.

2013-12-01

146

Technology for the assembly and testing of space vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological aspects of the assembly, testing, and control of state-of-the-art space vehicles and their components are examined. In particular, attention is given to the assembly of sealed and nonsealed compartments, tanks, and truss structures; fabrication of space vehicle components, panels, and compartments of composite materials; application of thermal insulation coatings; and functional and strength testing of space vehicle components and systems. The discussion also covers pneumatic and hydraulic testing of space vehicle assemblies, determination of the moments of inertia, final assembly of space vehicles, electrical testing of space vehicle systems, and solution of technological problems in the design of space vehicles.

Beliakov, Ivan T.; Zernov, Igor'a.; Antonov, Evgenii G.; Baklunov, A. M.; Bronfman, V. Iu.; Voitkov, N. I.; Gorbunov, N. M.; Zaretskii, Iu. M.; Isachenko, V. A.; Kulik, Iu. P.

147

Magnetic assisted statistical assembly  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to develop a process using magnetic forces to assemble micro-components into recesses on silicon based integrated circuits. Patterned SmCo magnetic thin films at the bottom of recesses are ...

Cheng, Diana I

2008-01-01

148

Steam separator latch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Kobsa, Irvin R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01

149

Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

Martin, Jeff [DOE Joint Genome Institute

2010-06-03

150

Integrated thruster assembly program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program is reported which has provided technology for a long life, high performing, integrated ACPS thruster assembly suitable for use in 100 typical flights of a space shuttle vehicle over a ten year period. The four integrated thruster assemblies (ITA) fabricated consisted of: propellant injector; a capacitive discharge, air gap torch type igniter assembly; fast response igniter and main propellant valves; and a combined regen-dump film cooled chamber. These flightweight 6672 N (1500 lb) thruster assemblies employed GH2/GO2 as propellants at a chamber pressure of 207 N/sq cm (300 psia). Test data were obtained on thrusted performance, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, dynamic response in pulsing, and cycle life. One thruster was fired in excess of 42,000 times.

1973-01-01

151

Steam separator latch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

1994-02-01

152

Magnetostrictive valve assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetostrictive valve assembly includes a housing that defines a passage with a seat being formed therein. A magnetically-biased and axially-compressed magnetostrictive assembly slidingly fitted in the passage is configured as a hollow and open-ended conduit adapted to support a flow of a fluid therethrough. Current-carrying coil(s) disposed about the passage in the region of the magnetostrictive assembly generate a magnetic field in the passage when current flows through the coil(s). A hollow valve body with side ports is coupled on one end thereof to an axial end of the magnetostrictive assembly. The other end of the valve body is designed to seal with the seat formed in the housing's passage when brought into contact therewith.

Richard, James A. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

153

Core assembly storage structure  

DOEpatents

A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

Jones, Jr., Charles E. (Northridge, CA); Brunings, Jay E. (Chatsworth, CA)

1988-01-01

154

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

155

High speed door assembly  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

Shapiro, C.

1991-12-31

156

Recuperator assembly and procedures  

DOEpatents

A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

Kang, Yungmo (La Canada Flintridge, CA); McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D. (Westlake Village, CA)

2008-08-26

157

Self Assembly of Colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are exploring the self assembly of colloidal matter using building blocks with complex shapes and functionalities. Our toolbox includes particles with tunable cavities and protrusions, particles with flexible ball-and-socket joints, colloidal cubes and particles with magnetic patches. Using these building blocks and a variety of interactions, including chemical, steric, magnetic and lock-and-key shape recognition, we aim to develop new assembly schemes to build structures with a reconfigurable structural arrangement.

Sacanna, Stefano

2012-02-01

158

Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of 2D M(II)-Quinate (M = Co,Zn) metal-organic lattice assemblies: solid-state solution structure correlation in M(II)-hydroxycarboxylate systems.  

PubMed

Co(II) and Zn(II) ions exhibit variable reactivity toward O-containing ligands in aqueous media, affording isolable materials with distinct solid-state lattice properties. d-(-)-quinic acid is a cellular ?-hydroxycarboxylate metal ion binder, which reacts with Co(II) and Zn(II) under pH-specific hydrothermal conditions, leading to the isolation of two new species [Co(2)(C(7)H(11)O(6))(4)](n)·nH(2)O (1) and [Zn(3)(C(7)H(11)O(6))(6)](n)·nH(2)O (2). Compound 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, UV-visible, EPR), magnetic studies, and X-ray crystallography. Compound 2 was characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, ESI-MS), and X-ray crystallography. The 2D molecular lattices in 1 and 2 reveal the presence of octahedral M(II) units bound exclusively to quinate in a distinct fashion, thereby projecting a unique chemical reactivity in each investigated system. The magnetic susceptibility and solid-state/frozen solution EPR data on 1 support the presence of a high-spin octahedral Co(II) in an oxygen environment, having a ground state with an effective spin of S = 1/2. Concurrent aqueous speciation studies on the binary Zn(II)-quinate system unravel the nature and properties of species arising from Zn(II)-quinate interactions as a function of pH and molar ratio. The physicochemical profiles of 1 and 2, in the solid state and in solution, earmark the importance of (a) select synthetic hydrothermal reactivity conditions, affording new well-defined lattice dimensionality and nuclearity M(II)-quinate materials, (b) structural speciation approaches delineating solid state-aqueous solution correlations in the binary M(II)-quinate systems, and (c) pH-specific chemical reactivity in binary M(II)-quinate systems reflecting structurally unique associations of simple aqueous complexes into distinctly assembled 2D crystalline lattices. PMID:21082809

Menelaou, M; Konstantopai, A; Lalioti, N; Raptopoulou, C P; Psycharis, V; Terzis, A; Mateescu, C; Tsarhopoulos, K; Rigas, P; Salifoglou, A

2010-12-20

159

Modifications under irradiation of a self-assembled monolayer grafted on a nano-porous silica glass: a solid-state NMR characterization  

SciTech Connect

Controlled pore glasses with a pore size of 8 nm are grafted with chlorodimethylsilane (ClSi(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}H). The surface of the glass is carefully characterized before and after irradiation with 10 MeV electrons by solid-state NMR measurements. {sup 1}H MAS NMR experiments in one and two dimensions (2D double quantum and 2D exchange) have been used to reveal the grafting of the chlorodimethylsilane at the silica surface and evidence the formation of a homogeneous layer on the surface. Irradiation leads to a high H{sub 2} yield (3.3 * 10{sup -7} mol/J) due to the efficient cleavage of the Si H bond. Methane is detected in smaller quantities (5.5 * 10{sup -8} mol/J), indicating that the Si-H bond is preferentially cleaved over the Si-C bond. The H{sub 2} production arising from OH groups on the surface is very minor in comparison to the S- H and Si-C radiolysis. (authors)

Le Caer, S.; Chatelain, C.; Renault, J.Ph. [CEA, CNRS, Inst Rayonnement Mat Saclay, Lab Radiolyse, SIS2M, Serv Interdisciplinaire Syst Mol et Mat, UMR 3299, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Brunet, F.; Charpentier, T. [CEA, Lab Struct et Dynam Resonance Magnet, CNRS, Inst Rayonnement Mat Saclay, SIS2M, Serv Interdisciplinaire Syst Mol et Mat, UMR 3299, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Durand, D.; Dauvois, V. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SECR, LSRM, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

2012-02-15

160

Theseus Assembly Sequence #3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Theseus prototype research aircraft being assembled at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

1996-01-01

161

Theseus Assembly Sequence #1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Theseus prototype research aircraft being assembled at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

1996-01-01

162

Theseus Assembly Sequence #2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew members are seen here assembling the tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

1996-01-01

163

Motion Planning of Bimanual Robot Using Adaptive Model of Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a motion planning method for a bimanual robot for executing assembly tasks. The method employs an adaptive modeling which can automatically generate an assembly model and modify the model during actual assembly. Bimanual robotic assembly is modeled at the task-level using contact states of workpieces and their transitions. The lower-level velocity commands of the workpieces are automatically derived by solving optimization problem formulated with assembly constraints, position of the workpieces, and kinematics of manipulators. Motion requirements of the workpieces are transformed to motion commands of the bimanual robot. The proposed approach is evaluated with experiments on peg-in-hole assembly with an L-shaped peg.

Hwang, Myun Joong; Lee, Doo Yong; Chung, Seong Youb

164

Self-assemblies based on [Cp2Mo2(CO)4(micro,eta2-P2)]-solid-state structure and dynamic behaviour in solution.  

PubMed

Reaction of complex [Cp2Mo2(CO)4(micro,eta 2-P2)] (Cp=C5H5 (1)) with CuPF6, AgX (X=BF4, ClO4, PF6, SbF6, Al{OC(CF3)3}4) and [(Ph3P)Au(THF)][PF6] (THF=tetrahydrofuran), respectively, results in the facile formation of the dimers 3 b-h of the general formula [M2({Cp2Mo2 (CO)4(micro,eta 2:eta 2-P2)}2)({Cp2Mo2(CO)4 (micro,eta 2:eta 1:eta 1-P2)}2)][X]2 (M=Cu, Ag, Au; X=BF4, ClO4, PF6, SbF6, Al{OC(CF3)3}4). As revealed by X-ray crystallography, all these dimers comprise dicationic moieties that are well-separated from the weakly coordinating anions in the solid state. If 1 is allowed to react with AgNO2 and LAuCl (L=CO or tetrahydrothiophene), respectively, the dimer [Ag2{Cp2Mo2 (CO)4(micro,eta 2:eta 1:eta 1-P2)}2(eta 2-NO2)2] (5) and the complex [AuCl{Cp2Mo2(CO)4(micro,eta 2:eta 1-P2)}] (6) are formed, which have also been characterised by X-ray crystallography. In compounds 5 and 6, the anions remain coordinated to the Group 11 metal centres. Spectroscopic data suggest that the dimers 3 b-h display dynamic behaviour in solution and this is discussed by using the comprehensive results obtained for 3 g (M=Ag; X=Al{OC(CF3)3}4) as a basis. The interpretation of the experimental results is facilitated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations on 3 g (structures, energetics, NMR shielding tensors). The 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra recorded for the dimers 3 b (M=Cu; X=PF6) and 3c (M=Ag; X=BF4) as well as that of the previously reported one-dimensional (1 D) polymer [Ag2{Cp2Mo2(CO)4(micro,eta 2:eta 1:eta 1-P2)}3(micro,eta 1:eta 1-NO3)]n[NO3]n (4) are also discussed herein and the strong dependence of the chemical shift of the phosphorus atoms within each compound on subtle structural differences in the solid state is demonstrated. Furthermore, the X-ray crystallographic and 31P MAS NMR spectroscopic characterisation of a new polymorph of 1 is reported. PMID:17899560

Scheer, Manfred; Gregoriades, Laurence J; Zabel, Manfred; Bai, Junfeng; Krossing, Ingo; Brunklaus, Gunther; Eckert, Hellmut

2008-01-01

165

Human Assisted Assembly Processes  

SciTech Connect

Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative automation has shown the effectiveness of humans and machines directly interacting to perform tasks. To continue to advance this area of robotics, effective means need to be developed to allow natural ways for people to communicate and cooperate with robots just as they do with one another.

CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

2000-01-01

166

MetaVelvet-SL: an extension of the Velvet assembler to a de novo metagenomic assembler utilizing supervised learning.  

PubMed

The assembly of multiple genomes from mixed sequence reads is a bottleneck in metagenomic analysis. A single-genome assembly program (assembler) is not capable of resolving metagenome sequences, so assemblers designed specifically for metagenomics have been developed. MetaVelvet is an extension of the single-genome assembler Velvet. It has been proved to generate assemblies with higher N50 scores and higher quality than single-genome assemblers such as Velvet and SOAPdenovo when applied to metagenomic sequence reads and is frequently used in this research community. One important open problem for MetaVelvet is its low accuracy and sensitivity in detecting chimeric nodes in the assembly (de Bruijn) graph, which prevents the generation of longer contigs and scaffolds. We have tackled this problem of classifying chimeric nodes using supervised machine learning to significantly improve the performance of MetaVelvet and developed a new tool, called MetaVelvet-SL. A Support Vector Machine is used for learning the classification model based on 94 features extracted from candidate nodes. In extensive experiments, MetaVelvet-SL outperformed the original MetaVelvet and other state-of-the-art metagenomic assemblers, IDBA-UD, Ray Meta and Omega, to reconstruct accurate longer assemblies with higher N50 scores for both simulated data sets and real data sets of human gut microbial sequences. PMID:25431440

Afiahayati; Sato, Kengo; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

2014-11-27

167

Assemblies of Conformal Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assemblies of tanks having shapes that conform to each other and/or conform to other proximate objects have been investigated for use in storing fuels and oxidizers in small available spaces in upper stages of spacecraft. Such assemblies might also prove useful in aircraft, automobiles, boats, and other terrestrial vehicles in which space available for tanks is limited. The basic concept of using conformal tanks to maximize the utilization of limited space is not new in itself: for example, conformal tanks are used in some automobiles to store windshield -washer liquid and coolant that overflows from radiators. The novelty of the present development lies in the concept of an assembly of smaller conformal tanks, as distinguished from a single larger conformal tank. In an assembly of smaller tanks, it would be possible to store different liquids in different tanks. Even if the same liquid were stored in all the tanks, the assembly would offer an advantage by reducing the mechanical disturbance caused by sloshing of fuel in a single larger tank: indeed, the requirement to reduce sloshing is critical in some applications. The figure shows a prototype assembly of conformal tanks. Each tank was fabricated by (1) copper plating a wax tank mandrel to form a liner and (2) wrapping and curing layers of graphite/epoxy composite to form a shell supporting the liner. In this case, the conformal tank surfaces are flat ones where they come in contact with the adjacent tanks. A band of fibers around the outside binds the tanks together tightly in the assembly, which has a quasi-toroidal shape. For proper functioning, it would be necessary to maintain equal pressure in all the tanks.

DeLay, Tom

2009-01-01

168

VideoLab: Assembling a Nanowheel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Self-assembly is a powerful means of preparing structurally intricate nanomaterials. However, the challenge of forming large, ring-shaped nanomolecules this way is entropically steep. By using a flow reactor system, Miras et al. observed how (3.5 nm in diameter) form with the help of temporary template molecules. These transient templates form, help assemble the ring-shaped molecules around them, and then leave once the wheel is fully formed and reduced to its final electronic state. This animation shows a model of the templating process.

Haralampos N. Miras (The University of Glasgow, Glasgow; WestCHEM, Department of Chemistry)

2010-01-01

169

International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

Knox, James C.

2000-01-01

170

Self-Assembly of Filamentous Amelogenin Requires Calcium and Phosphate: From Dimers via Nanoribbons to Fibrils  

E-print Network

Self-Assembly of Filamentous Amelogenin Requires Calcium and Phosphate: From Dimers via Nanoribbons, San Francisco, California 94143, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Enamel matrix self-assembly tested if amelogenin, the main enamel matrix protein, can self-assemble into ribbon-like structures

Sali, Andrej

171

Randomized Self-Assembly for Exact Shapes Department of Computer Science  

E-print Network

Randomized Self-Assembly for Exact Shapes David Doty Department of Computer Science Iowa State question of Kao and Schweller (Randomized Self-Assembly for Approximate Shapes, ICALP 2008), who showed how the approximation could be made exact with high probability. 1. INTRODUCTION Self-assembly is a term used

Doty, David

172

Photovoltaic self-assembly.  

SciTech Connect

This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

2010-10-01

173

Microcomponent assembly for efficient contacting of fluid  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a fundamental method and apparatus of a microcomponent assembly that overcomes the inherent limitations of state of the art chemical separations. The fundamental element enabling miniaturization is the porous contactor contained within a microcomponent assembly for mass transfer of a working compound from a first medium to a second medium. The porous contactor has a thickness, and a plurality of pores extending through the thickness. The pores are of a geometry cooperating with a boundary tension of one or the other or both of the media thereby preventing migration of one, other or both through the microporous contactor while permitting passage of the working compound. In the microcomponent assembly, the porous contactor is placed between a first laminate such that a first space or first microplenum is formed between the microporous contactor and the first laminate. Additionally, a cover sheet provides a second space or second plenum between the porous contactor and the cover sheet.

Drost, Monte K. (Richland, WA); Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Friedrich, Michele (Prosser, WA); Hanna, William T. (Gahanna, OH); Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA); Kurath, Dean E. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

174

OSIRIS-REx OCAMS detector assembly characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission carries a suite of three cameras referred to as OCAMS. The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) at Utah State University is providing the CCD-based detector assemblies for OCAMS to the Lunar Planetary Lab (LPL) at the University of Arizona. Working with the LPL, SDL has designed the electronics to operate a 1K by 1K frame transfer Teledyne DALSA Multi-Pinned Phase (MPP) CCD. The detector assembly electronics provides the CCD clocking, biasing, and digital interface with the OCAMS payload Command Control Module (CCM). A prototype system was built to verify the functionality of the detector assembly design and to characterize the detector system performance at the intended operating temperatures. The characterization results are described in this paper.

Hancock, J.; Crowther, B.; Whiteley, M.; Burt, R.; Watson, M.; Nelson, J.; Fellows, C.; Rizk, B.; Kinney-Spano, E.; Perry, M.; Hunten, M.

2013-09-01

175

Well casing cleaning assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a well casing cleaning assembly. It comprises: cylindrical mandrel including a plurality of diametric drillings extending across the drillings being aligned at incremental azimuth displacements relative each other to form a spiral alignment; a corresponding plurality of knife blade assemblies received in the drillings. Each of the knife blade assembly including a coiled spring and a first and second knife blade extending from a base cap at one end thereof. The base case abutting the ends of the coiled spring; a plurality of arcuate plate segments engageable to the exterior of the mandrel the arcuate plate segments including slots formed therein in alignment over the drillings for receiving corresponding ones of the knife blades therethrough; and an upper and a lower packing attached to the ends of the mandrel and conformed for receipt in the well casing.

Stafford, L.R.

1990-01-09

176

Power module assembly  

DOEpatents

A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

Campbell, Jeremy B. (Torrance, CA); Newson, Steve (Redondo Beach, CA)

2011-11-15

177

Liaison based assembly design  

SciTech Connect

Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

1996-12-01

178

Floating assembly of diatom Coscinodiscus sp. microshells.  

PubMed

Diatoms have silica frustules with transparent and delicate micro/nano scale structures, two dimensional pore arrays, and large surface areas. Although, the diatom cells of Coscinodiscus sp. live underwater, we found that their valves can float on water and assemble together. Experiments show that the convex shape and the 40 nm sieve pores of the valves allow them to float on water, and that the buoyancy and the micro-range attractive forces cause the valves to assemble together at the highest point of water. As measured by AFM calibrated glass needles fixed in manipulator, the buoyancy force on a single floating valve may reach up to 10 ?N in water. Turning the valves over, enlarging the sieve pores, reducing the surface tension of water, or vacuum pumping may cause the floating valves to sink. After the water has evaporated, the floating valves remained in their assembled state and formed a monolayer film. The bonded diatom monolayer may be valuable in studies on diatom based optical devices, biosensors, solar cells, and batteries, to better use the optical and adsorption properties of frustules. The floating assembly phenomenon can also be used as a self-assembly method for fabricating monolayer of circular plates. PMID:22387476

Wang, Yu; Pan, Junfeng; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Deyuan

2012-03-30

179

Lightweight reflector assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inexpensive, lightweight reflective assembly member having good optical quality and particularly adaptable to accommodating temperature variations without providing destructive thermal stresses and reflective slope errors is described. The reflective assembly consists of a thin sheet of glass with appropriate reflective coating and a cellular glass block substrate bonded together. The method of fabrication includes abrading the cellular substrate with an abrasive master die to form an appropriate concave surface. An adhesive is applied to the abraded surface and a lamina reflective surface is placed under a uniform pressure to conform the reflective surface onto the desired abraded surface of the substrate.

Argoud, M. J.; Jolley, J.; Walker, W. L. (inventors)

1977-01-01

180

Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Ribosome Assembly and Turnover In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Although high-resolution structures of the ribosome have been solved in a series of functional states, relatively little is known about how the ribosome assembles, particularly in vivo. Here, a general method is presented for studying the dynamics of ribosome assembly and ribosomal assembly intermediates. Since significant quantities of assembly intermediates are not present under normal growth conditions, the antibiotic neomycin is used to perturb wild type E. coli. Treatment of E. coli with the antibiotic neomycin results in the accumulation of a continuum of assembly intermediates for both the 30S and 50S subunits. The protein composition and the protein stoichiometry of these intermediates were determined by quantitative mass spectrometry using purified unlabeled and 15N-labeled wild type ribosomes as external standards. The intermediates throughout the continuum are heterogeneous and are largely depleted of late-binding proteins. Pulse labeling with 15N-labeled medium timestamps the ribosomal proteins based on their time of synthesis. The assembly intermediates contain both newly synthesized proteins and proteins that originated in previously synthesized intact subunits. This observation requires either a significant amount of ribosome degradation, or the exchange or reuse of ribosomal proteins. These specific methods can be applied to any system where ribosomal assembly intermediates accumulate, including strains with deletions or mutations of assembly factors. This general approach can be applied to study the dynamics of assembly and turnover of other macromolecular complexes that can be isolated from cells. PMID:20709079

Sykes, Michael T.; Shajani, Zahra; Sperling, Edit; Beck, Andrea H.; Williamson, James R.

2010-01-01

181

Corner-cutting mining assembly  

DOEpatents

This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

Bradley, J.A.

1981-07-01

182

The European Assembly Worksheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assembly tasks are most common in industrialised countries. Even in highly automated and mechanised branches like the automotive, high or uniform load situations are common and result in high physical workload. In industrialised countries almost one-third of the total sick leave is due to musculo-skeletal complaints and disorders, which might result from poor ergonomic design. In order to tackle that

K. Schaub; G. Caragnano; B. Britzke; R. Bruder

2012-01-01

183

Driving nucleolar assembly  

PubMed Central

In this issue of Genes & Development, Grob and colleagues (pp. 220–230) identify the minimal molecular requirements to assemble a fully functional nucleolus in human cells and demonstrate the importance of the nucleolar transcription factor upstream binding factor (UBF) as a mitotic bookmark at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). PMID:24493643

McCann, Kathleen L.; Baserga, Susan J.

2014-01-01

184

Driving nucleolar assembly.  

PubMed

In this issue of Genes & Development, Grob and colleagues (pp. 220-230) identify the minimal molecular requirements to assemble a fully functional nucleolus in human cells and demonstrate the importance of the nucleolar transcription factor upstream binding factor (UBF) as a mitotic bookmark at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). PMID:24493643

McCann, Kathleen L; Baserga, Susan J

2014-02-01

185

Spool assembly support analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the pump pit spool assemblies. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. UBC, AISC, and load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met.

Norman, B.F.

1994-10-07

186

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Alvarez, Patricio D. (Richmond, TX)

2010-09-21

187

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ASSEMBLY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SURVEY OF THE SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS, SCHOOLS AND GOVERNMENT. THESE WILL FORM THE BASIS FOR DISCUSSION IN ALL SIXTH GRADE CLASSES DURING A 2-MONTH PERIOD. THE CLASSES WILL CHOOSE A STUDENT REPRESENTATIVE TO ATTEND A CITY-WIDE ASSEMBLY OF STUDENTS TO PRESENT THE RESULTS OF THE CLASS DISCUSSIONS. THE QUESTIONS ARE IN THREE AREAS--THE SCHOOL'S…

DONAHOE, THOMAS J.; MARTIN, RICHARD G.

188

Assembling Multicolor Printing Plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved joining method uses wave-soldering techniques developed for integrated-circuit-board assemblies. Thermosetting plastic is replaced by wave soldering, which applies a thin even coat of solder to mating copper surfaces. This is done after ink holes and channels have been protected by water-soluble, high-temperature solder mask which prevents wetting and clogging.

Waters, W. J.

1982-01-01

189

Modeling Protein Self Assembly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the structure and function of proteins is an important part of the standards-based science curriculum. Proteins serve vital roles within the cell and malfunctions in protein self assembly are implicated in degenerative diseases. Experience indicates that this topic is a difficult one for many students. We have found that the concept…

Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck; Hull, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

190

Dump valve assembly  

DOEpatents

A dump valve assembly comprising a body having a bore defined by a tapered wall and a truncated spherical valve member adapted to seat along a spherical surface portion thereof against said tapered wall. Means are provided for pivoting said valve member between a closed position engagable with said tapered wall and an open position disengaged therefrom.

Owen, T.J.

1984-01-01

191

Beyond the Assembly Line.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how Hughes Aircraft trainers followed four steps in meeting the challenges of a flexible manufacturing environment: needs assessment, design strategy, pilot evaluation, and follow-through. Within this environment, 50 self-paced training products were developed for one of the company's wire and back plane harness assembly departments. (CT)

Weitz, Rebecca; Guild, Todd

1985-01-01

192

Corium protection assembly  

DOEpatents

A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Sirtori, IT)

1994-01-01

193

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

2013-08-13

194

HIV1 assembly in macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected

Philippe Benaroch; Elisabeth Billard; Raphaël Gaudin; Michael Schindler; Mabel Jouve

2010-01-01

195

Special test equipment and fixturing for MSAT reflector assembly alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MSAT Reflector Assembly is a state of the art subsystem for Mobile Satellite (MSAT), a geosynchronous-based commercial mobile telecommunication satellite program serving North America. The Reflector Assembly consisted of a deployable, three-hinge, folding-segment Boom, deployable 5.7 x 5.3-meter 16-rib Wrap-Rib Reflector, and a Reflector Pointing Mechanism (RPM). The MSAT spacecraft was based on a Hughes HS601 spacecraft bus carrying two Reflector Assemblies independently dedicated for L-band transmit and receive operations. Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) designed and built the Reflector Assembly for MSAT under contract to SPAR Aerospace Ltd. Two MSAT satellites were built jointly by SPAR Aerospace Ltd. and Hughes Space and Communications Co. for this program, the first scheduled for launch in 1994. When scaled for wavelength, the assembly and alignment requirements for the Reflector Assembly were in many instances equivalent to or exceeded that of a diffraction-limited visible light optical system. Combined with logistical constraints inherent to large, compliant, lightweight structures; 'bolt-on' alignment; and remote, indirect spacecraft access; the technical challenges were formidable. This document describes the alignment methods, the special test equipment, and fixturing for Reflector Assembly assembly and alignment.

Young, Jeffrey A.; Zinn, Michael R.; McCarten, David R.

1994-05-01

196

Self-assembling cytotoxins.  

PubMed

Decanal and N-amino-N'-1-octylguanidine (AOG), combined at 28 microM each, mediated erythrocyte lysis within 80 minutes under physiological conditions. By contrast, no lysis was observed after 20 hours with either decanal (56 microM) or AOG (100 microM) alone. The pronounced synergism observed for these chemicals and similar reactive pairs of chemicals is due to the self-assembly of more cytotoxic hydrazones in situ. Decanal and AOG also exhibit synergistic activity against cultured human cells (HeLa) and bacteria (Escherichia coli J96). This synergism may be useful in the design of cytotoxins that would self-assemble selectively from nontoxic precursors within tumors, while sparing normal tissue. PMID:3523757

Rideout, D

1986-08-01

197

Mechanical Seal Assembly  

SciTech Connect

An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

Kotlyar, Oleg M.

1999-06-18

198

Low inductance busbar assembly  

DOEpatents

A busbar assembly for electrically coupling first and second busbars to first and second contacts, respectively, on a power module is provided. The assembly comprises a first terminal integrally formed with the first busbar, a second terminal integrally formed with the second busbar and overlapping the first terminal, a first bridge electrode having a first tab electrically coupled to the first terminal and overlapping the first and second terminals, and a second tab electrically coupled to the first contact, a second bridge electrode having a third tab electrically coupled to the second terminal, and overlapping the first and second terminals and the first tab, and a fourth tab electrically coupled to the second contact, and a fastener configured to couple the first tab to the first terminal, and the third tab to the second terminal.

Holbrook, Meghan Ann (Manhattan Beach, CA)

2010-09-21

199

Hearing Aid Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

200

Solution deposition assembly  

DOEpatents

Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

2014-01-21

201

Fuel nozzle assembly  

DOEpatents

A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC); Lacey, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); York, William David (Greer, SC); Stevenson, Christian Xavier (Inman, SC)

2011-08-30

202

Mechanical seal assembly  

DOEpatents

An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2002-01-01

203

Mechanical seal assembly  

DOEpatents

An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2001-01-01

204

Compressor diaphragm assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in a combustion turbine having a casing, one or more slots of a first predetermined cross-section formed circumferentially within the casing at a compressor portion of the turbine, and a compressor diaphragm assembly adapted to be suspended from each of the one or more slots to provide a labyrinth seal with a plurality of compressor discs, a method of forming each compressor diaphragm assembly. It comprises: providing a plurality of vane airfoils each of which have an inner shroud formed integrally with the vane airfoil, and an outer portion attached to the vane airfoil; providing outer ring means for suspending each of the plurality of van airfoils at a stagger angle; suspending the plurality of vane airfoils from the outer ring means, thereby disposing each the vane airfoil and its respective outer portion at the stagger angle; and providing seal carrier means for engagement with each the inner shroud.

Scalzo, A.

1989-12-26

205

Assemblathon 2: evaluating de novo methods of genome assembly in three vertebrate species  

PubMed Central

Background The process of generating raw genome sequence data continues to become cheaper, faster, and more accurate. However, assembly of such data into high-quality, finished genome sequences remains challenging. Many genome assembly tools are available, but they differ greatly in terms of their performance (speed, scalability, hardware requirements, acceptance of newer read technologies) and in their final output (composition of assembled sequence). More importantly, it remains largely unclear how to best assess the quality of assembled genome sequences. The Assemblathon competitions are intended to assess current state-of-the-art methods in genome assembly. Results In Assemblathon 2, we provided a variety of sequence data to be assembled for three vertebrate species (a bird, a fish, and snake). This resulted in a total of 43 submitted assemblies from 21 participating teams. We evaluated these assemblies using a combination of optical map data, Fosmid sequences, and several statistical methods. From over 100 different metrics, we chose ten key measures by which to assess the overall quality of the assemblies. Conclusions Many current genome assemblers produced useful assemblies, containing a significant representation of their genes and overall genome structure. However, the high degree of variability between the entries suggests that there is still much room for improvement in the field of genome assembly and that approaches which work well in assembling the genome of one species may not necessarily work well for another. PMID:23870653

2013-01-01

206

HSPES membrane electrode assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

2000-01-01

207

Pull rod assembly  

DOEpatents

A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

Cioletti, O.C.

1988-04-21

208

Combustor liner support assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A support assembly for a gas turbine engine combustor includes an annular frame having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons, and an annular combustor liner disposed coaxially with the frame and including a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons circumferentially adjoining respective ones of the frame tenons for radially and tangentially supporting the liner to the frame while allowing unrestrained differential thermal radial movement therebetween.

Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

209

Nuclear core and fuel assemblies  

DOEpatents

A fast flux nuclear core of a plurality of rodded, open-lattice assemblies having a rod pattern rotated relative to a rod support structure pattern. Elongated fuel rods are oriented on a triangular array and laterally supported by grid structures positioned along the length of the assembly. Initial inter-assembly contact is through strongbacks at the corners of the support pattern and peripheral fuel rods between adjacent assemblies are nested so as to maintain a triangular pitch across a clearance gap between the other portions of adjacent assemblies. The rod pattern is rotated relative to the strongback support pattern by an angle .alpha. equal to sin .sup.-1 (p/2c), where p is the intra-assembly rod pitch and c is the center-to-center spacing among adjacent assemblies.

Downs, Robert E. (Monroeville, PA)

1981-01-01

210

Supramolecular architectures assembled by the interaction of purine nucleobases with metal-oxalato frameworks. Non-covalent stabilization of the 7H-adenine tautomer in the solid-state.  

PubMed

The synthesis, crystal structure and variable-temperature magnetic measurements of the compounds [Mn(mu-ox)(H2O)(7H-pur-kappaN9)]n (1), {[Mn(mu-ox)(H2O)2].(7H-ade).(H2O)}n (2) and {[Cu(mu-ox)(H2O)(7H-ade-kappaN9)][Cu(mu-ox)(mu-H2O)(7H-ade-kappaN9)]. approximately 10/3H2O}n (3), (where ox: oxalato dianion, pur: purine, and ade: adenine) are reported. Compounds 1and 2 contain one-dimensional chains in which manganese(II) atoms are bridged by bis-bidentate oxalato ligands. The distorted octahedral geometry around each metal centre is completed in compound 1 by one water molecule and the imidazole N9 donor site of the purine ligand, which is a rare example of direct binding between the Mn(II) ion and the N donor site of an isolated nucleobase. Unlike 1, the adenine moiety in compound 2 is not bonded to manganese atoms and the metal coordination polyhedron is filled by two water molecules in a cis-arrangement. Its crystal building is constructed from pi-stacked layers of Watson-Crick hydrogen-bonded adenine...(H2O2)...adenine aggregates and zig-zag Mn(II)-oxalato chains held together by means of a strong network of hydrogen bonding interactions. The nucleobase exists in the lattice as the 7H-adenine tautomer which represents an unprecedented solid-state characterization of this minor tautomer as free molecule (without metal coordination) stabilized through non-covalent interactions. Compound consists of two slightly different [Cu(ox)(H2O)(7H-ade-kappaN9)] units in which the nucleobase coordinates through the imidazole N9 atom. The planar complex entities are parallel stacked and joined by means of long Cu-O bonds involving oxygen atoms from the oxalato and the aqua ligands, giving one-dimensional chains with a [4 + 1] square-planar pyramidal and a [4 + 2] octahedral coordination around the metal centre, respectively. Self-assembled process of compound 3 is further driven by an in-plane network of hydrogen bonding interactions to generate a porous 3D structure containing parallel channels filled by guest water molecules. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements of all the complexes show the occurrence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the paramagnetic centres. DFT calculations have been performed to check the influence of packing in the stability of the 7H-amino tautomer of 2 and in the complex geometry of 3. PMID:16462950

García-Terán, Juan P; Castillo, Oscar; Luque, Antonio; García-Couceiro, Urko; Beobide, Garikoitz; Román, Pascual

2006-02-21

211

Macromolecular symmetric assembly prediction using swarm intelligence dynamic modeling.  

PubMed

Proteins often assemble in multimeric complexes to perform a specific biologic function. However, trapping these high-order conformations is difficult experimentally. Therefore, predicting how proteins assemble using in silico techniques can be of great help. The size of the associated conformational space and the fact that proteins are intrinsically flexible structures make this optimization problem extremely challenging. Nonetheless, known experimental spatial restraints can guide the search process, contributing to model biologically relevant states. We present here a swarm intelligence optimization protocol able to predict the arrangement of protein symmetric assemblies by exploiting a limited amount of experimental restraints and steric interactions. Importantly, within this scheme the native flexibility of each protein subunit is taken into account as extracted from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that this is a key ingredient for the prediction of biologically functional assemblies when, upon oligomerization, subunits explore activated states undergoing significant conformational changes. PMID:23810695

Degiacomi, Matteo T; Dal Peraro, Matteo

2013-07-01

212

Autonomous Mechanical Assembly on the Space Shuttle: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle will be equipped with a pair of 50 ft. manipulators used to handle payloads and to perform mechanical assembly operations. Although current plans call for these manipulators to be operated by a human teleoperator. The possibility of using results from robotics and machine intelligence to automate this shuttle assembly system was investigated. The major components of an autonomous mechanical assembly system are examined, along with the technology base upon which they depend. The state of the art in advanced automation is also assessed.

Raibert, M. H.

1979-01-01

213

Self-assembly with degenerate prototropy.  

PubMed

This work describes a rational approach for addressing the prototropy-related problems in heterocycle-based self-assembling systems by the use of degenerate prototropy. As a proof of principle, the utility of degenerate prototropy is demonstrated herein by developing heterocycle-based AADD-type self-assembling modules that exist as "single set of protameric pair (duplex)" in both solution and solid states. These self-assembling modules are quickly accessible in good yield by reacting 2-amino-5,5-disubstituted-1H-pyrimidine-4,6-diones, available in one step by the condensation of alpha,alpha-dialkyl malonates and free guanidine, with isocyanates. Evidence from NMR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of molecular duplexes. The effect of electronic repulsion in duplex formation is also investigated. Their ready synthetic accessibility, remarkably high propensity to crystal formation, and the novel property of degenerate prototropy would make these novel self-assembling molecules promising candidates for many proposed applications. PMID:16050710

Baruah, Pranjal K; Gonnade, Rajesh; Phalgune, Usha D; Sanjayan, Gangadhar J

2005-08-01

214

Multispecies population dynamics of prebiotic compositional assemblies.  

PubMed

Present life portrays a two-tier phenomenology: molecules compose supramolecular structures, such as cells or organisms, which in turn portray population behaviors, including selection, evolution and ecological dynamics. Prebiotic models have often focused on evolution in populations of self-replicating molecules, without explicitly invoking the intermediate molecular-to-supramolecular transition. Here, we explore a prebiotic model that allows one to relate parameters of chemical interaction networks within molecular assemblies to emergent population dynamics. We use the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, which simulates the network dynamics within amphiphile-containing molecular assemblies, and exhibits quasi-stationary compositional states termed compotype species. These grow by catalyzed accretion, divide and propagate their compositional information to progeny in a replication-like manner. The model allows us to ask how molecular network parameters influence assembly evolution and population dynamics parameters. In 1000 computer simulations, each embodying different parameter set of the global chemical interaction network parameters, we observed a wide range of behaviors. These were analyzed by a multi species logistic model often used for analyzing population ecology (r-K or Lotka-Volterra competition model). We found that compotypes with a larger intrinsic molecular repertoire show a higher intrinsic growth (r) and lower carrying capacity (K), as well as lower replication fidelity. This supports a prebiotic scenario initiated by fast-replicating assemblies with a high molecular diversity, evolving into more faithful replicators with narrower molecular repertoires. PMID:24831416

Markovitch, Omer; Lancet, Doron

2014-09-21

215

Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The ability to assemble NPs into ordered structures that are expected to yield collective physical or chemical properties has afforded new and exciting opportunities in the field of nanotechnology. Among the various configurations of nanoparticle assemblies, two-dimensional (2D) NP patterns and one-dimensional (1D) NP arrays on surfaces are regarded as the ideal assembly configurations for many technological devices, for example, solar cells, magnetic memory, switching devices, and sensing devices, due to their unique transport phenomena and the cooperative properties of NPs in assemblies. To realize the potential applications of NP assemblies, especially in nanodevice-related applications, certain key issues must still be resolved, for example, ordering and alignment, manipulating and positioning in nanodevices, and multicomponent or hierarchical structures of NP assemblies for device integration. Additionally, the assembly of NPs with high precision and high levels of integration and uniformity for devices with scaled-down dimensions has become a key and challenging issue. Two-dimensional NP patterns and 1D NP arrays are obtained using traditional lithography techniques (top-down strategies) or interfacial assembly techniques (bottom-up strategies). However, a formidable challenge that persists is the controllable assembly of NPs in desired locations over large areas with high precision and high levels of integration. The difficulty of this assembly is due to the low efficiency of small features over large areas in lithography techniques or the inevitable structural defects that occur during the assembly process. The combination of self-assembly strategies with existing nanofabrication techniques could potentially provide effective and distinctive solutions for fabricating NPs with precise position control and high resolution. Furthermore, the synergistic combination of spatially mediated interactions between nanoparticles and prestructures on surfaces may play an increasingly important role in the controllable assembly of NPs. In this Account, we summarize our approaches and progress in fabricating spatially confined assemblies of NPs that allow for the positioning of NPs with high resolution and considerable throughput. The spatially selective assembly of NPs at the desired location can be achieved by various mechanisms, such as, a controlled dewetting process, electrostatically mediated assembly of particles, and confined deposition and growth of NPs. Three nanofabrication techniques used to produce prepatterns on a substrate are summarized: the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning technique, e-beam lithography (EBL), and nanoimprint lithography (NPL). The particle density, particle size, or interparticle distance in NP assemblies strongly depends on the geometric parameters of the template structure due to spatial confinement. In addition, with smart design template structures, multiplexed NPs can be assembled into a defined structure, thus demonstrating the structural and functional complexity required for highly integrated and multifunction applications. PMID:25244100

Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng

2014-10-21

216

On Constraints in Assembly Planning  

SciTech Connect

Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

1998-12-17

217

Precision Robotic Assembly Machine  

SciTech Connect

The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

2009-08-14

218

Robotic Thumb Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

2013-01-01

219

Precision Robotic Assembly Machine  

ScienceCinema

The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

None

2010-09-01

220

Self-assembly of hydrogen-bonded supramolecular strands from complementary melamine and barbiturate components with chiral  

E-print Network

Self-assembly of hydrogen-bonded supramolecular strands from complementary melamine and barbiturate barbiturate 7 result in molecular recognition directed self-assembly in solution and in the solid state containing a dierent triazine enantiomer. Self-assembly takes place in biological systems with a high level

Rusell, K.C.

221

Gas separation membrane module assembly  

DOEpatents

A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

Wynn, Nicholas P (Palo Alto, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

2009-03-31

222

Self-Assembling Dessert Toppings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) about self-assembly, the ability of molecules to assemble themselves according to certain rules. Learners will use food-grade components to create delicious dessert topping-filled gel capsules, macroscale relatives of the capsules nanoscientists make in a lab to carry medicine to targeted cells of the body. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Self-Assembly.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

223

An Architecture for Agile Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper outlines new hardware and softwaretechnologies and methods being developed forautomated assembly of precision high-value productssuch as magnetic storage devices, palmtop and wearablecomputers and other high-density equipment.Our Agile Assembly Architecture (AAA) supportsthe creation of miniature assembly factories (minifactories)built from small modular robotic components.The goals are to substantially reduce designand deployment times and product changeovertimes,...

Arthur Quaid; Ralph L. Hollis

1995-01-01

224

Conformational Changes in the Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Are Consistent with a Role for Allostery in Virus Assembly  

SciTech Connect

In infected cells, virus components must be organized at the right place and time to ensure assembly of infectious virions. From a different perspective, assembly must be prevented until all components are available. Hypothetically, this can be achieved by allosterically controlling assembly. Consistent with this hypothesis, here we show that the structure of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein dimer, which can spontaneously self-assemble, is incompatible with capsid assembly. Systematic differences between core protein dimer and capsid conformations demonstrate linkage between the intradimer interface and interdimer contact surface. These structures also provide explanations for the capsid-dimer selectivity of some antibodies and the activities of assembly effectors. Solution studies suggest that the assembly-inactive state is more accurately an ensemble of conformations. Simulations show that allostery supports controlled assembly and results in capsids that are resistant to dissociation. We propose that allostery, as demonstrated in HBV, is common to most self-assembling viruses.

Packianathan, Charles; Katen, Sarah P.; Dann, III, Charles E.; Zlotnick, Adam (Indiana)

2010-01-12

225

Mechanisms of kinetic trapping in self-assembly and phase transformation  

PubMed Central

In self-assembly processes, kinetic trapping effects often hinder the formation of thermodynamically stable ordered states. In a model of viral capsid assembly and in the phase transformation of a lattice gas, we show how simulations in a self-assembling steady state can be used to identify two distinct mechanisms of kinetic trapping. We argue that one of these mechanisms can be adequately captured by kinetic rate equations, while the other involves a breakdown of theories that rely on cluster size as a reaction coordinate. We discuss how these observations might be useful in designing and optimising self-assembly reactions. PMID:21932884

Hagan, Michael F.; Elrad, Oren M.; Jack, Robert L.

2011-01-01

226

Multi-position photovoltaic assembly  

DOEpatents

The invention is directed to a PV assembly, for use on a support surface, comprising a base, a PV module, a multi-position module support assembly, securing the module to the base at shipping and inclined-use angles, a deflector, a multi-position deflector support securing the deflector to the base at deflector shipping and deflector inclined-use angles, the module and deflector having opposed edges defining a gap therebetween. The invention permits transport of the PV assemblies in a relatively compact form, thus lowering shipping costs, while facilitating installation of the PV assemblies with the PV module at the proper inclination.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2003-03-18

227

Measuring electrode assembly  

DOEpatents

A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture. 2 figs.

Bordenick, J.E.

1988-04-26

228

Microchannel heat sink assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

Bonde, Wayne L. (Livermore, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

1992-01-01

229

Measuring electrode assembly  

DOEpatents

A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture.

Bordenick, John E. (West Mifflin, PA)

1989-01-01

230

Microchannel heat sink assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

1992-03-24

231

Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly  

DOEpatents

A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

Carl, Jr., Ralph James (Clifton Park, NY); Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY); Jansen, Patrick Lee (Scotia, NY); Dawson, Richard Nils (Voorheesville, NY); Qu, Ronghai (Clifton Park, NY); Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich (Moscow, RU)

2009-08-11

232

Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies  

SciTech Connect

A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

2000-06-27

233

Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies  

DOEpatents

A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichart, Anke (Albany, CA)

2000-01-01

234

Fuel cell sub-assembly  

DOEpatents

A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

Chi, Chang V. (Brookfield, CT)

1983-01-01

235

Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

2013-05-01

236

A Virtual Assembly Design Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Virtual Assembly Design Environment (VADE) is a Virtual Reality (VR)-based engineering application that allows engineers to evaluate, analyze, and plan the assembly of mechanical systems. This system focuses on utilizing an immersive, virtual environment tightly coupled with commercial computer aided design (CAD) systems. Salient features of VADE include: 1) data integration (two-way) with a parametric CAD system, 2) realistic

Sankar Jayaram; Yong Wang; Uma Jayaram; Kevin W. Lyons; Peter Hart

1999-01-01

237

19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United...assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United...States. (a) No article (except a textile article, apparel article,...

2010-04-01

238

19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United...assembled in a beneficiary country from textile components cut to shape in the United...States. (a) No article (except a textile article, apparel article,...

2011-04-01

239

Microfluidic self assembly  

E-print Network

Recent progress in colloidal science has led to elaborate self-assembled structures whose complexity raises hopes for elaborating new materials. However, the throughputs are extremely low and consequently, the chance to produce materials of industrial interest, for instance, groundbreaking optical devices, harnessing complete three-dimensional band gaps, is markedly low. We discovered a novel hydrodynamic effect that may unlock this bottleneck. It is based on the dipolar flow interactions that build up when droplets are slowed down by the microchannel walls along which they are transported. Coupled with depletion forces, we succeeded to form, via a continuous flow process, at unprecedented speeds and under exquisite control, a rich ensemble of monodisperse planar and tridimensional clusters, such as chains, triangles, diamonds, tetahedrons, heterotrimers, possessing geometrical, chemical, and/or magnetic anisotropies enabling directional bonding. Continuous productions of millions of building blocks per second for elaborating new functional materials can be envisioned.

Bingqing Shen; Joshua Ricouvier; Mathilde Reyssat; Florent Malloggi; Patrick Tabeling

2014-09-14

240

Crank shaft support assembly  

DOEpatents

A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

Natkin, Robert J. (Canton, MI); Oltmans, Bret (Stacy, MN); Allison, John E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Heater, Thomas J. (Milford, MI); Hines, Joy Adair (Plymouth, MI); Tappen, Grant K. (Washington, MI); Peiskammer, Dietmar (Rochester, MI)

2007-10-23

241

Photovoltaic cell assembly  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

Beavis, Leonard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

242

Assembling a COMPASS  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modifications of histone proteins lie at the heart of the epigenetic landscape in the cell’s nucleus and the precise regulation of gene expression. A myriad of studies have showed that several histone-modifying enzymes are controlled by modulatory protein partner subunits and other post-transcriptional modifications deposited in the vicinity of the targeted site. All together, these mechanisms create an intricate network of interactions that regulate enzymatic activities and ultimately control the site-specific deposition of covalent modifications. In this Point-of-View, we discuss our evolving understanding on the assembly and architecture of histone H3 Lys-4 (H3K4) methyltransferase COMPASS complexes and the techniques that progressively allowed us to better define the molecular basis of complex formation and function. We further briefly discuss some of the challenges lying ahead and additional approaches required to understand mechanistic details for the function of such complexes. PMID:23470558

Couture, Jean-Francois; Skiniotis, Georgios

2013-01-01

243

Rotatable seal assembly  

DOEpatents

An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA); Garibaldi, Jack L. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

244

Gas gun assembly  

SciTech Connect

A gas gun assembly, for measuring depths of reflectors in a well bore, includes a housing having a central chamber and bottom bulkhead through which a first valve bore extends. Coupling structure is provided to connect the housing to the well. A cap closure for the chamber has a second valve bore therethrough of diameter larger than the diameter of the first valve bore and is located in axial alignment with the first valve bore. A valve stem has one end axially movable within the second valve bore while closing the same and the other end movable into and out of the first valve bore. A predetermined pressure condition is established across the bulkhead. The valve stem is then released for rapid equalization of pressure across the bulkhead to produce an acoustic pulse in the well bore.

McCoy, J.N.

1983-10-11

245

Solution assembly of conjugated polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on the solution-state polymer assembly of conjugated polymers with specific attention to nano- and molecular-scale morphology. Understanding how to control these structures holds potential for applications in polymer-based electronics. Optimization of conjugated polymer morphology was performed with three objectives: 1) segregation of donor and acceptor materials on the nanometer length-scale, 2) achieving molecular-scale ordering in terms of crystallinity within distinct domains, and 3) maximizing the number and quality of well-defined donor/acceptor interfaces. Chapter 1 introduces the development of a mixed solvent method to create crystalline poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) fibrils in solution. Chapter 2 describes fibril purification and approaches to robust and functional fibrils, while chapters 3 and 4 demonstrate the formation of hybrid nanocomposite wires of P3HT and cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles by two methods: 1) co-crystallization of free and P3HT-grafted CdSe for composite nanowires and 2) direct attachment of CdSe nanoparticles at fibril edges to give superhighway structures. These composite structures show great potential in the application of optoelectronic devices, such as the active layer of solar cells. Finally, ultrafast photophysical characterization of these polymers, using time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption, was performed to determine the aggregation types present in suspended fibrils and monitor the formation and decay of charged species in fibrils and donor-acceptor systems.

Bokel, Felicia A.

246

Advanced gray rod control assembly  

DOEpatents

An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

2013-09-17

247

Combinatorial optimization problems in self-assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembly is the ubiquitous process by which simple objects autonomously assemble into intricate complexes. It has been suggested that intricate self-assembly processes will ultimately be used in circuit fabrication, nano-robotics, DNA computation, and amorphous computing. In this paper, we study two combinatorial optimization problems related to efficient self-assembly of shapes in the Tile Assembly Model of self-assembly proposed by Rothemund

Leonard M. Adleman; Qi Cheng; Ashish Goel; Ming-Deh A. Huang; David Kempe; Pablo Moisset de Espanés; Paul Wilhelm Karl Rothemund

2002-01-01

248

ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed into the cask unloading pool. In the cask unloading pool the DPC is removed from the cask and placed in an overpack and the DPC lid is severed and removed. Assemblies are removed from either an open cask or DPC and loaded into assembly baskets positioned in the basket staging rack in the assembly unloading pool. A method called ''blending'' is utilized to load DCs with a heat output of less than 11.8 kW. This involves combining hotter and cooler assemblies from different baskets. Blending requires storing some of the hotter fuel assemblies in fuel-blending inventory pools until cooler assemblies are available. The assembly baskets are then transferred from the basket staging rack to the assembly handling cell and loaded into the assembly drying vessels. After drying, the assemblies are removed from the assembly drying vessels and loaded into a DC positioned below the DC load port. After installation of a DC inner lid and temporary sealing device, the DC is transferred to the DC decontamination cell where the top area of the DC, the DC lifting collar, and the DC inner lid and temporary sealing device are decontaminated, and the DC is evacuated and backfilled with inert gas to prevent prolonged clad exposure to air. The DC is then transferred to the Disposal Container Handling System for lid welding. In another cask preparation and decontamination area, lids are replaced on the empty transportation casks and DPC overpacks, the casks and DPC overpacks are decontaminated, inspected, and transferred to the Carrier/Cask Handling System for shipment off-site. All system equipment is designed to facilitate manual or remote operation, decontamination, and maintenance. The system interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Handling System for incoming and outgoing transportation casks and DPCs. The system also interfaces with the Disposal Container Handling System, which prepares the DC for loading and subsequently seals the loaded DC. The system support interfaces are the Waste Handling Building System and other internal WHB support systems.

B. Gorpani

2000-06-26

249

Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays.  

PubMed

Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 ?m) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. PMID:23786830

Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng

2013-09-01

250

Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly  

DOEpatents

A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

Sun, Zongxuan (Troy, MI)

2010-02-23

251

Curved conveyor section guide assembly  

SciTech Connect

A guide assembly for a curved conveyor section of a scraperchain conveyor guides the scraper assembly from a first straight conveyor portion round the curved conveyor section to a second straight conveyor portion. This guiding is accomplished by a pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels. A further pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels are provided to guide the drive chain of a plough round the curved conveyor section. This enables the plough to be driven to and fro along the first straight conveyor portion by a drive station attached to the second straight conveyor portion adjacent to the guide assembly.

Truszczinski, H.

1981-02-03

252

Developmental self-assembly of a DNA tetrahedron.  

PubMed

Kinetically controlled isothermal growth is fundamental to biological development, yet it remains challenging to rationally design molecular systems that self-assemble isothermally into complex geometries via prescribed assembly and disassembly pathways. By exploiting the programmable chemistry of base pairing, sophisticated spatial and temporal control have been demonstrated in DNA self-assembly, but largely as separate pursuits. By integrating temporal with spatial control, here we demonstrate the "developmental" self-assembly of a DNA tetrahedron, where a prescriptive molecular program orchestrates the kinetic pathways by which DNA molecules isothermally self-assemble into a well-defined three-dimensional wireframe geometry. In this reaction, nine DNA reactants initially coexist metastably, but upon catalysis by a DNA initiator molecule, navigate 24 individually characterizable intermediate states via prescribed assembly pathways, organized both in series and in parallel, to arrive at the tetrahedral final product. In contrast to previous work on dynamic DNA nanotechnology, this developmental program coordinates growth of ringed substructures into a three-dimensional wireframe superstructure, taking a step toward the goal of kinetically controlled isothermal growth of complex three-dimensional geometries. PMID:24720462

Sadowski, John P; Calvert, Colby R; Zhang, David Yu; Pierce, Niles A; Yin, Peng

2014-04-22

253

Restructuring the Common School in Ohio: The Path to Educational Progress. Policy and Budget Recommendations of the State Board of Education to the Governor and 119th General Assembly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the Ohio State Board of Education began developing legislative recommendations for the 1992-93 biennium, the state's economic outlook was more positive. However, conditions changed dramatically and the state faced a budget deficit. While recognizing these economic limitations, the board proposed that the education system must move toward…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

254

A supramolecular ladder polymer prepared by hydrogen bonding-mediated self-assembly of a metallomacrocycle.  

PubMed

A defect-free supramolecular ladder polymer was prepared by H-bond-mediated self-assembly of a metallocycle as determined by NMR, viscometry and dynamic laser light scattering studies. This ladder polymer further self-assembled into thicker bundles which subsequently folded into uniform-sized spheres in the solid state. PMID:25562309

Ng, Chun-Fai; Chow, Hak-Fun

2015-01-27

255

Automated assembly of fast-axis collimation (FAC) lenses for diode laser bar modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser diodes and diode laser bars are key components in high power semiconductor lasers and solid state laser systems. During manufacture, the assembly of the fast axis collimation (FAC) lens is a crucial step. The goal of our activities is to design an automated assembly system for high volume production. In this paper the results of an intermediate milestone will

Jörn Miesner; Andre Timmermann; Jens Meinschien; Bernhard Neumann; Steve Wright; Tolga Tekin; Henning Schröder; Thomas Westphalen; Felix Frischkorn

2009-01-01

256

Operation of the low power reactor assembly in the University of Illinois TRIGA bulk shielding facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Low Power Reactor Assembly (LOPRA) is a rectangular assembly of TRIGA fuel elements located in the bulk shielding facility of the Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor (TRIGA). The LOPRA is coupled to the TRIGA by a thermal column that extends from the TRIGA core to the bulk shielding facility. The LOPRA will be utilized for studying steady-state and transient coupling

G. P. Beck; G. Thayer

1972-01-01

257

Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an accelerator driven subcritical assembly. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the medical isotope production, neutron thereby, and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. Reactor physics experiments and material research will be carried out using the capabilities of this facility. The United States

A. Talamo; Y. Gohar

2007-01-01

258

Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Dendrimers Based on Aliphatic Polyether-Type Dendritic Cores  

E-print Network

Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Dendrimers Based on Aliphatic Polyether-Type Dendritic Manuscript Received February 22, 2004 ABSTRACT: We have prepared a series of amphiphilic dendrimers-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments. Amphiphilic dendrimer self-assembly in the solid state

Gruner, Sol M.

259

Concentric tube support assembly  

DOEpatents

An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

2012-09-04

260

Electric storage battery assembly  

SciTech Connect

An automotive storage battery assembly is described including: (a) a primary storage battery provided with positive and negative poles; (b) a secondary storage battery having positive and negative poles; (c) a female coupling member adapted to be coupled to the positive and negative poles of one of the primary and secondary storage batteries and having a positive and negative receiver; (d) a male coupling member adapted to be coupled to the positive and negative poles of the other of the primary and secondary storage batteries and having protruding positive and negative prongs to frictionally engage with the positive and negative receivers to electronically couple the primary and secondary storage batteries in parallel; (e) walls of the primary storage battery casing defining an aperture having a dimension to snugly receive the secondary storage battery; (f) spring clamping members on the primary storage battery on two spaced sides of the primary storage battery defining the aperture; (g) slotted flanges on spaced ends of the top surface of the secondary storage battery; the flanges adapted to receive the clamping members, and (h) a carrying handle adapted to be received at either end in the slotted flanges when the spring clamping members are disengaged.

Cramer, S.L.

1987-08-04

261

Subsea wellhead assembly  

SciTech Connect

A subsea wellhead assembly for areas subject to iceberg scouring including an upper conductor in a well bore and a lower conductor in the well bore with the upper end of the lower conductor being within the lower end of the upper conductor and connected thereto by a weak connection and the upper end of the lower conductor being below the maximum iceberg scour depth and means for connecting said conductors, said connecting means having sufficient strength to withstand bending loads during drilling and being removable for installation of production equipment. Additionally production equipment in the well bore includes a block valve supported within the second conductor and a production string extending upward from the block valve and having a weak point within the upper end of the second conductor whereby the well control is not lost by deep iceberg scouring since the production control equipment is within the second conductor which is not damaged by the scouring and the production equipment extending thereabove fails without damage to the lower control equipment or loss of the well.

Kelly, T. P.

1984-12-11

262

Accomplishments in Field Period Assembly for NCSX* This is how we did it  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was a collaborative effort between ORNL and PPPL. PPPL provided the assembly techniques with guidance from ORNL to meet design criteria. The individual vacuum vessel segments, modular coils, trim coils, and toroidal field coils components were delivered to the Field Period Assembly (FPA) crew who then would complete the component assemblies and then assemble the final three field period assemblies, each consisting of two sets of three modular coils assembled over a 120o vacuum vessel segment with the trim coils and toroidal field coils providing the outer layer. The requirements for positioning the modular coils were found to be most demanding. The assembly tolerances required for accurate positioning of the field coil windings in order to generate sufficiently accurate magnetic fields strained state of the art techniques in metrology and alignment and required constant monitoring of assembly steps with laser trackers, measurement arms, and photogrammetry. The FPA activities were being performed concurrently while engineering challenges were being resolved. For example, it was determined that high friction electrically isolated shims were needed between the modular coil interface joints and low distortion welding was required in the nose region of those joints. This took months of analysis and development yet the assembly was not significantly impacted because other assembly tasks could be performed in parallel with ongoing assembly tasks as well as tasks such as advance tooling setup preparation for the eventual welding tasks. The crew technicians developed unique, accurate time saving techniques and tooling which provided significant cost and schedule savings. Project management displayed extraordinary foresight and every opportunity to gain advanced knowledge and develop techniques was taken advantage of. Despite many risk concerns, the cost and schedule performance index was maintained nearly 1.0 during the assembly phase until project cancellation. In this paper, the assembly logic, the engineering challenges, solutions to those challenges and some of the unique and clever assembly techniques, will be presented.

Michael Viola, J. Edwards, T. Brown, L. Dudek, R. Ellis, P. Heitzenroeder, R. Strykowsky and Michael Cole

2009-09-14

263

IFAS FACULTY ASSEMBLY MINUTESMINUTESMINUTESMINUTES  

E-print Network

those that made last year successful including: · Art Teixeira · Steve Futch · Gene McAvoy · Phil Report in October ­ State of the Institution COMMITTEE REPORTS IRC ­ DR. KEITH SCHNEIDER · Professor

Jawitz, James W.

264

Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

2014-07-22

265

Additive assembly of digital materials  

E-print Network

This thesis develops the use of additive assembly of press-fit digital materials as a new rapid-prototyping process. Digital materials consist of a finite set of parts that have discrete connections and occupy discrete ...

Ward, Jonathan (Jonathan Daniel)

2010-01-01

266

Shaft seal assembly and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

Keba, John E. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

267

Wafer scale micromachine assembly method  

DOEpatents

A method for fusing together, using diffusion bonding, micromachine subassemblies which are separately fabricated is described. A first and second micromachine subassembly are fabricated on a first and second substrate, respectively. The substrates are positioned so that the upper surfaces of the two micromachine subassemblies face each other and are aligned so that the desired assembly results from their fusion. The upper surfaces are then brought into contact, and the assembly is subjected to conditions suited to the desired diffusion bonding.

Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

268

Spatial gradients controlling spindle assembly.  

PubMed

The mitotic spindle is the macromolecular machine utilized to accurately segregate chromosomes in cells. How this self-organized structure assembles is a key aspect of understanding spindle morphogenesis. In the present review, we focus on understanding mechanisms of spindle self-assembly and address how subcellular signalling gradients, such as Ran-GTP and Aurora B, contribute to spindle organization and function. PMID:25619240

Weaver, Lesley N; Walczak, Claire E

2015-02-01

269

Self-Assembled Circuit Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembly is a process in which basic units aggregate un- der attractive forces to form larger compound structures. Recent theo- retical work has shown that pseudo-crystalline self-assembly can be al- gorithmic, in the sense that complex logic can be programmed into the growth process (26). This theoretical work builds on the theory of two- dimensional tilings (8), using rigid square

Matthew Cook; Paul W. K. Rothemund; Erik Winfree

2003-01-01

270

Fuel cell design and assembly  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a novel bipolar cooling plate, fuel cell design and method of assembly of fuel cells. The bipolar cooling plate used in the fuel cell design and method of assembly has discrete opposite edge and means carried by the plate defining a plurality of channels extending along the surface of the plate toward the opposite edges. At least one edge of the channels terminates short of the edge of the plate defining a recess for receiving a fastener.

Meyerhoff, A.

1982-07-01

271

Fuel cell design and assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a novel bipolar cooling plate, fuel cell design and method of assembly of fuel cells. The bipolar cooling plate used in the fuel cell design and method of assembly has discrete opposite edge and means carried by the plate defining a plurality of channels extending along the surface of the plate toward the opposite edges. At least one edge of the channels terminates short of the edge of the plate defining a recess for receiving a fastener.

Myerhoff, Alfred (Greensburg, PA)

1984-01-01

272

Fuel cell design and assembly  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a novel bipolar cooling plate, fuel cell design and method of assembly of fuel cells. The bipolar cooling plate used in the fuel cell design and method of assembly has discrete opposite edge and means carried by the plate defining a plurality of channels extending along the surface of the plate toward the opposite edges. At least one edge of the channels terminates short of the edge of the plate defining a recess for receiving a fastener.

Myerhoff, A.

1984-02-14

273

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, SHOWING PREVIOUS MODIFICATIONS (INSTALLATION OF METAL ROLL-UP DOOR, LEFT FOREGROUND). 125-TON LIFTING CRANE (TOP FOREGROUND), AND ORIGINAL FLOOR-TO-CEILING MULTI-PANE, METAL-CASED WINDOWS - Bonneville Power Administration Chehalis Substation, Untanking Tower, State Route 603, West of Interstate 5, Napavine, Lewis County, WA

274

Templated self-assembly for complex pattern fabrication  

E-print Network

The long-term goal of my Ph.D. study has been controlling the self-assembly of various materials using state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques. Electron-beam lithography has been used for decades to generate nanoscale ...

Chang, Jae-Byum

2014-01-01

275

Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with scale. Not in use August 1994. Turntable rotated with engine and tender on balance by two persons, one on either side at ground level - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

276

Self-Assembly with Nanomanufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students learn the "necessary conditions for self-assembly (random motion and molecular stickiness), play with some example models of self-assembling biological structures (quartenary structures such as hemoglobin, fibers, and microtubules), and then design their own self-assembly structures." Upon completion of this activity students should be able to identify and manipulate two key characteristics of molecules that allow them to self assemble; describe the effect of temperature on self-assembly; and give examples of the effect of molecular shape on the larger structures built by self-assembly. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity, a test and rubric, central concepts, and their correlation to AAAS standards.

2008-10-23

277

Patchy particles by self assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patchy particles offer novel means for colloidal assembly or clustering of functional groups but are generally made by batch processes rather than self-assembly. Selective binding of multivalent ligands within a mixture of polyvalent amphiphiles provides, in principle, a mechanism for driving domain formation in self-assemblies. Divalent cations are shown here to crossbridge polyanionic amphiphiles, which thereby demix from neutral amphiphiles and form spots or rafts within vesicles as well as stripes within cylindrical micelles. Calcium- and copper-crossbridged domains of synthetic block copolymers or natural lipid (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate) possess tunable sizes, shapes and/or spacings that can last for years. Lateral segregation in these `responsive Janus assemblies' couples weakly to curvature and proves to be restricted within phase diagrams to narrow regimes of pH and cation concentration that are centred near the characteristic binding constants for polyacid interactions. Remixing at high pH is surprising, but a theory for strong lateral segregation shows that counterion entropy dominates electrostatic crossbridges, thus illustrating the insights gained into ligand-induced pattern formation within self-assemblies. REFERENCES - [1] D.A. Christian, A. Tian, W.G. Ellenbroek, I. Levental, P.A. Janmey, A.J. Liu, T. Baumgart, D.E. Discher. Spotted vesicles, striped micelles, and Janus assemblies induced by ligand binding. Nature Materials 8: 843--849 (2009).

Discher, Dennis; Christian, David

2010-03-01

278

Gravity Probe B Assembled  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

2000-01-01

279

LDRD final report: Automated planning and programming of assembly of fully 3D mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of assembly planning research under the LDRD. The assembly planning problem is that of finding a sequence of assembly operations, starting from individual parts, that will result in complete assembly of a device specified as a CAD model. The automated assembly programming problem is that of automatically producing a robot program that will carry out a given assembly sequence. Given solutions to both of these problems, it is possible to automatically program a robot to assemble a mechanical device given as a CAD data file. This report describes the current state of our solutions to both of these problems, and a software system called Archimedes 2 we have constructed to automate these solutions. Because Archimedes 2 can input CAD data in several standard formats, we have been able to test it on a number of industrial assembly models more complex than any before attempted by automated assembly planning systems, some having over 100 parts. A complete path from a CAD model to an automatically generated robot program for assembling the device represented by the CAD model has also been demonstrated.

Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

1996-11-01

280

Reproducible EnzymeReproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticAssembly and Catalytic  

E-print Network

Reproducible EnzymeReproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticAssembly and Catalytic Activity Accomplishments #12;Reproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticReproducible Enzyme Assembly and Catalytic Activity in Reusable BioMEMSActivity in Reusable BioMEMS Accomplishment Pro-tagged Pfs enzymes are spatially assembled

Rubloff, Gary W.

281

Meta assembler enhancements and generalized linkage editor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A meta Assembler for NASA was developed. The initial development of the Meta Assembler for the SUMC was performed. The capabilities included assembly for both main and micro level programs. A period of checkout and utilization to verify the performance of the Meta Assembler was undertaken. Additional enhancements were made to the Meta Assembler which expanded the target computer family to include architectures represented by the PDP-11, MODCOMP 2, and Raytheon 706 computers.

1979-01-01

282

Self-limited self-assembly of chiral filaments  

E-print Network

The assembly of filamentous bundles with controlled diameters is common in biological systems and desirable for the development of nanomaterials. We discuss dynamical simulations and free energy calculations on patchy spheres with chiral pair interactions that spontaneously assemble into filamentous bundles. The chirality frustrates long-range crystal order by introducing twist between interacting subunits. For some ranges of system parameters this constraint leads to bundles with a finite diameter as the equilibrium state, and in other cases frustration is relieved by the formation of defects. While some self-limited structures can be modeled as twisted filaments arranged with local hexagonal symmetry, other structures are surprising in their complexity.

Yasheng Yang; Robert B. Meyer; Michael F. Hagan

2010-01-26

283

Thermally Reversible Self-Assembly of Nanoparticles via Polymer Crystallization.  

PubMed

The directed self-assembly of gold nanoparticles through the crystallization of surface-grafted polyethylene oxide (PEO) in ethanol-water mixtures is described. This process is fully reversible and tunable through either the size of the core or the polymeric coating. Characterization by X-ray scattering and electron microscopy of the self-assembled structures reveals order at the nanoscale, typically not the case for thermoresponsive gold nanoparticles coated with lower or upper critical solution temperature polymers. A further novelty is the result of selective binding of calcium ions to the PEO in the fluid state: a reversible thermoresponsive transition become irreversible. PMID:25315899

Kinnear, Calum; Balog, Sandor; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Petri-Fink, Alke

2014-12-01

284

Buckling instability of self-assembled colloidal columns.  

PubMed

Suspended, slender self-assembled domains of magnetically responsive colloids are observed to buckle in microgravity. Upon cessation of the magnetic field that drives their assembly, these columns expand axially and buckle laterally. This phenomenon resembles the buckling of long beams due to thermal expansion; however, linear stability analysis predicts that the colloidal columns are inherently susceptible to buckling because they are freely suspended in a Newtonian fluid. The dominant buckling wavelength increases linearly with column thickness and is quantitatively described using an elastohydrodynamic model and the suspension thermodynamic equation of state. PMID:25302919

Swan, James W; Vasquez, Paula A; Furst, Eric M

2014-09-26

285

Buckling Instability of Self-Assembled Colloidal Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended, slender self-assembled domains of magnetically responsive colloids are observed to buckle in microgravity. Upon cessation of the magnetic field that drives their assembly, these columns expand axially and buckle laterally. This phenomenon resembles the buckling of long beams due to thermal expansion; however, linear stability analysis predicts that the colloidal columns are inherently susceptible to buckling because they are freely suspended in a Newtonian fluid. The dominant buckling wavelength increases linearly with column thickness and is quantitatively described using an elastohydrodynamic model and the suspension thermodynamic equation of state.

Swan, James W.; Vasquez, Paula A.; Furst, Eric M.

2014-09-01

286

OSU Team Assembles X-Hab Loft - Duration: 0:32.  

NASA Video Gallery

This time lapse video shows the Oklahoma State University team in the process of assembling and inflating the loft they've built for the first X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge. OSU is one of thr...

287

Geometric and elastic properties and mechanical phase separation phenomena in self-assembling mesoscopic helical springs  

E-print Network

Helical ribbons with pitch angles of either 11? or 54? self-assemble in a wide variety of quaternary surfactant-phospholipid/fatty acid-sterol-water systems. In all of the systems studied, the thermodynamically stable state ...

Smith, Brice Christopher, 1976-

2003-01-01

288

Assembly considerations for large reflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technologies developed at LaRC in the area of erectable instructures are discussed. The information is of direct value to the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) because an option for the LDR backup structure is to assemble it in space. The efforts in this area, which include development of joints, underwater assembly simulation tests, flight assembly/disassembly tests, and fabrication of 5-meter trusses, led to the use of the LaRC concept as the baseline configuration for the Space Station Structure. The Space Station joint is linear in the load and displacement range of interest to Space Station; the ability to manually assemble and disassemble a 45-foot truss structure was demonstrated by astronauts in space as part of the ACCESS Shuttle Flight Experiment. The structure was built in 26 minutes 46 seconds, and involved a total of 500 manipulations of untethered hardware. Also, the correlation of the space experience with the neutral buoyancy simulation was very good. Sections of the proposed 5-meter bay Space Station truss have been built on the ground. Activities at LaRC have included the development of mobile remote manipulator systems (which can traverse the Space Station 5-meter structure), preliminary LDR sun shield concepts, LDR construction scenarios, and activities in robotic assembly of truss-type structures.

Bush, H.

1988-01-01

289

Emergent mechanical properties of self-assembled polymeric capsules  

PubMed Central

Synthetic self-assembled systems combine responsiveness and reversibility with the ability to perform chemical tasks such as molecular recognition and catalysis. An unmet challenge is the construction of polymeric materials that, like nature's tubulin, are simultaneously reversible and capable of useful physical tasks. We report here a class of reversibly formed polymers that show covalent-polymer mechanical integrity in solution and in the solid state. Non-Newtonian, polymeric behavior is observed despite the low molecular weight of the individual subunits and the seemingly weak forces holding the assemblies together. These polymers assemble through self-complementary hydrogen bonding and by physical encapsulation of small molecules; accordingly, the emergent macroscopic structure and function can be controlled by appropriate chemical signals. PMID:11070074

Castellano, Ronald K.; Clark, Ross; Craig, Stephen L.; Nuckolls, Colin; Rebek, Julius

2000-01-01

290

Comparing open and closed molecular self-assembly  

E-print Network

We study theoretically in the present work the self-assembly of molecules in an open system, which is fed by monomers and depleted in partial or complete clusters. Such a scenario is likely to occur for example in the context of viral self-assembly. We provide a general formula for the mean-field size distribution which is valid both at equilibrium in a closed system, and in the stationary state in an open system. This allows us to explore in a simple way out-of-equilibrium features for self-assembly and compare them to equilibrium properties. In particular, we identify a region of parameter space for which the out-of-equilibrium size distribution in the presence of external fluxes is equal to the equilibrium size distribution in the absence of external fluxes, up to a constant renormalization factor. The range of validity of this result and its consequences are discussed.

Martin Castelnovo; Timothée Verdier; Lionel Foret

2014-02-17

291

A Novel Automated System for Assembling Films of Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their interesting properties, nanoparticle films have emerged as useful platforms for miniaturized chemical sensing. For nanoparticle sensors to become practical in real world applications, a reproducible method of assembly has to be implemented. This project focuses on robotic assembly techniques that deposit nanoparticle films on various substrates. We have developed a process to iteratively assemble and electronically characterize nanoparticle films using a custom robotic preparation system. The robot's design uses commercially available pneumatic and electronic actuators, valves and regulators to manage precision movements. Control of the robot is obtained by a custom Labview program which uses a TTL and GPIB interface to control relays, power supplies, and measurement circuitry. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Cardenas, Edna; Howell, Stephen; Dirk, Shawn; Wheeler, Dave

2006-03-01

292

Self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) together with harmless visible light of the appropriate wavelength to produce reactive oxygen species that kill unwanted cells. Because many PS are hydrophobic molecules prone to aggregation, numerous drug delivery vehicles have been tested to solubilize these molecules, render them biocompatible and enhance the ease of administration after intravenous injection. The recent rise in nanotechnology has markedly expanded the range of these nanoparticulate delivery vehicles beyond the well-established liposomes and micelles. Self-assembled nanoparticles are formed by judicious choice of monomer building blocks that spontaneously form a well-oriented 3-dimensional structure that incorporates the PS when subjected to the appropriate conditions. This self-assembly process is governed by a subtle interplay of forces on the molecular level. This review will cover the state of the art in the preparation and use of self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles within the context of PDT. PMID:24348377

Sadasivam, Magesh; Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Lakshmanan, Shanmugamurthy; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Huang, Ying-Ying; Kumar, Raj; Hamblin, Michael R.

2013-01-01

293

Analysis of large space structures assembly: Man/machine assembly analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for analyzing large space structures assembly via three primary modes: manual, remote and automated are outlined. Data bases on each of the assembly modes and a general data base on the shuttle capabilities to support structures assembly are presented. Task element times and structure assembly component costs are given to provide a basis for determining the comparative economics of assembly alternatives. The lessons learned from simulations of space structures assembly are detailed.

1983-01-01

294

The Archimedes 2 mechanical assembly planning system  

SciTech Connect

We describe the implementation and performance of Archimedes 2, an integrated mechanical assembly planning system. Archimedes 2 includes two planners, two assembly sequence animation facilities, and an associated robotic workcell. Both planners use full 3 dimensional data. A rudimentary translator from high level assembly plans to control code for the robotic workcell has also been implemented. We can translate data from a commercial CAD system into input data for the system, which has allowed us to plan assembly sequences for many industrial assemblies. Archimedes 2 has been used to plan sequences for assemblies consisting of 5 to 109 parts. We have also successfully taken a CAD model of an assembly, produced an optimized assembly sequence for it, and translated the plan into robot code, which successfully assembles the device specified in the model.

Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

1996-03-01

295

Hydrogen-bond-mediated self-assembly of 26-membered diaza tetraester crowns of 3,5-disubstituted 1H-pyrazole. Dimerization study in the solid state and in CDCl3 solution.  

PubMed

By using an improved synthetic method reported earlier, the cyclic stannoxanes obtained from RN-diethanolamine (R = Me, Bu) and dibutyltin oxide have been reacted with 1H-pyrazole-3,5-dicarbonyl dichloride to afford 26-membered diaza tetraester crowns (1, R = Me; 3, R = Bu) and 39-membered triaza hexaester crowns (2, R = Me; 4, R = Bu). The new structures were identified from their analytical and spectroscopic ((1)H and (13)C NMR, FAB-MS, and/or ESI-MS) data. Both diaza tetraester crowns (1 and 3), containing two 1H-pyrazole units, self-assemble into dimeric species through the formation of four hydrogen bonds involving the two NH pyrazole groups and the two tertiary amine groups of both crowns, as proved by X-ray crystallography and NMR analysis. Preliminary NMR, ESI-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS, and molecular modeling studies suggest that, in CDCl(3) solution, 1 interacts with ethyleneurea (ETU), affording 1:1, 2:1, and 2:2 1-ETU complexes. PMID:21910468

Reviriego, Felipe; Navarro, Pilar; Arán, Vicente J; Jimeno, Maria Luisa; García-España, Enrique; Latorre, Julio; Yunta, Maria J R

2011-10-21

296

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Ladder Assembly Sequences  

SciTech Connect

This is an abridged version of the assembly sequence described by the DO assembly subgroup of Cooper, Hrycyk, Kowalski, Rapidis, and Ratzmann. This primarily is used to indicate major steps during the sequence and to list fixturing requirements. Assembly - (1) Place support rails in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. The two rails get held under vacuum. (2) Apply adhesive to the region where contact will be made with the beryllium substrates. (3) Place underside beryllium pieces (active and dummy ends) into the (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. These pieces get placed in the fixture against the appropriate pins to mimic final positioning in the bulkhead. Apply vacuum to the beryllium pieces. Allow to cure? (4) Align silicon in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. Reference features on the fixture will be parameterized. Holes in the fixture near the silicon center line will be targeted to set the silicon axis relative to the beryllium slot edge. Z positioning of the detectors will be achieved by shimming between the detectors and butting up the end of the silicon against the fixture. (5) Remove silicon detectors and apply adhesive to the rails and upper surfaces of the beryllium. (6) Replace silicon and check final position of the detectors. (7) Release vacuum on the rails so they cure in a stress-free state. Allow adhesive to cure. (8) Apply adhesive and align HDI to the silicon using (2) 3 Chip HDI Gluing fixture. The HDI will have tabs which are held by the fixture for location relative to the detectors. Allow adhesive to cure. (9) Move ladder to (3) 3 Chip Wirebonding Fixture. Transfer fixture to the wirebonder and bond chip-silicon and silicon-silicon.

Ratzmann, Paul; /Fermilab

1994-08-17

297

DNA-templated assembly of droplet-derived PEG microtissues  

PubMed Central

Patterning multiple cell types is a critical step for engineering functional tissues, but few methods provide three-dimensional positioning at the cellular length scale. Here, we present a “bottom-up” approach for fabricating multicellular tissue constructs that utilizes DNA-templated assembly of 3D cell-laden hydrogel microtissues. A flow focusing-generated emulsion of photopolymerizable prepolymer is used to produce 100 ?m monodisperse microtissues at rates of 100 Hz (105/hr). Multiple cell types, including suspension and adherently cultured cells, can be encapsulated into the microtissues with high viability (~97%). We then use a DNA coding scheme to self-assemble microtissues “bottom-up” from a template that is defined using “top-down” techniques. The microtissues are derivatized with single-stranded DNA using a biotin-streptavidin linkage to the polymer network, and are assembled by sequence-specific hybridization onto spotted DNA microarrays. Using orthogonal DNA codes, we achieve multiplexed patterning of multiple microtissue types with high binding efficiency and >90% patterning specificity. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to organize multicomponent constructs composed of epithelial and mesenchymal microtissues while preserving each cell type in a 3D microenvironment. The combination of high throughput microtissue generation with scalable surface-templated assembly offers the potential to dissect mechanisms of cell-cell interaction in three dimensions in healthy and diseased states as well as provides a framework for templated assembly of larger structures for implantation. PMID:21776518

Li, Cheri Y.; Wood, David K.; Hsu, Caroline M.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

2012-01-01

298

A theory for viral capsid assembly around electrostatic cores  

PubMed Central

We develop equilibrium and kinetic theories that describe the assembly of viral capsid proteins on a charged central core, as seen in recent experiments in which brome mosaic virus capsids assemble around nanoparticles functionalized with polyelectrolyte. We model interactions between capsid proteins and nanoparticle surfaces as the interaction of polyelectrolyte brushes with opposite charge using the nonlinear Poisson Boltzmann equation. The models predict that there is a threshold density of functionalized charge, above which capsids efficiently assemble around nanoparticles, and that light scatter intensity increases rapidly at early times without the lag phase characteristic of empty capsid assembly. These predictions are consistent with and enable interpretation of preliminary experimental data. However, the models predict a stronger dependence of nanoparticle incorporation efficiency on functionalized charge density than measured in experiments and do not completely capture a logarithmic growth phase seen in experimental light scatter. These discrepancies may suggest the presence of metastable disordered states in the experimental system. In addition to discussing future experiments for nanoparticle-capsid systems, we discuss broader implications for understanding assembly around charged cores such as nucleic acids. PMID:19317561

Hagan, Michael F.

2009-01-01

299

Structural mechanisms of inflammasome assembly.  

PubMed

Inflammasomes are supramolecular signaling complexes that activate a subset of caspases known as the inflammatory caspases, an example of which is caspase 1. Upon stimulation by microbial and damage-associated signals, inflammasomes assemble to elicit the first line of host defense via the proteolytic maturation of cytokines interleukin-1? and interleukin-18, and by induction of pyroptotic cell death. Inflammasome assembly requires activation of an upstream sensor, a downstream effector and, in most cases, an adaptor molecule such as apoptosis-associate speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC). Depending on whether ASC is required, inflammasomes can be categorized into ASC-dependent and ASC-independent inflammasomes. Here, we review current understandings of the structures of inflammasomes, as probed using traditional structural methods, as well as biochemical, biophysical and single-molecule methods. The key structural scaffold for inflammasome assembly is composed of filaments of Pyrin domains and caspase recruitment domains (CARD) in the sensor, adaptor and effector components. Nucleated polymerization appears to govern the ordered assembly process from activation of a Pyrin domain-containing sensor such as AIM2 by dsDNA or NLRP3 by extracellular particulates, to recruitment of the Pyrin domain and CARD-containing adaptor ASC, and finally to activation of CARD-containing caspase 1. The underlying filamentous architecture of inflammasomes and the cooperativity in the assembly may explain the 'all-or-none' response in inflammasome activation. Inflammasomes are tightly regulated by a number of cytosolic inhibitors, which may change the morphology and assembly kinetics of inflammasomes. Biochemical and cellular studies suggest that Pyrin domain and CARD filaments possess prion-like properties in propagating inflammasome activation within and between cells. PMID:25354325

Lu, Alvin; Wu, Hao

2015-02-01

300

Shape-changing polymer assemblies.  

PubMed

A panoply of stimuli-sensitive polymorphic polymer assemblies has been constructed through the intentional synthesis of amphiphilic block copolymers comprising hydrophilic, stimulus-responsive, and hydrophobic blocks. Transformations among canonical micellar forms of polymer assemblies-spherical micelles, wormlike micelles, and vesicles (polymersomes)-have been demonstrated with a number of synthetic systems. This review discusses recent progress in the development and understanding of these systems with a focus on open questions about kinetics of shape change, effects of block copolymer architecture on the rate and nature of the transformation, and potential applications. PMID:23801143

Grubbs, Robert B; Sun, Zhe

2013-09-01

301

DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies  

DOEpatents

In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

2013-07-16

302

Circuit breaker lock out assembly  

DOEpatents

A lock out assembly for a circuit breaker which consists of a generally step-shaped unitary base with an aperture in the small portion of the step-shaped base and a roughly S shaped retaining pin which loops through the large portion of the step-shaped base. The lock out assembly is adapted to fit over a circuit breaker with the handle switch projecting through the aperture, and the retaining pin projecting into an opening of the handle switch, preventing removal.

Gordy, W.T.

1983-05-18

303

Self-assembling amphiphilic peptides†  

PubMed Central

The self-assembly of several classes of amphiphilic peptides is reviewed, and selected applications are discussed. We discuss recent work on the self-assembly of lipopeptides, surfactant-like peptides and amyloid peptides derived from the amyloid-? peptide. The influence of environmental variables such as pH and temperature on aggregate nanostructure is discussed. Enzyme-induced remodelling due to peptide cleavage and nanostructure control through photocleavage or photo-cross-linking are also considered. Lastly, selected applications of amphiphilic peptides in biomedicine and materials science are outlined. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24729276

Dehsorkhi, Ashkan; Castelletto, Valeria; Hamley, Ian W

2014-01-01

304

Circuit breaker lock out assembly  

DOEpatents

A lock out assembly for a circuit breaker which consists of a generally step-shaped unitary base with an aperture in the small portion of the step-shaped base and a roughly "S" shaped retaining pin which loops through the large portion of the step-shaped base. The lock out assembly is adapted to fit over a circuit breaker with the handle switch projecting through the aperture, and the retaining pin projecting into an opening of the handle switch, preventing removal.

Gordy, Wade T. (Jackson, SC)

1984-01-01

305

Kinetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly reveals the presence of sequential intermediates.  

PubMed

The assembly and budding of lentiviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), are mediated by the Gag protein precursor, but the molecular details of these processes remain poorly defined. In this study, we have combined pulse-chase techniques with density gradient centrifugation to identify, isolate, and characterize sequential kinetic intermediates in the lentivirus assembly process. We show that newly synthesized HIV-1 Gag rapidly forms cytoplasmic protein complexes that are resistant to detergent treatment, sensitive to protease digestion, and degraded intracellularly. A subpopulation of newly synthesized Gag binds membranes within 5 to 10 min and over several hours assembles into membrane-bound complexes of increasing size and/or density that can be resolved on Optiprep density gradients. These complexes likely represent assembly intermediates because they are not observed with assembly-defective Gag mutants and can be chased into extracellular viruslike particles. At steady state, nearly all of the Gag is present as membrane-bound complexes in various stages of assembly. The identification of sequential assembly intermediates provides the first demonstration that HIV-1 particle assembly proceeds via an ordered process. Assembly intermediates should serve as attractive targets for the design of antiviral agents that interfere with the process of particle production. PMID:10846064

Tritel, M; Resh, M D

2000-07-01

306

Improving Phrap-Based Assembly of the Rat Using ``Reliable'' Overlaps  

E-print Network

, United States of America, 2 Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America Abstract The assembly methods used for whole-genome shotgun (WGS) data have Science, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America ¤b Current address

Yorke, James

307

Channel selective tunnelling through a nanographene assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report selective tunnelling through a nanographene intermolecular tunnel junction achieved via scanning tunnelling microscope tip functionalization with hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) molecules. This leads to an offset in the alignment between the energy levels of the tip and the molecular assembly, resulting in the imaging of a variety of distinct charge density patterns in the HBC assembly, not attainable using a bare metallic tip. Different tunnelling channels can be selected by the application of an electric field in the tunnelling junction, which changes the condition of the HBC on the tip. Density functional theory-based calculations relate the imaged HBC patterns to the calculated molecular orbitals at certain energy levels. These patterns bear a close resemblance to the ?-orbital states of the HBC molecule calculated at the relevant energy levels, mainly below the Fermi energy of HBC. This correlation demonstrates the ability of an HBC functionalized tip as regards accessing an energy range that is restricted to the usual operating bias range around the Fermi energy with a normal metallic tip at room temperature. Apart from relating to molecular orbitals, some patterns could also be described in association with the Clar aromatic sextet formula. Our observations may help pave the way towards the possibility of controlling charge transport between organic interfaces.

Wong, H. S.; Feng, X.; Müllen, K.; Chandrasekhar, N.; Durkan, C.

2012-03-01

308

Self-assembling holographic biosensors and biocomputers.  

SciTech Connect

We present concepts for self-assembly of diffractive optics with potential uses in biosensors and biocomputers. The simplest such optics, diffraction gratings, can potentially be made from chemically-stabilized microtubules migrating on nanopatterned tracks of the motor protein kinesin. We discuss the fabrication challenges involved in patterning sub-micron-scale structures with proteins that must be maintained in aqueous buffers to preserve their activity. A novel strategy is presented that employs dry contact printing onto glass-supported amino-silane monolayers of heterobifunctional crosslinkers, followed by solid-state reactions of these cross-linkers, to graft patterns of reactive groups onto the surface. Successive solution-phase addition of cysteine-mutant proteins and amine-reactive polyethylene glycol allows assembly of features onto the printed patterns. We present data from initial experiments showing successful micro- and nanopatterning of lines of single-cysteine mutants of kinesin interleaved with lines of polyethylene, indicating that this strategy can be employed to arrays of features with resolutions suitable for gratings.

Light, Yooli Kim; Bachand, George David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Trent, Amanda M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-01

309

Novel electric storage battery assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric storage battery assembly is formed of easily removable individual cell casing units. Each of the cell units is provided on alternate corner edges with vertical dovetail projecting ribs and dovetail grooves. The dovetail ribs and grooves provided on the edges of adjacent cell casings matingly and removably interengage. Conductor straps are provided to removably mechanically and electrically interconnect

1982-01-01

310

Simulated nuclear reactor fuel assembly  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for electrically simulating a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. It includes a heater assembly having a top end and a bottom end and a plurality of concentric heater tubes having electrical circuitry connected to a power source, and radially spaced from each other. An outer target tube and an inner target tube is concentric with the heater tubes and with each other, and the outer target tube surrounds and is radially spaced from the heater tubes. The inner target tube is surrounded by and radially spaced from the heater tubes and outer target tube. The top of the assembly is generally open to allow for the electrical power connection to the heater tubes, and the bottom of the assembly includes means for completing the electrical circuitry in the heater tubes to provide electrical resistance heating to simulate the power profile in a nuclear reactor. The embedded conductor elements in each heater tube is split into two halves for a substantial portion of its length and provided with electrical isolation such that each half of the conductor is joined at one end and is not joined at the other end.

Berta, Victor T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01

311

Iron cofactor assembly in plants.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential element for all photosynthetic organisms. The biological use of this transition metal is as an enzyme cofactor, predominantly in electron transfer and catalysis. The main forms of iron cofactor are, in order of decreasing abundance, iron-sulfur clusters, heme, and di-iron or mononuclear iron, with a wide functional range. In plants and algae, iron-sulfur cluster assembly pathways of bacterial origin are localized in the mitochondria and plastids, where there is a high demand for these cofactors. A third iron-sulfur cluster assembly pathway is present in the cytosol that depends on the mitochondria but not on plastid assembly proteins. The biosynthesis of heme takes place mainly in the plastids. The importance of iron-sulfur cofactors beyond photosynthesis and respiration has become evident with recent discoveries of novel iron-sulfur proteins involved in epigenetics and DNA metabolism. In addition, increased understanding of intracellular iron trafficking is opening up research into how iron is distributed between iron cofactor assembly pathways and how this distribution is regulated. PMID:24498975

Balk, Janneke; Schaedler, Theresia A

2014-01-01

312

In vitro assembly of catalase.  

PubMed

Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process. PMID:25148685

Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars

2014-10-10

313

J-2 Engine Assembly Line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

J-2 engines for the Saturn IB/Saturn V launch vehicles are lined up in the assembly area at Rocketdyne's manufacturing plant in Canoga Park, California. Five J-2 engines provided more than 1,000,000 pounds of thrust to accelerate the second stage toward a Moon trajectory.

1963-01-01

314

Hot hollow cathode gun assembly  

DOEpatents

A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, J.D.

1983-11-22

315

Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly  

DOEpatents

A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

1985-01-01

316

Corner-cutting mining assembly  

DOEpatents

A mining assembly includes a primary rotary cutter mounted on one end of a support shaft and four secondary rotary cutters carried on the same support shaft and positioned behind the primary cutters for cutting corners in the hole cut by the latter.

Bradley, John A. (San Antonio, TX)

1983-01-01

317

Combustor bulkhead heat shield assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a gas turbine engine having an annular combustion chamber defined by an annular, inner liner, a concentric outer liner, and an upstream annular combustor head, wherein the head includes a radially extending bulkhead having circumferentially distributed openings for each receiving an individual fuel nozzle therethrough. It comprises: a segmented heat shield assembly, disposed between the combustion chamber

Zeisser

1990-01-01

318

Helical Assembly of Janus Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphiphilic Janus particles, which have hydrophobic and hydrophilic hemispheres, assemble into a variety of clusters depending on salt concentration and particle volume fraction. At low salt concentration, repulsion due to surface charges keeps cluster sizes small, whereas at higher salt concentrations beautiful elongated helices of tetrahedra emerge. We demonstrate that the emergence of these helical structures is a nonequilibrium effect,

Jonathan Whitmer; Qian Chen; Shan Jiang; Sung Chul Bae; Steve Granick; Erik Luijten

2011-01-01

319

Flow-guided assembly processes.  

PubMed

This Concept article focuses on capillary, hydrodynamics and electrokinetic flow-guided assembly processes that can produce patterned or gradient functional surfaces either on solid surfaces or in deep micro- and nanoscale channels. This concept has the potential to produce low-cost nanostructures, internal surface modifications, and devices in nanomedicine. PMID:18351685

Wang, Shengnian; Guan, Jingjiao; Lee, L James

2008-05-16

320

Assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures  

DOEpatents

A method and system for assembling a quasicrystalline heterostructure. A plurality of particles is provided with desirable predetermined character. The particles are suspended in a medium, and holographic optical traps are used to position the particles in a way to achieve an arrangement which provides a desired property.

Grier, David G. (New York, NY); Roichman, Yael (New York, NY); Man, Weining (Princeton, NJ); Chaikin, Paul Michael (Pennington, NJ); Steinhardt, Paul Joseph (Princeton, NJ)

2011-07-19

321

Annual Report CMS Spring Assembly  

E-print Network

Annual Report 2007-2008 CMS Spring Assembly & Length of Service Awards March 9, 2012 #12;Annual's Distinguished Alumni Award, Fall 2011 #12;Annual Report 2007-2008 News & Events: Faculty Dr. Robert Byrne Elected as Fellow to the American Geophysical Union (AGU), January 2012 #12;Annual Report 2007-2008 News

Meyers, Steven D.

322

Quiet Study AssemblyPoint  

E-print Network

AATCem TheRotunda Quiet Study AssemblyPoint On-siteparkingisforpermit holders. Lecture Theatre A TheGraphicsBuilding 1. Seminar Rooms 6,7,8, 9 & 10 2. Time Based Media 3.Graphic Services Centre 10.PhDQuietStudy 11.FineArtStudios/Workshops 12. Mac Suite 1 13. Seminar Room 4 14. Quiet

Molinari, Marc

323

An Assessment of Teacher Change in Role Perception as the Result of Participation in the Elementary School Evaluation by the Assembly of Elementary Schools, Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine whether participation in self-evaluations as part of the accreditation process of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools produced a change in the role perceptions of participant teachers. An experimental group of 30 elementary teachers from Pleasant Valley school and a control group of 30…

Hanselmann, Gudrun R.

324

Transplanting assembly of individual carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

Handling and assembling individual nanostructures to bigger scale systems such as MEMS have been the biggest challenge. A deterministic assembly of individual carbon nanotubes by transplanting them to MEMS structures is ...

Kim, Soohyung

2009-01-01

325

Beginners Introduction to the Assembly Language of  

E-print Network

as of January 2008 Corrected version as of July 2006 Original version of December 2003 #12;Avr-Asm-Tutorial 1 http://www.avr-asm-tutorial.net Content Why learning Assembler.....................................................................................................................1 AVRs are ideal for learning assembler

Fritts, Jason

326

President Mandela Address to Constitutional Assembly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Full text of the new South African Constitution, adopted by the Constitutional Assembly on May 8, 1996, and the full text of President Nelson Mandela's address to the Constitutional Assembly upon its adoption, are available via the Web.

Mandela, Nelson, 1918-.

1996-01-01

327

Non-latching relay switch assembly  

DOEpatents

A non-latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes a permanent magnet and an electromagnet. The respective sections are arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch has a "normal" position and is selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly. The switch returns to the "normal" position when the overriding electromagnetic assembly is inactive.

Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

1991-01-01

328

Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

Bollinger, L.R.

1982-03-17

329

Self-assembling DNA Nanostructures for Patterned Molecular Assembly Thomas H. LaBeana  

E-print Network

1 Self-assembling DNA Nanostructures for Patterned Molecular Assembly Thomas H. LaBeana , Kurt V-assembly. DNA-nanostructures provide a versatile toolbox with which to organize nanoscale materials. We begin with a discussion of DNA-nanostructures, starting with the self-assembly of various building-blocks known as DNA

Reif, John H.

330

Modeling self-assembling of proteins: Assembled structures, relaxation dynamics, and phase coexistence  

E-print Network

Modeling self-assembling of proteins: Assembled structures, relaxation dynamics, and phase of a self-assembling system, which also produces a -barrel. In molecular dynamics MD simulations, both and understanding the self-assembly of free, complex molecules into organized structures such as monolayers

Berry, R. Stephen

331

Wrench assembly design in OpUs darwin SO (spray-off) automatic assembly machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyze the structure of the body and wrench in nozzle automated assembly process and its automated assembly process, according to their function and itself structure to nozzle automatic assembly machine to the wrench assembly group for mechanism design, wrench set mechanical design includes automatic reclaiming mechanism design, the spanner wrench positioning mechanical design and the pressed mechanism design. First, the

Yang Tao; Ji Xue-jun; Li Chao-jian

2011-01-01

332

SELF-ASSEMBLING AUTOMATA: A MODEL OF CONFORMATIONAL SELF-ASSEMBLY  

E-print Network

SELF-ASSEMBLING AUTOMATA: A MODEL OF CONFORMATIONAL SELF-ASSEMBLY KAZUHIRO SAITOU Department An abstract model of self-assembling systems is presented where assembly instruc- tions are written as conformational switches ­ local rules that specify conforma- tional changes of a component. The model, the self

Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

333

Patterning self-assembled monolayers using microcontact  

E-print Network

228 reviews Patterning self-assembled monolayers using microcontact printing: a new technology for biosensors? Milan Mrksich and George M. Whitesides Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), formed upon. The system of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold is probably the best that is cur

Mrksich, Milan

334

Optimal Allocation of Work in Assembly Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how to allocate work in stochastic assembly systems so as to maximize throughput. We use Markov models for systems with exponential processing times and simulation-based methods for other probability distributions. We find that assembly systems should be unbalanced in the direction of assigning less work to assembly and more to component stations. We also find that greater parallelism

Kenneth R. Baker; Stephen G. Powell; David F. Pyke

1993-01-01

335

Precision assembly systems for medical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the approach and technology of various companies making automated assembly equipment for medical devices. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The structure of the medical device assembly market is introduced, and the expertise and applications of a small company working in the intermediate production market is described. The modular approach of Mikron Assembly Technology

Christine Connolly

2009-01-01

336

Kitting and time efficiency in manual assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper focuses on parts presentation in manual assembly. Its aim is to determine how kitting affects the time spent by the assembler fetching parts and, more specifically, what is the impact of the proportion of parts included in the kit. The present paper is based on four case studies of automobile assembly, in which parts presentation by kitting

Robin Hanson; Lars Medbo

2011-01-01

337

Kitting and time efficiency in manual assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper focuses on parts presentation in manual assembly. Its aim is to determine how kitting affects the time spent by the assembler fetching parts and, more specifically, what is the impact of the proportion of parts included in the kit. The present paper is based on four case studies of automobile assembly, in which parts presentation by kitting

Robin Hanson; Lars Medbo

2012-01-01

338

Algorithm for genome contig assembly. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm was developed for genome contig assembly which extended the range of data types that could be included in assembly and which ran on the order of a hundred times faster than the algorithm it replaced. Maps of all existing cosmid clone and YAC data at the Human Genome Information Resource were assembled using ICA. The resulting maps are summarized.

NONE

1995-09-01

339

A route to fractal DNA-assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallization is periodic self-assembly on the molecular scale. Individual DNA components have been used several times to achieve self-assembled crystalline arrangements in two dimensions. The design of a fractal system is a much more difficult goal to achieve with molecular components. We present DNA components whose cohesive portions are compatible with a fractal assembly. These components are DNA parallelograms that

ALESSANDRA CARBONE; NADRIAN C. SEEMAN

2002-01-01

340

Self-Assembly: How Nature Builds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-assembly or spontaneous assembly is a process in which materials build themselves without assistance. This process plays a central role in the construction of biological structures and materials such as cells, viruses, and bone, and also in abiotic processes like phase transitions and crystal formation. The principles of self-assembly help…

Jones, M. Gail; Falvo, Michael R.; Broadwell, Bethany; Dotger, Sharon

2006-01-01

341

THE FAKS ABOUT BLOOD VESSEL ASSEMBLY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potential role of FAK in blood vessel assembly. The process of vessel assembly can be dissected into discernible steps (A), and there is evidence to suggest that FAK is involved throughout. In FAK-/- mutants (B), blood vessel assembly is arrested during tubulogenesis, suggesting that the primary rol...

342

Determining Task Optimal Modular Robot Assembly Configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

.A "modular" robotic system consists of standardizedjoint and link units that can be assembled into a numberof different kinematic configurations in order tomeet different task requirements. Given a predeterminedset of modules, this paper considers the problemof finding an "optimal" module assembly configurationfor a specific task. We formulate the solutionas a discrete optimization procedure. The formulationis based on an assembly incidence

I-ming Chen; Joel W. Burdick

1995-01-01

343

The Archimedes 2 mechanical assembly planning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the implementation and performance of Archimedes 2, an integrated mechanical assembly planning system. Archimedes 2 includes two planners, two assembly sequence animation facilities, and an associated robotic workcell. Both planners use fully 3 dimensional data. A rudimentary translator from high level assembly plans to control code for the robotic workcell has also been implemented. We can translate data

S. G. Kaufmann; R. H. Wilson; R. E. Jones; T. L. Calton; A. L. Ames

1996-01-01

344

Dissection of pilus tip assembly by the FimD usher monomer.  

PubMed

Type 1 pili are representative of a class of bacterial surface structures assembled by the conserved chaperone/usher pathway and used by uropathogenic Escherichia coli to attach to bladder cells during infection. The outer membrane assembly platform-the usher-is critical for the formation of pili, catalysing the polymerisation of pilus subunits and enabling the secretion of the nascent pilus. Despite extensive structural characterisation of the usher, a number of questions about its mechanism remain, notably its oligomerisation state, and how it orchestrates the ordered assembly of pilus subunits. We demonstrate here that the FimD usher is able to catalyse in vitro pilus assembly effectively in its monomeric form. Furthermore, by establishing the kinetics of usher-catalysed reactions between various pilus subunits, we establish a complete kinetic model of tip fibrillum assembly, able to account for the order of subunits in native type 1 pili. PMID:23295826

Allen, William J; Phan, Gilles; Hultgren, Scott J; Waksman, Gabriel

2013-03-11

345

AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment  

PubMed Central

Background Genome assembly is difficult due to repeated sequences within the genome, which create ambiguities and cause the final assembly to be broken up into many separate sequences (contigs). Long range linking information, such as mate-pairs or mapping data, is necessary to help assembly software resolve repeats, thereby leading to a more complete reconstruction of genomes. Prior work has used optical maps for validating assemblies and scaffolding contigs, after an initial assembly has been produced. However, optical maps have not previously been used within the genome assembly process. Here, we use optical map information within the popular de Bruijn graph assembly paradigm to eliminate paths in the de Bruijn graph which are not consistent with the optical map and help determine the correct reconstruction of the genome. Results We developed a new algorithm called AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment. AGORA is the first algorithm to use optical map information directly within the de Bruijn graph framework to help produce an accurate assembly of a genome that is consistent with the optical map information provided. Our simulations on bacterial genomes show that AGORA is effective at producing assemblies closely matching the reference sequences. Additionally, we show that noise in the optical map can have a strong impact on the final assembly quality for some complex genomes, and we also measure how various characteristics of the starting de Bruijn graph may impact the quality of the final assembly. Lastly, we show that a proper choice of restriction enzyme for the optical map may substantially improve the quality of the final assembly. Conclusions Our work shows that optical maps can be used effectively to assemble genomes within the de Bruijn graph assembly framework. Our experiments also provide insights into the characteristics of the mapping data that most affect the performance of our algorithm, indicating the potential benefit of more accurate optical mapping technologies, such as nano-coding. PMID:22856673

2012-01-01

346

Photochemical energy conversion in a helical oligoproline assembly.  

PubMed Central

A general method is described for constructing a helical oligoproline assembly having a spatially ordered array of functional sites protruding from a proline-II helix. Three different redox-active carboxylic acids were coupled to the side chain of cis-4-amino-L-proline. These redox modules were incorporated through solid-phase peptide synthesis into a 13-residue helical oligoproline assembly bearing in linear array a phenothiazine electron donor, a tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chromophore, and an anthraquinone electron acceptor. Upon transient 460-nm irradiation in acetonitrile, this peptide triad formed with 53% efficiency an excited state containing a phenothiazine radical cation and an anthraquinone radical anion. This light-induced redox-separated state had a lifetime of 175 ns and stored 1.65 eV of energy. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8710847

McCafferty, D G; Friesen, D A; Danielson, E; Wall, C G; Saderholm, M J; Erickson, B W; Meyer, T J

1996-01-01

347

Spatial Extent of Charge Repulsion Regulates Assembly Pathways for Lysozyme Amyloid Fibrils  

PubMed Central

Formation of large protein fibrils with a characteristic cross ?-sheet architecture is the key indicator for a wide variety of systemic and neurodegenerative amyloid diseases. Recent experiments have strongly implicated oligomeric intermediates, transiently formed during fibril assembly, as critical contributors to cellular toxicity in amyloid diseases. At the same time, amyloid fibril assembly can proceed along different assembly pathways that might or might not involve such oligomeric intermediates. Elucidating the mechanisms that determine whether fibril formation proceeds along non-oligomeric or oligomeric pathways, therefore, is important not just for understanding amyloid fibril assembly at the molecular level but also for developing new targets for intervening with fibril formation. We have investigated fibril formation by hen egg white lysozyme, an enzyme for which human variants underlie non-neuropathic amyloidosis. Using a combination of static and dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy and circular dichroism, we find that amyloidogenic lysozyme monomers switch between three different assembly pathways: from monomeric to oligomeric fibril assembly and, eventually, disordered precipitation as the ionic strength of the solution increases. Fibril assembly only occurred under conditions of net repulsion among the amyloidogenic monomers while net attraction caused precipitation. The transition from monomeric to oligomeric fibril assembly, in turn, occurred as salt-mediated charge screening reduced repulsion among individual charged residues on the same monomer. We suggest a model of amyloid fibril formation in which repulsive charge interactions are a prerequisite for ordered fibril assembly. Furthermore, the spatial extent of non-specific charge screening selects between monomeric and oligomeric assembly pathways by affecting which subset of denatured states can form suitable intermolecular bonds and by altering the energetic and entropic requirements for the initial intermediates emerging along the monomeric vs. oligomeric assembly path. PMID:21483680

Hill, Shannon E.; Miti, Tatiana; Richmond, Tyson; Muschol, Martin

2011-01-01

348

MYBPH inhibits NM IIA assembly via direct interaction with NMHC IIA and reduces cell motility  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MYBPH inhibits NMHC IIA assembly and cell motility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MYBPH interacts to assembly-competent NM IIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MYBPH inhibits RLC and NMHC IIA, independent components of NM IIA. -- Abstract: Actomyosin filament assembly is a critical step in tumor cell migration. We previously found that myosin binding protein H (MYBPH) is directly transactivated by the TTF-1 lineage-survival oncogene in lung adenocarcinomas and inhibits phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) of non-muscle myosin IIA (NM IIA) via direct interaction with Rho kinase 1 (ROCK1). Here, we report that MYBPH also directly interacts with an additional molecule, non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC IIA), which was found to occur between MYBPH and the rod portion of NMHC IIA. MYBPH inhibited NMHC IIA assembly and reduced cell motility. Conversely, siMYBPH-induced increased motility was partially, yet significantly, suppressed by blebbistatin, a non-muscle myosin II inhibitor, while more profound effects were attained by combined treatment with siROCK1 and blebbistatin. Electron microscopy observations showed well-ordered paracrystals of NMHC IIA reflecting an assembled state, which were significantly less frequently observed in the presence of MYBPH. Furthermore, an in vitro sedimentation assay showed that a greater amount of NMHC IIA was in an unassembled state in the presence of MYBPH. Interestingly, treatment with a ROCK inhibitor that impairs transition of NM IIA from an assembly-incompetent to assembly-competent state reduced the interaction between MYBPH and NMHC IIA, suggesting that MYBPH has higher affinity to assembly-competent NM IIA. These results suggest that MYBPH inhibits RLC and NMHC IIA, independent components of NM IIA, and negatively regulates actomyosin organization at 2 distinct steps, resulting in firm inhibition of NM IIA assembly.

Hosono, Yasuyuki [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Usukura, Jiro [Division of Integrated Project, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)] [Division of Integrated Project, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tomoya; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Motoshi [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Takashi, E-mail: tak@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

2012-11-09

349

Lighting up cells with lanthanide self-assembled helicates  

PubMed Central

Lanthanide bioprobes and bioconjugates are ideal luminescent stains in view of their low propensity to photobleaching, sharp emission lines and long excited state lifetimes permitting time-resolved detection for enhanced sensitivity. We show here how the interplay between physical, chemical and biochemical properties allied to microfluidics engineering leads to self-assembled dinuclear lanthanide luminescent probes illuminating live cells and selectively detecting biomarkers expressed by cancerous human breast cells. PMID:24511387

Bünzli, Jean-Claude G.

2013-01-01

350

Modeling virus self-assembly pathways: avoiding dynamics using geometric constraint decomposition.  

PubMed

We develop a model for elucidating the assembly pathways by which an icosahedral viral shell forms from 60 identical constituent protein monomers. This poorly understood process a remarkable example of macromolecular self-assembly occuring in nature and possesses many features that are desirable while engineering self-assembly at the nanoscale. The model uses static geometric and tensegrity constraints to represent the driving (weak) forces that cause a viral shell to assemble and hold it together. The goal is to answer focused questions about the structural properties of a successful assembly pathway. Pathways and their properties are carefully defined and computed using computational algebra and geometry, specifically state-of-art concepts in geometric constraint decomposition. The model is analyzable and refinable and avoids expensive dynamics. We show that it has a provably tractable and accurate computational simulation and that its predictions are roughly consistent with known information about viral shell assembly. Justifications for mathematical and biochemical assumptions are provided, and comparisons are drawn with other virus assembly models. A method for more conclusive experimental validation involving specific viruses is sketched. Overall, the paper indicates a strong and direct, mutually beneficial interplay between (a) the concepts underlying macromolecular assembly; and (b) a wide variety of established as well as novel concepts from combinatorial and computational algebra, geometry and algebraic complexity. PMID:16901239

Sitharam, Meera; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

2006-01-01

351

Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials.  

PubMed

We introduce composite materials made by reversibly assembling a three-dimensional lattice of mass-produced carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite parts with integrated mechanical interlocking connections. The resulting cellular composite materials can respond as an elastic solid with an extremely large measured modulus for an ultralight material (12.3 megapascals at a density of 7.2 milligrams per cubic centimeter). These materials offer a hierarchical decomposition in modeling, with bulk properties that can be predicted from component measurements and deformation modes that can be determined by the placement of part types. Because site locations are locally constrained, structures can be produced in a relative assembly process that merges desirable features of fiber composites, cellular materials, and additive manufacturing. PMID:23950496

Cheung, Kenneth C; Gershenfeld, Neil

2013-09-13

352

Automated array assembly, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tasks of scaling up the tandem junction cell (TJC) from 2 cm x 2 cm to 6.2 cm and the assembly of several modules using these large area TJC's are described. The scale-up of the TJC was based on using the existing process and doing the necessary design activities to increase the cell area to an acceptably large area. The design was carried out using available device models. The design was verified and sample large area TJCs were fabricated. Mechanical and process problems occurred causing a schedule slippage that resulted in contract expiration before enough large-area TJCs were fabricated to populate the sample tandem junction modules (TJM). A TJM design was carried out in which the module interconnects served to augment the current collecting buses on the cell. No sample TJMs were assembled due to a shortage of large-area TJCs.

Carbajal, B. G.

1979-01-01

353

BIOCHEMISTRY: An Enzyme Assembly Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Fatty acid synthases and related megaenzymes are highly adaptable to new functions as a result of their modular architecture. The fundamental polymers of biology--proteins, DNA, and RNA--are products of repetitive condensation of simple amino acid or nucleotide building blocks and are comparatively easy to assemble. However, other biomolecules require additional reactions beyond condensation of building blocks. Examples are the fatty acids and the polyketide and nonribosomal peptide secondary metabolites. These molecules are produced by complex enzyme assembly lines that include multiple catalytic domains. Two new crystal structures--one reported recently (1), the other by Maier et al. on page 1315 of this issue (2)--enrich our understanding of how these mega-enzymes function as efficient factories to produce a remarkable range of metabolic products.

Janet L. Smith (University of Michigan;Life Sciences Institute; Department of Biological Chemistry); David H. Sherman (University of Michigan;Life Sciences Institute; Departments of Medicinal Chemistry, Chemistry, and Microbiology and Immunology)

2008-09-05

354

Nuclear reactor composite fuel assembly  

DOEpatents

A core and composite fuel assembly for a liquid-cooled breeder nuclear reactor including a plurality of elongated coextending driver and breeder fuel elements arranged to form a generally polygonal bundle within a thin-walled duct. The breeder elements are larger in cross section than the driver elements, and each breeder element is laterally bounded by a number of the driver elements. Each driver element further includes structure for spacing the driver elements from adjacent fuel elements and, where adjacent, the thin-walled duct. A core made up of the fuel elements can advantageously include fissile fuel of only one enrichment, while varying the effective enrichment of any given assembly or core region, merely by varying the relative number and size of the driver and breeder elements.

Burgess, Donn M. (Richland, WA); Marr, Duane R. (West Richland, WA); Cappiello, Michael W. (Richland, WA); Omberg, Ronald P. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

355

Backward assembly planning with DFA analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assembly planning system that operates based on a recursive decomposition of assembly into subassemblies, and analyzes assembly cost in terms of stability, directionality, and manipulability to guide the generation of preferred assembly plans is presented. The planning in this system incorporates the special processes, such as cleaning, testing, labeling, etc. that must occur during the assembly, and handles nonreversible as well as reversible assembly tasks through backward assembly planning. In order to increase the planning efficiency, the system avoids the analysis of decompositions that do not correspond to feasible assembly tasks. This is achieved by grouping and merging those parts that can not be decomposable at the current stage of backward assembly planning due to the requirement of special processes and the constraint of interconnection feasibility. The invention includes methods of evaluating assembly cost in terms of the number of fixtures (or holding devices) and reorientations required for assembly, through the analysis of stability, directionality, and manipulability. All these factors are used in defining cost and heuristic functions for an AO* search for an optimal plan.

Lee, Sukhan (inventor)

1995-01-01

356

Backward assembly planning with DFA analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assembly planning system that operates based on a recursive decomposition of assembly into subassemblies is presented. The planning system analyzes assembly cost in terms of stability, directionality, and manipulability to guide the generation of preferred assembly plans. The planning in this system incorporates the special processes, such as cleaning, testing, labeling, etc., that must occur during the assembly. Additionally, the planning handles nonreversible, as well as reversible, assembly tasks through backward assembly planning. In order to decrease the planning efficiency, the system avoids the analysis of decompositions that do not correspond to feasible assembly tasks. This is achieved by grouping and merging those parts that can not be decomposable at the current stage of backward assembly planning due to the requirement of special processes and the constraint of interconnection feasibility. The invention includes methods of evaluating assembly cost in terms of the number of fixtures (or holding devices) and reorientations required for assembly, through the analysis of stability, directionality, and manipulability. All these factors are used in defining cost and heuristic functions for an AO* search for an optimal plan.

Lee, Sukhan (inventor)

1992-01-01

357

Assembled camshafts for automotive engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assembled camshafts offer an attractive manufacturing alternative over conventional methods to meet the demand for high performance\\u000a camshafts at reduced costs. The manufacture of camshafts has traditionally involved the casting, forging, or machining of\\u000a a rough blank which was further machined to the finished cam geometry. A new method will be discussed in which individual\\u000a near-net shaped components are precision

Gary L. Horvat; Stephanie C. Surface

1989-01-01

358

Metal-ceramic joint assembly  

DOEpatents

A metal-ceramic joint assembly in which a brazing alloy is situated between metallic and ceramic members. The metallic member is either an aluminum-containing stainless steel, a high chromium-content ferritic stainless steel or an iron nickel alloy with a corrosion protection coating. The brazing alloy, in turn, is either an Au-based or Ni-based alloy with a brazing temperature in the range of 9500 to 1200.degree. C.

Li, Jian (New Milford, CT)

2002-01-01

359

Automated aray assembly, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A manufacturing process suitable for the large-scale production of silicon solar array modules at a cost of less than $500/peak kW is described. Factors which control the efficiency of ion implanted silicon solar cells, screen-printed thick film metallization, spray-on antireflection coating process, and panel assembly are discussed. Conclusions regarding technological readiness or cost effectiveness of individual process steps are presented.

Daiello, R. V.

1979-01-01

360

Resistor assemblies for NEC accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistor assemblies have been under test in the 14UD Pelletron at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia since February 1988, with no failures. A full set of resistors was installed in March 1989 and their performances has been satisfactory. The design incorporates coaxial shielding and individual mounting resulting in excellent flexibility in installation and maintenance. A pair of resistors is used to span each insulated gap. The design can be easily adapted to other types of accelerators.

Weisser, D. C.

1990-02-01

361

Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) was to create a near-term Shuttle flight experiment focusing on the deployment and erection of structural truss elements. The activities of the MIT Space Systems Laboratory consist of three major areas: preparing and conducting neutral buoyancy simulation test series; producing a formal SADE Experiment plan; and studying the structural dynamics issues of the truss structure. Each of these areas is summarized.

Akin, David L.; Mills, Raymond A.; Bowden, Mary L.

1987-01-01

362

Fellows Celebrated at Joint Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 AGU Fellows were presented at the recent Joint Assembly in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. A formal ceremony was held on 29 May 2008, during which President Tim Killeen introduced each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each had been selected. The presentations were followed by a reception for meeting attendees and a banquet at which family members and close colleagues further feted the honorees.

2008-07-01

363

Dynamic Pathways for Viral Capsid Assembly  

PubMed Central

We develop a class of models with which we simulate the assembly of particles into T1 capsidlike objects using Newtonian dynamics. By simulating assembly for many different values of system parameters, we vary the forces that drive assembly. For some ranges of parameters, assembly is facile; for others, assembly is dynamically frustrated by kinetic traps corresponding to malformed or incompletely formed capsids. Our simulations sample many independent trajectories at various capsomer concentrations, allowing for statistically meaningful conclusions. Depending on subunit (i.e., capsomer) geometries, successful assembly proceeds by several mechanisms involving binding of intermediates of various sizes. We discuss the relationship between these mechanisms and experimental evaluations of capsid assembly processes. PMID:16565055

Hagan, Michael F.; Chandler, David

2006-01-01

364

Dynamic pathways for viral capsid assembly  

SciTech Connect

We develop a class of models with which we simulate the assembly of particles into T1 capsid-like objects using Newtonian dynamics. By simulating assembly for many different values of system parameters, we vary the forces that drive assembly. For some ranges of parameters, assembly is facile, while for others, assembly is dynamically frustrated by kinetic traps corresponding to malformed or incompletely formed capsids. Our simulations sample many independent trajectories at various capsomer concentrations, allowing for statistically meaningful conclusions. Depending on subunit (i.e., capsomer) geometries, successful assembly proceeds by several mechanisms involving binding of intermediates of various sizes. We discuss the relationship between these mechanisms and experimental evaluations of capsid assembly processes.

Hagan, Michael F.; Chandler, David

2006-02-09

365

Neural syntax: cell assemblies, synapsembles and readers  

PubMed Central

Summary A widely discussed hypothesis in neuroscience is that transiently active ensembles of neurons, known as ‘cell assemblies’, underlie numerous operations of the brain, from encoding memories to reasoning. However, the mechanisms responsible for the formation and disbanding of cell assemblies and temporal evolution of cell assembly sequences are not well understood. I introduce and review three interconnected topics, which could facilitate progress in defining cell assemblies, identifying their neuronal organization and revealing causal relationships between assembly organization and behavior. First, I hypothesize that cell assemblies are best understood in light of their output product, as detected by ‘reader-actuator’ mechanisms. Second, I suggest that the hierarchical organization of cell assemblies may be regarded as a neural syntax. Third, constituents of the neural syntax are linked together by dynamically changing constellations of synaptic weights (‘synapsembles’). Existing support for this tripartite framework is reviewed and strategies for experimental testing of its predictions are discussed. PMID:21040841

Buzsáki, György

2010-01-01

366

Pressure equalizing photovoltaic assembly and method  

DOEpatents

Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the peripheral edge of the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2003-05-27

367

Constraint-based interactive assembly planning  

SciTech Connect

The constraints on assembly plans vary depending on the product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. This paper describes the principles and implementation of a framework that supports a wide variety of user-specified constraints for interactive assembly planning. Constraints from many sources can be expressed on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. All constraints are implemented as filters that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner`s algorithms. Replanning is fast enough to enable a natural plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to several complex assemblies. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.; Calton, T.L.

1997-03-01

368

Designing electron wave functions in assembled nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the scanning tunneling microscope to not only to map electron wave functions but also to engineer them. By assembling nanostructures from individual atoms and molecules, we confine two-dimensional electronic states into closed electron resonators, or "quantum corrals". Precise control over the geometry of these structures allows electronic states to be tailored to suit particular experiments. Specifically, we design wave functions that enable studies of normally inaccessible quantum phases. First, we create pairs of quantum corrals with shapes drawn from contemporary mathematics. Exploiting special topological relationships between these structures, we retrieve internal quantum phase of electron wave functions without using interferometry. Second, we demonstrate that adding a single atom to a quantum corral can cause its electronic states to recombine into coherent superpositions. The real-space position of the additional atom controls abstract superposition phase angles, enabling arbitrary time-independent superpositions to be created. Third, we study geometric phase by creating a series of quantum corrals that traverse a closed path through a parameter space. Tracking the corral wave functions reveals a phase shift depending solely on the path taken, directly visualizing Berry's phase evolution in a quantum system. Finally, we extend beyond closed electron resonators and engineer wave functions in open nanostructures. We show that arbitrary patterns can be encoded into electronic states, creating a new form of holography on the nanoscale. We exhibit letters written in electron density rather than with atomic matter, and show that multiple letters may be simultaneously embedded at different energies in the same region of space. Because the wavelength of the electrons diminishes as energy is increased, this technique allows local information densities that exceed the conventionally assumed limit of 1 bit per atom. Taken together, the results in this thesis demonstrate unprecedented control of electron states in condensed matter and illuminate fundamental quantum phases that underlie systems ranging from coherent electronic devices to complex quantum materials.

Moon, Christopher Ryan

369

Automated solar module assembly line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

Bycer, M.

1980-01-01

370

Rotor assembly and assay method  

DOEpatents

A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

1993-09-07

371

Haptic feedback for virtual assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assembly operations require high speed and precision with low cost. The manufacturing industry has recently turned attenuation to the possibility of investigating assembly procedures using graphical display of CAD parts. For these tasks, some sort of feedback to the person is invaluable in providing a real sense of interaction with virtual parts. This research develops the use of a commercial assembly robot as the haptic display in such tasks. For demonstration, a peg-hole insertion task is studied. Kane's Method is employed to derive the dynamics of the peg and the contact motions between the peg and the hole. A handle modeled as a cylindrical peg is attached to the end effector of a PUMA 560 robotic arm. The arm is handle modeled as a cylindrical peg is attached to the end effector of a PUMA 560 robotic arm. The arm is equipped with a six axis force/torque transducer. The use grabs the handle and the user-applied forces are recorded. A 300 MHz Pentium computer is used to simulate the dynamics of the virtual peg and its interactions as it is inserted in the virtual hole. The computed torque control is then employed to exert the full dynamics of the task to the user hand. Visual feedback is also incorporated to help the user in the process of inserting the peg into the hole. Experimental results are presented to show several contact configurations for this virtually simulated task.

Luecke, Greg R.; Zafer, Naci

1998-12-01

372

Rotor assembly and assay method  

DOEpatents

A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor.

Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01

373

Automated assembly of VECSEL components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the architectural advantage of an external cavity architecture that enables the integration of additional elements into the cavity (e.g. for mode control, frequency conversion, wavelength tuning or passive mode-locking) VECSELs are a rapidly developing laser technology. Nevertheless they often have to compete with direct (edge) emitting laser diodes which can have significant cost advantages thanks to their rather simple structure and production processes. One way to compensate the economical disadvantages of VECSELs is to optimize each component in terms of quality and costs and to apply more efficient (batch) production processes. In this context, the paper presents recent process developments for the automated assembly of VECSELs using a new type of desktop assembly station with an ultra-precise micromanipulator. The core concept is to create a dedicated process development environment from which implemented processes can be transferred fluently to production equipment. By now two types of processes have been put into operation on the desktop assembly station: 1.) passive alignment of the pump optics implementing a camera-based alignment process, where the pump spot geometry and position on the semiconductor chip is analyzed and evaluated; 2.) active alignment of the end mirror based on output power measurements and optimization algorithms. In addition to the core concept and corresponding hardware and software developments, detailed results of both processes are presented explaining measurement setups as well as alignment strategies and results.

Brecher, C.; Pyschny, N.; Haag, S.; Mueller, T.

2013-02-01

374

Assembly of Colloidal Materials Using Bioadhesive Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have pursued the use of biological crosslinking molecules of several types to make colloidal materials at relatively low volume fraction of colloidal particles. The objective is to make binary alloys of colloidal particles, made of two different colloidal particles coated with complementary biological lock-and-key binding molecules, which assemble due to the biological specificity. The long-term goal is to use low affinity lock-and-key biological interactions, so that the can anneal to form crystalline states. We have used a variety of different surface chemistries in order to make colloidal materials. Our first system involved using selectin-carbohydrate (sialyl-Lewis) interactions; this chemistry is derived from immune system. This chemical interaction is of relatively low affinity, with timescales for dissociation of several seconds. Furthermore, the adhesion mediated by these molecules can be reversed by the chelation of calcium atoms; thus assembled structures can be disassembled reversibly. Our second system employed avidin-biotin chemistry. This well-studied system is of high affinity, and is generally irreversible on a laboratory time-scale. Thus, we would expect selectin-carbohydrate interactions at high molecular density and avidin-biotin interactions to give kinetically-trapped structures; however, at low densities, we would expect significant differences in the structure and dynamics of the two materials, owing to their very different release rates. We have also begun to use a third chemistry - DNA hybridization. By attaching single stranded DNA oligonucleotide chains to beads, we can drive the assembly of colloidal materials by hybridization of complementary DNA chains. It is well known that DNA adenosine-thymine (A-T) and guanine-cytosine (G-C) bases hybridize pairwise with a Gibbs free energy change of 1.7 kcal/mol per base; thus, the energy of the assembly can be modulated by altering the number of complementary bases in the DNA chains. Using these different crosslinking molecules, we have assembled colloidal materials from different-sized colloidal particles, A and B. In the first sets of experiment, we used high densities of adhesion molecules, and 0.96 micron (A) and 5.5 micron (B) diameter particles. The high density of adhesion molecules means that the structures are kinetically trapped in nonequilibrium configurations. The structure of the suspension can be varied by changing the number ratio of the two types of colloidal particles, NA and NB, where A is the smaller particle. With carbohydrate-selectin or avidin-biotin interactions, large NA/NB leads to the formation of colloidal micelles, with the large center B particle surrounded by many smaller A particles. As the ratio NA/NB decreases, the structures become more extended, approaching the formation of macro-Rouse polymers - extended linear chains where A beads are connected with intervening small B linkers.

Hammer, Daniel A.; Hiddessen, Amy L.; Tohver, Valeria; Crocker, John C.; Weitz, David A.

2002-01-01

375

Industrial packaging and assembly infrastructure for MOEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a mature industry all elements of the supply chain are available and are more or less in balance. Mainstream technologies are defined and well supported by a chain of specialist companies. Those specialist companies, offering services ranging from consultancy to manufacturing subcontracting, are an essential element in the industrialization. There specialization and dedication to one or a few elements in the technology increases professionalism and efficiency. The MOEMS industry however, is still in its infancy. After the birth and growth of many companies aiming at development of products, the appearance of companies aiming at the production of components and systems, we see know the first companies concentrating on the delivering of services to this industry. We can divide them in the like : * Design and Engineering companies * Foundries * Assembly and Packaging providers * Design and simulation software providers For manufacturing suppliers and customers the lack of industry standards and mainstream technologies is a serious drawback. Insight in availability and trends in technology is important to make the right choices in the field of industrialization and production. This awareness was the reason to perform a detailed study to the companies supplying commercial services in this field. This article focuses on one important part of this study: packaging and assembly. This tends to remain a bottleneck at the end of the design cycle, often delaying and sometimes preventing industrialization and commercialization. For nearly all MEMS/MST products literally everything comes together in the packaging and assembly. This is the area of full integration: electrical, mechanical, optical fluidic, magnetic etc. functionalities come together. The problems associated with the concentration of functionalities forms a big headache for the designer. Conflicting demands, of which functionality versus economics is only one, and technical hurdles have to overcome. Besides that, packaging and assembly is from nature application specific and solutions found are not always transferable from one product to another. But designers can often benefit from experience from other and general available technologies. A number of companies offer packaging and assembly services for MEMS/MST and this report give typical examples of those commercial services. The companies range from small start-ups, offering very specialized services, to large semiconductor packaging companies, having production lines for microsystem based products. Selecting the proper packaging method may tip the scales towards a product success or towards a product failure, while it nearly always present s a substantial part of the cost of the product. This is therefore is not a marginal concern, but a crucial part of the product design. The presentation will also address mayor trends and technologies. Finally, the article provides sufficient levels of classification and categorisation for various aspects for the technologies, in specific, and the industry, in general, to provide particularly useful insights into the activities and the developments in this market. With over 50 companies studied and assessed, it provides an up to date account of the state of this business and its future potential.

van Heeren, Henne

2004-01-01

376

Assembly of Colloidal Materials Using Bioadhesive Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have pursued the use of biological crosslinking molecules of several types to make colloidal materials at relatively low volume fraction of colloidal particles. The objective is to make binary alloys of colloidal particles, made of two different colloidal particles coated with complementary biological lock-and-key binding molecules, which assemble due to the biological specificity. The long-term goal is to use low affinity lock-and-key biological interactions, so that the can anneal to form crystalline states. We have used a variety of different surface chemistries in order to make colloidal materials. Our first system involved using selectin-carbohydrate (sialyl-Lewis) interactions; this chemistry is derived from immune system. This chemical interaction is of relatively low affinity, with timescales for dissociation of several seconds. Furthermore, the adhesion mediated by these molecules can be reversed by the chelation of calcium atoms; thus assembled structures can be disassembled reversibly. Our second system employed avidin-biotin chemistry. This well-studied system is of high affinity, and is generally irreversible on a laboratory time-scale. Thus, we would expect selectin-carbohydrate interactions at high molecular density and avidin-biotin interactions to give kinetically-trapped structures; however, at low densities, we would expect significant differences in the structure and dynamics of the two materials, owing to their very different release rates. We have also begun to use a third chemistry - DNA hybridization. By attaching single stranded DNA oligonucleotide chains to beads, we can drive the assembly of colloidal materials by hybridization of complementary DNA chains. It is well known that DNA adenosine-thymine (A-T) and guanine-cytosine (G-C) bases hybridize pairwise with a Gibbs free energy change of 1.7 kcal/mol per base; thus, the energy of the assembly can be modulated by altering the number of complementary bases in the DNA chains. Using these different crosslinking molecules, we have assembled colloidal materials from different-sized colloidal particles, A and B. In the first sets of experiment, we used high densities of adhesion molecules, and 0.96 micron (A) and 5.5 micron (B) diameter particles. The high density of adhesion molecules means that the structures are kinetically trapped in nonequilibrium configurations. The structure of the suspension can be varied by changing the number ratio of the two types of colloidal particles, NA and NB, where A is the smaller particle. With carbohydrate-selectin or avidin-biotin interactions, large NA/NB leads to the formation of colloidal micelles, with the large center B particle surrounded by many smaller A particles. As the ratio NA/NB decreases, the structures become more extended, approaching the formation of macro-Rouse polymers - extended linear chains where A beads are connected with intervening small B linkers.

Hammer, Daniel A.; Hiddessen, Amy L.; Tohver, Valeria; Crocker, John C.; Weitz, David A.

2002-11-01

377

Acceleration of Amide Bond Rotation by Encapsulation in the Hydrophobic Interior of a Water-Soluble Supramolecular Assembly  

SciTech Connect

The hydrophobic interior cavity of a self-assembled supramolecular assembly exploits the hydrophobic effect for the encapsulation of tertiary amides. Variable temperature 1H NMR experiments reveal that the free energy barrier for rotation around the C-N amide bond is lowered by up to 3.6 kcal/mol upon encapsulation. The hydrophobic cavity of the assembly is able to stabilize the less polar transition state of the amide rotation process. Carbon-13 labeling studies showed that the {sup 13}C NMR carbonyl resonance increases with temperature for the encapsulated amides which suggests that the assembly is able to favor a twisted for of the amide.

Pluth, Michael D.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

2008-04-08

378

Combining Transcriptome Assemblies from Multiple De Novo Assemblers in the Allo-Tetraploid Plant Nicotiana benthamiana  

PubMed Central

Background Nicotiana benthamiana is an allo-tetraploid plant, which can be challenging for de novo transcriptome assemblies due to homeologous and duplicated gene copies. Transcripts generated from such genes can be distinct yet highly similar in sequence, with markedly differing expression levels. This can lead to unassembled, partially assembled or mis-assembled contigs. Due to the different properties of de novo assemblers, no one assembler with any one given parameter space can re-assemble all possible transcripts from a transcriptome. Results In an effort to maximise the diversity and completeness of de novo assembled transcripts, we utilised four de novo transcriptome assemblers, TransAbyss, Trinity, SOAPdenovo-Trans, and Oases, using a range of k-mer sizes and different input RNA-seq read counts. We complemented the parameter space biologically by using RNA from 10 plant tissues. We then combined the output of all assemblies into a large super-set of sequences. Using a method from the EvidentialGene pipeline, the combined assembly was reduced from 9.9 million de novo assembled transcripts to about 235,000 of which about 50,000 were classified as primary. Metrics such as average bit-scores, feature response curves and the ability to distinguish paralogous or homeologous transcripts, indicated that the EvidentialGene processed assembly was of high quality. Of 35 RNA silencing gene transcripts, 34 were identified as assembled to full length, whereas in a previous assembly using only one assembler, 9 of these were partially assembled. Conclusions To achieve a high quality transcriptome, it is advantageous to implement and combine the output from as many different de novo assemblers as possible. We have in essence taking the ‘best’ output from each assembler while minimising sequence redundancy. We have also shown that simultaneous assessment of a variety of metrics, not just focused on contig length, is necessary to gauge the quality of assemblies. PMID:24614631

Nakasugi, Kenlee; Crowhurst, Ross; Bally, Julia; Waterhouse, Peter

2014-01-01

379

A Stochastic Model of Particle Deposition and Evaporation for Ionic Self-Assembly of Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate nanoparticle self-assembly using a stochastic model based on cooperative sequential adsorption with evaporation mechanisms and aimed specifically at the creation of optical thin films. Applying the mean field approximation, we derive a rate equation for particle density. We solve directly for the particle density in both the steady state and time-dependent cases. The analytical results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the self-assembly process and to experimental data for self-assembled thin films. We relate our theoretical model to the final particle density for thin films created under varied nanoparticle suspension concentrations.

Schwen, E. M.; Mazilu, I.; Mazilu, D. A.

2015-01-01

380

A review of the A400m final assembly line balancing methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assembly Line Balancing (ALB) comprises ordering of tasks among workstations to satisfy precedence constraints and objective functions. However, due to the specific features of an aeronautical Final Assembly Line (FAL), such approach is not fully suitable. In a FAL, the number of workstations relates to technological criteria rather than to a calculation aiming to minimize the total number of stations. To improve current practices, a methodological approach was taken to address the conceptual modeling of an assembly line, reviewing state of the art balancing techniques and the methodology used in the AIRBUS A400M FAL.

Ríos, J.; Mas, F.; Menéndez, J. L.

2012-04-01

381

Determination of BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly Effective Thermal Conductivity  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to provide an effective thermal conductivity for use in predicting peak cladding temperatures in boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with 7x7,8x8, and 9x9 rod arrays. The first objective of this calculation is to describe the development and application of a finite element representation that predicts peak spent nuclear fuel temperatures for BWR assemblies. The second objective is to use the discrete representation to develop a basis for determining an effective thermal conductivity (described later) for a BWR assembly with srneared/homogeneous properties and to investigate the thermal behavior of a spent fuel assembly. The scope of this calculation is limited to a steady-state two-dimensional representation of the waste package interior region. This calculation is subject to procedure AP-3.124, Calculations (Ref. 27) and guided by the applicable technical work plan (Ref. 14). While these evaluations were originally developed for the thermal analysis of conceptual waste package designs emplaced in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, the methodology applies to storage and transportation thermal analyses as well. Note that the waste package sketch in Attachment V depicts a preliminary design, and should not be interpreted otherwise.

Matthew D. Hinds

2001-10-17

382

Structure, Dynamics, Assembly, and Evolution of Protein Complexes.  

PubMed

The assembly of individual proteins into functional complexes is fundamental to nearly all biological processes. In recent decades, many thousands of homomeric and heteromeric protein complex structures have been determined, greatly improving our understanding of the fundamental principles that control symmetric and asymmetric quaternary structure organization. Furthermore, our conception of protein complexes has moved beyond static representations to include dynamic aspects of quaternary structure, including conformational changes upon binding, multistep ordered assembly pathways, and structural fluctuations occurring within fully assembled complexes. Finally, major advances have been made in our understanding of protein complex evolution, both in reconstructing evolutionary histories of specific complexes and in elucidating general mechanisms that explain how quaternary structure tends to evolve. The evolution of quaternary structure occurs via changes in self-assembly state or through the gain or loss of protein subunits, and these processes can be driven by both adaptive and nonadaptive influences. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 84 is June 02, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates. PMID:25494300

Marsh, Joseph A; Teichmann, Sarah A

2014-12-01

383

Self-assembly of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles with Permanent Magnetization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) exhibit superparamagnetism when thermal fluctuations overcome the potential barrier for spin reversal set by magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The magnetic moment in such a material oscillates between the easy axes leading to zero net magnetization. Stable colloidal dispersions of MNPs exploit this state to prevent agglomeration. Self-assembly of MNPs presents an excellent bottom up nanofabrication technique due to the wide range of structures that can be formed. A stable dispersion of MNPs is an essential starting point for good control of the process. In this study we explore the theoretical basis for a self-assembled MNP structure with permanent magnetization starting from a dispersion of superparamangetic MNPs. Magnetostatic coupling of dipole moments enhance the potential barrier for magnetization reversals. We use X-Ray microCT and TEM to visualize the self-assembled structures. We use a stochastic form of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation to simulate the magnetization dynamics in each MNP. Permanent magnetization in self-assembled structures generated in situ promise several significant applications such as targeted drug delivery, tissue engineering and novel soft composites.

Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar

2012-02-01

384

Amyloid Structure and Assembly: Insights from Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates implicated in several common diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Similar structures are also the molecular principle of the infectious spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep, and of the so-called yeast prions, inherited non-chromosomal elements found in yeast and fungi. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is often used to delineate the assembly mechanism and structural properties of amyloid aggregates. In this review we consider specifically contributions and limitations of STEM for the investigation of amyloid assembly pathways, fibril polymorphisms and structural models of amyloid fibrils. This type of microscopy provides the only method to directly measure the mass-per-length (MPL) of individual filaments. Made on both in vitro assembled and ex vivo samples, STEM mass measurements have illuminated the hierarchical relationships between amyloid fibrils and revealed that polymorphic fibrils and various globular oligomers can assemble simultaneously from a single polypeptide. The MPLs also impose strong constraints on possible packing schemes, assisting in molecular model building when combined with high-resolution methods like solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

Goldsbury, C.; Wall, J.; Baxa, U.; Simon, M. N.; Steven, A. C.; Engel, A.; Aebi, U.; Muller, S. A.

2011-01-01

385

Structure of Bacteriophage P22 Portal Protein in Relation to Assembly:  Investigation by Raman Spectroscopy †  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella phage P22, which serves as an assembly paradigm for icosahedral double-stranded DNA viruses, packages its viral genome through a capsid channel (portal) comprising 12 copies of a 725-residue subunit. Secondary and tertiary structures of the portal subunit in monomeric and dodecameric states have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy using a His6-tagged recombinant protein that self- assembles in vitro (Moore,

Arantxa Rodríguez-Casado; Sean D. Moore; George J. Thomas

2001-01-01

386

Solvent mediated self-assembly of solids  

SciTech Connect

Solvent-mediated crystallization represents a robust approach to self-assembly of nanostructures and microstructures. In organic systems, the relative ease with which the structure of hydrogen- bonded molecules can be manipulated allows for generation of a wide variety of nanoscale crystal structures. In living organisms, control over the micron-to-millimeter form of inorganic crystals is achieved through introduction of bio-organic molecules. The purpose of this proposal is to understand the interplay between solution chemistry, molecular structure, surface chemistry, and the processes of nucleation and crystal growth in solvent-mediated systems, with the goal of developing the atomic and molecular basis of a solvent-mediated self-assembly technology. We will achieve this purpose by: (1) utilizing an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach that provides in situ, real time imaging during growth from solutions, (2) by modifying kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) models to include solution-surface kinetics, (3) by introducing quantum chemistry (QC) calculations of the potentials of the relevant chemical species and the near-surface structure of the solution, and (4) by utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to identify the minimum energy pathways to the solid state. Our work will focus on two systems chosen to address both the manometer and micron-to-millimeter length scales of assembly, the family of 2,5- diketopiperazines (X-DKPs) and the system of CaCO{sub 3} with amino acids. Using AFM, we will record the evolution of surface morphology, critical lengths, step speeds, and step-step interactions as a function of supersaturation and temperature. In the case of the X-DKPs, these measurements will be repeated as the molecular structure of the growth unit is varied. In the case of CaCO{sub 3}, they will be performed as a function of solution chemistry including pH, ionic strength, and amino acid content. In addition, we will measure nucleation rates and orientations of CaCO{sub 3} on polyamino acid templates. From these measurements, we will extract fundamental growth parameters for input into KMC simulations whose predictions will in turn be compared to the experimental observations. The KMC simulations will incorporate atomic processes representing the minimum energy pathways as determined from the MD calculations. The interaction potentials of the relevant chemical species as well as the hydrated surface, including the electrochemical double layer, used in the MD simulations will be determined using coupled solutions to the Schrodinger and Poisson-Boltzmann equations which take account of electronic relaxation effects.

De Yoreo, J.; Wilson, W.D.; Palmore, T.

1997-12-12

387

Interfacial Assembly of Graphene Oxide Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific interest in graphene oxide (GO) sheets, the product of chemical oxidation and exfoliation of graphite powder, has resurged in recent years because GO is considered a promising precursor for the bulk production of graphene-based sheets for a variety of applications. In addition, GO can be viewed as an unconventional type of soft material as it is characterized by two abruptly different length scales. Its thickness is of typical molecular dimensions, measured to be about 1 nm by atomic force microscopy, but its lateral dimensions are that of common colloidal particles, ranging from nanometers to tens of microns. This high anisotropy leads to interesting fundamental colloidal interactions between the soft sheets which have practical implications in the solution processing and assembly of the material. This research therefore aims to use a variety of techniques to control these inter-sheet interactions to gain an understanding of the processing-structure relationships which ultimately determine the overall properties of the bulk GO assembly. GO is identified as a two-dimensional amphiphile with a unique edge-to-center arrangement of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, which has led to the demonstration of its pH- and size-dependent surface activity. The water surface is then utilized, as in the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, as an ideal substrate to tile up the GO sheets and study the interactions between them. Sheet-sheet interaction morphologies were successfully altered between wrinkled and overlapped states by pH tuning of sheet charge density, and the resulting structure-property relationships are explored. In addition, a novel flash-reduction and assembly process is described in which a simple photographic camera flash can rapidly and cleanly turn an insulating, well-stacked GO paper to a more open and fluffy conducting film. Lastly, the use of these research results as educational outreach platforms is highlighted. A variety of outlets, such as YouTube videos, laboratory tours, e-mentoring, and module creation brought this research outside the scientific community to help inspire our next generation of scientists.

Cote, Laura J.

388

SEQuel: improving the accuracy of genome assemblies  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Assemblies of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, although accurate, still contain a substantial number of errors that need to be corrected after the assembly process. We develop SEQuel, a tool that corrects errors (i.e. insertions, deletions and substitution errors) in the assembled contigs. Fundamental to the algorithm behind SEQuel is the positional de Bruijn graph, a graph structure that models k-mers within reads while incorporating the approximate positions of reads into the model. Results: SEQuel reduced the number of small insertions and deletions in the assemblies of standard multi-cell Escherichia coli data by almost half, and corrected between 30% and 94% of the substitution errors. Further, we show SEQuel is imperative to improving single-cell assembly, which is inherently more challenging due to higher error rates and non-uniform coverage; over half of the small indels, and substitution errors in the single-cell assemblies were corrected. We apply SEQuel to the recently assembled Deltaproteobacterium SAR324 genome, which is the first bacterial genome with a comprehensive single-cell genome assembly, and make over 800 changes (insertions, deletions and substitutions) to refine this assembly. Availability: SEQuel can be used as a post-processing step in combination with any NGS assembler and is freely available at http://bix.ucsd.edu/SEQuel/. Contact: ppevzner@cs.ucsd.edu PMID:22689760

Ronen, Roy; Boucher, Christina; Chitsaz, Hamidreza; Pevzner, Pavel

2012-01-01

389

Portable propellant cutting assembly, and method of cutting propellant with assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A propellant cutting assembly and method of using the assembly to cut samples of solid propellant in a repeatable and consistent manner is disclosed. The cutting assembly utilizes two parallel extension beams which are shorter than the diameter of a central bore of an annular solid propellant grain and can be loaded into the central bore. The assembly is equipped with retaining heads at its respective ends and an adjustment mechanism to position and wedge the assembly within the central bore. One end of the assembly is equipped with a cutting blade apparatus which can be extended beyond the end of the extension beams to cut into the solid propellant.

Sharp, Roger A. (Inventor); Hoskins, Shawn W. (Inventor); Payne, Brett D. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

390

Rigidity analysis of protein biological assemblies and periodic crystal structures  

PubMed Central

Background We initiate in silico rigidity-theoretical studies of biological assemblies and small crystals for protein structures. The goal is to determine if, and how, the interactions among neighboring cells and subchains affect the flexibility of a molecule in its crystallized state. We use experimental X-ray crystallography data from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analysis relies on an effcient graph-based algorithm. Computational experiments were performed using new protein rigidity analysis tools available in the new release of our KINARI-Web server http://kinari.cs.umass.edu. Results We provide two types of results: on biological assemblies and on crystals. We found that when only isolated subchains are considered, structural and functional information may be missed. Indeed, the rigidity of biological assemblies is sometimes dependent on the count and placement of hydrogen bonds and other interactions among the individual subchains of the biological unit. Similarly, the rigidity of small crystals may be affected by the interactions between atoms belonging to different unit cells. We have analyzed a dataset of approximately 300 proteins, from which we generated 982 crystals (some of which are biological assemblies). We identified two types of behaviors. (a) Some crystals and/or biological assemblies will aggregate into rigid bodies that span multiple unit cells/asymmetric units. Some of them create substantially larger rigid cluster in the crystal/biological assembly form, while in other cases, the aggregation has a smaller effect just at the interface between the units. (b) In other cases, the rigidity properties of the asymmetric units are retained, because the rigid bodies did not combine. We also identified two interesting cases where rigidity analysis may be correlated with the functional behavior of the protein. This type of information, identified here for the first time, depends critically on the ability to create crystals and biological assemblies, and would not have been observed only from the asymmetric unit. For the Ribonuclease A protein (PDB file 5RSA), which is functionally active in the crystallized form, we found that the individual protein and its crystal form retain the flexibility parameters between the two states. In contrast, a derivative of Ribonuclease A (PDB file 9RSA), has no functional activity, and the protein in both the asymmetric and crystalline forms, is very rigid. For the vaccinia virus D13 scaffolding protein (PDB file 3SAQ), which has two biological assemblies, we observed a striking asymmetry in the rigidity cluster decomposition of one of them, which seems implausible, given its symmetry. Upon careful investigation, we tracked the cause to a placement decision by the Reduce software concerning the hydrogen atoms, thus affecting the distribution of certain hydrogen bonds. The surprising result is that the presence or lack of a very few, but critical, hydrogen bonds, can drastically affect the rigid cluster decomposition of the biological assembly. Conclusion The rigidity analysis of a single asymmetric unit may not accurately reflect the protein's behavior in the tightly packed crystal environment. Using our KINARI software, we demonstrated that additional functional and rigidity information can be gained by analyzing a protein's biological assembly and/or crystal structure. However, performing a larger scale study would be computationally expensive (due to the size of the molecules involved). Overcoming this limitation will require novel mathematical and computational extensions to our software. PMID:24564201

2013-01-01

391

Pathways for virus assembly around nucleic acids  

E-print Network

Understanding the pathways by which viral capsid proteins assemble around their genomes could identify key intermediates as potential drug targets. In this work we use computer simulations to characterize assembly over a wide range of capsid protein-protein interaction strengths and solution ionic strengths. We find that assembly pathways can be categorized into two classes, in which intermediates are either predominantly ordered or disordered. Our results suggest that estimating the protein-protein and the protein-genome binding affinities may be sufficient to predict which pathway occurs. Furthermore, the calculated phase diagrams suggest that knowledge of the dominant assembly pathway and its relationship to control parameters could identify optimal strategies to thwart or redirect assembly to block infection. Finally, analysis of simulation trajectories suggests that the two classes of assembly pathways can be distinguished in single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy or bulk time resolved sma...

Perlmutter, Jason D; Hagan, Michael F

2014-01-01

392

Pathways for virus assembly around nucleic acids  

E-print Network

Understanding the pathways by which viral capsid proteins assemble around their genomes could identify key intermediates as potential drug targets. In this work we use computer simulations to characterize assembly over a wide range of capsid protein-protein interaction strengths and solution ionic strengths. We find that assembly pathways can be categorized into two classes, in which intermediates are either predominantly ordered or disordered. Our results suggest that estimating the protein-protein and the protein-genome binding affinities may be sufficient to predict which pathway occurs. Furthermore, the calculated phase diagrams suggest that knowledge of the dominant assembly pathway and its relationship to control parameters could identify optimal strategies to thwart or redirect assembly to block infection. Finally, analysis of simulation trajectories suggests that the two classes of assembly pathways can be distinguished in single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy or bulk time resolved small angle x-ray scattering experiments.

Jason D Perlmutter; Matthew R Perkett; Michael F Hagan

2014-05-13

393

The MARVEL assembly for neutron multiplication  

SciTech Connect

A new multiplying test assembly is under development at Idaho National Laboratory to support research, validation, evaluation, and learning. The item is comprised of three stacked, highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders, each 11.4 cm in diameter and having a combined height of up to 11.7 cm. The combined mass of all three cylinders is 20.3 kg of HEU. Calculations for the bare configuration of the assembly indicate a multiplication level of >3.5 (keff=0.72). Reflected configurations of the assembly, using either polyethylene or tungsten, are possible and have the capability of raising the assembly's multiplication level to greater than 10. This paper describes simulations performed to assess the assembly's multiplication level under different conditions and describes the resources available at INL to support the use of these materials. We also describe some preliminary calculations and test activities using the assembly to study neutron multiplication.

David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw

2013-10-01

394

The MARVEL assembly for neutron multiplication.  

PubMed

A new multiplying test assembly is under development at Idaho National Laboratory to support research, validation, evaluation, and learning. The item is comprised of three stacked, highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders, each 11.4 cm in diameter and having a combined height of up to 11.7 cm. The combined mass of all three cylinders is 20.3 kg of HEU. Calculations for the bare configuration of the assembly indicate a multiplication level of >3.5 (k(eff)=0.72). Reflected configurations of the assembly, using either polyethylene or tungsten, are possible and have the capability of raising the assembly's multiplication level to greater than 10. This paper describes simulations performed to assess the assembly's multiplication level under different conditions and describes the resources available at INL to support the use of these materials. We also describe some preliminary calculations and test activities using the assembly to study neutron multiplication. PMID:23827507

Chichester, David L; Kinlaw, Mathew T

2013-10-01

395

Archimedes : An experiment in automating mechanical assembly  

SciTech Connect

Archimedes is a prototype mechanical assembly system which generates and executes robot assembly programs from a CAD model input. The system addresses the unrealized potential for flexibility in robotic mechanical assembly applications by automating the programming task. Input is a solid model of the finished assembly. Using this model. Archimedes deduces geometric assembly constraints and then produces an assembly plan that satisfies the geometric constraints, as well as other constraints such as stability and accessibility. A retargetable plan compiler converts the generic plan into robot and cell specific code, including recognition routines for a vision system. In the prototype system the code is executed in a workcell containing an Adept Two robot, a vision system, and other parts handling equipment. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Strip, D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Maciejewski, A.A. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1990-01-01

396

[Reproduction and assembly of oncoviruses].  

PubMed

Modern investigations of structural and functional organization of oncoviruses are analyzed. The data available in the literature on oncovirus interaction with host cell membrane (adsorption, penetration by endocytosis and fusion, uncoating) as well as the cell and viral receptors are elucidated. The results of the studies on retroviral organization of genome, its integration with cellular genome, transcription and translation are given. The functions of long terminal repeats are described. The characteristic of the end step of life cycle of retroviruses (assembly, budding and maturation) is presented. PMID:6391908

Sherban, S D; Struk, V I

1984-01-01

397

Beam connector apparatus and assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and assembly for connecting beams and like structural members is disclosed which is particularly advantageous for connecting two members which are moved laterally into place. The connector apparatus requires no relative longitudinal movement between the ends of the beams or members being connected to make a connection joint. The apparatus includes a receptacle member and a connector housing carried by opposed ends of the structural member being connected. A spring-loaded connector member is carried by the connector housing which may be released for extension and engagement into the receptacle member.

Vontiesenhausen, G. F. (inventor)

1983-01-01

398

Automated Array Assembly, Phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automated Array Assembly Task, Phase 2 of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project is a process development task. The contract provides for the fabrication of modules from large area tandem junction cells (TJC). During this quarter, effort was focused on the design of a large area, approximately 36 sq cm, TJC and process verification runs. The large area TJC design was optimized for minimum I squared R power losses. In the TJM activity, the cell-module interfaces were defined, module substrates were formed and heat treated and clad metal interconnect strips were fabricated.

Carbajal, B. G.

1979-01-01

399

Assembly-line Simulation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Costs and profits estimated for models based on user inputs. Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program generalized so useful for production-line manufacturing companies. Provides accurate and reliable means of comparing alternative manufacturing processes. Used to assess impact of changes in financial parameters as cost of resources and services, inflation rates, interest rates, tax policies, and required rate of return of equity. Most important capability is ability to estimate prices manufacturer would have to receive for its products to recover all of costs of production and make specified profit. Written in TURBO PASCAL.

Chamberlain, Robert G.; Zendejas, Silvino; Malhotra, Shan

1987-01-01

400

Piston and connecting rod assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A piston and connecting rod assembly includes a piston crown, a piston skirt, a connecting rod, and a bearing insert. The piston skirt is a component separate from the piston crown and is connected to the piston crown to provide a piston body. The bearing insert is a component separate from the piston crown and the piston skirt and is fixedly disposed within the piston body. A bearing surface of a connecting rod contacts the bearing insert to thereby movably associate the connecting rod and the piston body.

Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor); Chatten, John K. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

401

Fellows Celebrated at Joint Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2009 AGU Fellows were presented at the recent Joint Assembly in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. At a formal ceremony on 26 May 2009, AGU President Timothy L. Grove introduced each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each had been selected. The presentations were followed by a reception for meeting attendees and a banquet at which family members and close colleagues further feted the honorees. AGU Fellows are scientists who have attained “acknowledged eminence in the geophysical sciences.” Election to AGU Fellowship is a very high recognition by one's peers. The number of Fellows elected may not exceed 0.1% of the membership in any given year.

2009-06-01

402

Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.

Christenson, T.R.; Feddema, J.T.

1999-03-04

403

Self-assembling magnetic "snakes"  

SciTech Connect

Nickel particles float peacefully in a liquid medium until a giant snake seems to swim by and snatch several particles up, adding to its own mass. The self-assembled "snakes" act like biological systems, but they are not alive and are driven by a magnetic field. The research may someday offer some insight into the organization of life itself. Read more at Wired: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/03/snakes/ Research and video by Alex Snezhko and Igor Aronson, Argonne National Laboratory.

None

2010-01-01

404

Self-Assembly at All Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembly is the autonomous organization of components into patterns or structures without human intervention. Self-assembling processes are common throughout nature and technology. They involve components from the molecular (crystals) to the planetary (weather systems) scale and many different kinds of interactions. The concept of self-assembly is used increasingly in many disciplines, with a different flavor and emphasis in each.

George M. Whitesides; Bartosz Grzybowski

2002-01-01

405

Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (>?~?150 kb), high G?+?C (55%) prokaryotic DNA fragments was improved by addition of yeast replication origins every ~100 kb. Conversely, low G?+?C DNA is stable (up to at least 1.8 Mb) without adding supplemental yeast origins. It has not been previously tested whether addition of yeast replication origins similarly improves the yeast-based cloning of large (>150 kb) eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content. The model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has an average G?+?C content of 48% and a 27.4 Mb genome sequence that has been assembled into chromosome-sized scaffolds making it an ideal test case for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic chromosomes in yeast. Results We present a modified chromosome assembly technique in which eukaryotic chromosomes as large as ~500 kb can be assembled from cloned ~100 kb fragments. We used this technique to clone fragments spanning P. tricornutum chromosomes 25 and 26 and to assemble these fragments into single, chromosome-sized molecules. We found that addition of yeast replication origins improved the cloning, assembly, and maintenance of the large chromosomes in yeast. Furthermore, purification of the fragments to be assembled by electroelution greatly increased assembly efficiency. Conclusions Entire eukaryotic chromosomes can be successfully cloned, maintained, and manipulated in yeast. These results highlight the improvement in assembly and maintenance afforded by including yeast replication origins in eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content (48%). They also highlight the increased efficiency of assembly that can be achieved by purifying fragments before assembly. PMID:24325901

2013-01-01

406

Apparatus for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type comprising an array of fuel pins disposed within an outer metal shell or shroud. A spent fuel assembly is first compacted in a known manner and then incrementally sheared using fixed and movable shear blades having matched laterally projecting teeth which slidably intermesh to provide the desired shearing action. Incremental advancement of the fuel assembly after each shear cycle is limited to a distance corresponding to the lateral projection of the teeth to ensure fuel assembly breakup into small uniform segments which are amenable to remote chemical processing.

Weil, Bradley S. (Knoxville, TN); Metz, III, Curtis F. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01

407

Finishing bacterial genome assemblies with Mix  

PubMed Central

Motivation Among challenges that hamper reaping the benefits of genome assembly are both unfinished assemblies and the ensuing experimental costs. First, numerous software solutions for genome de novo assembly are available, each having its advantages and drawbacks, without clear guidelines as to how to choose among them. Second, these solutions produce draft assemblies that often require a resource intensive finishing phase. Methods In this paper we address these two aspects by developing Mix , a tool that mixes two or more draft assemblies, without relying on a reference genome and having the goal to reduce contig fragmentation and thus speed-up genome finishing. The proposed algorithm builds an extension graph where vertices represent extremities of contigs and edges represent existing alignments between these extremities. These alignment edges are used for contig extension. The resulting output assembly corresponds to a set of paths in the extension graph that maximizes the cumulative contig length. Results We evaluate the performance of Mix on bacterial NGS data from the GAGE-B study and apply it to newly sequenced Mycoplasma genomes. Resulting final assemblies demonstrate a significant improvement in the overall assembly quality. In particular, Mix is consistent by providing better overall quality results even when the choice is guided solely by standard assembly statistics, as is the case for de novo projects. Availability Mix is implemented in Python and is available at https://github.com/cbib/MIX, novel data for our Mycoplasma study is available at http://services.cbib.u-bordeaux2.fr/mix/. PMID:24564706

2013-01-01

408

Fabrication of capsule assemblies, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirteen capsule assemblies were fabricated for evaluation of fuel pin design concepts for a fast spectrum lithium cooled compact space power reactor. These instrumented assemblies were designed for real time test of prototype fuel pins. Uranium mononitride fuel pins were encased in AISI 304L stainless steel capsules. Fabrication procedures were fully qualified by process development and assembly qualification tests. Instrumentation reliability was achieved utilizing specially processed and closely controlled thermocouple hot zone fabrication and by thermal screening tests. Overall capsule reliability was achieved with an all electron beam welded assembly.

Keeton, A. R.; Stemann, L. G.

1973-01-01

409

Assembly and post-assembly manipulation of polyelectrolyte multilayers for control of bacterial attachment and viability  

E-print Network

The overall goal of this thesis was to exploit the versatility of the polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) platform to consider bacteria-substrata interactions by varying multilayer assembly and post-assembly conditions. We ...

Lichter, Jenny, 1982-

2009-01-01

410

Selective assembly in deformable systems using templated assembly by selective removal  

E-print Network

The current work presents the first demonstration of successful assembly of deformable polymer microspheres on patterned rigid substrates using Templated Assembly by Selective Removal (TASR). Also presented is a quantitative ...

Agarwal, Gunjan

2009-01-01

411

Valve stem and packing assembly  

DOEpatents

A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

Wordin, J.J.

1991-09-03

412

Valve stem and packing assembly  

DOEpatents

A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

1991-01-01

413

The Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility, located in eastern New Orleans, Louisiana, is an 832 acre site that is a government-owned, contractor-operated component of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The facility was acquired by NASA in 1961 at the recommendation of Dr. Wernher von Braun and his rocket team in Huntsville Alabama. The cavernous plant served as the assembly facility for the Saturn launch vehicles and most recently the external tank (ET) used for the Space Shuttle Program. The facility features one of the world's biggest manufacturing plants with 43 acres under one roof and a port with deep-water access for the transportation of large space structures. When completed, space hardware is towed on a barge across the Gulf of Mexico, around Florida and up to Kennedy Space Center. The original tract of land was part of a 34,500 acre French Royal land grant to local merchant, Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent in 1763. Later, the land was acquired by French transplant Antoine Michoud, the son of Napoleon's Administrator of Domains, who moved to the city in 1827. Michoud operated a sugar cane plantation and refinery on the site until his death in 1863. His heirs continued operating the refinery and kept the original St. Maxent estate intact into the 20th century. Two brick smokestacks from the original refinery still stand before the Michoud facility today.

2000-01-01

414

The Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility, located in eastern New Orleans, Louisiana, is an 832 acre site that is a government-owned, contractor-operated component of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The facility was acquired by NASA in 1961 at the recommendation of Dr. Wernher von Braun and his rocket team in Huntsville Alabama. The cavernous plant served as the assembly facility for the Saturn launch vehicles and most recently the external tank (ET) used for the Space Shuttle Program. The facility features one of the world's biggest manufacturing plants with 43 acres under one roof and a port with deep-water access for the transportation of large space structures. When completed, space hardware is towed on a barge across the Gulf of Mexico, around Florida and up to Kennedy Space Center. The original tract of land was part of a 34,500 acre French Royal land grant to local merchant, Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent in 1763. Later, the land was acquired by French transplant Antoine Michoud, the son of Napoleon's Administrator of Domains, who moved to the city in 1827. Michoud operated a sugar cane plantation and refinery on the site until his death in 1863. His heirs continued operating the refinery and kept the original St. Maxent estate intact into the 20th century. Visible on the right, is one of two brick smokestacks from the original refinery that still stand before the Michoud facility today.

2000-01-01

415

Ultra-precision positioning assembly  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is disclosed for ultra-precision positioning. A slide base provides a foundational support. A slide plate moves with respect to the slide base along a first geometric axis. Either a ball-screw or a piezoelectric actuator working separate or in conjunction displaces the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis. A linking device directs a primary force vector into a center-line of the ball-screw. The linking device consists of a first link which directs a first portion of the primary force vector to an apex point, located along the center-line of the ball-screw, and a second link for directing a second portion of the primary force vector to the apex point. A set of rails, oriented substantially parallel to the center-line of the ball-screw, direct movement of the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis and are positioned such that the apex point falls within a geometric plane formed by the rails. The slide base, the slide plate, the ball-screw, and the linking device together form a slide assembly. Multiple slide assemblies can be distributed about a platform. In such a configuration, the platform may be raised and lowered, or tipped and tilted by jointly or independently displacing the slide plates.

Montesanti, Richard C. (San Francisco, CA); Locke, Stanley F. (Livermore, CA); Thompson, Samuel L. (Pleasanton, CA)

2002-01-01

416

Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly Regeneration Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In April 2010 the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This technology requires hydrogen to recover oxygen from carbon dioxide. This results in the production of water and methane. Water is electrolyzed to provide oxygen to the crew. Methane is vented to space resulting in a loss of valuable hydrogen and unreduced carbon dioxide. This is not critical for ISS because of the water resupply from Earth. However, in order to have enough oxygen for long-term missions, it will be necessary to recover the hydrogen to maximize oxygen recovery. Thus, the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was designed to recover hydrogen from methane. During operation, the PPA produces small amounts of carbon that can ultimately reduce performance by forming on the walls and windows of the reactor chamber. The carbon must be removed, although mechanical methods are highly inefficient, thus chemical methods are of greater interest. The purpose of this effort was to determine the feasibility of chemically removing the carbon from the walls and windows of a PPA reactor using a pure carbon dioxide stream.

Medlen, Amber; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.

2011-01-01

417

Subsea production test valve assembly  

SciTech Connect

In the subsea test assembly securable within a blowout preventer stack above a subterranean well and positionable between upper and lower portions of a tubular conduit in fluid communication with a production zone within the well, the test assembly is described including an upper subassembly carriable with the upper conduit portion, a lower subassembly carriable with the lower conduit portion, and valve means in the lower subassembly manipulatable between opened and closed positions to control fluid flow within the conduit. The improvement comprises: the upper subassembly including an upper housing and first rigid dog means fixedly secured to the upper housing; the lower subassembly including a lower housing and second rigid dog means fixedly secured to the lower housing; the first rigid dog means positionable between a latch position for latching the upper and lower subassemblies and an unlatch position for unlatching the upper and lower subassemblies upon rotational movement of the first dog means with respect to the second dog means; and lock means axially movable relative to the first and second dog means from a lock position for limiting rotational movement of the first dog means with respect to the second dog means to an unlock position for allowing the first dog means to rotate relative to the second dog means and unlatch the upper subassembly from the lower subassembly.

Yates, P.D.

1988-03-22

418

Pressurized water reactor fuel assembly subchannel void fraction measurement  

SciTech Connect

The void fraction measurement experiment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies has been conducted since 1987 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry as a Japanese national project. Two types of test sections are used in this experiment. One is a 5 x 5 array rod bundle geometry, and the other is a single-channel geometry simulating one of the subchannels in the rod bundle. Wide gamma-ray beam scanners and narrow gamma-ray beam computed tomography scanners are used to measure the subchannel void fractions under various steady-state and transient conditions. The experimental data are expected to be used to develop a void fraction prediction model relevant to PWR fuel assemblies and also to verify or improve the subchannel analysis method. The first series of experiments was conducted in 1992, and a preliminary evaluation of the data has been performed. The preliminary results of these experiments are described.

Akiyama, Yoshiei [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Fuel and Core Engineering Dept.; Hori, Keiichi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Hyougo (Japan); Miyazaki, Keiji [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Mishima, Kaichiro [Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Sugiyama, Shigekazu [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Fuel Dept.

1995-12-01

419

The effect of zinc on amyloid ?-protein assembly and toxicity: A mechanistic investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neurotoxic assemblies of amyloid ?-protein (A?) are widely believed to be the cause for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, understanding the factors and mechanisms that control, modulate, and inhibit formation of these assemblies is crucial for the development of therapeutic intervention of AD. This information also can contribute significantly to our understanding of the mechanisms of other amyloidosis diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, type 2 diabetes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) and prion diseases (e.g. Mad Cow disease). We have developed a multidisciplinary experimental strategy to study structural and dynamic mechanistic aspects that underlie the A? assembly process. Utilizing this strategy, we explored the molecular basis leading to the perturbation of the A? assembly process by divalent metal ions, mainly Zn2+ ions. Using Zn2+ as reaction physiological relevant probes, it was demonstrated that Zn2+ rapidly (milliseconds) induce self-assembly of A? aggregates and stabilize them in a manner that prevents formation of A? fibrils. Importantly, the early-formed intermediates are substantially more neurotoxic than fibrils. Our results suggest that relevant A? modulators should be targeted against the rapidly evolved intermediate states of A? assembly. The design of such modulators is challenging, as they have to compete with different natural mediators (such as Zn2+) of A? aggregation, which diverse A? assemblies in both specific and nonspecific manners.

Solomonov, Inna; Sagi, Irit

2014-10-01

420

Whole-genome shotgun assembly and comparison of human genome assemblies  

E-print Network

Whole-genome shotgun assembly and comparison of human genome assemblies Sorin Istraila , Granger G a whole-genome shotgun assembly (called WGSA) of the human genome generated at Celera in 2001. The Celera and of the first reconstructions of the human genome reported in two landmark papers in February 2001 [Venter, J. C

Shatkay, Hagit

421

A micro-assembly station used for 3D reconfigurable hybrid MOEMS assembly  

E-print Network

A micro-assembly station used for 3D reconfigurable hybrid MOEMS assembly Kanty Rabenorosoa1, C - UFC / ENSMM / UTBM 1 Automatic Control and Micro-Mechatronic Systems depart.(AS2M department), 2 Micro, plutz, sbargiel, cgorecki@femto-st.fr Abstract-- Micro-assembly has been identified to be a critical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

422

Vocational Assembly Skills Using Isometric Projection Exploded View Assembly Drawings for Mentally Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty-four percent of the trainable mentally handicapped 15- to 21-year-old students who received an instructional sequence featuring isometric projection exploded view assembly drawings successfully transferred the assembly process skills to a complex industrial assembly task that was not included in previous training. (CL)

Fisher, Murray K.

1984-01-01

423

Line balancing for non-traditional assembly lines, mixed models, and sequence-dependent assembly times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the assembly line balancing problem dealt with balancing linear assembly lines given a precedence diagram of the jobs involved. The objective of this problem is either to maximize the workstations throughput, or minimize the number of workstations, given a cycle time. The job times are traditionally assumed to be independent of the assembly sequence. Recent technological and philosophical changes

DAVID BEN-ARIEH

1995-01-01

424

Complex Assembly Variant Design in Agile Manufacturing. Part II: Assembly Variant Design Methodology  

E-print Network

Complex Assembly Variant Design in Agile Manufacturing. Part II: Assembly Variant Design to facilitate the variant design of complex assembly products in the agile manufacturing environment. Finally, a prototype system is developed and examples are presented. Keywords: Variant Design, Agile Manufacturing

Nagi, Rakesh

425

Trapping of Hepatitis B Virus capsid assembly intermediates by phenylpropenamide assembly accelerators  

PubMed Central

Understanding the biological self-assembly process of virus capsids is key to understanding the viral life cycle, as well as serving as a platform for the design of assembly-based antiviral drugs. Here we identify and characterize the phenylpropenamide family of small molecules, known to have antiviral activity in vivo, as assembly effectors of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) capsid. We have found two representative phenylpropenamides to be assembly accelerators, increasing the rate of assembly with only modest increases in the stability of the HBV capsids; these data provide a physical-chemical basis for their antiviral activity. Unlike previously described HBV assembly effectors, the phenylpropenamides do not misdirect assembly; rather, the accelerated reactions proceed on-path to produce morphologically normal capsids. However, capsid assembly in the presence of phenylpropenamides is characterized by kinetic trapping of assembly intermediates. These traps resolve under conditions close to physiological, but under conditions which favor phenylpropenamide binding and strong core protein-protein interactions, we found that trapped intermediates persist. The phenylpropenamides serve as chemical probes of the HBV capsid assembly pathway by trapping on-path assembly intermediates, illustrating the governing influence of reaction kinetics on capsid assembly. PMID:20845949

Katen, Sarah P.; Chirapu, Srinivas Reddy; Finn, M.G.; Zlotnick, Adam

2010-01-01

426

A Trustworthy Assembly of COTS Components 1 A Trustworthy Assembly of COTS  

E-print Network

A Trustworthy Assembly of COTS Components 1 A Trustworthy Assembly of COTS Components Arnaud Lanoix-Informatica Software Engineering Journal (ISEJ) 2, 1 (2008) 19 pages" #12;2 A Trustworthy Assembly of COTS Components by examining existing COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) components to see how they meet the expected requirements

Boyer, Edmond

427

Photovoltaic module on-orbit assembly for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the elements of the Space Station Freedom power system is the Photovoltaic (PV) module. These modules will be assembled on-orbit during the assembly phase of the program. These modules will be assembled either from the shuttle orbiter or from the Mobile Servicing Center (MSC). The different types of assembly operations that will be used to assemble PV Modules are described.

Sours, Thomas; Lovely, R.; Clark, D.

1989-01-01

428

Computational Design of Self-Assembling Protein Nanomaterials with Atomic Level Accuracy  

SciTech Connect

We describe a general computational method for designing proteins that self-assemble to a desired symmetric architecture. Protein building blocks are docked together symmetrically to identify complementary packing arrangements, and low-energy protein-protein interfaces are then designed between the building blocks in order to drive self-assembly. We used trimeric protein building blocks to design a 24-subunit, 13-nm diameter complex with octahedral symmetry and a 12-subunit, 11-nm diameter complex with tetrahedral symmetry. The designed proteins assembled to the desired oligomeric states in solution, and the crystal structures of the complexes revealed that the resulting materials closely match the design models. The method can be used to design a wide variety of self-assembling protein nanomaterials.

King, Neil P.; Sheffler, William; Sawaya, Michael R.; Vollmar, Breanna S.; Sumida, John P.; André, Ingemar; Gonen, Tamir; Yeates, Todd O.; Baker, David (UWASH); (UCLA); (HHMI); (LIT)

2012-10-24

429

Protein Assembly at the Air-Water Interface Studied by Fluorescence Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Protein assembly at the air-water interface (AWI) occurs naturally in many biological processes, and provides a method for creating biomaterials. However, the factors that control protein self-assembly at the AWI, and the dynamic processes that occur during adsorption are still under-explored. Using fluorescence microscopy, we investigated assembly at the AWI of a model protein, human serum albumin minimally labeled with Texas Red fluorophore. Static and dynamic information was obtained under low subphase concentrations. By varying solution protein concentration, ionic strength, and redox state, the microstructure of protein assembly at the AWI was changed accordingly. Addition of pluronic surfactant caused phase segregation to occur at the AWI, with fluid surfactant domains and more rigid protein domains revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. Protein domains were observed to coalesce during this competitive adsorption process. PMID:21942221

Liao, Zhengzheng; Lampe, Joshua W.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Eckmann, David M.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.

2011-01-01

430

Dipolar Magnetism in Ordered and Disordered Low-Dimensional Nanoparticle Assemblies  

PubMed Central

Magnetostatic (dipolar) interactions between nanoparticles promise to open new ways to design nanocrystalline magnetic materials and devices if the collective magnetic properties can be controlled at the nanoparticle level. Magnetic dipolar interactions are sufficiently strong to sustain magnetic order at ambient temperature in assemblies of closely-spaced nanoparticles with magnetic moments of ? 100??B. Here we use electron holography with sub-particle resolution to reveal the correlation between particle arrangement and magnetic order in self-assembled 1D and quasi-2D arrangements of 15?nm cobalt nanoparticles. In the initial states, we observe dipolar ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and local flux closure, depending on the particle arrangement. Surprisingly, after magnetic saturation, measurements and numerical simulations show that overall ferromagnetic order exists in the present nanoparticle assemblies even when their arrangement is completely disordered. Such direct quantification of the correlation between topological and magnetic order is essential for the technological exploitation of magnetic quasi-2D nanoparticle assemblies. PMID:23390584

Varón, M.; Beleggia, M.; Kasama, T.; Harrison, R. J.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Puntes, V. F.; Frandsen, C.

2013-01-01

431

Next-Generation Sequence Assembly: Four Stages of Data Processing and Computational Challenges  

PubMed Central

Decoding DNA symbols using next-generation sequencers was a major breakthrough in genomic research. Despite the many advantages of next-generation sequencers, e.g., the high-throughput sequencing rate and relatively low cost of sequencing, the assembly of the reads produced by these sequencers still remains a major challenge. In this review, we address the basic framework of next-generation genome sequence assemblers, which comprises four basic stages: preprocessing filtering, a graph construction process, a graph simplification process, and postprocessing filtering. Here we discuss them as a framework of four stages for data analysis and processing and survey variety of techniques, algorithms, and software tools used during each stage. We also discuss the challenges that face current assemblers in the next-generation environment to determine the current state-of-the-art. We recommend a layered architecture approach for constructing a general assembler that can handle the sequences generated by different sequencing platforms. PMID:24348224

El-Metwally, Sara; Hamza, Taher; Zakaria, Magdi; Helmy, Mohamed

2013-01-01

432

A Programmable Transducer Self-Assembled from DNA.  

PubMed

A transducer consists of an input/output alphabet, a finite set of states, and a transition function. From an input symbol applied to a given state, the transition function determines the next state, and an output symbol. Using DNA, we have constructed a transducer that divides a number by 3. The input consists of a series of individually addressable 2-state DNA nanomechanical devices that control the orientations of a group of flat 6-helix DNA motifs; these motifs have edge domains tailed in sticky ends corresponding to the numbers 0 and 1. Three-domain DNA molecules (TX tiles) act as computational tiles that correspond to the transitions that the transducer can undergo. The output domain of these TX tiles contains sticky ends that also correspond to 0 or 1. Two different DNA tiles can chelate these output domains: A 5 nm gold nanoparticle is attached to the chelating tile that binds to 0-domains and a 10 nm gold nanoparticle is attached to the chelating tile that binds to 1-domains. The answer to the division is represented by the series of gold nanoparticles, which can be interpreted as a binary number. The answers of the computation are read out by examination of the transducer complexes under a transmission electron microscope. The start or end points of the output sequence can be indicated by the presence of a 15 nm gold nanoparticle. This work demonstrates two previously unreported features integrated in a single framework: [1] a system that combines DNA algorithmic self-assembly with DNA nanomechanical devices that control that input, and [2] the arrangement of non-DNA species, here metallic nanoparticles, through DNA algorithmic self-assembly. The nanomechanical devices are controlled by single-stranded DNA strands, allowing multiple input sequences to be applied to the rest of the system, thus guiding the algorithmic self-assembly to a variety of outputs. PMID:23139854

Chakraborty, Banani; Jonoska, Natasha; Seeman, Nadrian C

2012-01-01

433

A Whole-Genome Assembly of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the quality of a whole-genome assembly of Drosophila melanogaster and the nature of the computer algorithms that accomplished it. Three independent external data sources essentially agree with and support the assembly's sequence and ordering of contigs across the euchromatic portion of the genome. In addition, there are isolated contigs that we believe represent nonrepetitive pockets within the

Granger G. Sutton; Art L. Delcher; Ian M. Dew; Dan P. Fasulo; Michael J. Flanigan; Saul A. Kravitz; Clark M. Mobarry; Knut H. J. Reinert; Karin A. Remington; Eric L. Anson; Randall A. Bolanos; Hui-Hsien Chou; Catherine M. Jordan; Aaron L. Halpern; Stefano Lonardi; Ellen M. Beasley; Rhonda C. Brandon; Lin Chen; Patrick J. Dunn; Zhongwu Lai; Yong Liang; Deborah R. Nusskern; Ming Zhan; Qing Zhang; Xiangqun Zheng; Gerald M. Rubin; Mark D. Adams; J. Craig Venter

2000-01-01

434

Fuel rod assembly to manifold attachment  

DOEpatents

A fuel element is formed with a plurality of fuel rod assemblies detachably connected to an overhead support with each of the fuel rod assemblies having a gas tight seal with the support to allow internal fission gaseous products to flow without leakage from the fuel rod assemblies into a vent manifold passageway system on the support. The upper ends of the fuel rod assemblies are located at vertically extending openings in the support and upper threaded members are threaded to the fuel rod assemblies to connect the latter to the support. The preferred threaded members are cap nuts having a dome wall encircling an upper threaded end on the fuel rod assembly and having an upper sealing surface for sealing contact with the support. Another and lower seal is achieved by abutting a sealing surface on each fuel rod assembly with the support. A deformable portion on the cap nut locks the latter against inadvertent turning off the fuel rod assembly. Orienting means on the fuel rod and support primarily locates the fuel rods azimuthally for reception of a deforming tool for the cap nut. A cross port in the fuel rod end plug discharges into a sealed annulus within the support, which serves as a circumferential chamber, connecting the manifold gas passageways in the support.

Donck, Harry A. (San Diego, CA); Veca, Anthony R. (San Diego, CA); Snyder, Jr., Harold J. (San Diego, CA)

1980-01-01

435

Some Questions about Feature Re-Assembly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, differences between feature re-assembly and feature selection are discussed. Lardiere's proposals are compared to existing approaches to grammatical features in second language (L2) acquisition. Questions are raised about the predictive power of the feature re-assembly approach. (Contains 1 footnote.)

White, Lydia

2009-01-01

436

How Nature Builds Itself: Self-Assembly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By designing and building models with Legos and placing them in a reaction chamber, students will simulate the process of molecular self-assembly. This activity provides a basis for understanding that thermal energy at the nanometer scale is a determining factor for whether or not self-assembly occurs.

Taylor, Amy R.; Broadwell, Bethany P.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2007-01-01

437

Compact attic mounted solar heating pack assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact attic solar heating pack assembly for mounting within a building attic having south and north facing roof sections overlying a horizontal building attic floor forming the ceiling and defining an enclosed attic space above the occupied room space below the ceiling is described. The pack assembly comprises: a closed sheet metal plenum, means for fixedly mounting the plenum

1988-01-01

438

Gene Assembly Through Cyclic Graph Decomposition  

E-print Network

Gene Assembly Through Cyclic Graph Decomposition A. Ehrenfeucht #3; T. Harju y G. Rozenberg zx Abstract We present in this paper a graph theoretical model of gene assem- bly, where (segments of) genes are distributed over a set of circular molecules. This model is motivated by the process of gene assembly

Harju, Tero

439

Conducting Assemblies in Botswana Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author explored the teachers' experiences and their views regarding how assemblies are conducted in Botswana public schools. The author indicates that assemblies are a common feature in Botswana primary and secondary schools. The author adopted the Christian Privilege as the conceptual framework as espoused by Blumenfeld (2006)…

Baamphatlha, Dinama

2011-01-01

440

Sensorimotor Primitives for Programming Robotic Assembly Skills  

E-print Network

, Pradeep Khosla, for assembling a first­rate research group and facil­ ity in the Advanced Mechatronics Abstract This thesis addresses the problem of sensor­based skill composition for robotic assembly tasks­level agent. Building sensor­based, reactive skills is an important step toward realizing robots as flexible

441

Fullerene-linked Pt nanoparticle assemblies.  

PubMed

Fullerene-Pt nanoparticle assemblies were prepared by attachment and immobilisation of different Pt nanoparticles on a gold electrode using molecular layers of C60 as a linker system. These assemblies were active for the methanol oxidation following treatment with CO. PMID:15216366

Roth, C; Hussain, I; Bayati, M; Nichols, R J; Schiffrin, D J

2004-07-01

442

Mechanisms of Capsid Assembly around a Polymer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Capsids of many viruses assemble around nucleic acids or other polymers. Understanding how the properties of the packaged polymer affect the assembly process could promote biomedical efforts to prevent viral assembly or nanomaterials applications that exploit assembly. To this end, we simulate on a lattice the dynamical assembly of closed, hollow shells composed of several hundred to 1000 subunits, around a flexible polymer. We find that assembly is most efficient at an optimum polymer length that scales with the surface area of the capsid; polymers that are significantly longer than optimal often lead to partial-capsids with unpackaged polymer “tails” or a competition between multiple partial-capsids attached to a single polymer. These predictions can be tested with bulk experiments in which capsid proteins assemble around homopolymeric RNA or synthetic polyelectrolytes. We also find that the polymer can increase the net rate of subunit accretion to a growing capsid both by stabilizing the addition of new subunits and by enhancing the incoming flux of subunits; the effects of these processes may be distinguishable with experiments that monitor the assembly of individual capsids. PMID:20643082

Kivenson, Aleksandr; Hagan, Michael F.

2010-01-01

443

Redevelopment and smart growth at Assembly Square  

E-print Network

The story of Assembly Square is not yet finished. To tell the complete story of Assembly Square would require much more time to write than I had, and more time to read than the reader would likely care to devote. An earlier ...

Savage, Alice (Alice Augusta)

2006-01-01

444

BMW innovates at new Leipzig assembly plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To look at BMW's latest assembly plant in Leipzig and identify new processes and techniques. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Visited BMW's Leipzig plant, viewed new assembly lines, and interviewed key managers. Findings – Innovations at BMW's Leipzig plant include new work structures that raise productivity and increased use of outsourcing. Originality\\/value – Gives an indication of production trends in the

Anna Kochan

2006-01-01

445

Microfabricated field calibration assembly for analytical instruments  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated field calibration assembly for use in calibrating analytical instruments and sensor systems. The assembly comprises a circuit board comprising one or more resistively heatable microbridge elements, an interface device that enables addressable heating of the microbridge elements, and, in some embodiments, a means for positioning the circuit board within an inlet structure of an analytical instrument or sensor system.

Robinson, Alex L. (Albuquerque, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Moorman, Matthew W. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2011-03-29

446

Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies  

DOEpatents

A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichert, Anke (Albany, CA)

2001-01-01

447

Self-assembled artificial cilia  

PubMed Central

Due to their small dimensions, microfluidic devices operate in the low Reynolds number regime. In this case, the hydrodynamics is governed by the viscosity rather than inertia and special elements have to be introduced into the system for mixing and pumping of fluids. Here we report on the realization of an effective pumping device that mimics a ciliated surface and imitates its motion to generate fluid flow. The artificial biomimetic cilia are constructed as long chains of spherical superparamagnetic particles, which self-assemble in an external magnetic field. Magnetic field is also used to actuate the cilia in a simple nonreciprocal manner, resulting in a fluid flow. We prove the concept by measuring the velocity of a cilia-pumped fluid as a function of height above the ciliated surface and investigate the influence of the beating asymmetry on the pumping performance. A numerical simulation was carried out that successfully reproduced the experimentally obtained data. PMID:19934055

Vilfan, Mojca; Poto?nik, Anton; Kav?i?, Blaž; Osterman, Natan; Poberaj, Igor; Vilfan, Andrej; Babi?, Dušan

2010-01-01

448

Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits.  

PubMed

A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic 'lumped' circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems. PMID:24871450

Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

2014-01-01

449

Low inductance power electronics assembly  

DOEpatents

A power electronics assembly is provided. A first support member includes a first plurality of conductors. A first plurality of power switching devices are coupled to the first support member. A first capacitor is coupled to the first support member. A second support member includes a second plurality of conductors. A second plurality of power switching devices are coupled to the second support member. A second capacitor is coupled to the second support member. The first and second pluralities of conductors, the first and second pluralities of power switching devices, and the first and second capacitors are electrically connected such that the first plurality of power switching devices is connected in parallel with the first capacitor and the second capacitor and the second plurality of power switching devices is connected in parallel with the second capacitor and the first capacitor.

Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S.; Korich, Mark D.; Chou, Cindy; Tang, David; Carlson, Douglas S.; Barry, Alan L.

2012-10-02

450

Self-assembled granular walkers  

E-print Network

Mechanisms of locomotion in microscopic systems are of great interest not only for technological applications, but also for the sake of understanding, and potentially harnessing, processes far from thermal equilibrium. Down-scaling is a particular challenge, and has led to a number of interesting concepts including thermal ratchet systems and asymmetric swimmers. Here we present a system which is particularly intriguing, as it is self-assembling and uses a robust mechanism which can be implemented in various settings. It consists of small spheres of different size which adhere to each other, and are subject to an oscillating (zero average) external force eld. An inherent nonlinearity in the mutual force network leads to force rectication and hence to locomotion. We present a model that accounts for the observed behaviour and demonstrates the wide applicability and potential scalability of the concept.

Z. S. Khan; A. Steinberger; R. Seemann; and S. Herminghaus

2010-03-08

451

Miniature MT optical assembly (MMTOA)  

DOEpatents

An optical assembly (10) includes a rigid mount (12) with a recess (26) proximate a first side thereof, a substrate (14), and an optical die (16) flip-chip bonded to the substrate (14). The substrate (14) is secured to the first side of the mount and includes a plurality of die bonding elements (40), a plurality of optical apertures (32), and a plurality of external bonding elements (42). A plurality of traces (44) interconnect the die bonding elements (40) and the external bonding elements (42). The optical die (16) includes a plurality of optical elements, each element including an optical signal interface (48), the die being bonded to the plurality of die bonding elements (40) such that the optical signal interface (48) of each element is in registry with an optical aperture (32) of the substrate (14) and the die (16) is at least partially enclosed by the recess (26).

Laughlin, Daric (Overland Park, KS); Abel, Phillip (Overland Park, KS)

2008-04-01

452

Diverter assembly for radioactive material  

DOEpatents

A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which moves between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place. 3 figs.

Andrews, K.M.; Starenchak, R.W.

1988-04-11

453

Fellows Celebrated at Joint Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highlight of the 2006 Joint Assembly in Baltimore, MD. was the presentation of certificates to the 2006 class of AGU Fellows. At a black tie ceremony held on 25 May, AGU President John Orcutt introduced each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which he or she had been selected. The presentations were followed by a reception for meeting attendees and a banquet at which family members and close colleagues further feted the honorees. AGU Fellows are scientists who have attained ``acknowledged eminence in the geophysical sciences.'' Election to AGU Fellowship is a very high recognition by one's peers. The number of Fellows elected may not exceed 0.1% of the membership in any given year.

2006-06-01

454

Nanocrystal assembly for tandem catalysis  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a nanocrystal tandem catalyst comprising at least two metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. One embodiment utilizes a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling sub-10 nm platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO.sub.2--Pt and Pt--SiO.sub.2, can be used to catalyze two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO.sub.2--Pt interface catalyzed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H.sub.2, which were then subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalyzed by the nearby Pt--SiO.sub.2 interface. Consequently, propanal was selectively produced on this nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst.

Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor; Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu

2014-10-14

455

Photonic-powered cable assembly  

DOEpatents

A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

Sanderson, Stephen N; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C

2014-06-24

456

Snubber assembly for turbine blades  

DOEpatents

A snubber associated with a rotatable turbine blade in a turbine engine, the turbine blade including a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall opposed from the pressure wall. The snubber assembly includes a first snubber structure associated with the pressure sidewall of the turbine blade, a second snubber structure associated with the suction sidewall of the turbine blade, and a support structure. The support structure extends through the blade and is rigidly coupled at a first end portion thereof to the first snubber structure and at a second end portion thereof to the second snubber structure. Centrifugal loads exerted by the first and second snubber structures caused by rotation thereof during operation of the engine are at least partially transferred to the support structure, such that centrifugal loads exerted on the pressure and suctions sidewalls of the turbine blade by the first and second snubber structures are reduced.

Marra, John J

2013-09-03

457

Piezoelectric ceramic assembly tubes for torsional actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efforts described here are intended to provide a basis for the utilization of novel piezoelectric actuators in smart materials and structures. The actuator design developed in this study is a segmented, piezoelectric tube, with the individual segments driven in a d15 shear mode. The PZT-5A tubes were cut longitudinally in to an even number of equal slender segments. These slender segments were poled individually along their length using a continuous poling technique developed at NRL. The polarization of the poled segments alternates in direction between adjacent segments. The segments were reassembled with a conductive epoxy so that it serves as both joint and electrode. The assembled actuator tubes were evaluated by applying electric field normal to the polarization direction of the segments, demonstrating proof of concept. These solid state prototype devices were driven to precise angular displacement and torque output. Reliability test, including both fatigue and mechanical loading of the device, were conducted. In conjunction with this effort, numerical computation analyses were performed with respect to structural integrity versus segment joint thickness, and the relative effect of cylindrical versus polygonal configurations. These studies facilitated the successful production of prototypes. Projected actuator outputs based on electromechanical test results are also discussed in terms of requirements for noise and vibration control of helicopter rotor blades.

Kim, Chulho; Glazounov, Alexandre E.; Flippen, Luther D.; Pattnaik, Amitav; Zhang, Qi Ming; Lewis, David, III

1999-07-01

458

Apparatus for electrohydrodynamically assembling patterned colloidal structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method apparatus is provided for electrophoretically depositing particles onto an electrode, and electrohydrodynamically assembling the particles into crystalline structures. Specifically, the present method and apparatus creates a current flowing through a solution to cause identically charged electrophoretically deposited colloidal particles to attract each other over very large distances (<5 particle diameters) on the surface of electrodes to form two-dimensional colloidal crystals. The attractive force can be created with both DC and AC fields and can modulated by adjusting either the field strength or frequency of the current. Modulating this lateral attraction between the particles causes the reversible formation of two-dimensional fluid and crystalline colloidal states on the electrode surface. Further manipulation allows for the formation of two or three-dimensional colloidal crystals, as well as more complex designed structures. Once the required structures are formed, these three-dimension colloidal crystals can be permanently frozen or glued by controlled coagulation induced by to the applied field to form a stable crystalline structure.

Trau, Mathias (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Saville, Dudley A. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

459

Assembly technology of 4-side buttable MPPC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) is a solid-state photon counting device consisting of a Geiger-mode APD and a quenching resistor. Through-silicon via technology (TSV) allows for the production of a discrete array version of the MPPC, creating a detector with the advantages of a larger active area and less dead space in its overall packaging when compared to other package types commonly used to produce MPPCs. Eliminating the need for a wire-bonding pad allows individual MPPCs to be tiled with minimum dead-space between individual detectors to form a four-sided buttable array. Selecting MPPCs that behave and perform very similarly to each other, especially when an operating voltage is applied, minimizes variation in performance between each channel and enhances channel uniformity. The output of discrete arrays of MPPCs can be easily readout with ASICs (application specific integrated circuits) due to their excellent channel uniformity characteristics, with minimum adjustment required by the ASIC. TSV-MPPC and assembly technology are developed. TSV-MPPC array is tiled in 4-sided buttable and has large and dense active area. The output pulse of MPPC may have sharp rising edge by virtue of TSV. The uniformity of the array can be maximized by neat inspection technology.

Yamamoto, K.; Sato, K.; Yamada, R.; Hosokawa, N.; Nagano, T.; Hayatsu, K.; Shimohara, T.; Ohkuwa, Y.; Oguri, A.

2013-12-01

460

Method for electrohydrodynamically assembling patterned colloidal structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method apparatus is provided for electrophoretically depositing particles onto an electrode, and electrohydrodynamically assembling the particles into crystalline structures. Specifically, the present method and apparatus creates a current flowing through a solution to cause identically charged electrophoretically deposited colloidal particles to attract each other over very large distances (<5 particle diameters) on the surface of electrodes to form two-dimensional colloidal crystals. The attractive force can be created with both DC and AC fields and can modulated by adjusting either the field strength or frequency of the current. Modulating this lateral attraction between the particles causes the reversible formation of two-dimensional fluid and crystalline colloidal states on the electrode surface. Further manipulation allows for the formation of two or three-dimensional colloidal crystals, as well as more complex designed structures. Once the required structures are formed, these three-dimension colloidal crystals can be permanently frozen or glued by controlled coagulation induced by to the applied field to form a stable crystalline structure.

Trau, Mathias (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Saville, Dudley A. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

461

Templated self-assembly of patchy particles  

E-print Network

We explore the use of templated self-assembly to facilitate the formation of complex target structures made from patchy particles. First, we consider the templating of high-symmetry shell structures around a spherical core particle. We find that nucleation around the core particle can inhibit aggregate formation, a process which often hinders self-assembly. In particular, this new assembly pathway allows dodecahedral shells to form readily, whereas these structures never form in the absence of the template. Secondly, we consider the self-assembly of multi-shell structures, where the central icosahedral core is known to form readily on its own, and which could then template the growth of further layers. We are able to find conditions under which two- and three-shell structures successfully assemble, illustrating the power of the templating approach.

Alexander J. Williamson; Alex W. Wilber; Jonathan P. K. Doye; Ard A. Louis

2010-11-24

462

Self-Assembly: How Nature Builds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Self-assembly or spontaneous assembly is a process in which materials build themselves without assistance (Goodsell 2000). Presented here is a simple in-class exercise that underlines the basic principles of self-assembly and helps students understand how the scale of molecules and atoms is different than the human-scale world (Campbell, Freidinger, and Querns 2001). Principally, the activity illustrates that nanoscale objects are always moving around (thermal motion) and that they tend to stick to each other (intermolecular bonds). The exercise is also a design project, in which students use their imagination in concert with the basic rules of self-assembly (multiple weak bonds and lock-and-key) to produce complex self-assembled models.