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Sample records for octameric assembly state

  1. The structure of CrgA from Neisseria meningitidis reveals a new octameric assembly state for LysR transcriptional regulators

    PubMed Central

    Sainsbury, Sarah; Lane, Laura A.; Ren, Jingshan; Gilbert, Robert J.; Saunders, Nigel J.; Robinson, Carol V.; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) form the largest family of bacterial regulators acting as both auto-repressors and activators of target promoters, controlling operons involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. The LTTR, CrgA, from the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, is upregulated during bacterial–host cell contact. Here, we report the crystal structures of both regulatory domain and full-length CrgA, the first of a novel subclass of LTTRs that form octameric rings. Non-denaturing mass spectrometry analysis and analytical ultracentrifugation established that the octameric form of CrgA is the predominant species in solution in both the presence and absence of an oligonucleotide encompassing the CrgA-binding sequence. Furthermore, analysis of the isolated CrgA–DNA complex by mass spectrometry showed stabilization of a double octamer species upon DNA binding. Based on the observed structure and the mass spectrometry findings, a model is proposed in which a hexadecameric array of two CrgA oligomers binds to its DNA target site. PMID:19474343

  2. Crystal Structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans Apoptosome Reveals an Octameric Assembly of CED-4

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, S.; Li, H.; Pang, Y.; Hu, Q., Liu, Q., Li, H.; Zhou, Y.; He, T.; Liang, Q.; Liu, Y.; Yuan, X.; Luo, G.; Wang, J.; Yan, N.; Shi, Y.

    2010-04-30

    The CED-4 homo-oligomer or apoptosome is required for initiation of programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans by facilitating autocatalytic activation of the CED-3 caspase zymogen. How the CED-4 apoptosome assembles and activates CED-3 remains enigmatic. Here we report the crystal structure of the complete CED-4 apoptosome and show that it consists of eight CED-4 molecules, organized as a tetramer of an asymmetric dimer via a previously unreported interface among AAA{sup +} ATPases. These eight CED-4 molecules form a funnel-shaped structure. The mature CED-3 protease is monomeric in solution and forms an active holoenzyme with the CED-4 apoptosome, within which the protease activity of CED-3 is markedly stimulated. Unexpectedly, the octameric CED-4 apoptosome appears to bind only two, not eight, molecules of mature CED-3. The structure of the CED-4 apoptosome reveals shared principles for the NB-ARC family of AAA{sup +} ATPases and suggests a mechanism for the activation of CED-3.

  3. Crystal structure of a two-subunit TrkA octameric gating ring assembly

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deller, Marc C.; Johnson, Hope A.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Spraggon, Glen; Elsliger, Marc -André; Wilson, Ian A.; Lesley, Scott A.; Ye, Sheng

    2015-03-31

    The TM1088 locus of T. maritima codes for two proteins designated TM1088A and TM1088B, which combine to form the cytosolic portion of a putative Trk K⁺ transporter. We report the crystal structure of this assembly to a resolution of 3.45 Å. The high resolution crystal structures of the components of the assembly, TM1088A and TM1088B, were also determined independently to 1.50 Å and 1.55 Å, respectively. The TM1088 proteins are structurally homologous to each other and to other K⁺ transporter proteins, such as TrkA. These proteins form a cytosolic gating ring assembly that controls the flow of K⁺ ions acrossmore » the membrane. TM1088 represents the first structure of a two-subunit Trk assembly. Despite the atypical genetics and chain organization of the TM1088 assembly, it shares significant structural homology and an overall quaternary organization with other single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies. This structure provides the first structural insights into what may be an evolutionary ancestor of more modern single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies.« less

  4. Crystal structure of a two-subunit TrkA octameric gating ring assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Deller, Marc C.; Johnson, Hope A.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Spraggon, Glen; Elsliger, Marc -André; Wilson, Ian A.; Lesley, Scott A.; Ye, Sheng

    2015-03-31

    The TM1088 locus of T. maritima codes for two proteins designated TM1088A and TM1088B, which combine to form the cytosolic portion of a putative Trk K⁺ transporter. We report the crystal structure of this assembly to a resolution of 3.45 Å. The high resolution crystal structures of the components of the assembly, TM1088A and TM1088B, were also determined independently to 1.50 Å and 1.55 Å, respectively. The TM1088 proteins are structurally homologous to each other and to other K⁺ transporter proteins, such as TrkA. These proteins form a cytosolic gating ring assembly that controls the flow of K⁺ ions across the membrane. TM1088 represents the first structure of a two-subunit Trk assembly. Despite the atypical genetics and chain organization of the TM1088 assembly, it shares significant structural homology and an overall quaternary organization with other single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies. This structure provides the first structural insights into what may be an evolutionary ancestor of more modern single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies.

  5. Crystal Structure of a Two-Subunit TrkA Octameric Gating Ring Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Deller, Marc C.; Johnson, Hope A.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Spraggon, Glen; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A.; Lesley, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The TM1088 locus of T. maritima codes for two proteins designated TM1088A and TM1088B, which combine to form the cytosolic portion of a putative Trk K+ transporter. We report the crystal structure of this assembly to a resolution of 3.45 Å. The high resolution crystal structures of the components of the assembly, TM1088A and TM1088B, were also determined independently to 1.50 Å and 1.55 Å, respectively. The TM1088 proteins are structurally homologous to each other and to other K+ transporter proteins, such as TrkA. These proteins form a cytosolic gating ring assembly that controls the flow of K+ ions across the membrane. TM1088 represents the first structure of a two-subunit Trk assembly. Despite the atypical genetics and chain organization of the TM1088 assembly, it shares significant structural homology and an overall quaternary organization with other single-subunit K+ gating ring assemblies. This structure provides the first structural insights into what may be an evolutionary ancestor of more modern single-subunit K+ gating ring assemblies. PMID:25826626

  6. De novo design of an RNA tile that self-assembles into a homo-octameric nanoprism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Zhiyu; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Guansong; Mao, Chengde

    2015-01-01

    Rational, de novo design of RNA nanostructures can potentially integrate a wide array of structural and functional diversities. Such nanostructures have great promises in biomedical applications. Despite impressive progress in this field, all RNA building blocks (or tiles) reported so far are not geometrically well defined. They are generally flexible and can only assemble into a mixture of complexes with different sizes. To achieve defined structures, multiple tiles with different sequences are needed. In this study, we design an RNA tile that can homo-oligomerize into a uniform RNA nanostructure. The designed RNA nanostructure is characterized by gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy and cryogenic electron microscopy imaging. We believe that development along this line would help RNA nanotechnology to reach the structural control that is currently associated with DNA nanotechnology.

  7. The Protective Antigen Component of Anthrax Toxin Forms Functional Octameric Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kintzer, Alexander F.; Thoren, Katie L.; Sterling, Harry J.; Dong, Ken C.; Feld, Geoffrey K.; Tang, Iok I.; Zhang, Teri T.; Williams, Evan R.; Berger, James M.; Krantz, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    The assembly of bacterial toxins and virulence factors is critical to their function, but the regulation of assembly during infection has not been studied. We begin to address this question using anthrax toxin as a model. The protective antigen (PA) component of the toxin assembles into ring-shaped homooligomers that bind the two other enzyme components of the toxin, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), to form toxic complexes. To disrupt the host, these toxic complexes are endocytosed, such that the PA oligomer forms a membrane-spanning channel that LF and EF translocate through to enter the cytosol. We show using single-channel electrophysiology that PA channels contain two populations of conductance states, which correspond with two different PA pre-channel oligomers observed by electron microscopy—the well-described heptamer and a novel octamer. Mass spectrometry demonstrates that the PA octamer binds four LFs, and assembly routes leading to the octamer are populated with even-numbered, dimeric and tetrameric, PA intermediates. Both heptameric and octameric PA complexes can translocate LF and EF with similar rates and efficiencies. Here we also report a 3.2-Å crystal structure of the PA octamer. The octamer comprises ∼20−30% of the oligomers on cells, but outside of the cell, the octamer is more stable than the heptamer under physiological pH. Thus the PA octamer is a physiological, stable, and active assembly state capable of forming lethal toxins that may withstand the hostile conditions encountered in the bloodstream. This assembly mechanism may provide a novel means to control cytotoxicity. PMID:19627991

  8. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of an Octameric Carbohydrate Acetylesterase from Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Oh, Changsuk; Ryu, Bum Han; An, Deu Rae; Nguyen, Duy Duc; Yoo, Wanki; Kim, Truc; Ngo, Tri Duc; Kim, Hee Sook; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Kim, T Doohun

    2016-04-01

    Carbohydrate acetylesterases, which have a highly specific role among plant-interacting bacterial species, remove the acetyl groups from plant carbohydrates. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Est24, an octameric carbohydrate acetylesterase from Sinorhizobium meliloti, at 1.45 Å resolution and investigated its biochemical properties. The structure of Est24 consisted of five parallel β strands flanked by α helices, which formed an octameric assembly with two distinct interfaces. The deacetylation activity of Est24 and its mutants around the substrate-binding pocket was investigated using several substrates, including glucose pentaacetate and acetyl alginate. Elucidation of the structure-function relationships of Est24 could provide valuable opportunities for biotechnological explorations. PMID:26991446

  9. Cube-octameric silsesquioxane-mediated cargo peptide delivery into living cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hörner, Sebastian; Fabritz, Sebastian; Herce, Henry D; Avrutina, Olga; Dietz, Christian; Stark, Robert W; Cardoso, M Cristina; Kolmar, Harald

    2013-04-14

    Cube octameric silsesquioxanes (COSS) are among the smallest nanoparticles known to date with a diameter of only 0.7 nm. We describe a COSS-based delivery system which allows for the drug targeting in human cells. It comprises a siloxane core with seven pendant aminopropyl groups and a fluorescently labeled peptidic ligand attached to one cage corner via a reversible disulfide bond to ensure its intracellular release. Bimodal amplitude-modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments revealed the formation of dendritic COSS structures by a self-assembly of single particles on negatively charged surfaces. Nuclear targeting was demonstrated in HeLa cells by selective binding of released p21(Cip1/Waf1)-derived cargo peptide to PCNA, a protein involved in DNA replication and repair. PMID:23250285

  10. Interaction of recombinant octameric hemoglobin with endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Caroline; Domingues-Hamdi, Élisa; Prin-Mathieu, Christine; Menu, Patrick; Baudin-Creuza, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) may generate oxidative stress, vasoconstriction and inflammation. To reduce these undesirable vasoactive properties, we increased hemoglobin (Hb) molecular size by genetic engineering with octameric Hb, recombinant (r) HbβG83C. We investigate the potential side effects of rHbβG83C on endothelial cells. The rHbβG83C has no impact on cell viability, and induces a huge repression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene transcription, a marker of vasomotion. No induction of Intermolecular-Adhesion Molecule 1 and E-selectin (inflammatory markers) transcription was seen. In the presence of rHbβG83C, the transcription of heme oxygenase-1 (oxidative stress marker) is weakly increased compared to the two other HBOCs (references) or Voluven (control). This genetically engineered octameric Hb, based on a human Hb βG83C mutant, leads to little impact at the level of endothelial cell inflammatory response and thus appears as an interesting molecule for HBOC development. PMID:25543885

  11. Encoding network states by striatal cell assemblies.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Tapia, Dagoberto; Hernández-Cruz, Arturo; Galarraga, Elvira; Drucker-Colin, René; Bargas, José

    2008-03-01

    Correlated activity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits plays a key role in the encoding of movement, associative learning and procedural memory. How correlated activity is assembled by striatal microcircuits is not understood. Calcium imaging of striatal neuronal populations, with single-cell resolution, reveals sporadic and asynchronous activity under control conditions. However, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) application induces bistability and correlated activity in striatal neurons. Widespread neurons within the field of observation present burst firing. Sets of neurons exhibit episodes of recurrent and synchronized bursting. Dimensionality reduction of network dynamics reveals functional states defined by cell assemblies that alternate their activity and display spatiotemporal pattern generation. Recurrent synchronous activity travels from one cell assembly to the other often returning to the original assembly; suggesting a robust structure. An initial search into the factors that sustain correlated activity of neuronal assemblies showed a critical dependence on both intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms: blockage of fast glutamatergic transmission annihilates all correlated firing, whereas blockage of GABAergic transmission locked the network into a single dominant state that eliminates assembly diversity. Reduction of L-type Ca(2+)-current restrains synchronization. Each cell assembly comprised different cells, but a small set of neurons was shared by different assemblies. A great proportion of the shared neurons was local interneurons with pacemaking properties. The network dynamics set into action by NMDA in the striatal network may reveal important properties of striatal microcircuits under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:18184883

  12. Structural Basis for Transposon End Recognition by Hermes, an Octameric hAT DNA Transposase from Musca domestica

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Alison B.; Ewis, Hosam E.; Li, Xianghong; Knapp, Joshua A.; Laver, Thomas; Doss, Anna-Louise; Tolun, Gökhan; Steven, Alasdair C.; Grishaev, Alexander; Bax, Ad; Atkinson, Peter W.; Craig, Nancy L.; Dyda, Fred

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hermes is a member of the hAT transposon superfamily which has active representatives, including McClintock's archetypal Ac mobile genetic element, in many eukaryotic species. The crystal structure of the Hermes transposase-DNA complex reveals that Hermes forms an octameric ring organized as a tetramer of dimers. While isolated dimers are active in vitro for all the chemical steps of transposition, only octamers are active in vivo. The octamer can provide not only multiple specific DNA-binding domains to recognize repeated subterminal sequences within the transposon ends, which are important for activity, but also multiple non-specific DNA binding surfaces for target capture. The unusual assembly explains the basis of bipartite DNA recognition at hAT transposon ends, provides a rationale for transposon end asymmetry, and suggests how the avidity provided by multiple sites of interaction could allow a transposase to locate its transposon ends amidst a sea of chromosomal DNA. PMID:25036632

  13. Structural basis of hAT transposon end recognition by Hermes, an octameric DNA transposase from Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Alison B; Ewis, Hosam E; Li, Xianghong; Knapp, Joshua A; Laver, Thomas; Doss, Anna-Louise; Tolun, Gökhan; Steven, Alasdair C; Grishaev, Alexander; Bax, Ad; Atkinson, Peter W; Craig, Nancy L; Dyda, Fred

    2014-07-17

    Hermes is a member of the hAT transposon superfamily that has active representatives, including McClintock's archetypal Ac mobile genetic element, in many eukaryotic species. The crystal structure of the Hermes transposase-DNA complex reveals that Hermes forms an octameric ring organized as a tetramer of dimers. Although isolated dimers are active in vitro for all the chemical steps of transposition, only octamers are active in vivo. The octamer can provide not only multiple specific DNA-binding domains to recognize repeated subterminal sequences within the transposon ends, which are important for activity, but also multiple nonspecific DNA binding surfaces for target capture. The unusual assembly explains the basis of bipartite DNA recognition at hAT transposon ends, provides a rationale for transposon end asymmetry, and suggests how the avidity provided by multiple sites of interaction could allow a transposase to locate its transposon ends amidst a sea of chromosomal DNA. PMID:25036632

  14. Octamerization of lambda CI repressor is needed for effective repression of P(RM) and efficient switching from lysogeny.

    PubMed

    Dodd, I B; Perkins, A J; Tsemitsidis, D; Egan, J B

    2001-11-15

    The CI repressor of bacteriophage lambda is a model for the role of cooperativity in the efficient functioning of genetic switches. Pairs of CI dimers interact to cooperatively occupy adjacent operator sites at O(R) and at O(L). These CI tetramers repress the lytic promoters and activate transcription of the cI gene from P(RM). CI is also able to octamerize, forming a large DNA loop between O(R) and O(L), but the physiological role of this is unclear. Another puzzle is that, although a dimer of CI is able to repress P(RM) by binding to the third operator at O(R), O(R)3, this binding seems too weak to affect CI production in the lysogenic state. Here we show that repression of P(RM) at lysogenic CI concentrations is absolutely dependent on O(L), in this case 3.8 kb away. A mutant defective in this CI negative autoregulation forms a lysogen with elevated CI levels that cannot efficiently switch from lysogeny to lytic development. Our results invalidate previous evidence that Cro binding to O(R)3 is important in prophage induction. We propose the octameric CI:O(R)-O(L) complex increases the affinity of CI for O(R)3 by allowing a CI tetramer to link O(R)3 and the third operator at O(L), O(L)3. PMID:11711436

  15. Crystal structure of the octameric pore of staphylococcal γ-hemolysin reveals the β-barrel pore formation mechanism by two components

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Keitaro; Kawai, Yuka; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Hirano, Nagisa; Kaneko, Jun; Tomita, Noriko; Ohta, Makoto; Kamio, Yoshiyuki; Yao, Min; Tanaka, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcal γ-hemolysin is a bicomponent pore-forming toxin composed of LukF and Hlg2. These proteins are expressed as water-soluble monomers and then assemble into the oligomeric pore form on the target cell. Here, we report the crystal structure of the octameric pore form of γ-hemolysin at 2.5 Å resolution, which is the first high-resolution structure of a β-barrel transmembrane protein composed of two proteins reported to date. The octameric assembly consists of four molecules of LukF and Hlg2 located alternately in a circular pattern, which explains the biochemical data accumulated over the past two decades. The structure, in combination with the monomeric forms, demonstrates the elaborate molecular machinery involved in pore formation by two different molecules, in which interprotomer electrostatic interactions using loops connecting β2 and β3 (loop A: Asp43-Lys48 of LukF and Lys37-Lys43 of Hlg2) play pivotal roles as the structural determinants for assembly through unwinding of the N-terminal β-strands (amino-latch) of the adjacent protomer, releasing the transmembrane stem domain folded into a β-sheet in the monomer (prestem), and interaction with the adjacent protomer. PMID:21969538

  16. Shearing of the CENP-A dimerization interface mediates plasticity in the octameric centromeric nucleosome

    PubMed Central

    Winogradoff, David; Zhao, Haiqing; Dalal, Yamini; Papoian, Garegin A.

    2015-01-01

    The centromeric nucleosome is a key epigenetic determinant of centromere identity and function. Consequently, deciphering how CENP-A containing nucleosomes contribute structurally to centromere function is a fundamental question in chromosome biology. Here, we performed microsecond timescale all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of CENP-A and H3 nucleosomes, and report that the octameric CENP-A core particles and nucleosomes display different dynamics from their canonical H3-containing counterparts. The most significant motion observed is within key interactions at the heart of the CENP-A octameric core, wherein shearing of contacts within the CENP-A:CENP-A’ dimerization interface results in a weaker four helix bundle, and an extrusion of 10–30 bp of DNA near the pseudo-dyad. Coupled to other local and global fluctuations, the CENP-A nucleosome occupies a more rugged free energy landscape than the canonical H3 nucleosome. Taken together, our data suggest that CENP-A encodes enhanced distortability to the octameric nucleosome, which may allow for enhanced flexing of the histone core in vivo. PMID:26602160

  17. Shearing of the CENP-A dimerization interface mediates plasticity in the octameric centromeric nucleosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winogradoff, David; Zhao, Haiqing; Dalal, Yamini; Papoian, Garegin A.

    2015-11-01

    The centromeric nucleosome is a key epigenetic determinant of centromere identity and function. Consequently, deciphering how CENP-A containing nucleosomes contribute structurally to centromere function is a fundamental question in chromosome biology. Here, we performed microsecond timescale all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of CENP-A and H3 nucleosomes, and report that the octameric CENP-A core particles and nucleosomes display different dynamics from their canonical H3-containing counterparts. The most significant motion observed is within key interactions at the heart of the CENP-A octameric core, wherein shearing of contacts within the CENP-A:CENP-A’ dimerization interface results in a weaker four helix bundle, and an extrusion of 10-30 bp of DNA near the pseudo-dyad. Coupled to other local and global fluctuations, the CENP-A nucleosome occupies a more rugged free energy landscape than the canonical H3 nucleosome. Taken together, our data suggest that CENP-A encodes enhanced distortability to the octameric nucleosome, which may allow for enhanced flexing of the histone core in vivo.

  18. Cryo-EM reveals a novel octameric integrase structure for β-retroviral intasome function

    PubMed Central

    Ballandras-Colas, Allison; Brown, Monica; Cook, Nicola J.; Dewdney, Tamaria G.; Demeler, Borries; Cherepanov, Peter; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Engelman, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of viral DNA (vDNA) into host target (tDNA), which is an essential step in the lifecycle of all retroviruses1. Prior structural characterization of IN-vDNA complexes, or intasomes, from the spumavirus prototype foamy virus (PFV) revealed a functional IN tetramer2–5, and it is generally believed that intasomes derived from other retroviral genera will employ tetrameric IN6–9. However, the intasomes of orthoretroviruses, which include all known pathogenic species, have not been characterized structurally. Using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and X-ray crystallography, we determine here an unexpected octameric IN architecture for the β-retrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) intasome. The structure is composed of two core IN dimers, which interact with the vDNA ends and structurally mimic the PFV IN tetramer, and two flanking IN dimers that engage the core structure via their IN C-terminal domains (CTDs). Contrary to the belief that tetrameric IN components are sufficient to catalyze integration, the flanking IN dimers were necessary for MMTV IN activity. The IN octamer solves a conundrum for the β- as well as α-retroviruses by providing critical CTDs to the intasome core that cannot be provided in cis due to evolutionarily restrictive catalytic core domain (CCD)-CTD linker regions. The octameric architecture of the MMTV intasome provides a new paradigm for the structural basis of retroviral DNA integration. PMID:26887496

  19. Stability of the Octameric Structure Affects Plasminogen-Binding Capacity of Streptococcal Enolase

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ruby H. P.; Casey, Lachlan W.; Valkov, Eugene; Bertozzi, Carlo; Stamp, Anna; Jovcevski, Blagojce; Aquilina, J. Andrew; Whisstock, James C.; Walker, Mark J.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2015-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen that has the potential to cause invasive disease by binding and activating human plasmin(ogen). Streptococcal surface enolase (SEN) is an octameric α-enolase that is localized at the GAS cell surface. In addition to its glycolytic role inside the cell, SEN functions as a receptor for plasmin(ogen) on the bacterial surface, but the understanding of the molecular basis of plasmin(ogen) binding is limited. In this study, we determined the crystal and solution structures of GAS SEN and characterized the increased plasminogen binding by two SEN mutants. The plasminogen binding ability of SENK312A and SENK362A is ~2- and ~3.4-fold greater than for the wild-type protein. A combination of thermal stability assays, native mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography approaches shows that increased plasminogen binding ability correlates with decreased stability of the octamer. We propose that decreased stability of the octameric structure facilitates the access of plasmin(ogen) to its binding sites, leading to more efficient plasmin(ogen) binding and activation. PMID:25807546

  20. Cryo-EM reveals a novel octameric integrase structure for betaretroviral intasome function.

    PubMed

    Ballandras-Colas, Allison; Brown, Monica; Cook, Nicola J; Dewdney, Tamaria G; Demeler, Borries; Cherepanov, Peter; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Engelman, Alan N

    2016-02-18

    Retroviral integrase catalyses the integration of viral DNA into host target DNA, which is an essential step in the life cycle of all retroviruses. Previous structural characterization of integrase-viral DNA complexes, or intasomes, from the spumavirus prototype foamy virus revealed a functional integrase tetramer, and it is generally believed that intasomes derived from other retroviral genera use tetrameric integrase. However, the intasomes of orthoretroviruses, which include all known pathogenic species, have not been characterized structurally. Here, using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, we determine an unexpected octameric integrase architecture for the intasome of the betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumour virus. The structure is composed of two core integrase dimers, which interact with the viral DNA ends and structurally mimic the integrase tetramer of prototype foamy virus, and two flanking integrase dimers that engage the core structure via their integrase carboxy-terminal domains. Contrary to the belief that tetrameric integrase components are sufficient to catalyse integration, the flanking integrase dimers were necessary for mouse mammary tumour virus integrase activity. The integrase octamer solves a conundrum for betaretroviruses as well as alpharetroviruses by providing critical carboxy-terminal domains to the intasome core that cannot be provided in cis because of evolutionarily restrictive catalytic core domain-carboxy-terminal domain linker regions. The octameric architecture of the intasome of mouse mammary tumour virus provides new insight into the structural basis of retroviral DNA integration. PMID:26887496

  1. Using Markov state models to study self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Perkett, Matthew R; Hagan, Michael F

    2014-06-01

    Markov state models (MSMs) have been demonstrated to be a powerful method for computationally studying intramolecular processes such as protein folding and macromolecular conformational changes. In this article, we present a new approach to construct MSMs that is applicable to modeling a broad class of multi-molecular assembly reactions. Distinct structures formed during assembly are distinguished by their undirected graphs, which are defined by strong subunit interactions. Spatial inhomogeneities of free subunits are accounted for using a recently developed Gaussian-based signature. Simplifications to this state identification are also investigated. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on two different coarse-grained models for virus self-assembly. We find good agreement between the dynamics predicted by the MSMs and long, unbiased simulations, and that the MSMs can reduce overall simulation time by orders of magnitude. PMID:24907984

  2. Using Markov state models to study self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Perkett, Matthew R.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Markov state models (MSMs) have been demonstrated to be a powerful method for computationally studying intramolecular processes such as protein folding and macromolecular conformational changes. In this article, we present a new approach to construct MSMs that is applicable to modeling a broad class of multi-molecular assembly reactions. Distinct structures formed during assembly are distinguished by their undirected graphs, which are defined by strong subunit interactions. Spatial inhomogeneities of free subunits are accounted for using a recently developed Gaussian-based signature. Simplifications to this state identification are also investigated. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on two different coarse-grained models for virus self-assembly. We find good agreement between the dynamics predicted by the MSMs and long, unbiased simulations, and that the MSMs can reduce overall simulation time by orders of magnitude. PMID:24907984

  3. Conformational States of Macromolecular Assemblies Explored by Integrative Structure Calculation

    PubMed Central

    Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Pandurangan, Arun Prasad; Xu, Min; Alber, Frank; Topf, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Summary A detailed description of macromolecular assemblies in multiple conformational states can be very valuable for understanding cellular processes. At present, structural determination of most assemblies in different biologically relevant conformations cannot be achieved by a single technique and thus requires an integrative approach that combines information from multiple sources. Different techniques require different computational methods to allow efficient and accurate data processing and analysis. Here, we summarize the latest advances and future challenges in computational methods that help the interpretation of data from two techniques—mass spectrometry and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy (with focus on alignment and classification of heterogeneous subtomograms from cryo-electron tomography). We evaluate how new developments in these two broad fields will lead to further integration with atomic structures to broaden our picture of the dynamic behavior of assemblies in their native environment. PMID:24010709

  4. Equation of State for Phospholipid Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid self-assembly is the basis of biomembrane stability. The entropy of transfer from water to self-assembled micelles of lysophosphatidylcholines and diacyl phosphatidylcholines with different chain lengths converges to a common value at a temperature of 44°C. The corresponding enthalpies of transfer converge at ∼-18°C. An equation of state for the free energy of self-assembly formulated from this thermodynamic data depends on the heat capacity of transfer as the sole parameter needed to specify a particular lipid. For lipids lacking calorimetric data, measurement of the critical micelle concentration at a single temperature suffices to define an effective heat capacity according to the model. Agreement with the experimental temperature dependence of the critical micelle concentration is then good. The predictive powers should extend also to amphiphile partitioning and the kinetics of lipid-monomer transfer. PMID:26745421

  5. A novel open-barrel structure of octameric translin reveals a potential RNA entryway.

    PubMed

    Eliahoo, Elad; Marx, Ailie; Manor, Haim; Alian, Akram

    2015-02-27

    The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)/RNA binding protein translin was suggested to be involved in chromosomal translocations, telomere metabolism, and mRNA transport and translation. Oligonucleotide binding surfaces map within a closed cavity of translin octameric barrels, raising the question as to how DNA/RNA gain access to this inner cavity, particularly given that, to date, none of the barrel structures reported hint to an entryway. Here, we argue against a mechanism by which translin octamers may "dissociate and reassemble" upon RNA binding and report a novel "open"-barrel structure of human translin revealing a feasible DNA/RNA entryway into the cavity. Additionally, we report that translin not only is confined to binding of ssDNA oligonucleotides, or single-stranded extensions of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), but also can bind single-stranded sequences internally embedded in dsDNA molecules. PMID:25433126

  6. Snapshot of sequential SNARE assembling states between membranes shows that N-terminal transient assembly initializes fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Jian; Li, Feng; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Lafosse, Xavier; Gourier, Christine; Perez, Eric; Pincet, Frederic

    2016-03-29

    Many prominent biological processes are driven by protein assembling between membranes. Understanding the mechanisms then entails determining the assembling pathway of the involved proteins. Because the intermediates are by nature transient and located in the intermembrane space, this determination is generally a very difficult, not to say intractable, problem. Here, by designing a setup with sphere/plane geometry, we have been able to freeze one transient state in which the N-terminal domains of SNARE proteins are assembled. A single camera frame is sufficient to obtain the complete probability of this state with the transmembrane distance. We show that it forms when membranes are 20 nm apart and stabilizes by further assembling of the SNAREs at 8 nm. This setup that fixes the intermembrane distance, and thereby the transient states, while optically probing the level of molecular assembly by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) can be used to characterize any other transient transmembrane complexes. PMID:26979957

  7. RNA Silencing Suppressor p21 of Beet Yellows Virus Forms an RNA binding Octameric Ring Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ye,K.; Patel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Many plant viruses encode proteins that suppress the antiviral RNA silencing response mounted by the host. The suppressors p19 from tombusvirus and p21 from Beet yellows virus appear to block silencing by directly binding siRNA, a critical mediator in the process. Here, we report the crystal structure of p21, which reveals an octameric ring architecture with a large central cavity of {approx}90 Angstrom diameter. The all {alpha}-helical p21 monomer consists of N- and C-terminal domains that associate with their neighboring counterparts through symmetric head-to-head and tail-to-tail interactions. A putative RNA binding surface is identified in the conserved, positive-charged inner surface of the ring. In contrast to the specific p19-siRNA duplex interaction, p21 is a general nucleic acid binding protein, interacting with 21 nt or longer single- and double-stranded RNAs in vitro. This study reveals an RNA binding structure adopted by the p21 silencing suppressor.

  8. Cog-Wheel Octameric Structure of RS1, the Discoidin Domain Containing Retinal Protein Associated with X-Linked Retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Martin; Setiaputra, Dheva; Yip, Calvin K.; Molday, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    RS1, also known as retinoschisin, is a disulphide-linked, discoidin domain containing homo-oligomeric protein that plays a crucial role in maintaining the cellular and synaptic organization of the retina. This is highlighted by the finding that over 130 mutations in RS1 cause X-linked retinoschisis, a retinal degenerative disease characterized by the splitting of the retinal cell layers, disruption of the photoreceptor–bipolar synapses, degeneration of photoreceptors, and severe loss in central vision. In this study, we investigated the arrangement of the RS1 subunits within the oligomer complex using single particle electron microscopy. RS1 was seen as two stacked rings with each ring displaying a symmetrical cog wheel-like structure with eight teeth or projections corresponding to the RS1 subunits. Three dimensional reconstruction and molecular modelling indicated that the discoidin domain, the principal functional unit of RS1, projects outward, and the Rs1 domain and C-terminal segment containing intermolecular disulphide bonds are present in the inner ring to form the core octameric structure. These studies provide a basis for further understanding the role of the novel core RS1 octameric complex in retinal cell biology and X-linked retinoschisis. PMID:26812435

  9. Prediction and Control of Slip-Free Rotation States in Sphere Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäger, D. V.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    We study fixed assemblies of touching spheres that can individually rotate. From any initial state, sliding friction drives an assembly toward a slip-free rotation state. For bipartite assemblies, which have only even loops, this state has at least four degrees of freedom. For exactly four degrees of freedom, we analytically predict the final state, which we prove to be independent of the strength of sliding friction, from an arbitrary initial one. With a tabletop experiment, we show how to impose any slip-free rotation state by only controlling two spheres, regardless of the total number.

  10. Prediction and Control of Slip-Free Rotation States in Sphere Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Stäger, D V; Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J

    2016-06-24

    We study fixed assemblies of touching spheres that can individually rotate. From any initial state, sliding friction drives an assembly toward a slip-free rotation state. For bipartite assemblies, which have only even loops, this state has at least four degrees of freedom. For exactly four degrees of freedom, we analytically predict the final state, which we prove to be independent of the strength of sliding friction, from an arbitrary initial one. With a tabletop experiment, we show how to impose any slip-free rotation state by only controlling two spheres, regardless of the total number. PMID:27391726

  11. 76 FR 30088 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative... hereby given of a meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States to... constitutes the Assembly of the Conference (5 U.S.C. 595). The Assembly will meet in plenary session...

  12. Influence of the Phase State of Self-Assembling Redox Mediators on their Electrochemical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Muller, John P. E.; Aytar, Burcu S.; Kondo, Yukishige; Lynn, David M.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembling redox mediators have the potential to be broadly useful in a range of interfacial electrochemical contexts because the oxidation state and state of assembly of the mediator are closely coupled. In this paper, we report an investigation of the self-assembly of single- and double-tailed ferrocenyl amphiphiles (FTMA and BFDMA, respectively) at the surfaces of Pt electrodes and the impact of the dynamic assembled state of the amphiphiles on their rate of oxidation. We conclude that frozen aggregates of BFDMA adsorb to the surfaces of the Pt electrodes, and that slow dynamics of reorganization BFDMA within these aggregates limits the rate of electrooxidation of BFDMA. In contrast, FTMA, while forming assemblies on the surfaces of Pt electrodes, is characterized by fast reorganization dynamics and a corresponding rate of oxidation that is an order of magnitude greater than BFDMA. PMID:24882870

  13. The X-ray Structures of Six Octameric RNA Duplexes in the Presence of Different Di- and Trivalent Cations

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Michelle F.; Peng, Guanya; Spingler, Bernhard; Schnabl, Joachim; Wang, Meitian; Olieric, Vincent; Sigel, Roland K. O.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the polyanionic nature of RNA, the principles of charge neutralization and electrostatic condensation require that cations help to overcome the repulsive forces in order for RNA to adopt a three-dimensional structure. A precise structural knowledge of RNA-metal ion interactions is crucial to understand the mechanism of metal ions in the catalytic or regulatory activity of RNA. We solved the crystal structure of an octameric RNA duplex in the presence of the di- and trivalent metal ions Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Sr2+, and Tb3+. The detailed investigation reveals a unique innersphere interaction to uracil and extends the knowledge of the influence of metal ions for conformational changes in RNA structure. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that an accurate localization of the metal ions in the X-ray structures require the consideration of several crystallographic and geometrical parameters as well as the anomalous difference map. PMID:27355942

  14. The X-ray Structures of Six Octameric RNA Duplexes in the Presence of Different Di- and Trivalent Cations.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Michelle F; Peng, Guanya; Spingler, Bernhard; Schnabl, Joachim; Wang, Meitian; Olieric, Vincent; Sigel, Roland K O

    2016-01-01

    Due to the polyanionic nature of RNA, the principles of charge neutralization and electrostatic condensation require that cations help to overcome the repulsive forces in order for RNA to adopt a three-dimensional structure. A precise structural knowledge of RNA-metal ion interactions is crucial to understand the mechanism of metal ions in the catalytic or regulatory activity of RNA. We solved the crystal structure of an octameric RNA duplex in the presence of the di- and trivalent metal ions Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Sr(2+), and Tb(3+). The detailed investigation reveals a unique innersphere interaction to uracil and extends the knowledge of the influence of metal ions for conformational changes in RNA structure. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that an accurate localization of the metal ions in the X-ray structures require the consideration of several crystallographic and geometrical parameters as well as the anomalous difference map. PMID:27355942

  15. Solid-State NMR Studies of HIV-1 Capsid Protein Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yun; Ahn, Jinwoo; Concel, Jason; Byeon, In-Ja L.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Yang, Jun; Polenova, Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    In mature HIV-1 virions, a 26.6 kDa CA protein is assembled into a characteristic cone shaped core (capsid) that encloses the RNA viral genome. The assembled capsid structure is best described by a fullerene cone model that is made up from a hexameric lattice containing a variable number of CA pentamers, thus allowing for closure of tubular or conical structures. In this report, we present a solid-state NMR analysis of the wild type HIV-1 CA protein, prepared as conical and spherical assemblies that are stable and are not affected by magic angle spinning of the samples at frequencies between 10 and 25 kHz. Multidimensional homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra of CA assemblies of uniformly 13C,15N-labelled CA exhibit narrow lines, indicative of conformational homogeneity of the protein in these assemblies. For the conical assemblies, partial residue-specific resonance assignments were obtained. Analysis of the NMR spectra recorded for the conical and spherical assemblies indicates that the CA protein structure is not significantly different in the different morphologies. The present results demonstrate that the assemblies of CA protein are amenable to detailed structural analysis by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. PMID:20092249

  16. Solid-State NMR Studies of HIV-1 Capsid Protein Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yun; Ahn, Jinwoo; Concel, Jason; Byeon, In-Ja L.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Yang, Jun; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2010-02-17

    In mature HIV-1 virions, the 26.6 kDa CA protein is assembled into a characteristic cone-shaped core (capsid) that encloses the RNA viral genome. The assembled capsid structure is best described by a fullerene cone model that is made up from a hexameric lattice containing a variable number of CA pentamers, thus allowing for closure of tubular or conical structures. In this paper, we present a solid-state NMR analysis of the wild-type HIV-1 CA protein, prepared as conical and spherical assemblies that are stable and are not affected by magic angle spinning of the samples at frequencies between 10 and 25 kHz. Multidimensional homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra of CA assemblies of uniformly 13C,15Nlabeled CA exhibit narrow lines, indicative of the conformational homogeneity of the protein in these assemblies. For the conical assemblies, partial residue-specific resonance assignments were obtained. Analysis of the NMR spectra recorded for the conical and spherical assemblies indicates that the CA protein structure is not significantly different in the different morphologies. The present results demonstrate that the assemblies of CA protein are amenable to detailed structural analysis by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

  17. Spin State As a Probe of Vesicle Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghoon; Bellouard, Christine; Eastoe, Julian; Canilho, Nadia; Rogers, Sarah E; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Pasc, Andreea

    2016-03-01

    A novel system of paramagnetic vesicles was designed using ion pairs of iron-containing surfactants. Unilamellar vesicles (diameter ≈ 200 nm) formed spontaneously and were characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and light and small-angle neutron scattering. Moreover, for the first time, it is shown that magnetization measurements can be used to investigate self-assembly of such functionalized systems, giving information on the vesicle compositions and distribution of surfactants between the bilayers and the aqueous bulk. PMID:26859700

  18. Solid-state NMR: An emerging technique in structural biology of self-assemblies.

    PubMed

    Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    Protein self-assemblies are ubiquitous biological systems involved in many cellular processes, ranging from bacterial and viral infection to the propagation of neurodegenerative disorders. Studying the atomic three-dimensional structures of protein self-assemblies is a particularly demanding task, as these systems are usually insoluble, non-crystalline and of large size. Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) is an emerging method that can provide atomic-level structural data on intact macromolecular assemblies. We here present recent progress in magic-angle spinning ssNMR to study protein assemblies and give an overview on its combination with complementary techniques such as cryo-EM, mass-per-length measurements, SAXS and X-ray diffraction. Applications of ssNMR on its own and in hybrid approaches have revealed precious atomic details and first high-resolution structures of complex biological assemblies, including amyloid fibrils, bacterial filaments, phages or virus capsids. PMID:26234527

  19. From Brittle to Pliant Viscoelastic Materials with Solid State Linear Polyphosphonium - Carboxylate Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Godeau, Guilhem; Navailles, Laurence; Nallet, Frédéric; Lin, Xinrong; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    A polystyrenylphosphonium polymer was synthesized and complexed with various carboxylic acid derivatives to form new solid-state polyelectrolyte-surfactant assemblies. The properties of these ionic materials were highly dependent on the nature of the anion and included a brittle material, a rubbery ball that bounces, or a sticky fiber. The values for the equilibrium modulus, storage modulus, and loss modulus were dependent on the composition of the carboxylic acid and the number of electrostatic interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies on the supramolecular assemblies confirmed a bilayer structure for two of the assemblies. PMID:24511156

  20. Strain-Induced Localized States Within the Matrix Continuum of Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, V.; Bester, G.; Zunger, A.

    2009-07-01

    Quantum dot-based infrared detectors often involve transitions from confined states of the dot to states above the minimum of the conduction band continuum of the matrix. We discuss the existence of two types of resonant states within this continuum in self-assembled dots: (i) virtual bound states, which characterize square wells even without strain and (ii) strain-induced localized states. The latter emerge due to the appearance of 'potential wings' near the dot, related to the curvature of the dots. While states (i) do couple to the continuum, states (ii) are sheltered by the wings, giving rise to sharp absorption peaks.

  1. State-space reduction and equivalence class sampling for a molecular self-assembly model.

    PubMed

    Packwood, Daniel M; Han, Patrick; Hitosugi, Taro

    2016-07-01

    Direct simulation of a model with a large state space will generate enormous volumes of data, much of which is not relevant to the questions under study. In this paper, we consider a molecular self-assembly model as a typical example of a large state-space model, and present a method for selectively retrieving 'target information' from this model. This method partitions the state space into equivalence classes, as identified by an appropriate equivalence relation. The set of equivalence classes H, which serves as a reduced state space, contains none of the superfluous information of the original model. After construction and characterization of a Markov chain with state space H, the target information is efficiently retrieved via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. This approach represents a new breed of simulation techniques which are highly optimized for studying molecular self-assembly and, moreover, serves as a valuable guideline for analysis of other large state-space models. PMID:27493765

  2. State-space reduction and equivalence class sampling for a molecular self-assembly model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Patrick; Hitosugi, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Direct simulation of a model with a large state space will generate enormous volumes of data, much of which is not relevant to the questions under study. In this paper, we consider a molecular self-assembly model as a typical example of a large state-space model, and present a method for selectively retrieving ‘target information’ from this model. This method partitions the state space into equivalence classes, as identified by an appropriate equivalence relation. The set of equivalence classes H, which serves as a reduced state space, contains none of the superfluous information of the original model. After construction and characterization of a Markov chain with state space H, the target information is efficiently retrieved via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. This approach represents a new breed of simulation techniques which are highly optimized for studying molecular self-assembly and, moreover, serves as a valuable guideline for analysis of other large state-space models. PMID:27493765

  3. 77 FR 69434 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative.... SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), the Assembly of the... the Conference, when meeting in plenary session, constitutes the Assembly of the Conference (5...

  4. 78 FR 29318 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative.... SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), the Assembly of the... meeting in plenary session, constitutes the Assembly of the Conference (5 U.S.C. 595). Agenda:...

  5. 76 FR 71510 - Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ...Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States to consider proposed recommendations which deal with: (1) Innovations in e-rulemaking, (2) international regulatory cooperation, (3) the Federal Advisory Committee Act, and (4) incorporation by reference. To facilitate......

  6. Dimerization of the CENP-A assembly factor HJURP is required for centromeric nucleosome deposition

    PubMed Central

    Zasadzińska, Ewelina; Barnhart-Dailey, Meghan C; Kuich, P Henning J L; Foltz, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    The epigenetic mark of the centromere is thought to be a unique centromeric nucleosome that contains the histone H3 variant, centromere protein-A (CENP-A). The deposition of new centromeric nucleosomes requires the CENP-A-specific chromatin assembly factor HJURP (Holliday junction recognition protein). Crystallographic and biochemical data demonstrate that the Scm3-like domain of HJURP binds a single CENP-A–histone H4 heterodimer. However, several lines of evidence suggest that HJURP forms an octameric CENP-A nucleosome. How an octameric CENP-A nucleosome forms from individual CENP-A/histone H4 heterodimers is unknown. Here, we show that HJURP forms a homodimer through its C-terminal domain that includes the second HJURP_C domain. HJURP exists as a dimer in the soluble preassembly complex and at chromatin when new CENP-A is deposited. Dimerization of HJURP is essential for the deposition of new CENP-A nucleosomes. The recruitment of HJURP to centromeres occurs independent of dimerization and CENP-A binding. These data provide a mechanism whereby the CENP-A pre-nucleosomal complex achieves assembly of the octameric CENP-A nucleosome through the dimerization of the CENP-A chaperone HJURP. PMID:23771058

  7. Structural and functional characterization of TesB from Yersinia pestis reveals a unique octameric arrangement of hotdog domains

    PubMed Central

    Swarbrick, C. M. D.; Perugini, M. A.; Cowieson, N.; Forwood, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-CoA thioesterases catalyse the hydrolysis of the thioester bonds present within a wide range of acyl-CoA substrates, releasing free CoASH and the corresponding fatty-acyl conjugate. The TesB-type thioesterases are members of the TE4 thioesterase family, one of 25 thioesterase enzyme families characterized to date, and contain two fused hotdog domains in both prokaryote and eukaryote homologues. Only two structures have been elucidated within this enzyme family, and much of the current understanding of the TesB thioesterases has been based on the Escherichia coli structure. Yersinia pestis, a highly virulent bacterium, encodes only one TesB-type thioesterase in its genome; here, the structural and functional characterization of this enzyme are reported, revealing unique elements both within the protomer and quaternary arrangements of the hotdog domains which have not been reported previously in any thioesterase family. The quaternary structure, confirmed using a range of structural and biophysical techniques including crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography, exhibits a unique octameric arrangement of hotdog domains. Interestingly, the same biological unit appears to be present in both TesB structures solved to date, and is likely to be a conserved and distinguishing feature of TesB-type thioesterases. Analysis of the Y. pestis TesB thioesterase activity revealed a strong preference for octanoyl-CoA and this is supported by structural analysis of the active site. Overall, the results provide novel insights into the structure of TesB thioesterases which are likely to be conserved and distinguishing features of the TE4 thioesterase family. PMID:25849407

  8. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. 10.25 Section 10.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  9. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  10. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  11. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  12. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  13. CDK-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion coordinately control kinetochore assembly state

    PubMed Central

    Gascoigne, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires assembly of the multiprotein kinetochore complex. Prior work has identified more than 100 different kinetochore components in human cells. However, little is known about the regulatory processes that specify their assembly upon mitotic entry and disassembly at mitotic exit. In this paper, we used a live-cell imaging–based assay to quantify kinetochore disassembly kinetics and systematically analyze the role of potential regulatory mechanisms in controlling kinetochore assembly state. We find that kinetochore assembly and disassembly was driven primarily by mitotic phosphorylation downstream of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). In addition, we demonstrate that nuclear exclusion of the Ndc80 complex helped restrict kinetochore formation to mitosis. Combining constitutive CDK-dependent phosphorylation of CENP-T and forced nuclear localization of the Ndc80 complex partially prevented kinetochore disassembly at mitotic exit and led to chromosome segregation defects in subsequent divisions. In total, we find that the coordinated temporal regulation of outer kinetochore assembly is essential for accurate cell division. PMID:23530067

  14. Internal states of model isotropic granular packings. I. Assembling process, geometry, and contact networks.

    PubMed

    Agnolin, Ivana; Roux, Jean-Noël

    2007-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of three, in which we report on numerical simulation studies of geometric and mechanical properties of static assemblies of spherical beads under an isotropic pressure. The influence of various assembling processes on packing microstructures is investigated. It is accurately checked that frictionless systems assemble in the unique random close packing (RCP) state in the low pressure limit if the compression process is fast enough, higher solid fractions corresponding to more ordered configurations with traces of crystallization. Specific properties directly related to isostaticity of the force-carrying structure in the rigid limit are discussed. With frictional grains, different preparation procedures result in quite different inner structures that cannot be classified by the sole density. If partly or completely lubricated they will assemble like frictionless ones, approaching the RCP solid fraction Phi_{RCP} approximately 0.639 with a high coordination number: z* approximately =6 on the force-carrying backbone. If compressed with a realistic coefficient of friction mu=0.3 packings stabilize in a loose state with Phi approximately 0.593 and z* approximately =4.5 . And, more surprisingly, an idealized "vibration" procedure, which maintains an agitated, collisional regime up to high densities results in equally small values of z* while Phi is close to the maximum value Phi_{RCP}. Low coordination packings have a large proportion (>10%) of rattlers--grains carrying no force--the effect of which should be accounted for on studying position correlations, and also contain a small proportion of localized "floppy modes" associated with divalent grains. Low-pressure states of frictional packings retain a finite level of force indeterminacy even when assembled with the slowest compression rates simulated, except in the case when the friction coefficient tends to infinity. Different microstructures are characterized in terms of near

  15. Multi-state lasing in self-assembled ring-shaped green fluorescent protein microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Christof P.; Höfling, Sven; Gather, Malte C.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient lasing from multiple photonic states in microcavities filled with self-assembled rings of recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in its solid state form. The lasing regime is achieved at very low excitation energies of 13 nJ and occurs from cavity modes dispersed in both energy and momentum. We attribute the momentum distribution to very efficient scattering of incident light at the surface of the eGFP rings. The distribution of lasing states in energy is induced by the large spectral width of the gain spectrum of recombinant eGFP (FWHM ≅ 25 nm).

  16. Solution-state polymer assemblies influence BCS class II drug dissolution and supersaturation maintenance.

    PubMed

    Dalsin, Molly C; Tale, Swapnil; Reineke, Theresa M

    2014-02-10

    Spray dried dispersions (SDDs), solid dispersions of polymer excipients and active pharmaceuticals, are important to the field of oral drug delivery for improving active stability, bioavailability, and efficacy. Herein, we examine the influence of solution-state polymer assemblies on amorphous spray-dried dispersion (SDD) performance with two BCS II model drugs, phenytoin and probucol. These drugs were spray dried with 4 model polymer excipients consisting of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP), N,N,-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), or 2-methacrylamido glucopyranose (MAG): amphiphilic diblock ter- and copolymers, PEP-P(DMA-grad-MAG) and PEP-PDMA, and their respective hydrophilic analogues, P(DMA-grad-MAG) and PDMA. Selective and nonselective solvents for the hydrophilic block of the diblock ter- and copolymers were used to induce or repress solution-state assemblies prior to spray drying. Prespray dried solution-state assemblies of these four polymers were probed with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and showed differences in solution assembly size and structure (free polymer versus aggregates versus micelles). Solid-state structures of spray dried dispersions (SDDs) showed a single glass transition event implying a homogeneous mixture of drug/polymer. Crystallization temperatures and enthalpies indicated that the drugs interact mostly with the DMA-containing portions of the polymers. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine SDD particle size and morphology for the various polymer-drug pairings. In vitro dissolution tests showed excellent performance for one system, spray-dried PEP-PDMA micelles with probucol. Dissolution structures were investigated through DLS to determine drug-polymer aggregates that lead to enhanced SDD performance. Forced aggregation of the polymer into regular micelle structures was found to be a critical factor to increase the dissolution rate and supersaturation maintenance of SDDs, and may be an attractive platform to exploit in excipient

  17. Measurements of Gene Expression at Steady State Improve the Predictability of Part Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoqian M; Chen, Shuobing; Shi, Handuo; Ji, Weiyue; Zong, Yeqing; Ouyang, Qi; Lou, Chunbo

    2016-03-18

    Mathematical modeling of genetic circuits generally assumes that gene expression is at steady state when measurements are performed. However, conventional methods of measurement do not necessarily guarantee that this assumption is satisfied. In this study, we reveal a bi-plateau mode of gene expression at the single-cell level in bacterial batch cultures. The first plateau is dynamically active, where gene expression is at steady state; the second plateau, however, is dynamically inactive. We further demonstrate that the predictability of assembled genetic circuits in the first plateau (steady state) is much higher than that in the second plateau where conventional measurements are often performed. By taking the nature of steady state into consideration, our method of measurement promises to directly capture the intrinsic property of biological parts/circuits regardless of circuit-host or circuit-environment interactions. PMID:26652307

  18. Multimeric assembly and biochemical characterization of the Trax-translin endonuclease complex

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Yuan; Simanshu, Dhirendra K; Ascano, Manuel; Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Park, Ah Young; Juranek, Stefan A; Rice, William J; Yin, Qian; Robinson, Carol V; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2011-09-16

    Trax-Translin heteromers, also known as C3PO, have been proposed to activate the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by facilitating endonucleolytic cleavage of the siRNA passenger strand. We report on the crystal structure of hexameric Drosophila C3PO formed by truncated translin and Trax, along with electron microscopic and mass spectrometric studies on octameric C3PO formed by full-length translin and Trax. Our studies establish that Trax adopts the translin fold, possesses catalytic centers essential for C3PO's endoRNase activity and interacts extensively with translin to form an octameric assembly. The catalytic pockets of Trax subunits are located within the interior chamber of the octameric scaffold. Truncated C3PO, like full-length C3PO, shows endoRNase activity that leaves 3'-hydroxyl-cleaved ends. We have measured the catalytic activity of C3PO and shown it to cleave almost stoichiometric amounts of substrate per second.

  19. Multimeric Assembly and Biochemical Characterization of the Trax-translin Endonuclease complex

    SciTech Connect

    Y Tian; D Simanshu; M Ascano; R Diaz-Avalos; A Park; S Juranek; W Rice; Q Yin; C Robinson; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Trax-translin heteromers, also known as C3PO, have been proposed to activate the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by facilitating endonucleolytic cleavage of the siRNA passenger strand. We report on the crystal structure of hexameric Drosophila C3PO formed by truncated translin and Trax, along with electron microscopic and mass spectrometric studies on octameric C3PO formed by full-length translin and Trax. Our studies establish that Trax adopts the translin fold, possesses catalytic centers essential for C3PO's endoRNase activity and interacts extensively with translin to form an octameric assembly. The catalytic pockets of Trax subunits are located within the interior chamber of the octameric scaffold. Truncated C3PO, like full-length C3PO, shows endoRNase activity that leaves 3'-hydroxyl-cleaved ends. We have measured the catalytic activity of C3PO and shown it to cleave almost stoichiometric amounts of substrate per second.

  20. Supramolecular Assemblies of Ferrocene-Hinged Naphthalenediimides: Multiple Conformational Changes in Film States.

    PubMed

    Takai, Atsuro; Kajitani, Takashi; Fukushima, Takanori; Kishikawa, Keiki; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Masayuki

    2016-09-01

    We design a new naphthalenediimide (NDI) π-system, NDI-Fc-NDI, having a ferrocene linker as a hinge unit and long alkyl chains as supramolecular assembling units. The NDI units are "directionally flexible" in concert with the pivoting motion of the ferrocene unit with a small rotational barrier. The NDI units rotate around the ferrocene unit faster than the NMR time scale in solution at room temperature. UV-vis absorption, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscope studies reveal that NDI-Fc-NDI forms a fibrous supramolecular assembly in solution (methylcyclohexane and highly concentrated chloroform) and film states, wherein the NDI units are in the slipped-stack conformation. The NDI-Fc-NDI supramolecular assembly in the film state exhibits multiple phase transitions associated with conformational changes at different temperatures, which are confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical microscopy, and temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction. Such thermal transitions of NDI-Fc-NDI films also induce changes in the optical and electronic properties as revealed by UV-vis absorption and photoelectron yield spectroscopies, respectively. The thermal behaviors of NDI-Fc-NDI, realized by the unique molecular design, are considerably different from the reference compounds such as an NDI dimer connected with a flexible 1,4-butylene linker. These results provide us with a plausible strategy to propagate the molecular dynamics of the π-system into macroscopic properties in film states; the key factors are (i) the supramolecular alignment of molecular switching units and (ii) the directional motion of the switching units perpendicular to the supramolecular axis. PMID:27564327

  1. Steady-State Thermal Performance Evaluation of Steel-Framed Wall Assembly with Local Foam Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Biswas, Kaushik; Childs, Phillip W

    2010-01-01

    During January and May, 2009, two configurations of steel-framed walls constructed with conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with R-19 ~14cm. (5.5-in. thick) and R-13 ~9cm. (3.5-in. thick) fiberglass insulation batts were tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) guarded hot-box using ASTM C1363 test procedure. The first test wall used conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with 2.5-cm. (1-in.) thick foam profiles, called stud snugglers. These stud snugglers converted the 2 4 wall assembly into a 2 6 assembly allowing application of R-19 fiberglass insulation. The second wall tested for comparison was a conventional 2 4 steel stud wall using R-13 insulation batts. Further, numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the steady-state thermal performance of various wood- and steel-framed wall assemblies. The effects of adding the stud-snugglers to the wood and steel studs were also investigated numerically. Different combinations of insulation and framing factor were used in the simulations.

  2. Fusing Swarm Intelligence and Self-Assembly for Optimizing Echo State Networks.

    PubMed

    Martin, Charles E; Reggia, James A

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing a neural network's topology is a difficult problem for at least two reasons: the topology space is discrete, and the quality of any given topology must be assessed by assigning many different sets of weights to its connections. These two characteristics tend to cause very "rough." objective functions. Here we demonstrate how self-assembly (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) can be integrated to provide a novel and effective means of concurrently optimizing a neural network's weights and topology. Combining SA and PSO addresses two key challenges. First, it creates a more integrated representation of neural network weights and topology so that we have just a single, continuous search domain that permits "smoother" objective functions. Second, it extends the traditional focus of self-assembly, from the growth of predefined target structures, to functional self-assembly, in which growth is driven by optimality criteria defined in terms of the performance of emerging structures on predefined computational problems. Our model incorporates a new way of viewing PSO that involves a population of growing, interacting networks, as opposed to particles. The effectiveness of our method for optimizing echo state network weights and topologies is demonstrated through its performance on a number of challenging benchmark problems. PMID:26346488

  3. Fusing Swarm Intelligence and Self-Assembly for Optimizing Echo State Networks

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Charles E.; Reggia, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing a neural network's topology is a difficult problem for at least two reasons: the topology space is discrete, and the quality of any given topology must be assessed by assigning many different sets of weights to its connections. These two characteristics tend to cause very “rough.” objective functions. Here we demonstrate how self-assembly (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) can be integrated to provide a novel and effective means of concurrently optimizing a neural network's weights and topology. Combining SA and PSO addresses two key challenges. First, it creates a more integrated representation of neural network weights and topology so that we have just a single, continuous search domain that permits “smoother” objective functions. Second, it extends the traditional focus of self-assembly, from the growth of predefined target structures, to functional self-assembly, in which growth is driven by optimality criteria defined in terms of the performance of emerging structures on predefined computational problems. Our model incorporates a new way of viewing PSO that involves a population of growing, interacting networks, as opposed to particles. The effectiveness of our method for optimizing echo state network weights and topologies is demonstrated through its performance on a number of challenging benchmark problems. PMID:26346488

  4. Steady state temperature profiles in two simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, A.E.; Carbajo, J.J.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Rose, S.D.; Wantland, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Temperature data from steady state tests in two parallel, simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications have been compared to determine the extent to which they agree. In general, good agreement was found in data at low flows and in bundle-center data at higher flows. Discrepancies in the data wre noted near the bundle edges at higher flows. An analysis of bundle thermal boundary conditions showed that the possible eccentric placement of one bundle within the housing could account for these discrepancies.

  5. Pneumocytes Assemble Lung Surfactant as Highly Packed/Dehydrated States with Optimal Surface Activity.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Alejandro; Haller, Thomas; Cruz, Antonio; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) is an essential complex of lipids and specific proteins synthesized in alveolar type II pneumocytes, where it is assembled and stored intracellularly as multilayered organelles known as lamellar bodies (LBs). Once secreted upon physiological stimulation, LBs maintain a densely packed structure in the form of lamellar body-like particles (LBPs), which are efficiently transferred into the alveolar air-water interface, lowering surface tension to avoid lung collapse at end-expiration. In this work, the structural organization of membranes in LBs and LBPs freshly secreted by primary cultures of rat ATII cells has been compared with that of native lung surfactant membranes isolated from porcine bronchoalveolar lavage. PS assembles in LBs as crystalline-like highly ordered structures, with a highly packed and dehydrated state, which is maintained at supraphysiological temperatures. This relatively ordered/packed state is retained in secreted LBPs. The micro- and nanostructural examination of LBPs suggests the existence of high levels of structural complexity in comparison with the material purified from lavages, which may contain partially inactivated or spent structures. Additionally, freshly secreted surfactant LBPs exhibit superior activity when generating interfacial films and a higher intrinsic resistance to inactivating agents, such as serum proteins or meconium. We propose that LBs are assembled as an energy-activated structure competent to form very efficient interfacial films, and that the organization of lipids and proteins and the properties displayed by the films formed by LBPs are likely similar to those established at the alveolar interface and represent the actual functional structure of surfactant as it sustains respiration. PMID:26636941

  6. Self-assembled nanowire array capacitors: capacitance and interface state profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiliang; Xiong, Hao D.; Liang, Xuelei; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Diefeng; Ioannou, Dimitris E.; Baumgart, Helmut; Richter, Curt A.

    2014-04-01

    Direct characterization of the capacitance and interface states is very important for understanding the electronic properties of a nanowire transistor. However, the capacitance of a single nanowire is too small to precisely measure. In this work we have fabricated metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors based on a large array of self-assembled Si nanowires. The capacitance and conductance of the nanowire array capacitors are directly measured and the interface state profile is determined by using the conductance method. We demonstrate that the nanowire array capacitor is an effective platform for studying the electronic properties of nanoscale interfaces. This approach provides a useful and efficient metrology for the study of the physics and device properties of nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor structures.

  7. Phase behaviour of self-assembled monolayers controlled by tuning physisorbed and chemisorbed states: A lattice-model view.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Sara; Cheung, David L; Johnston, Karen

    2016-04-01

    The self-assembly of molecules on surfaces into 2D structures is important for the bottom-up fabrication of functional nanomaterials, and the self-assembled structure depends on the interplay between molecule-molecule interactions and molecule-surface interactions. Halogenated benzene derivatives on platinum have been shown to have two distinct adsorption states: a physisorbed state and a chemisorbed state, and the interplay between the two can be expected to have a profound effect on the self-assembly and phase behaviour of these systems. We developed a lattice model that explicitly includes both adsorption states, with representative interactions parameterised using density functional theory calculations. This model was used in Monte Carlo simulations to investigate pattern formation of hexahalogenated benzene molecules on the platinum surface. Molecules that prefer the physisorbed state were found to self-assemble with ease, depending on the interactions between physisorbed molecules. In contrast, molecules that preferentially chemisorb tend to get arrested in disordered phases. However, changing the interactions between chemisorbed and physisorbed molecules affects the phase behaviour. We propose functionalising molecules in order to tune their adsorption states, as an innovative way to control monolayer structure, leading to a promising avenue for directed assembly of novel 2D structures. PMID:27059585

  8. Phase behaviour of self-assembled monolayers controlled by tuning physisorbed and chemisorbed states: A lattice-model view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Sara; Cheung, David L.; Johnston, Karen

    2016-04-01

    The self-assembly of molecules on surfaces into 2D structures is important for the bottom-up fabrication of functional nanomaterials, and the self-assembled structure depends on the interplay between molecule-molecule interactions and molecule-surface interactions. Halogenated benzene derivatives on platinum have been shown to have two distinct adsorption states: a physisorbed state and a chemisorbed state, and the interplay between the two can be expected to have a profound effect on the self-assembly and phase behaviour of these systems. We developed a lattice model that explicitly includes both adsorption states, with representative interactions parameterised using density functional theory calculations. This model was used in Monte Carlo simulations to investigate pattern formation of hexahalogenated benzene molecules on the platinum surface. Molecules that prefer the physisorbed state were found to self-assemble with ease, depending on the interactions between physisorbed molecules. In contrast, molecules that preferentially chemisorb tend to get arrested in disordered phases. However, changing the interactions between chemisorbed and physisorbed molecules affects the phase behaviour. We propose functionalising molecules in order to tune their adsorption states, as an innovative way to control monolayer structure, leading to a promising avenue for directed assembly of novel 2D structures.

  9. Supramolecular cobaloxime assemblies for H{sub 2} photocatalysis: an initial solution state structure-function analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Mulfort, K. L.; Tiede, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we have investigated the correlations between structure and light-induced electron transfer of one known and three new axially coordinated cobaloxime-based supramolecular photocatalysts for the reduction of protons to hydrogen. Solution-phase X-ray scattering and ultrafast transient optical spectroscopy analyses were used in tandem to correlate the self-assembled photocatalysts structural integrity in solution with electron transfer and charge separation between the photosensitizer and catalyst fragments. Biphasic excited state decay kinetics were observed for several of the assemblies, suggesting that configurational dispersion plays a role in limiting photoinduced electron transfer. Notably, an assembly featuring a 'push-pull' donor-photosensitizer-acceptor triad motif exhibits considerable ultrafast excited state quenching and, of the assemblies examined, presents the strongest opportunity for efficient solar energy conversion. These results will assist in the design and development of next-generation supramolecular photocatalyst architectures.

  10. Carrier Transport Enhancement in Conjugated Polymers through Interfacial Self-Assembly of Solution-State Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kui; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Li, Ruipeng; Hu, Hanlin; Amassian, Aram

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate that local and long-range orders of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) semicrystalline films can be synergistically improved by combining chemical functionalization of the substrate with solution-state disentanglement and preaggregation of P3HT in a θ solvent, leading to a very significant enhancement of the field effect carrier mobility. The preaggregation and surface functionalization effects combine to enhance the carrier mobility nearly 100-fold as compared with standard film preparation by spin-coating, and nearly 10-fold increase over the benefits of preaggregation alone. In situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) experiments reveal enhanced deposition of preaggregates on surfaces modified with an alkyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in comparison to unaggregated polymer chains in the same conditions. Additional measurements reveal the combined preaggregation and surface functionalization significantly enhances local order of the conjugated polymer through planarization and extension of the conjugated backbone of the polymer which clearly translate to significant improvements of carrier transport at the semiconductor-dielectric interface in organic thin film transistors. This study points to opportunities in combining complementary routes, such as well-known preaggregation with substrate chemical functionalization, to enhance the polymer self-assembly and improve its interfacial order with benefits for transport properties. PMID:27410517

  11. Effect of Protonation State on the Stability of Amyloid Oligomers Assembled from TTR(105-115).

    PubMed

    Porrini, Massimiliano; Zachariae, Ulrich; Barran, Perdita E; MacPhee, Cait E

    2013-04-18

    Amyloid fibrils are self-assembled aggregates of polypeptides that are implicated in the development of several human diseases. A peptide derived from amino acids 105-115 of the human plasma protein transthyretin forms homogeneous and well-defined fibrils and, as a model system, has been the focus of a number of studies investigating the formation and structure of this class of aggregates. Self-assembly of TTR(105-115) occurs at low pH, and this work explores the effect of protonation on the growth and stability of small cross-β aggregates. Using molecular dynamics simulations of structures up to the decamer in both protonated and deprotonated states, we find that, whereas hexamers are more stable for protonated peptides, higher order oligomers are more stable when the peptides are deprotonated. Our findings imply a change in the acid pK of the protonated C-terminal group during the formation of fibrils, which leads to stabilization of higher-order oligomers through electrostatic interactions. PMID:26282135

  12. Hierarchical Structure from the Self-Assembly of Giant Gemini Surfactants in Condensed State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hao; Wang, Zhao; Li, Yiwen; Cheng, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    In the past a few years, a new class of amphiphiles with both asymmetrical shapes and interactions named ``shape amphiphiles'' has been significantly intensified. Recently, a new kind of shape amphiphiles called ``Giant Gemini Surfactants'' consisting of two hydrophilic carboxylic acid-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (APOSS) heads and two hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) tails covalently linked via rigid spacers (p-phenylene versus biphenylene) has been successful behavior of giant gemini surfactants. We currently continue to investigate the spacer effects on the self-assembly behaviors of giant gemini surfactants in condensed state by utilizing DCS, SAXS and TEM. Preliminary results showed that giant gemini surfactants with different spacers have diverse phase behaviors. As we use the same 3.2k PS chains, the giant gemini surfactant with p-phenylene spacer showed double gyroid morphology, while the one with biphenylene spacer revealed cylindrical morphology. This study expands the scope of giant gemini surfactants and contributes a lot to the basic physical principles in self-assembly behavior.

  13. Steady-state theory of the interference of GTP hydrolysis in the mechanism of microtubule assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, T L; Carlier, M F

    1983-01-01

    A model is presented for the interference of GTP hydrolysis in the mechanism of microtubule assembly. This model is suggested by previous results showing that both GTP and GDP are present at microtubule ends because of GTP hydrolysis and that tubulin does not bind to a GDP-bound end. The analytical theory developed here is aimed at calculation of the steady-state subunit flux at one end of the polymer. The GTP/GDP features just mentioned result in a nonlinear plot of the flux versus tubulin concentration. Microtubules are predicted to exhibit a different kinetic behavior below and above the critical concentration, which can be considered as a transition between two regimes. PMID:6580643

  14. Preformed Soluble Chemoreceptor Trimers That Mimic Cellular Assembly States and Activate CheA Autophosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial chemoreceptors associate with the histidine kinase CheA and coupling protein CheW to form extended membrane arrays that receive and transduce environmental signals. A receptor trimers-of-dimers resides at each vertex of the hexagonal protein lattice. CheA is fully activated and regulated when it is integrated into the receptor assembly. To mimic these states in solution, we have engineered chemoreceptor cytoplasmic kinase-control modules (KCMs) based on the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar that are covalently fused and trimerized by a foldon domain (TarFO). Small-angle X-ray scattering, multi-angle light scattering, and pulsed-dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy of spin-labeled proteins indicate that the TarFO modules assemble into homogeneous trimers wherein the protein interaction regions closely associate at the end opposite to the foldon domains. The TarFO variants greatly increase the saturation levels of phosphorylated CheA (CheA-P), indicating that the association with a trimer of receptor dimers changes the fraction of active kinase. However, the rate constants for CheA-P formation with the Tar variants are low compared to those for autophosphorylation by free CheA, and net phosphotransfer from CheA to CheY does not increase commensurately with CheA autophosphorylation. Thus, the Tar variants facilitate slow conversion to an active form of CheA that then undergoes stable autophosphorylation and is capable of subsequent phosphotransfer to CheY. Free CheA is largely incapable of phosphorylation but contains a small active fraction. Addition of TarFO to CheA promotes a planar conformation of the regulatory domains consistent with array models for the assembly state of the ternary complex and different from that observed with a single inhibitory receptor. Introduction of TarFO into E. coli cells activates endogenous CheA to produce increased clockwise flagellar rotation, with the effects increasing in the presence of the chemotaxis

  15. Affordability of Higher Education: California and Other States. Presentation to the Assembly Higher Education Committee. Report 11-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jessika

    2011-01-01

    This is a summary of a presentation to the Assembly Higher Education Committee on college fee and total cost comparisons of California public universities with comparator universities in other states. This summary also includes grant award estimates and net cost of college by family income.

  16. 77 FR 31290 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States to consider proposed recommendations which deal with: (1) Regulatory analysis requirements, (2) midnight rules, (3) immigration removal adjudication, (4) the Paperwork Reduction Act, and (5) improving coordination of related......

  17. Tunable self-assembled spin chains of strongly interacting cold atoms for demonstration of reliable quantum state transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loft, N. J. S.; Marchukov, O. V.; Petrosyan, D.; Zinner, N. T.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an efficient computational method to treat long, one-dimensional systems of strongly interacting atoms forming self-assembled spin chains. Such systems can be used to realize many spin chain model Hamiltonians tunable by the external confining potential. As a concrete demonstration, we consider quantum state transfer in a Heisenberg spin chain and we show how to determine the confining potential in order to obtain nearly perfect state transfer.

  18. Development of a Solid-State Resistance Weld for Joining Dual-Burst Disk Assemblies to Vessel Bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; McKinney, G.J.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a solid-state resistance plug weld for installation of dual-burst disk assemblies in a set of tritium storage vessels. This is a cooperative effort with the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos designed the vessels and also designed a supplied ten pairs of tests parts for development. Following development of the weld, a set of about eight vessels will be fabricated for tritium storage tests. These tests will demonstrate functioning of the dual-burst disk assembly in addition to demonstrating long-term compatibility of the plug weld for tritium service.

  19. Characterisation of human outbreaks of brucellosis and sporadic cases by the use of hyper-variable octameric oligonucleotide fingerprint (HOOF) variable number tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Valdezate, S; Cervera, I; Hernandez, P; Navarro, A; Saéz Nieto, J A

    2007-09-01

    Hyper-variable octameric oligonucleotide fingerprints (HOOFs) enable typing of Brucella spp. by targeting the 8-bp tandem repeat in eight loci that vary in number (variable number tandem repeats; VNTRs). Brucella is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens, because of its public health and economic consequences. To assess the role of HOOFs as epidemiological markers for Brucella melitensis, which is the main species involved in human brucellosis in Spain, 87 sporadic and outbreak isolates were investigated; these originated from broad or more restricted geographical locations, including unrelated (n = 42), semi-related (n = 19) and closely related (n = 26) groups of isolates. Distinct HOOFs were detected in the entire (n = 74), unrelated (n = 42), semi-related (n = 19) and closely related (n = 13) groups. Seven of the eight VNTR markers investigated identified multiple alleles in the four groups of isolates. Using the composite data for eight VNTRs, a diversity value of 0.98 was calculated for the entire population, taking into account single- and double-locus variants. A high correlation (R = 0.98) between the maximum copy number and the number of alleles was observed. The most polymorphic markers were VNTR-1, VNTR-4, VNTR-5 and VNTR-7 (D > OR = 0.8). Characterisation of B. melitensis isolates by HOOFs enabled the recognition of related human cases and the exchange of molecular epidemiological information concerning a spreading clone, thus improving brucellosis surveillance. PMID:17686139

  20. Design strategies for self-assembly of discrete targets

    SciTech Connect

    Madge, Jim; Miller, Mark A.

    2015-07-28

    Both biological and artificial self-assembly processes can take place by a range of different schemes, from the successive addition of identical building blocks to hierarchical sequences of intermediates, all the way to the fully addressable limit in which each component is unique. In this paper, we introduce an idealized model of cubic particles with patterned faces that allows self-assembly strategies to be compared and tested. We consider a simple octameric target, starting with the minimal requirements for successful self-assembly and comparing the benefits and limitations of more sophisticated hierarchical and addressable schemes. Simulations are performed using a hybrid dynamical Monte Carlo protocol that allows self-assembling clusters to rearrange internally while still providing Stokes-Einstein-like diffusion of aggregates of different sizes. Our simulations explicitly capture the thermodynamic, dynamic, and steric challenges typically faced by self-assembly processes, including competition between multiple partially completed structures. Self-assembly pathways are extracted from the simulation trajectories by a fully extendable scheme for identifying structural fragments, which are then assembled into history diagrams for successfully completed target structures. For the simple target, a one-component assembly scheme is most efficient and robust overall, but hierarchical and addressable strategies can have an advantage under some conditions if high yield is a priority.

  1. Design strategies for self-assembly of discrete targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madge, Jim; Miller, Mark A.

    2015-07-01

    Both biological and artificial self-assembly processes can take place by a range of different schemes, from the successive addition of identical building blocks to hierarchical sequences of intermediates, all the way to the fully addressable limit in which each component is unique. In this paper, we introduce an idealized model of cubic particles with patterned faces that allows self-assembly strategies to be compared and tested. We consider a simple octameric target, starting with the minimal requirements for successful self-assembly and comparing the benefits and limitations of more sophisticated hierarchical and addressable schemes. Simulations are performed using a hybrid dynamical Monte Carlo protocol that allows self-assembling clusters to rearrange internally while still providing Stokes-Einstein-like diffusion of aggregates of different sizes. Our simulations explicitly capture the thermodynamic, dynamic, and steric challenges typically faced by self-assembly processes, including competition between multiple partially completed structures. Self-assembly pathways are extracted from the simulation trajectories by a fully extendable scheme for identifying structural fragments, which are then assembled into history diagrams for successfully completed target structures. For the simple target, a one-component assembly scheme is most efficient and robust overall, but hierarchical and addressable strategies can have an advantage under some conditions if high yield is a priority.

  2. Tomato Fruit Polygalacturonase Isozyme 1 (Characterization of the [beta] Subunit and Its State of Assembly in Vivo).

    PubMed Central

    Moore, T.; Bennett, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    Polygalacturonase isozyme 1 (PG1) is a heterodimer comprising a catalytic and noncatalytic or [beta] subunit, whereas polygalacturonase isozyme 2 (PG2) comprises only the catalytic subunit. To assess the state of assembly of PG1 in vivo, both subunits were purified to homogeneity and used to study assembly of the heterodimer. PG1 could be reconstituted in vitro from purified [beta] subunit and purified PG2 under a wide range of salt and pH conditions, and PG1 reconstituted in vitro was indistinguishable from PG1 isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit. Specific antibodies indicated that the [beta] subunit was present in fruit of all developmental stages, but absent in vegetative tissue. The state of assembly of PG1 in vivo was tested based on the differential thermal stability of PG1 and PG2 by heating segments of ripe fruit pericarp tissue. Temperatures well below those required to inactivate PG1 in vitro caused the loss of activity of both PG1 and PG2, suggesting that only heat-labile PG2 is present in vivo. In addition, when extracts of ripe fruit were rigorously maintained and analyzed at 4[deg]C, PG1 was absent or barely detectable. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that PG1 can assemble spontaneously and is essentially absent in intact tomato fruit but forms artifactually from PG2 and the [beta] subunit during the extraction of tomato fruit tissue when low temperatures are not rigorously maintained. PMID:12232422

  3. Long-term self-assembly of inorganic layered materials influenced by the local states of the interlayer cations.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kiminori; Numata, Kazuomi; Dai, Weili; Hunger, Michael

    2014-06-14

    A wide variety of parameters as, e.g., temperature, humidity, particle size, and cation state are known to influence the agglomeration process of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, called self-assembly, in inorganic layered materials. The detailed studies on which parameters are decisive and how they influence the self-assembly, however, have not been performed yet. Here, the long-term self-assembly was studied for layered stevensite and hectorite, and compared with our previous data of saponite for elucidating an influence of local states of the interlayer cations. The results were analyzed with respect to a recently established rheological model, in which 2D nanosheets migrate parallel to the layer direction aided by water molecules as lubricants [K. Sato et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116, 22954]. With decreasing the strength of the local electric fields facing to the interlayer spaces, cation positions split into two or three, which makes the distribution of water molecules more uniformly. These water molecules enhance the rheological motion of the 2D nanosheets parallel to the layer direction, thus accelerating the self-assembly process. PMID:24770790

  4. Structure of the Dimerization Interface in the Mature HIV-1 Capsid Protein Lattice from Solid State NMR of Tubular Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Bayro, Marvin J; Tycko, Robert

    2016-07-13

    The HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) forms the capsid shell that encloses RNA within a mature HIV-1 virion. Previous studies by electron microscopy have shown that the capsid shell is primarily a triangular lattice of CA hexamers, with variable curvature that destroys the ideal symmetry of a planar lattice. The mature CA lattice depends on CA dimerization, which occurs through interactions between helix 9 segments of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA. Several high-resolution structures of the CTD-CTD dimerization interface have been reported, based on X-ray crystallography and multidimensional solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with significant differences in amino acid side chain conformations and helix 9-helix 9 orientations. In a structural model for tubular CA assemblies based on cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) [Zhao et al. Nature, 2013, 497, 643-646], the dimerization interface is substantially disordered. The dimerization interface structure in noncrystalline CA assemblies and the extent to which this interface is structurally ordered within a curved lattice have therefore been unclear. Here we describe solid state NMR measurements on the dimerization interface in tubular CA assemblies, which contain the curved triangular lattice of a mature virion, including quantitative measurements of intermolecular and intramolecular distances using dipolar recoupling techniques, solid state NMR chemical shifts, and long-range side chain-side chain contacts. When combined with restraints on the distance and orientation between helix 9 segments from the cryoEM study, the solid state NMR data lead to a unique high-resolution structure for the dimerization interface in the noncrystalline lattice of CA tubes. These results demonstrate that CA lattice curvature is not dependent on disorder or variability in the dimerization interface. This work also demonstrates the feasibility of local structure determination within large noncrystalline assemblies formed by high

  5. Magnetic ordered states induced by interparticle magnetostatic interaction in α-Fe/Au mixed nanoparticle assembly.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, Kosuke; Kura, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Migaku; Sato, Tetsuya

    2014-04-30

    The magnetic behavior of α-Fe/Au nanoparticle (NP) assemblies is studied over a very wide range of dipolar interactions among α-Fe NPs, by changing the volume density of the α-Fe NP. The assembly whose α-Fe NP density is lower than 0.1% exhibits typical superparamagnetic behavior. When Fe NP density exceeds 8.6% the magnetic dynamics changes to that resembling superspin glass. Moreover, NP assembly with highest Fe concentration (43%), whose dipolar interaction is enormously strong compared with previous studies, exhibits a two-stage magnetic transition, i.e., ferromagnetic and spin glass-like transitions at 385 K and around 150 K, respectively. Therefore, we first observed the reentrant spin glass-like magnetism at the limit of strong interaction in a close-packed NP assembly. Based on these observations, the magnetic phase diagram of the interacting α-Fe NP assembly is determined over a very wide range of interaction. PMID:24713627

  6. Millimeter Thin and Rubber-Like Solid-State Lighting Modules Fabricated Using Roll-to-Roll Fluidic Self-Assembly and Lamination.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Chul; Biswas, Shantonu; Fang, Jun; Mozafari, Mahsa; Stauden, Thomas; Jacobs, Heiko O

    2015-06-24

    A millimeter thin rubber-like solid-state lighting module is reported. The fabrication of the lighting module incorporates assembly and electrical connection of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The assembly is achieved using a roll-to-roll fluidic self-assembly. The LEDs are sandwiched in-between a stretchable top and bottom electrode to relieve the mechanical stress. The top contact is realized using a lamination technique that eliminates wire-bonding. PMID:25966304

  7. Encapsulated discrete octameric water cluster, 1D water tape, and 3D water aggregate network in diverse MOFs based on bisimidazolium ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ruo-Bing; Pi, Min; Jiang, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Chuan-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Four new metal-organic frameworks, [Zn(2-mBIM)2(SO3CF3)2·(H2O)4] (1), [Zn(BMIE)(1,4-BDC)]·(H2O)3 (2), [Cd(BIM)2(OH)(H2O)2(PF6)]·(H2O)4 (3), and [Cd(PA-BIM)2 (ClO4)2]·11.33H2O (4) (2-mBIM = bis(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methane, BMIE = 1,2-bis[1-(2-methylimidazole)-diethoxy]ethane, BIM = bis(imidazol-1-yl)methane, and PA-BIM = 1,1-bis [(2-phenylazo)imidazol-1-yl]methane) have been prepared and structurally characterized. Complex 1 exhibits an infinite 1D cationic beaded-chain structure, which encapsulated discrete octameric water clusters that are comprised of a chair-like hexameric water cluster with two extra water molecules dangling on two diagonal vertices of the chair. Complex 2 forms a 1D infinite zigzag metal-organic chain structure with a 1D T4(0)A(4) water tape. Complexes 3 show a 2D grid-like sheet structure with the 1D water tape T4(0)A(0)2(0) motif. Complex 4 is a porous 3D MOF with tetrahedron-coordinated Cd(II) centers and trans-conformation PA-BIM ligands. These holes are occupied by a fascinating three-dimensional water clathrate network, which consists of cage-shaped structural tetradecameric water cluster (H2O)14 units and six independent bridged water molecules. The results suggest that the bisimidazolium ligands and anions play crucial roles in the formation of the different host structures and different guest water aggregations. Additionally, the thermal stabilities and photoluminescence spectra of the complexes have been discussed.

  8. Solid-State Nanostructured Materials from Self-Assembly of a Globular Protein-Polymer Diblock Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Carla S.; Glassman, Matthew J.; Olsen, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly of three-dimensional solid-state nanostructures containing approximately 33% by weight globular protein is demonstrated using a globular protein-polymer diblock copolymer, providing a route to direct nanopatterning of proteins for use in bioelectronic and biocatalytic materials. A mutant red fluorescent protein, mCherryS131C, was prepared by incorporation of a unique cysteine residue and site-specifically conjugated to end-functionalized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) through thiol-maleimide coupling to form a well-defined model protein-polymer block copolymer. The block copolymer was self-assembled into bulk nanostructures by solvent evaporation from concentrated solutions. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy illustrated the formation of highly disordered lamellae or hexagonally perforated lamellae depending upon the selectivity of the solvent during evaporation. Solvent annealing of bulk samples resulted in a transition towards lamellar nanostructures with mCherry packed in a bilayer configuration and a large improvement in long range ordering. Wide-angle X-ray scattering indicated that mCherry did not crystallize within the block copolymer nanodomains and that the β-sheet spacing was not affected by self-assembly. Circular dichroism showed no change in protein secondary structure after self-assembly, while UV-vis spectroscopy indicated approximately 35% of the chromophore remained optically active. PMID:21696135

  9. High-Yield Excited Triplet States in Pentacene Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold Nanoparticles through Singlet Exciton Fission.

    PubMed

    Kato, Daiki; Sakai, Hayato; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Hasobe, Taku

    2016-04-18

    One of the major drawbacks of organic-dye-modified self-assembled monolayers on metal nanoparticles when employed for efficient use of light energy is the fact that singlet excited states on dye molecules can be easily deactivated by means of energy transfer to the metal surface. In this study, a series of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene-alkanethiolate monolayer protected gold nanoparticles with different particle sizes and alkane chain lengths were successfully synthesized and were employed for the efficient generation of excited triplet states of the pentacene derivatives by singlet fission. Time-resolved transient absorption measurements revealed the formation of excited triplet states in high yield (172±26 %) by suppressing energy transfer to the gold surface. PMID:26997657

  10. Alternative stable states and alternative endstates of community assembly through intra- and interspecific positive and negative interactions.

    PubMed

    Gerla, Daan J; Mooij, Wolf M

    2014-09-01

    Positive and negative interactions within and between species may occur simultaneously, with the net effect depending on population densities. For instance, at low densities plants may ameliorate stress, while competition for resources dominates at higher densities. Here, we propose a simple two-species model in which con- and heterospecifics have a positive effect on per capita growth rate at low densities, while negative interactions dominate at high densities. The model thus includes both Allee effects (intraspecific positive effects) and mutualism (interspecific positive effects), as well as intra- and interspecific competition. Using graphical methods we derive conditions for alternative stable states and species coexistence. We show that mutual non-invasibility (i.e. the inability of each species to invade a population of the other) is more likely when species have a strong positive effect on the own species or a strong negative effect on the other species. Mutual non-invasibility implies alternative stable states, however, there may also be alternative stable states at which species coexist. In the case of species symmetry (i.e. when species are indistinguishable), such alternative coexistence states require that if the positive effect exerted at low densities at the own species is stronger than on the other species, the negative effect at higher densities is also stronger on the own species than on the other species, or, vice versa, if the interspecific positive effects at low densities are stronger than the intraspecific effects, the negative effects at higher densities are also stronger between species than within species. However, the reachability of alternative stable states is restricted by the frequency and density at which species are introduced during community assembly, so that alternative stable states do not always represent alternative endstates of community assembly. PMID:25018053

  11. In-Plane Intermolecular Interaction Assisted Assembly and Modified Electronic States of Metallofullerene Gd@C₈₂.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Qin, Zhihui; Pan, Jinbo; Huang, Min; Du, Shixuan; Cao, Gengyu

    2015-10-27

    Orientational configuration and electronic states of Gd@C82 bonding to Cu(111) have been thoroughly investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (LT-STM/S) and differential conductance mapping complemented by first-principles calculations. We clarify that individual Gd@C82 energetically adopts tilting adsorption configuration with the scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) states readily assigned to the C82 cage/Cu(111) hybrid states and the Gd/cage hybrid states, respectively. Moreover, upon assembling and sufficient thermal activation, Gd@C82 fullerenes are inclined to restore the energetically favored tilting orientational configuration similar to an individual one. This suggests the feasibility of high-level integration of single-Gd@C82 based moletronic device with the performances almost unchanged by two-dimensional arrangement. Furthermore, by rationalizing the inter-Gd@C82 interaction induced slight energy offset of the electronic states, we qualitatively confirm the shown electronic hybrid states as Cu(111)-, C82 cage- and Gd-dominant hybrid states, respectively. PMID:26457573

  12. Assembly States of FliM and FliG within the Flagellar Switch Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Ria; Borbat, Peter P.; Lynch, Michael J.; Bhatnagar, Jaya; Beyersdorf, Matthew S.; Halkides, Christopher J.; Freed, Jack H.; Crane, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    At the base of the bacterial flagella a cytoplasmic rotor (the C-ring) generates torque and reverses rotation sense in response to stimuli. The bulk of the C-ring forms from many copies of the proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN, which together constitute the switch complex. To help resolve outstanding issues regarding C-ring architecture, interactions between FliM and FliG from Thermotoga maritima have been investigated with x-ray crystallography and pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS). A new crystal structure of an 11-unit FliG:FliM complex produces a large arc with a curvature consistent with the dimensions of the C-ring. Previously determined structures along with this new structure provided a basis to test switch complex assembly models. PDS combined with mutational studies and targeted cross-linking reveal that FliM and FliG interact through their middle domains to form both parallel and antiparallel arrangements in solution. Residue substitutions at predicted interfaces disrupt higher-order complexes that are primarily mediated by contacts between the C-terminal domain of FliG and the middle domain of a neighboring FliG molecule. Spin separations among multi-labeled component proteins fit to a self-consistent model that agrees well with electron microscopy images of the C-ring. An activated form of the response regulator CheY destabilizes the parallel arrangement of FliM molecules to perturb FliG alignment in a process that may reflect the onset of rotation switching. This data suggest a model of C-ring assembly in which intermolecular contacts among FliG domains provide a template for FliM assembly and cooperative transitions. PMID:25536293

  13. Modification of ground and excited states of 3-phenylureidoquinoline by encapsulation in surfactant assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Debashis; Datta, Anindya

    2006-07-01

    The interaction of the fluorescent probe 3-phenylureidoquinoline with surfactant assemblies has been investigated using fluorescence spectroscopic and computational techniques. The non-radiative deactivation rates are found to be suppressed in micelles. In the negatively charged SDS micelle, the cation is found to form, leading to a marked shift in fluorescence. This is explained by a consideration of the local pH and altered p Ka of the fluorophore. In reverse micelle the gradual addition of water remarkably enhances the rate of non-radiative depopulation.

  14. Modeling capsid kinetics assembly from the steady state distribution of multi-sizes aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hozé, Nathanaël; Holcman, David

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of aggregation for particles of various sizes depends on their diffusive arrival and fusion at a specific nucleation site. We present here a mean-field approximation and a stochastic jump model for aggregates at equilibrium. This approach is an alternative to the classical Smoluchowski equations that do not have a close form and are not solvable in general. We analyze these mean-field equations and obtain the kinetics of a cluster formation. Our approach provides a simplified theoretical framework to study the kinetics of viral capsid formation, such as HIV from the self-assembly of the structural proteins Gag.

  15. Zinc chlorins for artificial light-harvesting self-assemble into antiparallel stacks forming a microcrystalline solid-state material

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Swapna; Sengupta, Sanchita; Wawrzyniak, Piotr K.; Huber, Valerie; Buda, Francesco; Baumeister, Ute; Würthner, Frank; de Groot, Huub J. M.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a concept to solve the structure of a microcrystalline material in the solid-state at natural abundance without access to distance constraints, using magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with X-ray powder diffraction and DFT calculations. The method is applied to a novel class of materials that form (semi)conductive 1D wires for supramolecular electronics and artificial light-harvesting. The zinc chlorins 3-devinyl-31-hydroxymethyl-132-demethoxycarbonylpheophorbide a (3′,5′-bis-dodecyloxy)benzyl ester zinc complex 1 and 3-devinyl-31-methoxymethyl-132-demethoxycarbonylpheophorbide a (3′,5′-bis-dodecyloxy)benzyl ester zinc complex 2, self-assemble into extended excitonically coupled chromophore stacks. 1H-13C heteronuclear dipolar correlation MAS NMR experiments provided the 1H resonance assignment of the chlorin rings that allowed accurate probing of ring currents related to the stacking of macrocycles. DFT ring-current shift calculations revealed that both chlorins self-assemble in antiparallel π-stacks in planar layers in the solid-state. Concomitantly, X-ray powder diffraction measurements for chlorin 2 at 80 °C revealed a 3D lattice for the mesoscale packing that matches molecular mechanics optimized aggregate models. For chlorin 2 the stacks alternate with a periodicity of 0.68 nm and a 3D unit cell with an approximate volume of 6.28 nm3 containing 4 molecules, which is consistent with space group P21221. PMID:19587237

  16. Helical vesicles, segmented semivesicles, and noncircular bilayer sheets from solution-state self-assembly of ABC miktoarm star terpolymers.

    PubMed

    Kong, Weixin; Li, Baohui; Jin, Qinghua; Ding, Datong; Shi, An-Chang

    2009-06-24

    Multicompartment micelles, especially nanostructured vesicles, offer tremendous potential as delivery vehicles of therapeutic agents and nanoreactors. Solution-state self-assembly of miktoarm star terpolymers provides a versatile and powerful route to obtain multicompartment micelles. Here we report simulations of solution-state self-assembly of ABC star terpolymers composed of a solvophilic A arm and two solvophobic B and C arms. A variety of multicompartment micelles are predicted from the simulations. Phase diagrams for typical star terpolymers are constructed. It is discovered that the overall micelle morphology is largely controlled by the volume fraction of the solvophilic A arms, whereas the internal compartmented and/or segregated structures depend on the ratio between the volume fractions of the two solvophobic arms. The polymer-solvent and polymer-polymer interactions can be used to tune the effective volume fraction of the A-arm and, thereby, induce morphological transitions. For terpolymers with equal or nearly equal length of B and C arms, several previously unknown structures, including vesicles with novel lateral structures (helices or stacked donuts), segmented semivesicles, and elliptic or triangular bilayer sheets, are discovered. When the lengths of B and C arms are not equal, novel micelles such as multicompartment disks and onions are observed. PMID:19476352

  17. Seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roger Neal; Longfritz, William David

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

  18. Structural aspects of a protein-surfactant assembly: native and reduced States of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Anand, Uttam; Ray, Sutapa; Ghosh, Subhadip; Banerjee, Rajat; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2015-04-01

    The inherently present seventeen disulfide bonds of the circulatory protein, human serum albumin (HSA) provide the necessary structural stability. Various spectroscopic approaches were used to investigate the effect of reduction of these disulfide bonds and its binding with the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Based on several spectroscopic analyses, our investigations highlight the following interesting aspects: (1) HSA on reduction loses not only its tertiary structure but also a significant amount of secondary structure as well. However, the reduced state of the protein is not like the molten-globule, (2) this structural loss of the protein due to reduction is more prominent than that caused by higher SDS concentrations alone and can certainly be attributed to the role of disulfide bonds, (3) lower surfactant concentrations provide marginal structural rigidity to the native state of the protein, whereas, higher concentrations of SDS induces secondary structure to the reduced state of HSA, (4) the binding of SDS with both the native and reduced states of HSA, occurred in three distinct stages which was followed by a saturation stage. However, the nature of such binding is different for both the states as investigated by using the Stern-Volmer equations and estimating the thermodynamic parameters. Besides, in contrast to the native state, the reduced state of HSA shows that the lone tryptophan residue gets more buried. However, there occurs a sudden decrement in the lifetime of the tryptophan and the hydrodynamic diameter increases by twofold. PMID:25821118

  19. Noncovalent functionalization of solid-state nanopores via self-assembly of amphipols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Mitta, Gonzalo; Burr, Loïc; Tuninetti, Jimena S.; Trautmann, Christina; Toimil-Molares, María Eugenia; Azzaroni, Omar

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the development of new methods for conferring functional features to nanopore-based fluidic devices. In this work, we describe for the first time the noncovalent integration of amphoteric-amphipathic polymers, also known as ``amphipols'', into single conical nanopores in order to obtain signal-responsive chemical nanodevices. Highly-tapered conical nanopores were fabricated by single-sided chemical etching of polycarbonate foils. After etching, the surface of the conical nanopores was chemically modified, by first metallizing the surface via gold sputtering and then by amphiphilic self-assembly of the amphipol. The net charge of adsorbed amphipols was regulated via pH changes under the environmental conditions. The pH-dependent chemical equilibrium of the weak acidic and basic monomers facilitates the regulation of the ionic transport through the nanopore by adjusting the pH of the electrolyte solution. Our results demonstrate that functional amphipathic polymers are powerful building blocks for the surface modification of nanopores and might ultimately pave the way to a new means of integrating functional and/or responsive units within nanofluidic structures.In recent years there has been increasing interest in the development of new methods for conferring functional features to nanopore-based fluidic devices. In this work, we describe for the first time the noncovalent integration of amphoteric-amphipathic polymers, also known as ``amphipols'', into single conical nanopores in order to obtain signal-responsive chemical nanodevices. Highly-tapered conical nanopores were fabricated by single-sided chemical etching of polycarbonate foils. After etching, the surface of the conical nanopores was chemically modified, by first metallizing the surface via gold sputtering and then by amphiphilic self-assembly of the amphipol. The net charge of adsorbed amphipols was regulated via pH changes under the environmental

  20. Two equations of state assembled for basic analysis of multiphase CO 2 flow and in deep sedimentary basin conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, Brian J. O. L.; Han, Weon Shik; Cole, Barret S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the study presented in this manuscript is to describe and make available two equation-of-state (EOS) algorithms assembled for multiphase flow and transport of carbon dioxide (CO2). The algorithms presented here calculate solubility, compressibility factor, density, viscosity, fugacity, and enthalpy of CO2 in gaseous and supercritical phases, and mixtures or solutions of CO2 in water, as functions of pressure and temperature. Several features distinguish the two algorithms, but the primary distinction concerns treatment of supercritical/gas-phase CO2: one EOS we assembled is based on Redlich and Kwong's original algorithm developed in 1949, and the other is based on an algorithm developed by Span and Wagner in 1996. Both were modified for application to sedimentary basin studies of multiphase CO2 flow processes, including carbon sequestration applications. We present a brief comparison of these two EOS algorithms. Source codes for both algorithms are provided, including "stand-alone" Matlab © scripts for the interactive calculation of fluid properties at specified P-T conditions and FORTRAN subroutines for inclusion in existing FORTRAN multiphase fluid simulation packages. These routines are intended for fundamental analyses of CO2 sequestration and the like; more advanced studies, such as brine processes and reactive transport, require more advanced EOS algorithms.

  1. Structures of Human Peroxiredoxin 3 Suggest Self-Chaperoning Assembly that Maintains Catalytic State.

    PubMed

    Yewdall, N Amy; Venugopal, Hariprasad; Desfosses, Ambroise; Abrishami, Vahid; Yosaatmadja, Yuliana; Hampton, Mark B; Gerrard, Juliet A; Goldstone, David C; Mitra, Alok K; Radjainia, Mazdak

    2016-07-01

    Peroxiredoxins are antioxidant proteins primarily responsible for detoxification of hydroperoxides in cells. On exposure to various cellular stresses, peroxiredoxins can acquire chaperone activity, manifested as quaternary reorganization into a high molecular weight (HMW) form. Acidification, for example, causes dodecameric rings of human peroxiredoxin 3 (HsPrx3) to stack into long helical filaments. In this work, a 4.1-Å resolution structure of low-pH-instigated helical filaments was elucidated, showing a locally unfolded active site and partially folded C terminus. A 2.8-Å crystal structure of HsPrx3 was determined at pH 8.5 under reducing conditions, wherein dodecameric rings are arranged as a short stack, with symmetry similar to low-pH filaments. In contrast to previous observations, the crystal structure displays both a fully folded active site and ordered C terminus, suggesting that the HsPrx3 HMW form maintains catalytic activity. We propose a new role for the HMW form as a self-chaperoning assembly maintaining HsPrx3 function under stress. PMID:27238969

  2. Noncovalent functionalization of solid-state nanopores via self-assembly of amphipols.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mitta, Gonzalo; Burr, Loïc; Tuninetti, Jimena S; Trautmann, Christina; Toimil-Molares, María Eugenia; Azzaroni, Omar

    2016-01-21

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the development of new methods for conferring functional features to nanopore-based fluidic devices. In this work, we describe for the first time the noncovalent integration of amphoteric-amphipathic polymers, also known as "amphipols", into single conical nanopores in order to obtain signal-responsive chemical nanodevices. Highly-tapered conical nanopores were fabricated by single-sided chemical etching of polycarbonate foils. After etching, the surface of the conical nanopores was chemically modified, by first metallizing the surface via gold sputtering and then by amphiphilic self-assembly of the amphipol. The net charge of adsorbed amphipols was regulated via pH changes under the environmental conditions. The pH-dependent chemical equilibrium of the weak acidic and basic monomers facilitates the regulation of the ionic transport through the nanopore by adjusting the pH of the electrolyte solution. Our results demonstrate that functional amphipathic polymers are powerful building blocks for the surface modification of nanopores and might ultimately pave the way to a new means of integrating functional and/or responsive units within nanofluidic structures. PMID:26676314

  3. Independent saturation of three TrpRS subsites generates a partially assembled state similar to those observed in molecular simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Laowanapiban, Poramaet; Kapustina, Maryna; Vonrhein, Clemens; Delarue, Marc; Koehl, Patrice; Carter Jr., Charles W.

    2009-03-05

    Two new crystal structures of Bacillus stearothermophilus tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) afford evidence that a closed interdomain hinge angle requires a covalent bond between AMP and an occupant of either pyrophosphate or tryptophan subsite. They also are within experimental error of a cluster of structures observed in a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation showing partial active-site assembly. Further, the highest energy structure in a minimum action pathway computed by using elastic network models for Open and Pretransition state (PreTS) conformations for the fully liganded TrpRS monomer is intermediate between that simulated structure and a partially disassembled structure from a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics trajectory for the unliganded PreTS. These mutual consistencies provide unexpected validation of inferences drawn from molecular simulations.

  4. Subunit Conformations and Assembly States of a DNA Translocating Motor: The Terminase of Bacteriophage P22

    PubMed Central

    Němeček, Daniel; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Kang, Sebyung; Prevelige, Peter E.; Casjens, Sherwood; Thomas, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriophage P22, a podovirus infecting strains of Salmonella typhimurium, packages a 42 kbp genome using a headful mechanism. DNA translocation is accomplished by the phage terminase, a powerful molecular motor consisting of large and small subunits. Although many of the structural proteins of the P22 virion have been well characterized, little is known about the terminase subunits and their molecular mechanism of DNA translocation. We report here structural and assembly properties of ectopically expressed and highly purified terminase large and small subunits. The large subunit (gp2), which contains the nuclease and ATPase activities of terminase, exists as a stable monomer with an α/β fold. The small subunit (gp3), which recognizes DNA for packaging and may regulate gp2 activity, exhibits a highly α-helical secondary structure and self-associates to form a stable oligomeric ring in solution. For wildtype gp3, the ring contains nine subunits, as demonstrated by hydrodynamic measurements, electron microscopy and native mass spectrometry. We have also characterized a gp3 mutant (Ala 112 → Thr) that forms a ten subunit ring, despite a subunit fold indistinguishable from wildtype. Both the nonameric and decameric gp3 rings exhibit nonspecific DNA binding activity, and gp2 is able to bind strongly to the DNA/gp3 complex but not to DNA alone. We propose a scheme for the roles of P22 terminase large and small subunits in the recruitment and packaging of viral DNA and discuss the model in relation to proposals for terminase-driven DNA translocation in other phages. PMID:17945256

  5. Enhanced carrier collection efficiency and reduced quantum state absorption by electron doping in self-assembled quantum dot solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tian E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu; Dagenais, Mario E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu; Lu, Haofeng; Fu, Lan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-02-02

    Reduced quantum dot (QD) absorption due to state filling effects and enhanced electron transport in doped QDs are demonstrated to play a key role in solar energy conversion. Reduced QD state absorption with increased n-doping is observed in the self-assembled In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/GaAs QDs from high resolution below-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement, which is a direct consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. We also show that besides partial filling of the quantum states, electron-doping produces negatively charged QDs that exert a repulsive Coulomb force on the mobile electrons, thus altering the electron trajectory and reducing the probability of electron capture, leading to an improved collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, as indicated by an absolute above-bandgap EQE measurement. The resulting redistribution of the mobile electron in the planar direction is further validated by the observed photoluminescence intensity dependence on doping.

  6. Selection of conformational states in self-assembled surface structures formed from an oligo(naphthylene-ethynylene) 3-bit binary switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Y.; Cramer, J. R.; Nuermaimaiti, A.; Svane, K.; Yu, M.; Lægsgaard, E.; Besenbacher, F.; Xue, Q.-K.; Ma, X.; Hammer, B.; Gothelf, K. V.; Linderoth, T. R.

    2015-03-01

    Supra-molecular self-assembly on surfaces often involves molecular conformational flexibility which may act to enrich the variation and complexity of the structures formed. However, systematic and explicit investigations of how molecular conformational states are selected in surface self-assembly processes are relatively scarce. Here, we use a combination of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to investigate self-assembly for a custom-designed molecule capable of assuming eight distinct surface conformations (four enantiomeric pairs). The conformations result from binary positions of n = 3 naphtalene units on a linear oligo(naphthylene-ethynylene) backbone. On Au(111), inter-molecular interactions involving carboxyl and bulky tert-butyl-phenyl functional groups induce the molecules to form two ordered phases with brick-wall and lamella structure, respectively. These structures each involve molecules in two conformational states, and there is a clear separation between the conformers involved in the two types of structures. On Cu(111), individual molecules isolated by carboxylate-substrate binding show a distribution involving all possible conformational states. Together these observations imply selection and adaptation of conformational states upon molecular self-assembly. From DFT modeling and statistical analysis of the molecular conformations, the observed selection of conformational states is attributed to steric interaction between the naphthalene units. The present study enhances our understanding of how ordering and selection of molecular conformations is controlled by intermolecular interactions in a complex situation with many distinct conformational states for the participating molecules.

  7. A unique quinolineboronic acid-based supramolecular structure that relies on double intermolecular B-N bonds for self-assembly in solid state and in solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Minyong; Chandrasekaran, Sekar; Gao, Xingming; Fang, Xikui; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Hardcastle, Kenneth; Yang, Jenny; Wang, Binghe

    2007-04-16

    The boronic acid functional group plays very important roles in sugar recognition, catalysis, organic synthesis, and supramolecular assembly. Therefore, understanding the unique properties of this functional group is very important. 8-Quinolineboronic acid (8-QBA) is found to be capable of self-assembling in solid state through a unique intermolecular B-N bond mechanism reinforced by intermolecular boronic anhydride formation, π-π stacking, and hydrogen bond formation. NMR NOE and diffusion studies indicate that intermolecular B-N interaction also exists in solution with 8-QBA. In contrast, a positional isomer of 8-QBA, 5-quinolineboronic acid (5-QBA) showed very different behaviors in crystal packing and in solution and therefore different supramolecular network. Understanding the structural features of this unique 8-QBA assembly could be very helpful for the future design of new sugar sensors, molecular catalysts, and supramolecular assemblies. PMID:18414645

  8. A unique quinolineboronic acid-based supramolecular structure that relies on double intermolecular B-N bonds for self-assembly in solid state and in solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Minyong; Chandrasekaran, Sekar; Gao, Xingming; Fang, Xikui; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Hardcastle, Kenneth; Yang, Jenny; Wang, Binghe

    2007-01-01

    The boronic acid functional group plays very important roles in sugar recognition, catalysis, organic synthesis, and supramolecular assembly. Therefore, understanding the unique properties of this functional group is very important. 8-Quinolineboronic acid (8-QBA) is found to be capable of self-assembling in solid state through a unique intermolecular B-N bond mechanism reinforced by intermolecular boronic anhydride formation, π-π stacking, and hydrogen bond formation. NMR NOE and diffusion studies indicate that intermolecular B-N interaction also exists in solution with 8-QBA. In contrast, a positional isomer of 8-QBA, 5-quinolineboronic acid (5-QBA) showed very different behaviors in crystal packing and in solution and therefore different supramolecular network. Understanding the structural features of this unique 8-QBA assembly could be very helpful for the future design of new sugar sensors, molecular catalysts, and supramolecular assemblies. PMID:18414645

  9. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    DOEpatents

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  10. Chirality control of self-assembled achiral nanofibers using amines in their solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung Ho; Jeon, Jiwon; Kim, Hyungjun; Jaworski, Justyn; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Although there are numerous examples of helical and spiral conformations in nature, including plant tendrils, snail shells, and even collagen, the occurrence of supramolecular systems that are able to reversibly undergo solid-to-solid helical transformation based on environmental chiral triggers is rare. In this work, we present a supramolecular, non-helical nanofiber which shows a distinct helical rearrangement in the presence of specific diamines and monoamines, such as cyclohexanediamines, alanine, lysine, and phenylalanine, depending on the molecular chirality of the surrounding analytes. A detailed investigation on the structural organization of the nanofibers using SEM and CD spectra analysis confirmed the repeatable and reversible nature of this amplification of chiral information. Further preparation of an electrospun nanofiber film was demonstrated for distinguishing chiral diamines and monoamines in solution by film immersion and CD analysis, which is the first example of amplification of chiral information in the solid-state using electrospun nanofiber films. With this system, we could demonstrate a reusable means for detecting the molecular chirality, which also provided a unique example of reversible control of solid state rearrangement in supramolecular helicity.Although there are numerous examples of helical and spiral conformations in nature, including plant tendrils, snail shells, and even collagen, the occurrence of supramolecular systems that are able to reversibly undergo solid-to-solid helical transformation based on environmental chiral triggers is rare. In this work, we present a supramolecular, non-helical nanofiber which shows a distinct helical rearrangement in the presence of specific diamines and monoamines, such as cyclohexanediamines, alanine, lysine, and phenylalanine, depending on the molecular chirality of the surrounding analytes. A detailed investigation on the structural organization of the nanofibers using SEM and CD spectra

  11. Ral GTPases regulate exocyst assembly through dual subunit interactions.

    PubMed

    Moskalenko, Serge; Tong, Chao; Rosse, Carine; Mirey, Gladys; Formstecher, Etienne; Daviet, Laurent; Camonis, Jacques; White, Michael A

    2003-12-19

    Ral GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of dynamic cellular processes including proliferation, oncogenic transformation, actin-cytoskeletal dynamics, endocytosis, and exocytosis. Recently the Sec6/8 complex, or exocyst, a multisubunit complex facilitating post-Golgi targeting of distinct subclasses of secretory vesicles, has been identified as a bona fide Ral effector complex. Ral GTPases regulate exocyst-dependent vesicle trafficking and are required for exocyst complex assembly. Sec5, a membrane-associated exocyst subunit, has been identified as a direct target of activated Ral; however, the mechanism by which Ral can modulate exocyst assembly is unknown. Here we report that an additional component of the exocyst, Exo84, is a direct target of activated Ral. We provide evidence that mammalian exocyst components are present as distinct subcomplexes on vesicles and the plasma membrane and that Ral GTPases regulate the assembly interface of a full octameric exocyst complex through interaction with Sec5 and Exo84. PMID:14525976

  12. Structure determination of a bio-inspired self-assembled light-harvesting antenna by solid-state NMR and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Anjali; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Buda, Francesco; van Marle, Thomas; Holzwarth, Alfred R; de Groot, Huub J M

    2013-09-26

    The molecular stacking of an artificial light-harvesting antenna self-assembled from 3(1)-aminofunctionalized zinc-chlorins was determined by solid-state NMR in combination with quantum-chemical and molecular-mechanics modeling. A library of trial molecular stacking arrangements was generated based on available structural data for natural and semisynthetic homologues of the Zn-chlorins. NMR assignments obtained for the monomer in solution were validated for self-assembled aggregates and refined with (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy data collected from samples with (13)C at natural abundance. Solid-state ring-current shifts for the (1)H provided spatial constraints to determine the molecular overlap. This procedure allows for a discrimination between different self-assembled structures and a classification of the stacking mode in terms of electric dipole alignment and π-π interactions, parameters that determine the functional properties of light-harvesting assemblies and conducting nanowires. The combination with quantum-mechanical modeling then allowed building a low-resolution packing model in silico from molecular stacks. The method allows for moderate disorder and residual polymorphism at the stack or molecular level and is generally applicable to determine molecular packing structures of aromatic molecules with structural asymmetry, such as is commonly provided by functionalized side chains that serve to tune the self-assembly process. PMID:23566216

  13. Structural Insight into an Alzheimer’s Brain-Derived Spherical Assembly of Amyloid β by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are linked to cytotoxic diffusible aggregates of amyloid proteins, which are metastable intermediate species in protein misfolding. This study presents the first site-specific structural study on an intermediate called amylospheroid (ASPD), an AD-derived neurotoxin composed of oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ). Electron microscopy and immunological analyses using ASPD-specific “conformational” antibodies established synthetic ASPD for the 42-residue Aβ(1–42) as an excellent structural/morphological analogue of native ASPD extracted from AD patients, the level of which correlates with the severity of AD. 13C solid-state NMR analyses of approximately 20 residues and interstrand distances demonstrated that the synthetic ASPD is made of a homogeneous single conformer containing parallel β-sheets. These results provide profound insight into the native ASPD, indicating that Aβ is likely to self-assemble into the toxic intermediate with β-sheet structures in AD brains. This approach can be applied to various intermediates relevant to amyloid diseases. PMID:25938164

  14. EXTENSION ADMINISTRATION AND STATE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS--A CASE STUDY OF THE 71ST MISSOURI GENERAL ASSEMBLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KYD, STIRLING

    TO GAIN UNDERSTANDING OF MISSOURI'S LEGISLATIVE PROCESS AND AID ADMINISTRATORS OF THE EXTENSION DIVISION, THE AUTHOR INVESTIGATED THE 71ST GENERAL ASSEMBLY. HE READ PUBLICATIONS, INTERVIEWED LOBBYISTS, AND CONDUCTED OPEN ENDED DEPTH INTERVIEWS WITH LEGISLATORS SELECTED TO COMPRISE THE LEADERSHIP OF THE ASSEMBLY. HIS DISSERTATION PRESENTS THE…

  15. Self-Assembly of Glycine on Cu (001): Does the Ground-state Structure at 0 K is Always Stable at Room Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lifang; Xu, Jing; Lin, Zheshuai; Meng, Sheng; Wang, Enge

    2015-03-01

    Glycine on Cu(001) is used as an example to illustrate the critical role of molecular polarity and finite temperature effect in self-assembly of bio-molecules at a metal surface. A unified picture for glycine self-assembly on Cu(001) is derived based on full polarity compensation considerations. Temperature plays a non-trivial role: the ground-state structure at 0 K is absent at room temperature, where intermolecular hydrogen bonding overweighs competing molecule-substrate interactions. The unique p(2 ×4) structure predicted as the most stable structure was confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, whose scanning tunneling microscopy images and anisotropic free-electron-like dispersion are in excellent agreement with experiments. Moreover, the rich self-assembling patterns including the heterochiral and homochiral phases, and their interrelationships are entirely governed by the same mechanism.

  16. Enhanced Stability of the Fe(II)/Mn(II) State in a Synthetic Model of Heterobimetallic Cofactor Assembly.

    PubMed

    Kerber, William D; Goheen, Joshua T; Perez, Kaitlyn A; Siegler, Maxime A

    2016-01-19

    Heterobimetallic Mn/Fe cofactors are found in the R2 subunit of class Ic ribonucleotide reductases (R2c) and R2-like ligand binding oxidases (R2lox). Selective cofactor assembly is due at least in part to the thermodynamics of M(II) binding to the apoprotein. We report here equilibrium studies of Fe(II)/Mn(II) discrimination in the biomimetic model system H5(F-HXTA) (5-fluoro-2-hydroxy-1,3-xylene-α,α'-diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid). The homobimetallic F-HXTA complexes [Fe(H2O)6][1]2·14H2O and [Mn(H2O)6][2]2·14H2O (1 = [Fe(II)2(F-HXTA)(H2O)4](-); 2 = [Mn(II)2(F-HXTA)(H2O)4](-)) were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. NMR data show that 1 retains its structure in solution (2 is NMR silent). Metal exchange is facile, and the heterobimetallic complex [Fe(II)Mn(II)(F-HXTA)(H2O)4](-) (3) is formed from mixtures of 1 and 2. (19)F NMR was used to quantify 1 and 3 in the presence of excess M(II)(aq) at various metal ratios, and equilibrium constants for Fe(II)/Mn(II) discrimination were calculated from these data. Fe(II) is preferred over Mn(II) with K1 = 182 ± 13 for complete replacement (2 ⇌ 1). This relatively modest preference is attributed to a hard-soft acid-base mismatch between the divalent cations and the polycarboxylate ligand. The stepwise constants for replacement are K2 = 20.1 ± 1.3 (2 ⇌ 3) and K3 = 9.1 ± 1.1 (3 ⇌ 1). K2 > K3 demonstrates enhanced stability of the heterobimetallic state beyond what is expected for simple Mn(II) → Fe(II) replacement. The relevance to Fe(II)/Mn(II) discrimination in R2c and R2lox proteins is discussed. PMID:26709740

  17. Silencing and Languaging in the Assembling of the Indian Nation-State: British Public Citizens, the Epistolary Form, and Historiography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2009-01-01

    Taking the case of postcolonial India, this paper explores ways in which present temporal junctures permit a probing of historical boundaries to speak of voices largely silenced from Indian historiography, namely those of British (Indian) public citizens who were committed to the assembling of "an India." In particular, the paper discusses ways in…

  18. An automatic assembly planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. F.; Lee, C. S. G.

    An automatic assembly planning system which takes the CAD description of a product as input and automatically generates an assembly plan subject to the resource constraint of a given assembly cell is presented. The system improves the flexibility and productivity of flexible manufacturing systems and is composed of five modules: world database, simulated world model, knowledge acquisition mechanism, planning knowledge base, and assembly planner. The acquired knowledge forms the planning knowledge base. The simulated world model keeps track of the current state of the assembly world. In the initial state, all the components are separated, while in the final state, all the components are assembled. The assembly planner is made up of a set of production rules which models the effects of real assembly tasks. By repeatedly applying these production rules to the simulated world state, the planner transforms the initial state into the final state. The set of rules applied during this transformation process forms the assembly plan to actually assemble the product in the given assembly cell. Examples are given to illustrate the concepts in these five modules.

  19. In-situ x-ray scattering study of continuous silica-surfactant self-assembly during steady-state dip coating.

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, D A; Liu, N; Chen, J; Narayanan, S; MacPhee, A; Wang, J; Dunphy, D R; Reed, S T; Hurd, A J; Gibaud, A; Brinker, C. J. Sturmayr, D.; van Swol, F; UPD,; APS-USR,

    2003-07-12

    Inorganic mesoporous thin-films are important for applications such as membranes, sensors, low-dielectric-constant insulators (so-called low {kappa} dielectrics), and fluidic devices. Over the past five years, several research groups have demonstrated the efficacy of using evaporation accompanying conventional coating operations such as spin- and dip-coating as an efficient means of driving the self-assembly of homogeneous solutions into highly ordered, oriented, mesostructured films. Understanding such evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) processes is of interest for both fundamental and technological reasons. Here, we use spatially resolved 2D grazing incidence X-ray scattering in combination with optical interferometry during steady-state dip-coating of surfactant-templated silica thin-films to structurally and compositionally characterize the EISA process. We report the evolution of a hexagonal (p6 mm) thin-film mesophase from a homogeneous precursor solution and its further structural development during drying and calcination. Monte Carlo simulations of water/ethanol/surfactant bulk phase behavior are used to investigate the role of ethanol in the self-assembly process, and we propose a mechanism to explain the observed dilation in unit cell dimensions during solvent evaporation.

  20. Surveys for Asbestos of All State-Owned Buildings and All Public Schools: Report of the Department of General Services to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. Senate Document No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of General Services, Richmond.

    Addressed to the members of the general assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia, this report summarizes the surveys for asbestos of all state-owned buildings and all public schools as required by state code. The survey of state-owned buildings was carried out by a consulting firm. Over 5,900 buildings were surveyed, representing approximately 65…

  1. Supraspliceosomes at Defined Functional States Portray the Pre-Assembled Nature of the Pre-mRNA Processing Machine in the Cell Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kotzer-Nevo, Hani; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Rappsilber, Juri; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    When isolated from mammalian cell nuclei, all nuclear pre-mRNAs are packaged in multi-subunit large ribonucleoprotein complexes—supraspliceosomes—composed of four native spliceosomes interconnected by the pre-mRNA. Supraspliceosomes contain all five spliceosomal U snRNPs, together with other splicing factors, and are functional in splicing. Supraspliceosomes studied thus far represent the steady-state population of nuclear pre-mRNAs that were isolated at different stages of the splicing reaction. To analyze specific splicing complexes, here, we affinity purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage 7 (PP7)-tagged splicing complexes assembled in vivo on Adenovirus Major Late (AdML) transcripts at specific functional stages, and characterized them using molecular techniques including mass spectrometry. First, we show that these affinity purified splicing complexes assembled on PP7-tagged AdML mRNA or on PP7-tagged AdML pre-mRNA are assembled in supraspliceosomes. Second, similar to the general population of supraspliceosomes, these defined supraspliceosomes populations are assembled with all five U snRNPs at all splicing stages. This study shows that dynamic changes in base-pairing interactions of U snRNA:U snRNA and U snRNA:pre-mRNA that occur in vivo during the splicing reaction do not require changes in U snRNP composition of the supraspliceosome. Furthermore, there is no need to reassemble a native spliceosome for the splicing of each intron, and rearrangements of the interactions will suffice. PMID:24983480

  2. Peroxisomal Targeting, Import, and Assembly of Alcohol Oxidase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Waterham, Hans R.; Russell, Kimberly A.; Vries, Yne de; Cregg, James M.

    1997-01-01

    Alcohol oxidase (AOX), the first enzyme in the yeast methanol utilization pathway is a homooctameric peroxisomal matrix protein. In peroxisome biogenesis-defective (pex) mutants of the yeast Pichia pastoris, AOX fails to assemble into active octamers and instead forms inactive cytoplasmic aggregates. The apparent inability of AOX to assemble in the cytoplasm contrasts with other peroxisomal proteins that are able to oligomerize before import. To further investigate the import of AOX, we first identified its peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS). We found that sequences essential for targeting AOX are primarily located within the four COOH-terminal amino acids of the protein leucine-alanine-arginine-phenylalanine COOH (LARF). To examine whether AOX can oligomerize before import, we coexpressed AOX without its PTS along with wild-type AOX and determined whether the mutant AOX could be coimported into peroxisomes. To identify the mutant form of AOX, the COOH-terminal LARF sequence of the protein was replaced with a hemagglutinin epitope tag (AOX–HA). Coexpression of AOX–HA with wild-type AOX (AOX-WT) did not result in an increase in the proportion of AOX–HA present in octameric active AOX, suggesting that newly synthesized AOX–HA cannot oligomerize with AOX-WT in the cytoplasm. Thus, AOX cannot initiate oligomerization in the cytoplasm, but must first be targeted to the organelle before assembly begins. PMID:9396748

  3. Synthesis and fluorine-mediated interactions in methanol-encapsulated solid state self-assembly of an isatin-thiazoline hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, Humayun; Ahmad, Maqbool; Hadda, Taibi B.; Toupet, Loic; Naseer, Muhammad Moazzam

    2015-10-01

    An exciting isatin-thiazoline hybrid molecule 2 having -Cdbnd N-Ndbnd C- linkage has been synthesized in 88% yield by the reaction of 5-fluoroisatin with N-(4-fluorophenyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide followed by condensation of the resultant isatin-thiosemicarbazone intermediate with p-chlorophenacyl bromide. The solid state self-assembly of this hybrid molecule was studied by X-ray crystallographic technique. A layered assembly composed of 1D-chains with methanol molecules encapsulated between every two chains is obtained, making a bi-chain sandwich like structure. The supramolecular forces involved in the stabilization of this structure are importantly fluorine-mediated interactions (C-H⋯F, F⋯S and F⋯π) along with others i.e. N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, C-H⋯O, Cl⋯π, C-H⋯π and π⋯π interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of solid state fluorine-mediated C-H⋯F, F⋯S and F⋯π interactions found in a family of isatin-based compounds.

  4. Monitoring intermediate filament assembly by small-angle x-ray scattering reveals the molecular architecture of assembly intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Anna V.; Kreplak, Laurent; Wedig, Tatjana; Mücke, Norbert; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Herrmann, Harald; Aebi, Ueli; Strelkov, Sergei V.

    2006-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs), along with microtubules, microfilaments, and associated cross-bridging proteins, constitute the cytoskeleton of metazoan cells. While crystallographic data on the dimer representing the elementary IF “building block” have recently become available, little structural detail is known about both the mature IF architecture and its assembly pathway. Here, we have applied solution small-angle x-ray scattering to investigate the in vitro assembly of a 53-kDa human IF protein vimentin at pH 8.4 by systematically varying the ionic strength conditions, and complemented these experiments by electron microscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation. While a vimentin solution in 5 mM Tris·HCl (pH 8.4) contains predominantly tetramers, addition of 20 mM NaCl induces further lateral assembly evidenced by the shift of the sedimentation coeficient and yields a distinct octameric intermediate. Four octamers eventually associate into unit-length filaments (ULFs) that anneal longitudinally. Based on the small-angle x-ray scattering experiments supplemented by crystallographic data and additional structural constraints, 3D molecular models of the vimentin tetramer, octamer, and ULF were constructed. Within each of the three oligomers, the adjacent dimers are aligned exclusively in an approximately half-staggered antiparallel A11 mode with a distance of 3.2–3.4 nm between their axes. The ULF appears to be a dynamic and a relatively loosely packed structure with a roughly even mass distribution over its cross-section. PMID:17050693

  5. Preliminary Experiments and Determination of the Thermal Gradient in a 12.7 mm CaF2 Furnace Assembly, Humboldt State University Piston-Cylinder Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, B. E.

    2004-12-01

    A 12.7 mm piston-cylinder laboratory has been established at Humboldt State University. A series of double-thermocouple (DTC) experiments were performed to measure the thermal profile of the furnace assembly following the procedures of Pickering et al. (1998, Amer. Min.). Furnace assemblies consist of a 304 stainless base plug, CaF&_{2} sleeve, straight-walled graphite heater tube, crushable MgO inner parts, and lower graphite plug and ring which allow for extrusion of the graphite heater tube during shortening of the sleeve and MgO pieces. Careful measurement of pre- and post-run assembly parts indicate an average 30-35% shortening of the assembly. DTC results show a thermal peak that is displaced \\sim2.0 mm above the center of the effective furnace, defined as the length of inner MgO pieces post-run. This offset is in the same direction (upward, toward base plug), but slightly less than the offset described by Pickering et al. (1998). A secondary measure of the thermal profile using spinel growth via reaction between MgO and Al_{2}O_{3} assembly parts (e.g., Watson et al., 2002, CMP) is underway. A single partial melting experiment was performed at 1.0 GPa and 1330\\degC for 72 hours using intermediate peridotite starting material INT-A in a graphite-lined Pt capsule with vitreous carbon spheres as a melt sink. Phase compositions were determined by electron microprobe and mass balance calculations were made to determine melt fraction and mineral mode. Initial calculations yield glass:olivine:cpx:opx:spinel proportions of: 5.0:54.2:15.9:23.9:1.1. These preliminary results correspond well with previous work performed at the University of Oregon on the same starting material (Schwab and Johnston, 2001). The best match is with a 1315\\degC experiment (INT-A13) in terms of mode (6.9:53.7:13.4:25.0:1.0) and glass composition, indicating that the temperature of this initial experiment may be slightly cooler than the target temperature, however the results of this

  6. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  7. Representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homem de Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1991-04-01

    Five types of representations for assembly sequences are reviewed: the directed graph of feasible assembly sequences, the AND/OR graph of feasible assembly sequences, the set of establishment conditions, and two types of sets of precedence relationships. (precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process). The mappings of one representation into the others are established. The correctness and completeness of these representations are established. The results presented are needed in the proof of correctness and completeness of algorithms for the generation of mechanical assembly sequences.

  8. Representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem De Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    Five types of representations for assembly sequences are reviewed: the directed graph of feasible assembly sequences, the AND/OR graph of feasible assembly sequences, the set of establishment conditions, and two types of sets of precedence relationships. (precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process). The mappings of one representation into the others are established. The correctness and completeness of these representations are established. The results presented are needed in the proof of correctness and completeness of algorithms for the generation of mechanical assembly sequences.

  9. Fabrication and transfer assembly of microscale, solid-state light emitting diodes and solar cells for transparent and flexible electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueckner, Eric P.

    Efficiency metrics for some solid-state electronic materials systems have progressed to the point where theoretical limits are being approached. Gallium nitride-based lightemitting diodes and silicon solar cells, for example, have achieved such extraordinarily high performance metrics that only incremental improvements upon them are expected in the next decade of intense research. This pseudo-plateau in performance development means concentrated effort can now be placed on strategic implementation of these materials into platforms that fill a growing demand for high-performance consumer products. Such products have traditionally relied upon large-scale materials, but possibilities now exist for manipulating micro-scale, wafer-based devices in ways that promote improvements in areas of electrical current spreading, light absorption and extraction, and thermal management. To this end, my research has focused on routes to fabricating and assembling solid-state light-emitting diodes and solar cells of indium gallium nitride and single-crystalline silicon, respectively, in configurations which optimize characteristics of their performance. Specifically, I have worked, in collaboration with others, to achieve a processing strategy that creates dense arrays of indium gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on a silicon wafer of (111) orientation and assemble them onto transparent and flexible substrates. This work produced novel form factors for solid-state lighting where small, light-emitting devices were spatially distributed and integrated with color-converting phosphors in ways that controllably tuned their chromaticity. We also demonstrated that incredible passive heat dissipation with these micro-scale elements stemming naturally from their small size and integration with metal films serving dually as an electrically interconnecting medium. The cell design and etching strategies used were then transferred to a single-crystalline silicon system where small, ribbon

  10. Gelation-induced enhanced fluorescence emission from organogels of salicylanilide-containing compounds exhibiting excited-state intramolecular proton transfer: synthesis and self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Manoj Kumar; Kim, Byung-Hwa; Kwon, Ji Eon; Park, Sanghyuk; Seo, Jangwon; Chung, Jong Won; Park, Soo Young

    2010-07-01

    Self-assembly structure, stability, hydrogen-bonding interaction, and optical properties of a new class of low molecular weight organogelators (LMOGs) formed by salicylanilides 3 and 4 have been investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence, as well as theoretical studies by DFT and semiempirical calculations with CI (AM1/PECI=8) methods. It was found that salicylanilides form gels in nonpolar solvents due to pi-stacking interaction complemented by the presence of both inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The supramolecular arrangement in these organogels predicted by XRD shows lamellar and hexagonal columnar structures for gelators 3 and 4, respectively. Of particular interest is the observation of significant fluorescence enhancement accompanying gelation, which was ascribed to the formation of J-aggregates and inhibition of intramolecular rotation in the gel state. PMID:20491121

  11. A Step-by-Step Assembly of a 3D Coordination Polymer in the Solid-State by Desolvation and [2+2] Cycloaddition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Medishetty, Raghavender; Tandiana, Rika; Wu, Jien; Bai, Zhaozhi; Du, Yonghua; Vittal, Jagadese J

    2015-08-17

    Two solid-state structural transformations that occur in a stepwise and a controlled manner are described. A combination of desolvation and cycloaddition reactions has been employed to synthesise a 3D coordination polymer (CP) from 1D CP [Cd(bdc)(4-spy)2 (H2 O)]⋅2 H2 O⋅2 DMF (bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, 4-spy=4-styrylpyridine) presumably via a 2D layered structure, [Cd2 (bdc)2 (4-spy)4 ]. In the absence of single crystals to follow the course of the photocycloaddition reaction, thermogravimetry, XAFS and NOESY NMR experiments were used to propose the formation of layered and pillared layered structures. Further, the present strategy enables us to synthesise new multidimensional architectures that are otherwise inaccessible by the self-assembly process. PMID:26150356

  12. Effects of molecular geometry on the self-assembly of giant polymer-dendron conjugates in condensed state.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue-Hui; Lu, Xiaocun; Ni, Bo; Chen, Ziran; Yue, Kan; Li, Yiwen; Rong, Lixia; Koga, Tadanori; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Newkome, George R; Shi, An-Chang; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Cheng, Stephen Z D

    2014-05-14

    A series of giant polymer-dendron conjugates with a dendron head and a linear polymer tail were synthesized via"click" chemistry between azide-functionalized polystyrene (PS(N), N: degree-of-polymerization) and t-butyl protected, alkyne-functionalized second generation dendron (tD), followed by a deprotection process to generate a dendron termini possessing nine carboxylic acid groups. The molecular structures were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance, size-exclusion chromatographic analyses, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectra. These well-defined conjugates can serve as a model system to study the effects of the molecular geometries on the self-assembly behaviour, as compared with their linear analogues. Four phase morphologies found in flexible linear diblock copolymer systems, including lamellae, bicontinuous double gyroids, hexagonal packed cylinders, and body-centred cubic packed spheres, were observed in this series of conjugates based on the results of small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. All of the domain sizes in these phase separated structures were around or less than 10 nm. A 'half' phase diagram was constructed based on the experimental results. The geometrical effect was found not only to enhance the immiscibility between the PS(N) tail and dendron head, but also systematically shift all of the phase boundaries towards higher volume fractions of the PS(N) tails, resulting in an asymmetrical phase diagram. This study may provide a pathway to the construction of ordered patterns of sub-10 nm feature size using polymer-dendron conjugates. PMID:24718376

  13. Immobilized ferrocenium in tetraurea calix[4]arene heterodimers: Self assembly on gold, electrochemical responses, and detection of redox states by a tip: Towards molecular information storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Songbo

    Calix[4]arene derivatives attached with sulfur functions were allowed to bind on metal surfaces. While they exist as single molecules in polar solvents, calix[4]arenes of this type form dimeric capsules in aprotic, apolar solvents. A solvent molecule is usually included in such a capsule, if no guest with a higher affinity is present. In the presence of an equimolar amount of a tetratosylurea functionalized calix[4]arene, the heterodimers were formed, inclusive guest molecules. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were formed using the single calix[4]arenes with sulfur attachments and the heterodimeric capsules. Chloroform, dichloromethane and ferrocenium cations were used as guests in these immobilized heterodimeric capsules. The particular supramolecular architecture of the heterodimers should ensure after immobilization that decomposition of the capsules and release of the guest is impossible or at least hindered. The self-assembly process, and the inclusion of the various guests, such as dichloromethane or ferrocenium, were investigated with a variety of methods, including classical surface plasmon spectroscopy, gold nanoparticle absorption spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The stability of the ferrocenium filled SAMs in electrolyte solutions and the film quality was tested by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical response of the ferrocenium encapsulated in the heterodimer capsules both in SAMs on a gold disk electrode and in solution was investigated with cyclic voltammetry. The stability of the electrochemically active monolayers was tested by a heat treatment and multiple cycling. Reversible redox reactions for immobilized encapsulated ferrocenium on gold surfaces was demonstrated. The redox states of immobilized encapsulated ferrocenium (filled in calix[4]arene heterodimers) on gold surface were recognized by a tip of a scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The SECM tip can be also used to monitor or change the

  14. Report of the Virginia Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution to the Governor and Virginia General Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, Charlottesville.

    The U.S. Constitution bicentennial celebrations across the state of Virginia have contributed to greater public understanding of the Constitution and enhanced appreciation of the immense contribution that Virginians made to the document. Virginians have discovered that the story of the U.S. founding is also a Virginia story. Even after the…

  15. IAHS General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Helen J.

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) General Assembly, held as part of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) Assembly, August 9-22, 1987, in Vancouver, Canada, had an estimated 500 attendees. At least 20 countries were represented by official delegates. Attendance from the United States is estimated at 120, with Helen J. Peters (California Department of Water Resources, Sacramento) as chief delegate and Marshall E. Moss (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Reston, Va.) as alternate delegate and future chief delegate for the 1991 General Assembly.The Canadian Organizing Committee had done a masterful job of organizing the assembly, with excellent housing and meeting facilities on the University of British Columbia campus. In addition to five symposia and nine workshops, the IAHS Bureau and all commissions and the committees held several meetings. Some excellent social events and tours were included.

  16. Quasi-1D States Confined in a Self-Assembled Organic Super-Lattice of TTF-TCNQ on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seokmin; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Sumpter, Bobby; Cerdá, Jorge Iribas; Maksymovych, Petro; CNMS Team; ICMM-CSIC Team

    2015-03-01

    Organic charge transfer complexes (CTC) have drawn much attention due to their potential applications to conducting or semiconducting organic thin films and contacts in devices. TTF-TCNQ is a historic organic CTC with one of the highest conductivity values among numerous organic conductors. As a two-component molecular material, TTF-TCNQ in a low-dimension form on a surface naturally creates monolayer super-lattices with corrugated electrostatic potential and adsorbate-induced strain. Generally this will lead to strong confinement of the surface states, although the detailed response of the surface electronic structure remains to be understood. We investigated TTF-TCNQ monolayer films grown on Ag(111), Au(111) and Ag(100) surfaces using STM/STS at 4.3 K. Confinement of sp-derived surface states was indeed ubiquitous, including spontaneous formation of quantum dots and quasi-1D bands. The small periodicity of the lattice caused a complete depopulation of the surface states, with up to 1 eV upshift of the band minimum - much stronger effect than normally observed in assemblies. This also allows us to infer the height of the confining potential using 1D Kronig-Penney model and critically assess the long-standing problem of molecule-surface charge transfer. A portion of this research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  17. Geometric reasoning about assembly tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

  18. A Toolbox for Controlling the Energetics and Localization of Electronic States in Self‐Assembled Organic Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Bernhard; Egger, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the nature of the electronic states within organic layers holds the promise of truly molecular electronics. To achieve that we, here, develop a modular concept for a versatile tuning of electronic properties in organic monolayers and their interfaces. The suggested strategy relies on directly exploiting collective electrostatic effects, which emerge naturally in an ensemble of polar molecules. By means of quantum‐mechanical modeling we show that in this way monolayer‐based quantum‐cascades and quantum‐well structures can be realized, which allow a precise control of the local electronic structure and the localization of electronic states. Extending that concept, we furthermore discuss strategies for activating spin sensitivity in specific regions of an organic monolayer.

  19. Reprint of: Out-of-equilibrium dynamics in superspin glass state of strongly interacting magnetic nanoparticle assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamae, Sawako

    2014-11-01

    Interacting magnetic nanoparticles display a wide variety of magnetic behaviors ranging from modified superparamagnetism, superspin glass to possibly, superferromagnetism. The superspin glass state is described by its slow and out-of-equilibrium magnetic behaviors akin to those found in atomic spin glasses. In this article, recent experimental findings on superspin correlation length growth and the violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem obtained in concentrated frozen ferrofluids are presented to illustrate certain out-of-equilibrium dynamics behavior in superspin glasses.

  20. The Human Acid-Sensing Ion Channel ASIC1a: Evidence for a Homotetrameric Assembly State at the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Gautschi, Ivan; Schild, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The chicken acid-sensing ion channel ASIC1 has been crystallized as a homotrimer. We address here the oligomeric state of the functional ASIC1 in situ at the cell surface. The oligomeric states of functional ASIC1a and mutants with additional cysteines introduced in the extracellular pore vestibule were resolved on SDS-PAGE. The functional ASIC1 complexes were stabilized at the cell surface of Xenopus laevis oocytes or CHO cells either using the sulfhydryl crosslinker BMOE, or sodium tetrathionate (NaTT). Under these different crosslinking conditions ASIC1a migrates as four distinct oligomeric states that correspond by mass to multiples of a single ASIC1a subunit. The relative importance of each of the four ASIC1a oligomers was critically dependent on the availability of cysteines in the transmembrane domain for crosslinking, consistent with the presence of ASIC1a homo-oligomers. The expression of ASIC1a monomers, trimeric or tetrameric concatemeric cDNA constructs resulted in functional channels. The resulting ASIC1a complexes are resolved as a predominant tetramer over the other oligomeric forms, after stabilization with BMOE or NaTT and SDS-PAGE/western blot analysis. Our data identify a major ASIC1a homotetramer at the surface membrane of the cell expressing functional ASIC1a channel. PMID:26252376

  1. Self-assembly of PEGylated tetra-phenylalanine derivatives: structural insights from solution and solid state studies

    PubMed Central

    Diaferia, Carlo; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Giannini, Cinzia; Sibillano, Teresa; Morelli, Giancarlo; Leone, Marilisa; Accardo, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble fibers of PEGylated tetra-phenylalanine (F4), chemically modified at the N-terminus with the DOTA chelating agent, have been proposed as innovative contrast agent (CA) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) upon complexation of the gadolinium ion. An in-depth structural characterization of PEGylated F4-fibers, in presence (DOTA-L6-F4) and in absence of DOTA (L6-F4), is reported in solution and at the solid state, by a multiplicity of techniques including CD, FTIR, NMR, DLS, WAXS and SAXS. This study aims to better understand how the aggregation process influences the performance of nanostructures as MRI CAs. Critical aggregation concentrations for L6-F4 (43 μM) and DOTA-L6-F4 (75 μM) indicate that self-aggregation process occurs in the same concentration range, independently of the presence of the CA. The driving force for the aggregation is the π-stacking between the side chains of the aromatic framework. CD, FTIR and WAXS measurements indicate an antiparallel β-sheet organization of the monomers in the resulting fibers. Moreover, WAXS and FTIR experiments point out that in solution the nanomaterials retain the same morphology and monomer organizations of the solid state, although the addition of the DOTA chelating agent affects the size and the degree of order of the fibers. PMID:27220817

  2. Self-assembly of PEGylated tetra-phenylalanine derivatives: structural insights from solution and solid state studies.

    PubMed

    Diaferia, Carlo; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Giannini, Cinzia; Sibillano, Teresa; Morelli, Giancarlo; Leone, Marilisa; Accardo, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble fibers of PEGylated tetra-phenylalanine (F4), chemically modified at the N-terminus with the DOTA chelating agent, have been proposed as innovative contrast agent (CA) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) upon complexation of the gadolinium ion. An in-depth structural characterization of PEGylated F4-fibers, in presence (DOTA-L6-F4) and in absence of DOTA (L6-F4), is reported in solution and at the solid state, by a multiplicity of techniques including CD, FTIR, NMR, DLS, WAXS and SAXS. This study aims to better understand how the aggregation process influences the performance of nanostructures as MRI CAs. Critical aggregation concentrations for L6-F4 (43 μM) and DOTA-L6-F4 (75 μM) indicate that self-aggregation process occurs in the same concentration range, independently of the presence of the CA. The driving force for the aggregation is the π-stacking between the side chains of the aromatic framework. CD, FTIR and WAXS measurements indicate an antiparallel β-sheet organization of the monomers in the resulting fibers. Moreover, WAXS and FTIR experiments point out that in solution the nanomaterials retain the same morphology and monomer organizations of the solid state, although the addition of the DOTA chelating agent affects the size and the degree of order of the fibers. PMID:27220817

  3. Crew Assembly

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve your dexterity and hand-eye coordination by assembling a puzzle.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to set goals, practice ...

  4. J-aggregation, its impact on excited state dynamics and unique solvent effects on macroscopic assembly of a core-substituted naphthalenediimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Haridas; Gehrig, Dominik W.; Laquai, Frédéric; Ghosh, Suhrit

    2015-04-01

    Herein we reveal a straightforward supramolecular design for the H-bonding driven J-aggregation of an amine-substituted cNDI in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals sub-ps intramolecular electron transfer in isolated NDI molecules in a THF solution followed by a fast recombination process, while a remarkable extension of the excited state lifetime by more than one order of magnitude occurred in methylcyclohexane likely owing to an increased charge-separation as a result of better delocalization of the charge-separated states in J-aggregates. We also describe unique solvent-effects on the macroscopic structure and morphology. While J-aggregation with similar photophysical characteristics was noticed in all the tested aliphatic hydrocarbons, the morphology strongly depends on the ``structure'' of the solvents. In linear hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane or n-dodecane), formation of an entangled fibrillar network leads to macroscopic gelation while in cyclic hydrocarbons (methylcyclohexane or cyclohexane) although having a similar polarity, the cNDI exhibits nanoscale spherical particles. These unprecedented solvent effects were rationalized by establishing structure-dependent specific interactions of the solvent molecules with the cNDI which may serve as a general guideline for solvent-induced morphology-control of structurally related self-assembled materials.Herein we reveal a straightforward supramolecular design for the H-bonding driven J-aggregation of an amine-substituted cNDI in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals sub-ps intramolecular electron transfer in isolated NDI molecules in a THF solution followed by a fast recombination process, while a remarkable extension of the excited state lifetime by more than one order of magnitude occurred in methylcyclohexane likely owing to an increased charge-separation as a result of better delocalization of the charge-separated states in J-aggregates. We

  5. Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A.

    2011-06-07

    The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

  6. Fabrication of ultrathin solid electrolyte membranes of β-Li3PS4 nanoflakes by evaporation-induced self-assembly for all-solid-state batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Hui; Hood, Zachary D.; Xia, Younan; Liang, Chengdu

    2016-04-25

    All-solid-state lithium batteries are attractive candidates for next-generation energy storage devices because of their anticipated high energy density and intrinsic safety. Owing to their excellent ionic conductivity and stability with metallic lithium anodes, nanostructured lithium thiophosphate solid electrolytes such as β-Li3PS4 have found use in the fabrication of all-solid lithium batteries for large-scale energy storage systems. However, current methods for preparing air-sensitive solid electrolyte membranes of lithium thiophosphates can only generate thick membranes that compromise the battery's gravimetric/volumetric energy density and thus its rate performance. To overcome this limitation, the solid electrolyte's thickness needs to be effectively decreased to achievemore » ideal energy density and enhanced rate performance. In this paper, we show that the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) technique produces ultrathin membranes of a lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte with controllable thicknesses between 8 and 50 μm while maintaining the high ionic conductivity of β-Li3PS4 and stability with metallic lithium anodes up to 5 V. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated that this facile EISA approach allows for the preparation of ultrathin lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte membranes for all-solid-state batteries.« less

  7. J-aggregation, its impact on excited state dynamics and unique solvent effects on macroscopic assembly of a core-substituted naphthalenediimide.

    PubMed

    Kar, Haridas; Gehrig, Dominik W; Laquai, Frédéric; Ghosh, Suhrit

    2015-04-21

    Herein we reveal a straightforward supramolecular design for the H-bonding driven J-aggregation of an amine-substituted cNDI in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals sub-ps intramolecular electron transfer in isolated NDI molecules in a THF solution followed by a fast recombination process, while a remarkable extension of the excited state lifetime by more than one order of magnitude occurred in methylcyclohexane likely owing to an increased charge-separation as a result of better delocalization of the charge-separated states in J-aggregates. We also describe unique solvent-effects on the macroscopic structure and morphology. While J-aggregation with similar photophysical characteristics was noticed in all the tested aliphatic hydrocarbons, the morphology strongly depends on the "structure" of the solvents. In linear hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane or n-dodecane), formation of an entangled fibrillar network leads to macroscopic gelation while in cyclic hydrocarbons (methylcyclohexane or cyclohexane) although having a similar polarity, the cNDI exhibits nanoscale spherical particles. These unprecedented solvent effects were rationalized by establishing structure-dependent specific interactions of the solvent molecules with the cNDI which may serve as a general guideline for solvent-induced morphology-control of structurally related self-assembled materials. PMID:25805563

  8. Axial Chiral Bisbenzophenazines: Solid-State Self-Assembly via Halide Hydrogen Bonds Triggered by Linear Alkanes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An axial chiral tetrachlorinated bisbenzo[a]phenazine has been discovered that undergoes an alkane-induced shift in the solid state from a disordered amorphous form to an ordered polycrystalline form. This phase transition is caused by the formation of pores that accommodate linear alkanes of varying lengths with a very strong affinity as judged by differential scanning calorimetry. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis revealed that a series of weak phenolic OH···Cl hydrogen bonds dictates the pore structure. These weak interactions can be disrupted mechanically, causing the material to revert to the amorphous form. Notably, the interchange between the amorphous and crystalline forms is readily reversible and is easily observed by characteristic colorimetric changes. Measurements via photoimage processing reveal that the degree of color change is dictated by the type of alkane employed. PMID:25019179

  9. Self-Assembled in-Plane-Gate Thin-Film Transistors Gated by WOx Solid-State Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, De-Ming; Men, Chuan-Ling; Wan, Xiang; Deng, Chuang; Li, Zhen-Peng

    2013-08-01

    Low-voltage WOx gated indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with in-plane-gate structures are fabricated by using an extremely simplified one-shadow mask method at room temperature. The proton conductive WOx solid-state electrolyte is demonstrated to form an electric-double-layer (EDL) effect associated with a huge capacitance of 0.51 μF/cm2. The special EDL capacitance of the WOx electrolyte is also extended to novel in-plane-gate structure TFTs as the gate dielectric, reducing the operating voltage to 1.8 V. Such TFTs operate at n-type depletion mode with a threshold voltage of -0.5 V, saturation electron mobility of 13.2 cm2/V·s, ON/OFF ratio of 1.7 × 106, subthreshold swing of 110 mV/dec, and low leakage current less than 7 nA. The hysteresis window of the transfer curves is also explained by an unique reaction within the WOx electrolyte.

  10. Very large assemblies: Optimizing for automatic generation of assembly sequences

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-02-01

    Sandia's Archimedes 3.0{copyright} Automated Assembly Analysis System has been applied successfully to several large industrial and weapon assemblies. These have included Sandia assemblies such as portions of the B61 bomb, and assemblies from external customers such as Cummins Engine Inc., Raytheon (formerly Hughes) Missile Systems and Sikorsky Aircraft. While Archimedes 3.0{copyright} represents the state-of-the-art in automated assembly planning software, applications of the software made prior to the technological advancements presented here showed several limitations of the system, and identified the need for extensive modifications to support practical analysis of assemblies with several hundred to a few thousand parts. It was believed that there was substantial potential for enhancing Archimedes 3.0{copyright} to routinely handle much larger models and/or to handle more modestly sized assemblies more efficiently. Such a mature assembly analysis capability was needed to support routine application to industrial assemblies that overstressed the system, such as full nuclear weapon assemblies or full-scale aerospace or military vehicles.

  11. Probe assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Avera, C.J.

    1981-01-06

    A hand-held probe assembly, suitable for monitoring a radioactive fibrinogen tracer, is disclosed comprising a substantially cylindrically shaped probe handle having an open end. The probe handle is adapted to be interconnected with electrical circuitry for monitoring radioactivity that is sensed or detected by the probe assembly. Mounted within the probe handle is a probe body assembly that includes a cylindrically shaped probe body inserted through the open end of the probe handle. The probe body includes a photomultiplier tube that is electrically connected with a male connector positioned at the rearward end of the probe body. Mounted at the opposite end of the probe body is a probe head which supports an optical coupler therewithin. The probe head is interconnected with a probe cap which supports a detecting crystal. The probe body assembly, which consists of the probe body, the probe head, and the probe cap is supported within the probe handle by means of a pair of compressible o-rings which permit the probe assembly to be freely rotatable, preferably through 360*, within the probe handle and removable therefrom without requiring any disassembly.

  12. Anion-controlled assembly of silver-di(aminophenyl)sulfone coordination polymers: Syntheses, crystal structures, and solid state luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qi-Long; Hu, Peng; Zhao, Yi; Feng, Guang-Wei; Zhang, Yun-Qian; Zhu, Bi-Xue; Tao, Zhu

    2014-02-15

    Five silver coordination polymers, namely, ([Ag(3,3′-daps){sub 2}]·BF{sub 4}){sub n} (1), ([Ag(3,3′-daps){sub 2}]·NO{sub 3}){sub n} (2), [Ag(3,3′-daps)(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3})]{sub n} (3), ([Ag(4,4′-daps)]·CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub n} (4), and ([Ag(4,4′-daps)]·ClO{sub 4}){sub n} (5) (3,3′-daps=di(3′-aminodiphenyl)sulfone, and 4,4′-daps=di(4′-aminodiphenyl)sulfone) have been synthesized and structural characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Complex 1 displays a 1D ladder-like chain with four-connected Ag ions and bridged 3,3′-daps. Complex 2 shows other 1D ladder chain modified by tentacles. Complex 3 is a 2D layer structure with both Ag ions and 3,3′-daps are 3-connected nodes. Complex 4 is another 1D ladder chain with three-connected Ag ions and 4,4′-daps. Complex 5 shows a 2D 4{sup 4}-sql net with Ag ions and 4,4′-daps as 4-connected nodes. Moreover, their solid state luminescence and thermal stabilities also have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Pictogram: Synthetic procedures of the five anion controlled silver coordination polymers. We reported the synthetic procedures, structure, and luminescence property of the five anion controlled silver coordination polymers based on two novel di(aminophenyl)sulfone V-shaped ligands. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Five new silver coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized. • Two novel designed V-shaped di(aminophenyl)sulfone ligands were first introduced to coordination chemistry. • Anions play important roles in determining the five silver coordination polymers. • The structural diversity and photoluminescence property were also discussed.

  13. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, D.H.

    1999-08-31

    A hinge assembly is disclosed having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf. 8 figs.

  14. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, David Houston

    1999-01-01

    A hinge assembly having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf.

  15. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, J.R.; Harper, W.H.; Perez, R.

    1984-08-17

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing. 2 figs.

  16. Latch assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Frederickson, James R.; Harper, William H.; Perez, Raymond

    1986-01-01

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing.

  17. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  18. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  19. Generation of precedence relations for mechanical assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hui; Sanderson, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Planning of assembly sequences is essential to the manufacturing system design process. Several methodologies have been proposed to represent all the feasible assembly sequences. In this thesis, three algorithms are presented to generate three sets of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks, all the infeasible assembly states, and all the feasible assembly sequences, respectively. The equivalence of the resulting sets of precedence relations to the AND/OR graph is established. A new property, the real time property, of a representation of assembly sequences is defined and discussed. A representation of assembly sequences is said to have the real time property, if it is possible to generate the next assembly task by testing locally in the representation, and it will guarantee that the generated assembly task will not lead the assembly sequence to a dead end situation, in which no feasible assembly task can be performed any more. It is shown that the correctness and completeness of one representation can not guarantee the real time property of the representation. It is proven that the directed graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly states have the real time property, while the AND/OR graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks do not have the real time property. Finally in the thesis, the PLEIDEAS system, a PLanning Environment for Integrated DEsign of Assembly Systems, is described and illustrated by an example.

  20. Hybrid Nanomaterials: One Dimensional Nanoparticle Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Pochan, Darrin

    2007-03-01

    One-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies have potential applications in sensing, as plasmon and energy waveguides and in the conduction of novel signals such as phonons and spin states. Herein we present two strategies for the fabrication of such assemblies. Micro and meso-scale particle assemblies have been produced via a coaxial electrospinning process that results in assemblies of particles (silica and silver) encapsulated within a polymer nanofiber (polyethylene oxide). The method has been demonstrated successfully in the creation of 1D assemblies of differently sized silica particles. The effect of change in solution concentrations and relative flow rates in internal and external channels of the coaxial electrospinning apparatus on the structure of these assemblies has been investigated. Nano-scale assemblies of gold particles have been prepared by templating gold nanoparticles on a 20 amino acid peptide that displays laminated morphology. These assemblies are formed as laterally spaced one-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies.

  1. Cartwheel assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    The cartwheel is a subcentriolar structure consisting of a central hub and nine radially arranged spokes, located at the proximal end of the centriole. It appears at the initial stage of the centriole assembly process as the first ninefold symmetrical structure. The cartwheel was first described more than 50 years ago, but it is only recently that its pivotal role in establishing the ninefold symmetry of the centriole was demonstrated. Significant progress has since been made in understanding its fine structure and assembly mechanism. Most importantly, the central part of the cartwheel, from which the ninefold symmetry originates, is shown to form by self-association of nine dimers of the protein SAS-6. This finding, together with emerging data on other components of the cartwheel, has opened new avenues in centrosome biology. PMID:25047612

  2. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  3. Structural color-tunable mesoporous bragg stack layers based on graft copolymer self-assembly for high-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-08-01

    We present a facile fabrication route for structural color-tunable mesoporous Bragg stack (BS) layers based on the self-assembly of a cost-effective graft copolymer. The mesoporous BS layers are prepared through the alternating deposition of organized mesoporous-TiO2 (OM-TiO2) and -SiO2 (OM-SiO2) films on the non-conducting side of the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The OM layers with controlled porosity, pore size, and refractive index are templated with amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-POEM. The morphology and properties of the structural color-tunable mesoporous BS-functionalized electrodes are characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), spectroscopic ellipsometry, and reflectance spectroscopy. The solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs) based on a structural color-tunable mesoporous BS counter electrode with a single-component solid electrolyte show an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 7.1%, which is much greater than that of conventional nanocrystalline TiO2-based cells and one of the highest values for N719 dye-based ssDSSCs. The enhancement of η is due to the enhancement of current density (Jsc), attributed to the improved light harvesting properties without considerable decrease in fill factor (FF) or open-circuit voltage (Voc), as confirmed by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  4. Assembly and antigenicity of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilus mapped with antibodies.

    PubMed

    Forest, K T; Bernstein, S L; Getzoff, E D; So, M; Tribbick, G; Geysen, H M; Deal, C D; Tainer, J A

    1996-02-01

    The relationship between the sequence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilin and its quaternary assembly into pilus fibers was studied with a set of site-directed antibody probes and by mapping the specificities of antipilus antisera with peptides. Buried and exposed peptides in assembled pili were identified by competitive immunoassays and immunoelectron microscopy with polyclonal antibodies raised against 11 peptides spanning the pilin sequence. Pili did not compete significantly with pilin subunits for binding to antibodies against residues 13 to 31 (13-31) and 18-36. Pilus fibers competed well with pilin protein subunits for binding to antibodies raised against peptides 37-56, 58-78, 110-120, 115-127, 122-139, and 140-159 and competed weakly for antibodies against residues 79-93 and 94-108. Antibodies to sequence-conserved residues 37-56 and to semiconserved residues 94-108 preferentially bound pilus ends as shown by immunoelectron microscopy. The exposure of pilus regions to the immune system was tested by peptide mapping of antiserum specificities against sets of overlapping peptides representing all possible hexameric or octameric peptides from the N. gonorrhoeae MS11 pilin sequence. The immunogenicity of exposed peptides incorporating semiconserved residues 49-56 and 121-126 was revealed by strong, consistent antigenic reactivity to these regions measured in antipilus sera from rabbits, mice, and human and in sera from human volunteers with gonorrhea. The conservation and variation of antigenic responses among these three species clarify the relevance of immunological studies of other species to the human immune response against pathogens. Overall, our results explain the extreme conservation of the entire N-terminal one-third of the pilin protein by its dominant role in pilus assembly: hydrophobic residues 1-36 are implicated in buried lateral contacts, and polar residues 37-56 are implicated in longitudinal contacts within the pilus fiber. PMID:8550220

  5. Assembly and antigenicity of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilus mapped with antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Forest, K T; Bernstein, S L; Getzoff, E D; So, M; Tribbick, G; Geysen, H M; Deal, C D; Tainer, J A

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between the sequence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilin and its quaternary assembly into pilus fibers was studied with a set of site-directed antibody probes and by mapping the specificities of antipilus antisera with peptides. Buried and exposed peptides in assembled pili were identified by competitive immunoassays and immunoelectron microscopy with polyclonal antibodies raised against 11 peptides spanning the pilin sequence. Pili did not compete significantly with pilin subunits for binding to antibodies against residues 13 to 31 (13-31) and 18-36. Pilus fibers competed well with pilin protein subunits for binding to antibodies raised against peptides 37-56, 58-78, 110-120, 115-127, 122-139, and 140-159 and competed weakly for antibodies against residues 79-93 and 94-108. Antibodies to sequence-conserved residues 37-56 and to semiconserved residues 94-108 preferentially bound pilus ends as shown by immunoelectron microscopy. The exposure of pilus regions to the immune system was tested by peptide mapping of antiserum specificities against sets of overlapping peptides representing all possible hexameric or octameric peptides from the N. gonorrhoeae MS11 pilin sequence. The immunogenicity of exposed peptides incorporating semiconserved residues 49-56 and 121-126 was revealed by strong, consistent antigenic reactivity to these regions measured in antipilus sera from rabbits, mice, and human and in sera from human volunteers with gonorrhea. The conservation and variation of antigenic responses among these three species clarify the relevance of immunological studies of other species to the human immune response against pathogens. Overall, our results explain the extreme conservation of the entire N-terminal one-third of the pilin protein by its dominant role in pilus assembly: hydrophobic residues 1-36 are implicated in buried lateral contacts, and polar residues 37-56 are implicated in longitudinal contacts within the pilus fiber. PMID:8550220

  6. Planning Assembly Of Large Truss Structures In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Mello, Luiz S. Homem; Desai, Rajiv S.

    1992-01-01

    Report dicusses developmental algorithm used in systematic planning of sequences of operations in which large truss structures assembled in outer space. Assembly sequence represented by directed graph called "assembly graph", in which each arc represents joining of two parts or subassemblies. Algorithm generates assembly graph, working backward from state of complete assembly to initial state, in which all parts disassembled. Working backward more efficient than working forward because it avoids intermediate dead ends.

  7. Dump assembly

    DOEpatents

    Goldmann, L.H.

    1984-12-06

    This is a claim for a dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough. 4 figs.

  8. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jerry D.

    1987-01-01

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing said magnet away from said carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  9. Shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2007-02-20

    A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. The first edge of one base may be interengageable with the second edge of an adjacent base to be capable of resisting first and second disengaging forces oriented perpendicular to the edges and along planes oriented parallel to and perpendicular to the base. A deflector may be used to help reduce wind uplift forces.

  10. Swivel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael; Bartholomew, David B.; McPherson, James

    2007-03-20

    A swivel assembly for a downhole tool string comprises a first and second coaxial housing cooperatively arranged. The first housing comprises a first transmission element in communication with surface equipment. The second housing comprises a second transmission element in communication with the first transmission element. The second housing further comprises a third transmission element adapted for communication with a network integrated into the downhole tool string. The second housing may be rotational and adapted to transmit a signal between the downhole network and the first housing. Electronic circuitry is in communication with at least one of the transmission elements. The electronic circuitry may be externally mounted to the first or second housing. Further, the electronic circuitry may be internally mounted in the second housing. The electronic circuitry may be disposed in a recess in either first or second housing of the swivel.

  11. RETORT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Loomis, C.C.; Ash, W.J.

    1957-11-26

    An improved retort assembly useful in the thermal reduction of volatilizable metals such as magnesium and calcium is described. In this process a high vacuum is maintained in the retort, however the retort must be heated to very high temperatures while at the same time the unloading end must bo cooled to condense the metal vapors, therefore the retention of the vacuum is frequently difficult due to the thermal stresses involved. This apparatus provides an extended condenser sleeve enclosed by the retort cover which forms the vacuum seal. Therefore, the seal is cooled by the fluid in the condenser sleeve and the extreme thermal stresses found in previous designs together with the deterioration of the sealing gasket caused by the high temperatures are avoided.

  12. Thermocouple assembly

    DOEpatents

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine; Rahal, Fadi Elias

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  13. Microsphere assembly of TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with highly exposed (101) facets and application in a light-trapping quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xiyun; Ruan, Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Hongxia; Zhou, Xingfu

    2015-02-01

    The morphology of nano-titania has a significant effect on the photoelectric properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this study, microsphere assembly of a TiO2 mesoporous nanosheet constructed by nanocuboids was conducted via a simple hydrothermal process. The XRD pattern indicated that the hierarchical mesoporous microspheres are anatase phase with decreased (004) peaks. Raman spectrum shows enhanced Eg peaks at 143 and 638 cm-1 caused by the symmetric stretching vibration of O-Ti-O of the (101) crystalline facet in anatase TiO2. FESEM and TEM images show that well monodispersed TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of 2 μm are assembled by TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with exposed (101) facets. The oriented attachment of TiO2 nanocuboids along the (101) direction leads to the formation of mesoporous titania nanosheets. The UV-Vis spectrum shows that the mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets have high scattering ability and light absorption by dye. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells that incorporate these microspheres into the top scattering layers exhibit a prominent improvement in the power conversion efficiency of 7.51%, which shows a 45.8% increase in the overall conversion efficiency when compared with the spine hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (5.15%). There is the potential application for microsphere assembly of mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with excellent stability.

  14. Modeling and design of a new core-moderator assembly and neutron beam ports for the Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucar, Dundar

    This study is for modeling and designing a new reactor core-moderator assembly and new neutron beam ports that aimed to expand utilization of a new beam hall of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The PSBR is a part of the Radiation Science and Engineering Facility (RSEC) and is a TRIGA MARK III type research reactor with a movable core placed in a large pool and is capable to produce 1MW output. This reactor is a pool-type reactor with pulsing capability up to 2000 MW for 10-20 msec. There are seven beam ports currently installed to the reactor. The PSBR's existing core design limits the experimental capability of the facility, as only two of the seven available neutron beam ports are usable. The finalized design features an optimized result in light of the data obtained from neutronic and thermal-hydraulics analyses as well as geometrical constraints. A new core-moderator assembly was introduced to overcome the limitations of the existing PSBR design, specifically maximizing number of available neutron beam ports and mitigating the hydrogen gamma contamination of the neutron beam channeled in the beam ports. A crescent-shaped moderator is favored in the new PSBR design since it enables simultaneous use of five new neutron beam ports in the facility. Furthermore, the crescent shape sanctions a coupling of the core and moderator, which reduces the hydrogen gamma contamination significantly in the new beam ports. A coupled MURE and MCNP5 code optimization analysis was performed to calculate the optimum design parameters for the new PSBR. Thermal-hydraulics analysis of the new design was achieved using ANSYS Fluent CFD code. In the current form, the PSBR is cooled by natural convection of the pool water. The driving force for the natural circulation of the fluid is the heat generation within the fuel rods. The convective heat data was generated at the reactor's different operating powers by using TRIGSIMS, the fuel management code of the PSBR core. In the CFD

  15. The nucleosomal core histone octamer at 3.1 A resolution: a tripartite protein assembly and a left-handed superhelix.

    PubMed Central

    Arents, G; Burlingame, R W; Wang, B C; Love, W E; Moudrianakis, E N

    1991-01-01

    The structure of the octameric histone core of the nucleosome has been determined by x-ray crystallography to a resolution of 3.1 A. The histone octamer is a tripartite assembly in which a centrally located (H3-H4)2 tetramer is flanked by two H2A-H2B dimers. It has a complex outer surface; depending on the perspective, the structure appears as a wedge or as a flat disk. The disk represents the planar projection of a left-handed proteinaceous superhelix with approximately 28 A pitch. The diameter of the particle is 65 A and the length is 60 A at its maximum and approximately 10 A at its minimum extension; these dimensions are in agreement with those reported earlier by Klug et al. [Klug, A., Rhodes, D., Smith, J., Finch, J. T. & Thomas, J. O. (1980) Nature (London) 287, 509-516]. The folded histone chains are elongated rather than globular and are assembled in a characteristic "handshake" motif. The individual polypeptides share a common central structural element of the helix-loop-helix type, which we name the histone fold. Images PMID:1946434

  16. Electronic Properties and Structure of Assemblies of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots and Ru-Polypyridine Complexes Probed by Steady State and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Koposov, Alexey Y.; Szymanski, Paul; Cardolaccia, Thomas; Meyer, Thomas J.; Klimov, Victor I.; Sykora, Milan

    2011-06-20

    Chemical and electronic interactions between CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) and Ru-polypyridine complexes are studied in solution. It is shown that photoluminescence (PL) can be used to effectively monitor the formation of NQD-complex assemblies in real time. It is also shown that with the aid of Langmuir isotherm modeling, the PL studies can be used to quantitatively characterize the composition of the assemblies and the strength of electronic interactions between their components. The approach demonstrated here is general and can be applied to other systems that combine semiconductor NQDs and appropriately functionalized organometallic or organic molecules interacting with NQDs via energy transfer, charge transfer, or other mechanisms leading to quenching of NQD emission.

  17. IAHS Third Scientific Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) convened its Third Scientific Assembly in Baltimore, Md., May 10-19, 1989. The Assembly was attended by about 450 scientists and engineers. The attendance was highest from the U.S., as could be expected; 37 were from Canada; 22 each, Netherlands and United Kingdom; 14, Italy; 12, China; 10, Federal Republic of Germany; 8 each from France, the Republic of South Africa, and Switzerland; 7, Austria; 6 each, Finland and Japan; others were scattered among the remainder of 48 countries total.one of the cosponsors and also handled business matters for the Assembly. Other cosponsors included the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and U.K. Overseas Development Authority (ODA). U.S. federal agencies serving as cosponsors included the Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, National Weather Service, Department of Agriculture, Department of State, and U.S. Geological Survey.

  18. International Space Station Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  19. Role of the protective antigen octamer in the molecular mechanism of anthrax lethal toxin stabilization in plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kintzer, Alexander F.; Sterling, Harry J.; Tang, Iok I.; Abdul-Gader, Ali; Miles, Andrew J.; Wallace, B. A.; Williams, Evan R.; Krantz, Bryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthrax is caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis that produce two key virulence factors, anthrax toxin (Atx) and a poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule. Atx is comprised of three-proteins: protective antigen (PA) and two enzymes, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF). To disrupt cell function, these components must assemble into holotoxin complexes, which contain either a ring-shaped homooctameric or homoheptameric PA oligomer bound to multiple copies of either LF and/or EF, producing lethal toxin (LT), edema toxin, or mixtures thereof. Once a host cell endocytoses these complexes, PA converts into a membrane-inserted channel that translocates LF and EF into the cytosol. LT may assemble on host cell surfaces or extracellularly in plasma. We show that under physiological conditions in bovine plasma that LT complexes containing heptameric PA aggregate and inactivate more readily than LT complexes containing octameric PA. LT complexes containing octameric PA possess enhanced stability, channel forming activity, and macrophage cytotoxicity relative to those containing heptameric PA. Under physiological conditions, multiple biophysical probes reveal that heptameric PA can prematurely adopt the channel conformation, but octameric PA complexes remain in their soluble prechannel configuration allowing them to resist aggregation and inactivation. We conclude that PA may form an octameric oligomeric state as a means to produce a more stable and active LT complex that may circulate freely in the blood. PMID:20433851

  20. Current challenges in de novo plant genome sequencing and assembly

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genome sequencing is now affordable, but assembling plant genomes de novo remains challenging. We assess the state of the art of assembly and review the best practices for the community. PMID:22546054

  1. "Assembling" the Ideal Learner: The School Assembly as Regulatory Ritual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbert, Patti; Jacklin, Heather

    2015-01-01

    "School assemblies" are rituals that celebrate and mark the school community. They carry messages of allegiance and belonging that are disseminated both verbally and nonverbally. Although verbal messages are explicitly stated, nonverbal messages are conveyed through subjection to habits, rules, and orders (Foucault 1977) and are…

  2. Radiation Chemistry in Organized Assemblies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S.

    1981-01-01

    Expands the basic concepts regarding the radiation chemistry of simple aqueous systems to more complex, but well defined, organized assemblies. Discusses the differences in behavior in comparison to simple systems. Reviews these techniques: pulse radiolysis, laser flash, photolysis, and steady state irradiation by gamma rays or light. (CS)

  3. Microsphere assembly of TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with highly exposed (101) facets and application in a light-trapping quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiyun; Ruan, Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Hongxia; Zhou, Xingfu

    2015-02-28

    The morphology of nano-titania has a significant effect on the photoelectric properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this study, microsphere assembly of a TiO2 mesoporous nanosheet constructed by nanocuboids was conducted via a simple hydrothermal process. The XRD pattern indicated that the hierarchical mesoporous microspheres are anatase phase with decreased (004) peaks. Raman spectrum shows enhanced Eg peaks at 143 and 638 cm(-1) caused by the symmetric stretching vibration of O-Ti-O of the (101) crystalline facet in anatase TiO2. FESEM and TEM images show that well monodispersed TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of 2 μm are assembled by TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with exposed (101) facets. The oriented attachment of TiO2 nanocuboids along the (101) direction leads to the formation of mesoporous titania nanosheets. The UV-Vis spectrum shows that the mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets have high scattering ability and light absorption by dye. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells that incorporate these microspheres into the top scattering layers exhibit a prominent improvement in the power conversion efficiency of 7.51%, which shows a 45.8% increase in the overall conversion efficiency when compared with the spine hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (5.15%). There is the potential application for microsphere assembly of mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with excellent stability. PMID:25631573

  4. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  5. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Precechtel, Donald R.; Smith, Bob G.; Knight, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  6. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Knight, R.C.; Precechtel, D.R.; Smith, B.G.

    1985-09-09

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  7. Structural assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J. W.; Pruett, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    A cost algorithm for predicting assembly costs for large space structures is given. Assembly scenarios are summarized which describe the erection, deployment, and fabrication tasks for five large space structures. The major activities that impact total costs for structure assembly from launch through deployment and assembly to scientific instrument installation and checkout are described. Individual cost elements such as assembly fixtures, handrails, or remote minipulators are also presented.

  8. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  9. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  10. OSU Team Assembles X-Hab Loft

    NASA Video Gallery

    This time lapse video shows the Oklahoma State University team in the process of assembling and inflating the loft they've built for the first X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge. OSU is one of thr...

  11. Structural assembly demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The experiment is of an operational variety, designed to assess crew capability in Large Space System (LSS) assembly. The six Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment objectives include: (1) the establishment of a quantitative correlation between LSS neutral buoyancy simulation and on-orbit assembly operations in order to enhance the validity of those assembly simulations; (2) the quantitative study of the capabilities and mechanics of human assembly in an Extravehicular Activity environment; (3) the further corroboration of the LSS Assembly Analysis cost algorithm through the obtainment of hard data base information; (4) the verification of LSS assembly techniques and timeless, as well as the identification of crew imposed loads and assembly aid requirements and concepts; (5) verification of a Launch/Assembly Platform structure concept for other LSS missions; and (6) lastly, to advance thermal control concepts through a flexible heat pipe.

  12. 75 FR 71412 - Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference AGENCY... the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States to consider particular... meeting in plenary session constitutes the Assembly of the Conference (5 U.S.C. 595). The Assembly...

  13. Firearm trigger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  14. 50 CFR 26.36 - Public assemblies and meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public assemblies and meetings. 26.36 Section 26.36 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... assemblies and meetings. (a) Public meetings, assemblies, demonstrations, parades and other...

  15. Ground-State Electronic Structure of RC-LH1 and LH2 Pigment Assemblies of Purple Bacteria via the EBF-MO Method.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Kushal; Jakubikova, Elena

    2015-08-20

    Light-harvesting antennas are protein-pigment complexes that play a crucial role in natural photosynthesis. The antenna complexes absorb light and transfer energy to photosynthetic reaction centers where charge separation occurs. This work focuses on computational studies of the electronic structure of the pigment networks of light-harvesting complex I (LH1), LH1 with the reaction center (RC-LH1), and light-harvesting complex II (LH2) found in purple bacteria. As the pigment networks of LH1, RC-LH1, and LH2 contain thousands of atoms, conventional density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio calculations of these systems are not computationally feasible. Therefore, we utilize DFT in conjunction with the energy-based fragmentation with molecular orbitals method and a semiempirical approach employing the extended Hückel model Hamiltonian to determine the electronic properties of these pigment assemblies. Our calculations provide a deeper understanding of the electronic structure of natural light-harvesting complexes, especially their pigment networks, which could assist in rational design of artificial photosynthetic devices. PMID:26215074

  16. Space assembly methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, J. W.; Watters, H. H.

    1981-02-01

    Large space structure assembly analysis techniques are defined and simulation activities are described. The simulations included are: an extravehicular activity assembly simulation; a fabricated beam assembly series using a beam generating machine end caps, and cross beam brackets; deployment of a deployable truss, using the neutral buoyancy remote manipulator system with crewman assistance; and a series aboard the KC-135 zero g aircraft.

  17. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  18. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  19. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David H.

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  20. Coarse-grained Simulations of Viral Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrad, Oren M.

    2011-12-01

    The formation of viral capsids is a marvel of natural engineering and design. A large number (from 60 to thousands) of protein subunits assemble into complete, reproducible structures under a variety of conditions while avoiding kinetic and thermodynamic traps. Small single-stranded RNA viruses not only assemble their coat proteins in this fashion but also package their genome during the self-assembly process. Recent experiments have shown that the coat proteins are competent to assemble not merely around their own genomes but heterologous RNA, synthetic polyanions and even functionalized gold nanoparticles. Remarkably these viruses can even assemble around cargo not commensurate with their native state by adopting different morphologies. Understanding the properties that confer such exquisite precision and flexibility to the assembly process could aid biomedical research in the search for novel antiviral remedies, drug-delivery vehicles and contrast agents used in bioimaging. At the same time, viral assembly provides an excellent model system for the development of a statistical mechanical understanding of biological self-assembly, in the hopes of that we will identify some universal principles that underly such processes. This work consists of computational studies using coarse-grained representations of viral coat proteins and their cargoes. We find the relative strength of protein-cargo and protein-protein interactions has a profound effect on the assembly pathway, in some cases leading to assembly mechanisms that are markedly different from those found in previous work on the assembly of empty capsids. In the case of polymeric cargo, we find the first evidence for a previously theorized mechanism in which the polymer actively participates in recruiting free subunits to the assembly process through cooperative polymer-protein motions. We find that successful assembly is non-monotonic in protein-cargo affinity, such affinity can be detrimental to assembly if it

  1. A Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based System Provides Insight into the Ordered Assembly of Yeast Septin Hetero-octamers*

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Elizabeth A.; Vane, Eleanor W.; Dovala, Dustin; Thorner, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies in both budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in human cells have established that septin protomers assemble into linear hetero-octameric rods with 2-fold rotational symmetry. In mitotically growing yeast cells, five septin subunits are expressed (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12, and Shs1) and assemble into two types of rods that differ only in their terminal subunit: Cdc11-Cdc12-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Cdc12-Cdc11 and Shs1-Cdc12-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Cdc12-Shs1. EM analysis has shown that, under low salt conditions, the Cdc11-capped rods polymerize end to end to form long paired filaments, whereas Shs1-capped rods form arcs, spirals, and rings. To develop a facile method to study septin polymerization in vitro, we exploited our previous work in which we generated septin complexes in which all endogenous cysteine (Cys) residues were eliminated by site-directed mutagenesis, except an introduced E294C mutation in Cdc11 in these experiments. Mixing samples of a preparation of such single-Cys containing Cdc11-capped rods that have been separately derivatized with organic dyes that serve as donor and acceptor, respectively, for FRET provided a spectroscopic method to monitor filament assembly mediated by Cdc11-Cdc11 interaction and to measure its affinity under specified conditions. Modifications of this same FRET scheme also allow us to assess whether Shs1-capped rods are capable of end to end association either with themselves or with Cdc11-capped rods. This FRET approach also was used to follow the binding to septin filaments of a septin-interacting protein, the type II myosin-binding protein Bni5. PMID:26416886

  2. Interconnect assembly for an electronic assembly and assembly method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Gerbsch, Erich William

    2003-06-10

    An interconnect assembly and method for a semiconductor device, in which the interconnect assembly can be used in lieu of wirebond connections to form an electronic assembly. The interconnect assembly includes first and second interconnect members. The first interconnect member has a first surface with a first contact and a second surface with a second contact electrically connected to the first contact, while the second interconnect member has a flexible finger contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member. The first interconnect member is adapted to be aligned and registered with a semiconductor device having a contact on a first surface thereof, so that the first contact of the first interconnect member electrically contacts the contact of the semiconductor device. Consequently, the assembly method does not require any wirebonds, but instead merely entails aligning and registering the first interconnect member with the semiconductor device so that the contacts of the first interconnect member and the semiconductor device make electrically contact, and then contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member with the flexible finger of the second interconnect member.

  3. The dimer state of GyrB is an active form: implications for the initial complex assembly and processive strand passage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinjun; Zhang, Zhiping; Mitchenall, Lesley A.; Maxwell, Anthony; Deng, Jiaoyu; Zhang, Hongtai; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Xian-En; Bi, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we presented the dimer structure of DNA gyrase B′ domain (GyrB C-terminal domain) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and proposed a ‘sluice-like’ model for T-segment transport. However, the role of the dimer structure is still not well understood. Cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that the dimer structure exists both in the B′ protein and in the full-length GyrB in solution. The cross-linked dimer of GyrB bound GyrA very weakly, but bound dsDNA with a much higher affinity than that of the monomer state. Using cross-linking and far-western analyses, the dimer state of GyrB was found to be involved in the ternary GyrA–GyrB–DNA complex. The results of mutational studies reveal that the dimer structure represents a state before DNA cleavage. Additionally, these results suggest that the dimer might also be present between the cleavage and reunion steps during processive transport. PMID:21745817

  4. An Atomistic View of Amyloidogenic Self-assembly: Structure and Dynamics of Heterogeneous Conformational States in the Pre-nucleation Phase.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Dirk; Gapsys, Vytautas; Brennecke, Julian T; de Groot, Bert L

    2016-01-01

    The formation of well-defined filamentous amyloid structures involves a polydisperse collection of oligomeric states for which relatively little is known in terms of structural organization. Here we use extensive, unbiased explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the structural and dynamical features of oligomeric aggregates formed by a number of highly amyloidogenic peptides at atomistic resolution on the μs time scale. A consensus approach has been adopted to analyse the simulations in multiple force fields, yielding an in-depth characterization of pre-fibrillar oligomers and their global and local structure properties. A collision cross section analysis revealed structurally heterogeneous aggregate ensembles for the individual oligomeric states that lack a single defined quaternary structure during the pre-nucleation phase. To gain insight into the conformational space sampled in early aggregates, we probed their substructure and found emerging β-sheet subunit layers and a multitude of ordered intermolecular β-structure motifs with growing aggregate size. Among those, anti-parallel out-of-register β-strands compatible with toxic β-barrel oligomers were particularly prevalent already in smaller aggregates and formed prior to ordered fibrillar structure elements. Notably, also distinct fibril-like conformations emerged in the oligomeric state and underscore the notion that pre-nucleated oligomers serve as a critical intermediate step on-pathway to fibrils. PMID:27616019

  5. Telerobotic truss assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Philip L.

    1987-01-01

    The ACCESS truss was telerobotically assembled in order to gain experience with robotic assembly of hardware designed for astronaut extravehicular (EVA) assembly. Tight alignment constraints of the ACCESS hardware made telerobotic assembly difficult. A wider alignment envelope and a compliant end effector would have reduced the problem. The manipulator had no linear motion capability, but many of the assembly operations required straight line motion. The manipulator was attached to a motion table in order to provide the X, Y, and Z translations needed. A programmable robot with linear translation capability would have eliminated the need for the motion table and streamlined the assembly. Poor depth perception was a major problem. Shaded paint schemes and alignment lines were helpful in reducing this problem. The four cameras used worked well for only some operations. It was not possible to identify camera locations that worked well for all assembly steps. More cameras or movable cameras would have simplified some operations. The audio feedback system was useful.

  6. Well-defined, persistent, chiral phthalocyanine nanoclusters via G-quadruplex assembly.

    PubMed

    García-Iglesias, Miguel; Torres, Tomas; González-Rodríguez, David

    2016-07-19

    Octameric near-IR dye nanoclusters are produced by complexation of potassium cations with a phthalocyanine-guanosine conjugate. The combination of hydrogen-bonding, K(+) coordination, π-π stacking and steric interactions between the chiral side groups is responsible for defining a specific helical chromophore arrangement in the clusters, which display high stability and maintain their supramolecular identity onto substrates. PMID:27377372

  7. Landau-level mixing, floating-up extended states, and scaling behavior in a GaAs-based two-dimensional electron system containing self-assembled InAs dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chi-Te; Liu, Chieh-Wen; Liu, Chieh-I.; Kim, Gil-Ho; Huang, C. F.; Hang, Da-Ren; Ritchie, D. A.

    Temperature-driven flow lines corresponding to Landau level filling factor ν = 2 ~ 4 were studied in the σxx -σxy plane in a GaAs-based two-dimensional electron system with self-assembled InAs dots. In the insulator-quantum Hall (I-QH) transition resulting from the floating-up extended states, the flow diagram showed the validity of the scaling and we observed the expected semicircle. On the other hand, the curve σxx (σxy) in the low-field insulator demonstrated the existence of Landau-level mixing. By decreasing the effective disorder, we found that such flow lines can leave the I-QH regime and follow the scaling for the plateau transition between ν = 4 and 2. The semicircle in the observed I-QH transition, in fact, originated from the distortion on the plateau-transition curve due to Landau-level mixing. Our study showed the importance of the level-mixing effects to the scaling and semicircle law as the extended states float up. We thank the MOST, Taiwan (Grant Number: MOST 104-2622-8-002 -003) for financial support.

  8. Managing Coil Epoxy Vacuum Impregnation Systems at the Manufacturing Floor Level To Achieve Ultimate Properties in State-of-the-Art Magnet Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Hubrig; G.H. Biallas

    2005-05-01

    Liquid epoxy resin impregnation systems remain a state-of-the-art polymer material for vacuum and vacuum/pressure impregnation applications in the manufacture of both advanced and conventional coil winding configurations. Epoxy resins inherent latitude in processing parameters accounts for their continued popularity in engineering applications, but also for the tendency to overlook or misinterpret the requisite processing parameters on the manufacturing floor. Resin system impregnation must be managed in detail in order to achieve device life cycle reliability. This closer look reveals how manufacturing floor level management of material acceptance, handling and storage, pre- and post- impregnation processing and cure can be built into a manufacturing plan to increase manufacturing yield, lower unit cost and ensure optimum life cycle performance of the coil.

  9. Resolution and measurement of heteronuclear dipolar couplings of a noncrystalline protein immobilized in a biological supramolecular assembly by proton-detected MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Ho; Yang, Chen; Opella, Stanley J.; Mueller, Leonard J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional 15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift and three-dimensional 1H-15N dipolar coupling/15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift MAS solid-state NMR correlation spectra of the filamentous bacteriophage Pf1 major coat protein show single-site resolution in noncrystalline, intact-phage preparations. The high sensitivity and resolution result from 1H detection at 600 MHz under 50 kHz magic angle spinning using ∼0.5 mg of perdeuterated and uniformly 15N-labeled protein in which the exchangeable amide sites are partially or completely back-exchanged (reprotonated). Notably, the heteronuclear 1H-15N dipolar coupling frequency dimension is shown to select among 15N resonances, which will be useful in structural studies of larger proteins where the resonances exhibit a high degree of overlap in multidimensional chemical shift correlation spectra.

  10. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  11. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies.

    PubMed

    Suiter, Christopher L; Quinn, Caitlin M; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates. PMID:25797001

  12. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  13. Computing by molecular self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jonoska, Nataša; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews two computing models by DNA self-assembly whose proof of principal have recently been experimentally confirmed. The first model incorporates DNA nano-devices and triple crossover DNA molecules to algorithmically arrange non-DNA species. This is achieved by simulating a finite-state automaton with output where golden nanoparticles are assembled to read-out the result. In the second model, a complex DNA molecule representing a graph emerges as a solution of a computational problem. This supports the idea that in molecular self-assembly computing, it may be necessary to develop the notion of shape processing besides the classical approach through symbol processing. PMID:23919130

  14. Precedence relationship representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homendemello, L. S.; Sanderson, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of precedence relationship representations for mechanical assembly sequences are presented: precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between two parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process. Precedence relationship representations have the advantage of being very compact. The problem with these representations was how to guarantee their correctness and completeness. Two theorems are presented each of which leads to the generation of one type of precedence relationship representation guaranteeing its correctness and completeness for a class of assemblies.

  15. 8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate and octanesulphonate co-assembled layered double hydroxide and its controllable solid-state luminescence by hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dang Sile; Yan Dongpeng; Lu Jun

    2012-01-15

    8-Hydroxy-pyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate (HPTS) and octanesulphonate (OS) have been co-intercalated into the ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) host by a hydrothermal co-precipitation method, with samples denoted as HPTS (x%)-OS/Zn{sub 2}Al-LDH (x stands for the molar percentage content of HPTS with respect to total amount of HPTS and OS). The structure and chemical compositions of the as-prepared compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elemental analysis. The steady-state and time-decay fluorescent studies show that HPTS (2%)-OS/Zn{sub 2}Al-LDH has the optimal luminous emission and the longest fluorescent lifetime. Moreover, these samples exhibit controllable dual fluorescence between the blue and green regions upon changing the interlayer HPTS content, external pH values, and host-guest interaction, illustrating that these organic-inorganic samples have potential application in the field of tunable solid luminescent materials. - Graphical Abstract: 8-Hydroxy-pyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate and octanesulfonate co-intercalated ZnAl layered double hydroxide can exhibit tunable solid-state blue and green fluorescence by treating the sample at acid and neutral media under hydrothermal condition. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 8-hydroxy-pyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate (HPTS) was intercalated into ZnAl LDHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They show the controllable dual fluorescence response to the HPTS content and pH values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence of the HPTS/LDH film was insensitive to the quencher (Cu{sup 2+}) concentration.

  16. Photovoltaic assemblies and methods for transporting

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Campbell, Matt; Sandler, Reuben; Wares, Brian; Wayman, Elizabeth

    2014-08-05

    A PV assembly including framework, PV laminate(s), and a stiffening device. The framework includes a perimeter frame at least 10 feet in length and at least 5 feet in width. The PV laminate(s) are assembled to the perimeter frame to define a receiving zone having a depth of not more than 8 inches. The stiffening device is associated with the framework and is configured to provide a first state and a second state. In the first state, an entirety of the stiffening device is maintained within the receiving zone. In the second state, at least a portion of the stiffening device projects from the receiving zone. The stiffening device enhances a stiffness of the PV assembly in a plane of the perimeter frame, and can include rods defining truss structures.

  17. Photovoltaic assemblies and methods for transporting

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Campbell, Matt; Sandler, Reuben; Wares, Brian; Wayman, Elizabeth

    2013-09-17

    A PV assembly including framework, PV laminate(s), and a stiffening device. The framework includes a perimeter frame at least 10 feet in length and at least 5 feet in width. The PV laminate(s) are assembled to the perimeter frame to define a receiving zone having a depth of not more than 8 inches. The stiffening device is associated with the framework and is configured to provide a first state and a second state. In the first state, an entirety of the stiffening device is maintained within the receiving zone. In the second state, at least a portion of the stiffening device projects from the receiving zone. The stiffening device enhances a stiffness of the PV assembly in a plane of the perimeter frame, and can include rods defining truss structures.

  18. Wind turbine rotor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, H. W.

    1984-11-20

    A vertical axis wind turbine having a horizontal arm member which supports an upright blade assembly. Bearing structure coupling the blade assembly to the turbine arm permits blade movement about its longitudinal axis as well as flexing motion of the blade assembly about axes perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. A latching mechanism automatically locks the blade assembly to its supporting arm during normal turbine operation and automatically unlocks same when the turbine is at rest. For overspeed prevention, a centrifugally actuated arm functions to unlatch the blade assembly permitting same to slipstream or feather into the wind. Manually actuated means are also provided for unlatching the moving blade assembly. The turbine arm additionally carries a switching mechanism in circuit with a turbine generator with said mechanism functioning to open and hence protect the generator circuit in the event of an overspeed condition of the turbine.

  19. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  20. dipSPAdes: Assembler for Highly Polymorphic Diploid Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Bankevich, Anton; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While the number of sequenced diploid genomes have been steadily increasing in the last few years, assembly of highly polymorphic (HP) diploid genomes remains challenging. As a result, there is a shortage of tools for assembling HP genomes from the next generation sequencing (NGS) data. The initial approaches to assembling HP genomes were proposed in the pre-NGS era and are not well suited for NGS projects. To address this limitation, we developed the first de Bruijn graph assembler, dipSPAdes, for HP genomes that significantly improves on the state-of-the-art assemblers for HP diploid genomes. PMID:25734602

  1. Nonequilibrium structure in sequential assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexander V.; Craven, Galen T.; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2015-11-01

    The assembly of monomeric constituents into molecular superstructures through sequential-arrival processes has been simulated and theoretically characterized. When the energetic interactions allow for complete overlap of the particles, the model is equivalent to that of the sequential absorption of soft particles on a surface. In the present work, we consider more general cases by including arbitrary aggregating geometries and varying prescriptions of the connectivity network. The resulting theory accounts for the evolution and final-state configurations through a system of equations governing structural generation. We find that particle geometries differ significantly from those in equilibrium. In particular, variations of structural rigidity and morphology tune particle energetics and result in significant variation in the nonequilibrium distributions of the assembly in comparison to the corresponding equilibrium case.

  2. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  3. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  4. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  5. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Carolyn

    1993-01-01

    A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  6. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  7. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  8. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Kitts, Paul A; Church, Deanna M; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site. PMID:26578580

  9. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, Paul A.; Church, Deanna M.; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site. PMID:26578580

  10. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future. PMID:25532951

  11. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  12. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  13. Automated assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Sandanand; Dwivedi, Suren N.; Soon, Toh Teck; Bandi, Reddy; Banerjee, Soumen; Hughes, Cecilia

    1989-01-01

    The installation of robots and their use of assembly in space will create an exciting and promising future for the U.S. Space Program. The concept of assembly in space is very complicated and error prone and it is not possible unless the various parts and modules are suitably designed for automation. Certain guidelines are developed for part designing and for an easy precision assembly. Major design problems associated with automated assembly are considered and solutions to resolve these problems are evaluated in the guidelines format. Methods for gripping and methods for part feeding are developed with regard to the absence of gravity in space. The guidelines for part orientation, adjustments, compliances and various assembly construction are discussed. Design modifications of various fasteners and fastening methods are also investigated.

  14. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  15. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  16. Assembly reflects evolution of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Levy, Emmanuel D; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Robinson, Carol V; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2008-06-26

    A homomer is formed by self-interacting copies of a protein unit. This is functionally important, as in allostery, and structurally crucial because mis-assembly of homomers is implicated in disease. Homomers are widespread, with 50-70% of proteins with a known quaternary state assembling into such structures. Despite their prevalence, their role in the evolution of cellular machinery and the potential for their use in the design of new molecular machines, little is known about the mechanisms that drive formation of homomers at the level of evolution and assembly in the cell. Here we present an analysis of over 5,000 unique atomic structures and show that the quaternary structure of homomers is conserved in over 70% of protein pairs sharing as little as 30% sequence identity. Where quaternary structure is not conserved among the members of a protein family, a detailed investigation revealed well-defined evolutionary pathways by which proteins transit between different quaternary structure types. Furthermore, we show by perturbing subunit interfaces within complexes and by mass spectrometry analysis, that the (dis)assembly pathway mimics the evolutionary pathway. These data represent a molecular analogy to Haeckel's evolutionary paradigm of embryonic development, where an intermediate in the assembly of a complex represents a form that appeared in its own evolutionary history. Our model of self-assembly allows reliable prediction of evolution and assembly of a complex solely from its crystal structure. PMID:18563089

  17. Dynamic Nanoparticles Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LIBING; XU, LIGUANG; KUANG, HUA; XU, CHUANLAI; KOTOV, NICHOLAS A.

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Importance Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple sizes of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously formed superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the ‘bottom-up’ fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Classification Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces) are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable superstructures with a nearly constant number same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation and/or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of a molecule from atoms. Finer classification of NP assemblies in accord with established conventions

  18. Protective helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Weiss, Fred R. (Inventor); Eck, John D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a protective helmet assembly with improved safety and impact resistance, high resistance to ignition and combustion, and reduced offgassing. The assembly comprises a hard rigid ballistic outer shell with one or more impact absorbing pads fitted to the interior surface. The pads are made of open cell flexible polyimide foam material, each of which is attached to the inner surface of the ballistic outer shell by cooperative VELCRO fastener strips of hook-and-loop material affixed respectively to the rigid outer shell and the impact absorbing pads. The helmet assembly with shell and pads is sized to fit relatively close over a wearer's head.

  19. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  20. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  1. Hypergolic Ignitor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Eric S. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Martin, Michael A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An ignitor for use with the MC-I rocket engine has a cartridge bounded by two end caps with rupture disc assemblies connected thereto. A piston assembly within the cartridge moves from one end of the cartridge during the ignition process. The inlet of the ignitor communicates with a supply taken from the discharge of the fuel pump. When the pump is initially started, the pressure differential bursts the first rupture disc to begin the movement of the piston assembly toward the discharge end. The pressurization of the cartridge causes the second rupture to rupture and hypergolic fluid contained within the cartridge is discharged out the outlet. Once the piston assembly reaches the discharge end of the cartridge, purge grooves allow for fuel and remaining hypergolic fluid, to be discharged out the ignitor outlet into the combustion chamber to purge the ignitor of any remaining hypergolic fluid.

  2. Swipe transfer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, Robert M.; Mills, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately 240.degree. relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of 120.degree. from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

  3. Automated Assembly Center (AAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: to integrate advanced assembly and assembly support technology under a comprehensive architecture; to implement automated assembly technologies in the production of high-visibility DOD weapon systems; and to document the improved cost, quality, and lead time. This will enhance the production of DOD weapon systems by utilizing the latest commercially available technologies combined into a flexible system that will be able to readily incorporate new technologies as they emerge. Automated assembly encompasses the following areas: product data, process planning, information management policies and framework, three schema architecture, open systems communications, intelligent robots, flexible multi-ability end effectors, knowledge-based/expert systems, intelligent workstations, intelligent sensor systems, and PDES/PDDI data standards.

  4. Magnetostrictive valve assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A magnetostrictive valve assembly includes a housing that defines a passage with a seat being formed therein. A magnetically-biased and axially-compressed magnetostrictive assembly slidingly fitted in the passage is configured as a hollow and open-ended conduit adapted to support a flow of a fluid therethrough. Current-carrying coil(s) disposed about the passage in the region of the magnetostrictive assembly generate a magnetic field in the passage when current flows through the coil(s). A hollow valve body with side ports is coupled on one end thereof to an axial end of the magnetostrictive assembly. The other end of the valve body is designed to seal with the seat formed in the housing's passage when brought into contact therewith.

  5. Core assembly storage structure

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Charles E.; Brunings, Jay E.

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  6. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  7. Integrated thruster assembly program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The program is reported which has provided technology for a long life, high performing, integrated ACPS thruster assembly suitable for use in 100 typical flights of a space shuttle vehicle over a ten year period. The four integrated thruster assemblies (ITA) fabricated consisted of: propellant injector; a capacitive discharge, air gap torch type igniter assembly; fast response igniter and main propellant valves; and a combined regen-dump film cooled chamber. These flightweight 6672 N (1500 lb) thruster assemblies employed GH2/GO2 as propellants at a chamber pressure of 207 N/sq cm (300 psia). Test data were obtained on thrusted performance, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, dynamic response in pulsing, and cycle life. One thruster was fired in excess of 42,000 times.

  8. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  9. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  10. The proteasome assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Madura, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of the proteasome — the cellular machine that eliminates unwanted proteins — is a carefully choreographed affair, involving a complex sequence of steps overseen by dedicated protein chaperones. PMID:19516331

  11. Theseus Assembly Sequence #3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft being assembled at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was

  12. Dissipative self-assembly of vesicular nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subhabrata; Fortunati, Ilaria; Ferrante, Camilla; Scrimin, Paolo; Prins, Leonard J

    2016-07-01

    Dissipative self-assembly is exploited by nature to control important biological functions, such as cell division, motility and signal transduction. The ability to construct synthetic supramolecular assemblies that require the continuous consumption of energy to remain in the functional state is an essential premise for the design of synthetic systems with lifelike properties. Here, we show a new strategy for the dissipative self-assembly of functional supramolecular structures with high structural complexity. It relies on the transient stabilization of vesicles through noncovalent interactions between the surfactants and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which acts as the chemical fuel. It is shown that the lifetime of the vesicles can be regulated by controlling the hydrolysis rate of ATP. The vesicles sustain a chemical reaction but only as long as chemical fuel is present to keep the system in the out-of-equilibrium state. The lifetime of the vesicles determines the amount of reaction product produced by the system. PMID:27325101

  13. Recuperator assembly and procedures

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D.

    2008-08-26

    A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

  14. High speed door assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  15. ASSEMBLY OF PARALLEL PLATES

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Lennox, D.H.

    1963-04-23

    This invention is concerned with a rigid assembly of parallel plates in which keyways are stamped out along the edges of the plates and a self-retaining key is inserted into aligned keyways. Spacers having similar keyways are included between adjacent plates. The entire assembly is locked into a rigid structure by fastening only the outermost plates to the ends of the keys. (AEC)

  16. Recuperator assembly and procedures

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D.

    2006-06-27

    A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

  17. Effects of calcination treatment on the morphology, crystallinity, and photoelectric properties of all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells assembled by TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xianmiao; Sun, Qiong; Li, Yang; Sui, Lina; Dong, Lifeng

    2013-11-14

    TiO2 has been extensively investigated due to its unique photoelectric properties. In this study, oriented single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were synthesized and then calcined at different temperatures in the atmosphere. The morphology and crystalline characterization indicated that the length of TiO2 nanorods increased rapidly and the nanorods became aggregated and fragile after calcination, yet the sintering treatment seemed to have almost no effect on the crystallinity. To obtain the all-solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a newly reported solid inorganic semiconductor, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was employed as the electrolyte, and the Pt deposited on the conductive side of the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate was used as the counter-electrode. The effects of the calcination treatment on the photoelectric properties of the solar cells, including external quantum efficiency (EQE), open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short-circuit current (J(SC)), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η), were investigated under the illumination of a solar simulator. As a result, all of the EQE, V(OC), J(SC), and η values of the cells first increased and then declined with the increase of calcination temperatures, and the highest η of 2.81% was obtained by the cell assembled with its TiO2 electrode sintered at 450 °C for 3 h, a value almost 2.5 times that of the non-sintered sample (1.1%). PMID:24071636

  18. Genome assembly from synthetic long read clouds

    PubMed Central

    Kuleshov, Volodymyr; Snyder, Michael P.; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Despite rapid progress in sequencing technology, assembling de novo the genomes of new species as well as reconstructing complex metagenomes remains major technological challenges. New synthetic long read (SLR) technologies promise significant advances towards these goals; however, their applicability is limited by high sequencing requirements and the inability of current assembly paradigms to cope with combinations of short and long reads. Results: Here, we introduce Architect, a new de novo scaffolder aimed at SLR technologies. Unlike previous assembly strategies, Architect does not require a costly subassembly step; instead it assembles genomes directly from the SLR’s underlying short reads, which we refer to as read clouds. This enables a 4- to 20-fold reduction in sequencing requirements and a 5-fold increase in assembly contiguity on both genomic and metagenomic datasets relative to state-of-the-art assembly strategies aimed directly at fully subassembled long reads. Availability and Implementation: Our source code is freely available at https://github.com/kuleshov/architect. Contact: kuleshov@stanford.edu PMID:27307620

  19. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  20. Optimal Feedback Controlled Assembly of Perfect Crystals.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xun; Rupp, Bradley; Yang, Yuguang; Edwards, Tara D; Grover, Martha A; Bevan, Michael A

    2016-07-26

    Perfectly ordered states are targets in diverse molecular to microscale systems involving, for example, atomic clusters, protein folding, protein crystallization, nanoparticle superlattices, and colloidal crystals. However, there is no obvious approach to control the assembly of perfectly ordered global free energy minimum structures; near-equilibrium assembly is impractically slow, and faster out-of-equilibrium processes generally terminate in defective states. Here, we demonstrate the rapid and robust assembly of perfect crystals by navigating kinetic bottlenecks using closed-loop control of electric field mediated crystallization of colloidal particles. An optimal policy is computed with dynamic programming using a reaction coordinate based dynamic model. By tracking real-time stochastic particle configurations and adjusting applied fields via feedback, the evolution of unassembled particles is guided through polycrystalline states into single domain crystals. This approach to controlling the assembly of a target structure is based on general principles that make it applicable to a broad range of processes from nano- to microscales (where tuning a global thermodynamic variable yields temporal control over thermal sampling of different states via their relative free energies). PMID:27387146

  1. Assemblies of Conformal Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Assemblies of tanks having shapes that conform to each other and/or conform to other proximate objects have been investigated for use in storing fuels and oxidizers in small available spaces in upper stages of spacecraft. Such assemblies might also prove useful in aircraft, automobiles, boats, and other terrestrial vehicles in which space available for tanks is limited. The basic concept of using conformal tanks to maximize the utilization of limited space is not new in itself: for example, conformal tanks are used in some automobiles to store windshield -washer liquid and coolant that overflows from radiators. The novelty of the present development lies in the concept of an assembly of smaller conformal tanks, as distinguished from a single larger conformal tank. In an assembly of smaller tanks, it would be possible to store different liquids in different tanks. Even if the same liquid were stored in all the tanks, the assembly would offer an advantage by reducing the mechanical disturbance caused by sloshing of fuel in a single larger tank: indeed, the requirement to reduce sloshing is critical in some applications. The figure shows a prototype assembly of conformal tanks. Each tank was fabricated by (1) copper plating a wax tank mandrel to form a liner and (2) wrapping and curing layers of graphite/epoxy composite to form a shell supporting the liner. In this case, the conformal tank surfaces are flat ones where they come in contact with the adjacent tanks. A band of fibers around the outside binds the tanks together tightly in the assembly, which has a quasi-toroidal shape. For proper functioning, it would be necessary to maintain equal pressure in all the tanks.

  2. WHO: World Health Assembly.

    PubMed

    McGregor, A

    1992-05-23

    1200 delegates from 175 member countries attended the 45th World Health Assembly in Geneva. Everyone at the Assembly ratified measures to prevent and control AIDS. 12 countries intended to do long term planning for community based care for AIDS patients. Further the Assembly denounced instances where countries and individuals denied the gravity of the AIDS pandemic. In fact, it expressed the importance for urgent and intensive action against HIV/AIDS. The assembly backed proposals to prevent and control sexually transmitted diseases that affect AIDS patients, especially hepatitis B. For example, in countries with hepatitis B prevalence 8% (many countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, Asia, the Pacific region, and South America), health officials should introduce hepatitis B vaccine into their existing immunization programs by 1995. By 1997, this vaccine should be part of all immunization programs. The Assembly was aware of the obstacles of establishing reliable cold chains for nationwide distribution, however. Delegates in Committee A objected to the fact that 50% of the populations of developing countries continued to have limited access to essential drugs. They also expressed disapproval in implementation of WHO's 1988 ethical criteria for promotion of drugs which WHO entrusted to the Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). CIOMS lacked WHO's status and thus could not effectively monitor drug advertising. In fact, the pharmaceutical industry as well as WHO provided the funds for a meeting of 25 experts to discuss principles included in the ethical criteria. At least 4 countries insisted that WHO have the ultimate authority in monitoring drug advertising. Delegates did adopt a compromise resolution on this topic which required that industry promotion methods be reported to the 1994 Assembly via the Executive Board. The Assembly requested WHO to establish an international advisory committee on nursing and midwifery and to improve the network of

  3. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  4. Linear hanger assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, J.L.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a hanger assembly securable to a workstring for carrying a liner conduit in a subterranean well and settable within a casing string. It comprises: an elongated tubular housing; a series of circumferentially extending slip elements carried exteriorly around and by the housing and axially movable relative to a slip seat from a radially retracted position to a radially spaded position for gripping engagement with the casing string; and each of the slip elements having circumferentially subscribed exteriorly protruding non-buttress teeth defined thereon, the teeth being symmetrical to both pus and pull forces applied through the assembly by either the work-string or the liner conduit subsequent to setting within the casing string; wherein the assembly is moved to a set position relative to the casing string by application of hydraulic pressure in a first predeterminable amount to transmit and apply a setting load to the slip elements; and further comprising compressive biasing means movable to a compressed biasing means movable to a compressed condition by mechanical manipulation of the workstring subsequent to movement of the assembly to the set position to transmit a second load to the slip elements in excess of the setting load; and locking means for locking the setting and second loads into the slip assembly.

  5. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.

    1999-05-11

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity is disclosed. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras. 17 figs.

  6. Assembly Test Article (ATA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Glen A.

    1988-01-01

    The assembly test article (ATA) consisted of two live loaded redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) segments which were assembled and disassembled to simulate the actual flight segment stacking process. The test assembly joint was flight RSRM design, which included the J-joint insulation design and metal capture feature. The ATA test was performed mid-November through 24 December 1987, at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The purpose of the test was: certification that vertical RSRM segment mating and separation could be accomplished without any damage; verification and modification of the procedures in the segment stacking/destacking documents; and certification of various GSE to be used for flight assembly and inspection. The RSRM vertical segment assembly/disassembly is possible without any damage to the insulation, metal parts, or seals. The insulation J-joint contact area was very close to the predicted values. Numerous deviations and changes to the planning documents were made to ensure the flight segments are effectively and correctly stacked. Various GSE were also certified for use on flight segments, and are discussed in detail.

  7. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  8. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry L.; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  9. Blade attachment assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  10. Liaison based assembly design

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

  11. Optical interconnect assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, Daric; Abel, Philip

    2015-06-09

    An optical assembly includes a substrate with a first row of apertures and a second row of apertures. A first optical die includes a first plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each transducer element is aligned with an aperture of the first row of optical apertures. A second optical die includes a second plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each of the second plurality of optical transducer elements is aligned with an aperture of the second row of optical apertures. A connector configured to mate with the optical assembly supports a plurality of optical fibers. A terminal end of each optical fiber protrudes from the connector and extends into one of the apertures when the connector is coupled with the optical assembly.

  12. Supported PV module assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  13. Power module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  14. Modeling the Kinetics of Open Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Verdier, Timothée; Foret, Lionel; Castelnovo, Martin

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we explore theoretically the kinetics of molecular self-assembly in the presence of constant monomer flux as an input, and a maximal size. The proposed model is supposed to reproduce the dynamics of viral self-assembly for enveloped virus. It turns out that the kinetics of open self-assembly is rather quantitatively different from the kinetics of similar closed assembly. In particular, our results show that the convergence toward the stationary state is reached through assembly waves. Interestingly, we show that the production of complete clusters is much more efficient in the presence of a constant input flux, rather than providing all monomers at the beginning of the self-assembly. PMID:27295398

  15. Machine learning assembly landscapes from particle tracking data.

    PubMed

    Long, Andrew W; Zhang, Jie; Granick, Steve; Ferguson, Andrew L

    2015-11-01

    Bottom-up self-assembly offers a powerful route for the fabrication of novel structural and functional materials. Rational engineering of self-assembling systems requires understanding of the accessible aggregation states and the structural assembly pathways. In this work, we apply nonlinear machine learning to experimental particle tracking data to infer low-dimensional assembly landscapes mapping the morphology, stability, and assembly pathways of accessible aggregates as a function of experimental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first time that collective order parameters and assembly landscapes have been inferred directly from experimental data. We apply this technique to the nonequilibrium self-assembly of metallodielectric Janus colloids in an oscillating electric field, and quantify the impact of field strength, oscillation frequency, and salt concentration on the dominant assembly pathways and terminal aggregates. This combined computational and experimental framework furnishes new understanding of self-assembling systems, and quantitatively informs rational engineering of experimental conditions to drive assembly along desired aggregation pathways. PMID:26338295

  16. Self assembling proteins

    DOEpatents

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  17. Lightweight reflector assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M. J.; Jolley, J.; Walker, W. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An inexpensive, lightweight reflective assembly member having good optical quality and particularly adaptable to accommodating temperature variations without providing destructive thermal stresses and reflective slope errors is described. The reflective assembly consists of a thin sheet of glass with appropriate reflective coating and a cellular glass block substrate bonded together. The method of fabrication includes abrading the cellular substrate with an abrasive master die to form an appropriate concave surface. An adhesive is applied to the abraded surface and a lamina reflective surface is placed under a uniform pressure to conform the reflective surface onto the desired abraded surface of the substrate.

  18. Low inductance connector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann; Carlson, Douglas S

    2013-07-09

    A busbar connector assembly for coupling first and second terminals on a two-terminal device to first and second contacts on a power module is provided. The first terminal resides proximate the first contact and the second terminal resides proximate the second contact. The assembly comprises a first bridge having a first end configured to be electrically coupled to the first terminal, and a second end configured to be electrically coupled to the second contact, and a second bridge substantially overlapping the first bridge and having a first end electrically coupled to the first contact, and a second end electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  19. Hand Controller Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  20. Assembling an aesthetic.

    PubMed

    Candela, Emily

    2012-12-01

    Recent research informing and related to the study of three-dimensional scientific models is assembled here in a way that explores an aesthetic, specifically, of touch. I concentrate on the materiality of models, drawing on insights from the history and philosophy of science, design and metaphysics. This article chronicles the ways in which touch, or material interactions, operate in the world of 3D models, and its role in what models mean and do. I end with a call for greater attention to scientific process, described as assembly of and within science, which is revealed by this focus on touch. PMID:23176974

  1. Phylogenetic Comparative Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, Peter; Stoye, Jens

    Recent high throughput sequencing technologies are capable of generating a huge amount of data for bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although current sequence assemblers successfully merge the overlapping reads, often several contigs remain which cannot be assembled any further. It is still costly and time consuming to close all the gaps in order to acquire the whole genomic sequence. Here we propose an algorithm that takes several related genomes and their phylogenetic relationships into account to create a contig adjacency graph. From this a layout graph can be computed which indicates putative adjacencies of the contigs in order to aid biologists in finishing the complete genomic sequence.

  2. International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

  3. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  4. Microcomponent assembly for efficient contacting of fluid

    DOEpatents

    Drost, Monte K.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Friedrich, Michele; Hanna, William T.; Call, Charles J.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a fundamental method and apparatus of a microcomponent assembly that overcomes the inherent limitations of state of the art chemical separations. The fundamental element enabling miniaturization is the porous contactor contained within a microcomponent assembly for mass transfer of a working compound from a first medium to a second medium. The porous contactor has a thickness, and a plurality of pores extending through the thickness. The pores are of a geometry cooperating with a boundary tension of one or the other or both of the media thereby preventing migration of one, other or both through the microporous contactor while permitting passage of the working compound. In the microcomponent assembly, the porous contactor is placed between a first laminate such that a first space or first microplenum is formed between the microporous contactor and the first laminate. Additionally, a cover sheet provides a second space or second plenum between the porous contactor and the cover sheet.

  5. Efficient Synergistic Single-Cell Genome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Movahedi, Narjes S.; Embree, Mallory; Nagarajan, Harish; Zengler, Karsten; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    As the vast majority of all microbes are unculturable, single-cell sequencing has become a significant method to gain insight into microbial physiology. Single-cell sequencing methods, currently powered by multiple displacement genome amplification (MDA), have passed important milestones such as finishing and closing the genome of a prokaryote. However, the quality and reliability of genome assemblies from single cells are still unsatisfactory due to uneven coverage depth and the absence of scattered chunks of the genome in the final collection of reads caused by MDA bias. In this work, our new algorithm Hybrid De novo Assembler (HyDA) demonstrates the power of coassembly of multiple single-cell genomic data sets through significant improvement of the assembly quality in terms of predicted functional elements and length statistics. Coassemblies contain significantly more base pairs and protein coding genes, cover more subsystems, and consist of longer contigs compared to individual assemblies by the same algorithm as well as state-of-the-art single-cell assemblers SPAdes and IDBA-UD. Hybrid De novo Assembler (HyDA) is also able to avoid chimeric assemblies by detecting and separating shared and exclusive pieces of sequence for input data sets. By replacing one deep single-cell sequencing experiment with a few single-cell sequencing experiments of lower depth, the coassembly method can hedge against the risk of failure and loss of the sample, without significantly increasing sequencing cost. Application of the single-cell coassembler HyDA to the study of three uncultured members of an alkane-degrading methanogenic community validated the usefulness of the coassembly concept. HyDA is open source and publicly available at http://chitsazlab.org/software.html, and the raw reads are available at http://chitsazlab.org/research.html. PMID:27243002

  6. Efficient Synergistic Single-Cell Genome Assembly.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Narjes S; Embree, Mallory; Nagarajan, Harish; Zengler, Karsten; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    As the vast majority of all microbes are unculturable, single-cell sequencing has become a significant method to gain insight into microbial physiology. Single-cell sequencing methods, currently powered by multiple displacement genome amplification (MDA), have passed important milestones such as finishing and closing the genome of a prokaryote. However, the quality and reliability of genome assemblies from single cells are still unsatisfactory due to uneven coverage depth and the absence of scattered chunks of the genome in the final collection of reads caused by MDA bias. In this work, our new algorithm Hybrid De novo Assembler (HyDA) demonstrates the power of coassembly of multiple single-cell genomic data sets through significant improvement of the assembly quality in terms of predicted functional elements and length statistics. Coassemblies contain significantly more base pairs and protein coding genes, cover more subsystems, and consist of longer contigs compared to individual assemblies by the same algorithm as well as state-of-the-art single-cell assemblers SPAdes and IDBA-UD. Hybrid De novo Assembler (HyDA) is also able to avoid chimeric assemblies by detecting and separating shared and exclusive pieces of sequence for input data sets. By replacing one deep single-cell sequencing experiment with a few single-cell sequencing experiments of lower depth, the coassembly method can hedge against the risk of failure and loss of the sample, without significantly increasing sequencing cost. Application of the single-cell coassembler HyDA to the study of three uncultured members of an alkane-degrading methanogenic community validated the usefulness of the coassembly concept. HyDA is open source and publicly available at http://chitsazlab.org/software.html, and the raw reads are available at http://chitsazlab.org/research.html. PMID:27243002

  7. Lageos assembly operation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueger, J.

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines and constraints procedures for LAGEOS assembly, operation, and design performance are given. Special attention was given to thermal, optical, and dynamic analysis and testing. The operation procedures illustrate the interrelation and sequence of tasks in a flow diagram. The diagram also includes quality assurance functions for verification of operation tasks.

  8. The synapse assembly model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Joo E; Hori, Yuko; Groves, Jay T; Dustin, Michael L; Chakraborty, Arup K

    2002-10-01

    A framework for quantitative analysis of the mechanisms underlying immunological synapse assembly has been recently developed. This model uses partial differential equations to describe the binding interactions of receptors and ligands, with the constraint that they are embedded in apposed deformable membranes linked to a cytoskeletal complex. PMID:12297422

  9. Assembling Multicolor Printing Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Improved joining method uses wave-soldering techniques developed for integrated-circuit-board assemblies. Thermosetting plastic is replaced by wave soldering, which applies a thin even coat of solder to mating copper surfaces. This is done after ink holes and channels have been protected by water-soluble, high-temperature solder mask which prevents wetting and clogging.

  10. Dump valve assembly

    DOEpatents

    Owen, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A dump valve assembly comprising a body having a bore defined by a tapered wall and a truncated spherical valve member adapted to seat along a spherical surface portion thereof against said tapered wall. Means are provided for pivoting said valve member between a closed position engagable with said tapered wall and an open position disengaged therefrom.

  11. Corium protection assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

  12. Solar collector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.

    1980-09-09

    A solar collector assembly includes shingles which have integral tubes projecting therefrom, and which are mounted in overlapping parallel array. Mounting brackets for the shingles are engaged on roof rafters or the like, and interlocked light transmissive plates overlie the shingles. The plates are also engaged with shingle components. A special fitting for the tube ends is provided.

  13. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  14. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  15. Combination vehicle assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, M.J. Sr.

    1987-03-17

    A combination recreational vehicle assembly is described comprising: two vehicles of a different type, the vehicles comprising a first, leading vehicle having a steering mechanism for maneuvering the assembly and a drivable axle mechanism for propelling the assembly; an independently drivable second vehicle trailing the first vehicle comprising a standard road vehicle having a motor, and an axle mechanism for connecting the motor to the wheels of the second vehicle for providing power to the wheels of the vehicle. A gear means for selectively disconnecting the motor from the axle mechanism to place the vehicle in neutral, and a steering means for maneuvering the second vehicle when driven independently of the first vehicle are included; and a releasable mechanical drive connection between the second vehicle motor and the first vehicle axle mechanism to provide power for driving the assembly. The drive connection comprises a drive pinion projecting from the second vehicle motor to the front of the second vehicle, and a drive shaft projecting from the first vehicle axle mechanism to the rear of the first vehicle.

  16. Modeling Protein Self Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck; Hull, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of proteins is an important part of the standards-based science curriculum. Proteins serve vital roles within the cell and malfunctions in protein self assembly are implicated in degenerative diseases. Experience indicates that this topic is a difficult one for many students. We have found that the concept…

  17. Segmented stator assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Quirion, Owen Scott

    2013-04-02

    An electric machine and stator assembly are provided that include a continuous stator portion having stator teeth, and a tooth tip portion including tooth tips corresponding to the stator teeth of the continuous stator portion, respectively. The tooth tip portion is mounted onto the continuous stator portion.

  18. Beyond the Assembly Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Rebecca; Guild, Todd

    1985-01-01

    Describes how Hughes Aircraft trainers followed four steps in meeting the challenges of a flexible manufacturing environment: needs assessment, design strategy, pilot evaluation, and follow-through. Within this environment, 50 self-paced training products were developed for one of the company's wire and back plane harness assembly departments. (CT)

  19. Directed Assembly of Biological Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Aline

    2009-03-01

    The self-assembly of polypeptides into beta-sheet rich nanofibrils has attracted considerable attention in recent years to both understand amyloidgenesis and for their potential biomaterials applications. This self-assembly process is generic to all proteins where fibrillation is typically induced under harsh conditions of low pH and/or high temperature, which are of course not suitable for biomaterials applications. Here we will outline the method developed in our laboratory to create thermo-reversible fibrillar hydrogels from aqueous solutions of a series of proteins by adding a reductant. Proteins studied include beta-lactoglobulin, ovalbimum, lysozyme and bovine serum albimum; all contain an increasing number of disulfide bridges that are disrupted by the reductant. Such disruption destabilises the native state of the protein and this allows us to form transparent, self-supporting hydrogels under physiological conditions. The potential to control and manipulate the gel properties, including mechanical strength and structure (fibre diameter and mesh size of hydrogel) has been explored by varying the protein (consequently the number of disulfide bridges), protein concentration, reductant concentration and ionic strength of the matrix. Our results will be presented here and similarities and differences highlighted. Furthermore we will present both our 2- and 3-dimensional cell culture experiments that show the gel matrix promotes both fibroblast and chondrocyte cell spreading, attachment and proliferation; indicating our hydrogels gels are biocompatible and they can provide a viable support for different cell types.

  20. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

  1. Characterization of assembled MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandric, Zoran; Randall, John N.; Saini, Rahul; Nolan, Michael; Skidmore, George

    2005-01-01

    Zyvex is developing a low-cost high-precision method for manufacturing MEMS-based three-dimensional structures/assemblies. The assembly process relies on compliant properties of the interconnecting components. The sockets and connectors are designed to benefit from their compliant nature by allowing the mechanical component to self-align, i.e. reposition themselves to their designed, stable position, independent of the initial placement of the part by the external robot. Thus, the self-aligning property guarantees the precision of the assembled structure to be very close to, or the same, as the precision of the lithography process itself. A three-dimensional (3D) structure is achieved by inserting the connectors into the sockets through the use of a passive end-effector. We have developed the automated, high-yield, assembly procedure which permits connectors to be picked up from any location within the same die, or a separate die. This general procedure allows for the possibility to assemble parts of dissimilar materials. We have built many 3D MEMS structures, including several 3D MEMS devices such as a scanning electron microscope (SEM) micro column, mass-spectrometer column, variable optical attenuator. For these 3D MEMS structures we characterize their mechanical strength through finite element simulation, dynamic properties by finite-element analysis and experimentally with UMECH"s MEMS motion analyzer (MMA), alignment accuracy by using an in-house developed dihedral angle measurement laser autocollimator, and impact properties by performing drop tests. The details of the experimental set-ups, the measurement procedures, and the experimental data are presented in this paper.

  2. Characterization of assembled MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandric, Zoran; Randall, John N.; Saini, Rahul; Nolan, Michael; Skidmore, George

    2004-12-01

    Zyvex is developing a low-cost high-precision method for manufacturing MEMS-based three-dimensional structures/assemblies. The assembly process relies on compliant properties of the interconnecting components. The sockets and connectors are designed to benefit from their compliant nature by allowing the mechanical component to self-align, i.e. reposition themselves to their designed, stable position, independent of the initial placement of the part by the external robot. Thus, the self-aligning property guarantees the precision of the assembled structure to be very close to, or the same, as the precision of the lithography process itself. A three-dimensional (3D) structure is achieved by inserting the connectors into the sockets through the use of a passive end-effector. We have developed the automated, high-yield, assembly procedure which permits connectors to be picked up from any location within the same die, or a separate die. This general procedure allows for the possibility to assemble parts of dissimilar materials. We have built many 3D MEMS structures, including several 3D MEMS devices such as a scanning electron microscope (SEM) micro column, mass-spectrometer column, variable optical attenuator. For these 3D MEMS structures we characterize their mechanical strength through finite element simulation, dynamic properties by finite-element analysis and experimentally with UMECH"s MEMS motion analyzer (MMA), alignment accuracy by using an in-house developed dihedral angle measurement laser autocollimator, and impact properties by performing drop tests. The details of the experimental set-ups, the measurement procedures, and the experimental data are presented in this paper.

  3. Supramolecular Lego assembly towards three-dimensional multi-responsive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunxin; Li, Tiefeng; Zhao, Qian; Yang, Xuxu; Wu, Jingjun; Luo, Yingwu; Xie, Tao

    2014-08-27

    Inspired by the assembly of Lego toys, hydrogel building blocks with heterogeneous responsiveness are assembled utilizing macroscopic supramolecular recognition as the adhesion force. The Lego hydrogel provides 3D transformation upon pH variation. After disassembly of the building blocks by changing the oxidation state, they can be re-assembled into a completely new shape. PMID:24975743

  4. Space assembly fixtures and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, K. A.; Lillenas, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Concepts and requirements for assembly fixtures and aids necessary for the assembly and maintenance of spare platforms were studied. Emphasis was placed on erectable and deployable type structures with the shuttle orbiter as the assembly base. Both single and multiple orbiter flight cases for the platform assembly were considered. Applicable space platform assembly studies were reviewed to provide a data base for establishing the assembly fixture and aids design requirements, assembly constraints, and the development of representative design concepts. Conclusions indicated that fixture requirements will vary with platform size. Larger platforms will require translation relative to the orbiter RMS working volume. The installation of platform payloads and subsystems (e.g., utility distribution) must also be considered in the specification of assembly fixtures and aids.

  5. School Assemblies: The Lost Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Daniel R.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines and suggestions are offered for successful school assemblies. The school assembly should be a positive event; an occasion for developing unity, group loyalty, and desirable audience habits. (Author/MLF)

  6. Suppression mechanisms of COX assembly defects in yeast and human: Insights into the COX assembly process

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Antoni; Gouget, Karine; Horn, Darryl; Soto, Ileana C.; Fontanesi, Flavia

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. COX is a multimeric enzyme formed by subunits of dual genetic origin whose assembly is intricate and highly regulated. In addition to the structural subunits, a large number of accessory factors are required to build the holoenzyme. The function of these factors is required in all stages of the assembly process. They are relevant to human health because devastating human disorders have been associated with mutations in nuclear genes encoding conserved COX assembly factors. The study of yeast strains and human cell lines from patients carrying mutations in structural subunits and COX assembly factors has been invaluable to attain the current state of knowledge, even if still fragmentary, of the COX assembly process. After the identification of the genes involved, the isolation and characterization of genetic and metabolic suppressors of COX assembly defects, reviewed here, have become a profitable strategy to gain insight into their functions and the pathways in which they operate. Additionally, they have the potential to provide useful information for devising therapeutic approaches to combat human disorders associated with COX deficiency. PMID:18522805

  7. Desmosome assembly and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Nekrasova, Oxana; Green, Kathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    Desmosomes are intercellular junctions that anchor intermediate filaments to the plasma membrane, forming a supracellular scaffold that provides mechanical resilience to tissues. This anchoring function is accomplished by specialized members of the cadherin family and associated cytoskeletal linking proteins, which together form a highly organized membrane core flanked by mirror image cytoplasmic plaques. Due to the biochemical insolubility of desmosomes, the mechanisms that govern assembly of these components into a functional organelle remained elusive. Recently developed molecular reporters and live cell imaging approaches have provided powerful new tools to monitor this finely-tuned process in real time. Here we discuss studies that are beginning to decipher the machinery and regulation governing desmosome assembly and homeostasis in situ, and how these mechanisms are affected during disease pathogenesis. PMID:23891292

  8. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  9. Fuel nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Lacey, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2011-08-30

    A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

  10. Infrared floodlight assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wierzbicki, Julian J.; Chakrabarti, Kirti B.

    1987-09-22

    An infrared floodlight assembly (10) including a cast aluminum outer housing (11) defining a central chamber (15) therein. A floodlight (14), having a tungsten halogen lamp as the light source, is spacedly positioned within a heat conducting member (43) within chamber (15) such that the floodlight is securedly positioned in an aligned manner relative to the assembly's filter (35) and lens (12) components. The invention also includes venting means (51) to allow air passage between the interior of the member (43) and the adjacent chamber (15), as well as engagement means (85) for engaging a rear surface of the floodlight (14) to retain it firmly against an internal flange of the member (43). A reflector (61), capable of being compressed to allow insertion or removal, is located within the heat conducting member's interior between the floodlight (14) and filter (35) to reflect infrared radiation toward the filter (35) and spaced lens (12).

  11. Compressor diaphragm assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Scalzo, A.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes, in a combustion turbine having a casing, one or more slots of a first predetermined cross-section formed circumferentially within the casing at a compressor portion of the turbine, and a compressor diaphragm assembly adapted to be suspended from each of the one or more slots to provide a labyrinth seal with a plurality of compressor discs, a method of forming each compressor diaphragm assembly. It comprises: providing a plurality of vane airfoils each of which have an inner shroud formed integrally with the vane airfoil, and an outer portion attached to the vane airfoil; providing outer ring means for suspending each of the plurality of van airfoils at a stagger angle; suspending the plurality of vane airfoils from the outer ring means, thereby disposing each the vane airfoil and its respective outer portion at the stagger angle; and providing seal carrier means for engagement with each the inner shroud.

  12. Ignition system monitoring assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brushwood, John Samuel

    2003-11-04

    An ignition system monitoring assembly for use in a combustion engine is disclosed. The assembly includes an igniter having at least one positioning guide with at least one transmittal member being maintained in a preferred orientation by one of the positioning guides. The transmittal member is in optical communication with a corresponding target region, and optical information about the target region is conveyed to the reception member via the transmittal member. The device allows real-time observation of optical characteristics of the target region. The target region may be the spark gap between the igniter electrodes, or other predetermined locations in optical communication with the transmittal member. The reception member may send an output signal to a processing member which, in turn, may produce a response to the output signal.

  13. Turbine seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A.

    2013-04-16

    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  14. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  15. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  16. Solution deposition assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  17. Vacuum breaker valve assembly

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, J.L.; Upton, H.A.

    1999-04-27

    Breaker valve assemblies for a simplified boiling water nuclear reactor are described. The breaker valve assembly, in one form, includes a valve body and a breaker valve. The valve body includes an interior chamber, and an inlet passage extends from the chamber and through an inlet opening to facilitate transporting particles from outside of the valve body to the interior chamber. The breaker valve is positioned in the chamber and is configured to substantially seal the inlet opening. Particularly, the breaker valve includes a disk which is sized to cover the inlet opening. The disk is movably coupled to the valve body and is configured to move substantially concentrically with respect to the valve opening between a first position, where the disk completely covers the inlet opening, and a second position, where the disk does not completely cover the inlet opening. 1 fig.

  18. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  19. Low inductance busbar assembly

    DOEpatents

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann

    2010-09-21

    A busbar assembly for electrically coupling first and second busbars to first and second contacts, respectively, on a power module is provided. The assembly comprises a first terminal integrally formed with the first busbar, a second terminal integrally formed with the second busbar and overlapping the first terminal, a first bridge electrode having a first tab electrically coupled to the first terminal and overlapping the first and second terminals, and a second tab electrically coupled to the first contact, a second bridge electrode having a third tab electrically coupled to the second terminal, and overlapping the first and second terminals and the first tab, and a fourth tab electrically coupled to the second contact, and a fastener configured to couple the first tab to the first terminal, and the third tab to the second terminal.

  20. Ingestion resistant seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A.

    2011-12-13

    A seal assembly limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a gas turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus associated with a blade structure including a row of airfoils. The seal apparatus includes an annular inner shroud associated with adjacent stationary components, a wing member, and a first wing flange. The wing member extends axially from the blade structure toward the annular inner shroud. The first wing flange extends radially outwardly from the wing member toward the annular inner shroud. A plurality of regions including one or more recirculation zones are defined between the blade structure and the annular inner shroud that recirculate working gas therein back toward the hot gas path.

  1. FLUORINE CELL ANODE ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Cable, R.E.; Goode, W.B. Jr.; Henderson, W.K.; Montillon, G.H.

    1962-06-26

    An improved anode assembly is deslgned for use in electrolytlc cells ln the productlon of hydrogen and fluorlne from a moIten electrolyte. The anode assembly comprises a copper post, a copper hanger supported by the post, a plurality of carbon anode members, and bolt means for clamplng half of the anode members to one slde of the hanger and for clamplng the other half of the anode members to the other slde of the hanger. The heads of the clamplng bolts are recessed withln the anode members and carbon plugs are inserted ln the recesses above the bolt heads to protect the boIts agalnst corroslon. A copper washer is provided under the head of each clamplng boIt such that the anode members can be tightly clamped to the hanger with a resultant low anode jolnt resistance. (AEC)

  2. Vacuum breaker valve assembly

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Jeffrey L.; Upton, Hubert Allen

    1999-04-27

    Breaker valve assemblies for a simplified boiling water nuclear reactor are described. The breaker valve assembly, in one form, includes a valve body and a breaker valve. The valve body includes an interior chamber, and an inlet passage extends from the chamber and through an inlet opening to facilitate transporting particles from outside of the valve body to the interior chamber. The breaker valve is positioned in the chamber and is configured to substantially seal the inlet opening. Particularly, the breaker valve includes a disk which is sized to cover the inlet opening. The disk is movably coupled to the valve body and is configured to move substantially concentrically with respect to the valve opening between a first position, where the disk completely covers the inlet opening, and a second position, where the disk does not completely cover the inlet opening.

  3. An Assembly Funnel Makes Biomolecular Complex Assembly Efficient

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, John; Schulman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Like protein folding and crystallization, the self-assembly of complexes is a fundamental form of biomolecular organization. While the number of methods for creating synthetic complexes is growing rapidly, most require empirical tuning of assembly conditions and/or produce low yields. We use coarse-grained simulations of the assembly kinetics of complexes to identify generic limitations on yields that arise because of the many simultaneous interactions allowed between the components and intermediates of a complex. Efficient assembly occurs when nucleation is fast and growth pathways are few, i.e. when there is an assembly “funnel”. For typical complexes, an assembly funnel occurs in a narrow window of conditions whose location is highly complex specific. However, by redesigning the components this window can be drastically broadened, so that complexes can form quickly across many conditions. The generality of this approach suggests assembly funnel design as a foundational strategy for robust biomolecular complex synthesis. PMID:25360818

  4. HSPES membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

  5. REACTOR NOZZLE ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Capuder, F.C.; Dearwater, J.R.

    1959-02-10

    An improved nozzle assembly useful in a process for the direct reduction of uranium hexafluoride to uranium tetrafluoride by means of dissociated ammonia in a heated reaction vessel is descrlbed. The nozzle design provides for intimate mixing of the two reactants and at the same time furnishes a layer of dissociated ammonia adjacent to the interior wall of the reaction vessel, thus preventing build-up of the reaction product on the vessel wall.

  6. Flue gas duct assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Montana, F.J.

    1984-08-28

    A length of longitudinally extending duct assembly for heated corrosive gases includes an outer support duct and a substantially gas-tight liner. The liner is spaced from the outer support duct by a relatively yielding spacer material that accommodates expansion of the liner in directions parallel to the inner surface of the outer support duct and in directions normal to the inner surface of the outer support duct without imposing any substantial resistance to such thermal expansion.

  7. Pull rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, O.C.

    1988-04-21

    A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

  8. Magnetic control assembly reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickler, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Results are summarized of the qualification level vibration tests performed on the magnet control assembly (MCA) for Nimbus and ERTS satellites. The MCA electronics and probe units have demonstrated the capability to survive qualification sinusoidal and random vibration levels. The functional testing indicated normal operation of the units after each axis of vibration. Visual inspection indicated no evidence of degradation. Post vibration acceptance testing verified normal operation of the MCA.

  9. Composite airfoil assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-03-03

    A composite blade assembly for mounting on a turbine wheel includes a ceramic airfoil and an airfoil platform. The ceramic airfoil is formed with an airfoil portion, a blade shank portion and a blade dovetail tang. The metal platform includes a platform shank and a radially inner platform dovetail. The ceramic airfoil is captured within the metal platform, such that in use, the ceramic airfoil is held within the turbine wheel independent of the metal platform.

  10. Uniform Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2008-01-01

    In educational practice, a test assembly problem is formulated as a system of inequalities induced by test specifications. Each solution to the system is a test, represented by a 0-1 vector, where each element corresponds to an item included (1) or not included (0) into the test. Therefore, the size of a 0-1 vector equals the number of items "n"…

  11. A framework for geometric reasoning about tools in assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    When assembling a product, humans, robots, and other automation employ a variety of tools to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper proposes a framework lo represent and reason about geometric accessibility constraints for a wide variety of assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, we present more efficient methods lo integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method preprocesses a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. We describe experiments with an initial implementation of the framework and a library of seven tools.

  12. Retractable Visual Indicator Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackler, George R. (Inventor); Gamboa, Ronald J. (Inventor); Dominquez, Victor (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A retractable indicator assembly may be mounted on a container which transmits air through the container and removes deleterious gases with an activated charcoal medium in the container. The assembly includes: an elongate indicator housing has a chamber therein; a male adaptor with an external threads is used for sealing engagement with the container; a plug located at the upper end of the housing; a housing that includes a transparent wall portion for viewing at least a portion of the chamber; a litmus indicator, moveable by a retractable rod from a retracted position within the container to an extended position within the chamber of the housing; and an outer housing that is secured to the upper end of the rod, and protects the indicator housing while the litmus indicator is in its normally retracted position. The assembly may be manually manipulated between its extended position wherein the litmus indicator may be viewed through the transparent wall of the indicator housing, and a retracted position wherein the outer housing encloses the indicator housing and engages the exterior of the container.

  13. OH Module Assembly Stand

    SciTech Connect

    Bolan, P.J.; /Fermilab

    1990-10-16

    There is an OR module assembly stand in use at IB4. This design has been approved by safety, as presented by Mike Foley, and has been successfully used. Another one is needed at the D-zero assembly building, but some modifications need to be made. This report will show that the new modified design is at least as strong, if not stronger, than the older IB4 design in every aspect. Since the weight distribution of the OR modules on the sling is indeterminate, this report compares three cases of support for the entire assembly: the lowest two beams only, the lowest four beams only, and all six beams. In each of these cases, the new design is stronger than the old design in maximum allowable weight. The ability of the the cradle to support the weight is also shown. For all of the failure conditions except for two, the cradle is stronger than the beams that it supports. In the two excepted situations, the calculated limit of the cradle is less than the beams it supports. This is because no credit is taken for the sling and strongback, which in reality will relieve much of the horizontal load.

  14. Orientational nanoparticle assemblies and biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; Wang, Libing; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2016-05-15

    Assemblies of nanoparticles (NPs) have regional correlated properties with new features compared to individual NPs or random aggregates. The orientational NP assembly contributes greatly to the collective interaction of individual NPs with geometrical dependence. Therefore, orientational NPs assembly techniques have emerged as promising tools for controlling inorganic NPs spatial structures with enhanced interesting properties. The research fields of orientational NP assembly have developed rapidly with characteristics related to the different methods used, including chemical, physical and biological techniques. The current and potential applications, important challenges remain to be investigated. An overview of recent developments in orientational NPs assemblies, the multiple strategies, biosensors and challenges will be discussed in this review. PMID:26708241

  15. Nuclear core and fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Downs, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    A fast flux nuclear core of a plurality of rodded, open-lattice assemblies having a rod pattern rotated relative to a rod support structure pattern. Elongated fuel rods are oriented on a triangular array and laterally supported by grid structures positioned along the length of the assembly. Initial inter-assembly contact is through strongbacks at the corners of the support pattern and peripheral fuel rods between adjacent assemblies are nested so as to maintain a triangular pitch across a clearance gap between the other portions of adjacent assemblies. The rod pattern is rotated relative to the strongback support pattern by an angle .alpha. equal to sin .sup.-1 (p/2c), where p is the intra-assembly rod pitch and c is the center-to-center spacing among adjacent assemblies.

  16. Engineered Self-Assembly of Plasmonic Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    A critical need in nanotechnology is the development of new tools and methods to organize, connect, and integrate solid-state nanocomponents. Self-assembly - where components spontaneously organize themselves - can be carried out on a massively parallel scale to construct large-scale architectures using solid-state nanocrystal building blocks. I will present our recent work on the synthesis and self-assembly of nanocrystals for plasmonics, where light is propagated, manipulated, and confined by solid-state components that are smaller than the wavelength of light itself. We show the organization of polymer-grafted metal nanocrystals into hierarchical nanojunction arrays that possess intense ``hot spots'' due to electromagnetic field localization. We also show that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can serve as a new class of plasmonic building blocks, where shape and carrier density can be actively tuned to engineer plasmon resonances. These examples demonstrate that nanocrystals possess unique electromagnetic properties that rival top-down structures, and the potential of self-assembly for fabricating designer plasmonic materials.

  17. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  18. Multivalent Protein Assembly Using Monovalent Self-Assembling Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Petkau-Milroy, Katja; Sonntag, Michael H.; Colditz, Alexander; Brunsveld, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Discotic molecules, which self-assemble in water into columnar supramolecular polymers, emerged as an alternative platform for the organization of proteins. Here, a monovalent discotic decorated with one single biotin was synthesized to study the self-assembling multivalency of this system in regard to streptavidin. Next to tetravalent streptavidin, monovalent streptavidin was used to study the protein assembly along the supramolecular polymer in detail without the interference of cross-linking. Upon self-assembly of the monovalent biotinylated discotics, multivalent proteins can be assembled along the supramolecular polymer. The concentration of discotics, which influences the length of the final polymers at the same time dictates the amount of assembled proteins. PMID:24152447

  19. Multispecies population dynamics of prebiotic compositional assemblies.

    PubMed

    Markovitch, Omer; Lancet, Doron

    2014-09-21

    Present life portrays a two-tier phenomenology: molecules compose supramolecular structures, such as cells or organisms, which in turn portray population behaviors, including selection, evolution and ecological dynamics. Prebiotic models have often focused on evolution in populations of self-replicating molecules, without explicitly invoking the intermediate molecular-to-supramolecular transition. Here, we explore a prebiotic model that allows one to relate parameters of chemical interaction networks within molecular assemblies to emergent population dynamics. We use the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, which simulates the network dynamics within amphiphile-containing molecular assemblies, and exhibits quasi-stationary compositional states termed compotype species. These grow by catalyzed accretion, divide and propagate their compositional information to progeny in a replication-like manner. The model allows us to ask how molecular network parameters influence assembly evolution and population dynamics parameters. In 1000 computer simulations, each embodying different parameter set of the global chemical interaction network parameters, we observed a wide range of behaviors. These were analyzed by a multi species logistic model often used for analyzing population ecology (r-K or Lotka-Volterra competition model). We found that compotypes with a larger intrinsic molecular repertoire show a higher intrinsic growth (r) and lower carrying capacity (K), as well as lower replication fidelity. This supports a prebiotic scenario initiated by fast-replicating assemblies with a high molecular diversity, evolving into more faithful replicators with narrower molecular repertoires. PMID:24831416

  20. Mars aerobrake assembly simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filatovs, G. J.; Lee, Gordon K. F.; Garvey, John

    1992-01-01

    On-orbit assembly operation simulations in neutral buoyancy conditions are presently undertaken by a partial/full-scale Mars mission aerobrake mockup, whose design, conducted in the framework of an engineering senior students' design project, involved several levels of constraints for critical physical and operational features. Allowances had to be made for the auxiliary constraints introduced by underwater testing, as well as the subsegmenting required for overland shipment to the neutral-buoyancy testing facility. This mockup aerobrake's fidelity is determined by the numerous, competing design objectives.

  1. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-09-01

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  2. Liner mounting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A mounting assembly includes an annular supporting flange disposed coaxially about a centerline axis which has a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart supporting holes therethrough. An annular liner is disposed coaxially with the supporting flange and includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart mounting holes aligned with respective ones of the supporting holes. Each of a plurality of mounting pins includes a proximal end fixedly joined to the supporting flange through a respective one of the supporting holes, and a distal end disposed through a respective one of the liner mounting holes for supporting the liner to the supporting flange while unrestrained differential thermal movement of the liner relative to the supporting flange.

  3. F-1 Engine Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    A complete F-1 engine assembly is shown in this photograph. Designed and developed by Rocketdye under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the engine measured 19-feet tall by 12.5 feet at the nozzle exit, and each engine produced a 1,500,000-pound thrust using liquid oxygen and kerosene as the propellant. A cluster of five F-1 engines was mounted on the Saturn V S-IC (first) stage and burned 15 tons of liquid oxygen and kerosene each second to produce 7,500,000 pounds of thrust.

  4. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.

    1994-10-04

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith. 8 figs.

  5. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.

    1994-01-01

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith.

  6. Seeing Circuits Assemble

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Jeff W.; Smith, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental neurobiology has been greatly invigorated by a recent string of breakthroughs in molecular biology and optical physics that permit direct in vivo observation of neural circuit assembly. The imaging done thus far suggests that as brains are built, a significant amount of unbuilding is also occurring. We offer the view that this tumult is the result of the intersecting behaviors of the many single-celled creatures (i.e., neurons, glia, and progenitors) that inhabit brains. New tools will certainly be needed if we wish to monitor the myriad cooperative and competitive interactions at play in the cellular society that builds brains. PMID:18995818

  7. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  8. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  9. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

    1998-12-17

    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  10. Self-assembly from milli- to nanoscales: methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangeli, M; Abbasi, S; Varel, C; Van Hoof, C; Celis, J-P; Böhringer, K F

    2009-01-01

    The design and fabrication techniques for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices are progressing rapidly. However, due to material and process flow incompatibilities in the fabrication of sensors, actuators and electronic circuitry, a final packaging step is often necessary to integrate all components of a heterogeneous microsystem on a common substrate. Robotic pick-and-place, although accurate and reliable at larger scales, is a serial process that downscales unfavorably due to stiction problems, fragility and sheer number of components. Self-assembly, on the other hand, is parallel and can be used for device sizes ranging from millimeters to nanometers. In this review, the state-of-the-art in methods and applications for self-assembly is reviewed. Methods for assembling three-dimensional (3D) MEMS structures out of two-dimensional (2D) ones are described. The use of capillary forces for folding 2D plates into 3D structures, as well as assembling parts onto a common substrate or aggregating parts to each other into 2D or 3D structures, is discussed. Shape matching and guided assembly by magnetic forces and electric fields are also reviewed. Finally, colloidal self-assembly and DNA-based self-assembly, mainly used at the nanoscale, are surveyed, and aspects of theoretical modeling of stochastic assembly processes are discussed. PMID:20209016

  11. Special test equipment and fixturing for MSAT reflector assembly alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Jeffrey A.; Zinn, Michael R.; Mccarten, David R.

    1994-01-01

    The MSAT Reflector Assembly is a state of the art subsystem for Mobile Satellite (MSAT), a geosynchronous-based commercial mobile telecommunication satellite program serving North America. The Reflector Assembly consisted of a deployable, three-hinge, folding-segment Boom, deployable 5.7 x 5.3-meter 16-rib Wrap-Rib Reflector, and a Reflector Pointing Mechanism (RPM). The MSAT spacecraft was based on a Hughes HS601 spacecraft bus carrying two Reflector Assemblies independently dedicated for L-band transmit and receive operations. Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) designed and built the Reflector Assembly for MSAT under contract to SPAR Aerospace Ltd. Two MSAT satellites were built jointly by SPAR Aerospace Ltd. and Hughes Space and Communications Co. for this program, the first scheduled for launch in 1994. When scaled for wavelength, the assembly and alignment requirements for the Reflector Assembly were in many instances equivalent to or exceeded that of a diffraction-limited visible light optical system. Combined with logistical constraints inherent to large, compliant, lightweight structures; 'bolt-on' alignment; and remote, indirect spacecraft access; the technical challenges were formidable. This document describes the alignment methods, the special test equipment, and fixturing for Reflector Assembly assembly and alignment.

  12. Micelle assembly. Multidimensional hierarchical self-assembly of amphiphilic cylindrical block comicelles.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huibin; Hudson, Zachary M; Winnik, Mitchell A; Manners, Ian

    2015-03-20

    Self-assembly of molecular and block copolymer amphiphiles represents a well-established route to micelles with a wide variety of shapes and gel-like phases. We demonstrate an analogous process, but on a longer length scale, in which amphiphilic P-H-P and H-P-H cylindrical triblock comicelles with hydrophobic (H) or polar (P) segments that are monodisperse in length are able to self-assemble side by side or end to end in nonsolvents for the central or terminal segments, respectively. This allows the formation of cylindrical supermicelles and one-dimensional (1D) or 3D superstructures that persist in both solution and the solid state. These assemblies possess multiple levels of structural hierarchy in combination with existence on a multimicrometer-length scale, features that are generally only found in natural materials. PMID:25792323

  13. Autonomous Mechanical Assembly on the Space Shuttle: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raibert, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle will be equipped with a pair of 50 ft. manipulators used to handle payloads and to perform mechanical assembly operations. Although current plans call for these manipulators to be operated by a human teleoperator. The possibility of using results from robotics and machine intelligence to automate this shuttle assembly system was investigated. The major components of an autonomous mechanical assembly system are examined, along with the technology base upon which they depend. The state of the art in advanced automation is also assessed.

  14. Measuring electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bordenick, J.E.

    1988-04-26

    A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture. 2 figs.

  15. Measuring electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bordenick, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture.

  16. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bonde, Wayne L.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

  17. Carburetor fuel discharge assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, R.M.

    1993-06-29

    An improved carburetor for use on an internal combustion engine is described, the carburetor having an airflow passage and fuel discharge means for admitting fuel into the airflow passage for mixing the fuel with air flowing in the airflow passage to form a fuel/air mixture to be supplied to the combustion chamber(s) of the engine, the fuel discharge means including a fuel discharge assembly which comprises a hollow discharge tube and fuel supplying means connected to the discharge tube for admitting fuel into the interior of the discharge tube, wherein the discharge tube has a longitudinal internal bore in fluid communication with the fuel supplying means, wherein the internal bore extends between an inlet that is closest to the fuel supplying means and an outlet that is furthest from the fuel supplying means with the outlet of the bore being located within the airflow passage of the carburetor to supply fuel into this passage after the fuel passes from the fuel supplying means through the internal bore of the discharge tube, wherein the improvement relates to the fuel discharge assembly and comprises: a hollow fuel flow guide tube telescopically received inside the internal bore of the discharge tube, wherein the fuel flow guide tube extends from approximately the location of the inlet of the bore up at least a portion of the length of the bore towards the outlet of the bore to conduct fuel from the fuel supplying means into the bore of the discharge tube.

  18. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  19. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  20. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

    1992-03-24

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

  1. Complete Genome Assembly of Staphylococcus epidermidis AmMS 205.

    PubMed

    Davenport, K W; Daligault, H E; Minogue, T D; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Broomall, S M; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Frey, K G; Gibbons, H S; Jaissle, J; Redden, C L; Rosenzweig, C N; Scholz, M B; Teshima, H; Johnson, S L

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis causes a large number of catheter-related sepsis infections annually in the United States. We present the 2.54-Mbp complete genome assembly of reference strain S. epidermidis AmMS 205, including a single 37.7-kbp plasmid. The annotated assembly is available in GenBank under accession numbers CP009046 and CP009047. PMID:25377697

  2. Complete Genome Assembly of Staphylococcus epidermidis AmMS 205

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, K. W.; Daligault, H. E.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Redden, C. L.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Scholz, M. B.; Teshima, H.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis causes a large number of catheter-related sepsis infections annually in the United States. We present the 2.54-Mbp complete genome assembly of reference strain S. epidermidis AmMS 205, including a single 37.7-kbp plasmid. The annotated assembly is available in GenBank under accession numbers CP009046 and CP009047. PMID:25377697

  3. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target

    PubMed Central

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H.

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  4. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  5. Assemblathon 2: evaluating de novo methods of genome assembly in three vertebrate species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The process of generating raw genome sequence data continues to become cheaper, faster, and more accurate. However, assembly of such data into high-quality, finished genome sequences remains challenging. Many genome assembly tools are available, but they differ greatly in terms of their performance (speed, scalability, hardware requirements, acceptance of newer read technologies) and in their final output (composition of assembled sequence). More importantly, it remains largely unclear how to best assess the quality of assembled genome sequences. The Assemblathon competitions are intended to assess current state-of-the-art methods in genome assembly. Results In Assemblathon 2, we provided a variety of sequence data to be assembled for three vertebrate species (a bird, a fish, and snake). This resulted in a total of 43 submitted assemblies from 21 participating teams. We evaluated these assemblies using a combination of optical map data, Fosmid sequences, and several statistical methods. From over 100 different metrics, we chose ten key measures by which to assess the overall quality of the assemblies. Conclusions Many current genome assemblers produced useful assemblies, containing a significant representation of their genes and overall genome structure. However, the high degree of variability between the entries suggests that there is still much room for improvement in the field of genome assembly and that approaches which work well in assembling the genome of one species may not necessarily work well for another. PMID:23870653

  6. Approach to Dynamic Assembling of Individualized Learning Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubchak, Vladimir; Kupenko, Olena; Kuzikov, Borys

    2012-01-01

    E-learning students are generally heterogeneous and have different capabilities knowledge base and needs. The aim of the Sumy State University (SSU) e-learning system project is to cater to these individual needs by assembling individual learning path. This paper shows current situation with e-learning in Ukraine, state-of-art of development of…

  7. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wynn, Nicholas P; Fulton, Donald A.

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  8. Installation and assembly device and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    An installation and assembly device for aligning a first member such as a pump impeller with a second member such as an inlet nozzle of an impeller pump. The installation and assembly device includes a sleeve slideable within the inlet nozzle and a vertical positioning assembly which has a contact member that is extendable out away from the sleeve so as to vertically position the sleeve on a shoulder of the inlet nozzle and to present an upper contact surface spaced a certain distance from the shoulder to provide the desired vertical spacing with respect to the impeller contacting the upper contact surface. The vertical positioning assembly is retractable so as to allow for removal of the sleeve through the nozzle when installation and assembly are completed. The alignment device also includes a radial alignment assembly supported by the sleeve and adjustable to an expanded state for contacting and spacing the interior surface of the impeller a certain distance from the sleeve and hence a certain distance from the inlet nozzle. The radial alignment device being adjustable from a retracted removal state to an expanded state and also being adjustable to fine tune the spacing of the impeller from the sleeve. The radial alignment device also preferably includes members that can be used to releasably secure the sleeve to the impeller.

  9. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached.

  10. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1997-06-03

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly are disclosed including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached. 5 figs.

  11. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  12. Next-generation transcriptome assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Zhong

    2011-09-01

    Transcriptomics studies often rely on partial reference transcriptomes that fail to capture the full catalog of transcripts and their variations. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and assembly algorithms have facilitated the reconstruction of the entire transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), even without a reference genome. However, transcriptome assembly from billions of RNA-seq reads, which are often very short, poses a significant informatics challenge. This Review summarizes the recent developments in transcriptome assembly approaches - reference-based, de novo and combined strategies-along with some perspectives on transcriptome assembly in the near future.

  13. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOEpatents

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  14. JWST NIRCam flight mirror assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Holmes, Howard C.; Huff, Lynn; Jacoby, Mike S.; Lopez, Frank

    2011-10-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has an optical prescription which includes numerous fold mirror assemblies. The instrument will operate at 35K after experiencing launch loads at ~293K. The optic mounts must accommodate all associated thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain exceptional optical quality during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) conceived, designed, analyzed, assembled, tested, and integrated the mirror assemblies for the NIRCam instrument. This paper covers the design, analysis, assembly, and test of two of the instruments key fold mirrors.

  15. Clean then Assemble Versus Assemble then Clean: Several Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    Cleanliness of manufactured parts and assemblies is a significant issue in many industries including disk drives, semiconductors, aerospace, and medical devices. Clean manufacturing requires cleanroom floor space and cleaning technology that are both expensive to own and expensive to operate. Strategies to reduce these costs are an important consideration. One strategy shown to be effective at reducing costs is to assemble parts into subassemblies and then clean the subassembly, rather than clean the individual parts first and then assemble them. One advantage is that assembly outside of the cleanroom reduces the amount of cleanroom floor space and its associated operating cost premium. A second advantage is that this strategy reduces the number of individual parts that must be cleaned prior to assembly, reducing the number of cleaning baskets, handling and, possibly, reducing the number of cleaners. The assemble then clean strategy also results in a part that is significantly cleaner because contamination generated during the assembly steps are more effectively removed that normally can be achieved by hand wiping after assembly in the cleanroom.

  16. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Dawson, Richard Nils; Qu, Ronghai; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  17. Estimation of the diffusion-limited rate of microtubule assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Odde, D J

    1997-01-01

    Microtubule assembly is a complex process with individual microtubules alternating stochastically between extended periods of assembly and disassembly, a phenomenon known as dynamic instability. Since the discovery of dynamic instability, molecular models of assembly have generally assumed that tubulin incorporation into the microtubule lattice is primarily reaction-limited. Recently this assumption has been challenged and the importance of diffusion in microtubule assembly dynamics asserted on the basis of scaling arguments, with tubulin gradients predicted to extend over length scales exceeding a cell diameter, approximately 50 microns. To assess whether individual microtubules in vivo assemble at diffusion-limited rates and to predict the theoretical upper limit on the assembly rate, a steady-state mean-field model for the concentration of tubulin about a growing microtubule tip was developed. Using published parameter values for microtubule assembly in vivo (growth rate = 7 microns/min, diffusivity = 6 x 10(-12) m2/s, tubulin concentration = 10 microM), the model predicted that the tubulin concentration at the microtubule tip was approximately 89% of the concentration far from the tip, indicating that microtubule self-assembly is not diffusion-limited. Furthermore, the gradients extended less than approximately 50 nm (the equivalent of about two microtubule diameters) from the microtubule tip, a distance much less than a cell diameter. In addition, a general relation was developed to predict the diffusion-limited assembly rate from the diffusivity and bulk tubulin concentration. Using this relation, it was estimated that the maximum theoretical assembly rate is approximately 65 microns/min, above which tubulin can no longer diffuse rapidly enough to support faster growth. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9199774

  18. Understanding of viral assembly through characterization of virus like nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutin, Andrey

    Virus like nanoparticles (VNPs) are a versatile platform for the development of novel materials that can be used in clinical applications or to study fundamental aspects of viral self-assembly and biophysics. In this work I summarize my progress on three VNP based studies. (1) We perform small angle X-ray scattering, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) combined with single particle reconstruction, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize structure and properties of VNPs containing gold coated iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs). These 11 nm NPs can be functionalized with HS-PEG-COOH ligand and maintain native protein structure and excellent magnetic properties, making them suitable for use as contrast agents in MRI. (2) Light scattering and cryo-EM and tomography are applied to study the assembly mechanism of BMV capsids around gold NPs. A novel mechanism of assembly is observed that, upon initiation of assembly, proceeds through an intermediary aggregation step of proteins and NPs, followed by protein annealing, and a release of assembled VNPs. This mechanism could have biological relevance to native virus assembly, as it exemplifies the versatility and robustness of the BMV protein, its ability to rescue assembly even in an aggregated state, as derived from the need to assemble in a variety of hosts and conditions. (3) The effects of crowding conditions, as mimicked by PEG6000 and Ficoll 70, on the assembly of empty capsids of BMV and structure of native BMV virions are investigated by light scattering, cryo-EM, and single particle reconstruction. Native virions display reduction in overall size, dependent on crowding agent concentration; whereas the assembly of empty capsids is greatly accelerated in crowded conditions at a range of ionic strengths. This work further displays the need for in vivo methods to study viral properties, as in vitro experiments miss the complexities of the cell.

  19. Rotatable seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.; Garibaldi, Jack L.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  20. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  1. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Taura, Joseph Charles; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Demiroglu, Mehmet; Predmore, Daniel Ross

    1999-01-01

    A seal assembly having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch therebetween which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal.

  2. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Taura, J.C.; Aksit, M.F.; Demiroglu, M.; Predmore, D.R.

    1999-06-29

    A seal assembly is described having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch there between which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal. 7 figs.

  3. Cilium assembly and disassembly.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Irma; Dynlacht, Brian David

    2016-06-28

    The primary cilium is an antenna-like, immotile organelle present on most types of mammalian cells, which interprets extracellular signals that regulate growth and development. Although once considered a vestigial organelle, the primary cilium is now the focus of considerable interest. We now know that ciliary defects lead to a panoply of human diseases, termed ciliopathies, and the loss of this organelle may be an early signature event during oncogenic transformation. Ciliopathies include numerous seemingly unrelated developmental syndromes, with involvement of the retina, kidney, liver, pancreas, skeletal system and brain. Recent studies have begun to clarify the key mechanisms that link cilium assembly and disassembly to the cell cycle, and suggest new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27350441

  4. Crank shaft support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Natkin, Robert J.; Oltmans, Bret; Allison, John E.; Heater, Thomas J.; Hines, Joy Adair; Tappen, Grant K.; Peiskammer, Dietmar

    2007-10-23

    A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

  5. Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-07-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives aluminum clad spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel from all over the world for storage and eventual reprocessing. There are hundreds of different kinds of MTR fuels and these fuels will continue to be received at SRS for approximately ten more years. SRS''s current criticality evaluation methodology requires the modeling of all MTR fuels utilizing Monte Carlo codes, which is extremely time consuming and resource intensive. Now that amore » significant number of MTR calculations have been conducted it is feasible to consider building statistical models that will provide reasonable estimations of MTR behavior. These statistical models can be incorporated into a standardized model homogenization spreadsheet package to provide analysts with a means of performing routine MTR fuel analyses with a minimal commitment of time and resources. This became the purpose for development of the Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation (CASE) program at SRS.« less

  6. Photovoltaic cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Beavis, Leonard C.; Panitz, Janda K. G.; Sharp, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

  7. Turbine vane plate assembly

    DOEpatents

    Schiavo Jr., Anthony L.

    2006-01-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes a turbine vane having first and second shrouds with an elongated airfoil extending between. Each end of the airfoil transitions into a shroud at a respective junction. Each of the shrouds has a plurality of cooling passages, and the airfoil has a plurality of cooling passages extending between the first and second shrouds. A substantially flat inner plate and an outer plate are coupled to each of the first and second shrouds so as to form inner and outer plenums. Each inner plenum is defined between at least the junction and the substantially flat inner plate; each outer plenum is defined between at least the substantially flat inner plate and the outer plate. Each inner plenum is in fluid communication with a respective outer plenum through at least one of the cooling passages in the respective shroud.

  8. Nonlinear Modeling by Assembling Piecewise Linear Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Weigang; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2013-01-01

    To preserve nonlinearity of a full order system over a parameters range of interest, we propose a simple modeling approach by assembling a set of piecewise local solutions, including the first-order Taylor series terms expanded about some sampling states. The work by Rewienski and White inspired our use of piecewise linear local solutions. The assembly of these local approximations is accomplished by assigning nonlinear weights, through radial basis functions in this study. The efficacy of the proposed procedure is validated for a two-dimensional airfoil moving at different Mach numbers and pitching motions, under which the flow exhibits prominent nonlinear behaviors. All results confirm that our nonlinear model is accurate and stable for predicting not only aerodynamic forces but also detailed flowfields. Moreover, the model is robustness-accurate for inputs considerably different from the base trajectory in form and magnitude. This modeling preserves nonlinearity of the problems considered in a rather simple and accurate manner.

  9. Solution assembly of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokel, Felicia A.

    This dissertation focuses on the solution-state polymer assembly of conjugated polymers with specific attention to nano- and molecular-scale morphology. Understanding how to control these structures holds potential for applications in polymer-based electronics. Optimization of conjugated polymer morphology was performed with three objectives: 1) segregation of donor and acceptor materials on the nanometer length-scale, 2) achieving molecular-scale ordering in terms of crystallinity within distinct domains, and 3) maximizing the number and quality of well-defined donor/acceptor interfaces. Chapter 1 introduces the development of a mixed solvent method to create crystalline poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) fibrils in solution. Chapter 2 describes fibril purification and approaches to robust and functional fibrils, while chapters 3 and 4 demonstrate the formation of hybrid nanocomposite wires of P3HT and cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles by two methods: 1) co-crystallization of free and P3HT-grafted CdSe for composite nanowires and 2) direct attachment of CdSe nanoparticles at fibril edges to give superhighway structures. These composite structures show great potential in the application of optoelectronic devices, such as the active layer of solar cells. Finally, ultrafast photophysical characterization of these polymers, using time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption, was performed to determine the aggregation types present in suspended fibrils and monitor the formation and decay of charged species in fibrils and donor-acceptor systems.

  10. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

    2000-06-27

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  11. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  12. Space assembled entry systems certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The approach taken to the issue, that 'How do you say you're 'good for go' if you space assemble an entry vehicle?', are: (1) shuttle orbiter thermal protection certification; (2) shuttle thermal protection system flight experience; and (3) space assembled entry system certification.

  13. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke

    2000-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  14. Upgraded Fuel Assemblies for BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, N.L.; Rentmeister, T.; Lippert, H.J.; Mollard, P.

    2007-07-01

    Established with engineering and manufacturing operations in the US and Europe, AREVA NP has been and is supplying nuclear fuel assemblies and associated core components to light water reactors worldwide, representing today more than 170,000 fuel assemblies on the world market and more than 56,000 fuel assemblies for BWR plants. Since first delivered in 1992, ATRIUM{sup TM}(1)10 fuel assemblies have now been supplied to a total of 28 BWR plants in the US, Europe, and Asia resulting in an operating experience over 16 000 fuel assemblies. In the spring of 2001, a BWR record burnup of 71 MWd/kgU was reached by four lead fuel assemblies after eight operating cycles. More recently, ATRIUM 10XP and ATRIUM 10XM fuel assemblies featuring changes in their characteristics and exhibiting upgraded behavior have been delivered to several utilities worldwide. This success story has been made possible thanks to a continuous improvement process with the aim of further upgrading BWR fuel assembly performance and reliability. An overview is given on current AREVA advanced BWR fuel supply regarding: - advanced designs to tailor product selection to specific operating strategies; - performance capabilities of each advanced design option; - testing and operational experience for these advanced designs; - upgraded features available for inclusion with advanced designs. (authors)

  15. Stator and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Shen, Xiaochun

    2013-06-18

    The present application provides a stator. The stator may include a number of poles and a stator tip and cooling assembly. The stator tip and cooling assembly may include a number of stator tips with a number of cooling tubes adjacent thereto such that the stator tips align with the poles and the cooling tubes cool the poles.

  16. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  17. Light-Induced Charge Separation in Densely Packed Donor-Acceptor Coordination Cages.

    PubMed

    Frank, Marina; Ahrens, Jennifer; Bejenke, Isabel; Krick, Marcel; Schwarzer, Dirk; Clever, Guido H

    2016-07-01

    Photon-powered charge separation is achieved in a supramolecular architecture based on the dense packing of functional building blocks. Therefore, self-assembled dimers of interpenetrated coordination cages consisting of redoxactive chromophors were synthesized in a single assembly step starting from easily accessible ligands and Pd(II) cations. Two backbones consisting of electron rich phenothiazine (PTZ) and electron deficient anthraquinone (ANQ) were used to assemble either homo-octameric or mixed-ligand double cages. The electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of the pure cages, mixtures of donor and acceptor cages and the mixed-ligand cages were compared by steady-state UV-vis and transient absorption spectroscopy, supported by cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry. Only the mixed-ligand cages, allowing close intra-assembly communication between the donors and acceptors, showed the evolution of characteristic PTZ radical cation and ANQ radical anion features upon excitation in the transient spectra. In contrast, excitation of the mixtures of the homo-octameric donor and acceptor cages in solution did not lead to any signs of electron transfer. Densely packed photo- and redox-functional self-assemblies promise molecular-level control over the morphology of the charge separation layer in future photovoltaic applications. PMID:27258549

  18. Virus assembly, allostery, and antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnick, Adam; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

    2010-01-01

    Assembly of virus capsids and surface proteins must be regulated to ensure that the resulting complex is an infectious virion. Here we examine assembly of virus capsids, focusing on hepatitis B virus and bacteriophage MS2, and formation of glycoproteins in the alphaviruses. These systems are structurally and biochemically well-characterized and are simplest-case paradigms of self-assembly. Published data suggest that capsid and glycoprotein assembly is subject to allosteric regulation, that is, regulation at the level of conformational change. The hypothesis that allostery is a common theme in viruses suggests that deregulation of capsid and glycoprotein assembly by small molecule effectors will be an attractive antiviral strategy, as has been demonstrated with hepatitis B virus. PMID:21163649

  19. Shape allophiles improve entropic assembly.

    PubMed

    Harper, Eric S; Marson, Ryan L; Anderson, Joshua A; van Anders, Greg; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2015-10-01

    We investigate a class of "shape allophiles" that fit together like puzzle pieces as a method to access and stabilize desired structures by controlling directional entropic forces. Squares are cut into rectangular halves, which are shaped in an allophilic manner with the goal of re-assembling the squares while self-assembling the square lattice. We examine the assembly characteristics of this system via the potential of mean force and torque, and the fraction of particles that entropically bind. We generalize our findings and apply them to self-assemble triangles into a square lattice via allophilic shaping. Through these studies we show how shape allophiles can be useful for assembling and stabilizing desired phases with appropriate allophilic design. PMID:26145147

  20. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  1. Folding and assembly of proteorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Klyszejko, Adriana L; Shastri, Sarika; Mari, Stefania A; Grubmüller, Helmut; Muller, Daniel J; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2008-02-01

    Proteorhodopsins (PRs), the recently discovered light-driven proton pumps, play a major role in supplying energy for microbial organisms of oceans. In contrast to PR, rhodopsins found in Archaea and Eukarya are structurally well characterized. Using single-molecule microscopy and spectroscopy, we observed the oligomeric assembly of native PR molecules and detected their folding in the membrane. PR showed unfolding patterns identical with those of bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin, indicating that PR folds similarly to archaeal rhodopsins. Surprisingly, PR predominantly assembles into hexameric oligomers, with a smaller fraction assembling into pentamers. Within these oligomers, PR arranged into radial assemblies. We suggest that this structural assembly of PR may have functional implications. PMID:18155728

  2. Coordination Assembly of Discoid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Kenji; Yeom, Bongjun; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chi, Hang; Mansfield, John F; Lee, Byeongdu; Lee, Sungsik; Uher, Ctirad; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-07-27

    Supramolecular chemistry utilizes coordination bonds to assemble molecular building blocks into a variety of sophisticated constructs. However, traditional coordination assemblies are based on organic compounds that have limited ability to transport charge. Herein, we describe coordination assembly of anisotropic FeS2 pyrite nanoparticles (NPs) that can facilitate charge transport. Zn(2+) ions form supramolecular complexes with carboxylate end-groups on NP surface, leading to multiparticle sheets with liquid-crystal-like organization. Conductivity and Hall carrier mobility of the p-type layered semiconductor films with Zn(2+) coordination bridging exceed those known for coordination compounds, some by several orders of magnitude. The nanoscale porosity of the assembled sheets combined with fast hole transport leads to high electrocatalytic activity of the NP films. The coordination assembly of NPs embraces the versatility of several types of building blocks and opens a new design space for self-organized materials combining nanoscale and supramolecular structural motifs. PMID:26095101

  3. Occupational Education in the Large Five Cities. Statement before the New York State Assembly Education Committee (Albany, New York, March 2, 1988). Capsule Report 88-11-CR-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Thomas

    This document reports the policy statement of the President of the University of the State of New York regarding vocational education in the five largest cities in the state. The statement provides background on how changes in the economy and the organization of work will affect the skills needed by the work force of the future. It also indicates…

  4. Mechanisms of kinetic trapping in self-assembly and phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Michael F.; Elrad, Oren M.; Jack, Robert L.

    2011-09-01

    In self-assembly processes, kinetic trapping effects often hinder the formation of thermodynamically stable ordered states. In a model of viral capsid assembly and in the phase transformation of a lattice gas, we show how simulations in a self-assembling steady state can be used to identify two distinct mechanisms of kinetic trapping. We argue that one of these mechanisms can be adequately captured by kinetic rate equations, while the other involves a breakdown of theories that rely on cluster size as a reaction coordinate. We discuss how these observations might be useful in designing and optimising self-assembly reactions.

  5. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-26

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  6. Biogenesis and Assembly of Eukaryotic Cytochrome c Oxidase Catalytic Core

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ileana C.; Fontanesi, Flavia; Liu, Jingjing; Barrientos, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. COX is a multimeric enzyme formed by subunits of dual genetic origin which assembly is intricate and highly regulated. The COX catalytic core is formed by three mitochondrial DNA encoded subunits, Cox1, Cox2 and Cox3, conserved in the bacterial enzyme. Their biogenesis requires the action of messenger-specific and subunit-specific factors which facilitate the synthesis, membrane insertion, maturation or assembly of the core subunits. The study of yeast strains and human cell lines from patients carrying mutations in structural subunits and COX assembly factors has been invaluable to identify these ancillary factors. Here we review the current state of knowledge of the biogenesis and assembly of the eukaryotic COX catalytic core and discuss the degree of conservation of the players and mechanisms operating from yeast to human. PMID:21958598

  7. AND/OR graph representation of assembly plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homem de Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1990-04-01

    A compact representation of all possible assembly plans of a product using AND/OR graphs is presented as a basis for efficient planning algorithms that allow an intelligent robot to pick a course of action according to instantaneous conditions. The AND/OR graph is equivalent to a state transition graph but requires fewer nodes and simplifies the search for feasible plans. Three applications are discussed: (1) the preselection of the best assembly plan, (2) the recovery from execution errors, and (3) the opportunistic scheduling of tasks. An example of an assembly with four parts illustrates the use of the AND/OR graph representation in assembly-plan preselection, based on the weighting of operations according to complexity of manipulation and stability of subassemblies. A hypothetical error situation is discussed to show how a bottom-up search of the AND/OR graph leads to an efficient recovery.

  8. AND/OR graph representation of assembly plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem De Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1990-01-01

    A compact representation of all possible assembly plans of a product using AND/OR graphs is presented as a basis for efficient planning algorithms that allow an intelligent robot to pick a course of action according to instantaneous conditions. The AND/OR graph is equivalent to a state transition graph but requires fewer nodes and simplifies the search for feasible plans. Three applications are discussed: (1) the preselection of the best assembly plan, (2) the recovery from execution errors, and (3) the opportunistic scheduling of tasks. An example of an assembly with four parts illustrates the use of the AND/OR graph representation in assembly-plan preselection, based on the weighting of operations according to complexity of manipulation and stability of subassemblies. A hypothetical error situation is discussed to show how a bottom-up search of the AND/OR graph leads to an efficient recovery.

  9. Assembly of surface engineered nanoparticles for functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xi

    Nanoparticles are regarded as exciting new building blocks for functional materials due to their fascinating physical properties because of the nano-confinement. Organizing nanoparticles into ordered hierarchical structures are highly desired for constructing novel optical and electrical artificial materials that are different from their isolated state or thermodynamics random ensembles. My research integrates the surface chemistry of nanoparticles, interfacial assembly and lithography techniques to construct nanoparticle based functional structures. We designed and synthesized tailor-made ligands for gold, semiconductor and magnetic nanoparticle, to modulate the assembly process and collective properties of the assembled structures, by controlling the key parameters such as particle-interface interaction, dielectric environments and inter-particle coupling etc. Top-down technologies such as micro contact printing, photolithography and nanoimprint lithography are used to guide the assembly into arbitrarily predesigned structures for potential device applications.

  10. Conformational Changes in the Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Are Consistent with a Role for Allostery in Virus Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Packianathan, Charles; Katen, Sarah P.; Dann, III, Charles E.; Zlotnick, Adam

    2010-01-12

    In infected cells, virus components must be organized at the right place and time to ensure assembly of infectious virions. From a different perspective, assembly must be prevented until all components are available. Hypothetically, this can be achieved by allosterically controlling assembly. Consistent with this hypothesis, here we show that the structure of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein dimer, which can spontaneously self-assemble, is incompatible with capsid assembly. Systematic differences between core protein dimer and capsid conformations demonstrate linkage between the intradimer interface and interdimer contact surface. These structures also provide explanations for the capsid-dimer selectivity of some antibodies and the activities of assembly effectors. Solution studies suggest that the assembly-inactive state is more accurately an ensemble of conformations. Simulations show that allostery supports controlled assembly and results in capsids that are resistant to dissociation. We propose that allostery, as demonstrated in HBV, is common to most self-assembling viruses.

  11. Gearbox assembly for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Imaizumi, M.; Masumura, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Hosoya, E.

    1987-01-13

    A gearbox assembly is described for a vehicle for transmitting an output of an engine to driving wheels of the vehicle, comprising: a main gearbox receiving the output and having plural forward gear-shift steps; a shift lever; a sub gearbox coupled to an output of the main gearbox having at least two relatively high and low speed gearshift steps (GH,GL) and a reverse transmission system (GR), the two steps and the reverse transmission system being selectively established through switching operation of the shift lever; wherein the sub gearbox further comprises: a rotary member connected to the shift lever for selecting one of the steps and the reverse transmission system according to its rotation; a stopper mechanism engaging the rotary member for preventing the rotary member from rotating to a position where the reverse transmission system is established; and interlinking means between the stopper mechanism and the main gearbox for releasing the stopper mechanism only when the main gearbox is in neutral or in a low speed gear-shift step; wherein the stopper mechanism comprises: a cam rotatable in response to the gear-shift operation of the main gearbox; a stopper lever one end of which faces the periphery of the cam and the other end facing the rotary member, the stopper lever being pivotally supported at its middle portion; and a spring urging the stopper level to abut against the periphery of the cam.

  12. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  13. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  14. Subsea wellhead assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T. P.

    1984-12-11

    A subsea wellhead assembly for areas subject to iceberg scouring including an upper conductor in a well bore and a lower conductor in the well bore with the upper end of the lower conductor being within the lower end of the upper conductor and connected thereto by a weak connection and the upper end of the lower conductor being below the maximum iceberg scour depth and means for connecting said conductors, said connecting means having sufficient strength to withstand bending loads during drilling and being removable for installation of production equipment. Additionally production equipment in the well bore includes a block valve supported within the second conductor and a production string extending upward from the block valve and having a weak point within the upper end of the second conductor whereby the well control is not lost by deep iceberg scouring since the production control equipment is within the second conductor which is not damaged by the scouring and the production equipment extending thereabove fails without damage to the lower control equipment or loss of the well.

  15. Concentric tube support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  16. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 μm) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. PMID:23786830

  17. Directed Self-assembly for Lithography Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Joy

    2010-03-01

    Economics dictated that semiconductor devices need to be scaled approximately to 70 percent linearly in order to follow the pace of Moore's law and maintain cost effectiveness. Optical lithography has been the driving force for scaling; however, it approaches its physical limit to print patterns beyond 22nm node. Directed self-assembly (DSA), which combines ``bottom-up'' self-assembled polymers and ``top-down'' lithographically defined substrates, has been considered as a potential candidate to extend optical lithography. Benefit from nanometer-scale self-assembly features and the registration precision of advanced lithography, DSA provides precise and programmable nanopatterns beyond the resolution limit of conventional lithography. We have demonstrated DSA concepts including frequency multiplication and pattern rectification using guiding prepattern with proper chemical and topographical information generated by e-beam lithography. In addition, we seek to integrate DSA with 193 nm optical lithography in a straightforward manner in order to move DSA from the research stage to a viable manufacturing technology. Recently, we implemented various integration strategies using photolithography to produce guiding patterns for DSA. This new ability enables DSA to be applied to large areas with state-of-the-art lithography facilities.

  18. Role of Microtubules in Stress Granule Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Chernov, Konstantin G.; Barbet, Aurélie; Hamon, Loic; Ovchinnikov, Lev P.; Curmi, Patrick A.; Pastré, David

    2009-01-01

    Following exposure to various stresses (arsenite, UV, hyperthermia, and hypoxia), mRNAs are assembled into large cytoplasmic bodies known as “stress granules,” in which mRNAs and associated proteins may be processed by specific enzymes for different purposes like transient storing, sorting, silencing, or other still unknown processes. To limit mRNA damage during stress, the assembly of micrometric granules has to be rapid, and, indeed, it takes only ∼10–20 min in living cells. However, such a rapid assembly breaks the rules of hindered diffusion in the cytoplasm, which states that large cytoplasmic bodies are almost immobile. In the present work, using HeLa cells and YB-1 protein as a stress granule marker, we studied three hypotheses to understand how cells overcome the limitation of hindered diffusion: shuttling of small messenger ribonucleoprotein particles from small to large stress granules, sliding of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles along microtubules, microtubule-mediated stirring of large stress granules. Our data favor the two last hypotheses and underline that microtubule dynamic instability favors the formation of micrometric stress granules. PMID:19843517

  19. Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Zongxuan

    2010-02-23

    A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

  20. Bearing assemblies, apparatuses, and motor assemblies using the same

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Timothy N.; Cooley, Craig H.; Knuteson, Cody W.

    2015-12-29

    Various embodiments of the invention relate to bearing assemblies, apparatuses and motor assemblies that include geometric features configured to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and/or hydrodynamic film formation. In an embodiment, a bearing assembly may include a plurality of superhard bearing pads distributed circumferentially about an axis. At least some of the plurality of superhard bearing pads may include a plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements defining a bearing surface. At least some of the plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements may be spaced from one another by one or more voids to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and hydrodynamic film formation thereon during operation. The bearing assembly may also include a support ring that carries the plurality of superhard bearing pads. In addition, at least a portion of the sub-superhard bearing elements may extend beyond the support ring.

  1. Fuel assembly for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Creagan, Robert J.; Frisch, Erling

    1977-01-01

    A new and improved fuel assembly is formed to minimize the amount of parasitic structural material wherein a plurality of hollow tubular members are juxtaposed to the fuel elements of the assembly. The tubular members may serve as guide tubes for control elements and are secured to a number of longitudinally spaced grid members along the fuel assembly. The grid members include means thereon engaging each of the fuel elements to laterally position the fuel elements in a predetermined array. Openings in the bottom of each hollow member serve as a shock absorber to cushion shock transmitted to the structure when the control elements are rapidly inserted in their corresponding tubular members.

  2. Cooling assembly for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Werth, John

    1990-01-01

    A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet.

  3. Ionically self-assembled monolayers (ISAMs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, John

    2001-04-01

    Ionically self-assembled monolayers (ISAMs), fabricated by alternate adsorption of cationic and anionic components, yield exceptionally homogeneous thin films with sub-nanometer control of the thickness and relative special location of the component materials. Using organic electrochromic materials such as polyaniline, we report studies of electrochromic responses in ISAM films. Reversible changes in the absorption spectrum are observed with the application of voltages on the order of 1.0 V. Measurements are made using both liquid electrolytes and in all-solid state devices incorporating solid polyelectrolytes such as poly(2-acylamido 2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS).

  4. Structure, morphology, and assembly behavior of kafirin.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Li, Yunqi; Li, Ji; Gonzalez, Alejandro Perez; Xia, Qiuyang; Huang, Qingrong

    2015-01-14

    Prolamins from grains have attracted intensive attention in recent years due to their potential in satisfying the demand for environmentally friendly (biodegradable), abundantly available (sustainable), and cost-effective biomaterials. However, for kafirin, the prolamin from sorghum, its composition, structure, morphology, and self-assembly behaviors have not been fully characterized. In this paper, kafirin was extracted from the whole sorghum grain and found to contain 68, 14, 6, and 12% of α-, β-, and γ-fractions and cross-linked kafirin, respectively. Freeze-dried kafirin contained ∼49% α-helix in the solid state. When dissolved in 65% (v/v) isopropanol, 60% (v/v) tert-butanol, and 85% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solvents, the relative α-helix content in kafirin increased with the decrease of solvent polarity. Structural analysis using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicated that kafirin (2 mg/mL) took stretched and extended conformations with dimensions of 118 × 15 × 15 and 100 × 11 × 11 Å in 60% tert-butanol and 65% isopropanol, respectively. More elongated conformation of individual kafirin with high-order assembly was observed in 85% ethanol. Protein aggregation occurred as protein concentration increased in its good solvent. The morphology of kafirin assemblies captured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that kafirin protein took uniform particle morphology at low concentration, and disk-like or rod-like structures resulting from solvent evaporation induced particle interactions emerged at high concentrations. These results suggest that both protein concentration and solvent polarity can effectively regulate kafirin assemblies from thick rod-like to slim rod-like structures, a convenient way to tune the fibrillation of prolamin-based biomaterials. PMID:25510968

  5. Structure, Morphology, and Assembly Behavior of Kafirin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Prolamins from grains have attracted intensive attention in recent years due to their potential in satisfying the demand for environmentally friendly (biodegradable), abundantly available (sustainable), and cost-effective biomaterials. However, for kafirin, the prolamin from sorghum, its composition, structure, morphology, and self-assembly behaviors have not been fully characterized. In this paper, kafirin was extracted from the whole sorghum grain and found to contain 68, 14, 6, and 12% of α-, β-, and γ-fractions and cross-linked kafirin, respectively. Freeze-dried kafirin contained ∼49% α-helix in the solid state. When dissolved in 65% (v/v) isopropanol, 60% (v/v) tert-butanol, and 85% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solvents, the relative α-helix content in kafirin increased with the decrease of solvent polarity. Structural analysis using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicated that kafirin (2 mg/mL) took stretched and extended conformations with dimensions of 118 × 15 × 15 and 100 × 11 × 11 Å in 60% tert-butanol and 65% isopropanol, respectively. More elongated conformation of individual kafirin with high-order assembly was observed in 85% ethanol. Protein aggregation occurred as protein concentration increased in its good solvent. The morphology of kafirin assemblies captured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that kafirin protein took uniform particle morphology at low concentration, and disk-like or rod-like structures resulting from solvent evaporation induced particle interactions emerged at high concentrations. These results suggest that both protein concentration and solvent polarity can effectively regulate kafirin assemblies from thick rod-like to slim rod-like structures, a convenient way to tune the fibrillation of prolamin-based biomaterials. PMID:25510968

  6. Heat exchange assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2004-06-08

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  7. Hear Exchange Assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2003-05-27

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  8. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  9. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  10. Analysis of Illumina Microbial Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Clum, Alicia; Foster, Brian; Froula, Jeff; LaButti, Kurt; Sczyrba, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Woyke, Tanja

    2010-05-28

    Since the emerging of second generation sequencing technologies, the evaluation of different sequencing approaches and their assembly strategies for different types of genomes has become an important undertaken. Next generation sequencing technologies dramatically increase sequence throughput while decreasing cost, making them an attractive tool for whole genome shotgun sequencing. To compare different approaches for de-novo whole genome assembly, appropriate tools and a solid understanding of both quantity and quality of the underlying sequence data are crucial. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis of short-read Illumina sequence assembly strategies for bacterial and archaeal genomes. Different types of Illumina libraries as well as different trim parameters and assemblers were evaluated. Results of the comparative analysis and sequencing platforms will be presented. The goal of this analysis is to develop a cost-effective approach for the increased throughput of the generation of high quality microbial genomes.

  11. Shaft seal assembly and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  12. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly. PMID:27381497

  13. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  14. Self-assembly via microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic building blocks has attracted extensive interest in myriad fields in recent years, due to their great potential in the nanoscale design of functional hybrid materials. Microfluidic techniques provide an intriguing method to control kinetic aspects of the self-assembly of molecular amphiphiles by the facile adjustment of the hydrodynamics of the fluids. Up to now, there have been several reports about one-step direct self-assembly of different building blocks with versatile and multi-shape products without templates, which demonstrated the advantages of microfluidics. These assemblies with different morphologies have great applications in various areas such as cancer therapy, micromotor fabrication, and controlled drug delivery. PMID:26486277

  15. Wafer scale micromachine assembly method

    DOEpatents

    Christenson, Todd R.

    2001-01-01

    A method for fusing together, using diffusion bonding, micromachine subassemblies which are separately fabricated is described. A first and second micromachine subassembly are fabricated on a first and second substrate, respectively. The substrates are positioned so that the upper surfaces of the two micromachine subassemblies face each other and are aligned so that the desired assembly results from their fusion. The upper surfaces are then brought into contact, and the assembly is subjected to conditions suited to the desired diffusion bonding.

  16. Protein crystal growth tray assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Miller, Teresa Y. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A protein crystal growth tray assembly includes a tray that has a plurality of individual crystal growth chambers. Each chamber has a movable pedestal which carries a protein crystal growth compartment at an upper end. The several pedestals for each tray assembly are ganged together for concurrent movement so that the solutions in the various pedestal growth compartments can be separated from the solutions in the tray's growth chambers until the experiment is to be activated.

  17. Fuel cell design and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myerhoff, Alfred (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel bipolar cooling plate, fuel cell design and method of assembly of fuel cells. The bipolar cooling plate used in the fuel cell design and method of assembly has discrete opposite edge and means carried by the plate defining a plurality of channels extending along the surface of the plate toward the opposite edges. At least one edge of the channels terminates short of the edge of the plate defining a recess for receiving a fastener.

  18. Emphasis on the Instruction on the Documents of Virginia and United States History and Government. Report of the Department of Education to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. Senate Document No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This document from the Virginia Department of Education reports on a project to enable public schools to meet requirements of two laws. The first law required public schools to emphasize instruction on the documents of Virginia and United States history and government. The second requested that all public schools be urged to display copies of the…

  19. Institutional Reports on Pacific Rim Programs. Submissions by the California Community Colleges, the California State University, and the University of California in Response to Assembly Concurrent Resolution 82 (1986). Commission Report 87-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    Reports from the California State University, the University of California, and the California community colleges consider their roles in the Pacific Rim region. The Pacific Rim includes all lands with at least a portion of their coastlines fronting on the Pacific Ocean. Of concern are: the need for changes in program offerings and exchange…

  20. A Proximity-Based Programmable DNA Nanoscale Assembly Line

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hongzhou; Chao, Jie; Xiao, Shou-Jun; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to synthesize nanometer-scale particles with desired shapes and compositions offers the exciting prospect of generating new functional materials and devices by combining the particles in a controlled fashion into larger structures. Self-assembly can achieve this task efficiently, but may be subject to thermodynamic and kinetic limitations: Reactants, intermediates and products may collide with each other throughout the assembly timecourse to produce non-target instead of target species. An alternative approach to nanoscale assembly uses information-containing molecules such as DNA1 to control interactions and thereby minimize unwanted crosstalk between different components. In principle, this method should allow the stepwise and programmed construction of target products by fastening individually selected nanoscale components – much as an automobile is built on an assembly line. Here, we demonstrate that a nanoscale assembly line can indeed be realized by the judicious combination of three known DNA-based modules: a DNA origami2 tile that provides a framework and track for the assembly process, cassettes containing three distinct two-state DNA machines that serve as programmable cargo-donating devices3,4 and are attached4,5 in series to the tile, and a DNA walker that can move on the track from device to device and collect cargo. As the walker traverses the pathway prescribed by the origami tile track, it encounters sequentially the three DNA devices that can be independently switched between an ‘ON’ state allowing its cargo to be transferred to the walker, and an ‘OFF’ state where no transfer occurs. We use three different types of gold nanoparticles as cargo and show that the experimental system does indeed allow the controlled fabrication of the eight different products that can be obtained with three two-state devices. PMID:20463734

  1. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Favalli, Andrea; Grogan, Brandon R.; Jansson, Peter; Liljenfeldt, Henrik; Mozin, Vladimir; Hu, Jianwei; Schwalbach, P.; Sjoland, A.; et al

    2016-07-17

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detectmore » the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. As a result, to compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.« less

  2. Feature-by-Feature – Evaluating De Novo Sequence Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Vezzi, Francesco; Narzisi, Giuseppe; Mishra, Bud

    2012-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence assembly (WGSA) problem is among one of the most studied problems in computational biology. Despite the availability of a plethora of tools (i.e., assemblers), all claiming to have solved the WGSA problem, little has been done to systematically compare their accuracy and power. Traditional methods rely on standard metrics and read simulation: while on the one hand, metrics like N50 and number of contigs focus only on size without proportionately emphasizing the information about the correctness of the assembly, comparisons performed on simulated dataset, on the other hand, can be highly biased by the non-realistic assumptions in the underlying read generator. Recently the Feature Response Curve (FRC) method was proposed to assess the overall assembly quality and correctness: FRC transparently captures the trade-offs between contigs' quality against their sizes. Nevertheless, the relationship among the different features and their relative importance remains unknown. In particular, FRC cannot account for the correlation among the different features. We analyzed the correlation among different features in order to better describe their relationships and their importance in gauging assembly quality and correctness. In particular, using multivariate techniques like principal and independent component analysis we were able to estimate the “excess-dimensionality” of the feature space. Moreover, principal component analysis allowed us to show how poorly the acclaimed N50 metric describes the assembly quality. Applying independent component analysis we identified a subset of features that better describe the assemblers performances. We demonstrated that by focusing on a reduced set of highly informative features we can use the FRC curve to better describe and compare the performances of different assemblers. Moreover, as a by-product of our analysis, we discovered how often evaluation based on simulated data, obtained with state of the art

  3. 8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, SHOWING PREVIOUS MODIFICATIONS (INSTALLATION OF METAL ROLL-UP DOOR, LEFT FOREGROUND). 125-TON LIFTING CRANE (TOP FOREGROUND), AND ORIGINAL FLOOR-TO-CEILING MULTI-PANE, METAL-CASED WINDOWS - Bonneville Power Administration Chehalis Substation, Untanking Tower, State Route 603, West of Interstate 5, Napavine, Lewis County, WA

  4. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... United States (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), is determined in accordance with 19 CFR 152.100 et seq. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions...

  5. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... United States (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), is determined in accordance with 19 CFR 152.100 et seq. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions...

  6. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... United States (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), is determined in accordance with 19 CFR 152.100 et seq. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions...

  7. An REU Experience with Micro Assembly Workcell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, William; Asiabanpour, Bahram; Jimenez, Jesus; Um, Dugan

    2010-01-01

    Under an NSF REU center grant REU-0755355 entitled "Micro/Nano Assembly Workcell Via Micro Visual Sensing and Haptic Feedback", Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and Texas State University-San Marcos collaboratively hosted two groups of 10 students from different backgrounds for 10 weeks each in Summer 2008 and 2009 respectively.…

  8. Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with scale. Not in use August 1994. Turntable rotated with engine and tender on balance by two persons, one on either side at ground level - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  9. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... United States (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), is determined in accordance with 19 CFR 152.100 et seq. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions...

  10. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... United States (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), is determined in accordance with 19 CFR 152.100 et seq. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions...

  11. Dynamic, Directed Self-Assembly of Nanoparticles via Toggled Interactions.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Zachary M; Swan, James W

    2016-05-24

    Crystals self-assembled from nanoparticles have useful properties such as optical activity and sensing capability. During fabrication, however, gelation and glassification often leave these materials arrested in defective or disordered metastable states. This is a key difficulty preventing adoption of self-assembled nanoparticle materials at scale. Processes which suppress kinetic arrest and defect formation while accelerating growth of ordered materials are essential for bottom-up approaches to creating nanomaterials. Dynamic, directed self-assembly processes in which the interactions between self-assembling components are actuated temporally offer one promising methodology for accelerating and controlling bottom-up growth of nanostructures. In this article, we show through simulation and theory how time-dependent, periodically toggled interparticle attractions can avoid kinetic barriers and yield well-ordered crystalline domains for a dispersion of nanoparticles interacting via a short-ranged, isotropic potential. The growth mechanism and terminal structure of the dispersion are controlled by parameters of the toggling protocol. This control allows for selection of processes that yield rapid self-assembled, low defect crystals. Although self-assembly via periodically toggled attractions is inherently unsteady and out-of-equilibrium, its outcome is predicted by a first-principles theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The theory necessitates equality of the time average of pressure and chemical potential in coexisting phases of the dispersion. These quantities are evaluated using well known equations of state. The phase behavior predicted by this theory agrees well with measurements made in Brownian dynamics simulations of sedimentation equilibrium and homogeneous nucleation. The theory can easily be extended to model dynamic self-assembly directed by other toggled conservative force fields. PMID:27096705

  12. 48 CFR 239.7409 - Special assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special assembly. 239.7409... Services 239.7409 Special assembly. (a) Special assembly is the designing, manufacturing, arranging... general use equipment. (b) Special assembly rates and charges shall be based on estimated costs....

  13. 16 CFR 1508.8 - Assembly instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly instructions. 1508.8 Section 1508.8... REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.8 Assembly instructions. (a) Cribs, when shipped other than completely assembled, shall be accompanied by detailed instructions that include an assembly drawing, a...

  14. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hose assemblies. 154.500 Section... assemblies. Each hose assembly used for transferring oil or hazardous material must meet the following requirements: (a) The minimum design burst pressure for each hose assembly must be at least four times the...

  15. FASTENER FOR AN ASSEMBLY OF PLATES

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.

    1963-08-20

    A fastener is provided for a spaced-apart parallel plate fuel assembly. The fastener, attached by screws to a key that passes through the edges of the assembled plate, serves as a retainer for the outermost plate as well as a bidirectional spacer for separating the fuel assembly from two neighboring fuel assemblies. (AEC)

  16. Optimal Assembly of Psychological and Educational Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews optimal test-assembly literature and introduces the contributions to this special issue. Discusses four approaches to computerized test assembly: (1) heuristic-based test assembly; (2) 0-1 linear programming; (3) network-flow programming; and (4) an optimal design approach. Contains a bibliography of 90 sources on test assembly.…

  17. 75 FR 70690 - Visteon Corporation Springfield Plant Formerly Known as VC Regional Assembly & Manufacturing, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... September 15, 2010 (75 FR 56142). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Assembly & Manufacturing, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From MSX International, Adecco, and Manpower... Corporation, Springfield Plant was formerly known as VC Regional Assembly & Manufacturing, LLC....

  18. 32 CFR 644.104 - Procurement of deed and title assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of deed and title assembly. 644.104 Section 644.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Involuntary Acquisition by the United States § 644.104 Procurement of deed and title assembly. In...

  19. Colorado Preschool Project. Progress Report: Year 1. A Report to the Colorado General Assembly. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmiaston, Rebecca; And Others

    By creating the Colorado Preschool Program (CPP) in 1988, the Colorado General Assembly responded to the needs of 4- and 5-year-old children who are at risk of educational failure in Colorado. This paper is an executive summary of a report to the state's general assembly on the project's first 6 months of progress. The CPP addresses two critical…

  20. A path to designing self-assembling surface patterns on particles for self-assembly of the particles themselves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Oskar; Edlund, Erik; Nilsson Jacobi, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Patchy colloids are promising candidates for self-assembly of metamaterials since directional attraction and high specificity reduces the ambiguity of the low energy state, this simplifies the design of self-assembling building blocks. However, the large scale fabrication of colloids with specific patterns becomes more difficult as the complexity of the surface pattern increases. Self-organiziation of the surface patterns themselves have been suggested as a promising fabrication method due to the new types of patterns it makes accessible. We present a method for designing self-assembling patterns in multiple components system on particle surfaces. The method is based on an analytical treatment of an effective interaction representation of real systems. As an example, we use a simplified model of Alkalethoils-on-gold to show how a limited amount of system parameters can be tuned in order to cause self-assembly of desired surface patterns. We perform in silico self-assembly of surface patterns on spherical colloids, the patterns then causes the colloids themselves to self-assemble into various geometric target structures like strings, membranes, cubic aggregates and lattices. OL and MNJ acknowledge support from the SuMo Biomaterials center of excellence.

  1. Electric field mediated colloidal assembly and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Jaime Javier

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation presents video microscopy measurements and computer simulations of colloidal particle interactions in inhomogeneous, high-frequency AC electric fields. The interactions of particles with each other and inhomogeneous electric fields are quantified as a function of concentration, field amplitude, and frequency. Visual state diagrams show that these interactions in concentrated systems produce quasi-two dimensional microstructures including confined hard disk fluids, oriented dipolar chains, and oriented hexagonal close packed crystals. The interaction of a particle interacting with an electric field is directly measured with analyses of a single diffusing colloid within electric fields in the absence of many body effects. Concentrated systems are characterized in terms of density profiles across the electrode gap and angular pair distribution functions. An inverse Monte Carlo analysis extracted the induced dipole-induced dipole interaction from concentrated measurements. A single adjustable parameter consistently modified the induced dipole-field potential and the induced dipole-induced dipole potential to account for modification of the local electric field as the result of the local particle concentration, frequency and configuration. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) perform sensitive measurements of internal three dimensional structure of crystals assembled in an interfacial quadrupole electrode device. Radial distributions as functions of elevation are used to characterize the equilibrium structure. A single adjustable parameter modified known potentials to match Monte Carlo simulations with experiment. The local density from experiment and simulation matched the expected density calculated from a balance of osmotic pressure and dielectrophoretic compression. Simulations qualitatively matched experimental observations of microstructure as a function of field amplitude. Programmable assembly for colloidal crystals is implemented in the

  2. TOOL ASSEMBLY WITH BI-DIRECTIONAL BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Longhurst, G.E.

    1961-07-11

    A two-direction motion bearing which is incorporated in a refueling nuclear fuel element trsnsfer tool assembly is described. A plurality of bi- directional bearing assembliesare fixed equi-distantly about the circumference of the transfer tool assembly to provide the tool assembly with a bearing surface- for both axial and rotational motion. Each bi-directional bearing assembly contains a plurality of circumferentially bulged rollers mounted in a unique arrangement which will provide a bearing surface for rotational movement of the tool assembly within a bore. The bi-direc tional bearing assembly itself is capable of rational motion and thus provides for longitudinal movement of the tool assembly.

  3. Assembly planning based on subassembly extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Shin, Yeong Gil

    1990-01-01

    A method is presented for the automatic determination of assembly partial orders from a liaison graph representation of an assembly through the extraction of preferred subassemblies. In particular, the authors show how to select a set of tentative subassemblies by decomposing a liaison graph into a set of subgraphs based on feasibility and difficulty of disassembly, how to evaluate each of the tentative subassemblies in terms of assembly cost using the subassembly selection indices, and how to construct a hierarchical partial order graph (HPOG) as an assembly plan. The method provides an approach to assembly planning by identifying spatial parallelism in assembly as a means of constructing temporal relationships among assembly operations and solves the problem of finding a cost-effective assembly plan in a flexible environment. A case study of the assembly planning of a mechanical assembly is presented.

  4. Accomplishments in Field Period Assembly for NCSX* This is how we did it

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Viola, J. Edwards, T. Brown, L. Dudek, R. Ellis, P. Heitzenroeder, R. Strykowsky and Michael Cole

    2009-09-14

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was a collaborative effort between ORNL and PPPL. PPPL provided the assembly techniques with guidance from ORNL to meet design criteria. The individual vacuum vessel segments, modular coils, trim coils, and toroidal field coils components were delivered to the Field Period Assembly (FPA) crew who then would complete the component assemblies and then assemble the final three field period assemblies, each consisting of two sets of three modular coils assembled over a 120o vacuum vessel segment with the trim coils and toroidal field coils providing the outer layer. The requirements for positioning the modular coils were found to be most demanding. The assembly tolerances required for accurate positioning of the field coil windings in order to generate sufficiently accurate magnetic fields strained state of the art techniques in metrology and alignment and required constant monitoring of assembly steps with laser trackers, measurement arms, and photogrammetry. The FPA activities were being performed concurrently while engineering challenges were being resolved. For example, it was determined that high friction electrically isolated shims were needed between the modular coil interface joints and low distortion welding was required in the nose region of those joints. This took months of analysis and development yet the assembly was not significantly impacted because other assembly tasks could be performed in parallel with ongoing assembly tasks as well as tasks such as advance tooling setup preparation for the eventual welding tasks. The crew technicians developed unique, accurate time saving techniques and tooling which provided significant cost and schedule savings. Project management displayed extraordinary foresight and every opportunity to gain advanced knowledge and develop techniques was taken advantage of. Despite many risk concerns, the cost and schedule performance index was maintained nearly 1.0 during the

  5. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  6. Meta assembler enhancements and generalized linkage editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A meta Assembler for NASA was developed. The initial development of the Meta Assembler for the SUMC was performed. The capabilities included assembly for both main and micro level programs. A period of checkout and utilization to verify the performance of the Meta Assembler was undertaken. Additional enhancements were made to the Meta Assembler which expanded the target computer family to include architectures represented by the PDP-11, MODCOMP 2, and Raytheon 706 computers.

  7. Shape Allophiles Improve Entropic Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Eric; Marson, Ryan; Anderson, Joshua; van Anders, Greg; Glotzer, Sharon

    We investigate a class of ``shape allophiles'' that fit together like puzzle pieces as a method to access and stabilize desired structures by controlling directional entropic forces. Squares are cut into rectangular halves, which are shaped in an allophilic manner with the goal of re-assembling the squares while self-assembling the square lattice. We examine the assembly characteristics of this system via the potential of mean force and torque, and the fraction of particles that entropically bind. We generalize our findings and apply them to self-assemble triangles into a square lattice via allophilic shaping. Through these studies we show how shape allophiles can be useful in assembling and stabilizing desired phases with appropriate allophilic design. NSF Grant # ACI-1053575 (XSEDE Award DMR 140129), U.S. Army Research Office Grant Award # W911NF-10-1-0518, DOD/ASD(R&E) Award # N00244-09-1-0062, NSF DGE 0903629 Open Data IGERT, NSF Division of Materials Research Award # DMR 1409620.

  8. Predator identity influences metacommunity assembly.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Nicole K; Pu, Zhichao; Jiang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Predation is among the most important biotic factors influencing natural communities, yet we have a rather rudimentary understanding of its role in modulating metacommunity assembly. We experimentally examined the effects of two different predators (a generalist and a specialist) on metacommunity assembly, using protist microcosm metacommunities that varied in predator identity, dispersal among local communities and the history of species colonization into local communities. Generalist predation resulted in reduced α diversity and increased β diversity irrespective of dispersal, likely due to predation-induced stochastic extinction of different prey species in different local communities. Dispersal, however, induced source-sink dynamics in the presence of specialist predators, resulting in higher α diversity and marginally lower β diversity. These results demonstrate the distinct effects of different predators on prey metacommunity assembly, emphasizing the need to explore the role of predator diet breadth in structuring metacommunities. PMID:27349796

  9. Mechanisms of Mitotic Spindle Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Life depends on cell proliferation and the accurate segregation of chromosomes, which are mediated by the microtubule (MT)-based mitotic spindle and ~200 essential MT-associated proteins. Yet, a mechanistic understanding of how the mitotic spindle is assembled and achieves chromosome segregation is still missing. This is mostly due to the density of MTs in the spindle, which presumably precludes their direct observation. Recent insight has been gained into the molecular building plan of the metaphase spindle using bulk and single-molecule measurements combined with computational modeling. MT nucleation was uncovered as a key principle of spindle assembly, and mechanistic details about MT nucleation pathways and their coordination are starting to be revealed. Lastly, advances in studying spindle assembly can be applied to address the molecular mechanisms of how the spindle segregates chromosomes. PMID:27145846

  10. Insulation assembly for electric machine

    DOEpatents

    Rhoads, Frederick W.; Titmuss, David F.; Parish, Harold; Campbell, John D.

    2013-10-15

    An insulation assembly is provided that includes a generally annularly-shaped main body and at least two spaced-apart fingers extending radially inwards from the main body. The spaced-apart fingers define a gap between the fingers. A slot liner may be inserted within the gap. The main body may include a plurality of circumferentially distributed segments. Each one of the plurality of segments may be operatively connected to another of the plurality of segments to form the continuous main body. The slot liner may be formed as a single extruded piece defining a plurality of cavities. A plurality of conductors (extendable from the stator assembly) may be axially inserted within a respective one of the plurality of cavities. The insulation assembly electrically isolates the conductors in the electric motor from the stator stack and from other conductors.

  11. Abrasive swivel assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Hashish, Mohamed; Marvin, Mark

    1990-01-01

    An abrasive swivel assembly for providing a rotating, particle-laden fluid stream and, ultimately, a rotating particle-laden fluid jet is disclosed herein. This assembly includes a tubular arrangement for providing a particle-free stream of fluid, a swivel assembly for rotating a section of the tubular arrangement, and a tubular end section for introducing solid particles into the particle-free fluid stream at a point along the rotating tubular section, whereby to produce a particle-laden fluid stream. This last-mentioned stream can then be used in combination with a cooperating nozzle arrangement for providing a rotating particle-laden fluid jet. In an actual working embodiment, the fluid stream is of sufficiently high pressure so that the abrasive jet can be used as a cutting jet.

  12. Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

  13. FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER TEST SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-05-30

    This report describes the modeling of a PWR fuel assembly under dynamic shock loading in support of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) shaker test campaign. The focus of the test campaign is on evaluating the response of used fuel to shock and vibration loads that a can occur during highway transport. Modeling began in 2012 using an LS-DYNA fuel assembly model that was first created for modeling impact scenarios. SNL’s proposed test scenario was simulated through analysis and the calculated results helped guide the instrumentation and other aspects of the testing. During FY 2013, the fuel assembly model was refined to better represent the test surrogate. Analysis of the proposed loads suggested the frequency band needed to be lowered to attempt to excite the lower natural frequencies of the fuel assembly. Despite SNL’s expansion of lower frequency components in their five shock realizations, pretest predictions suggested a very mild dynamic response to the test loading. After testing was completed, one specific shock case was modeled, using recorded accelerometer data to excite the model. Direct comparison of predicted strain in the cladding was made to the recorded strain gauge data. The magnitude of both sets of strain (calculated and recorded) are very low, compared to the expected yield strength of the Zircaloy-4 material. The model was accurate enough to predict that no yielding of the cladding was expected, but its precision at predicting micro strains is questionable. The SNL test data offers some opportunity for validation of the finite element model, but the specific loading conditions of the testing only excite the fuel assembly to respond in a limited manner. For example, the test accelerations were not strong enough to substantially drive the fuel assembly out of contact with the basket. Under this test scenario, the fuel assembly model does a reasonable job of approximating actual fuel assembly response, a claim that can be verified through

  14. Ultrasonic cleaning of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Keisuke; Fujita, Chitoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1994-12-31

    During fuel transportation, contamination of the transfer cask can lead to radiation dosage. That is radioactive crud becomes detached from the fuel surface and is deposited inside the cask. To avoid this at the Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, crud was removed from fuel assemblies in advance of fuel transportation work. An ultrasonic cleaning process was adopted for this purpose; ultrasonic methods excel over other methods for this type of cleaning. Our process is also able to clean fuel assemblies without removing the channel box. Since this is the first time that the ultrasonic method was applied to fuel assemblies at the light water reactor in Japan on a large scale, the efficiency and the impact on plant instrumentation of the method were examined by performing preliminary test. Based on these tests, an optimum cleaning procedure was established.

  15. Onset of self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Chitanvis, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    We have formulated a theory of self-assembly based on the notion of local gauge invariance at the mesoscale. Local gauge invariance at the mesoscale generates the required long-range entropic forces responsible for self-assembly in binary systems. Our theory was applied to study the onset of mesostructure formation above a critical temperature in estane, a diblock copolymer. We used diagrammatic methods to transcend the Gaussian approximation and obtain a correlation length {xi}{approximately}(c{minus}c{sup {asterisk}}){sup {minus}{gamma}}, where c{sup {asterisk}} is the minimum concentration below which self-assembly is impossible, c is the current concentration, and {gamma} was found numerically to be fairly close to 2/3. The renormalized diffusion constant vanishes as the critical concentration is approached, indicating the occurrence of critical slowing down, while the correlation function remains finite at the transition point. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  17. Hydrodynamic assembly for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabak, Max; Clark, Daniel; Town, Richard; Hatchett, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    We present directly and indirectly driven implosion designs for Fast Ignition. Directly driven designs using various laser illumination wavelengths are described. We compare these designs with simple hydrodynamic efficiency models. Capsules illuminated with less than 1 MJ of light with perfect zooming at low intensity and low contrast ratio in power can assemble 4 mg of fuel to column density in excess of 3 g/cm^2. We contrast these designs with more optimized designs that lead to Guderley-style self similar implosions. Indirectly driven capsules absorbing 75 kJ of xrays can assemble 0.7 mg to column density 2.7 g/cm^2 in 1D simulations. We describe 2-D simulations including both capsules and attached cones driven by radiation. We describe issues in assembling fuel near the cone tip and cone disruption.

  18. Workload analyse of assembling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  19. Buckling instability of self-assembled colloidal columns.

    PubMed

    Swan, James W; Vasquez, Paula A; Furst, Eric M

    2014-09-26

    Suspended, slender self-assembled domains of magnetically responsive colloids are observed to buckle in microgravity. Upon cessation of the magnetic field that drives their assembly, these columns expand axially and buckle laterally. This phenomenon resembles the buckling of long beams due to thermal expansion; however, linear stability analysis predicts that the colloidal columns are inherently susceptible to buckling because they are freely suspended in a Newtonian fluid. The dominant buckling wavelength increases linearly with column thickness and is quantitatively described using an elastohydrodynamic model and the suspension thermodynamic equation of state. PMID:25302919

  20. Buckling Instability of Self-Assembled Colloidal Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, James W.; Vasquez, Paula A.; Furst, Eric M.

    2014-09-01

    Suspended, slender self-assembled domains of magnetically responsive colloids are observed to buckle in microgravity. Upon cessation of the magnetic field that drives their assembly, these columns expand axially and buckle laterally. This phenomenon resembles the buckling of long beams due to thermal expansion; however, linear stability analysis predicts that the colloidal columns are inherently susceptible to buckling because they are freely suspended in a Newtonian fluid. The dominant buckling wavelength increases linearly with column thickness and is quantitatively described using an elastohydrodynamic model and the suspension thermodynamic equation of state.

  1. Characterization and irradiation program: extended-burnup gadolina lead test assembly (Mark GdB)

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, L W

    1984-11-01

    This advanced fuel assembly uses a UO/sub 2/-Gd/sub 2/O/sub 3/ fuel burnable-absorber mixture along with other state-of-the-art fuel performance and uranium utilization-enhancing design features that include annular pellets, annealed guide tubes, Zircaloy intermediate grids, and a removable upper end fitting. Goal of the program is to extend the burnup of pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies to 50,000 MWd/mtU batch average burnup. To achieve this goal, five lead test assemblies have been designed, manufactured, characterized, and inserted for irradiation in Oconee Unit 1 cycle 8. One lead test assembly will receive 13,989 MWd/mtU burnup by its discharge at the end of cycle 8. Three of the four remaining lead test assemblies will receive approximately 45,000 MWd/mtU burnup by their discharge at the end of cycle 10. The fourth lead test assembly will receive approximately 58,000 MWd/mtU before being discharged at the end of cycle 11. The lead test assemblies and their constituent components have been extensively characterized to acquire a beginning-of-life data base to compare with future post-irradiation examination results and thereby determine the irradiation performance of the assemblies and their components. This report contains a description of the lead test assemblies and the pre-irradiation characterization data. Also, the plans for irradiating and examining these assemblies are discussed.

  2. LDRD final report: Automated planning and programming of assembly of fully 3D mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the results of assembly planning research under the LDRD. The assembly planning problem is that of finding a sequence of assembly operations, starting from individual parts, that will result in complete assembly of a device specified as a CAD model. The automated assembly programming problem is that of automatically producing a robot program that will carry out a given assembly sequence. Given solutions to both of these problems, it is possible to automatically program a robot to assemble a mechanical device given as a CAD data file. This report describes the current state of our solutions to both of these problems, and a software system called Archimedes 2 we have constructed to automate these solutions. Because Archimedes 2 can input CAD data in several standard formats, we have been able to test it on a number of industrial assembly models more complex than any before attempted by automated assembly planning systems, some having over 100 parts. A complete path from a CAD model to an automatically generated robot program for assembling the device represented by the CAD model has also been demonstrated.

  3. Automated solar panel assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    The initial stage of the automated solar panel assembly line program was devoted to concept development and proof of approach through simple experimental verification. In this phase, laboratory bench models were built to demonstrate and verify concepts. Following this phase was machine design and integration of the various machine elements. The third phase was machine assembly and debugging. In this phase, the various elements were operated as a unit and modifications were made as required. The final stage of development was the demonstration of the equipment in a pilot production operation.

  4. Self-assembling amphiphilic peptides†

    PubMed Central

    Dehsorkhi, Ashkan; Castelletto, Valeria; Hamley, Ian W

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembly of several classes of amphiphilic peptides is reviewed, and selected applications are discussed. We discuss recent work on the self-assembly of lipopeptides, surfactant-like peptides and amyloid peptides derived from the amyloid-β peptide. The influence of environmental variables such as pH and temperature on aggregate nanostructure is discussed. Enzyme-induced remodelling due to peptide cleavage and nanostructure control through photocleavage or photo-cross-linking are also considered. Lastly, selected applications of amphiphilic peptides in biomedicine and materials science are outlined. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24729276

  5. Circuit breaker lock out assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gordy, Wade T.

    1984-01-01

    A lock out assembly for a circuit breaker which consists of a generally step-shaped unitary base with an aperture in the small portion of the step-shaped base and a roughly "S" shaped retaining pin which loops through the large portion of the step-shaped base. The lock out assembly is adapted to fit over a circuit breaker with the handle switch projecting through the aperture, and the retaining pin projecting into an opening of the handle switch, preventing removal.

  6. Magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocking, G.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly (MSRWA) is the product of a development effort funded by the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) at Wright Patterson AFB. The specific objective of the project was to establish the manufacturing processes for samarium cobalt magnets and demonstrate their use in a space application. The development was successful on both counts. The application portion of the program, which involves the magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly, is emphasized. The requirements for the reaction wheel were based on the bias wheel requirements of the DSP satellite. The tasks included the design, fabrication, and test of the unit to the DSP program qualification requirements.

  7. DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

  8. Double window viewing chamber assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Inventor); Owen, R. B. (Inventor); Elkins, B. R. (Inventor); White, W. T. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A viewing chamber which permits observation of a sample retained therein includes a pair of double window assemblies mounted in opposed openings in the walls thereof so that a light beam can directly enter and exit from the chamber. A flexible mounting arrangement for the outer windows of the window assemblies enables the windows to be brought into proper alignment. An electrical heating arrangement prevents fogging of the outer windows whereas desiccated air in the volume between the outer and inner windows prevents fogging of the latter.

  9. High speed rotor assembly shroud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeff H. (Inventor); Zheng, Xinhong J. (Inventor); Grota, Steven P. (Inventor); Phui, Khin C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An improved rotor assembly shroud includes at least one reinforcing flange on the upper surface of the shroud. The strength provided by the reinforcing flange allows for a smaller shroud thickness resulting in a net reduction of shroud mass. The lower shroud mass reduces the centrifugal stress on the rotor assembly blade during operation. The strength provided by the reinforcing flanges also significantly reduces the centrifugal bending stress on the shroud during operation. The shroud mass may be further reduced by tapering the shroud leading and trailing edges or, for shrouds incorporating a damper, by providing a damper cavity with a lower diameter surface defining an opening therethrough.

  10. STAR: a simple TAL effector assembly reaction using isothermal assembly.

    PubMed

    Gogolok, Sabine; Garcia-Diaz, Claudia; Pollard, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain modular programmable DNA binding domains. Fusing TALEs with effector domains creates synthetic transcription factors (TALE-TFs) or nucleases (TALENs), enabling precise gene manipulations. The construction of TALEs remains challenging due to their repetitive sequences. Here we report a simple TALE assembly reaction (STAR) that enables individual laboratories to generate multiple TALEs in a facile manner. STAR uses an isothermal assembly ('Gibson assembly') that is labour- and cost-effective, accessible, rapid and scalable. A small 68-part fragment library is employed, and the specific TALE repeat sequence is generated within ~8 hours. Sequence-verified TALENs or TALE-TF plasmids targeting 17 bp target sequences can be produced within three days, without the need for stepwise intermediate plasmid production. We demonstrate the utility of STAR through production of functional TALE-TFs capable of activating human SOX2 expression. STAR addresses some of the shortcomings of existing Golden Gate or solid-phase assembly protocols and enables routine production of TALE-TFs that will complement emerging CRISPR/Cas9-based reagents across diverse applications in mammalian stem cell and synthetic biology. PMID:27615025

  11. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Ladder Assembly Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Ratzmann, Paul; /Fermilab

    1994-08-17

    This is an abridged version of the assembly sequence described by the DO assembly subgroup of Cooper, Hrycyk, Kowalski, Rapidis, and Ratzmann. This primarily is used to indicate major steps during the sequence and to list fixturing requirements. Assembly - (1) Place support rails in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. The two rails get held under vacuum. (2) Apply adhesive to the region where contact will be made with the beryllium substrates. (3) Place underside beryllium pieces (active and dummy ends) into the (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. These pieces get placed in the fixture against the appropriate pins to mimic final positioning in the bulkhead. Apply vacuum to the beryllium pieces. Allow to cure? (4) Align silicon in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. Reference features on the fixture will be parameterized. Holes in the fixture near the silicon center line will be targeted to set the silicon axis relative to the beryllium slot edge. Z positioning of the detectors will be achieved by shimming between the detectors and butting up the end of the silicon against the fixture. (5) Remove silicon detectors and apply adhesive to the rails and upper surfaces of the beryllium. (6) Replace silicon and check final position of the detectors. (7) Release vacuum on the rails so they cure in a stress-free state. Allow adhesive to cure. (8) Apply adhesive and align HDI to the silicon using (2) 3 Chip HDI Gluing fixture. The HDI will have tabs which are held by the fixture for location relative to the detectors. Allow adhesive to cure. (9) Move ladder to (3) 3 Chip Wirebonding Fixture. Transfer fixture to the wirebonder and bond chip-silicon and silicon-silicon.

  12. Carbon nanotube devices: Sorting, Assembling, Characterizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupke, Ralph

    2009-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been studied extensively over the last decade. Various exceptional properties have been revealed which still drive the vision about using carbon nanotube in future electronics, for instance as molecular nanoscale transistors or electromigration resistant interconnects. For many years a major obstacle was the inability to grow nanotubes with defined dimensions (length, diameter) and electronic properties (metallic,semiconducting). Recently those problems have been solved to a large extent by advanced sorting techniques. Today the challenge is to assemble nanotubes devices with defined properties to form a complex circuitry. As progress is made in making highly-integrated nanotube device arrays new characterization techniques have to be developed which allow testing large number of devices within an acceptable time. Along this line I will report on the state-of-the-art of sorting of carbon nanotube, as a base for nanotube device fabrication [1]. I will then explain our strategy to assemble high-density arrays of nanotube devices [2] and discuss a new characterization technique for nanotube devices [3]. Finally I will introduce a novel device engineering tool [4]. [4pt] [1] R. Krupke et al., ``Separation techniques for carbon nanotubes'' in Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes, p.129-139, American Scientific Publishers 2008[0pt] [2] A. Vijayaraghavan et al., ``Ultra-Large-Scale Directed Assembly of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Devices'', Nano Lett. 7 (2007) 1556-1560[0pt] [3] A. Vijayaraghavan et al., ``Imaging Electronic Structure of Carbon Nanotubes by Voltage-Contrast Scanning Electron Microscopy'', Nano Resarch 1 (2008) 321-332[0pt] [4] C. W. Marquardt et al., ``Reversible metal-insulator transitions in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes'', Nano Lett. 9 (2008) 2767-2772

  13. The Archimedes 2 mechanical assembly planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

    1996-03-01

    We describe the implementation and performance of Archimedes 2, an integrated mechanical assembly planning system. Archimedes 2 includes two planners, two assembly sequence animation facilities, and an associated robotic workcell. Both planners use full 3 dimensional data. A rudimentary translator from high level assembly plans to control code for the robotic workcell has also been implemented. We can translate data from a commercial CAD system into input data for the system, which has allowed us to plan assembly sequences for many industrial assemblies. Archimedes 2 has been used to plan sequences for assemblies consisting of 5 to 109 parts. We have also successfully taken a CAD model of an assembly, produced an optimized assembly sequence for it, and translated the plan into robot code, which successfully assembles the device specified in the model.

  14. Analysis of large space structures assembly: Man/machine assembly analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Procedures for analyzing large space structures assembly via three primary modes: manual, remote and automated are outlined. Data bases on each of the assembly modes and a general data base on the shuttle capabilities to support structures assembly are presented. Task element times and structure assembly component costs are given to provide a basis for determining the comparative economics of assembly alternatives. The lessons learned from simulations of space structures assembly are detailed.

  15. Multidimensional hierarchical self-assembly of amphiphilic cylindrical block comicelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Huibin; Hudson, Zachary M.; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Manners, Ian

    2015-03-01

    Self-assembly of molecular and block copolymer amphiphiles represents a well-established route to micelles with a wide variety of shapes and gel-like phases. We demonstrate an analogous process, but on a longer length scale, in which amphiphilic P-H-P and H-P-H cylindrical triblock comicelles with hydrophobic (H) or polar (P) segments that are monodisperse in length are able to self-assemble side by side or end to end in nonsolvents for the central or terminal segments, respectively. This allows the formation of cylindrical supermicelles and one-dimensional (1D) or 3D superstructures that persist in both solution and the solid state. These assemblies possess multiple levels of structural hierarchy in combination with existence on a multimicrometer-length scale, features that are generally only found in natural materials.

  16. Self-Assembled Enzyme Nanoparticles for Carbon Dioxide Capture.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Bhuvana Kamath; Liu, Boyin; Fu, Jing; Haritos, Victoria S; He, Lizhong

    2016-05-11

    Enzyme-based processes have shown promise as a sustainable alternative to amine-based processes for carbon dioxide capture. In this work, we have engineered carbonic anhydrase nanoparticles that retain 98% of hydratase activity in comparison to their free counterparts. Carbonic anhydrase was fused with a self-assembling peptide that facilitates the noncovalent assembly of the particle and together were recombinantly expressed from a single gene construct in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes, when subjected to a reduced pH, form 50-200 nm nanoparticles. The CO2 capture capability of enzyme nanoparticles was demonstrated at ambient (22 ± 2 °C) and higher (50 °C) temperatures, under which the nanoparticles maintain their assembled state. The carrier-free enzymatic nanoparticles demonstrated here offer a new approach to stabilize and reuse enzymes in a simple and cost-effective manner. PMID:27109255

  17. Self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivam, Magesh; Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Lakshmanan, Shanmugamurthy; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Huang, Ying-Ying; Kumar, Raj; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) together with harmless visible light of the appropriate wavelength to produce reactive oxygen species that kill unwanted cells. Because many PS are hydrophobic molecules prone to aggregation, numerous drug delivery vehicles have been tested to solubilize these molecules, render them biocompatible and enhance the ease of administration after intravenous injection. The recent rise in nanotechnology has markedly expanded the range of these nanoparticulate delivery vehicles beyond the well-established liposomes and micelles. Self-assembled nanoparticles are formed by judicious choice of monomer building blocks that spontaneously form a well-oriented 3-dimensional structure that incorporates the PS when subjected to the appropriate conditions. This self-assembly process is governed by a subtle interplay of forces on the molecular level. This review will cover the state of the art in the preparation and use of self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles within the context of PDT. PMID:24348377

  18. Reconfigurable multi-scale colloidal assembly on excluded volume patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Tara D.; Yang, Yuguang; Everett, W. Neil; Bevan, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The ability to create multi-scale, periodic colloidal assemblies with unique properties is important to emerging applications. Dynamically manipulating colloidal structures via tunable kT-scale attraction can provide the opportunity to create particle-based nano- and microstructured materials that are reconfigurable. Here, we report a novel tactic to obtain reconfigurable, multi-scale, periodic colloidal assemblies by combining thermoresponsive depletant particles and patterned topographical features that, together, reversibly mediate local kT-scale depletion interactions. This method is demonstrated in optical microscopy experiments to produce colloidal microstructures that reconfigure between well-defined ordered structures and disordered fluid states as a function of temperature and pattern feature depth. These results are well described by Monte Carlo simulations using theoretical depletion potentials that include patterned excluded volume. Ultimately, the approach reported here can be extended to control the size, shape, orientation, and microstructure of colloidal assemblies on multiple lengths scales and on arbitrary pre-defined pattern templates.

  19. Calixarene-encapsulated nanoparticles: self-assembly into functional nanomaterials†

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Calixarenes are excellent surfactants for enhancing the dispersion and self-assembly of metal nanoparticles into well-defined structures, particularly those with unit length scales in the 10–100 nm size range. Particles within these ensembles are strongly coupled, giving rise to unique collective optical or magnetic properties. The self-assembled nanostructures described in this feature article include 2D arrays of colloidal Au nanoparticles with size-dependent plasmonic responses, and sub-100 nm Co nanoparticle rings with chiral magnetic states. These nanoparticle assemblies may be further developed for applications in chemical sensing based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and as binary elements for nonvolatile memory, respectively. PMID:16582988

  20. mRNP granules. Assembly, function, and connections with disease.

    PubMed

    Buchan, J Ross

    2014-01-01

    Messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granules are dynamic, self-assembling structures that harbor non-translating mRNAs bound by various proteins that regulate mRNA translation, localization, and turnover. Their importance in gene expression regulation is far reaching, ranging from precise spatial-temporal control of mRNAs that drive developmental programs in oocytes and embryos, to similarly exquisite control of mRNAs in neurons that underpin synaptic plasticity, and thus, memory formation. Analysis of mRNP granules in their various contexts has revealed common themes of assembly, disassembly, and modes of mRNA regulation, yet new studies continue to reveal unexpected and important findings, such as links between aberrant mRNP granule assembly and neurodegenerative disease. Continued study of these enigmatic structures thus promises fascinating new insights into cellular function, and may also suggest novel therapeutic strategies in various disease states. PMID:25531407