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Sample records for octanoic acid

  1. 40 CFR 721.5385 - Octanoic acid, hydrazide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Octanoic acid, hydrazide. 721.5385... Substances § 721.5385 Octanoic acid, hydrazide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octanoic acid, hydrazide (PMN P-92-1086) is subject...

  2. Production of ω-hydroxy octanoic acid with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kirtz, Marko; Klebensberger, Janosch; Otte, Konrad B; Richter, Sven M; Hauer, Bernhard

    2016-07-20

    The present proof-of-concept study reports the construction of a whole-cell biocatalyst for the de novo production of ω-hydroxy octanoic acid. This was achieved by hijacking the natural fatty acid cycle and subsequent hydroxylation using a specific monooxygenase without the need for the additional feed of alkene-like precursors. For this, we used the model organism Escherichia coli and increased primarily the release of the octanoic acid precursors by overexpressing the plant thioesterase FatB2 from Cuphea hookeriana in a β-oxidation deficient strain, which lead to the production of 2.32mM (8.38mggcww(-1)) octanoic acid in 24h. In order to produce the corresponding ω-hydroxy derivative, we additionally expressed the engineered self-sufficient monooxygenase fusion protein CYP153AMaq(G307A)-CPRBM3 within the octanoic acid producing strain. With this, we finally produced 234μM (0.95mggcww(-1)) ω-hydroxy octanoic acid in a 20h fed-batch set-up. PMID:27184430

  3. Octanoic acid confers to royal jelly varroa-repellent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazzi, Francesco; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Annoscia, Desiderato; Milani, Norberto

    2009-02-01

    The mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman is a parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. and represents a major threat for apiculture in the Western world. Reproduction takes place only inside bee brood cells that are invaded just before sealing; drone cells are preferred over worker cells, whereas queen cells are not normally invaded. Lower incidence of mites in queen cells is at least partly due to the deterrent activity of royal jelly. In this study, the repellent properties of royal jelly were investigated using a lab bioassay. Chemical analysis showed that octanoic acid is a major volatile component of royal jelly; by contrast, the concentration is much lower in drone and worker larval food. Bioassays, carried out under lab conditions, demonstrated that octanoic acid is repellent to the mite. Field studies in bee colonies confirmed that the compound may interfere with the process of cell invasion by the mite.

  4. Octanoic acid confers to royal jelly varroa-repellent properties.

    PubMed

    Nazzi, Francesco; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Annoscia, Desiderato; Milani, Norberto

    2009-02-01

    The mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman is a parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. and represents a major threat for apiculture in the Western world. Reproduction takes place only inside bee brood cells that are invaded just before sealing; drone cells are preferred over worker cells, whereas queen cells are not normally invaded. Lower incidence of mites in queen cells is at least partly due to the deterrent activity of royal jelly. In this study, the repellent properties of royal jelly were investigated using a lab bioassay. Chemical analysis showed that octanoic acid is a major volatile component of royal jelly; by contrast, the concentration is much lower in drone and worker larval food. Bioassays, carried out under lab conditions, demonstrated that octanoic acid is repellent to the mite. Field studies in bee colonies confirmed that the compound may interfere with the process of cell invasion by the mite. PMID:19050844

  5. Cytochrome c catalyses the formation of pentyl radical and octanoic acid radical from linoleic acid hydroperoxide.

    PubMed Central

    Iwahashi, Hideo; Nishizaki, Koji; Takagi, Ichiro

    2002-01-01

    A reaction of 13-hydroperoxide octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE) with cytochrome c was analysed using ESR, HPLC-ESR and HPLC-ESR-MS by the combined use of the spin-trapping technique. The ESR, HPLC-ESR and HPLC-ESR-MS analyses showed that cytochrome c catalyses formation of pentyl and octanoic acid radicals from 13-HPODE. On the other hand, only the alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-t-butylnitrone/octanoic acid radical adduct was detected in the elution profile of HPLC-ESR for a mixture of 13-HPODE with haematin, indicating that haematin catalyses the formation of octanoic acid radical. In addition, the reaction of 13-HPODE with cytochrome c was inhibited by chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid via two possible mechanisms, i.e. reducing cytochrome c (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) and scavenging the radical intermediates (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid). PMID:11742529

  6. Structure and polymer form of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid.

    PubMed

    Ho, I-Ching; Yang, Sheng-Pin; Chiu, Wen-Yen; Huang, Shih-Yow

    2007-01-30

    PHAs (poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates) obtained by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixed carbon sources were investigated. Mixed carbon sources were sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid. Effect of carbon source in pre-culture on PHAs structure was investigated. Main fermentation was conducted with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid, and PHA contained both saturated and unsaturated units. When more undecylenic acid was used in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated unit increased and the T(g) of the products also changed. The PHA grown with mixture of sodium octanoate and undecylenic acid was a random copolymer, which was determined by DSC analysis. Using mixed carbon sources of sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, highest dry cell weight and PHA concentration were obtained when 0.02g or 0.04g of 5-phenylvaleric acid were added in 50mL medium. Cultured with sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, PHA containing HO (3-hydroxyoctanoate) unit and HPV (3-hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate) unit was produced. T(g) of the products fell between those of pure PHO and pure PHPV. By means of DSC analysis and fractionation method, the PHA obtained was regarded as a random copolymer. PMID:16919325

  7. Role of octanoic and decanoic acids in the control of seizures.

    PubMed Central

    Sills, M A; Forsythe, W I; Haidukewych, D

    1986-01-01

    Octanoic and decanoic acid, the major constituents of the Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) Emulsion diet, have been detected in appreciable quantities in the peripheral blood of children with intractable seizures treated with the MCT diet. Serum concentrations of these acids as well as beta hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate rose as the diet was introduced and on full diet showed pronounced diurnal variation and low concentrations in the morning. No correlation between octanoic and decanoic acid concentrations and control of seizures was established, but further studies with octanoic and decanoic acid using animal models are necessary to assess the role of these acids and of control of seizures. PMID:3492967

  8. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids.

    PubMed

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids. PMID:7995200

  9. Octanoic acid in alcohol-responsive essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    McCrossin, Gayle; Lungu, Codrin; Considine, Elaine; Toro, Camilo; Nahab, Fatta B.; Auh, Sungyoung; Buchwald, Peter; Grimes, George J.; Starling, Judith; Potti, Gopal; Scheider, Linda; Kalowitz, Daniel; Bowen, Daniel; Carnie, Andrea; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess safety and efficacy of an oral, single, low dose of octanoic acid (OA) in subjects with alcohol-responsive essential tremor (ET). Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, phase I/II clinical trial evaluating the effect of 4 mg/kg OA in 19 subjects with ET. The primary outcome was accelerometric postural tremor power of the dominant hand 80 minutes after administration. Secondary outcomes included digital spiral analysis, pharmacokinetic sampling, as well as safety measures. Results: OA was safe and well tolerated. Nonserious adverse events were mild (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 1) and equally present after OA and placebo. At the primary outcome, OA effects were not different from placebo. Secondary outcome analyses of digital spiral analysis, comparison across the entire time course in weighted and nonweighted accelerometry, as well as nondominant hand tremor power did not show a benefit of OA over placebo. The analysis of individual time points showed that OA improved tremor at 300 minutes (dominant hand, F1,16 = 5.49, p = 0.032 vs placebo), with a maximum benefit at 180 minutes after OA (both hands, F1,16 = 6.1, p = 0.025). Conclusions: Although the effects of OA and placebo at the primary outcome were not different, secondary outcome measures suggest superiority of OA in reducing tremor at later time points, warranting further trials at higher dose levels. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that a single 4-mg/kg dose of OA is not effective in reducing postural tremor in patients with ET at a primary outcome of 80 minutes, but is effective for a secondary outcome after 180 minutes. PMID:23408867

  10. Evolution for exogenous octanoic acid tolerance improves carboxylic acid production and membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Royce, Liam A; Yoon, Jong Moon; Chen, Yingxi; Rickenbach, Emily; Shanks, Jacqueline V; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-05-01

    Carboxylic acids are an attractive biorenewable chemical, but as with many biorenewables, their toxicity to microbial biocatalysts limits their fermentative production. While it is generally accepted that membrane damage is the main mechanism of fatty acid toxicity, previous metabolic engineering efforts that increased membrane integrity did not enable increased carboxylic acid production. Here we used an evolutionary approach to improve tolerance to exogenous octanoic acid, with the goal of learning design strategies from this evolved strain. This evolution of an Escherichia coli MG1655 derivative at neutral pH in minimal media produced a strain with increased tolerance not only to octanoic acid, but also to hexanoic acid, decanoic acid, n-butanol and isobutanol. This evolved strain also produced carboxylic acids at a 5-fold higher titer than its parent strain when expressing the Anaerococcus tetradius thioesterase. While it has been previously suggested that intracellular acidification may contribute to carboxylic acid toxicity, we saw no evidence that the evolved strain has increased resistance to this acidification. Characterization of the evolved strain membrane showed that it had significantly altered membrane polarization (fluidity), integrity (leakage) and composition relative to its parent. The changes in membrane composition included a significant increase in average lipid length in a variety of growth conditions, including 30°C, 42°C, carboxylic acid challenge and ethanol challenge. The evolved strain has a more dynamic membrane composition, showing both a larger number of significant changes and larger fold changes in the relative abundance of membrane lipids. These results highlight the importance of the cell membrane in increasing microbial tolerance and production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. PMID:25839166

  11. Bromoxynil octanoate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bromoxynil octanoate ; CASRN 1689 - 99 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  12. New insights into the toxicity mechanism of octanoic and decanoic acids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Borrull, Anna; López-Martínez, Gema; Poblet, Montse; Cordero-Otero, Ricardo; Rozès, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Octanoic (C8) and decanoic (C10) acids are produced in hypoxic conditions by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as by-products of its metabolism and are considered fermentation inhibitors in the presence of ethanol at acidic pH. This study aims to broaden our understanding of the physiological limits between toxicity and ester production in yeast cells. To this end, the non-inhibitory concentration (NIC) and maximum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were first established for C8 and C10 at physiological pH (5.8) without ethanol. The results showed that when these acids were added to culture medium at these values, they tended to accumulate in different cellular fractions of the yeast. While C8 was almost entirely located in the cell wall fraction, C10 was found in the endocellular fraction. Cell fatty acid detoxification was also different; while the esterification of fatty acids was more efficient in the case of C10, the peroxisome was activated regardless of which fatty acid was added. Furthermore, the study of the Pdr12 and Tpo1 transporters that evolved during the detoxification process revealed that C8 was mostly expelled by the Pdr12 carrier, which was related to higher β-oxidative damage in the presence of endocellular C10. C10 is more toxic at lower concentrations than C8. Although they are produced by yeast, the resulting intracellular medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) caused a level of toxicity which promoted cell death. However, MCFAs are involved in the production of beverage flavours. PMID:25773463

  13. Tunable macromolecular-based materials for the adsorption of perfluorooctanoic and octanoic acid anions.

    PubMed

    Karoyo, Abdalla H; Wilson, Lee D

    2013-07-15

    The sorption properties of tunable urethane-based copolymer materials containing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were evaluated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and octanoic acid (OA) anions in aqueous solutions, respectively. The copolymer materials are herein referred to as macromolecular imprinted materials (MIMs) since their design strategy incorporates a porogen macromolecule (β-CD) within a cross-linked hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) framework. We report the tunable uptake of OA and PFOA anions from aqueous solution with variable adsorption modes, in accordance with the composition of the MIMs. The sorption results with granular activated carbon (GAC) were compared at 295 K and pH values exceeding the pKa values of each adsorbate. The BET and Sips models provided estimates of the monolayer sorption capacity (Qm) and related equilibrium sorption parameters. The Qm value for GAC with PFOA was ~1.4 mmol/g; whereas, a greater Qm value for PFOA (up to 2.6 mmol/g) was observed with the MIMs. GAC displays greater sorption capacity toward PFOA at relatively low Ce values and saturation of the monolayer occurs at Ce~0.5 mM. The MIMs/PFOA system displays monolayer completion at values of Ce~1 mM and multilayer sorption when Ce>1mM. Equilibrium sorption of PFOA onto MIMs occurs at the inclusion sites of β-CD and interstitial binding sites of the polymeric framework. Surface adsorption of the PFOA anion occurs between the PFOA carboxylate head group and dipolar interstitial domains of the cross-linker framework. The MIMs sorbents display tunable and favorable binding with PFOA and OA anions where the uptake (per mg MIMs) with PFOA was ~5-33% (5 μM-5 mM) and with OA was ~0.5-5% (1-20 mM). The overall sorptive uptake of OA and PFOA anions by the MIMs sorbents meets or exceeds those observed for GAC. PMID:23664395

  14. Dose-escalation study of octanoic acid in patients with essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Voller, Bernhard; Lines, Emily; McCrossin, Gayle; Tinaz, Sule; Lungu, Codrin; Grimes, George; Starling, Judith; Potti, Gopal; Haubenberger, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Recently, 1-octanol has been shown to have efficacy in treating patients with essential tremor (ET). The primary metabolite of 1-octanol is octanoic acid (OA), which is now thought to be the active substance that mediates tremor suppression. Our aim was to describe the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral OA in patients with ET and assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) profile of OA. METHODS. The MTD was studied using an open-label, single-ascending 3 + 3 dose–escalation design. Predefined single doses ranged from 8 to 128 mg/kg, with grade 2 adverse events (AEs) defined as dose-limiting toxicity. Tremor was assessed using accelerometry, digital spiral analysis, and a standard clinical rating scale at baseline and up to 600 minutes after intake. Safety assessments and PK sampling were also performed. RESULTS. Dose-limiting toxicity was not reached. The most frequent AE was mild abdominal discomfort. Exposure (AUC) increased linearly with the dose. Secondary efficacy measures suggested a dose-dependent reduction of tremor. Accordingly, a single unified PK/PD model with an effect compartment and sigmoid maximum effect (Emax) response could be built that accounted well for the time profiles of plasma concentrations as well as effects on tremor severity across the 5 dose levels. CONCLUSION. Although our trial did not reach an MTD, a dose-dependent effect was demonstrated in the PK/PD model as well as in secondary efficacy outcomes. Future studies are needed to explore the safety in higher dose ranges and to confirm dose-dependent efficacy in a placebo-controlled design. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01468948 FUNDING. NINDS Intramural Research Program; TG Therapeutics Inc. PMID:26927672

  15. Behavior of spores of Penicillium roquefortii during fed-batch bioconversion of octanoic acid into 2-heptanone

    SciTech Connect

    Larroche, C.; Besson, I.; Gros, J.B. . Lab. de Genie Chimique Biologique)

    1994-09-05

    The bioconversion of octanoic acid into 2-heptanone by spores of Penicillium roquefortii is performed using a fed-batch technique with pH control by addition of the liquid substrate itself. The early stage of this process takes place with a high bioconversion rate and high yield. These values then decrease as a result of germination and growth of the biocatalyst. An optimization strategy for the process would thus be to improve the characteristics of this first period, i.e., increase its duration and the reaction rate. An increase in duration is evidenced in two cases: (1) under oxygen limitation; and (2) when the spore content in the medium is less than 10[sup 7] spores/mL. These conditions give insufficient overall bioconversion rates; better optimization should be achieved without oxygen limitation and with high spore content. Characterization of the first period by material and bioenergetic balances suggests that an increase in the ethanol content of the medium, which acts as an energy source and a permeabilizer, and the use of a specific inhibitor of the Krebs cycle, may be a way to further improve the biocatalyst performance and stability.

  16. Bioconversion of N-octane to octanoic acid by a recombinant Escherichia coli cultured in a two-liquid phase bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Favre-Bulle, O.; Schouten, T.; Kingma, J.; Witholt, B. )

    1991-04-01

    The alk genes from the catabolic OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans, which encode the enzymes involved in the oxidation of n-alkanes to carboxylic acids, were introduced into E. coli W3110. The resulting recombinant converts n-octane in a two-liquid phase medium into the corresponding alkanoate and excretes this compound into the aqueous phase. The rate of octanoic acid production by the recombinant E. coli is equal to or better than the alkane oxidation rate of P. oleovorans, suggesting that two-liquid phase fermentations with E. coli might have future industrial applications.

  17. Production of 3-Oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic Acid in the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae: A Step Towards Heterologous Production of Pyrethrins in Fungi.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Maged E; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A K; Lazarus, Colin M

    2016-03-01

    Pyrethrins are natural insecticides, which accumulate to high concentrations in pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) flowers. Synthetic pyrethroids are more stable, more efficacious and cheaper, but contemporary requirements for safe and environmentally friendly pesticides encourage a return to the use of natural pyrethrins, and this would be favoured by development of an efficient route to their production by microbial fermentation. The biosynthesis of pyrethrins involves ester linkage between an acid moiety (chrysanthemoyl or pyrethroyl, synthesised via the mevalonic acid pathway from glucose), and an alcohol (pyrethrolone). Pyrethrolone is generated from 3-oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid, which originates from α-linolenic acid via the jasmonic acid biosynthetic cascade. The first four genes in this cascade, encoding lipoxygenase 2, allene-oxide synthase, allene-oxide cyclase 2 and 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase 3, were amplified from an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library, cloned in a purpose-built fungal multigene expression vector and expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. HPLC-MS analysis of the transgenic fungus homogenate gave good evidence for the presence of 3-oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid. PMID:26718544

  18. High Yield of Wax Ester Synthesized from Cetyl Alcohol and Octanoic Acid by Lipozyme RMIM and Novozym 435

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chia-Hung; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Shieh, Chwen-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Wax esters are long-chain esters that have been widely applied in premium lubricants, parting agents, antifoaming agents and cosmetics. In this study, the biocatalytic preparation of a specific wax ester, cetyl octanoate, is performed in n-hexane using two commercial immobilized lipases, i.e., Lipozyme® RMIM (Rhizomucor miehei) and Novozym® 435 (Candida antarctica). Response surface methodology (RSM) and 5-level-4-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) are employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time (1–5 h), reaction temperature (45–65 °C), substrate molar ratio (1–3:1), and enzyme amount (10%–50%) on the yield of cetyl octanoate. Using RSM to optimize the reaction, the maximum yields reached 94% and 98% using Lipozyme® RMIM and Novozym® 435, respectively. The optimum conditions for synthesis of cetyl octanoate by both lipases are established and compared. Novozym® 435 proves to be a more efficient biocatalyst than Lipozyme® RMIM. PMID:23109878

  19. Pharmacological modulation of gastric emptying rate of solids as measured by the carbon labelled octanoic acid breath test: influence of erythromycin and propantheline.

    PubMed Central

    Maes, B D; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B J; Rutgeerts, P J; Ghoos, Y F; Vantrappen, G

    1994-01-01

    The *C (13C or 14C) labelled octanoic acid breath test was recently developed to measure the gastric emptying rate of solids. This study aimed to investigate whether it is sensitive enough to detect pharmacologically induced changes in the gastric emptying rate. Nine healthy volunteers were studied in basal condition, after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin, and after peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying in all subjects, with an increase of the gastric emptying coefficient (p = 0.0043) in eight of nine and a fall in both the gastric half emptying time (p = 0.0020) and the lag phase (p = 0.0044) in all nine. Propantheline significantly reduced the gastric emptying rate, with a decreased gastric emptying coefficient (p = 0.0007) and an increased gastric half emptying time (p = 0.0168) in all subjects, but no change in the lag phase (p = 0.1214). Further mathematical analysis showed that breath sampling at 15 minutes intervals over a four hour period is recommended to guarantee accuracy and the discriminative value of the breath test in various gastric emptying patterns. In conclusion the *C labelled octanoic acid breath test is sufficiently sensitive to show pharmacologically induced changes of gastric emptying rates of solids. PMID:8150342

  20. Effect of preduodenal lipase inhibition in suckling rats on dietary octanoic acid (C8:0) gastric absorption and plasma octanoylated ghrelin concentration.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, F; Cavalier, J-F; Garcia, C; Boissel, F; Point, V; Catheline, D; Legrand, P; Carrière, F; Rioux, V

    2016-09-01

    Part of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) coming from dietary triglycerides (TGs) can be directly absorbed through the gastric mucosa after the action of preduodenal lipase (lingual lipase in the rat). MCFA gastric absorption, particularly that of octanoic acid (C8:0), may have a physiological importance in the octanoylation of ghrelin, the orexigenic gastric peptide acting as an endogenous ligand of the hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a). However, the amount of C8:0 absorbed in the stomach and its metabolic fate still haven't been clearly characterized. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize and quantify the importance of preduodenal lipase activity on the release and gastric absorption of dietary C8:0 and on the subsequent ghrelin octanoylation in the stomach mucosa. Fifteen days old rats received fat emulsions containing triolein or [1,1,1-(13)C]-Tri-C8:0 and a specific inhibitor of preduodenal lipase, 5-(2-(benzyloxy)ethoxy)-3-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one or BemPPOX. The fate of the (13)C-C8:0 was followed in rat tissues after 30 and 120min of digestion and octanoylated ghrelin was measured in the plasma. This work (1) demonstrates that part of C8:0 coming from Tri-C8:0 is directly absorbed at the gastric level, (2) allows the estimation of C8:0 gastric absorption level (1.3% of the (13)C-C8:0 in sn-3 position after 30min of digestion), as well as (3) the contribution of rat lingual lipase to total lipolysis and to duodenal absorption of dietary FAs (at least 30%), (4) shows no short-term effect of dietary Tri-C8:0 consumption and subsequent increase of C8:0 gastric tissue content on plasma octanoylated ghrelin concentration. PMID:27317984

  1. 40 CFR 180.1262 - Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1262 Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sorbitol octanoate in or on...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1262 - Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1262 Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sorbitol octanoate in or on...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of... octanoate esters in or on all food commodities when used in accordance with good agricultural practices....

  4. 40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of... octanoate esters in or on all food commodities when used in accordance with good agricultural practices....

  5. Differential effects of octanoate and heptanoate on myocardial metabolism during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an infant swine model.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R; Olson, Aaron K; Isern, Nancy G; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Nutritional energy support during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should promote successful myocardial adaptation and eventual weaning from the ECMO circuit. Fatty acids (FAs) are a major myocardial energy source, and medium-chain FAs (MCFAs) are easily taken up by cell and mitochondria without membrane transporters. Odd-numbered MCFAs supply carbons to the citric acid cycle (CAC) via anaplerotic propionyl-CoA as well as acetyl-CoA, the predominant β-oxidation product for even-numbered MCFA. Theoretically, this anaplerotic pathway enhances carbon entry into the CAC, and provides superior energy state and preservation of protein synthesis. We tested this hypothesis in an immature swine model undergoing ECMO. Fifteen male Yorkshire pigs (26-45 days old) with 8-h ECMO received either normal saline, heptanoate (odd-numbered MCFA), or octanoate (even-numbered MCFA) at 2.3 μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1) as MCFAs systemically during ECMO (n = 5/group). The 13-carbon ((13)C)-labeled substrates ([2-(13)C]lactate, [5,6,7-(13)C3]heptanoate, and [U-(13)C6]leucine) were systemically infused as metabolic markers for the final 60 min before left ventricular tissue extraction. Extracted tissues were analyzed for the (13)C-labeled and absolute concentrations of metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Octanoate produced markedly higher myocardial citrate concentration, and led to a higher [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratio compared with other groups. Unexpectedly, octanoate and heptanoate increased the flux of propionyl-CoA relative to acetyl-CoA into the CAC compared with control. MCFAs promoted increases in leucine oxidation, but were not associated with a difference in protein synthesis rate. In conclusion, octanoate provides energetic advantages to the heart over heptanoate. PMID:26232235

  6. Differential Effects Of Octanoate And Heptanoate On Myocardial Metabolism During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation In An Infant Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2015-10-01

    Background: Nutritional energy support during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should promote successful myocardial adaptation and eventual weaning from the ECMO circuit. Fatty acids (FAs) are a major myocardial energy source, and medium-chain FAs (MCFAs) are easily taken up by cell and mitochondria without membrane transporters. Oddnumbered MCFAs supply carbons to the citric acid cycle (CAC) via anaplerotic propionyl-CoA as well as acetyl-CoA, the predominant betaoxidation product for even-numbered MCFA. Theoretically, this anaplerotic pathway enhances carbon entry into the CAC, and provides superior energy state and preservation of protein synthesis. We tested this hypothesis in an immature swine model undergoing ECMO. Methods: Fifteen male Yorkshire pigs (26-45 days old) with 8-hour ECMO were received either normal saline, heptanoate (odd-numbered MCFA) or octanoate (even-numbered MCFA) at 2.3 μmol/kg body wt/min as MCFAs systemically during ECMO (n = 5 per group). The 13-Carbon (13C)-labeled substrates ([2-13C]lactate, [5,6,7-13C3]heptanoate and [U-13C6]leucine) were systemically infused as metabolic markers for the final 60 minutes before left ventricular tissue extraction. Extracted tissues were analyzed for the 13C-labeled and absolute concentrations of metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Octanoate produced markedly higher myocardial citrate concentration, and led to a higher [ATP]/[ADP] ratio compared with other http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jpen Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition For Peer Review groups. Unexpectedly, octanoate increased the flux of propionyl-CoA relative to acetyl-CoA into the CAC as well as heptanoate. MCFAs promoted increases in leucine oxidation, but were not associated with a difference in fractional protein synthesis rate. Conclusion: Octanoate provides energetic advantages to the heart over heptanoate, while preserving protein synthesis.

  7. Octanoate in Human Albumin Preparations Is Detrimental to Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Way-Wua; MacKenzie, Andrew D.; Nelson, Vicky J.; Faed, James M.; Turner, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapies hold great promise as the next major advance in medical treatment. To enable safe, effective ex vivo culture whilst maintaining cell phenotype, growth media constituents must be carefully controlled. We have used a chemically defined mesenchymal stromal cell culture medium to investigate the influence of different preparations of human serum albumin. We examined two aspects of cell culture, growth rate as measured by population doubling time and colony forming ability which is a representative measure of the stemness of the cell population. Albumin preparations showed comparative differences in both of these criteria. Analysis of the albumin bound fatty acids also showed differences depending on the manufacturing procedure used. We demonstrated that octanoate, an additive used to stabilize albumin during pasteurization, slows growth and lowers colony forming ability during ex vivo culture. Further to this we also found the level of Na+/K+ ATPase, a membrane bound cation pump inhibited by octanoate, is increased in cells exposed to this compound. We conclude that the inclusion of human serum albumin in ex vivo growth media requires careful consideration of not only the source of albumin, but also the associated molecular cargo, for optimal cell growth and behavior. PMID:26074972

  8. Characterization of actions of octanoate on porcine preadipocytes and adipocytes differentiated in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shunichi; Suzuki, Misae; Sembon, Shoichiro; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Onishi, Akira

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Octanoate regulated gene expressions in a way distinct from rosiglitasone. ► Octanoate upregulatedPPRE and LXRE reporter activities. ► Octanoate may act on some PPARγ-target genes competitively with other ligands. - Abstract: Octanoate is used to induce adipogenic differentiation and/or lipid accumulation in preadipocytes of domestic animals. However, information on detailed actions of octanoate and the characteristics of octanoate-induced adipocytes is limited. The aim of this study was to examine these issues by comparing the outcomes of the effects of octanoate with those of rosiglitazone, which is a well-defined activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. The adipocytes that were differentiated with 5 mM of octanoate had dispersed and diversely sized lipid droplets compared to those that were differentiated with 1 μM of rosiglitazone. The gene expression levels of adiponectin, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, perilipin 1, and perilipin 4 were much higher in the adipocytes that were differentiated with rosiglitazone than in those differentiated with octanoate, while the gene expression levels of lipoprotein lipase and perilipin 2 were decreased in rosiglitazone-differentiated adipocytes compared to octanoate-differentiated adipocytes. However, the expressions of aP2 and CD36 genes were comparably induced. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that PPAR and liver-X-receptor activities were upregulated by octanoate more effectively than by rosiglitazone. Overall, these results suggested that the action of octanoate was complicated and may be dependent on the targeted genes and cellular status.

  9. Characterization of actions of octanoate on porcine preadipocytes and adipocytes differentiated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunichi; Suzuki, Misae; Sembon, Shoichiro; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Onishi, Akira

    2013-03-01

    Octanoate is used to induce adipogenic differentiation and/or lipid accumulation in preadipocytes of domestic animals. However, information on detailed actions of octanoate and the characteristics of octanoate-induced adipocytes is limited. The aim of this study was to examine these issues by comparing the outcomes of the effects of octanoate with those of rosiglitazone, which is a well-defined activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. The adipocytes that were differentiated with 5mM of octanoate had dispersed and diversely sized lipid droplets compared to those that were differentiated with 1 μM of rosiglitazone. The gene expression levels of adiponectin, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, perilipin 1, and perilipin 4 were much higher in the adipocytes that were differentiated with rosiglitazone than in those differentiated with octanoate, while the gene expression levels of lipoprotein lipase and perilipin 2 were decreased in rosiglitazone-differentiated adipocytes compared to octanoate-differentiated adipocytes. However, the expressions of aP2 and CD36 genes were comparably induced. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that PPAR and liver-X-receptor activities were upregulated by octanoate more effectively than by rosiglitazone. Overall, these results suggested that the action of octanoate was complicated and may be dependent on the targeted genes and cellular status. PMID:23376076

  10. Long-acting Neuraminidase Inhibitor Laninamivir Octanoate as Post-exposure Prophylaxis for Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Seizaburo; Watanabe, Akira; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Uemori, Mitsutoshi; Awamura, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. A single administration of laninamivir octanoate, a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor, has been proven to be effective in the treatment of influenza but not for post-exposure prophylaxis. Methods. We conducted a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study to determine if a single administration of laninamivir octanoate 40 mg was superior to placebo for post-exposure prophylaxis. Eligible participants who had cohabited with an influenza patient within 48 hours of symptom onset were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 groups: 40 mg of laninamivir octanoate single administration (LO-40SD), 20 mg of laninamivir octanoate once daily for 2 days (LO-20TD), or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of participants who developed clinical influenza (defined as influenza virus positive, an axillary temperature >37.5°C, and at least 2 symptoms) over a 10-day period. Results. A total of 803 participants were enrolled, with 801 included in the primary analysis. The proportions of participants with clinical influenza were 4.5% (12/267), 4.5% (13/269), and 12.1% (32/265) in the LO-40SD, LO-20TD, and placebo groups, respectively. A single administration of laninamivir octanoate 40 mg significantly reduced the development of influenza compared with placebo (P = .001). The relative risk reductions compared with the placebo group were 62.8% and 63.1% for the LO-40SD and LO-20TD groups, respectively. The incidence of adverse events in the LO-40SD group was similar to that of the LO-20TD and placebo groups. Conclusions. A single administration of laninamivir octanoate was effective and well tolerated as post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the development of influenza. Clinical Trials Registration. JapicCTI-142679. PMID:27118785

  11. Cholesteryl octanoate breath test. Preliminary studies on a new noninvasive test of human pancreatic exocrine function.

    PubMed

    Cole, S G; Rossi, S; Stern, A; Hofmann, A F

    1987-12-01

    A new breath test for noninvasive assessment of pancreatic exocrine function in humans was developed. The test is based on the hydrolysis of cholesteryl-[1-14C]octanoate by pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase (cholesterol esterase) with subsequent absorption and hepatic metabolism of the liberated octanoate to 14CO2. The rate at which 14CO2 appears in breath appeared to be proportional to the rate of hydrolysis. The substrate is administered as a gum acacia stabilized emulsion of vegetable oil (18 g) containing cholesteryl octanoate (2 g; 4.4 microCi) dispersed in a 500-ml isotonic meal. Tests were performed in 6 healthy volunteers and 11 patients with pancreatic disease with varying degrees of steatorrhea. In healthy subjects, 14CO2 output was rapid with peak output occurring at 60-90 min in all subjects; cumulative output in 4 h averaged 30%. Duplicate studies indicated that the time-course of 14CO2 recovery was reproducible. The pattern of 14CO2 output in patients with pancreatic disease varied widely. Patients without steatorrhea (fecal fat less than or equal to 7 g/day) or with mild steatorrhea (fecal fat 7-11 g/day) had normal or near normal patterns of 14CO2 output, whereas patients with moderate or severe steatorrhea (fecal fat greater than 11 g/day) expired 14CO2 at a rate one-third to one-tenth that of the healthy volunteers. Addition of pancreatic enzyme supplementation to the test meal increased 14CO2 output in 6 of 6 patients with moderate or severe steatorrhea, suggesting that the activity of pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase was rate limiting in these patients. In an additional study in a healthy volunteer, 14CO2 and 13CO2 were measured simultaneously in breath after ingestion of a test meal containing cholesteryl-[1-13C]octanoate and 14C-octanoate. 14CO2 was expired more rapidly than 13CO2, suggesting that hydrolysis of the substrate may also be rate limiting in healthy volunteers. These studies indicate that severe pancreatic exocrine dysfunction can

  12. ANALYSIS OF PERFLUORINATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN SOILS II: OPTIMIZATION OF CHROMATOGRAPHY AND EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the objective of detecting and quantitating low concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorinated octanoic acid (PFOA), in soils, we compared the analytical suitability of liquid chromatography columns containing three different stationary p...

  13. Attenuated gastric distress but no benefit to performance with adaptation to octanoate-rich esterified oils in well-trained male cyclists.

    PubMed

    Thorburn, Megan S; Vistisen, Bodil; Thorp, Rhys M; Rockell, Mike J; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Xu, Xuebing; Rowlands, David S

    2006-12-01

    We investigated the effects of modifying a normal dietary fatty acid composition and ingestion of high-fat exercise supplements on gastrointestinal distress, substrate oxidation, and endurance cycling performance. Nine well-trained male cyclists completed a randomized triple-crossover comprising a 2-wk diet high in octanoate-rich esterified oil (MCFA) or twice long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Following the diets, participants performed 3-h of cycling at 50% of peak power followed by 10 maximal sprints while ingesting either 1) a carbohydrate (CHO)+MCFA-rich oil emulsion after the 2-wk MCFA-rich dietary condition (MC-MC, Intervention) and 2) after one of the LCFA-rich dietary conditions (LC-MC, Placebo) or 3) CHO only following a LCFA-rich diet (LC-CHO, Control). During the 3-h ride MCFA-adaptation decreased octanoic-acid oxidation by 24% (90% confidence interval: 14-34%). The CHO+MCFA-rich oil emulsion reduced endogenous fat oxidation by 61% (33-89%) and 110% (89-131%) in the MC-MC and LC-MC conditions, respectively, and MCFA-adaptation reduced endogenous-carbohydrate oxidation by 10% (-3-23%). MCFA-adaptation attenuated gastrointestinal distress and nausea during the sprints, but the effect of the oil emulsion was to lower sprint power by 10.9% (7.7-14.1%) in the LC-MC condition and by 7.1% (5.7-8.5%) in the MC-MC condition, relative to the LC-CHO control; every one unit increase in nausea decreased mean power by 6.0 W (3.2-8.8 W). We conclude that despite some attenuation of endogenous-carbohydrate oxidation and gastric distress following adaptation to a MCFA-rich diet, repeat sprint performance was substantially impaired in response to the ingestion of a CHO+MCFA-rich oil emulsion. PMID:16840580

  14. Modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity in cultured hepatocytes by glucagon and n-octanoate.

    PubMed Central

    Fatania, H R; Vary, T C; Randle, P J

    1986-01-01

    The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in extracts of mitochondria from rat hepatocytes cultured for 21 h in medium 199 was increased 2.5-fold by the presence of 55 nM-glucagon and 1 mM-sodium n-octanoate in the culture medium. The change was comparable with that induced in vivo by 48 h starvation. The potential contribution of branched-chain complex to estimates of PDH-complex activity in rat liver mitochondria has been defined. PMID:3707545

  15. 13C labelled cholesteryl octanoate breath test for assessing pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ventrucci, M; Cipolla, A; Ubalducci, G; Roda, A; Roda, E

    1998-01-01

    Background—A non-invasive test for assessment of fat digestion has been developed based on the intraluminal hydrolysis of cholesteryl-[1-13C]octanoate by pancreatic esterase. 
Aims—To determine the diagnostic performance of this breath test in the assessment of exocrine pancreatic function. 
Methods—The test was performed in 20 healthy controls, 22 patients with chronic pancreatic disease (CPD), four with biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), and 32 with non-pancreatic digestive diseases (NPD); results were compared with those of other tubeless tests (faecal chymotrypsin and fluorescein dilaurate test). 
Results—Hourly recoveries of 13CO2 were significantly lower in CPD when compared with healthy controls or NPD. In patients with CPD with mild to moderate insufficiency, the curve of 13CO2 recovery was similar to that of healthy controls, while in those with severe insufficiency it was flat. In three patients with CPD with severe steatorrhoea, a repeat test after pancreatic enzyme supplementation showed a significant rise in 13CO2 recovery. The four BPD patients had low and delayed 13CO2 recovery. Only eight of the 32 patients with NPD had abnormal breath test results. There was a significant correlation between the results of the breath test and those of faecal chymotrypsin, the fluorescein dilaurate test, and faecal fat measurements. For the diagnosis of pancreatic disease using the three hour cumulative 13CO2 recovery test, the sensitivity was 68.2% and specificity 75.0%; values were similar to those of the other two tubeless pancreatic function tests. In seven healthy controls, nine patients with CPD, and nine with NPD a second breath test was performed using Na-[1-13C]octanoate and a pancreatic function index was calculated as the ratio of 13C recovery obtained in the two tests: at three hours this index was abnormal in eight patients with CPD and in three with NPD. 
Conclusion—The cholesteryl-[1-13C]octanoate breath test can be useful for the

  16. Long-Acting Neuraminidase Inhibitor Laninamivir Octanoate (CS-8958) versus Oseltamivir as Treatment for Children with Influenza Virus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Norio; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial to compare a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor, laninamivir octanoate, with oseltamivir. Eligible patients were children 9 years of age and under who had febrile influenza symptoms of no more than 36-h duration. Patients were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: a group given 40 mg laninamivir (40-mg group), a group given 20 mg laninamivir (20-mg group), and an oseltamivir group. Laninamivir octanoate was administered as a single inhalation. Oseltamivir (2 mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally twice daily for 5 days. The primary end point was the time to alleviation of influenza illness. The primary analysis included 184 patients (61, 61, and 62 in the 40-mg group, 20-mg group, and oseltamivir group, respectively). Laninamivir octanoate markedly reduced the median time to illness alleviation in comparison with oseltamivir in patients infected with oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) virus, and the reductions were 60.9 h for the 40-mg group and 66.2 h for the 20-mg group. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the times to alleviation of illness between the laninamivir groups and oseltamivir group for patients with influenza A (H3N2) or B virus infection. Laninamivir octanoate was well tolerated. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal events. Laninamivir octanoate was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for children with oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Further study will be needed to confirm clinical efficacy against influenza A (H3N2) or B virus infection. Its ease of administration is noteworthy, because a single inhalation is required during the course of illness. PMID:20368393

  17. Solvation of sodium octanoate micelles in concentrated urea solution studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    de Moura, André Farias; Bernardino, Kalil; de Oliveira, Osmair Vital; Freitas, Luiz Carlos Gomide

    2011-12-15

    The effects of urea on self-assembling remains a challenging topic on surface chemistry, and computational modeling may have a role on the unraveling of the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Bearing that in mind, we performed a set of molecular dynamics simulations to assess the effects of urea on the self-assembling properties of sodium octanoate, an anionic surfactant, as compared to the aggregation of the same surfactant in pure water as the solvent. The concentration of free monomers increased 3-fold in the presence of urea, in agreement with the accepted view that urea should increase monomer solubility. Regarding the size distribution of micellar aggregates, the urea solution favored smaller micelles and a narrower distribution. Preferential solvation by either water or urea changed along the surfactant molecules, from urea-rich shells around apolar atoms at the end of the hydrophobic tails to nearly no urea at the polar headgroups. This solvation profile is consistent with two different hypotheses from the literature: on one hand, urea molecules interact directly with apolar atoms from the hydrophobic tails, acting as a surfactant, and on the other hand the presence of urea molecules increases the hydration of polar sites. Another important observation regards the solvent structure, which exhibits a complex composition profile around both water and urea molecules. Although the solvent structure was appreciably different in each case, the free energy calculations for the dissociation of a pair of octanoate molecules pointed to a purely enthalpic free energy loss in urea solution, a finding that does not lend support to the third hypothesis that is often claimed as accounting for the urea effects, namely, that urea disrupts water structure and that this structural change decreases the hydrophobic effect due to an entropy change. The presence of urea had no significant effect on the molecular structure of the surfactant molecules, although it

  18. Accumulation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from octanoate in different pseudomonas belonging to the rRNA homology group I.

    PubMed

    Diard, Stéphane; Carlier, Jean-Philippe; Ageron, Elisabeth; Grimont, Patrick A D; Langlois, Valérie; Guérin, Philippe; Bouvet, Odile M M

    2002-08-01

    It is admitted that one of the characteristics of pseudomonads is their inability to accumulate poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). In this paper, we show that poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) synthesis is restricted to Pseudomonas rRNA homology group I, which includes both fluorescent and nonfluorescent species. However, within the genus Pseudomonas, the P. aeruginosa complex can be subdivided into two groups: the "P. aeruginosa group", which includes P. aeruginosa, P. alcaligenes, P. citronellolis, P. mendocina, produce poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) from octanoate and the "P. oleovorans group" which includes the type strain of P. oleovorans, P. pseudoalcaligenes and two Pseudomonas sp., produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) during cultivation on octanoate. Strain GPo1 (ATCC 29347) formely identified as P. oleovorans and known to produce various medium-side-chain PHAs such as poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) has been reclassified in the P. putida complex. PMID:12353870

  19. Medium-chain fatty acid binding to albumin and transfer to phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Temperature-dependent (5-42{degree}C) {sup 13}C NMR spectra of albumin complexes with 90% isotopically substituted (1-{sup 13}C)octanoic or (1-{sup 13}C)decanoic acids showed a single peak at >30{degree}C but three peaks at lower temperatures. The chemical-shift differences result from different ionic and/or hydrogen-bonding interactions between amino acid side chains and the fatty acid carboxyl carbon. Rapid exchange of fatty acid among binding sites obscures these sites at temperatures >30{degree}C. Rate constants for exchange at 33{degree}C were 350 sec{sup {minus}1} for octanoate and 20 sec {sup {minus}1} for decanoate. Temperature-dependent data for octanoate showed an activation energy of 2 kcal/mol for exchange. Spectra of albumin complexes with the 12-carbon saturated fatty acid, lauric acid, had several narrow laurate carboxyl peaks at 35{degree}C, indicating longer lifetimes in the different binding sites. Fatty acid exchange between albumin and model membranes (phosphatidylcholine bilayers) occurred on a time scale comparable to that for exchange among albumin binding sites, following the order octanoate > decanoate > laurate. The equilibrium distribution of fatty acid between lipid bilayers and protein was measured directly from NMR spectra. Decreasing pH increased the relative affinity of fatty acid for the lipid bilayer. The results predict that the relative affinity of octanoic acid for albumin and membranes will be similar to that of long-chain fatty acids, but the rate of equilibration will be {approx} 10{sup 4} faster for octanoic acid.

  20. ANALYSIS OF PERFLUORINATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN SOILS: DETECTION AND QUANTITATION ISSUES AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods were developed for the extraction from soil, identification, confirmation and quantitation by LC/MS/MS of trace levels of perfluorinated octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorinated nonanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorinated decanoic acid (PFDA). Whereas PFOA, PFNA and PFDA all can...

  1. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-13C8] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development. PMID:23226596

  2. Disrupted short chain specific β-oxidation and improved synthase expression increase synthesis of short chain fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Leber, Christopher; Choi, Jin Wook; Polson, Brian; Da Silva, Nancy A

    2016-04-01

    Biologically derived fatty acids have gained tremendous interest as an alternative to petroleum-derived fuels and chemical precursors. We previously demonstrated the synthesis of short chain fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introduction of the Homo sapiens fatty acid synthase (hFAS) with heterologous phosphopantetheine transferases and heterologous thioesterases. In this study, short chain fatty acid production was improved by combining a variety of novel enzyme and metabolic engineering strategies. The use of a H. sapiens-derived thioesterase and phosphopantetheine transferase were evaluated. In addition, strains were engineered to disrupt either the full β-oxidation (by deleting FAA2, PXA1, and POX1) or short chain-specific β-oxidation (by deleting FAA2, ANT1, and PEX11) pathways. Prohibiting full β-oxidation increased hexanoic and octanoic acid levels by 8- and 79-fold relative to the parent strain expressing hFAS. However, by targeting only short chain β-oxidation, hexanoic and octanoic acid levels increased further to 31- and 140-fold over the parent. In addition, an optimized hFAS gene increased hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic and total short chain fatty acid levels by 2.9-, 2.0-, 2.3-, and 2.2-fold, respectively, relative to the non-optimized counterpart. By combining these unique enzyme and metabolic engineering strategies, octanoic acid was increased more than 181-fold over the parent strain expressing hFAS. PMID:26388428

  3. Preparation and physical properties of chitin fatty acids esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Ding, Qiong; Montgomery, Rex

    2009-02-17

    Trifluoroacetic anhydride is an effective promoter for the preparation of chitin single- and mixed-acid esters. Complete dissolution is achieved within 30 min when powdered chitin is heated at 70 degrees C in a mixed solution of carboxylic acid(s) and trifluoroacetic anhydride. Chitin esters prepared are chitin acetate, chitin butyrate, chitin hexanoate and chitin octanoate, chitin co-acetate/butyrate, chitin co-acetate/hexanoate, chitin co-acetate/octanoate, chitin co-acetate/palmitate, each from a solution of the respective reactants. The products have degrees of O-acyl substitution in a range of DS 1-2 depending on the nature of acyl group, as analyzed by gas-liquid and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Acetic acid as a mutual component for the mixed-acid esters increases the total degree of substitution, and the acetyl substitution is close to the relative distribution in the reaction mixture for chitin co-acetate/butyrate. It is favored over hexanoate, octanoate, and palmitate. The parent molecules, as calculated by the composition of the chitin esters and their molecular weights by light-scattering spectroscopy, are 30 kDa for the smallest and 150-151 kDa for the largest. Films of these chitin derivatives when cast from solution are strong and flexible with limited extensibility. By dynamic mechanical analysis of the ester film, it was found that both the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and the tensile modulus (E' at 25 degrees C) are highest for chitin acetate (218 degrees C and 5.8 GPa), and lowest for chitin octanoate (182 degrees C and 1.5 GPa). For the other esters, these values lie between the above-cited values, where the T(g) and the E' decrease with an increase in the chain length of the acyl constituent. PMID:19091309

  4. Acetate represents a major product of heptanoate and octanoate beta-oxidation in hepatocytes isolated from neonatal piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, X; Adams, S H; Odle, J

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to explore the nature of the radiolabel distribution in acid-soluble products (ASPs) resulting from the oxidation of [1-14C]C7:0 or C8:0 by isolated piglet hepatocytes. The differences between odd and even chain-length and the impacts of valproate and malonate upon the rate of beta-oxidation and ASP characteristics were tested. A minor amount of fatty acid carboxyl carbon (< or = 10% of organic acids identified by radio-HPLC) accumulated in ketone bodies regardless of chain-length or inhibitor used. In all cases, acetate represented the major reservoir of carboxyl carbon, accounting for 60-70% of radiolabel in identified organic acids. Cells given [1-14C]C7:0 accumulated 85% more carboxyl carbon in Krebs cycle intermediates when compared with C8:0, while accumulation in acetate was unaffected. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that anaplerosis from odd-carbon fatty acids affects the oxidative fate of fatty acid carbon. The piglet appears unique in that non-ketogenic routes of fatty acid carbon flow (i.e. acetogenesis) predominate in the liver of this species. PMID:8761477

  5. Effect of the alkyl chains and of the headgroups on the thermal behavior of ascorbic acid surfactants mixtures.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Chiara; Pomposi, Cristina; Ambrosi, Moira; Carretti, Emiliano; Fratini, Emiliano; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Baglioni, Piero

    2014-03-20

    The role of the alkyl chain length and of the headgroup on the thermal behavior of mixtures of ASC8 (ascorbyl octanoate) and ASC16 (ascorbyl hexadecanoate) was investigated through differential scanning calorimetry, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments. The formation of two eutectics and of a peritectic point was found from the phase diagram, and their structural properties were studied. The results were compared by investigating the thermal behavior of mixtures of octanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The findings provide insights into the role of the ascorbyl headgroups on the intermolecular interactions that determine the phase behavior of the two ascorbic acid based surfactants in the solid state. PMID:24555769

  6. The synthesis of short- and medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) mixtures from glucose- or alkanoic acid-grown Pseudomonas oleovorans.

    PubMed

    Ashby, R D; Solaiman, D K Y; Foglia, T A

    2002-03-01

    Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-778 accumulated mixtures of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) when grown on glucose, octanoic acid or oleic acid, whereas growth on nonanoic acid or undecanoic acid resulted in copolymers of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHB-co-HV). Acetone fractionation verified the presence of PHB/mcl-PHA mixtures. The acetone-insoluble (AIS) fractions of the polymers derived from glucose (PHA-glucose), octanoic acid (PHA-octanoic) and oleic acid (PHA-oleic) were exclusively PHB while the acetone-soluble (AS) fractions contained mcl-PHA composed of differing ratios of 3-hydroxy-acid monomer units, which ranged in chain length from 6 to 14 carbon atoms. In contrast, both the AIS and AS fractions from the polymers derived from nonanoic acid (PHA-nonanoic) and undecanoic acid (PHA-undecanoic) were composed of comparable ratios of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV). The unfractionated PHA-glucose, PHA-octanoic and PHA-oleic polymers had melting temperatures (Tm) between 177 and 179 degrees C, enthalpies of fusion (AHf) of 20 cal/g and glasstransition temperatures (Tg) of 3-4 degrees C. This was due to the large PHB content in the polymer mixtures. On the other hand, the PHA-nonanoic and PHA-undecanoic polymers had thermal properties that supported their copolymer nature. In both cases, the Tm values were 161 degrees C, deltaHf values were 7 cal/g and Tg values were - 3 degrees C. PMID:12074088

  7. Effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the acyl-CoA synthetase activity toward medium-chain, long-chain and polyunsaturated fatty acids in mitochondria of mouse liver and brain.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Fumiyo; Kazuhiro, Misumi; Tatsuya, Hasegawa; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Tokuyama, Shogo; Masuyama, Teiichi

    2013-02-01

    Effect of eleven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the acyl-CoA synthetase activities toward octanoic, palmitic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids was evaluated in mouse liver and brain mitochondria. The drugs tested were aspirin, salicylic acid, diflunisal, mefenamic acid, indomethacin, etodolac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, loxoprofen, flurbiprofen. In mouse liver mitochondria, diflunisal and mefenamic acid exhibited the inhibitory activities not only for octanoic acid (IC(50) = 78.7 and 64.7 µM) and but also for palmitic acid (IC(50) = 236.5 and 284.4 µM), respectively. Aspirin was an inhibitor for the activation of octanoic acid only (IC(50) = 411.0 µM). In the brain, mefenamic acid and diflunisal inhibited strongly palmitoyl-CoA formation (IC(50) = 57.3 and 114.0 µM), respectively. The activation of docosahexaenoic acid in brain was sensitive to inhibition by diflunisal and mefenamic acid compared with liver. PMID:22299587

  8. Surface Electrostatic Potential and Water Orientation in the presence of Sodium Octanoate Dilute Monolayers Studied by Means of Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Kalil; de Moura, André F

    2015-10-13

    A series of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the present investigation to assess the spontaneous formation of surfactant monolayers of sodium octanoate at the water-vacuum interface. The surfactant surface coverage increased until a saturation threshold was achieved, after which any further surfactant addition led to the formation of micellar aggregates within the solution. The saturated films were not densely packed, as might be expected for short-chained surfactants, and all films regardless of the surface coverage presented surfactant molecules with the same ordering pattern, namely, with the ionic heads toward the aqueous solution and the tails lying nearly parallel to the interface. The major contributions to the electrostatic surface potential came from the charged heads and the counterion distribution, which nearly canceled out each other. The balance between the oppositely charged ions rendered the electrostatic contributions from water meaningful, amounting to ca. 10% of the contributions arising from the ionic species. And even the aliphatic tails, whose atoms bear relatively small partial atomic charges as compared to the polar molecules and molecular fragments, contributed with ca. 20% of the total electrostatic surface potential of the systems under investigation. Although the aliphatic tails were not so orderly arranged as in a compact film, the C-H bonds assumed a preferential orientation, leading to an increased contribution to the electrostatic properties of the interface. The most prominent feature arising from the partitioning of the electrostatic potential into individual contributions was the long-range ordering of the water molecules. This ordering of the water molecules produced a repulsive dipole-dipole interaction between the two interfaces, which increased with the surface coverage. Only for a water layer wider than 10 nm was true bulk behavior observed, and the repulsive dipole-dipole interaction faded away. PMID

  9. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-09-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports infants and children with severe cardiopulmonary compromise. Nutritional support for these children includes provision of medium- and long-chain fatty acids (FAs). However, ECMO induces a stress response, which could limit the capacity for FA oxidation. Metabolic impairment could induce new or exacerbate existing myocardial dysfunction. Using a clinically relevant piglet model, we tested the hypothesis that ECMO maintains the myocardial capacity for FA oxidation and preserves myocardial energy state. Provision of 13-Carbon labeled medium-chain FA (octanoate), longchain free FAs (LCFAs), and lactate into systemic circulation showed that ECMO promoted relative increases in myocardial LCFA oxidation while inhibiting lactate oxidation. Loading of these labeled substrates at high dose into the left coronary artery demonstrated metabolic flexibility as the heart preferentially oxidized octanoate. ECMO preserved this octanoate metabolic response, but also promoted LCFA oxidation and inhibited lactate utilization. Rapid upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) protein appeared to participate in this metabolic shift during ECMO. ECMO also increased relative flux from lactate to alanine further supporting the role for pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition by PDK4. High dose substrate loading during ECMO also elevated the myocardial energy state indexed by phosphocreatine to ATP ratio. ECMO promotes LCFA oxidation in immature hearts, while maintaining myocardial energy state. These data support the appropriateness of FA provision during ECMO support for the immature heart.

  10. Solubility of small-chain carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Darrell L.; Estevez, L. Antonio; Hernandez, Rafael; McEwen, Jason; French, Todd

    2010-07-08

    The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0 MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with increasing molar mass at constant supercritical-fluid density. Additionally, the efficacy of Chrastil's equation and other density-based models was evaluated for each fatty acid.

  11. Solubility of small-chain carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sparks, Darrell L.; Estevez, L. Antonio; Hernandez, Rafael; McEwen, Jason; French, Todd

    2010-07-08

    The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0more » MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with increasing molar mass at constant supercritical-fluid density. Additionally, the efficacy of Chrastil's equation and other density-based models was evaluated for each fatty acid.« less

  12. Chain-length dependency of interactions of medium-chain fatty acids with glucose metabolism in acini isolated from lactating rat mammary glands. A putative feed-back to control milk lipid synthesis from glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Heesom, K J; Souza, P F; Ilic, V; Williamson, D H

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a series of medium-chain fatty acids (C6-C12) on glucose metabolism in isolated acini from lactating rat mammary glands have been studied. Hexanoate (C6) octanoate (C8) and decanoate (C10), but not laurate (C12), decreased [1-14C]glucose conversion into [14C]lipid and the production of 14CO2 (an index of the pentose phosphate pathway). With hexanoate and octanoate, glucose utilization was decreased, whereas decanoate had a slight stimulatory effect on glucose utilization, but there was a large accumulation of lactate. Addition of dichloroacetate (an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) decreased this accumulation of lactate and stimulated the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid and 14CO2. Insulin had no effect on the rate of glucose utilization in the presence of hexanoate. It stimulated the rate in the presence of octanoate and laurate and increased the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid in the presence of octanoate, decanoate or laurate. The major fate of 1-14C-labelled medium-chain fatty acids (C6, C8 and C12) was conversion into [14C]lipid. The proportion converted into 14CO2 decreased with increasing chain length, whereas the rate of [14C]lipid formation increased. It is concluded that the interactions between medium-chain fatty acids and glucose metabolism represent a feed-back mechanism to control milk lipid synthesis, and this may be important when milk accumulates in the gland. PMID:1731763

  13. Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica for production of medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Charles D; Zhang, Shuyan; Rao, Christopher V

    2015-09-01

    Lipids are naturally derived products that offer an attractive, renewable alternative to petroleum-based hydrocarbons. While naturally produced long-chain fatty acids can replace some petroleum analogs, medium-chain fatty acid would more closely match the desired physical and chemical properties of currently employed petroleum products. In this study, we engineered Yarrowia lipolytica, an oleaginous yeast that naturally produces lipids at high titers, to produce medium-chain fatty acids. Five different acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases with specificity for medium-chain acyl-ACP molecules were expressed in Y. lipolytica, resulting in formation of either decanoic or octanoic acid. These novel fatty acid products were found to comprise up to 40 % of the total cell lipids. Furthermore, the reduction in chain length resulted in a twofold increase in specific lipid productivity in these engineered strains. The medium-chain fatty acids were found to be incorporated into all lipid classes. PMID:26129951

  14. Understanding biocatalyst inhibition by carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Jarboe, Laura R; Royce, Liam A; Liu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are an attractive biorenewable chemical in terms of their flexibility and usage as precursors for a variety of industrial chemicals. It has been demonstrated that such carboxylic acids can be fermentatively produced using engineered microbes, such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, like many other attractive biorenewable fuels and chemicals, carboxylic acids become inhibitory to these microbes at concentrations below the desired yield and titer. In fact, their potency as microbial inhibitors is highlighted by the fact that many of these carboxylic acids are routinely used as food preservatives. This review highlights the current knowledge regarding the impact that saturated, straight-chain carboxylic acids, such as hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, and lauric acids can have on E. coli and S. cerevisiae, with the goal of identifying metabolic engineering strategies to increase robustness. Key effects of these carboxylic acids include damage to the cell membrane and a decrease of the microbial internal pH. Certain changes in cell membrane properties, such as composition, fluidity, integrity, and hydrophobicity, and intracellular pH are often associated with increased tolerance. The availability of appropriate exporters, such as Pdr12, can also increase tolerance. The effect on metabolic processes, such as maintaining appropriate respiratory function, regulation of Lrp activity and inhibition of production of key metabolites such as methionine, are also considered. Understanding the mechanisms of biocatalyst inhibition by these desirable products can aid in the engineering of robust strains with improved industrial performance. PMID:24027566

  15. First-order kinetics analysis of monomer composition dependent polyhydroxyalkanoic acid degradation in Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mun Hwan; Rho, Jong Kook; Lee, Ho-Joo; Song, Jae Jun; Yoon, Sung Chul; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2003-01-01

    The intracellular degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) in pseudomonads was investigated by first-order kinetics analysis using the initial rate method. One type of PHA was accumulated in five Pseudomonas spp., P. oleovorans, P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. citronellolis, and P. putida, by growing them on octanoic acid. The monomer compositions of the five PHA were not significantly different from one another: 85-90 mol % 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (3HO), 7-12 mol % 3-hydorxycaproic acid (3HC), and 3-6 mol % 3-hydroxydecanoic acid (3HD). The first-order degradation rate constants (k(1)) for the octanoate-derived PHA (designated P(3HO)) in the five species were in a similar range between 0.060 and 0.088 h(-1). This may indicate the similar specificities of the five intracellular depolymerases. In addition, the similar k(1) among the different species may correlate with the high degree of amino acid sequence identities (over 85%) among the intracellular PHA depolymerase phaZ genes. Six other chemically different types of PHA were accumulated in P. putida from n-nonanoic acid, n-decanoic acid, 5-phenyvaleric acid, or 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid as a single or a mixed carbon source. The calculated k(1) values were characteristic to each PHA, reflecting their chemical structures. In comparison with P(3HO), an increase in the levels of the two minor monomers 3HC and 3HD as in P(21 mol % 3HC-co-56 mol % 3HO-co-23 mol % 3HD) significantly slowed the rate of intracellular degradation. From the comparison of k(1) values, it is suggested that the P. putida intracellular depolymerase is most active against P(3HO). PMID:12625741

  16. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  17. Duration of fever and other symptoms after the inhalation of laninamivir octanoate hydrate for influenza treatment; comparison among the four Japanese influenza seasons from 2011-2012 to 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Kawai, Naoki; Iwaki, Norio; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

    2016-09-01

    The duration of fever and other symptoms as markers of the clinical effectiveness of laninamivir octanoate hydrate (laninamivir) were investigated in the Japanese 2014-2015 influenza season and the results were compared with those of the previous three seasons, 2011-2012 to 2013-2014. From these four seasons, the data of 636 influenza A(H3N2) and 128 influenza B patients was available for analysis. No significant difference was found in their baseline characteristics. The median duration of fever for all A(H3N2) patients ranged from 32.0 to 41.0 h. The duration of fever in the 2014-2015 season was significantly shorter than that in the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 seasons (p = 0.0204 and 0.0391, respectively), but the differences were within nine hours. The median duration of symptoms for A(H3N2) ranged from 80.0 to 89.0 h, with no significant difference among the four seasons (p = 0.2222). The median duration of fever for B patients ranged from 43.0 to 50.0 h, with no significant difference among the four seasons. The duration of the symptoms for B varied by season, but no significant difference was found among the four seasons. Over the four seasons, 44 adverse events were reported from among 921 patients, with all resolving without treatment. These results indicate the continuing effectiveness of laninamivir against influenza A(H3N2) and B, with no safety issues. It is unlikely that the clinical use of laninamivir has caused viral resistance in the currently epidemic viruses. PMID:27493024

  18. Accumulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Containing Large Amounts of Unsaturated Monomers in Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07 Utilizing Saccharides and Its Inhibition by 2-Bromooctanoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Joo; Choi, Mun Hwan; Kim, Tae-Un; Yoon, Sung Chul

    2001-01-01

    A psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07, which is able to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) containing large amounts of 3-hydroxy-cis-5-dodecenoate unit up to 35 mol% in the cell from unrelated substrates such as fructose, succinate, etc., was isolated from an activated sludge in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. When it was grown on heptanoic acid (C7) to hexadecanoic acid (C16) as the sole carbon source, the monomer compositional characteristics of the synthesized PHA were similar to those observed in other fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to rRNA homology group I. However, growth on stearic acid (C18) led to no PHA accumulation, but instead free stearic acid was stored in the cell. The existence of the linkage between fatty acid de novo synthesis and PHA synthesis was confirmed by using inhibitors such as acrylic acid and two other compounds, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid, which are known to inhibit β-oxidation enzymes in animal cells. Acrylic acid completely inhibited PHA synthesis at a concentration of 4 mM in 40 mM octanoate-grown cells, but no inhibition of PHA synthesis occurred in 70 mM fructose-grown cells in the presence of 1 to 5 mM acrylic acid. 2-Bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid were found to much inhibit PHA synthesis much more strongly in fructose-grown cells than in octanoate-grown cells over concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mM. However, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid did not inhibit cell growth at all in the fructose media. Especially, with the cells grown on fructose, 2-bromooctanoic acid exhibited a steep rise in the percent PHA synthesis inhibition over a small range of concentrations below 100 μM, a finding indicative of a very specific inhibition, whereas 4-pentenoic acid showed a broad, featureless concentration dependence, suggesting a rather nonspecific inhibition. The apparent inhibition constant Ki (the concentration for 50% inhibition of PHA synthesis) for 2

  19. Increase in fatty acid oxidation in calvaria cells cultured with diphosphonates.

    PubMed Central

    Felix, R; Fleisch, H

    1981-01-01

    1. Cultured calvaria cells oxidized palmitate and octanoate to CO2 and water-soluble products. 2. When these cells were treated for 6 days with 0.025 and 0.25 mM-dichloromethanediphosphonate, oxidation of palmitate was increased, whereas that of octanoate was influenced less. 3. When the rate of oxidation was raised by increasing the palmitate concentration in the medium, the effect of the diphosphonate was decreased and finally disappeared. 4. 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonate had only minor effects. 5. The increase in palmitate oxidation appeared 2 days after the addition of dichloromethanediphosphonate, simultaneously with a fall in lactate production. (Inhibition of glycolysis by diphosphonates has already been shown.) 6. Cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, did not influence the effect of dichloromethanediphosphonate on the oxidation of palmitate and the production of lactate. 7. Cells cultured with dichloromethanediphosphonate showed a faster uptake of palmitic acid than did control cells. However, this observation did not explain the increased palmitate oxidation, since uptake was much faster than oxidation, and was therefore not the rate-limiting step. 8. 2-Bromopalmitate, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation, did not influence the inhibition of glycolysis by the diphosphonates. This inhibition, therefore, did not result from the increased oxidation of palmitate. It is also unlikely that the increased oxidation of palmitate is connected with the inhibition of glycolysis. PMID:6458286

  20. Preparation of finely dispersed O/W emulsion from fatty acid solubilized in subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Kimura, Yukitaka; Matsuno, Ryuichi; Adachi, Shuji

    2004-10-01

    A novel method for preparing a finely dispersed oil-in-water emulsion is proposed. Octanoic acid dissolved in water at a high temperature of 220 or 230 degrees C at 15 MPa was combined with an aqueous solution of a surfactant and then the mixture was cooled. When a nonionic surfactant, decaglycerol monolaurate (ML-750) or polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20), was used, fine emulsions with a median oil droplet diameter of 100 nm or less were successfully prepared at ML-750 and Tween 20 concentrations of 0.083% (w/v) and 0.042%, respectively, or higher. The diameters were much smaller than those of oil droplets prepared by the conventional homogenization method using a rotor/stator homogenizer. However, an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, was not adequate for the preparation of such fine emulsions by the proposed method. Although the interfacial tensions between octanoic acid and the surfactant solutions were measured at different temperatures, they were not an indication for selecting a surfactant for the successful preparation of the fine emulsion by the proposed method. PMID:15313654

  1. Separation and conductimetric detection of C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines on unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin columns.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2004-06-11

    The application of unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin (TSKgel G3000PWXL) as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography with conductimetric detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, 3,3-dimethylbutyric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-methylhexanoic acid, 5-methylhexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isobutylamine, butylamine, isoamylamine, amylamine, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, hexylamine, 2-heptylamine and heptylamine) was attempted with C8 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (2-propylvaleric acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid and octanoic acid) and C8 aliphatic monoamines (1,5-dimethylhexylamine, 2-ethylhexylamine, 1-methylheptylamine and octylamine) as eluents, respectively. Using 1 mM 2-methylheptanoic acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 carboxylic acids were achieved on a TSKgel G3000PWXL column (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) in 60 min. Using 2 mM octylamine at pH 11.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 amines were also achieved on the TSKgel G3000PWXL column in 60 min. PMID:15250420

  2. Radiometric measurement of differential metabolism of fatty acid by mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Camargo, E.E.; Kertcher, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Tepper, B.S.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    An assay system has been developed based on automated radiometric quantification of /sup 14/CO2 produced through oxidation of (1-/sup 14/C) fatty acids by mycobacteria. Two stains of M. tuberculosis (H37Rv and Erdman) and one of M. bovis (BCG) in 7H9 medium (ADC) with 1.0 microCi of one of the fatty acids (butyric, hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic) were studied. Results previously published on M. lepraemurium (Hawaiian) were also included for comparison. Both strains of M. tuberculosis had maximum /sup 14/CO2 production from hexanoic acid. Oxidation of butyric and avid oxidation of lauric acids were also found with the H37Rv strain but not with Erdman. In contrast, /sup 14/CO2 production by M. bovis was greatest from lauric and somewhat less from decanoic acid. M. lepraemurium showed increasing oxidation rates from myristic, decanoic and lauric acids. Assimilation studies of M. tuberculosis H37Rv confirmed that most of the oxidized substrates were converted into by-products with no change in those from which no oxidation was found. These data suggest that the radiometric measurement of differential fatty acid metabolism may provide a basis of strain identification of the genus Mycobacterium.

  3. Effect of sulfonylureas on hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, T.B.

    1986-08-01

    In isolated rat livers perfused with oleic acid (0.1 mM), infusion of tolbutamide or glyburide decreased the rate of ketogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was maximal at 2.0 mM and 10 M concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide, respectively. Neither tolbutamide nor glyburide inhibited ketogenesis in livers perfused with octanoate. The inhibition of hepatic ketogenesis by sulfonylureas was independent of perfusate oleic acid concentration. Additionally, in rat livers perfused with oleic acid in the presence of L-(-)-carnitine (10 mM), submaximal concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide did not inhibit hepatic ketogenesis. Finally, glyburide infusion into livers perfused with (U- $C)oleic acid (0.1 mM) increased the rate of UC label incorporation into hepatic triglycerides by 2.5-fold. These data suggest that both tolbutamide and glyburide inhibit long-chain fatty acid oxidation by inhibition the key regulatory enzyme, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, most probably by competing with L-(-)-carnitine.

  4. A quick responding quartz crystal microbalance sensor array based on molecular imprinted polyacrylic acids coating for selective identification of aldehydes in body odor.

    PubMed

    Jha, Sunil K; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2015-03-01

    In present work, a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array has been developed for prompt identification of primary aldehydes in human body odor. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are prepared using the polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer matrix and three organic acids (propenoic acid, hexanoic acid and octanoic acid) as template molecules, and utilized as QCM surface coating layer. The performance of MIP films is characterized by 4-element QCM sensor array (three coated with MIP layers and one with pure PAA for reference) dynamic and static responses to target aldehydes: hexanal, heptanal, and nonanal in single, binary, and tertiary mixtures at distinct concentrations. The target aldehydes were selected subsequent to characterization of body odor samples with solid phase-micro extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometer (SPME-GC-MS). The hexanoic acid and octanoic acid imprinted PAA exhibit fast response, and better sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility than the propenoic acid, and non-imprinted PAA in array. The response time and recovery time for hexanoic acid imprinted PAA are obtained as 5 s and 12 s respectively to typical concentrations of binary and tertiary mixtures of aldehydes using the static response. Dynamic sensor array response matrix has been processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for visual, and support vector machine (SVM) classifier for quantitative identification of target odors. Aldehyde odors were identified successfully in principal component (PC) space. SVM classifier results maximum recognition rate 79% for three classes of binary odors and 83% including single, binary, and tertiary odor classes in 3-fold cross validation. PMID:25618646

  5. Effect of short-chain fatty acids on the formation of amylose microparticles by amylosucrase.

    PubMed

    Lim, Min-Cheol; Park, Kyu-Hwan; Choi, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Da-Hee; Letona, Carlos Andres Morales; Baik, Moo-Yeol; Park, Cheon-Seok; Kim, Young-Rok

    2016-10-20

    Amylose microparticles can be produced by self-assembly of amylose molecules through an amylosucrase-mediated synthesis. Here we investigated the role of short-chain fatty acids in the formation of amylose microparticles and the fate of these fatty acids at the end of the reaction. The rate of self-assembly and production yields of amylose microparticles were significantly enhanced in the presence of fatty acids. The effect was dependent on the length of the fatty acid carbon tail; butanoic acid (C4) was the most effective, followed by hexanoic acid (C6) and octanoic acid (C8). The amylose microparticles were investigated by carrying out SEM, XRD, Raman, NMR, FT-IR and DSC analysis. The size, morphology and crystal structure of the resulting amylose microparticles were comparable with those of amylose microparticles produced without fatty acids. The results indicated the carboxyl group of the fatty acid to be responsible for promoting the self-assembly of amylose chains to form microparticles. The fatty acids were eventually removed from the microstructure through the tight association of amylose double helices to form the amylose microparticles. PMID:27474606

  6. Optimisation of stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), targeting medium and long-chain free fatty acids in cooked ham exudates.

    PubMed

    Benet, Iu; Ibañez, Carles; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of our research was to optimise the extraction conditions of the stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) targeting the identification of lipid compounds particularly medium and long-chain free fatty acids in cooked cured pork ham exudates. The analytical conditions of extraction (including sample volume, extraction time, stirring speed, pH and dilution of the sample) were checked using the Simplex method approach. As a result of the SBSE optimisation, improved detection limits and linear ranges for hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, nonanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic and tetradecanoic fatty acids were obtained. When comparing results with those obtained by the commonly used SPME methodology, optimisation of SBSE achieved better results for volatile compounds of low volatility, such as medium and long-chain free fatty acids, whereas compounds with high volatility and polarity were only detected by SPME. SBSE also confirmed its potential as a tool to help identify undesirable contaminants/residues in meat products. PMID:25952843

  7. The effect of low solublility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-02-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be performed in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide submicrometer particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion: whereas the organic covering has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles change their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  8. The effect of low solubility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be investigated in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide sub-micrometre particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion, whereas the organic surfactant has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles experience appreciable shifts in their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  9. Transposon-5 mutagenesis transforms Corynebacterium matruchotii to synthesize novel hybrid fatty acids that functionally replace corynomycolic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Kuni; Hayes, Barry; Vestling, Matha M; Massey, Randall J

    2003-01-01

    Enzymes within the biosynthetic pathway of mycolic acid (C(60)-C(90) a-alkyl,b-hydroxyl fatty acid) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis are attractive targets for developing new anti-tuberculosis drugs. We have turned to the simple model system of Corynebacterium matruchotii to study the terminal steps in the anabolic pathway of a C32 mycolic acid called corynomycolic acid. By transposon-5 mutagenesis, we transformed C. matruchotii into a mutant that is unable to synthesize corynomycolic acid. Instead, it synthesized two related series of novel fatty acids that were released by saponification from the cell wall fraction and from two chloroform/methanol-extractable glycolipids presumed to be analogues of trehalose mono- and di-corynomycolate. By chemical analyses and MS, we determined the general structure of the two series to be 2,4,6,8,10-penta-alkyl decanoic acid for the larger series (C(70)-C(77)) and 2,4,6,8-tetra-alkyl octanoic acid for the smaller series (C(52)-C(64)), both containing multiple keto groups, hydroxy groups and double bonds. The mutant was temperature-sensitive, aggregated extensively, grew very slowly relative to the wild type, and was resistant to the presence of lysozyme. We suggest that a regulatory protein that normally prevents the transfer of the condensation product back to b-ketoacyl synthase in the corynomycolate synthase system of the wild type was inactivated in the mutant. This will result in multiple Claisen-type condensation and the formation of two similar series of these complex hybrid fatty acids. A similar protein in M. tuberculosis would be an attractive target for new drug discovery. PMID:12879902

  10. Stereoselective and nonstereoselective effects of ibuprofen enantiomers on mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Freneaux, E.; Fromenty, B.; Berson, A.; Labbe, G.; Degott, C.; Letteron, P.; Larrey, D.; Pessayre, D. , Hopital Beaujon, Clichy )

    1990-11-01

    The effects of the R-(-) and S-(+)ibuprofen enantiomers were first studied in vitro with mouse liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of various concentrations of exogenous coenzyme A. In the presence of a low concentration of coenzyme A (2.5 microM), the R-(-)enantiomer (which forms an acylcoenzyme A) inhibited stereoselectively the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitic acid but not that of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitoyl-L-carnitine (which can directly enter the mitochondria). In the presence, however, of a concentration of coenzyme A (50 microM) reproducing that present in liver cell cytosol, both enantiomers (2 mM) slightly inhibited the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitic acid and markedly inhibited the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)octanoic acid and (1-{sup 14}C)butyric acid. In vivo, both enantiomers (1 mmol.kg-1) similarly inhibited the formation of ({sup 14}C)CO{sub 2} from (1-{sup 14}C)fatty acids. Both enantiomers similarly decreased plasma ketone bodies. Both similarly increased hepatic triglycerides, and both produced mild microvesicular steatosis of the liver. We conclude that both ibuprofen enantiomers inhibit beta oxidation of fatty acids in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the R-(-)enantiomer may stereoselectively sequester coenzyme A; at low concentrations of coenzyme A in vitro, this may stereoselectively inhibit the mitochondrial uptake and beta oxidation of long chain fatty acids.

  11. The effect of different fatty acids on the intestinal lymphatic absorption of cyclosporin-A after oral administration in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Four studies were conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the effect of saturated fatty acids (FA) of varying chain lengths on cyclosporin-A (CSA) intestinal lymphatic absorption. {sup 3}H-CSA was given to thoracic duct-ligated and sham rats in a nonlipid-(NL) or busyric (BA), octanoic (OA), lauric (LA), palmitic (PA), or stearic (SA) acid dosage form ({sup 14}C-FA) in an oral absorption study. The dosage forms were given to thoracic duct cannulated (TDC) rats to assess CSA intestinal lymphatic absorption. CSA blood-to-lymph transfer was assessed by intravenous {sup 3}H-CSA in TDC rats. Colchicine pretreated TDC rats received CSA in the NL and PA dosage forms. CSA and FA concentrations in blood and lymph were measured radiometrically. CSA and FA in the chylomicron and aqueous fractions were determined from ultracentrifugation of pooled lymph samples.

  12. Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales.

    PubMed

    Snauwaert, Isabel; Roels, Sanne P; Van Nieuwerburg, Filip; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-16

    Belgian red-brown acidic ales are sour and alcoholic fermented beers, which are produced by mixed-culture fermentation and blending. The brews are aged in oak barrels for about two years, after which mature beer is blended with young, non-aged beer to obtain the end-products. The present study evaluated the microbial community diversity of Belgian red-brown acidic ales at the end of the maturation phase of three subsequent brews of three different breweries. The microbial diversity was compared with the metabolite composition of the brews at the end of the maturation phase. Therefore, mature brew samples were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer region (yeasts) and a broad range of metabolites was quantified. The most important microbial species present in the Belgian red-brown acidic ales investigated were Pediococcus damnosus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In addition, this culture-independent analysis revealed operational taxonomic units that were assigned to an unclassified fungal community member, Candida, and Lactobacillus. The main metabolites present in the brew samples were L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, and ethanol, whereas acetic acid was produced in lower quantities. The most prevailing aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, which might be of impact on the aroma of the end-products. PMID:26802571

  13. Intersection of RNA Processing and the Type II Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Yeast Mitochondria▿

    PubMed Central

    Schonauer, Melissa S.; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Dieckmann, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinct metabolic pathways can intersect in ways that allow hierarchical or reciprocal regulation. In a screen of respiration-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion strains for defects in mitochondrial RNA processing, we found that lack of any enzyme in the mitochondrial fatty acid type II biosynthetic pathway (FAS II) led to inefficient 5′ processing of mitochondrial precursor tRNAs by RNase P. In particular, the precursor containing both RNase P RNA (RPM1) and tRNAPro accumulated dramatically. Subsequent Pet127-driven 5′ processing of RPM1 was blocked. The FAS II pathway defects resulted in the loss of lipoic acid attachment to subunits of three key mitochondrial enzymes, which suggests that the octanoic acid produced by the pathway is the sole precursor for lipoic acid synthesis and attachment. The protein component of yeast mitochondrial RNase P, Rpm2, is not modified by lipoic acid in the wild-type strain, and it is imported in FAS II mutant strains. Thus, a product of the FAS II pathway is required for RNase P RNA maturation, which positively affects RNase P activity. In addition, a product is required for lipoic acid production, which is needed for the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which feeds acetyl-coenzyme A into the FAS II pathway. These two positive feedback cycles may provide switch-like control of mitochondrial gene expression in response to the metabolic state of the cell. PMID:18779316

  14. Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis is required for normal mitochondrial morphology and function in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Jennifer L.; Kriegova, Eva; Smith, Terry K.; Lukeš, Julius; Englund, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Trypanosoma brucei use microsomal elongases for de novo synthesis of most of its fatty acids. In addition, this parasite utilizes an essential mitochondrial type II synthase for production of octanoate (a lipoic acid precursor) as well as longer fatty acids such as palmitate. Evidence from other organisms suggests that mitochondrially synthesized fatty acids are required for efficient respiration but the exact relationship remains unclear. In procyclic form trypanosomes, we also found that RNAi depletion of the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein, an important component of the fatty acid synthesis machinery, significantly reduces cytochrome-mediated respiration. This reduction was explained by RNAi-mediated inhibition of respiratory complexes II, III and IV, but not complex I. Other effects of RNAi, such as changes in mitochondrial morphology and alterations in membrane potential, raised the possibility of a change in mitochondrial membrane composition. Using mass spectrometry, we observed a decrease in total and mitochondrial phosphatidylinositol and mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine. Thus, we conclude that the mitochondrial synthase produces fatty acids needed for maintaining local phospholipid levels that are required for activity of respiratory complexes and preservation of mitochondrial morphology and function. PMID:18221265

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis of Carboxylic Acid Challenge in Escherichia coli: Beyond Membrane Damage

    PubMed Central

    Royce, Liam A.; Boggess, Erin; Fu, Yao; Liu, Ping; Shanks, Jacqueline V.; Dickerson, Julie; Jarboe, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are an attractive biorenewable chemical. Enormous progress has been made in engineering microbes for production of these compounds though titers remain lower than desired. Here we used transcriptome analysis of Escherichia coli during exogenous challenge with octanoic acid (C8) at pH 7.0 to probe mechanisms of toxicity. This analysis highlights the intracellular acidification and membrane damage caused by C8 challenge. Network component analysis identified transcription factors with altered activity including GadE, the activator of the glutamate-dependent acid resistance system (AR2) and Lrp, the amino acid biosynthesis regulator. The intracellular acidification was quantified during exogenous challenge, but was not observed in a carboxylic acid producing strain, though this may be due to lower titers than those used in our exogenous challenge studies. We developed a framework for predicting the proton motive force during adaptation to strong inorganic acids and carboxylic acids. This model predicts that inorganic acid challenge is mitigated by cation accumulation, but that carboxylic acid challenge inverts the proton motive force and requires anion accumulation. Utilization of native acid resistance systems was not useful in terms of supporting growth or alleviating intracellular acidification. AR2 was found to be non-functional, possibly due to membrane damage. We proposed that interaction of Lrp and C8 resulted in repression of amino acid biosynthesis. However, this hypothesis was not supported by perturbation of lrp expression or amino acid supplementation. E. coli strains were also engineered for altered cyclopropane fatty acid content in the membrane, which had a dramatic effect on membrane properties, though C8 tolerance was not increased. We conclude that achieving higher production titers requires circumventing the membrane damage. As higher titers are achieved, acidification may become problematic. PMID:24586888

  16. Synthesis of Saturated Long Chain Fatty Acids from Sodium Acetate-1-C14 by Mycoplasma1

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, J. D.; Tourtellotte, M. E.

    1967-01-01

    Three strains of Mycoplasma, M. laidlawii A and B, and Mycoplasma sp. A60549, were grown in broth containing sodium acetate-1-C14. The methyl esters of the phospholipid fatty acids of harvested radioactive cells were prepared and identified by comparison of their mobilities to known radioactive fatty acid methyl esters by use of a modified reversed-phase partition-thin layer chromatographic technique. No radioactive methyl oleate or methyl linoleate was detected. Compounds migrating as radioactive methyl myristate, stearate, palmitate, and, with less certainty, laurate and octanoate were detected. The qualitative findings for all three organisms appeared similar. M. laidlawii B synthesized a radioactive substance, presumably a saturated fatty acid detected as the methyl ester derivative, which migrated in a position intermediate to methyl myristate-1-C14 and methyl palmitate-1-C14. This work indicates that M. laidlawii A and B and Mycoplasma sp. A60549 are capable, in a complex medium containing fatty acids, of synthesizing saturated but not unsaturated fatty acids entirely or in part from acetate. Images PMID:6020566

  17. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and its derivatives as a platform of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Radivojevic, Jelena; Skaro, Sanja; Senerovic, Lidija; Vasiljevic, Branka; Guzik, Maciej; Kenny, Shane T; Maslak, Veselin; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    A library of 18 different compounds was synthesized starting from (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic acid which is derived from the bacterial polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Ten derivatives, including halo and unsaturated methyl and benzyl esters, were synthesized and characterized for the first time. Given that (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids are known to have biological activity, the new compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and in vitro antiproliferative effect with mammalian cell lines. The presence of the carboxylic group was essential for the antimicrobial activity, with minimal inhibitory concentrations against a panel of bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and fungi (Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in the range 2.8-7.0 mM and 0.1-6.3 mM, respectively. 3-Halogenated octanoic acids exhibited the ability to inhibit C. albicans hyphae formation. In addition, (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic and (E)-oct-2-enoic acids inhibited quorum sensing-regulated pyocyanin production in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Generally, derivatives did not inhibit mammalian cell proliferation even at 3-mM concentrations, while only (E)-oct-2-enoic and 3-oxooctanoic acid had IC50 values of 1.7 and 1.6 mM with the human lung fibroblast cell line. PMID:26399414

  18. Nest liquid resources of several cavity nesting bees in the genus Centris and the identification of a preservative, levulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Vinson, S Bradleigh; Frankie, Gordon W; Williams, H J

    2006-09-01

    Twig-nesting species of bees in the genus Centris including C. bicornuta, C. analis, C. vittata, and C. nitida, found in the dry forest of Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica, provision their nests with pollen and nectar, rather than pollen and oil as reported for other Centris species. The liquid contents of the nests of these four species were found to contain sugars including 66-75% fructose, 25-33% glucose, and a trace of sucrose. The sugar concentration averaged 47.2%, slightly higher than most flower nectars. No tri-, di-, or monoglycerides, the main components of the flower oil of Byrsonima crassifolia, were detected in the nest provisions. Although these four Centris species are also known to collect oil from B. crassifolia, the oil appears to be used for activities other than nest provisioning. The liquid nest contents did have a slight goat-like odor, suggesting the presence of short-chain fatty acids, and were found to contain a small amount (less than 1%) of three fatty acids. Two of these, butanoic and octanoic acid, were found in trace amounts and are responsible for the goat-like odor. A third was identified as levulinic acid, which made up about 99% of the nest fatty acid contents. This fatty acid had little odor, but may be important as a fungicidal agent. Attempts to determine the source of the fatty acids, were not successful. PMID:16902822

  19. Effects of Continuous Triiodothyronine Infusion on Citric Acid Cycle in the Normal Immature Swine Heart under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-02-13

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is frequently used in infants with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. ECMO also suppresses circulating triiodothyronine (T3) levels and modifies myocardial metabolism. We assessed the hypothesis that T3 supplementation reverses ECMO induced metabolic abnormalities in the immature heart. Twenty-two male Yorkshire pigs (age 25-38 days) with ECMO were received [2-13C]lactate, [2,4,6,8-13C]octanoate (medium chain fatty acid) and [U-13C]long-chain fatty acids as metabolic tracers either systemically (totally physiological intracoronary concentration) or directly into the coronary artery (high substrate concentration) for the last 60 minutes of each protocol. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of left ventricular tissue determined the fractional contribution (Fc) of these substrates to the citric acid cycle (CAC). Fifty percent of the pigs in each group received intravenous T3 supplement (bolus at 0.6 μg/kg and then continuous infusion at 0.2 μg/kg/hour) during ECMO. Under both substrate loading conditions T3 significantly increased lactate-Fc with a marginal increase in octanoate-Fc. Both T3 and high substrate provision increased myocardial energy status indexed by [Phosphocreatine]/[ATP]. In conclusion, T3 supplementation promoted lactate metabolism to the CAC during ECMO suggesting that T3 releases inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Manipulation of substrate utilization by T3 may be used therapeutically during ECMO to improve resting energy state and facilitate weaning.

  20. Elongation of exogenous fatty acids by the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria require myristic acid (C14:0) to produce the myristaldehyde substrate of the light-emitting luciferase reaction. Since both endogenous and exogenous C14:0 can be used for this purpose, the metabolism of exogenous fatty acids by luminescent bacteria has been investigated. Both Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri incorporated label from (1-14C)myristic acid (C14:0) into phospholipid acyl chains as well as into CO2. In contrast, Photobacterium phosphoreum did not exhibit phospholipid acylation or beta-oxidation using exogenous fatty acids. Unlike Escherichia coli, the two Vibrio species can directly elongate fatty acids such as octanoic (C8:0), lauric (C12:0), and myristic acid, as demonstrated by radio-gas liquid chromatography. The induction of bioluminescence in late exponential growth had little effect on the ability of V. harveyi to elongate fatty acids, but it did increase the amount of C14:0 relative to C16:0 labeled from (14C)C8:0. This was not observed in a dark mutant of V. harveyi that is incapable of supplying endogenous C14:0 for luminescence. Cerulenin preferentially decreased the labeling of C16:0 and of unsaturated fatty acids from all 14C-labeled fatty acid precursors as well as from (14C)acetate, suggesting that common mechanisms may be involved in elongation of fatty acids from endogenous and exogenous sources. Fatty acylation of the luminescence-related synthetase and reductase enzymes responsible for aldehyde synthesis exhibited a chain-length preference for C14:0, which also was indicated by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography of the acyl groups attached to these enzymes. The ability of V. harveyi to activate and elongate exogenous fatty acids may be related to an adaptive requirement to metabolize intracellular C14:0 generated by the luciferase reaction during luminescence development.

  1. Myocardial metabolism of pantothenic acid in chronically diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Beinlich, C J; Naumovitz, R D; Song, W O; Neely, J R

    1990-03-01

    Transport and metabolism of [3H]pantothenic acid ([3H]Pa) was investigated in hearts from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In isolated perfused hearts from control animals, the transport of [3H]Pa was linear over 3 h of perfusion when 11 mM glucose was the only exogenous substrate. The in vitro transport of [3H]Pa by hearts from 48-h diabetic rats was reduced by 65% compared to controls and was linear over 2 h of perfusion with no further accumulation of Pa during the third hour. The defect in transport observed in vitro could be corrected by in vivo treatment with 4 U Lente insulin/day for 2 days. In vitro addition of insulin in the presence of 11 mM glucose or 11 mM glucose plus 1.2 mM palmitate had no effect on [3H]Pa transport in hearts from 48-h diabetic rats during 3 h of perfusion. Accumulation of [3H]Pa was not inhibited by inclusion of 0.7 mM amino acids, 1 mM carnitine, 50 microM mersalic acid or 1 mM panthenol, pantoyllactone or pantoyltaurine. Uptake was inhibited by 1 mM nonanoic, octanoic or heptanoic acid, 0.1 mM biotin or 0.25 mM probenecid, suggesting a requirement for the terminal carboxyl group for transport. Transport of pantothenic acid was reduced in hearts from diabetic rats within 24 h of injection of streptozotocin. In vitro accumulation of [3H]Pa decreased to 10% of control 1 week after streptozotocin injection and then remained at 30% of the control value over 10 weeks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2141362

  2. Comparative acute freshwater hazard assessment and preliminary PNEC development for eight fluorinated acids.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Robert A; Bouchelle, Laurie D; Ferrell, Barbra D; Buck, Robert C

    2012-05-01

    Short-term 48, 72 and 96-h aquatic toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of eight fluorinated acids to the cladoceran, Daphnia magna, the green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss or the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas. The eight fluorinated acids studied were tridecafluorohexyl ethanoic acid (6:2 FTCA), heptadecafluorooctyl ethanoic acid (8:2 FTCA), 2H-dodecafluoro-2-octenoic acid (6:2 FTUCA), 2H-hexadecafluoro-2-decenoic acid (8:2 FTUCA), 2H,2H,3H,3H-undecafluoro octanoic acid (5:3 acid), 2H,2H,3H,3H-pentadecafluoro decanoic acid (7:3 acid), n-perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) and n-perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA). The results of the acute toxicity tests conducted during this study suggest that the polyfluorinated acids, 8:2 FTCA, 8:2 FTUCA, 6:2 FTCA, 6:2 FTUCA, 7:3 acid and 5:3 acid, and the perfluorinated acids PFPeA and PFDA, are generally of low to medium concern based on evaluation of their acute freshwater toxicity (EC/LC50s typically between 1 and >100 mg L(-1)) using the USEPA TSCA aquatic toxicity evaluation paradigm. For the polyfluorinated acids, aquatic toxicity generally decreased as the number of fluorinated carbons decreased and as the overall carbon chain length decreased from 12 to 8. Acute aquatic toxicity of the 5 and 10 carbon perfluorocarboxylic acids (EC/LC50s between 10.6 and >100 mg L(-1)) was greater or similar to that of the 6-9 carbon perfluorocarboxylic acids (EC/LC50s>96.5 mg L(-1)). This study also provides the first report of the acute aquatic toxicity of the 5:3 acid (EC/LC50s of 22.5 to >103 mg L(-1)) which demonstrated less aquatic toxicity than the 7:3 acid (EC/LC50s of 0.4-32 mg L(-1)). The cladoceran, D. magna and the green alga, P. subcapitata had generally similar EC50 values for a given substance while fish were typically equally or less sensitive with the exception that PFPeA was most toxic to fish. Predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were

  3. Influence of acid chain length on the properties of TiO2 prepared by sol-gel method and LC-MS studies of methylene blue photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Bakre, Pratibha V; Volvoikar, Prajesh S; Vernekar, Amit A; Tilve, S G

    2016-07-15

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide photocatalysts were synthesized by hybrid hydrolytic nonhydrolytic sol-gel method using aliphatic organic acid templates to study the effect of chain length on their properties. X-ray diffraction pattern indicated crystalline anatase phase. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda surface area measurement gave surface area ranging from 98.4 to 205.5m(2)/g and was found to be dependent on the chain length of the aliphatic acid. The longer chain acids rendered the material with high surface area. The organic acids acted as bidentate ligand and a surfactant in controlling the size and the mesoporosity. The size of the TiO2 nanoparticulate was found to be in the range of 10-18nm. The catalyst prepared by employing long chain acids octanoic acid and palmitic acid had smaller size, narrow pore radius, higher surface area and showed better photocatalytic activity than the commercially available Degussa P25 catalyst for the degradation of methylene blue dye. A new intermediate was identified by tandem liquid chromatography mass spectrometry studies during the degradation of methylene blue solution. PMID:27100905

  4. Carboxylic Acid Photochemistry is a Marine Source of Glyoxal and Other Aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, R.; Gonzalez, L.; Tinel, L.; George, C.; Volkamer, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Glyoxal is a highly water-soluble precursor in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Over land, glyoxal is known to be produced by the oxidation of volatile organic carbon (VOC) from both anthropogenic and natural sources. However, marine sources are still not well understood. Previous studies above the remote Pacific Ocean have detected typical glyoxal mixing ratios of 30-40 pptv, concentrations too high to be explained with current chemical understanding or atmospheric models. Because the lifetime of glyoxal is very short, the glyoxal found must have originated from, rather than been transported to, the open ocean. Furthermore, eddy covariance measurements indicate that an organic surface microlayer may be producing the glyoxal by as yet unknown processes. Here we present laboratory studies of the formation of glyoxal from carboxylic acids. Nonanoic, octanoic, and heptanoic acids floated on water and subjected to ultraviolet light are converted into their equivalent alkenals. Subsequent ozonolysis of the alkenals leads to the formation of glyoxal. We employ a PTR-MS to detect the alkenals, and a cavity-enhanced DOAS to detect the glyoxal. Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of carboxylic acids and their derivatives in the environment, this mechanism has the potential to be a significant source of glyoxal in the atmosphere.

  5. Synthesis of microbial elastomers based on soybean oily acids. Biocompatibility studies.

    PubMed

    Hazer, Derya Burcu; Hazer, Baki; Kaymaz, Figen

    2009-06-01

    Biocompatibility studies of the autoxidized and unoxidized unsaturated medium-long chain length (m-lcl) co-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (m-lclPHAs) derived from soya oily acids have been reported. Pseudomonas oleovorans was grown on a series of mixtures of octanoic acid (OA) and soya oily acids (Sy) with weight ratios of 20:80, 28:72 and 50:50 in order to obtain unsaturated m-lcl copolyesters coded PHO-Sy-2080, PHO-Sy-2872 and PHO-Sy-5050, respectively. The PHA films were obtained by solvent cast from CHCl(3). They were all originally sticky and waxy except PHO-Sy-5050. Autoxidation of the unsaturated copolyester films was carried out on exposure to air at room temperature in order to obtain crosslinked polymers. They became a highly flexible elastomer after being autoxidized (about 40 days of autoxidation). The in vivo tissue reactions of the autoxidized PHAs were evaluated by subcutaneous implantation in rats. The rats appeared to be healthy throughout the implantation period. No symptom such as necrosis, abscess or tumorigenesis was observed in the vicinity of the implants. Retrieved materials varied in their physical appearance after 6 weeks of implantation. In vivo biocompatibility studies of the medical applications indicated that the microbial copolyesters obtained were all biocompatible and especially the PHOSy series of copolyesters had the highest biocompatibility among them. PMID:19498224

  6. Comparison of capillary pressure relationships of organic liquid water systems containing an organic acid or base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, D. L.; Demond, A. H.; Hayes, K. F.

    2005-04-01

    The presence of surface-active solutes such as organic acids and bases may have a profound influence on the transport of organic liquid contaminants through their impact on the constitutive relationship of capillary pressure vs. saturation. This relationship is a function of the interfacial tension and wettability of the system, which, in turn, depend on the pH and the concentration of organic acids and bases that are present. This study examines the impact of pH and the concentration on the interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure of systems consisting of tetrachloroethylene, water, and quartz containing either octanoic acid or dodecylamine. In general, the ionic form of the solute tended to remain in the aqueous phase and reduced the capillary pressure through its impact on the interfacial tension and contact angle; on the other hand, the neutral form of the solute partitioned into the organic liquid phase and had a lesser impact on the capillary pressure for the same total mass of solute. A comparison of these data with data generated in previous research in similar systems where o-xylene was the organic liquid showed that the trends are analogous. Thus, the behavior of these two solvent systems seems to be driven primarily by the aqueous phase speciation of the solute, and the differences between the capillary pressure relationships for the two systems could be attributed to the pure system interfacial tension.

  7. Chitosan-poly(acrylic) acid polyionic complex: in vivo study to demonstrate prolonged gastric retention.

    PubMed

    Torrado, Susana; Prada, Pablo; de la Torre, Paloma M; Torrado, Santiago

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a chitosan-poly(acrylic) acid based controlled drug release system for gastric antibiotic delivery. Different mixtures of amoxicillin (A), chitosan (CS), and poly(acrylic) acid (PAA) were employed to obtain these polyionic complexes. A non-invasive method was employed for determining the gastric residence time of the formulations. It was studied the swelling behavior and drug release from these complexes. Gastric emptying rate study was performed by means of the [13C]octanoic acid breath test. The gastric emptying rates of two different formulations (conventional and gastric retentive system) were studied. Swelling studies indicated that the extent of swelling was greater in the polyionic complexes than in the single chitosan formulations. The amoxicillin diffusion from the hydrogels was controlled by the polymer/drug interaction. The property of these complexes to control the solute diffusion depends on the network mesh size, which is a significant factor in the overall behavior of the hydrogels. The gastric half-emptying time of the polyionic complex was significantly delayed compared to the reference formulation, showing mean values of 164.32+/-26.72 and 65.06+/-11.50min, respectively (P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that, these polyionic complexes are good systems for specific gastric drug delivery. PMID:14609680

  8. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  9. The repellent effect of organic fatty acids on Culicoides midges as determined with suction light traps in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Venter, G J; Labuschagne, K; Boikanyo, S N B; Morey, L; Snyman, M G

    2011-09-27

    The efficacy of a 15% (w/w) mixture of octanoic, nonanoic and decanoic acids in light mineral oil to repel Culicoides biting midges (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae) was determined in three replicates of a 4 × 4 Latin square design under South African field conditions. The fatty acids were applied to ± 0.07 m(2) polyester meshes with a mesh size 2-3mm fitted to 220 V 8 W Onderstepoort downdraught light traps. To reduce the relatively strong attraction of the light trap, the black light tubes in the Onderstepoort trap were replaced with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes. The traps were operating overnight next to cattle. Two traps treated with the mixture of fatty acids collected 1.7 times fewer midges than two untreated traps. Although this mixture of fatty acids had shown a repellent effect against a number of blood-feeding insects this is the first indication that it also has a significant repellent effect against Culicoides species and especially Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer when applied to polyester mesh. PMID:21592665

  10. Amiodarone inhibits the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids and produces microvesicular steatosis of the liver in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fromenty, B.; Fisch, C.; Labbe, G.; Degott, C.; Deschamps, D.; Berson, A.; Letteron, P.; Pessayre, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Amiodarone has been shown to produce microvesicular steatosis of the liver in some recipients. We have determined the effects of amiodarone on the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids in mice. In vitro, the formation of 14C-acid-soluble beta-oxidation products from (U-14C)palmitic acid by mouse liver mitochondria was decreased by 92% in the presence of 125 microM amiodarone and by 94% in the presence of 125 microM N-desethylamiodarone. Inhibition due to 100 or 150 microM amiodarone persisted in the presence of 5 mM acetoacetate, whereas acetoacetate totally relieved inhibition due to 15 microM rotenone. In vivo, exhalation of (14C)CO2 from (U-14C)palmitic acid was decreased by 31, 40, 58 and 78%, respectively, in mice receiving 19, 25, 50 and 100 mg.kg-1 of amiodarone hydrochloride 1 hr before the administration of (U-14C)palmitic acid. One hour after 100 mg.kg-1, the exhalation of (14C)CO2 from (1-14C)palmitic acid, (1-14C)octanoic acid or (1-14C)butyric acid was decreased by 78, 72 and 53%, respectively. Exhalation of (14C)CO2 from (1-14C)palmitic acid was normal between 6 and 9 hr after administration of 100 mg.kg-1 of amiodarone hydrochloride, but was still inhibited by 71 and 37%, 24 and 48 hr after 600 mg.kg-1. Twenty four hours after the latter dose of amiodarone, hepatic triglycerides were increased by 150%, and there was microvesicular steatosis of the liver. We conclude that amiodarone inhibits the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids and produces microvesicular steatosis of the liver in mice.

  11. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  12. Solubilization of amphiphilic carboxylic acids in nonionic micelles: determination of partition coefficients from pKa measurements and NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Dupont-Leclercq, Laurence; Giroux, Sébastien; Henry, Bernard; Rubini, Patrice

    2007-10-01

    The solubilization of octylamidotartaric acid (C8T) and octanoic acid (C8C) in Triton X-100 and Brij 58 nonionic micelles has been studied by pHmetric and 1H NMR self-diffusion experiments. As both C8C and C8T exhibit acid-base properties, a distinction between the partition of the neutral acidic form, in terms of the partition coefficient KPH, and the partition of the charged basic form, in terms of the partition coefficient KP-, has been made. The acidity constants, Ka, of C8T and C8C in the presence of micelles have been evaluated from pHmetric experiments. For both solutes, an increase in the pKa is observed in micellar media due to the difference in the partition of acidic and basic forms of the solutes. A model has been developed to determine KPH and KP- from the pKa shifts observed. The values obtained by this pKa shift modeling method and those from self-diffusion coefficient measurements are in good agreement. The acidic form of C8C is incorporated to a larger extent into the Brij 58 micelles than the acidic form of C8T, whereas the opposite trend is observed for the basic forms. Both the acidic and basic forms of C8T are more easily incorporated into Brij 58 micelles than into Triton X-100 micelles. The influence of the structure of the polar head on the solubilization properties is demonstrated. Moreover, evidence for the localization of the solutes in the micelles is obtained from the comparison of the partition coefficients and from 1H NMR data. PMID:17850105

  13. Revisiting the metabolism and physiological functions of caprylic acid (C8:0) with special focus on ghrelin octanoylation.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, Fanny; Beauchamp, Erwan; Legrand, Philippe; Rioux, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Caprylic acid (octanoic acid, C8:0) belongs to the class of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFAs). Dairy products and specific oils like coconut oil are natural sources of dietary C8:0 but higher intakes of this fatty acid can be provided with MCT (Medium-Chain Triglycerides) oil that consists in 75% of C8:0. MCFAs have physical and metabolic properties that are distinct from those of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs ≥ 12 carbons). Beneficial physiological effects of dietary C8:0 have been studied for a long time and MCT oil has been used as a special energy source for patients suffering from pancreatic insufficiency, impaired lymphatic chylomicron transport and fat malabsorption. More recently, caprylic acid was also shown to acylate ghrelin, the only known peptide hormone with an orexigenic effect. Through its covalent binding to the ghrelin peptide, caprylic acid exhibits an emerging and specific role in modulating physiological functions themselves regulated by octanoylated ghrelin. Dietary caprylic acid is therefore now suspected to provide the ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) enzyme with octanoyl-CoA co-substrates necessary for the acyl modification of ghrelin. This review tries to highlight the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary MCFAs on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on appetite stimulation via ghrelin octanoylation. The subsequent aim of this review is to demonstrate the relevance of carrying out further studies to better understand the physiological functions of this particular fatty acid. PMID:26253695

  14. A molecular dynamics study of water mass accommodation on condensed phase water coated by fatty acid monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahama, S.; Russell, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    As the water uptake by particles and clouds influences the radiative balance of the Earth, it is desirable to understand the mechanisms and parameters, which regulate water uptake in these colloidal particles. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations were used to simulate scattering or accommodation of water vapor molecules impinging on a slab of water and slabs of water coated by monomolecular amphiphile films: octanoic acid (C8) at surface densities of 29 and 18 Å2 per molecule and myristic acid (C14) at 29 Å2 per molecule. The mass accommodation coefficient of near unity on a pure water slab is in agreement with values estimated using similar scattering simulations using other potentials for water. The addition of surface-active organic molecules in quantities corresponding to less than 1% of mass in a typical cloud droplet are predicted to reduce this mass accommodation coefficient by 70-100% in similar types of scattering simulations. The mass accommodation coefficient decreased monotonically with projected surface coverage of the hydrocarbon backbones, although the accommodation mechanisms differed by packing density and type of organic molecule. The mechanisms of interaction of the impinging water vapor molecules with the simulated organic films are discussed in the context of their chemical characteristics and physical structures (e.g., fatty acid chain orientation).

  15. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  16. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  17. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  18. Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wild-type brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen consumption and dissipated membrane potential. The absence of this effect in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-ablated mice indicated that it occurred through activation of UCP1. A competitive type of inhibition by increased GDP concentrations indicated interaction with the same mechanistic site as that utilized by fatty acids. No effect was observed in heart mitochondria, i.e., in mitochondria without UCP1. The stimulatory effect of PFOA/PFOS was not secondary to non-specific mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or to ROS production. Thus, metabolic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids could include direct brown adipose tissue (UCP1) activation. The possibility that this may lead to unwarranted extra heat production and thus extra utilization of food resources, leading to decreased fitness in mammalian wildlife, is discussed, as well as possible negative effects in humans. However, a possibility to utilize PFOA-/PFOS-like substances for activating UCP1 therapeutically in obesity-prone humans may also be envisaged. PMID:26041126

  19. Metabolism of medium- and long-chain fatty acids by isolated hepatocytes from small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate for-gestational-age (AGA) piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Odle, J.; Benevenga, N.J.; Crenshaw, T.D. )

    1990-02-26

    Hepatocytes were isolated from full-term, SGA and AGA piglets at 6 or 48 hours postpartum and were incubated with 1 mM (1-{sup 14}C)-octanoate (C8), -nonanoate (C9) or-oleate (C18:1). The cells oxidized (natom 1-C/(h 10{sup 6} cells)) C9 to Co{sub 2} (12.5) and acid soluble products (28.9) faster than C8 (10.9, 20.6, respectively), and both were oxidized faster than C18:1 (3.9, 9.9) regardless of the piglet age or weight. Oleate accumulated in lipid products 8-fold faster than C8 and C9. No differences between cells from SGA and AGA piglets were detected. Recovery of 1-C in CO{sub 2} was 48% higher in incubations with cells from 48 hours old than from 6 hour old piglets. This increase was attributable to a 70% higher oxygen consumption by 48 hour old cells. Theoretical oxygen consumption rates were computed from the fatty acid flux data and compared to measured oxygen consumption. hepatocytes from SGA and AGA piglets were equally capable of satisfying more that 57% of their energy needs from fatty acid oxidation. The oxygen consumption attributable to C9 metabolism was 30% higher than observed for C8 and C18:1. All fatty acids apparently spared endogenous fuels to a greater degree in 6 hour than in 48 hour piglets.

  20. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  1. Esterase activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from malolactic fermentation of red wines.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

    2013-05-15

    The goal of this study was to examine the esterase activity of 243 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains from wines of different red grape varieties, belonging to the genera Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus. p-Nitrophenyl octanoate was used as substrate. All strains presented esterase activity in the first screening, but only those showing higher activity were used in subsequent studies to determine the cellular location of this activity, the influence of pH, temperature and the presence of ethanol and the substrate specificity. For the thirteen selected strains, the highest activity was observed in the intracellular fraction. Responses to pH, temperature and ethanol were strain-dependent, but for all the strains, a marked decrease in activity in presence of ethanol was observed. When the influence of pH and ethanol acting together was studied at 25 °C and 37 °C, temperature-dependent differences were not observed for any of the strains except for Oen6. In the substrate specificity assay, the majority of strains of all genera displayed a trend to more readily hydrolyse ester substrates from C8 and longer. PMID:23558198

  2. Feeding rainbow trout with a lipid-enriched diet: effects on fatty acid sensing, regulation of food intake and cellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Librán-Pérez, Marta; Geurden, Inge; Dias, Karine; Corraze, Genevieve; Panserat, Stephane; Soengas, José L

    2015-08-01

    Using rainbow trout fed with low-fat or high-fat diets, we aimed to determine whether the response of food intake, mRNA abundance of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the metabolic regulation of food intake and fatty acid sensing systems in the hypothalamus and liver are similar to results previously observed when levels of specific fatty acids were raised by injection. Moreover, we also aimed to determine if the phosphorylation state of intracellular energy sensor 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and proteins involved in cellular signaling such as protein kinase B (Akt) and target of rapamycin (mTOR) display changes that could be related to fatty acid sensing and the control of food intake. The increased levels of fatty acids in the hypothalamus and liver of rainbow trout fed with a high-fat diet only partially activated fatty acid sensing systems and did not elicit changes in food intake, suggesting that the fatty acid sensing response in fish is more dependent on the presence of specific fatty acids, such as oleate or octanoate, rather than to the global increase in fatty acids. We also obtained, for the first time in fish, evidence for the presence and function of energy sensors such as AMPK and proteins involved in cellular signaling, like mTOR and Akt, in the hypothalamus. These proteins in the hypothalamus and liver were generally activated in fish fed the high-fat versus low-fat diet, suggesting that cellular signaling pathways are activated in response to the increased availability of fatty acids. PMID:26089527

  3. Uterocalin, a lipocalin provisioning the preattachment equine conceptus: fatty acid and retinol binding properties, and structural characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Suire, S; Stewart, F; Beauchamp, J; Kennedy, M W

    2001-01-01

    The equine conceptus is surrounded by a fibrous capsule that persists until about day 20 of pregnancy, whereupon the capsule is lost, the conceptus attaches to the endometrium and placentation proceeds. Before attachment, the endometrium secretes in abundance a protein of the lipocalin family, uterocalin. The cessation of secretion coincides with the end of the period during which the conceptus is enclosed in its capsule, suggesting that uterocalin is essential for the support of the embryo before direct contact between maternal and foetal tissues is established. Using recombinant protein and fluorescence-based assays, we show that equine uterocalin binds the fluorescent fatty acids 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid, dansyl-D,L-alpha-amino-octanoic acid and cis-parinaric acid, and, by competition, oleic, palmitic, arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, gamma-linolenic, cis-eicosapentaenoic and linoleic acids. Uterocalin also binds all-trans-retinol, the binding site for which is coincident or interactive with that for fatty acids. Molecular modelling and intrinsic fluorescence analysis of the wild-type protein and a Trp-->Glu mutant protein indicated that uterocalin has an unusually solvent-exposed Trp side chain projecting from its large helix directly into solvent. This feature is unusual among lipocalins and might relate to binding to, and uptake by, the trophoblast. Uterocalin therefore has the localization and binding activities for the provisioning of the equine conceptus with lipids including those essential for morphogenesis and pattern formation. The possession of a fibrous capsule surrounding the conceptus might be an ancestral condition in mammals; homologues of uterocalin might be essential for early development in marsupials and in eutherians in which there is a prolonged preimplantation period. PMID:11368763

  4. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-long; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Chinese strong-aroma type liquor (CSAL) is a popular distilled alcoholic beverage in China. It is produced by a complex fermentation process that is conducted in pits in the ground. Ethyl caproate is a key flavor compound in CSAL and is thought to originate from caproic acid produced by Clostridia inhabiting the fermentation pit mud. However, the particular species of Clostridium associated with this production are poorly understood and problematic to quantify by culturing. In this study, a total of 28 closest relatives including 15 Clostridia and 8 Bacilli species in pit muds from three CSAL distilleries, were detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Among them, Clostridium kluyveri was identified as the main producer of caproic acid. One representative strain C. kluyveri N6 could produce caproic, butyric and octanoic acids and their corresponding ethyl esters, contributing significantly to CSAL flavor. A real time quantitative PCR assay of C. kluyveri in pit muds developed showed that a concentration of 1.79×10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies/g pit mud in LZ-old pit was approximately six times higher than that in HLM and YH pits and sixty times higher than that in LZ-new pit respectively. This method can be used to improve the management of pit mud microbiology and its impact on CSAL quality. PMID:26267890

  5. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  6. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  7. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  8. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  9. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  10. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  11. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  12. Hydroxyapatite surface modified by L-lactic acid and its subsequent grafting polymerization of L-lactide.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xueyu; Hong, Zhongkui; Hu, Junli; Chen, Li; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin

    2005-01-01

    A new method of surface modification of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HA) by surface grafting reaction of l-lactic acid and ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide (LLA) was developed. Two modified HA nanoparticles were obtained: HA modified by l-lactic acid (l-HA) and HA grafting with poly(l-lactide) (PLLA; p-HA). The modified surface of n-HA was attested by Fourier transformation infrared, (31)P MAS NMR, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The results showed that l-lactic acid could be easily grafted onto the n-HA surface by forming a Ca carboxylate bond and initiated by the hydroxyl group of the grafted l-lactic acid and LLA could be graft-polymerized onto the n-HA surface in the presence of stannous octanoate. The highest grafting amounts of l-lactic acid and PLLA were about 33 and 22 wt %, respectively. The modified HA/PLLA composites showed good mechanical properties and uniform microstructure. The tensile strength and modulus of the p-HA/PLLA composite containing 15 wt % of p-HA were 67 MPa and 2.1 GPa, respectively, while those of the n-HA/PLLA composites were 45 MPa and 1.7 GPa, respectively. The elongation at the break of the l-HA/PLLA composite containing 15 wt % l-HA could reach 44%, in comparison with 6.5% of the n-HA/PLLA composites containing 15 wt % n-HA. PMID:15877333

  13. Medium-chain fatty acids inhibit mitochondrial metabolism in astrocytes promoting astrocyte-neuron lactate and ketone body shuttle systems.

    PubMed

    Thevenet, Jonathan; De Marchi, Umberto; Domingo, Jaime Santo; Christinat, Nicolas; Bultot, Laurent; Lefebvre, Gregory; Sakamoto, Kei; Descombes, Patrick; Masoodi, Mojgan; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides have been used as part of a ketogenic diet effective in reducing epileptic episodes. The health benefits of the derived medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are thought to result from the stimulation of liver ketogenesis providing fuel for the brain. We tested whether MCFAs have direct effects on energy metabolism in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human astrocytes and neurons. Using single-cell imaging, we observed an acute pronounced reduction of the mitochondrial electrical potential and a concomitant drop of the NAD(P)H signal in astrocytes, but not in neurons. Despite the observed effects on mitochondrial function, MCFAs did not lower intracellular ATP levels or activate the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase. ATP concentrations in astrocytes were unaltered, even when blocking the respiratory chain, suggesting compensation through accelerated glycolysis. The MCFA decanoic acid (300 μM) promoted glycolysis and augmented lactate formation by 49.6%. The shorter fatty acid octanoic acid (300 μM) did not affect glycolysis but increased the rates of astrocyte ketogenesis 2.17-fold compared with that of control cells. MCFAs may have brain health benefits through the modulation of astrocyte metabolism leading to activation of shuttle systems that provide fuel to neighboring neurons in the form of lactate and ketone bodies.-Thevenet, J., De Marchi, U., Santo Domingo, J., Christinat, N., Bultot, L., Lefebvre, G., Sakamoto, K., Descombes, P., Masoodi, M., Wiederkehr, A. Medium-chain fatty acids inhibit mitochondrial metabolism in astrocytes promoting astrocyte-neuron lactate and ketone body shuttle systems. PMID:26839375

  14. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  15. Profound Hypoglycemia in Starved, Ghrelin-deficient Mice Is Caused by Decreased Gluconeogenesis and Reversed by Lactate or Fatty Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert Lin; Sherbet, Daniel P.; Elsbernd, Benjamin L.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.; Zhao, Tong-Jin

    2012-01-01

    When mice are subjected to 7-day calorie restriction (40% of normal food intake), body fat disappears, but blood glucose is maintained as long as the animals produce ghrelin, an octanoylated peptide that stimulates growth hormone secretion. Mice can be rendered ghrelin-deficient by knock-out of the gene encoding either ghrelin O-acyltransferase, which attaches the required octanoate, or ghrelin itself. Calorie-restricted, fat-depleted ghrelin O-acyltransferase or ghrelin knock-out mice fail to show the normal increase in growth hormone and become profoundly hypoglycemic when fasted for 18–23 h. Glucose production in Goat−/− mice was reduced by 60% when compared with similarly treated WT mice. Plasma lactate and pyruvate were also low. Injection of lactate, pyruvate, alanine, or a fatty acid restored blood glucose in Goat−/− mice. Thus, when body fat is reduced by calorie restriction, ghrelin stimulates growth hormone secretion, which allows maintenance of glucose production, even when food intake is eliminated. In humans with anorexia nervosa or kwashiorkor, ghrelin and growth hormone are known to be elevated, just as they are in fat-depleted mice. We suggest that these two hormones prolong survival in starved humans as they do in mice. PMID:22474325

  16. Linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3/-9 activation.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Takahiro; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The present study aimed at understanding the effect of the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) on oxidative stress-induced neuronal death. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 1 mM) reduced viability of cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons to 50% of basal levels, but DCP-LA significantly prevented the SNP effect in a concentration (1-100 nM)-dependent manner. In addition, DCP-LA (100 nM) rescued neurons from SNP-induced degradation. SNP (1 mM) activated caspase-3 and -9 in cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons, but DCP-LA (100 nM) abolished the caspase activation. For a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion, oral administration with DCP-LA (1 mg/kg) significantly diminished degraded area due to cerebral infarction. The results of the present study, thus, demonstrate that DCP-LA protects neurons at least in part from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting activation of caspase-3/-9. PMID:20099079

  17. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  18. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  19. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  20. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  1. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  2. Single-reagent one-step procedures for the purification of ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab antivenoms by caprylic acid.

    PubMed

    Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Casewell, Nicholas R; Landon, John

    2014-01-15

    Antivenoms are typically produced in horses or sheep and often purified using salt precipitation of immunoglobulins or F(ab')2 fragments. Caprylic (octanoic) acid fractionation of antiserum has the advantage of not precipitating the desired antibodies, thereby avoiding potential degradation that can lead to the formation of aggregates, which may be the cause of some adverse reactions to antivenoms. Here we report that when optimising the purification of immunoglobulins from ovine antiserum raised against snake venom, caprylic acid was found to have no effect on the activity of the enzymes pepsin and papain, which are employed in antivenom manufacturing to digest immunoglobulins to obtain F(ab')2 and Fab fragments, respectively. A "single-reagent" method was developed for the production of F(ab')2 antivenom whereby whole ovine antiserum was mixed with both caprylic acid and pepsin and incubated for 4h at 37°C. For ovine Fab antivenom production from whole antiserum, the "single reagent" comprised of caprylic acid, papain and l-cysteine; after incubation at 37°C for 18-20h, iodoacetamide was added to stop the reaction. Caprylic acid facilitated the precipitation of albumin, resulting in a reduced protein load presented to the digestion enzymes, culminating in substantial reductions in processing time. The ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab products obtained using these novel caprylic acid methods were comparable in terms of yield, purity and specific activity to those obtained by multi-step conventional salt fractionation with sodium sulphate. PMID:24246428

  3. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  4. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  5. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  6. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  7. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the blood vessel to keep it open. Bipolar disorder. Taking folic acid does not appear to improve the antidepressant effects of lithium in people with bipolar disorder. However, taking folate with the medication valproate improves ...

  8. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  9. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Amicar® Oral Solution ... Aminocaproic acid comes as a tablet and a solution (liquid) to take by mouth. It is usually ... it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  10. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  11. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  12. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  13. Highly efficient microextraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides in natural waters using a decanoic acid-based nanostructured solvent prior to their quantitation by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moral, Antonia; Caballo, Carmen; Sicilia, María Dolores; Rubio, Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Solvents used in microextraction require high solubilising capability to efficiently extract the target compounds. In this article, nanostructured solvents made up of alkyl carboxylic acids (ACAs) aggregate are proposed for the efficient microextraction of acidic pesticides from natural waters. The target compounds were chlorophenoxy acid herbicides (CPAHs) widely used in agriculture, forestry and gardening (viz. 2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP, 2,4,5-T and MCPB). The supramolecular solvents (SUPRASs) tested were generated from solutions of reverse micelles of octanoic (OcA), decanoic (DeA) and dodecanoic (DoA) acid in THF by the addition of water, which acted as the coacervating agent. The DeA-based SUPRAS was the most efficient extractant for CPAHs; actual concentration factors (ACFs) of 260 for 2,4-D, 290 for MCPA, and 400 for MCPP, 2,4,5-T and MCPB were obtained. The explanation for so high ACFs can be found in the extremely efficient retention mechanisms that the DeA-based SUPRAS provides for CPAHs (i.e. formation of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions), and the high number of binding sites that it contains (i.e. the concentration of biosurfactant in the SUPRAS was 0.56 mg μL(-1)). Both characteristics permitted to effectively extract the target analytes in a low volume of solvent (about 2 μL of solvent per mL of sample). Others assets of the proposed supramolecular solvent-based microextraction (SUSME) approach included recoveries no dependent on matrix composition, rapidity (sample treatment spent about 15 min), use of low volume of sample (63 mL per analysis) and simplicity (no special lab equipments was needed). Combination with liquid chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry [LC-(IT)MS] afforded method quantitation limits for CPAHs within the interval 22-30 ng L(-1). The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (n=11, [CPAH]=200 ng L(-1)), was in the range 2.9-5.8%. The applicability of the method to the analysis of natural waters

  14. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  15. Transepithelial transport of aliphatic carboxylic acids studied in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.J.; Adson, A.; Kezdy, F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Transport of 14C-labeled acetic, propionic (PA), butyric, valeric, heptanoic (HA), and octanoic (OA) acids across the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell monolayer grown on a porous polycarbonate membrane was studied in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37{degrees}C in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. At micromolar concentrations of solutes, metabolic decomposition was significant as evidenced by (14C)CO2 production during the OA transport. The apparent permeability (Pe) indicates that as lipophilicity increases, diffusion across the unstirred boundary layer becomes rate limiting. In support of this notion, transport of OA and HA was enhanced by agitation, showed an activation energy of 3.7 kcal/mol for OA, and resulted in identical Pe values for both transport directions. Analysis of Pe changes with varying alkyl chain length resulted in a delta G of -0.68 +/- 0.09 kcal/mol for -CH2-group transfer from an aqueous phase to the MDCK cells. When the intercellular tight junctions were opened by the divalent chelator EGTA in Ca2+/Mg2(+)-free HBSS, transport of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow greatly increased because of paracellular leakage. PA transport also showed a significant increase, but OA transport was independent of EGTA. Although albumin also undergoes paracellular transport in the presence of EGTA and OA binds strongly to albumin, OA transport in EGTA solution was unchanged by albumin. These observations indicate that transmembrane transport is the major mechanism for lipophilic substances. The present study, together with earlier work on the transport of polar substances, shows that the MDCK cell monolayer is an excellent model of the transepithelial transport barrier.

  16. Linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA ameliorates stress-induced depression-related behavior by promoting cell surface 5-HT1A receptor translocation, stimulating serotonin release, and inactivating GSK-3β.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Impairment of serotonergic neurotransmission is the major factor responsible for depression and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) participates in serotonergic transmission-mediated signaling networks relevant to mental illnesses. In the forced-swim test to assess depression-like behavior, the immobility time for mice with restraint stress was significantly longer than that for nonstressed control mice. Postsynaptic cell surface localization of 5-HT1A receptor, but not 5-HT2A receptor, in the hypothalamus for mice with restraint stress was significantly reduced as compared with that for control mice, which highly correlated to prolonged immobility time, i.e., depression-like behavior. The linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) restored restraint stress-induced reduction of cell surface 5-HT1A receptor and improved depression-like behavior in mice with restraint stress. Moreover, DCP-LA stimulated serotonin release from hypothalamic slices and cancelled restraint stress-induced reduction of GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that DCP-LA could ameliorate depression-like behavior by promoting translocation of 5-HT1A receptor to the plasma membrane on postsynaptic cells, stimulating serotonin release, and inactivating GSK-3β. PMID:24788685

  17. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease called vitiligo, and an inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome. It is also used for reducing harmful side ... to blood clots (ischemic stroke). Inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome.Taking folic acid by mouth does not improve ...

  18. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  19. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  20. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  1. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  2. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  3. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  4. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  6. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  7. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  8. The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA selectively activates PKC-epsilon, possibly binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Hi, Rika; Mukasa, Takeshi; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nagata, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA), a newly synthesized linoleic acid derivative with cyclopropane rings instead of cis-double bonds, on protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In the in situ PKC assay with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, DCP-LA significantly activated PKC in PC-12 cells in a concentration-dependent (10 nM-100 microM) manner, with the maximal effect at 100 nM, and the DCP-LA effect was blocked by GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, or a selective inhibitor peptide of the novel PKC isozyme PKC-epsilon. Furthermore, DCP-LA activated PKC in HEK-293 cells that was inhibited by the small, interfering RNA against PKC-epsilon. In the cell-free PKC assay, of the nine isozymes examined here, DCP-LA most strongly activated PKC-epsilon, with >7-fold potency over other PKC isozymes, in the absence of dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol; instead, the DCP-LA action was inhibited by dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine. DCP-LA also activated PKC-gamma, a conventional PKC, but to a much lesser extent compared with that for PKC-epsilon, by a mechanism distinct from PKC-epsilon activation. Thus, DCP-LA serves as a selective activator of PKC-epsilon, possibly by binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site on PKC-epsilon. These results may provide fresh insight into lipid signaling in PKC activation. PMID:16520488

  9. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  10. 2-Oxocarboxylic acids and function of pancreatic islets in obese–hyperglycaemic mice. Insulin secretion in relation to 45Ca uptake and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lenzen, Sigurd; Panten, Uwe

    1980-01-01

    The effects of aliphatic 2-oxocarboxylic acids, at concentrations of up to 40mm, on the function of pancreatic islets from ob/ob (obese–hyperglycaemic) mice were investigated. 1. 2-Oxopentanoate, dl-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate and 2-oxohexanoate all induced insulin release by isolated incubated islets and a biphasic insulin-secretory pattern in perfused mouse pancreas. The last two substances were similar in potency to glucose. Pyruvate, 2-oxobutyrate, 3-methyl-2-oxobutyrate and 2-oxo-octanoate did not induce insulin release significantly. 2. 2-Oxocarboxylic acids with significant insulin-secretory potency also induced significant 45Ca uptake by isolated incubated islets. 3. The rates of decarboxylation of [1-14C]pyruvate, 3-methyl-2-oxo[1-14C]butyrate and 4-methyl-2-oxo[1-14C]pentanoate were twice as high as the rates of oxidation of the corresponding U-14C-labelled compounds. However, whereas the rates of metabolism of labelled pyruvate and 3-methyl-2-oxobutyrate steadily increased over the concentration range 1–40mm, those of labelled 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate and d-[U-14C]glucose levelled off at concentrations above 10mm. 4. Omission of 40CaCl2 from the incubation medium reduced the rate of oxidation of the insulin secretagogue [U-14C]4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, but left that of the non-(insulin secretagogue) [U-14C]3-methyl-2-oxobutyrate unaffected. 5. Only glucose, and not pyruvate, 3-methyl-2-oxobutyrate and 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, significantly inhibited oxidation of endogenous fatty acids. 6. It is suggested that stimulus–secretion coupling and the resulting exocytosis of insulin in pancreatic β-cells may modulate both fuel oxidation and 45Ca uptake. PMID:6989358

  11. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

  12. Uric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... help determine the cause of a high uric acid level in the blood. It may also be ...

  13. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the blood. ... Methylmalonic acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ...

  14. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  15. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  16. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  17. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  18. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  19. OH-Radical Oxidation of Surface-Active cis-Pinonic Acid at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Enami, Shinichi; Sakamoto, Yosuke

    2016-05-26

    Gaseous biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are immediately oxidized by gaseous oxidants to form BVOC-acids that rapidly condense onto aqueous aerosol phase and thus contribute to the growth of atmospheric particles. Because BVOC-acids are highly hydrophobic and hence surface-active in nature, it seems critical to study the oxidation by gaseous hydroxyl radical (·OH(g)) at the air-water interface. Here we report on the fast (≤10 μs) oxidation of aqueous cis-pinonic acid (C10H16O3, CPA, cis-pinonate anion's m/z = 183), a representative BVOC-acid, by ·OH(g) at the air-water interface for the first time. We find that cis-pinonate anion is more enriched at the air-water interface by ∼4 and ∼14 times than n-octanoate anion at 10 and 100 μM, respectively, as revealed by an interface-specific mass spectrometry of the equimolar mixture of microjets. Exposure of aqueous CPA microjets to ·OH(g) pulses from the 266 nm laser photolysis of O3(g)/O2(g)/H2O(g)/N2(g) mixtures yields pinonic peroxyl radicals (m/z = 214) that lead to the functionalization products carbonyls (m/z = 197), alcohols (m/z = 199), and pinonic hydroperoxides (m/z = 215) in addition to smaller-mass products including carbonyls (m/z = 155 and 157). We confirmed the formation of the corresponding alcohols, aldehydes, and hydroperoxides in experiments performed in D2O solvent. The analysis of total mass balance implies a significant amount (>70%) of products would be emitted into the gas-phase during the heterogeneous ·OH-oxidations. Our results suggest ·OH-oxidations of amphiphilic BVOC-acids at the air-water interface may play a far more significant role in photochemical aging process of aqueous aerosols than previously assumed. PMID:27098046

  20. The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA increases membrane surface localization of the α7 ACh receptor in a protein 4.1N-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2013-03-01

    In yeast two-hybrid screening, protein 4.1N, a scaffolding protein, was identified as a binding partner of the α7 ACh (acetylcholine) receptor. For rat hippocampal slices, the linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA {8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid} increased the association of the α7 ACh receptor with 4.1N, and the effect was inhibited by GF109203X, an inhibitor of PKC (protein kinase C), although DCP-LA did not induce PKC phosphorylation of 4.1N. For PC-12 cells, the presence of the α7 ACh receptor in the plasma membrane fraction was significantly suppressed by knocking down 4.1N. DCP-LA increased the presence of the α7 ACh receptor in the plasma membrane fraction, and the effect was still inhibited by knocking down 4.1N. In the monitoring of α7 ACh receptor mobilization, DCP-LA enhanced signal intensities for the α7 ACh receptor at the membrane surface in PC-12 cells, which was clearly prevented by knocking down 4.1N. Taken together, the results of the present study show that 4.1N interacts with the α7 ACh receptor and participates in the receptor tethering to the plasma membrane. The results also indicate that DCP-LA increases membrane surface localization of the α7 ACh receptor in a 4.1N-dependent manner under the control of PKC, but without phosphorylating 4.1N. PMID:23256752

  1. Identification of the OsOPR7 gene encoding 12-oxophytodienoate reductase involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid in rice.

    PubMed

    Tani, Tomoyuki; Sobajima, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kazunori; Chujo, Tetsuya; Arimura, Shin-Ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Nishimura, Mikio; Seto, Hideharu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2008-02-01

    Enzyme 12-oxophytodienoate (OPDA) reductase (EC1.3.1.42), which is involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA), catalyses the reduction of 10, 11-double bonds of OPDA to yield 3-oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid (OPC-8:0). The rice OsOPR1 gene encodes OPDA reductase (OPR) converting (-)-cis-OPDA preferentially, rather than (+)-cis-OPDA, a natural precursor of JA. Here, we provide evidence that an OPR family gene in rice chromosome 8, designated OsOPR7, encodes the enzyme involved in the JA biosynthesis. Recombinant OsOPR7-His protein efficiently catalysed the reduction of both enantiomers of cis-OPDA, similar to the OPR3 protein in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The expression of OsOPR7 mRNA was induced and reached maximum levels within 0.5 h of mechanical wounding and drought stress, and the endogenous JA level started to increase in accordance with the increase in OsOPR7 expression. The GFP-OsOPR7 fusion protein was detected exclusively in peroxisomes in onion epidermal cells. Furthermore, complementation analysis using an Arabidopsis opr3 mutant indicated that the OsOPR7 gene, but not OsOPR1, was able to complement the phenotypes of male sterility in the mutant caused by JA deficiency, and that JA production in the opr3 mutant was also restored by the expression of the OsOPR7 gene. We conclude that the OsOPR7 gene encodes the enzyme catalysing the reduction of natural (+)-cis-OPDA for the JA biosynthesis in rice. PMID:17938955

  2. Fatty acid fouling of forward osmosis membrane: Effects of pH, calcium, membrane orientation, initial permeate flux and foulant composition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pin; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Liu, Pan; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-08-01

    Octanoic acid (OA) was selected to represent fatty acids in effluent organic matter (EOM). The effects of feed solution (FS) properties, membrane orientation and initial permeate flux on OA fouling in forward osmosis (FO) were investigated. The undissociated OA formed a cake layer quickly and caused the water flux to decline significantly in the initial 0.5hr at unadjusted pH3.56; while the fully dissociated OA behaved as an anionic surfactant and promoted the water permeation at an elevated pH of 9.00. Moreover, except at the initial stage, the sudden decline of water flux (meaning the occurrence of severe membrane fouling) occurred in two conditions: 1. 0.5mmol/L Ca(2+), active layer facing draw solution (AL-DS) and 1.5mol/L NaCl (DS); 2. No Ca(2+), active layer-facing FS (AL-FS) and 4mol/L NaCl (DS). This demonstrated that cake layer compaction or pore blocking occurred only when enough foulants were absorbed into the membrane surface, and the water permeation was high enough to compact the deposit inside the porous substrate. Furthermore, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was selected as a co-foulant. The water flux of both co-foulants was between the fluxes obtained separately for the two foulants at pH3.56, and larger than the two values at pH9.00. This manifested that, at pH3.56, BSA alleviated the effect of the cake layer caused by OA, and OA enhanced BSA fouling simultaneously; while at pH9.00, the mutual effects of OA and BSA eased the membrane fouling. PMID:27521936

  3. Glutathione depletion by valproic acid in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes: Role of biotransformation and temporal relationship with onset of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kiang, Tony K.L.; Teng Xiaowei; Surendradoss, Jayakumar; Karagiozov, Stoyan; Abbott, Frank S.; Chang, Thomas K.H.

    2011-05-01

    The present study was conducted in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes to investigate the chemical basis of glutathione (GSH) depletion by valproic acid (VPA) and evaluate the role of GSH depletion in VPA toxicity. Among the synthetic metabolites of VPA investigated, 4-ene-VPA and (E)-2,4-diene-VPA decreased cellular levels of total GSH, but only (E)-2,4-diene-VPA was more effective and more potent than the parent drug. The in situ generated, cytochrome P450-dependent 4-ene-VPA did not contribute to GSH depletion by VPA, as suggested by the experiment with a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole, to decrease the formation of this metabolite. In support of a role for metabolites, alpha-F-VPA and octanoic acid, which do not undergo biotransformation to form a 2,4-diene metabolite, CoA ester, or glucuronide, did not deplete GSH. A time course experiment showed that GSH depletion did not occur prior to the increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (a marker of oxidative stress), the decrease in [2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] (WST-1) product formation (a marker of cell viability), or the increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (a marker of necrosis) in VPA-treated hepatocytes. In conclusion, the cytochrome P450-mediated 4-ene-VPA pathway does not play a role in the in situ depletion of GSH by VPA, and GSH depletion is not an initiating event in VPA toxicity in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes.

  4. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  5. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  6. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  7. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  8. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  9. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  10. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  11. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  12. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid measurements include: Alcohol Aminosalicylic acid Birth control pills Estrogens Tetracyclines Ampicillin Chloramphenicol Erythromycin Methotrexate Penicillin Aminopterin Phenobarbital Phenytoin Drugs to treat malaria

  13. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of oxalic acid poisoning include: Abdominal pain Burns and blisters where the acid contacted the skin Collapse Convulsions Mouth pain Shock Throat pain Tremors (unintentional trembling) Vomiting

  14. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  15. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  16. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests. PMID:12024802

  17. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  18. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  19. [Amino acids in saliva].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Gruhn, K

    1984-01-01

    Total amino acids in saliva and free and peptide-bound amino acids from 21 saliva samples were determined. The contents of amino acids was 25 mmol/1; total nitrogen content was 78-80 mmol/1. Amino acids consist of Prolin in 25%. Some patients were examined before and after application of the depot estrogen ethinyl estradiosulfonat, which stimulates the assimilation of protein. After application, amino acids increased and the authors found a shift between the single amino acids. Estrogen medication induced an increase in proteins with the character of collagens. Clinical effects are discussed. (author's modified) PMID:6240853

  20. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  1. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  2. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  3. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  4. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some ... dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

  5. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  6. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  7. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  9. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  10. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... boric acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic ... vein (IV) Medicines to treat symptoms Note: Activated charcoal does not effectively treat (absorb) boric acid. For ...

  11. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  12. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  13. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  14. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  15. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  17. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  18. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  19. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  20. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  1. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  2. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  3. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  4. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  6. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  7. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    The well-known fatty acids with a Δ5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the Δ5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between Δ5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs. PMID:21116406

  12. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  13. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  14. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  15. Aerobic catabolism of phenylacetic acid in Pseudomonas putida U: biochemical characterization of a specific phenylacetic acid transport system and formal demonstration that phenylacetyl-coenzyme A is a catabolic intermediate.

    PubMed Central

    Schleissner, C; Olivera, E R; Fernández-Valverde, M; Luengo, J M

    1994-01-01

    , suggesting that the true inducer molecule is phenylacetyl-coenzyme A (PA-CoA). Furthermore, after P. putida U is cultured in the same medium containing other carbon sources (glucose or octanoic, benzoic, or 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) in the place of PA, the PATS and PA-CoA are not detected; neither the PATS nor PA-CoA is found in cases in which mutants (PA- and PCL-) lacking the enzyme which catalyzed the initial step of the PA degradation (phenylacetyl-CoA ligase) are used. PA-CoA has been extracted from bacteria and identified as a true PA catabolite by high-performance liquid chromatography and also enzymatically with pure acyl-CoA:6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase from Penicillium chrysogenum. Images PMID:8002592

  16. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  17. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  18. Kinetics of acyl transfer reactions in organic media catalysed by Candida antarctica lipase B.

    PubMed

    Martinelle, M; Hult, K

    1995-09-01

    The acyl transfer reactions catalysed by Candida antartica lipase B in organic media followed a bi-bi ping-pong mechanism, with competitive substrate inhibition by the alcohols used as acyl acceptors. The effect of organic solvents on Vm and Km was investigated. The Vm values in acetonitrile was 40-50% of those in heptane. High Km values in acetonitrile compared to those in heptane could partly be explained by an increased solvation of the substrates in acetonitrile. Substrate solvation caused a 10-fold change in substrate specificity, defined as (Vm/Km)ethyl octanoate/(Vm/Km)octanoic acid, going from heptane to acetonitrile. Deacylation was the rate determining step for the acyl transfer in heptane with vinyl- and ethyl octanoate as acyl donors and (R)-2-octanol as acyl acceptor. With 1-octanol, a rate determining deacylation step in heptane was indicated using the same acyl donors. Using 1-octanol as acceptor in heptane, S-ethyl thiooctanoate had a 25- to 30-fold lower Vm/Km value and vinyl octanoate a 4-fold higher Vm/Km value than that for ethyl octanoate. The difference showed to be a Km effect for vinyl octanoate and mainly a Km effect for S-ethyl thiooctanoate. The Vm values of the esterification of octanoic acid with different alcohols was 10-30-times lower than those for the corresponding transesterification of ethyl octanoate. The low activity could be explained by a low pH around the enzyme caused by the acid or a withdrawing of active enzyme by nonproductive binding by the acid. PMID:7669809

  19. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  20. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  1. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  2. Recovery of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  3. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  4. cis-4-Decenoic and decanoic acids impair mitochondrial energy, redox and Ca(2+) homeostasis and induce mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in rat brain and liver: Possible implications for the pathogenesis of MCAD deficiency.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Cecatto, Cristiane; da Silva, Janaína Camacho; Wajner, Alessandro; Godoy, Kálita Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Rafael Teixeira; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-09-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of octanoic (OA), decanoic (DA) and cis-4-decenoic (cDA) acids, as well as by their carnitine by-products. Untreated patients present episodic encephalopathic crises and biochemical liver alterations, whose pathophysiology is poorly known. We investigated the effects of OA, DA, cDA, octanoylcarnitine (OC) and decanoylcarnitine (DC) on critical mitochondrial functions in rat brain and liver. DA and cDA increased resting respiration and diminished ADP- and CCCP-stimulated respiration and complexes II-III and IV activities in both tissues. The data indicate that these compounds behave as uncouplers and metabolic inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Noteworthy, metabolic inhibition was more evident in brain as compared to liver. DA and cDA also markedly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, NAD(P)H content and Ca(2+) retention capacity in Ca(2+)-loaded brain and liver mitochondria. The reduction of Ca(2+) retention capacity was more pronounced in liver and totally prevented by cyclosporine A and ADP, as well as by ruthenium red, demonstrating the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and Ca(2+). Furthermore, cDA induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver mitochondria and increased hydrogen peroxide formation in brain, suggesting the participation of oxidative damage in cDA-induced alterations. Interestingly, OA, OC and DC did not alter the evaluated parameters, implying lower toxicity for these compounds. Our results suggest that DA and cDA, in contrast to OA and medium-chain acylcarnitines, disturb important mitochondrial functions in brain and liver by multiple mechanisms that are possibly involved in the neuropathology and liver alterations observed in MCAD deficiency. PMID:27240720

  5. EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

  6. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  7. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  8. Lead-acid cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hradcovsky, R.J.; Kozak, O.R.

    1980-12-09

    A lead-acid storage battery is described that has a lead negative electrode, a lead dioxide positive electrode and a sulfuric acid electrolyte having an organic catalyst dissolved therein which prevents dissolution of the electrodes into lead sulfate whereby in the course of discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide and the lead is oxidized.

  9. Proteins and Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the most abundant substances in living organisms and cells. All proteins are constructed from the same twenty amino acids that are linked together by covalent bonds. Shorter chains of two or more amino acids can be linked by covalent bonds to form polypeptides. There are twenty amino...

  10. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

  11. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  12. Fats and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  13. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  14. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  15. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  17. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  18. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  19. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  20. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  1. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  2. WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

  3. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  4. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth ... allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, or any other medications.tell your doctor ...

  5. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chemical Emergencies: Case Definition: Hydrofluoric Acid . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services; 2005. Goldfrank LR, ed. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 8th ed. New ...

  6. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  7. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  8. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the ... found in foods that are good sources of B vitamins, including the following: Animal proteins Avocado Broccoli, kale, ...

  9. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  10. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...