Against the Odds Exhibition Opens
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Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm
Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.
1996-12-31
Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.
Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy
Hoff, R.W.
1993-09-14
In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of {sup 170}Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements.
Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei
Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.
1985-01-15
A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earch region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed.
Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei
Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.
1984-09-07
A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.
Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters
Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.
2011-11-30
We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.
Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei
Ahmad, I.
1993-09-01
Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.
On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas
2016-09-01
Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.
Excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotthaus, T.; Reiter, P.; Hess, H.; Kalkühler, M.; Wendt, A.; Wiens, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Morgan, T.; Thirolf, P. G.; Wirth, H.-F.; Faestermann, T.
2013-04-01
The completely unknown spectrum of excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa was studied employing the one-neutron transfer reaction 231Pa(d,t)230Pa at a beam energy of 22 MeV. The excitation energy and the cross section were measured for, in total, 81 states below 1.4 MeV. Level assignments of these states are based on a semiempirical model and comparison with theoretical predictions, based on distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations for the cross sections. For 12 rotational bands the band-head energy and the rotational parameter are determined. The K quantum numbers and the Nilsson configurations are established. Empirical values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and for Newby shifts are obtained.
Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus 184Ta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P. C.
2016-02-01
A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus 184 73Ta111 is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from 184Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that 184Hf ( Q_{β}=1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β-branches to 184Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak ( 1fu β-branches populating J^{π}=2- levels in 184Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying ( Ex = 260(40) keV) high-spin ( J^{π}=10-) long-lived isomer in this nucleus.
General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it
2014-05-01
We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = odd). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.
Odds of observing the multiverse
Dahlen, A.
2010-03-15
Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.
Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it
2015-01-01
Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, Helen
2000-03-01
The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical
Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis
... Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...
The nuclear structure of deformed odd-odd nuclei: Experimental and theoretical investigations
Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.
1988-06-06
Previous surveys of experimental level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei have been updated with recent results for the lanthanide and actinide regions. The relative strengths of the effective neutron-proton interaction derived from these data are compared. The predictive power of a semi-empirical model for level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. Comparison is made with recent Hartree-Fock calculations of selected nuclei.
Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
2011-01-01
This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…
Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios
Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius
2006-01-01
Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385
Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin
2009-01-01
Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.
Odd-frequency Superconductivity in Driven Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander
We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes in terms of parity under transformations that invert spin, space, time, and orbital degrees of freedom holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then discuss the conditions under which pair amplitudes which are odd in frequency can emerge in driven systems. Considering a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential, we investigate the influence of the drive on the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that the anomalous Green's function develops odd in frequency component in the presence of an external drive. Furthermore we investigate how these odd-frequency terms are related to satellite features in the density of states and spectral function. Supported by US DOE BES E 304.
Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances.
Depetri, G I; Sartorelli, J C; Marin, B; Baptista, M S
2016-07-01
Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case. PMID:27575118
Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Depetri, G. I.; Sartorelli, J. C.; Marin, B.; Baptista, M. S.
2016-07-01
Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case.
Experimental level-structure determination in odd-odd actinide nuclei
Hoff, R.W.
1985-04-04
The status of experimental determination of level structure in odd-odd actinide nuclei is reviewed. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei is applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation are derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings are used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Applications of this modeling technique are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diascro, Matthew N.; Brody, Nathan
1994-01-01
The relationship between odd-man-out reaction time tasks and intelligence was examined in 2 experiments involving 79 college students. The two experiments indicate that tasks that assess the ability to perceive relationships among stimuli rapidly are good measures of general intelligence. (SLD)
The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marietta, Don E., Jr.
1977-01-01
There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)
Odd numbers of photons and teleportation
Enk, S.J. van
2003-02-01
Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.
Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer
2012-01-01
This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…
Latino High School Graduation. Defying the Odds.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romo, Harriett D.; Falbo, Toni
This book describes how "at-risk" Hispanic youth defy the odds and stay in school to earn a high school diploma. Information about success is needed because Hispanic youth drop out at about twice the rate of non-Hispanic Whites. The discussion is based on the results of a 4-year longitudinal study of 100 Hispanic youth labeled at-risk by their…
Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.
1975-01-01
A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anandakrishnan, Archana; Collins, Jack H.; Farina, Marco; Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim
2016-04-01
LHC searches for fermionic top partners T focus on three decay topologies: T →b W , T →t Z , and T →t h . However, top partners may carry new conserved quantum numbers that forbid these decays. The simplest possibility is a conserved parity, under which the top partner is odd and all SM states are even. In this case, decays of top partners may involve new particle-odd scalars, leading to signal topologies more commonly associated with supersymmetry, either with or without R -parity conservation. We study a simplified model in which this possibility is realized, and estimate the bounds on the top partner mass in this model implied by LHC searches for supersymmetry. We find that the bounds can be significantly weaker than in the conventional top partner decay scenario. For example, if the new parity is exact, a 500 GeV top partner is allowed as long as the lightest parity-odd scalar mass is between 325 and 500 GeV. The lower allowed top partner mass reduces the need for fine-tuning in the Higgs mass parameter, compared to the conventional decay scenario. We also present an explicit model, the oddest little Higgs, which exhibits this phenomenology.
Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM
Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.
2009-08-26
We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatia, A. K.
1972-01-01
The states considered lie below the n = 2 threshold of He(+) and decay radiatively to the lower states. The most general D-state wave function of odd parity of two electrons is examined. The results presented are optimized with respect to four nonlinear parameters for 112 terms. A mass-polarization correction is given for all the states listed. The positions of the D states, including the reduced mass and the mass-polarization corrections, with respect to the ground state of He are reported.
Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei
Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.
1997-09-01
Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Empirical residual neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zheying; Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong
2016-03-01
Two types of average neutron-proton interaction formulas are compared: In the first type, neutron-proton interactions for even-even and odd-A nuclei extracted from experimental binding energies show a smooth behavior as a function of mass number A and are dominated by the contribution from the symmetry energy. Whereas in the second type large systematic staggering is seen between even-A and odd-A nuclei. This deviation is understood in terms of the additional neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei relative to the neighboring even-even and odd-A systems. We explore three possible ways to extract this additional interaction from the binding energy difference of neighboring nuclei. The extracted interactions are positive in nearly all cases and show weak dependence on the mass number. The empirical interactions are also compared with theoretical values extracted from recent nuclear mass models where large unexpected fluctuations are seen in certain nuclei. The reproduction of the residual neutron-proton interaction and the correction of those irregular fluctuations can be a good criterion for the refinement of those mass models.
Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.
2016-04-01
In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.
Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Katsufumi
2001-10-01
We present theoretical results on the Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors with the order parameter of the form, sgn(ωn)φ(k,iωn), where φ(k,iωn) is even in the Matsubara frequency ωn as in the conventional case. It is shown that the spectral function of the anomalous Green's function is given in the form of the Hilbert transformation of the one for the even-frequency part, and the anomalous contribution to the paramagnetic kernel consists of the conventional term but with the opposite sign and a term expressed by the digamma function. In the static limit the latter term reduces to twice the former one with the opposite sign so that the net contribution becomes the same as the conventional one. This indicates the presence of the Meissner effect for this class of the odd-frequency superconductors. A model interaction is discussed that leads to the order parameter mentioned above.
Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds
David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.
2011-01-01
Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei
Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.
2007-10-26
The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.
1989-01-01
A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model, designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately. It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd-nitrogen family approximations.
Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.
2016-01-01
Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity Jπ = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.
Odd perfect numbers have at least nine distinct prime factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, Pace P.
2007-12-01
An odd perfect number, N , is shown to have at least nine distinct prime factors. If 3nmid N then N must have at least twelve distinct prime divisors. The proof ultimately avoids previous computational results for odd perfect numbers.
W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles
Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.
2014-08-13
We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.
W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles
Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.
2014-08-13
We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less
The ODD protocol: A review and first update
Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Polhill, J. Gary; Giske, Jarl; Railsback, Steve F.
2010-01-01
The 'ODD' (Overview, Design concepts, and Details) protocol was published in 2006 to standardize the published descriptions of individual-based and agent-based models (ABMs). The primary objectives of ODD are to make model descriptions more understandable and complete, thereby making ABMs less subject to criticism for being irreproducible. We have systematically evaluated existing uses of the ODD protocol and identified, as expected, parts of ODD needing improvement and clarification. Accordingly, we revise the definition of ODD to clarify aspects of the original version and thereby facilitate future standardization of ABM descriptions. We discuss frequently raised critiques in ODD but also two emerging, and unanticipated, benefits: ODD improves the rigorous formulation of models and helps make the theoretical foundations of large models more visible. Although the protocol was designed for ABMs, it can help with documenting any large, complex model, alleviating some general objections against such models.
Meeting report for "OddPols" 2014: the odds invite an even.
Roy-Engel, Astrid M
2015-02-01
The Ninth International Biennial Conference on RNA Polymerases I and III (the "OddPols") was held on June 19-21, 2014 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Sponsored by New England Biolabs, the Cayman Chemical Company, the Rackham Graduate School and the University of Michigan Health System, and organized by David Engelke, Craig Pikaard, Lawrence Rothblum, Andrzej Wierzbicki and Astrid Engel. This year at the conference, the "odds" were increased by expanding the usual topics on the advances in RNA polymerases I and III research to include presentations on RNA polymerase IV and V. The keynote speaker, Craig Pikaard, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "Five nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases". The meeting drew attendees from fourteen countries that shared their research discoveries through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into 11 sessions covering seven distinct topics. Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants. PMID:25445280
Chiral Symmetry and Signature Splitting in Odd-Odd Neutron deficient Pr Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fetea, Mirela; Nikolova, Veronika; Crider, Benjamin
2004-10-01
Over the past few years, sufficient data have been accumulated to enable a meaningful study of the systematic trends in nuclei far from stability. While general characteristics seen in experiments are understood by various mean-field nuclear models, there are key features that are not fully explained. Of particular interest are the chiral symmetry (chiral bands) and signature splitting/inversion phenomena. We report on our investigation on the association of signature inversion in an odd-odd band of two quasiparticles pointed along different axes with the formation of chiral twin bands, and understanding systematic chiral symmetry and signature splitting/inversion features within the framework of particle rotor model for neutron deficient Pr nuclei. This work was supported by the NSF Grant No. PHY 0204811 and U.S. Research Corporation Grant No. CC5494.
Isospin and deformation studies in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co
Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Ekman, J.; Erten, O.; Fahlander, C.; Johansson, E. K.; Andreoiu, C.; Bengtsson, R.; Ragnarsson, I.; Bentley, M. A.; Williams, S. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Seweryniak, D.; Charity, R. J.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Svensson, C. E.
2010-11-15
High-spin states in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co have been investigated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 28}Si({sup 32}S,1{alpha}1p1n){sup 54}Co. Gamma-ray information gathered with the Ge detector array Gammasphere was correlated with evaporated particles detected in the charged particle detector system Microball and a 1{pi} neutron detector array. A significantly extended excitation scheme of {sup 54}Co is presented, which includes a candidate for the isospin T=1, 6{sup +} state of the 1f{sub 7/2}{sup -2} multiplet. The results are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations in the fp shell. Effective interactions with and without isospin-breaking terms have been used to probe isospin symmetry and isospin mixing. A quest for deformed high-spin rotational cascades proved negative. This feature is discussed by means of cranking calculations.
Influence of Traxiality on the Signature Inversion in Odd Odd Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Ren-Rong; Zhu, Shun-Quan; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Janos, Timár; Andree, Gizon; Jean, Gizon; Sohler, D.; Nyakó M., B.; Zolnai, L.; Paul S., E.
2004-08-01
The nature of signature inversion in the pig9/2nuh11/2 bands of odd-odd 98,102Rh nuclei is studied. Calculations are performed by using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and are compared with the experimentally observed signature inversions. The calculations reproduce well the observations and suggest that, in these bands, the signature inversion can be interpreted mainly as a competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. The triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the signature inversion point to higher spin at large triaxial deformation.
Structure of the yrast band in the odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 156}Pm
Sood, P. C.; Sai, K. Vijay; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.
2011-05-15
The six-level sequence deduced for the odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm in the high-spin studies following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is shown to constitute the K{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} yrast band having the two-quasiparticle configuration {l_brace}p:5/2[532]+ n:3/2[521]{r_brace}. Spin parities I{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} through 9{sup +} are assigned to the earlier suggested six levels. The location and the decay {gamma}'s of the 10{sup +} level of this band are indicated. It is also pointed out that there are no {gamma} rays common to these postfission high-spin spectra and those seen in the {sup 156}Nd {beta}-decay studies.
Odd frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhoushen; Woelfle, Peter; Balatsky, Alexandar
Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. While the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e. non-interacting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory allowing to discuss a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing. Work supported by USDOE DE-AC52-06NA25396 E304, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and ERC DM-321031.
Positronium Decay and C-Odd Bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skalsey, M.; Conti, R. S.
1996-05-01
Triplet-state orthopositronium (o-Ps) decay rate measurements are in marked disagreement by 0.17% with QED theoretical calculations done up to, but not including order α ^2 radiative and relativistic corrections. The existence of a rare exotic decay branch o-Ps arrow 2γ + X^0 (where X^0 is a neutral, massive C-odd boson) could resolve the discrepancy. We have searched for, but have not found evidence of the X^0 in two recent experiments.(M. Skalsey and R.S. Conti, Phys. Rev. D51), 6292 (1995) and submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. Stringent limits are placed on the exotic decay branching ratio e^+ +e^- arrow X^0 +γ as a function of the X^0 mass and lifetime. The results are interpreted for two distinct models of X^0 interactions and related to o-Ps decay as well as other experiments, including singlet-state parapositronium decay rate measurements. *Supported by NSF grant PHY-9417854 and the University of Michigan.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, J. W.; Du, Q. Q.
1998-04-01
We measured the complete set of polarization-transfer observables (D_ij) for the ^13C(p,n)^13N and ^15N(p,n)^15O reactions at 135 MeV. From the D_ijs we constructed the spin-independent, spin-longitudinal, and spin-transverse responses [1] D_0, D_q, Dn and D_p. From these responses we extracted, in a model-independent way, the Δ J=0 and Δ J=1 (``F'' and ``GT'') fractions of the J^π=1/2^-arrow1/2^- g.s. to g.s. transitions for these reactions. The ``F'' fraction, f_F=D_0(0^circ); the ``GT'' fraction, f_GT=D_q(0^circ)+D_n(0^circ)+D_p(0^circ)= 1- D_0(0^circ). The extracted GT fractions, f_GT, are substantially larger than one would predict from β-decay matrix elements and the systematics of the (p,n) reaction on even-A nuclei. These results confirm earlier, model-dependent determinations of f_GT obtained from the (p,n) reaction on ^13C, ^15N and ^39K at other energies [2], [3], [4], indicating that considerable caution must be used when extracting B(GT) matrix elements from odd-A (p,n) data. * Research supported in part by the U.S. NSF. [1] M. Ichimura, K. Kawahigashi, Phys. Rev. C 45 1822 (1992). [2] T. N. Taddeucci, C. A. Goulding, T. A. Carey, R. C. Byrd, C. D. Goodman, C. Gaarde, J. Larsen, D. Horen, J. Rapaport, and E. Sugarbaker, Nucl. Phys. A469 125 (1987). [3] H. Sakai, H. Okamura, N. Matsuoka, A. Shimizu, T. Suda, M. Ieiri and H. M. Shimizu, Nuclear Physics A579 45-61 (1994). [4] W. Huang, Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana U., 1991, (unpublished).
Diabatic crossing of chiral "twins" in the odd-odd 106Ag nucleus: A theoretical perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, Sham S.
2016-07-01
A systematic study of both the observed positive-parity magnetic rotation band and the negative-parity Δ I =1 doublet bands in an odd-odd 106Ag nucleus is carried out. The negative-parity doublet bands depict some unusual features that have not been observed in any isotope in the mass A =100 region. For instance, (i) the moment of inertia of the partner band is quite different from that of the yrast band, and (ii) these bands cross each other at an angular momentum of I =14 ℏ . Also, the observed significantly large but constant B (M 1 ) transitions confirm that the strong M 1 transitions are being reinforced by the contributions from collective rotation. To explain these features, a collective model has been developed whose kinetic and potential energies are extracted from the tilted-axis cranking model. Instead of the triaxial parameter γ , a second-order phase transition is found to be responsible for the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. Analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation has generated a doublet nondegenerate eigenvalue spectrum. The ensuing model results based on the two-quasiparticle configuration π g9/2⊗ν h11/2 exhibit similarities with many observed features of the negative-parity doublet bands and hence confirm their chiral character. The cranking mass parameter in kinetic energy plays an important role in diabatic crossing between these emerged chiral twin bands.
Neutron-proton multiplets in the odd-odd nucleus 53 37 90Rb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czerwiński, M.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Urban, W.; BÄ czyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Timár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Kuti, I.; Tornyi, T. G.; Atanasova, L.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.
2016-03-01
Medium-spin excited levels in 90Rb, populated in the fission of 235U induced by neutrons, have been observed for the first time. γ radiation from fission has been measured by using the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the cold-neutron-beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. Low-energy levels are interpreted as members of the π p3/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , π f5/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , and π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 multiplets with the 0- ground state due to the seniority-3 coupling in the ν d5 /2 shell. Analogous anomalous coupling within the π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 configuration explains the 5+, 6+, and 7+ triplet of states, observed at medium spins, similar to the triplet seen in the N =53 isotone, 88Br. Shell-model calculations reproduce well the proposed structures in Rb,9088 and support the seniority-3 coupling in N =53 isotones and its absence in N =51 isotones. The structure of the odd-odd 88Rb and 90Rb nuclei provides an argument in favor of the collectivity building up at the neutron number N =53 .
Checking the odd Goldbach conjecture up to 10(20)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saouter, Y.
1998-04-01
Vinogradov's theorem states that any sufficiently large odd integer is the sum of three prime numbers. This theorem allows us to suppose the conjecture that this is true for all odd integers. In this paper, we describe the implementation of an algorithm which allowed us to-check this conjecture up to 10(20).
Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...
"Dealing" with Incidence, Prevalence, and Odds Concepts in Undergraduate Epidemiology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Senchina, David S.; Laurson, Kelly R.
2009-01-01
Concepts and associated statistical formulae of incidence, prevalence, and odds/odds ratios are core knowledge in epidemiology yet can be confusing for students. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of…
On the largest prime divisor of an odd harmonic number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chishiki, Yusuke; Goto, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo
2007-09-01
A positive integer is called a (Ore's) harmonic number if its positive divisors have integral harmonic mean. Ore conjectured that every harmonic number greater than 1 is even. If Ore's conjecture is true, there exist no odd perfect numbers. In this paper, we prove that every odd harmonic number greater than 1 must be divisible by a prime greater than 10^5 .
Nuclear spin of odd-odd α emitters based on the behavior of α -particle preformation probability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, M.; Adel, A.; Botros, M. M.
2016-05-01
The preformation probabilities of an α cluster inside radioactive parent nuclei for both odd-even and odd-odd nuclei are investigated. The calculations cover the isotopic chains from Ir to Ac in the mass regions 166 ≤A ≤215 and 77 ≤Z ≤89 . The calculations are employed in the framework of the density-dependent cluster model. A realistic density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The main effect of antisymmetrization under exchange of nucleons between the α and daughter nuclei has been included in the folding model through the finite-range exchange part of the N N interaction. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The correlation of the α -particle preformation probability and the neutron and proton level sequences of the parent nucleus as obtained in our previous work is extended to odd-even and odd-odd nuclei to determine the nuclear spin and parities. Two spin coupling rules are used, namely, strong and weak rules to determine the nuclear spin for odd-odd isotopes. This work can be a useful reference for theoretical calculation of undetermined nuclear spin of odd-odd nuclei in the future.
Observation of odd toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes.
Kramer, G J; Sharapov, S E; Nazikian, R; Gorelenkov, N N; Budny, R V
2004-01-01
Experimental evidence is presented for the existence of the theoretically predicted odd toroidicity induced Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) from the simultaneous appearance of odd and even TAEs in a normal shear discharge of the joint European torus. The modes are observed in low central magnetic shear plasmas created by injecting lower hybrid current drive. A fast ion population was created by applying ion cyclotron heating at the high-field side to excite the TAEs. The odd TAEs were identified from their frequency, mode number, and timing relative to the even TAEs. PMID:14753994
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.
2015-08-01
The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99- 129, in the range 228 ≤ A ≤ 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agree well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99- 129 predicts that, the isotopes 238,240-25499, 244,246-258101, 248,250,252-260,262103, 254,256,258-262,264105, 258,260,262-264,266107, 262,264,266-274109, 266,268-279111, 270-284,286113, 272-289,291115, 274-299117, 276-307119, 281-314121, 287-320,322123, 295-325125, 302-327127 and 309-329129 survive fission and have alpha decay channel as the prominent mode of decay, these nuclei could possibly be synthesized in the laboratory and this could be of great interest to the experimentalists. The behavior of these nuclei against the proton decay has also been studied to identify the probable proton emitters in this region of nuclei.
Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl
Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.
1995-08-01
The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.
Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use
... html Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use 3 of 4 who tried the illicit ... narcotic painkillers may be at high risk for heroin use, a new study cautions. The research included ...
Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies
... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158554.html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants ... families, researchers say they've just pinpointed two genes that seem to be associated with having such ...
Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158554.html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants ... families, researchers say they've just pinpointed two genes that seem to be associated with having such ...
New description of the doublet bands in doubly odd nuclei
Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.; Brant, S.; Ventura, A.
2009-04-15
The experimentally observed {delta}I=1 doublet bands in some odd-odd nuclei are analyzed within the orthosymplectic extension of the interacting vector boson model (IVBM). A new, purely collective interpretation of these bands is given on the basis of the obtained boson-fermion dynamical symmetry of the model. It is illustrated by its application to three odd-odd nuclei from the A{approx}130 region, namely {sup 126}Pr, {sup 134}Pr, and {sup 132}La. The theoretical predictions for the energy levels of the doublet bands as well as E2 and M1 transition probabilities between the states of the yrast band in the last two nuclei are compared with experiment and the results of other theoretical approaches. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the orthosymplectic extension of the IVBM.
Computing Power and Sample Size for Informational Odds Ratio †
Efird, Jimmy T.
2013-01-01
The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (i.e., information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder. Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs, analogous to relative risks (RRs) generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. This paper outlines how to compute power and sample size in the simple case of unadjusted IORs. PMID:24157518
The odd-number sequence: squares and sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.
2015-11-01
Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.
Characterization of isomers in the neutron-rich odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm
Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.
2011-02-15
Critical examination of the experimental data from {sup 156}Nd and {sup 156}Pm {beta} decays and the observed location of relevant neutron and proton orbitals in the neighboring odd-A isotones and isotopes, taken together with the low-lying two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures expected in {sup 156}Pm from the rotor-particle model, lead to the conclusion that a consistent description of all the available data is achieved with the I{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} spin-parity assignment to the 26.7s {sup 156}Pm ground state (g.s.) and assignment of I{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} to its 150.3-keV isomer with the 2qp configuration 4{sub g.s.}{sup +}{l_brace}p{sub o}:5/2[532{up_arrow}]{+-}n{sub o}:3/2[521{up_arrow}]{r_brace}1{sub 150}{sup +}. In the process, a two-neutron configuration is also suggested for the 1509-keV 4{sup +} level in the daughter nucleus {sup 156}Sm. The present analysis reiterates the important question of whether the {beta}-decay log ft value, by itself, can be employed to deduce the relative parity of the {beta}-connected states.
Parent-adolescent conflict in teenagers with ADHD and ODD.
Edwards, G; Barkley, R A; Laneri, M; Fletcher, K; Metevia, L
2001-12-01
Eighty-seven male teens (ages 12-18 years) with ADHD/ODD and their parents were compared to 32 male teens and their parents in a community control (CC) group on mother, father, and teen ratings of parent-teen conflict and communication quality, parental self-reports of psychological adjustment, and direct observations of parent-teen problem-solving interactions during a neutral and conflict discussion. Parents and teens in the ADHD/ODD group rated themselves as having significantly more issues involving parent-teen conflict, more anger during these conflict discussions, and more negative communication generally, and used more aggressive conflict tactics with each other than did parents and teens in the CC group. During a neutral discussion, only the ADHD/ODD teens demonstrated more negative behavior. During the conflict discussion, however, the mothers, fathers, and teens in the ADHD/ODD group displayed more negative behavior, and the mothers and teens showed less positive behavior than did participants in the CC group. Differences in conflicts related to sex of parent were evident on only a few measures. Both mother and father self-rated hostility contributed to the level of mother-teen conflict whereas father self-rated hostility and anxiety contributed to father-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by level of teen ODD and ADHD symptoms. Results replicated past studies of mother-child interactions in ADHD/ODD children, extended these results to teens with these disorders, showed that greater conflict also occurs in father-teen interactions, and found that degree of parental hostility, but not ADHD symptoms, further contributed to levels of parent-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by severity of teen ADHD and ODD symptoms. PMID:11761288
Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications
2011-01-01
Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds. PMID:21707977
Multicomponent fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés
2011-01-01
Mixtures of hard hyperspheres in odd-space dimensionalities are studied with an analytical approximation method. This technique is based on the so-called rational function approximation and provides a procedure for evaluating equations of state, structure factors, radial distribution functions, and direct correlation functions of additive mixtures of hard hyperspheres with any number of components and in arbitrary odd-dimension space. The method gives the exact solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation coupled with the Percus-Yevick closure, thus, extending the solution for hard-sphere mixtures [J. L. Lebowitz, Phys. Rev.PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.133.A895 133, A895 (1964)] to arbitrary odd dimensions. Explicit evaluations for binary mixtures in five dimensions are performed. The results are compared with computer simulations, and a good agreement is found.
Effect of time-odd fields on odd-even mass differences of semi-magic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Kun; Zhou, XianRong; Cui, JiWei; Sagawa, H.
2016-05-01
The effect of time-odd fields of Skyrme interaction on neutron odd-even mass differences is studied in the framework of axially deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock (DSHF)+BCS model. To this end, we take into account both the time-even and time-odd fields to calculate the one-neutron and two-neutron separation energies and pairing gaps of semi-magic Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopic chains. In the calculations, a surface-type pairing interaction (IS pairing) and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction (IS+IV pairing) are adopted on top of Skyrme interactions SLy4, SLy6 and SkM*, respectively. We find that the time-odd fields have in general small effects on pairing gaps, but achieve better agreement with experimental data using SLy4 and Sly6 interactions, respectively. It is also shown that the calculations with IS+IV pairing reproduce the one-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes better than those with the IS pairing interaction when the contributions of the time-odd fields are included.
Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco
2010-09-01
Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.
1986-01-01
Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.
The Competition Between Collective and Single - Effects in the Odd-Odd Nuclei LANTHANUM-128,130.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godfrey, Mark Jonathan
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Excited states in the odd-odd nuclei ^{128,130}La have been investigated to high-spin using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The nucleus ^{128}La was identified using the Daresbury Recoil Separator, and gamma -gamma coincidence data were taken on both nuclei with the TESSA3 array. Angular distributions were also measured for ^{128} La. Seven distinct bands have been observed, three in ^{128}La and four in ^{130}La, with four of these structures being seen for the first time. Two of the bands in each nucleus correspond to near-prolate nuclear shapes, one based on a pih _{11/2} otimes nuh _{11/2} structure and the other on a pih_{11/2 } otimes nug_{7/2 } configuration. A further band in each nucleus has similar properties to what would be expected for a collective oblate structure. In addition the first odd -proton system superdeformed band has been found in ^{130}La. The experimental evidence for these structures will be discussed in terms of the variation in energy level signature splitting, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and mixing ratios as a function of rotational frequency and single particle configuration. The nature of the particles responsible for backbends in the near-prolate bands will be conclusively proved. The results will be interpreted in terms of the cranked shell model, an odd-odd particle-rotor model and deformation self-consistent cranking calculations. They will be compared to other odd and odd-odd systems in the A = 130 region. Long-range p-n and n-n interactions are investigated through the measurement of residual interactions. Theoretical interactions are obtained from deformation self-consistent cranking calculations, which contain no long-range interactions, to estimate the nuclear mean field. The results are discussed in terms of the variation in the spatial overlap of the various wavefunctions and changes in the mean field, as a function of particle number, configuration and rotational frequency.
Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carrier, Richard
2000-01-01
Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the anti-evolutionists…
Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130
Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka
2011-05-06
Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.
Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011
2011-01-01
This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…
Despite the Odds: The Contentious Politics of Education Reform
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grindle, Merilee S.
2004-01-01
"Despite the Odds" poses an important question: How can we account for successful policy reform initiatives when the political cards are stacked against change? Theories of politics usually predict that reform initiatives will be unsuccessful when powerful groups are opposed to change and institutions are biased against it. This book, however,…
The Differential Graded Odd NilHecke Algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, Alexander P.; Qi, You
2016-05-01
We equip the odd nilHecke algebra and its associated thick calculus category with diagrammatically local differentials. The resulting differential graded Grothendieck groups are isomorphic to two different forms of the positive part of quantum {{{sl}_2}} at a fourth root of unity.
CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments
Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi
2005-10-01
We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, {theta}{sub A}, induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan{beta}, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by {theta}{sub A}. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development.
A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nishiyama, Yutaka
2006-01-01
Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…
Quantum description of T-odd correlations in ternary fission
Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.
2008-07-15
A quantum version of a unified description of two T-odd effects recently observed in the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized neutrons is considered. These effects are explained by the effect of the Coriolis interaction of the rotating fissile system on the angular distributions of light charged particles in the interior and exterior regions of the nucleus.
Antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with odd-numbered coupled spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.
2015-05-01
In recent years, studies on cyclic molecular nanomagnets have captivated the attention of researchers. These magnets are finite in size and contain very large spins. They are interesting because they possess macroscopic quantum tunneling of Néel vectors. For antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with finite number of even-numbered coupled spins, tunneling involves two classical localized Néel ground states separated by a magnetic energy barrier. The question is: can such phenomena be observed in nanomagnets with odd number of magnetic ions? The answer is not directly obvious because cyclic chains with odd-numbered coupled spins are frustrated as one cannot obtain a perfect Néel order. These frustrated spins can indeed be observed experimentally, so they are of interest. In this letter, we theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling in this odd spin system with arbitrary spins s, in the presence of a magnetic field applied along the plane of the magnet. In contrast to systems with an even-numbered coupled spins, the ground state of the cyclic odd-spin system contains a topological soliton due to spin frustration. Thus, the classical ground state is 2N-fold degenerate as the soliton can be placed anywhere along the ring with total S_z=+/- s . Small quantum fluctuations delocalize the soliton with a formation of an energy band. We obtain this energy band using degenerate perturbation theory at order 2s. We show that the soliton ground state is chiral for half-odd integer spins and non-chiral for integer spins. From the structure of the energy band we infer that as the value of the spin increases the inelastic polarized neutron-scattering intensity may increase or decrease depending on the strengths of the parameters of the Hamiltonian.
Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.
Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin
2015-05-01
Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:25773521
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman
2004-01-01
Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old…
Aguilar, A.; Hartley, D. J.; Riley, M. A.; Teal, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Danchev, M.; Djongolov, M. K.; Hagemann, G. B.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Ma, W. C.; Mohr, W. H.; Moore, E. F.; Odegard, S. W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Sletten, G.; Tandel, S. K.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.; Florida State Univ.; U.S. Naval Academy; Univ. of Massachusetts; Univ. of Tennessee; Niels Bohr Inst.; Mississippi State Univ.; Univ. of Oslo
2010-01-01
High-spin states (I?50?) of the odd-odd nucleus 170Ta have been investigated with the 124Sn(51V,5n) reaction. The resolving power of Gammasphere has allowed for the observation of eleven rotational bands (eight of which are new) and over 430 transitions ( 350 of which are new) in this nucleus. Many interband transitions have been observed such that the relative spins and excitation energies of the 11 bands have been established. This is an unusual circumstance in an odd-odd study. Configurations have been assigned to most of these bands based upon features such as alignment properties, band crossings, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, and the additivity of Routhians. A systematic study of the frequency at which normal signature ordering occurs in the ?h9/2?i13/2 band has been performed and it is found that its trend is opposite to that observed in the ?h11/2?i13/2 bands. A possible interpretation of these trends is discussed based on a proton-neutron interaction.
Alphei, Lukas D.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Petrov, A. N.; Mawhorter, Richard; Murphy, Benjamin; Baum, Alexander; Sears, Trevor J.; Yang, T. Zh.; Rupasinghe, P. M.; McRaven, C. P.; Shafer-Ray, N. E.
2011-04-15
Here we report precision microwave spectroscopy of pure rotational transitions of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F isotopologue. We use these data to make predictions of the sensitivity of the molecule to P-odd, T-even and P-odd, T-odd effects.
Beating the regulatory odds with new simulation models
Powers, M.B.
1994-06-20
Complying with environmental regulations is like a horse race. When it comes to selecting pollution control technologies, the odds against picking a winner are high. A system that`s supposedly an odds-on favorite can come up short if the track conditions are wrong. The penalty for picking a loser is steep and even the best manufacturers can be put out to pasture for poor performance. Certainly, the stakes are high: the federal government projects that environmental rules will cost industry $184 billion annually by 2000. Others say it could be four times that. {open_quotes}But unless you have a crystal ball no one knows what it will cost{close_quotes}, says Robert Sackellares, head of the Atlanta office of SBE Environmental Company, New York City. {open_quotes}The final price tag will depend on the technologies that companies choose, and how effective they are.{close_quotes}.
Predator fitness increases with selectivity for odd prey.
Rutz, Christian
2012-05-01
The fundamental currency of normative models of animal decision making is Darwinian fitness. In foraging ecology, empirical studies typically assess foraging strategies by recording energy intake rates rather than realized reproductive performance. This study provides a rare empirical link, in a vertebrate predator-prey system, between a predator's foraging behavior and direct measures of its reproductive fitness. Goshawks Accipiter gentilis selectively kill rare color variants of their principal prey, the feral pigeon Columba livia, presumably because targeting odd-looking birds in large uniform flocks helps them overcome confusion effects and enhances attack success. Reproductive performance of individual hawks increases significantly with their selectivity for odd-colored pigeons, even after controlling for confounding age effects. Older hawks exhibit more pronounced dietary preferences, suggesting that hunting performance improves with experience. Intriguingly, although negative frequency-dependent predation by hawks exerts strong selection against rare pigeon phenotypes, pigeon color polymorphism is maintained through negative assortative mating. PMID:22503502
Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei
Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.
2008-11-11
We investigate shape phase transitions in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. Special attention is given to the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.
Does the Prevalence of CD and ODD Vary across Cultures?
Canino, Glorisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Rohde, Luis A.; Frick, Paul J.
2011-01-01
The worldwide prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is presented in order to examine the first of four criteria used in other studies to determine the validity of psychiatric disorders across cultures. The authors searched Medline and PsycINFO from 1987 to 2008. Studies were included if they were representative of specific communities or countries and reported point prevalence of CD or ODD according to DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria for children 18 years or younger. Only methodological and not geographic factors were associated with variability of the prevalence estimates. The results are discussed in terms of their significance for the classification of disorders and the need for further research to establish the validity of these two disorders across cultures. PMID:20532864
Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.
1999-01-01
The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.
Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors
Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng
2013-06-15
We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.
Improved techniques for lower bounds for odd perfect numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brent, R. P.; Cohen, G. L.; Riele, H. J. J. Te
1991-10-01
If N is an odd perfect number, and {q^k}\\vert\\vert N , q prime, k even, then it is almost immediate that N > {q^{2k}} . We prove here that, subject to certain conditions verifiable in polynomial time, in fact N > {q^{5k/2}} . Using this and related results, we are able to extend the computations in an earlier paper to show that N > {10^{300}} .
Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac
Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.
1989-03-01
States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.
Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints
Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.
2014-01-01
Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930
Even-odd effect in short antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machens, A.; Konstantinidis, N. P.; Waldmann, O.; Schneider, I.; Eggert, S.
2013-04-01
Motivated by recent experiments on chemically synthesized magnetic molecular chains, we investigate the lowest-lying energy band of short spin-s antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains focusing on effects of open boundaries. By numerical diagonalization we find that the Landé pattern in the energy levels, i.e., E(S)∝S(S+1) for total spin S, known from, e.g., ring-shaped nanomagnets, can be recovered in odd-membered chains, while strong deviations are found for the lowest excitations in chains with an even number of sites. This particular even-odd effect in the short Heisenberg chains cannot be explained by simple effective Hamiltonians and symmetry arguments. We go beyond these approaches, taking into account quantum fluctuations by means of a path-integral description and the valence bond basis, but the resulting quantum edge-spin picture which is known to work well for long chains does not agree with the numerical results for short chains and cannot explain the even-odd effect. Instead, by analyzing also the classical chain model, we show that spatial fluctuations dominate the physical behavior in short chains, with length N≲eπs, for any spin s. Such short chains are found to display a unique behavior, which is not related to the thermodynamic limit and cannot be described well by theories developed for this regime.
Wind-induced odd gravitational harmonics of Jupiter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald
2015-06-01
While the rotational distortion of Jupiter makes a major contribution to its lowermost order even zonal gravitational coefficients Jn with n ≥ 2, the component of the zonal winds with equatorial antisymmetry, if sufficiently deep, produces a gravitational signature contained in the odd zonal gravitational coefficients Jn with n ≥ 3. Based on a non-spherical model of a polytropic Jupiter with index unity, we compute Jupiter's odd gravitational coefficients J3, J5, J7, …, J11 induced by the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds that are assumed to be deep. It is found that the lowermost odd gravitational coefficients J3, J5 and J7 are of the same order of magnitude with J3 = -1.6562 × 10-6, J5 = 1.5778 × 10-6 and J7 = -0.7432 × 10-6, and are within the accuracy of high-precision gravitational measurements to be carried out by the Juno spacecraft.
Fluctuation theorems and entropy production with odd-parity variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hyunggyu; Lee, Hyun Keun; Kwon, Chulan
2013-03-01
We show that the total entropy production in stochastic processes with odd-parity variables (under time reversal) is separated into three parts, only two of which satisfy the integral fluctuation theorems in general. One is the usual excess contribution, which can appear only transiently and is called non-adiabatic. Another one is attributed solely to the breakage of detailed balance. The last part not satisfying the fluctuation theorem comes from the steady-state distribution asymmetry for odd-parity variables, which is activated in a non-transient manner. The latter two parts combine together as the house-keeping (adiabatic) contribution, whose positivity is not guaranteed except when the excess contribution completely vanishes. Our finding reveals that the equilibrium requires the steady-state distribution symmetry for odd-parity variables independently, in addition to the usual detailed balance. This work was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant (No. 2010-0026627) funded by the MEST.
A loop group extension of the odd Chern character
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Scott O.
2016-04-01
We show that the universal odd Chern form, defined on the stable unitary group U, extends to the loop group LU as an equivariantly closed differential form. This provides an odd analogue to the Bismut-Chern form that appears in supersymmetric field theories. We also describe the associated transgression form, the so-called Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and explicate some properties it inherits as a differential form on the space of maps of a cylinder into the stable unitary group. As one corollary, we show that in a precise sense the spectral flow of a loop of self adjoint Fredholm operators equals the lowest degree component of the Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and the latter, when restricted to cylinders which are tori, is an equivariantly closed extension of spectral flow. As another corollary, we construct the Chern character homomorphism from odd K-theory to the periodic cohomology of the free loop space, represented geometrically on the level of differential forms.
Odds ratios of work related deaths in United States workers.
Leigh, J P
1988-01-01
A new data set on job related mortality within 347 3 digit occupations is merged with two national probability samples of United States workers to assess which groups are in hazardous and which in safe jobs. Logistic regressions are fitted to the two samples and the following covariates are assumed to explain employment in a hazardous job: age, race, gender, schooling, region, and marital status. Results from both samples are remarkably similar. Odds ratios for non-whites versus whites are roughly 1.2/1; for high school dropouts versus people with some college education roughly 2.2/1; and for men versus women roughly 5.0/1. PMID:3348992
Dimension-5 C P -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram
2015-12-01
We study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T - and P -odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. We present the renormalization matrix to one loop in the MS ¯ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the MS ¯ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and 't Hooft-Veltman prescriptions for γ5.
GENERAL: Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Odd Coherent State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shi-Hai; Gao, Ming; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu
2008-07-01
We propose a decoy state quantum key distribution scheme with odd coherent state which follows sub-Poissonian distributed photon count and has low probability of the multi-photon event and vacuum event in each pulse. The numerical calculations show that our scheme can improve efficiently the key generation rate and secure communication distance. Furthermore, only one decoy state is necessary to approach to the perfect asymptotic limit with infinite decoy states in our scheme, but at least two decoy states are needed in other scheme.
Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems
Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.
2015-03-30
An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.
[Razón de posibilidades: a proposed translation of the term odds ratio].
Tapia, J A; Nieto, F J
1993-01-01
In English, odds ratio is a basic epidemiological measure approximating the relative risk. Odds ratio has been translated into Spanish in several ways, which has produced great terminological confusion. On the other hand, the English word odds is often used in epidemiology or statistics English textbooks, alone or as part of other expressions, but always keeping a definite mathematical meaning, which calls for a similarly definite term in Spanish. We discuss several translations of odds ratio found in the literature and propose the Spanish word "posibilidades" as a translation of odds and "razón de posibilidades" as a translation of odds ratio. PMID:8342087
Structure of hard-hypersphere fluids in odd dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés
2007-11-01
The structural properties of single component fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd space dimensionalities d are studied with an analytical approximation method that generalizes the rational function approximation earlier introduced in the study of hard-sphere fluids [S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, Phys. Rev. A 43, 5418 (1991)]. The theory makes use of the exact form of the radial distribution function to first order in density and extends it to finite density by assuming a rational form for a function defined in Laplace space, the coefficients being determined by simple physical requirements. Fourier transform in terms of reverse Bessel polynomials constitute the mathematical framework of this approximation, from which an analytical expression for the static structure factor is obtained. In its most elementary form, the method recovers the solution of the Percus-Yevick closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equation for hyperspheres at odd dimensions. The present formalism allows one to go beyond by yielding solutions with thermodynamic consistency between the virial and compressibility routes to any desired equation of state. Excellent agreement with available computer simulation data at d=5 and d=7 is obtained.
Beyond Mean-Field Calculations for Odd-Mass Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bally, B.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.
2014-10-01
Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to Mg25 illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.
Odd-even staggering in neutron drip line nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong
2016-07-01
We have done systematic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations in coordinate space on the one-quasi-particle energies and binding energy odd-even staggering (OES) in semi-magic nuclei with the zero-range volume, mixed and surface pairing forces in order to explore the influence of their density dependence. The odd-N isotopes are calculated within the blocking scheme. The strengths for the pairing forces are determined in two schemes by fitting locally to reproduce pairing gap in 120Sn and globally to all available data on the OES of semi-magic nuclei with Z ≥ 8. In the former calculations, there is a noticeable difference between the neutron mean gaps in neutron-rich O, Ca, Ni and Sn isotopes calculated with the surface pairing and those with the mixed and volume pairing. The difference gets much smaller if the globally optimized pairing strengths are employed. The heavier Pb isotopes show the opposite trend. Moreover, large differences between the mean gap and the OES may be expected in both calculations when one goes towards the neutron drip line.
An Odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme Finite State Machine.
Eshra, Abeer; El-Sayed, Ayman
2014-01-01
A finite-state machine (FSM) is an abstract mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits. Considered as an abstract model of computation, FSM is weak; it has less computational power than some other models of computation such as the Turing machine. This paper discusses the finite-state automata based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and different implementations of DNA FSMs. Moreover, a comparison was made to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of presented DNA FSMS. Since it is a major goal for nanoscince, nanotechnology and super molecular chemistry is to design synthetic molecular devices that are programmable and run autonomously. Programmable means that the behavior of the device can be modified without redesigning the whole structure. Autonomous means that it runs without externally mediated change to the work cycle. In this paper we present an odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme FSM. Our paper makes use of a known design for a DNA nanorobotic device due to Reif and Sahu for executing FSM computations using DNAzymes. The main contribution of our paper is a description of how to program that device to do a FSM computation known as odd parity checking. We describe in detail finite state automaton built on 10-23 DNAzyme, and give its procedure of design and computation. The design procedure has two major phases: designing the language potential alphabet DNA strands, and depending on the first phase to design the DNAzyme possible transitions. PMID:26355779
Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.
Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H
2014-10-17
Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. PMID:25361253
Lovasi, Gina S.; Underhill, Lindsay J.; Jack, Darby; Richards, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew
2012-01-01
Purpose Research on obesity and the built environment has often featured logistic regression and the corresponding parameter, the odds ratio. Use of odds ratios for common outcomes such obesity may unnecessarily hinder the validity, interpretation, and communication of research findings. Methods We identified three key issues raised by the use of odds ratios, illustrating them with data on walkability and body mass index from a study of 13,102 New York City residents. Results First, dichotomization of continuous measures such as body mass index discards theoretically relevant information, reduces statistical power, and amplifies measurement error. Second, odds ratios are systematically higher (further from the null) than prevalence ratios; this inflation is trivial for rare outcomes, but substantial for common outcomes like obesity. Third, odds ratios can lead to incorrect conclusions during tests of interactions. The odds ratio in a particular subgroup might higher simply because the outcome is more common (and the odds ratio inflated) compared with other subgroups. Conclusion Our recommendations are to take full advantage of continuous outcome data when feasible and to use prevalence ratios in place of odds ratios for common dichotomous outcomes. When odds ratios must be used, authors should document outcome prevalence across exposure groups. PMID:23002407
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fominov, Ya. V.; Tanaka, Y.; Asano, Y.; Eschrig, M.
2015-04-01
We consider physical properties of a superconductor with a recently proposed type of odd-frequency pairing that exhibits diamagnetic Meissner response ("odd-dia state"). Such a state was suggested in order to address stability issues arising in an odd-frequency superconducting state with paramagnetic Meissner response ("odd-para state"). Assuming the existence of an odd-dia state (due to a proper retarded interaction), we study its coexistence with an odd-para state. The latter is known to be generated as an induced superconducting component in, e.g., singlet superconductor/ferromagnet proximity structures or triplet superconductor/normal metal systems. Calculating the superfluid density of the mixed odd-para/odd-dia state and the Josephson current between the odd-para and odd-dia states, we find that the expressions for the currents in both cases have nonvanishing imaginary contributions and are therefore unphysical. We show that a realization of the odd-dia state implies the absence of a Hamiltonian description of the system, and suggest that there exists no physically realizable perturbation that could give rise to the spontaneous symmetry breaking necessary for an actual realization of the odd-dia superconducting state.
Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr
Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )
1993-11-01
High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.
Cotunneling into a Kondo lattice with odd hybridization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Vojta, Matthias
2016-06-01
Cotunneling into Kondo systems, where an electron enters an f -electron material via a cotunneling process through the local-moment orbital, has been proposed to explain the characteristic line shapes observed in scanning-tunneling-spectroscopy (STS) experiments. Here we extend the theory of electron cotunneling to Kondo-lattice systems in which the bulk hybridization between conduction and f electrons is odd under inversion, being particularly relevant to Kondo insulators. Compared to the case of even hybridization, we show that the interference between normal tunneling and cotunneling processes is fundamentally altered: it is entirely absent for layered, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional materials, while its energy dependence is strongly modified for three-dimensional materials. We discuss implications for STS experiments.
The Euler current and relativistic parity odd transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golkar, Siavash; Roberts, Matthew M.; Son, Dam T.
2015-04-01
For a spacetime of odd dimensions endowed with a unit vector field, we introduce a new topological current that is identically conserved and whose charge is equal to the Euler character of the even dimensional spacelike foliations. The existence of this current allows us to introduce new Chern-Simons-type terms in the effective field theories describing relativistic quantum Hall states and (2 + 1) dimensional superfluids. Using effective field theory, we calculate various correlation functions and identify transport coefficients. In the quantum Hall case, this current provides the natural relativistic generalization of the Wen-Zee term, required to characterize the shift and Hall viscosity in quantum Hall systems. For the superfluid case this term is required to have nonzero Hall viscosity and to describe superfluids with non s-wave pairing.
Topological Blount's theorem of odd-parity superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayshi, Shingo; Shiozaki, Ken; Sato, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Yukio
2014-03-01
Nontrivial nodal structures are one of the most salient features of gap functions of the unconventional superconductors. In a system with spin-orbit coupling and crystal field, the group theory plays a key role to determine the node of the gap function. From the group theoretical ground, Blount proved that the line node is ``vanishingly improbable'' in spin-triplet superconductors. Namely, it is impossible to create a stable line node in odd-parity superconductors. Our motivation is to compare the group theoretical result with topological stability of nodes by K-theory As a result, we found that K-theory not only rebuilds the original Blount's argument but also exhibits counterexamples with the stable line node. In this talk, we will show the physical interpretation of them.
Phase transition in odd-N Pd-isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hou-Bing; Dong, Guo-Xiang; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Fu-Rong
2015-11-01
Phase transition in odd-N isotopes 99,101,103Pd are investigated via the E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves, which strongly suggest a structure evolution from vibration to rotation along the yrast lines with increasing spin. Theoretical calculations have been performed for the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd in the framework of the cranked shell model (CSM) and the alignment properties observed experimentally are analyzed employing this model. The results show that the phase transition in the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd can be interpreted as the valence nucleons start to occupy the g9/2 proton orbitals with increasing spin which would polarize the core to a small, but rigid quadrupole deformation. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2014jjBA10016, 2014jjDA10012) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11465005)
Effect of odd hydrogen on ozone depletion by chlorine reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donahue, T. M.; Cicerone, R. J.; Liu, S. C.; Chameides, W. L.
1976-01-01
The present paper discusses how the shape of the ozone layer changes under the influence of injected ClX for several choices of two key HOx reaction rates. The two HOx reactions are: OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. Results of calculations are presented which show that the two reaction rates determine the stratospheric concentrations of OH and HO2, and that these concentrations regulate the amount by which the stratospheric ozone column can be reduced due to injections of odd chlorine. It is concluded that the amount of ozone reduction by a given mixing ratio of ClX will remain very uncertain until the significance of several possible feedback effects involving HOx in a chlorine-polluted atmosphere are determined and measurements of the reaction rates and HOx concentrations are made at the relevant temperatures.
Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer
Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata
2016-01-01
Introduction Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:27095953
An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.
Multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing spectroscopy.
Mathew, Nathan A; Block, Stephen B; Yurs, Lena A; Kornau, Kathryn M; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Wright, John C
2009-12-01
Extending current coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) methods to higher order multiwave mixing requires excitation intensities where dynamic Stark effects become important. This paper examines the dynamic Stark effects that occur in mixed frequency/time domain CMDS methods at high excitation intensities in a model system with an isolated vibrational state. The phase-matching restrictions in CMDS define the excitation beams that interact by nonlinear mixing while the dynamic Stark effects create vibrational ladders of increasingly more energetic overtone and combination band states. The excited quantum states form coherences that reemit the output beams. This paper uses the phase-matching conditions k(out) = k(1) - k(2) + k(2') and k(out) =- k(1) + k(2) + k(2'), where the subscripts denote the excitation frequencies of each excitation pulse and the output pulse. The phase-matching condition constrains each pulse to have an odd number of interactions so the overall mixing process that creates the output coherence must also involve an odd number of interactions. Tuning the excitation frequencies and spectrally resolving the output intensity creates three-dimensional spectra that resolve the individual overtone states. Changing the excitation pulse time delays measures the dynamics of the coherences and populations created by the multiple excitations. The multidimensional spectra probe the highly excited states of a molecular potential energy surface. This paper uses tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)(6)) as a model for observing how dynamic Stark effects change the multidimensional spectra of a simple system. The simplicity of the W(CO)(6) system provides the experimental data required to develop the nonperturbative theoretical methods that will be necessary to model this new approach to CMDS. PMID:19860444
The Interplay Among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms
Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.
2012-01-01
Objective The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later ODD symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Method Participants were 258 3-year-old children (138 boys and 120 girls) and their parents from diverse backgrounds who participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Results Early child behavior, parenting, and family adversity did not significantly interact in the predicted direction. Reciprocal relations between ODD symptoms and parent functioning were observed for maternal and paternal depression, and maternal warmth. Paternal laxness at age 4 predicted ODD symptoms at age 5 and paternal laxness at age 5 predicted ODD symptoms at age 6, but child ODD did not significantly predict paternal laxness. Conclusion Results suggest that ODD symptoms may develop through a transactional process between parent and child functioning across the preschool years. PMID:22530755
Succinate esters: odd-even effects in melting points.
Joseph, Sumy; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan
2014-10-01
Dialkyl succinates show a pattern of alternating behavior in their melting points, as the number of C atoms in the alkane side chain increases, unlike in the dialkyl oxalates [Joseph et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. B67, 525-534]. Dialkyl succinates with odd numbers of C atoms in the alkyl side chain show higher melting points than the immediately adjacent analogues with even numbers. The crystal structures and their molecular packing have been analyzed for a series of dialkyl succinates with 1-4 C atoms in the alkyl side chain. The energy difference (ΔE) between the optimized and observed molecular conformations, density, Kitaigorodskii packing index (KPI) and C-H...O interactions are considered to rationalize this behavior. In contrast to the dialkyl oxalates where a larger number of moderately strong C-H...O interactions were characteristic of oxalates with elevated melting points, here the molecular packing and the density play a major role in raising the melting point. On moving from oxalate to succinate esters the introduction of the C2 spacer adds two activated H atoms to the asymmetric unit, resulting in the formation of stronger C-H...O hydrogen bonds in all succinates. As a result the crystallinity of long-chain alkyl substituted esters improves enormously in the presence of hydrogen bonds from activated donors. PMID:25274517
Explicit energy expansion for general odd-degree polynomial potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nanayakkara, Asiri; Mathanaranjan, Thilagarajah
2013-11-01
In this paper we derive an almost explicit analytic formula for asymptotic eigenenergy expansion of arbitrary odd-degree polynomial potentials of the form V (x) = (ix)2N+1 + β1x2N + β2x2N-1 + ··· + β2Nx, where β‧k are real or complex for 1 ⩽ k ⩽ 2N. The formula can be used to find semiclassical analytic expressions for eigenenergies up to any order, very efficiently. Each term of the expansion is given explicitly as a multinomial of the parameters β1,β2… and β2N of the potential. Unlike in the even-degree polynomial case, the highest-order term in the potential is pure imaginary and hence the system is non-Hermitian. Therefore all the integrations have been carried out along a contour enclosing two complex branch points, which lies within a wedge in the complex plane. With the help of some examples we demonstrate the accuracy of the method for both real and complex eigenspectra.
Redistribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the lower arctic stratosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Montzka, D. D.; Carroll, M. A.; Tuck, A. F.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gregory, G. L.; Vedder, J. F.
1990-01-01
In-situ measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen NO(y), were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in the lower arctic stratosphere during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. Throughout January and February, NO(y) mixing ratios were typically between 0.5 and 3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at altitudes between 10 and 12.5 km. During several flights late in the mission, events of unusually light NO(y) occurred with mixing ratios up to 12 ppbv at these altitudes. Simultaneous measurements of N2O, O3, and H2O during these events suggest that large changes in NO(y) are not expected. The elevated NO(y) values are interpreted as a vertical redistribution of NO(y) in the lower stratosphere resulting from gravitational sedimentation of aerosol particles containing HNO3. No evidence of the redistribution of H2O is noted, consistent with observations of denitrification without dehydration higher in the stratosphere.
Odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in thraustochytrids.
Chang, Kim Jye Lee; Mansour, Maged P; Dunstan, Graeme A; Blackburn, Susan I; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D
2011-08-01
A series of unusual odd-chain fatty acids (OC-FA) were identified in two thraustochytrid strains, TC 01 and TC 04, isolated from waters off the south east coast of Tasmania, Australia. FA compositions were determined by capillary GC and GC-MS, with confirmation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) structure performed by analysis of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. PUFA constituted 68-74% of the total FA, with the essential PUFA; eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3, EPA), arachidonic acid (20:4ω6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3, DHA), accounting for 42-44% of the total FA. High proportions of the saturated OC-FA 15:0 (7.1% in TC 01) and 17:0 (6.2% in TC 04) were detected. The OC-FA 17:1ω8 was present at 2.8% in TC 01. Of particular interest, the C₂₁ PUFA 21:5ω5 and 21:4ω7 were detected at 3.5% and 4.1%, respectively, in TC 04. A proposed biosynthesis pathway for these OC-PUFA is presented. It is possible that the unsaturated OC-PUFA found previously in a number of marine animals were derived from dietary thraustochytrids and they could be useful biomarkers in environmental and food web studies. PMID:21546043
Decay Properties of N = 77 odd-Z Isotones
Batchelder, J. C.; Tantawy, M. N.; Danchev, M.; Hartley, D. J.; Mazzocchi, C.; Bingham, C. R.; Grzywacz, R.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Gross, C. J.; Shapira, D.; Yu, C.-H.; Krolas, W.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J. H.; Li, K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Ginter, T. N.; Stolz, A.; Hagino, K.; Karny, M.
2007-11-30
The systematics of the {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}h{sub 11/2} and {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}s{sub 1/2} isomeric configurations were studied for the odd-Z N = 77 isotones near the proton dripline. The spin and parity of I{sup {pi}} = 8{sup +} and 5{sup -} were deduced for the isomers in {sup 140}Eu and {sup 142}Tb. No evidence for the expected 1{sup +} ground-state was found in the {sup 144}Ho decay data. The proton emission from {sup 146}Tm was restudied and the spin and parity values of I{sup {pi}} = 10{sup +} and 5{sup -} were established for {sup 146m}Tm and {sup 146gs}Tm, respectively. The interpretation of the observed decay properties and structure of the proton-emitting states was made by accounting for deformation and proton and neutron coupling to the core excitations.
Massive and massless higher spinning particles in odd dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Bonezzi, Roberto; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele
2014-09-01
We study actions for massive bosonic particles of higher spins by dimensionally reducing an action for massless particles. For the latter we take a model with a SO( N) extended local supersymmetry on the worldline, that is known to describe massless (conformal) particles of higher spins in flat spacetimes of even dimensions. Dimensional reduction produces an action for massive spinning particles in odd dimensions. The field equations that emerge in a quantization à la Dirac are shown to be equivalent to the Fierz-Pauli ones. The massless limit generates a multiplet of massless states with higher spins, whose first quantized field equations have a geometric form with fields belonging to various types of Young tableaux. These geometric equations can be partially integrated to show their equivalence with the standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. We covariantize our model to check whether an extension to curved spacetimes can be achieved. Restricting to (A)dS spaces, we find that the worldline gauge algebra becomes nonlinear, but remains first class. This guarantees consistency on such backgrounds. A light cone analysis confirms the presence of the expected propagating degrees of freedom. A covariant analysis is worked out explicitly for the massive case, which is seen to give rise to the Fierz-Pauli equations extended to (A)dS spaces. It is worth noting that in D = 3 the massless limit of our model with N → ∞ has the same field content of the Vasiliev's theory that accommodates each spin exactly once.
Strain-induced time-reversal odd superconductivity in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juricic, Vladimir; Roy, Bitan
2014-03-01
I will discuss the possibility of realizing a time-reversal-symmetry breaking superconducting state that exhibits an f + is pairing symmetry in strained graphene. Although the underlying attractive interactions need to be sufficiently strong and comparable in pristine graphene to support such pairing state, I will argue that strain can be conducive for its formation even for weak interactions. I will show that quantum-critical behavior near the transition is controlled by a fermionic multicritical point, characterized by various critical exponents computed in the framework of an ɛ-expansion near four spacetime dimensions. I will then discuss the scaling of the superconducting gap with the strain-induced axial pseudo-magnetic field. Furthermore, a vortex in this mixed superconducting state hosts a pair of Majorana fermions supporting a quartet of insulating and superconducting orders, among which quantum spin Hall topological insulator. Finally, I will mention some experimental signatures of this f + is time-reversal odd superconductor. These findings suggest that strained graphene could provide a platform for the realization of exotic superconducting states of Dirac fermions. VJ is supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).
G.J. Kramer; S.E. Sharapov; R. Nazikian; N.N. Gorelenkov; R. Budny; JET-EFDA contributors
2003-01-15
Experimental evidence is presented for the existence of the theoretically predicted odd Torodicity-induced Alfven Eigenmode (TAEs) from the simultaneous appearance of odd and even TAEs in a normal shear discharge. The modes are observed in low central magnetic shear plasmas created by injecting lower hybrid current drive. A fast ion population was created by applying ion cyclotron heating at the high field side to excite the TAEs in the weak magnetic shear region. The odd TAEs were identified from their frequency, mode number, and timing relative to the even TAEs.
Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.
1951-05-01
In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.
Experimental Identification of Intruder Bandheads in Odd-Mass {sup 187-193}Pb
A.N. Andreyev; J.F.C. Cocks; O. Dorvaux; K. Eskola; P. Greenlees; P. Jones; R. Julin; S. Juutinen; K. Helariutta; M. Huyse; H. Kettunen; P. Kuusiniemi; M. Leino; M. Muikku; W.H. Trzaska; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; R. Wyss
1999-12-31
Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.
Experimental identification of intruder bandheads in odd-mass {sup 187-193}Pb
Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Helariutta, K.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Eskola, K.; Wyss, R.
1999-11-16
Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.
Efird, Jimmy T.; Lea, Suzanne; Toland, Amanda; Phillips, Christopher J.
2012-01-01
The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (ie, information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility (ie, the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder). Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in environmental case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. PMID:22518087
Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cveticanin, L.
2011-02-01
In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics
Nabi, Jameel-Un; Sajjad, Muhammad
2007-11-15
Gamow-Teller (GT) strength transitions are an ideal probe for testing nuclear structure models. In addition to nuclear structure, GT transitions in nuclei directly affect the early phases of Type Ia and Type-II supernovae core collapse since the electron capture rates are partly determined by these GT transitions. In astrophysics, GT transitions provide an important input for model calculations and element formation during the explosive phase of a massive star at the end of its life-time. Recent nucleosynthesis calculations show that odd-odd and odd-A nuclei cause the largest contribution in the rate of change of lepton-to-baryon ratio. In the present manuscript, we have calculated the GT strength distributions and electron capture rates for odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V by using the pn-QRPA theory. At present {sup 50}V is the first experimentally available odd-odd nucleus in fp-shell nuclei. We also compare our GT strength distribution with the recently measured results of a {sup 50}V(d, {sup 2}He){sup 50}Ti experiment, with the earlier work of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (referred to as FFN) and subsequently with the large-scale shell model calculations. One curious finding of the paper is that the Brink's hypothesis, usually employed in large-scale shell model calculations, is not a good approximation to use at least in the case of {sup 50}V. SNe Ia model calculations performed using FFN rates result in overproduction of {sup 50}Ti, and were brought to a much acceptable value by employing shell model results. It might be interesting to study how the composition of the ejecta using presently reported QRPA rates compare with the observed abundances.
The Short Supply of Saints: Limits on Replication of Models that "Beat the Odds"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilder, Tamara; Jacobsen, Rebecca
2010-01-01
Researchers have identified effective practices that allow schools to "beat the odds" and close the reading achievement gap. Although identifying these practices is important, researchers have paid little attention to the work it takes to implement them. Through interviews with teachers who work at schools identified as beating the odds, this…
Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip
2007-01-01
Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…
Focusing on the Basics in Beat-the-Odds Schools. Policy Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lefkowits, Laura; Woempner, Carolyn
2006-01-01
Researchers at Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) recently completed a study of "beat-the-odds" schools--high-needs schools that demonstrated atypically high student achievement. This policy brief draws from the report of the study's findings, "High-Needs Schools--What Does It Take to Beat the Odds?"…
The Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City
Data from a mountain location intercepting the Mexico City emission plume demonstrate a strong correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O_{3} + NO_{2}). The measured oxygenated-organic aerosol correlates with odd-oxygen measurements with an a...
Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beck, Bernard
2013-01-01
Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,…
Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya
2011-01-01
Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…
Role of T-odd Functions in High Energy Hadronic Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Salvo, E.
2003-07-01
I propose a simple model for predicting the enegy behavior of T-odd, chiral odd function h1⊥. Furthermore I illustrate a method for extracting h1⊥ and the transversity function from Drell-Yan. The method may be applied also to other reactions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Xing
2008-01-01
The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…
The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.
2012-01-01
The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120…
Even-odd staggering of the spectroscopic factor as new evidence for α clustering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delion, D. S.; Dumitrescu, A.; Baran, V. V.
2016-04-01
We evidence a staggering effect of the experimental spectroscopic factors corresponding to even-even and odd-mass (odd-mass and odd-odd) α emitters. The comparison to the theoretical estimate within the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) approach reveals a similar staggering, but with a different behavior. It turns out that the ratio between corresponding experimental and theoretical spectroscopic factors is proportional to the experimental reduced decay width. A similar dependence was found in a previous work between the strength of the quadrupole-quadrupole α -core interaction, describing the α -decay fine structure and the reduced width. Thus, the even-odd staggering effect in the spectroscopic factor is a new evidence of the α -clustering phenomenon in medium and heavy nuclei.
Odd-Mode Surface Plasmon Polaritons Supported by Complementary Plasmonic Metamaterial
Gao, Xi; Zhou, Liang; Cui, Tie Jun
2015-01-01
Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), either on metal-dielectric interfaces in optical frequencies or on structured metal surfaces in the lower frequencies, are dominantly even modes. Here we discover dominant odd-mode SPPs on a complementary plasmonic metamaterial, which is constructed by complementary symmetric grooves. We show that the fundamental SPP mode on such a plasmonic metamaterial is a tightly confined odd mode, whose dispersion curve can be tuned by the shape of groove. According to the electric field distributions of odd-mode SPPs, we propose a high-efficiency transducer using asymmetric coplanar waveguide and slot line to excite the odd-mode SPPs. Numerical simulations and experimental results validate the high-efficiency excitation and excellent propagation performance of odd-mode SPPs on the complementary plasmonic waveguides in the microwave frequencies. PMID:25783166
Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Kvasil, J.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL )
1989-09-01
The application of a simple semi-empirical model is discussed in terms of interpreting experimental nuclear structure data for twelve of the best characterized odd-odd deformed nuclei. An essential part of this modeling is to calculate values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and Newby shifts, the observables that arise from the n-p residual interaction in odd-odd nuclei. Assumptions regarding the form for this n-p force are traced historically. The predictive power of a favored form of the n-p force, one that includes a central force with short and long-range components, a tensor force, and some effects of core polarization, is examined in light of experimental data obtained since its formulation. A data set of 42 experimentally determined Newby shifts has been reviewed as to the reliability of each entry. Exceptions to a recently proposed rule for the a priori determination of the sign of Newby shift are discussed. Evidence is presented for the existence of an odd-even staggering or signature effect in the rotational spacings of many K{sup {minus}} bands (with K > 0). By use of Coriolis-coupling calculations, it has been possible to reproduce the staggering observed in some of the K{sup {minus}} rotational bands of {sup 156}Tb, {sup 168}Tm, {sup 176}Lu, {sup 182}Ta, and {sup 182}Re. 27 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Even-odd effects in the prompt fission emission of even Z actinides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tudora, Anabella; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Giubega, Georgiana; Visan, Iuliana
2016-03-01
The investigation of even-odd effects in the prompt emission of even Z actinides showed a sawtooth shape of ν(Z) with staggering in the asymmetric fission region. Average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, e.g. ν(A), of even Z fragmentations are higher than those of odd Z fragmentations and they exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units in the asymmetric fission region. This periodicity is not due to the Z even-odd effect in fragment distributions. The even-odd effect in <ν>(TKE) is increasing with increasing TKE and it decreases with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. The global even-odd effect in total average prompt emission quantities is decreasing with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. In the case of an even-odd fissioning nucleus, 234U(n,f), the global even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities exhibits a very slow variation with the incident neutron energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M.; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Rossi, E.
2016-06-01
We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s -wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present.
Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E
2016-06-24
We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present. PMID:27391743
Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes
Yazar, Harun Resit
2013-06-15
The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.
Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms: as simple as it can get.
Andrade, Chittaranjan
2015-07-01
Risk, and related measures of effect size (for categorical outcomes) such as relative risks and odds ratios, are frequently presented in research articles. Not all readers know how these statistics are derived and interpreted, nor are all readers aware of their strengths and limitations. This article examines several measures, including absolute risk, attributable risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent, relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided, wherever necessary. PMID:26231012
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba
2016-02-01
In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, L. A.
2012-04-01
There is, at present, no attractive foundation for quantitative probabilistic decision support in the face of model inadequacy, or given ambiguity (deep uncertainty) regarding the relative likelihood of various outcomes, known or unknown. True model error arguably precludes the extraction of objective probabilities from an ensemble of model runs drawn from an available (inadequate) model class, while the acknowledgement of incomplete understanding precludes the justified use of (if not the very formation of) an individual's subjective probabilities. An alternative approach based on Sustainable Odds is proposed and investigated. Sustainable Odds differ from "fair odds" (and are easily distinguished any claim which implying well defined probabilities) as the probabilities implied by sustainable odds summed over all outcomes is expected to exceed one. Traditionally, a person's fair odds are found by identifying the probability level at which one would happily accept either side of a bet, thus the probabilities implied by fair odds always sum to one. Knowing that one has incomplete information and perhaps even erroneous beliefs, there is no compelling reason a rational agent should accept the constraint implied by "fair odds" in any bet. Rather, a rational agent might insist on longer odds both on the event and against the event in order to account for acknowledged ignorance. Let probabilistic odds imply any set of odds for which the implied probabilities sum to one; once model error is acknowledged can one rationally demand non-probabilistic odds? The danger of using fair odds (or probabilities) in decision making is illustrated by considering the risk of ruin a cooperative insurance scheme using probabilistic odds is exposed to. Cases where knowing merely that the insurer's model is imperfect, and nothing else, is sufficient to place bets which drive the insurer to an unexpectedly early ruin are presented. Methodologies which allow the insurer to avoid this early
Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI
... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...
Testing Lorentz invariance using an odd-parity asymmetric optical resonator
Baynes, Fred N.; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.
2011-10-15
We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is {approx}10{sup 4} more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd-parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a nonrotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} to 3.4{+-}6.2x10{sup -9}, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.
A set of exactly solvable Ising models with half-odd-integer spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojas, Onofre; de Souza, S. M.
2009-03-01
We present a set of exactly solvable Ising models, with half-odd-integer spin- S on a square-type lattice including a quartic interaction term in the Hamiltonian. The particular properties of the mixed lattice, associated with mixed half-odd-integer spin- (S,1/2) and only nearest-neighbor interaction, allow us to map this system either onto a purely spin-1/2 lattice or onto a purely spin- S lattice. By imposing the condition that the mixed half-odd-integer spin- (S,1/2) lattice must have an exact solution, we found a set of exact solutions that satisfy the free fermion condition of the eight vertex model. The number of solutions for a general half-odd-integer spin- S is given by S+1/2. Therefore we conclude that this transformation is equivalent to a simple spin transformation which is independent of the coordination number.
Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating
Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles
2016-01-01
We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741
Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors.
Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W A
2015-01-01
It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380
Changing the Odds: A North Carolina Family's Search to Help Those with TBI
... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...
Odd-even dependence of rectifying behavior in carbon chains modified diphenyl-dimethyl molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Qiu-Hua; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, De-Sheng; Chen, Gang
2014-06-01
Using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of asymmetric nonequi-length carbon chains on the electron transport properties of diphenyl-dimethyl molecule. The results show significant odd-even dependence: the rectification appears only in the hybrid nanostructure with odd carbon chain on one side and even carbon chain on the other side, while it is negligible in those with odd/even carbon chain on both sides. The mechanism for the odd-even dependence of rectification is analyzed by the bias-dependent transmission spectra, evolution of molecular orbital levels, their spatial distributions, and projected density of states with the applied bias.
Appearance of p-odd nuclear forces in photoproduction of pions on /sup 6/Li
Rekalo, M.P.
1986-01-01
This paper studies P-odd effects in the photoproduction of pions on Li-6 nuclei, ..gamma.. + Li-6 ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/ + He-6. Collisions of linearly and circularly polarized photons with a polarized nuclear target are studied, and in addition both vectorial and tensorial polarization are taken into account. It is shown that in the general case P-odd effects in ..gamma.. + Li-6..--> pi../sup +/ + He-6 are characterized by 18 real structure functions, which determine different P-odd asymmetries in the angular distribution of the pions. The structure functions in their turn depend on different products of three p-even and three p-odd amplitudes of the process.
Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors
Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W. A.
2015-01-01
It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380
Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules
Teryaev, O.V.
2015-04-10
Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.
2010-09-01
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems
Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.
2010-09-15
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.
Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.
2013-01-01
Objective: Little is known about whether cocaine or methamphetamine use, particularly among stimulant users residing in rural areas, is associated with increased odds of developing or maintaining an alcohol use disorder (AUD) over time. One factor that may help to protect some users against the development of an AUD is religiosity. This study examined how stimulant use and religiosity are associated longitudinally with the odds of an AUD among a rural population-based cohort of stimulant users. Method: Recent stimulant users (N = 710) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and were interviewed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Concurrent and lagged generalized estimating equations analyses were conducted to estimate how past-30-day crack cocaine, powder cocaine, and methamphetamine use; religiosity; and other covariates were associated with the odds of an AUD. Results: At baseline, 56% of the participants met AUD criteria. The odds of an AUD declined significantly over time in the concurrent, but not the lagged, model. Crack cocaine use was associated with increased odds of an AUD in both models, although the strength of the concurrent association between an AUD and crack cocaine use declined over time. Powder cocaine use and more frequent church attendance also were concurrently associated with decreased odds of an AUD. Conclusions: Rural stimulant users, especially those using cocaine, could potentially benefit from treatment for both alcohol use and stimulant use. In addition, our findings suggest that greater frequency of church attendance may be related to lower odds of the development or maintenance of an AUD. PMID:23490565
Properties of the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in odd-odd {sup 184}Au
Zhang, Y.H.; Fang, Y.D.; Wang, H.L.; Zhou, X.H.; Guo, W.T.; Liu, M.L.; Guo, Y.X.; Lei, X.G.; De Angelis, G.; Marginean, N.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D.R.; Axiotis, M.; Rusu, C.; Martinez, T.; Oshima, M.; Toh, Y.
2004-11-01
High-spin level structure in {sup 184}Au has been reinvestigated using the multidetector array of GASP via the {sup 159}Tb({sup 29}Si,4n{gamma}){sup 184}Au reaction at a beam energy of 140 MeV. The ground-state band and the excited {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} 2-qp band have been extended up to lower and higher spin states. An upbend has been observed in the excited band at ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{approx}0.25 MeV and is interpreted as resulting from a pair of {pi}h{sub 9/2} alignment. This low-frequency ({pi}h{sub 9/2}){sup 2} alignment is supported by the measured B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and alignment properties in neighboring odd-A nuclei. The linking transitions between the two bands and to the ground state have been established leading to a firm spin-and-parity assignment for the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in {sup 184}Au. This result provides strong evidence for the low-spin signature inversion in the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} bands of odd-odd nuclei in the A{approx}180 mass region.
Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P
2016-01-26
The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. PMID:26748964
Odd-frequency Cooper pairs in two-band superconductors and their magnetic response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asano, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiro
2015-12-01
We discuss the appearance of odd-frequency Cooper pairs in two-band superconductors by solving the Gor'kov equation analytically. We introduce the equal-time s -wave pair potentials as realized in MgB2 and iron pnictides. Although the order parameter symmetry is conventional, the band degree of freedom enriches the symmetry variety of pairing correlations. The hybridization and the asymmetry between the two conduction bands induce odd-frequency pairs as a subdominant pairing correlation in the uniform ground state. To study the magnetic response of odd-frequency Cooper pairs, we analyze the Meissner kernel represented by the Gor'kov Green function. In contrast to the even-frequency pairs linked to the pair potential, the induced odd-frequency Cooper pairs indicate a paramagnetic property. We also discuss the relation between the amplitude of the odd-frequency pairing correlation and the stability of superconducting states in terms of the self-consistent equation for the pair potential.
Flexible parametrization of generalized parton distributions: The chiral-odd sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldstein, Gary R.; Hernandez, J. Osvaldo Gonzalez; Liuti, Simonetta
2015-06-01
We present a physically motivated parametrization of the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions. The parametrization is an extension of our previous one in the chiral-even sector which was based on the Reggeized diquark model. While for chiral-even generalized distributions a quantitative fit with uncertainty estimation can be performed using deep inelastic scattering data, nucleon electromagnetic, axial and pseudoscalar form factors measurements, and all available deeply virtual Compton scattering data, the chiral-odd sector is far less constrained. While awaiting the analysis of measurements on pseudoscalar mesons exclusive electroproduction which are key for the extraction of chiral-odd GPDs, we worked out a connection between the chiral-even and chiral-odd reduced helicity amplitudes using parity transformations. The connection works for quark-parton models including both scalar and axial vector diquark models, and spectator models in general. This relation allows us to estimate the size of the various chiral-odd contributions and it opens the way for future quantitative fits.
Odd Viscosity in the Quantum Critical Region of a Holographic Weyl Semimetal.
Landsteiner, Karl; Liu, Yan; Sun, Ya-Wen
2016-08-19
We study odd viscosity in a holographic model of a Weyl semimetal. The model is characterized by a quantum phase transition from a topological semimetal to a trivial semimetal state. Since the model is axisymmetric in three spatial dimensions there are two independent odd viscosities. Both odd viscosity coefficients are nonvanishing in the quantum critical region and nonzero only due to the mixed axial gravitational anomaly. It is therefore a novel example in which the mixed axial gravitational anomaly gives rise to a transport coefficient at first order in derivatives at finite temperature. In the quantum critical region, the physics of viscosities as well as conductivities is governed by the quantum critical point. PMID:27588846
Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Dong, Shaojun
2016-08-17
Herein, a novel logic operation of prime discriminator is first performed for the function of identifying the prime numbers from natural numbers less than 10. The prime discriminator logic operation is developed by DNA hybridizations and the conjugation of graphene oxide and single-stranded DNA as a reacting platform. On the basis of the similar reaction principle, an odd parity checker is also developed. The odd parity checker logic operation can identify the even numbers and odd numbers from natural numbers less than 10. Such advanced logic operations with digital recognition ability can provide a new field of vision toward prototypical DNA-based logic operations and promote the development of advanced logic circuits. PMID:27459592
Enhancement of odd nitrogen modifies mesospheric ozone chemistry during polar winter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verronen, P. T.; Lehmann, R.
2015-12-01
Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) enhances odd nitrogen (NOx) in the polar upper atmosphere. Model studies have reported a solar cycle response in mesospheric ozone (O3) caused by EPP-related NOx enhancements which are included by applying a vertical NOx flux at around 80 km. However, it is not clear how O3 can be affected when the main chemical catalyst of odd oxygen (Ox = O + O(1D) + O3) loss in the mesosphere is odd hydrogen (HOx). Here we use a 1-D atmospheric model and show how enhanced NOx affects mesospheric chemistry and changes HOx partitioning, which subsequently leads to increase in Ox loss through standard HOx-driven catalytic cycles. Another, smaller increase of Ox loss results from HOx storage in HNO3 during night and its release by daytime photodissociation. Our results suggest that EPP, through NOx enhancements, could have a longer-term effect on mesospheric HOx and Ox in polar winter.
Odd-frequency superconductivity in a nanowire coupled to Majorana zero modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Shu-Ping; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Maciejko, Joseph
Odd-frequency superconductivity, originally proposed by Berezinskii in 1974, is an exotic phase of matter in which pairing is entirely dynamical in nature. The pair potential is an odd function of frequency, leading to a vanishing static superconducting order parameter and exotic types of pairing seemingly inconsistent with Fermi statistics, such as spin triplet (singlet) pairing in an s-wave (p-wave) superconductor. Motivated by recent experimental progress in the realization of Majorana zero modes in semiconducting nanowires, we show that a spin-polarized nanowire coupled to a one-dimensional array of Majorana zero modes becomes an odd-frequency superconductor. This work was supported by NSERC, CRC, CIFAR, and the University of Alberta.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.
1987-01-01
Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.
Beyond-mean-field boson-fermion model for odd-mass nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.
2016-05-01
A novel method for calculating spectroscopic properties of medium-mass and heavy atomic nuclei with an odd number of nucleons is introduced, based on the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-core coupling scheme. The deformation energy surface of the even-even core, as well as the spherical single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the odd particle(s), are obtained in a self-consistent mean-field calculation determined by the choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. This method uniquely determines the parameters of the Hamiltonian of the boson core, and only the strength of the particle-core coupling is specifically adjusted to selected data for a particular nucleus. The approach is illustrated in a systematic study of low-energy excitation spectra and transition rates of axially deformed odd-mass Eu isotopes.
Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality
Padmanaban, Jeya
2003-01-01
Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244
Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?
White, Rebekah C.; Plassart, Anna
2015-01-01
In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli—for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)—elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been “rediscovered.” Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth. PMID:26034572
Collective states of odd nuclei in a model with quadrupole-octupole degrees of freedom
Minkov, N. Drenska, S. B.; Yotov, P.; Bonatsos, D. Scheid, W.
2007-08-15
We apply the collective axial quadrupole-octupole Hamiltonian to describe the rotation-vibration motion of odd nuclei with Coriolis coupling between the even-even core and the unpaired nucleon.We consider that the core oscillates coherently with respect to the quadrupole and octupole axialdeformation variables. The coupling between the core and the unpaired nucleon provides a split paritydoublet structure of the spectrum. The formalism successfully reproduces the parity-doublet splitting in a wide range of odd-A nuclei. It provides model estimations for the third angular-momentum projection K on the intrinsic symmetry axis and the related intrinsic nuclear structure.
Valley-valve effect and even-odd chain parity in p-n graphene junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cresti, Alessandro; Grosso, Giuseppe; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori
2008-06-01
We address the current blocking by a p-n junction in a zigzag graphene ribbon by means of numerical and analytic investigations. Ribbons with superimposed gate potentials perfectly block the current in the energy range, where a single energy band is active in both the n and the p regions, if the number of carbon chains is even. In the same conditions, an odd number of chains allows current transmission. We interpret this even-odd valley-valve effect in terms of the underlying honeycomb topology and crystal structure symmetry.
Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies
Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G.; Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C.; Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.
2011-08-15
Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel
2015-11-01
We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.
Electric dipole moments as probes of new CP-odd physics
Ritz, Adam
2009-12-17
We review the importance of precision probes for flavor-diagonal CP-violation, specifically searches for electric dipole moments of nucleons, atoms and molecules, in accessing new CP-odd physics at high scales. We summarize the effective field theory analysis of observable EDMs in terms of a general set of CP-odd operators at 1 GeV, and the ensuing model-independent new physics constraints, incorporating the recently improved limit on the Hg EDM. We also discuss the current status of these limits in the context of 1- and 2-loop contributions in supersymmetric models.
The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers.
Wilkie, James E B; Bodenhausen, Galen V
2015-01-01
Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839
Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate
2012-01-01
The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…
Probing a light CP-odd scalar in di-top-associated production at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Farooque, Trisha; Juste, Aurelio; Liu, Tao; Spannowsky, Michael
2015-10-01
CP-odd scalars are an integral part of many extensions of the Standard Model. Recently, electroweak-scale pseudoscalars have received increased attention in explaining the diffuse gamma-ray excess from the Galactic Centre. Elusive due to absence of direct couplings to gauge bosons, these particles receive only weak constraints from direct searches at LEP or searches performed during the first LHC runs. We investigate the LHC's sensitivity in probing a CP-odd scalar in the mass range 20 ≤ m_A ≤ 100 GeV via di-top-associated production using jet-substructure-based reconstruction techniques. We parameterise the scalar's interactions using a simplified model approach and relate the obtained upper limits to couplings within type-I and type-II 2HDMs as well as the NMSSM. We find that in di-top-associated production, experiments at the LHC can set tight limits on CP-odd scalars that fit the Galactic Centre excess. However, direct sensitivity to light CP-odd scalars from the NMSSM remains challenging.
High Schools in California That Are Beating the Odds and How They Are Doing It
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Viloria, Jason
2012-01-01
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to determine the common programs and practices that Beating the Odds (BTO) high schools in California are using to achieve high graduation rates. More specifically, this study identifies specific programs and practices that the high schools are using to address at-risk student behaviors as well as…
Building and Solving Odd-One-Out Classification Problems: A Systematic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruiz, Philippe E.
2011-01-01
Classification problems ("find the odd-one-out") are frequently used as tests of inductive reasoning to evaluate human or animal intelligence. This paper introduces a systematic method for building the set of all possible classification problems, followed by a simple algorithm for solving the problems of the R-ASCM, a psychometric test derived…
Executive Functioning Deficits in Relation to Symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD in Preschool Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorell, Lisa B.; Wahlstedt, Cecilia
2006-01-01
The present study investigated the relation between executive functioning and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children aged 4-6. A population-based sample (n = 201) was used and laboratory measures of inhibition, working memory and verbal fluency and teacher ratings of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.
2012-01-01
We examined differences in co-occurring psychological symptoms and background characteristics among clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with and without anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) according to either parent or teacher (source-exclusive) and both informants (cross-informant), youth with noncompliant symptoms…
Learning in the Home and at School: How Working Class Children "Succeed against the Odds"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siraj-Blatchford, Iram
2010-01-01
This paper presents data collected in individual case studies that aimed to investigate children and their families who succeeded against the usual "odds" of disadvantage. Funded as an extension of EPPE 3-11 by the Cabinet Office for the Equalities Review, the study focused particularly closely upon the performance of disadvantaged children from…
High precision elastic α scattering on the even-odd 115In nucleus at low energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Mohr, P.; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Halász, Z.; Soha, R. F.; Somorjai, E.; Ornelas, A.; Galaviz, D.; Yalçın, C.; Güray, R. T.; Özkan, N.
2016-01-01
Elastic alpha scattering cross sections on the even-odd 115In nucleus have been measured at energies Elab. = 16.15 MeV and 19.50 MeV. The high precision experimental data are used to derive the parameters of a local a nucleus optical potential.
Constant Latent Odds-Ratios Models and the Mantel-Haenszel Null Hypothesis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hessen, David J.
2005-01-01
In the present paper, a new family of item response theory (IRT) models for dichotomous item scores is proposed. Two basic assumptions define the most general model of this family. The first assumption is local independence of the item scores given a unidimensional latent trait. The second assumption is that the odds-ratios for all item-pairs are…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramin, Leyla; Jabbarzadeh, Ahmad
2012-11-01
Using molecular dynamics simulation, we have investigated the structural effects on the frictional properties of self assembled monolayers (SAM) of n-alkanethiols [CH3(CH2)n-1SH, n = 12-15] in SAM-SAM contacts attached on Au (111) substrates. We have observed an odd-even effect where friction coefficient for SAM-SAM contacts with n = odd showed consistently higher values than those with n = even. This odd-even effect is independent of the sliding velocity and the relative tilt directions of the SAMs, and persists over a much higher pressure range than that reported before for SAM-Au contacts [L. Ramin and A. Jabbarzadeh, Langmuir 28, 4102-4112 (2012), 10.1021/la204701z]. For odd systems higher gauche defects were shown to be the possible source of high friction coefficient. Under the same load and shear rates (comparable sliding velocities), SAM-SAM contacts show mostly higher friction compared to SAM-Au contacts. For SAM-SAM contacts, a more significant increase of friction occurs at higher shear rates due to a shift in the tilt orientation angle. We show SAM-SAM contacts with misaligned relative tilt orientation angle (˜45°-90°) have considerably lower friction compared with those whose tilt orientation angles are almost aligned in the opposite directions and parallel to the shear.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vinnerljung, Bo; Franzen, Eva; Danielsson, Maria
2007-01-01
To assess prevalence and odds for teenage parenthood among former child welfare clients, we used national register data for all children born in Sweden 1972-1983 (n = 1,178,207), including 49,582 former child welfare clients with varying intervention experiences. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and familial…
Observation of the naive-T-odd Sivers effect in deep-inelastic scattering.
Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Bacchetta, A; Ball, B; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Bonomo, C; Borissov, A; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Gabbert, D; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hill, G; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Imazu, Y; Ivanilov, A; Jackson, H E; Jo, H S; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Kravchenko, P; Lagamba, L; Lamb, R; Lapikás, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Linden-Levy, L A; López Ruiz, A; Lorenzon, W; Lu, X-G; Lu, X-R; Ma, B-Q; Mahon, D; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Manfré, L; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Martinez de la Ossa, A; Marukyan, H; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Movsisyan, A; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W-D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanftl, F; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seitz, B; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; van der Nat, P B; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Varanda, M; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, H; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Yu, W; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P
2009-10-01
Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries of leptoproduced pions and charged kaons were measured on a transversely polarized hydrogen target. Evidence for a naive-T-odd, transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function is deduced from nonvanishing Sivers effects for pi(+), pi(0), and K(+/-), as well as in the difference of the pi(+) and pi(-) cross sections. PMID:19905623
Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.
2012-01-01
The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
Odd perfect numbers have a prime factor exceeding 10^8
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo
2008-09-01
Jenkins in 2003 showed that every odd perfect number is divisible by a prime exceeding 10^7 . Using the properties of cyclotomic polynomials, we improve this result to show that every perfect number is divisible by a prime exceeding 10^8 .
Properties of nano-graphite ribbons with zigzag edges - Difference between odd and even legs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshioka, H.; Higashibata, S.
2009-02-01
Persistent currents and transport properties are investigated for the nano-graphite ribbons with zigzag shaped edges with paying attention to system length L dependence. It is found that both the persistent current in the isolated ring and the conductance of the system connected to the perfect leads show the remarkable L dependences. In addition, the dependences for the systems with odd legs and those with even legs are different from each other. On the persistent current, the amplitude for the cases with odd legs shows power-low behavior as L-N with N being the number of legs, whereas the maximum of it decreases exponentially for the cases with even legs. The conductance per one spin normalized by e2/h behaves as follows. In the even legs cases, it decays as L-2, whereas it reaches to unity for L→∞ in the odd legs cases. Thus, the material is shown to have a remarkable property that there is the qualitative difference between the systems with odd legs and those with even legs even in the absence of the electron-electron interaction.
Delaware Middle Schools Beating the Odds. Technical Report Number T2010.4
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grusenmeyer, Linda; Fifield, Steve; Murphy, Aideen; Nian, Qinghua; Qian, Xiaoyu
2010-01-01
The investigation identified Delaware public and charter middle schools across the state which outperformed other Delaware middle schools with similar student demographic profiles. Teachers and administrators at six of these "Beating the Odds" schools and at six comparison middle schools were surveyed regarding their schools characteristics and…
Singular eigenstates in the even(odd) length Heisenberg spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranjan Giri, Pulak; Deguchi, Tetsuo
2015-05-01
We study the implications of the regularization for the singular solutions on the even(odd) length spin-1/2 XXX chains in some specific down-spin sectors. In particular, the analytic expressions of the Bethe eigenstates for three down-spin sector have been obtained along with their numerical forms in some fixed length chains. For an even-length chain if the singular solutions \\{{{λ }α }\\} are invariant under the sign changes of their rapidities \\{{{λ }α }\\}=\\{-{{λ }α }\\}, then the Bethe ansatz equations are reduced to a system of (M-2)/2((M-3)/2) equations in an even (odd) down-spin sector. For an odd N length chain in the three down-spin sector, it has been analytically shown that there exist singular solutions in any finite length of the spin chain of the form N=3(2k+1) with k=1,2,3,\\cdots . It is also shown that there exist no singular solutions in the four down-spin sector for some odd-length spin-1/2 XXX chains.
Stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in referred preschool children.
Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Matthys, Walter
2014-10-01
Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate both stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in children aged 3.5-5.5 years. For diagnosing these disorders, a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), was used at the first assessment and at follow-up assessments (9 and 18 months). Five diagnostic stability groups (chronic, partial remission, full remission, new onset, no diagnosis) were compared with regard to impairment and number of symptoms. Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83% male) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 58; 71% male). Follow-up assessments allowed to distinguish children belonging to the chronic group of ODD, CD or ADHD from those belonging to one of the remission groups. In addition, there was a substantial number of children with a new onset diagnosis. In conclusion, as a complement to studies showing stability of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis into school age, present findings point to changes of diagnosis in the preschool and early school period. Diagnostic reassessments therefore are needed in this age group. PMID:24781411
The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers
Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.
2015-01-01
Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839
Odd-even staggering of binding energy for nuclei in the s d shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, G. J.; Cheng, Y. Y.; Jiang, H.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.
2016-08-01
In this paper we study odd-even staggering phenomena of binding energy in the framework of the nuclear shell model for nuclei in the s d shell. We decompose the USDB effective interaction into the monopole interaction and multipole (residual) interactions. We extract the empirical proton-neutron interaction, the Wigner energy, and the one-neutron separation energy using calculated binding energies. The monopole interaction, which represents the spherical mean field, provides contributions to the empirical proton-neutron interaction, the symmetry energy, and the Wigner energy. It does not induce odd-even staggering of the empirical proton-neutron interaction or the one-neutron separation energy. Isovector monopole and quadrupole pairing interactions and isoscalar spin-1 pairing interactions play a key role in reproducing an additional binding energy in both even-even and odd-odd nuclei. The Wigner energy coefficients are sensitive to residual two-body interactions. The nuclear shell structure has a strong influence on the evolution of the one-neutron separation energy, but not on empirical proton-neutron interactions. The so-called three-point formula is a good probe of the shell structure.
Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley
2016-01-01
Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwarz, Susan Wile; Aratani, Yumiko
2011-01-01
For policymakers, adolescence presents an invaluable opportunity to ensure that all young people can access the high-quality services and supports they need to improve their odds of becoming successful, healthy, productive adults. At an historic moment when the provisions and breadth of health care reform are under vigorous debate, it is important…
Community Opportunity, Perceptions of Opportunity, and the Odds of an Adolescent Birth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Driscoll, Anne; Sugland, Barbara; Manlove, Jennifer; Papillo, Angela
2005-01-01
The ability of the opportunity cost framework to predict the risk of a teen birth is tested by analyzing the relationship between adolescents perceptions of opportunity and the odds of a teen birth across levels of community opportunity. Patterns of this relationship are compared across African American, Latina, and White teens and across…
Neutron drip line in odd and even mass calcium and nickel nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Madhubrata; Gangopadhyay, G.
2005-10-01
Neutron-rich Ca and Ni nuclei have been studied in a spherical relativistic mean-field formalism in coordinate space. A δ interaction has been adopted to treat the pairing correlations for the neutrons. Odd nuclei have been treated in the blocking approximation. The effect of the positive-energy continuum and the role of pairing in the stability of nuclei have been investigated by use of the resonant-BCS approach. In Ca isotopes, N=50 is no longer a magic number, whereas in Ni nuclei, a new magic number emerges at N=70. There is a remarkable difference in the relative positions of the drip lines for odd and even isotopes. In Ca isotopes, the last bound even and odd nuclei are found to be 72Ca and 59Ca, respectively. In Ni isotopes, the corresponding nuclei are 98Ni and 97Ni, respectively. The origin of this difference in relative positions of the drip line in even and odd isotopes in the two chains is traced to the difference in the single-particle level structures and consequent modification in the magic numbers in the two elements. Pairing interaction is seen to play a major role. The effect of the width of the resonance states on pairing has also been investigated.
An Odds Ratio Approach for Detecting DDF under the Nested Logit Modeling Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Terzi, Ragip; Suh, Youngsuk
2015-01-01
An odds ratio approach (ORA) under the framework of a nested logit model was proposed for evaluating differential distractor functioning (DDF) in multiple-choice items and was compared with an existing ORA developed under the nominal response model. The performances of the two ORAs for detecting DDF were investigated through an extensive…
New spin assignments in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus Sc42 and the breaking of the Ca40 core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholl, C.; Petkov, P.; Werner, V.; Linnemann, A.; Adachi, T.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, Y.; Jolie, J.; Langanke, K.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Mücher, D.; Orce, J. N.; Pietralla, N.; Warr, N.; Zell, K. O.; Brentano, P. Von
2007-06-01
Using the Ca40(He3,p) reaction at E3He=9 MeV and the multidetector array HORUS, angular correlations of coincident pairs of γ transitions in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus Sc42 have been measured at the FN tandem Van de Graaff accelerator of the University of Cologne. The analysis of the data allowed nine new spin assignments and the determination of a series of new multipole mixing ratios. In particular, the spin and parity of the 5+ and 7+ levels belonging to the lowest T=0πf7/2νf7/2 multiplet have been determined and the (6+) level from the T=1 multiplet has been tentatively assigned. In this way, all T=1 states up to an excitation energy of 3.2 MeV now have known spins as well as the lowest T=0 quadruplet (Jπ=1+,3+,5+,7+) and many other T=0 states of unknown structure. The comparison with shell-model calculations reveals that a breaking of the Ca40 core has to be invoked to describe the level structure of Sc42.
New spin assignments in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 42}Sc and the breaking of the {sup 40}Ca core
Scholl, C.; Linnemann, A.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Muecher, D.; Warr, N.; Zell, K. O.; Brentano, P. von; Petkov, P.; Werner, V.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Orce, J. N.; Pietralla, N.
2007-06-15
Using the {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,p) reaction at E{sub {sup 3}He}=9 MeV and the multidetector array HORUS, angular correlations of coincident pairs of {gamma} transitions in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 42}Sc have been measured at the FN tandem Van de Graaff accelerator of the University of Cologne. The analysis of the data allowed nine new spin assignments and the determination of a series of new multipole mixing ratios. In particular, the spin and parity of the 5{sup +} and 7{sup +} levels belonging to the lowest T=0{pi}f{sub 7/2}{nu}f{sub 7/2} multiplet have been determined and the (6{sup +}) level from the T=1 multiplet has been tentatively assigned. In this way, all T=1 states up to an excitation energy of 3.2 MeV now have known spins as well as the lowest T=0 quadruplet (J{sup {pi}}=1{sup +},3{sup +},5{sup +},7{sup +}) and many other T=0 states of unknown structure. The comparison with shell-model calculations reveals that a breaking of the {sup 40}Ca core has to be invoked to describe the level structure of {sup 42}Sc.
Middle atmosphere heating by exothermic chemical reactions involving odd-hydrogen species
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mlynczak, Martin G.; Solomon, Susan
1991-01-01
The rate of heating which occurs in the middle atmosphere due to four exothermic reactions involving members of the odd-hydrogen family is calculated. The following reactions are considered: O + OH yields O2 + H; H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M; H + O3 yields OH + O2; and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. It is shown that the heating rates due to these reactions rival the oxygen-related heating rates conventionally considered in middle-atmosphere models. The conversion of chemical potential energy into molecular translational energy (heat) by these odd-hydrogen reactions is shown to be a significant energy source in the middle atmosphere that has not been previously considered.
750 GeV dark pion: Cousin of a dark G -parity odd WIMP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Yang; Berger, Joshua; Lu, Ran
2016-04-01
We point out a potential common origin of the recently observed 750 GeV diphoton resonance and a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) candidate. In a dark QCD sector with an unbroken dark G parity, the diphoton resonance could be a dark G -even pion, while the WIMP could be the lightest dark G -odd pion. Both particles are Standard Model gauge singlets and have the same decay constant. For the dark pion decay constant of around 500 GeV, both the diphoton excess at the LHC and the dark matter thermal abundance can be accommodated in our model. Our model predicts additional dark G -even and dark G -odd color-octet pions within reach of the 13 TeV LHC runs. For the 5 +5 ¯ model, compatible with the grand unified theories, the WIMP mass is predicted to be within (613,750) GeV.
Odd tensor electric transitions in high-spin Sn-isomers and generalized seniority
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Jain, Ashok Kumar
2016-02-01
The similar behavior of the B (E 1) values of the recently observed 13- odd tensor E1 isomers and the B (E 2) values of the 10+ and 15- even tensor E2 isomers in the Sn-isotopes has been understood in terms of the generalized seniority for multi-j orbits by using the quasi-spin scheme. This simple approach proves to be quite successful in explaining the measured transition probabilities and the corresponding half-lives in the high-spin isomers of the semi-magic Sn-isotopes. Hence, we show for the first time the occurrence of seniority isomers in the 13- Sn-isomers, which decay by odd-tensor E1 transitions to the same seniority states.
Location-scale cumulative odds models for ordinal data: a generalized non-linear model approach.
Cox, C
1995-06-15
Proportional odds regression models for multinomial probabilities based on ordered categories have been generalized in two somewhat different directions. Models having scale as well as location parameters for adjustment of boundaries (on an unobservable, underlying continuum) between categories have been employed in the context of ROC analysis. Partial proportional odds models, having different regression adjustments for different multinomial categories, have also been proposed. This paper considers a synthesis and further generalization of these two families. With use of a number of examples, I discuss and illustrate properties of this extended family of models. Emphasis is on the computation of maximum likelihood estimates of parameters, asymptotic standard deviations, and goodness-of-fit statistics with use of non-linear regression programs in standard statistical software such as SAS. PMID:7667560
Time reversal odd fragmentation functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering
Mulders, P.J.; Levelt, J.
1994-04-01
In semi-inclusive scattering of polarized leptons from unpolarized hadrons, one can measure a time reversal odd structure function. It shows up as a sin({phi}) asymmetry of the produced hadrons. This asymmetry can be expressed as the product of a twist-three {open_quotes}hadron {r_arrow} quark{close_quotes} profile function and a time reversal odd twist-two {open_quotes}quark {r_arrow} hadron{close_quotes} fragmentation function. This fragmentation function can only be measured for nonzero transverse momenta of the produced hadron. Its appearance is a consequence of final state interactions between the produced hadron and the rest of the final state.
Even and Odd Charge Coherent States: Higher-Order Nonclassical Properties and Generation Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duc, Truong Minh; Dinh, Dang Huu; Dat, Tran Quang
2016-06-01
We examine the higher-order nonclassical properties of the even and odd charge coherent states as well as proposing a scheme to generate these states whose modes can freely travel in open space. We show that the even and odd charge coherent states exhibit both higher-order antibunching and higher-order squeezing. While the two-mode higher-order antibunching occurs in any order and essentially depends on the charge number, the two-mode higher-order squeezing appears only in the even orders. We also prove that these states are genuinely entangled, and they can be generated by means of cross-Kerr media, beam splitters, phase shifts and threshold detectors. We find that the fidelity and the corresponding success probability to generate these states are dependent on the correlative parameters.
Di Bernardo, A; Diesch, S; Gu, Y; Linder, J; Divitini, G; Ducati, C; Scheer, E; Blamire, M G; Robinson, J W A
2015-01-01
The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811
Di Bernardo, A.; Diesch, S.; Gu, Y.; Linder, J.; Divitini, G.; Ducati, C.; Scheer, E.; Blamire, M.G.; Robinson, J.W.A.
2015-01-01
The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811
Chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in transverse and longitudinal impact parameter spaces
Chakrabarti, D.; Manohar, R.; Mukherjee, A.
2009-02-01
We investigate the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions for nonzero skewness {zeta} in transverse and longitudinal position spaces by taking Fourier transform with respect to the transverse and longitudinal momentum transfer, respectively. We present overlap formulas for the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in terms of light-front wave functions (LFWFs) of the proton both in the Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage and Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi regions. We calculate them in a field theory inspired model of a relativistic spin-1/2 composite state with the correct correlation between the different LFWFs in Fock space, namely, that of the quantum fluctuations of an electron in a generalized form of QED. We show the spin-orbit correlation effect of the two-particle LFWF as well as the correlation between the constituent spin and the transverse spin of the target.
Chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in transverse and longitudinal impact parameter spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabarti, D.; Manohar, R.; Mukherjee, A.
2009-02-01
We investigate the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions for nonzero skewness ζ in transverse and longitudinal position spaces by taking Fourier transform with respect to the transverse and longitudinal momentum transfer, respectively. We present overlap formulas for the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in terms of light-front wave functions (LFWFs) of the proton both in the Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage and Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi regions. We calculate them in a field theory inspired model of a relativistic spin-1/2 composite state with the correct correlation between the different LFWFs in Fock space, namely, that of the quantum fluctuations of an electron in a generalized form of QED. We show the spin-orbit correlation effect of the two-particle LFWF as well as the correlation between the constituent spin and the transverse spin of the target.
An investigation of the solar cycle response of odd-nitrogen in the thermosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rusch, David W.; Solomon, Stanley C.
1992-01-01
This annual report covers the first year of funding for the study of the solar cycle variations of odd-nitrogen (N((sup 2)D), N((sup 4)S), NO) in the Earth's thermosphere. The study uses the extensive data base generated by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites, and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer Satellite. The AE data are being used, for the first time, to define the solar variability effect on the odd-nitrogen species through analysis of the emissions at 520 nano-m from N((sup 2)D) and the emission from O(+)((sup 2)P). Additional AE neutral and ion density data are used to help define and quantify the physical processes controlling the variations. The results from the airglow study will be used in the next two years of this study to explain the solar cycle changes in NO measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerard, J.-C.; Roble, R. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Stewart, A. I.
1984-01-01
A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere is described. The global distributions of nitric oxide and atomic nitrogen are calculated for the solstice period for quiet and moderate magnetic activity during the solar minimum period. The effect of thermospheric transport by winds is investigated along with the importance of particle-induced ionization in the auroral zones. The results are compared with rocket and satellite measurements, and the sensitivity of the model to eddy diffusion and neutral winds is investigated. Downward fluxes of NO into the mesosphere are given, and their importance for stratospheric ozone is discussed. The results show that the summer-to-winter pole meridional circulation transports both NO and N(S-4) across the solar terminator into the polar night region where there is a downward vertical transport toward the mesosphere. The model shows that odd nitrogen densities at high winter latitudes are entirely controlled by particle precipitation and transport processes.
Parity-odd and CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension at finite temperature
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr.; Silva, Madson R. O.
2010-05-15
This work examines the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and parity-odd electrodynamics of the standard model extension. The starting point is the partition function computed for an arbitrary and sufficiently small tensor (k{sub F}){sub {alpha}{nu}{rho}{phi}} [see R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira, Jr., J. S. Rodrigues, and M. R. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. D 80, 085026 (2009).]. After specializing the Lorentz-violating tensor (k{sub F}){sub {alpha}{nu}{rho}{phi}}for the leading-order-nonbirefringent and parity-odd coefficients, the partition function is explicitly carried out, showing that it is a power of the Maxwell partition function. Also, it is observed that the Lorentz invariance violation coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black-body angular energy density distribution. Planck's radiation law retains its usual frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the same form, except for a global proportionality constant.
Influence of secondary decay on odd-even staggering of fragment cross sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkelbauer, J. R.; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.
2013-10-01
Odd-even staggering (OES) appears in many areas of nuclear physics and is generally associated with the pairing term in the nuclear binding energy. To explore this effect, we use the improved statistical multifragmentation model to populate an ensemble of hot primary fragments, which are then de-excited using the Weisskopf-Ewing statistical emission formalism. The yields are then compared to experimental data. Our results show that, before secondary decay, OES appears only in the yields of even mass fragments and not in the yields of odd mass fragments. De-excitation of the hot fragments must be taken into account to describe the data, suggesting that the OES in fragment yields is a useful criterion for validating or adjusting theoretical de-excitation models.
P- and T-odd two-nucleon interaction and the deuteron electric dipole moment
Liu, C.-P.; Timmermans, R.G.E.
2004-11-01
The nuclear physics relevant to the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron is addressed. The general operator structure of the P- and T-odd nucleon-nucleon interaction is discussed and applied to the two-body contributions of the deuteron EDM, which can be calculated in terms of P- and T-odd meson-nucleon coupling constants with only small model dependence. The one-body contributions, the EDMs of the proton and the neutron, are evaluated within the same framework. Although the total theoretical uncertainties are sizable, we conclude that, compared to the neutron, the deuteron EDM is competitive in terms of sensitivity to CP violation, and complementary with respect to the microscopic sources of CP violation that can be probed.
P ,T -odd electron-nucleus interaction in atomic systems as an exchange by Higgs bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chubukov, D. V.; Labzowsky, L. N.
2016-06-01
Scalar-pseudoscalar P ,T -odd interaction between the electron and the nucleus in atomic systems is constructed within the standard model as an exchange by Higgs boson. The necessary P - and T -violating contribution is obtained at the three-loop level on the basis of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This contribution, unlike the corresponding contribution to the electron electric dipole moment (EDM), does not vanish since the "Higgs charges" of quarks, contrary to their electric charges, are flavor dependent. Order-of-magnitude estimates of the effect expressed as an "equivalent" electron EDM give the values within the range deeqv˜10-40-10-45e cm , depending on the known different estimates for the electron EDM. This can be compared with the known "benchmark" two-photon P ,T -odd electron-nucleus interaction effect, which provides deeqv˜10-38e cm .
Sensitivity of odd-harmonic amplitudes to open quotient and skewing quotient in glottal airflow
Titze, Ingo R.
2015-01-01
It is well known that a half-sinusoid has no odd harmonics other than the fundamental. If glottal flow in phonation were to approximate this exact waveshape, which is generally unlikely, some misperception of pitch and loss of vowel intelligibility would occur. The sensitivity of the glottal waveshape to this special shape is explored by systematically varying two parameters, open quotient and skewing quotient. Mild asymmetry (open quotient below 0.45 or above 0.55 and/or skewing quotient greater than 2.0) equalizes the odd-even harmonic series. Singers and speakers avoid the exact symmetry by skewing the flow pulse with source-filter interaction. PMID:25618080
Double Brillouin frequency shift through circulation of odd-order Stokes signal.
Shee, Yu Gang; Al-Mansoori, Mohammed Hayder; Ismail, Alyani; Hitam, Salasiah; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir
2010-07-10
We demonstrate a simple configuration for generating a double Brillouin frequency shift through the circulation of an odd-order Brillouin Stokes signal. It is operated based on cascaded Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers that behave as the Brillouin gain media. A four-port circulator is incorporated into the setup to circulate the odd-order Brillouin Stokes signal in the fiber. It thus initiates a higher order Brillouin Stokes signal, which is double Brillouin frequency downshifted from the input signal. For the 5 km long fiber, the Brillouin pump power at 23 mW gives a clean output spectrum with 30 dB sideband suppression ratio. The output signal is 0.174 nm or approximately 21.7 GHz downshifted from the input signal. PMID:20648173
Microscopic calculations of Qp-values in well-deformed odd-Z proton emitters
Bonneau, L.; Le Bloas, J.; Quentin, P.
2011-11-30
Within the Hartree-Fock-BCS and Highly Truncated Diagonalization microscopic approaches we have calculated the ground-state binding energies of axially-deformed odd-Z, even-N nuclei in the A {approx} 130 region and of the even-even daughter nuclei resulting from one-proton emission. The deduced Q{sub p} values are in fair agreement with available experimental data.
Computer search for binary cyclic UEP codes of odd length up to 65
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Mao-Chao; Lin, Chi-Chang; Lin, Shu
1990-01-01
Using an exhaustive computation, the unequal error protection capabilities of all binary cyclic codes of odd length up to 65 that have minimum distances at least 3 are found. For those codes that can only have upper bounds on their unequal error protection capabilities computed, an analytic method developed by Dynkin and Togonidze (1976) is used to show that the upper bounds meet the exact unequal error protection capabilities.
Entrance-channel effects in odd-Z tranactinide compound nucleus reactions
Nelson, S.L.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dragojevic, I.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Eichler, R.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.
2007-09-01
Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' description [1] of transactinide (TAN) compound nucleus (CN) formation utilizes a three-step model. The first step is the 'sticking', or capture, which can be calculated relatively accurately. The second step is the probability for the formation of a CN by 'diffusion' analogous to that of Brownian motion. Lastly, there exists the probability of the CN 'surviving' deexcitation by neutron emission, which competes with fission and other de-excitation modes. This model predicts and reproduces cross sections typically within a factor of two. Producing the same CN with different projectile-target pairs is a very sensitive way to test entrance channel effects on heavy element production cross sections. If the same CN is produced at or near the same excitation energy the survival portion of the theory is nearly identical for the two reactions. This method can be used as a critical test of the novel 'diffusion' portion of the model. The reactions producing odd-Z TAN CN such as Db, Bh, Mt, and Rg (Z = 105, 107, 109, and 111, respectively) were first studied using even-Z projectiles on {sup 209}Bi targets (as opposed to odd-Z projectiles on {sup 208}Pb targets) because lower effective fissility [2] was expected to lead to larger cross sections. Many odd-Z projectile reactions producing odd-Z CN had not been studied in-depth until very recently. We have completed studies of these reaction pairs with the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator (BGS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), see Figure 1. Cross section ratios for several pairs of reactions will be presented and compared with theory.
Cluster interpretation of parity doublet rotational bands in odd-mass nuclei
Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V.; Shneidman, T.M.
2004-12-01
The structure of parity doublet rotational bands in odd actinides and medium mass nuclei is described in a cluster model. The model is based on the assumption that cluster-type shapes are produced by the motion of the nuclear system in the mass-asymmetry coordinate. The calculated rotational bands and the electric dipole transitions between the members of the parity doublet are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Behavior of one-quasiparticle levels in odd isotonic chains of heavy nuclei
Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kuklin, S. N.; Malov, L. A.; Lu, B. N.; Zhou, S. G.
2011-08-15
The low-lying one-quasiparticle states are studied in the isotonic chains with N=147, 149, 151, 153, and 155 within the microscopic-macroscopic and self-consistent approaches. The energies of one-quasiparticle states change rather smoothly in the isotonic chains if there is no cross of the proton subshell. The {alpha}-decay schemes of several nuclei are suggested. The isomeric states in the odd isotopes of Fm and No are discussed.
Charge radii of odd-A191-211Po isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seliverstov, M. D.; Cocolios, T. E.; Dexters, W.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A. E.; Bastin, B.; Büscher, J.; Darby, I. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Fritzsche, S.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Keupers, M.; Köster, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Page, R. D.; Sjødin, A. M.; Stefan, I.; Van de Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.
2013-02-01
Isotope shifts have been measured for the odd-A polonium isotopes 191-211Po and changes in the nuclear mean square charge radii δ
Mean-field description of odd-frequency superconductivity with staggered ordering vector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshino, Shintaro
2014-09-01
A low-energy fixed-point Hamiltonian is constructed for the s-wave odd-frequency pairing state with staggered ordering vector in the two-channel Kondo lattice. The effective model is justified because it reproduces low-energy behaviors of self-energy obtained by the dynamical mean-field theory. The retardation effect is essential for the odd-frequency pairing, which comes from the hybridization process between conduction electrons and pseudofermions originating from localized spins at low energies. Using the effective Hamiltonian, the electromagnetic response functions are microscopically calculated. The present system shows a "weak" Meissner effect, where both paramagnetic and diamagnetic parts contribute to the Meissner kernel to give a small total diamagnetic response in the superconducting state. This feature is in contrast to the ordinary s-wave BCS pairing where only the diamagnetic kernel is finite in the ground state. The staggered nature of the odd-frequency order parameter plays an important role for the sign of the Meissner kernel.
Structure of the doublet bands in doubly odd nuclei: The case of {sup 128}Cs
Ganev, H. G.; Brant, S.
2010-09-15
The structure of the {Delta}J=1 doublet bands in {sup 128}Cs is investigated within the framework of the interacting vector boson-fermion model. A new, purely collective interpretation of these bands is given on the basis of the used boson-fermion dynamical symmetry of the model. The energy levels of the doublet bands as well as the absolute B(E2) and B(M1) transition probabilities between the states of both yrast and yrare bands are described quite well. The observed odd-even staggering of both B(M1) and B(E2) values is reproduced by the introduction of an appropriate interaction term of quadrupole type, which produces such a staggering effect in the transition strengths. The calculations show that the appearance of doublet bands in certain odd-odd nuclei could be a consequence of the realization of a larger dynamical symmetry based on the noncompact supersymmetry group OSp(2{Omega}/12,R).
Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce odd chain-length fatty alcohols.
Jin, Zhu; Wong, Adison; Foo, Jee Loon; Ng, Joey; Cao, Ying-Xiu; Chang, Matthew Wook; Yuan, Ying-Jin
2016-04-01
Fatty aldehydes and alcohols are valuable precursors used in the industrial manufacturing of a myriad of specialty products. Herein, we demonstrate the de novo production of odd chain-length fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expressing a novel biosynthetic pathway involving cytosolic thioesterase, rice α-dioxygenase and endogenous aldehyde reductases. We attained production titers of ∼20 mg/l fatty aldehydes and ∼20 mg/l fatty alcohols in shake flask cultures after 48 and 60 h respectively without extensive fine-tuning of metabolic fluxes. In contrast to prior studies which relied on bi-functional fatty acyl-CoA reductase to produce even chain-length fatty alcohols, our biosynthetic route exploits α-oxidation reaction to produce odd chain-length fatty aldehyde intermediates without using NAD(P)H cofactor, thereby conserving cellular resource during the overall synthesis of odd chain-length fatty alcohols. The biosynthetic pathway presented in this study has the potential to enable sustainable and efficient synthesis of fatty acid-derived chemicals from processed biomass. PMID:26461930
LACK OF ANGULAR CORRELATION AND ODD-PARITY PREFERENCE IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DATA
Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel
2011-10-01
We have investigated the angular correlation in the recent cosmic microwave background data. In addition to the known large-angle correlation anomaly, we find the lack of correlation at small angles with high statistical significance. We have investigated various non-cosmological contamination as well as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team's simulated data. However, we have not found a definite cause. In the angular power spectrum of WMAP data, there exists anomalous odd-parity preference at low multipoles. Noting the equivalence between the power spectrum and the correlation, we have investigated the association between the lack of large-angle correlation and the odd-parity preference. From our investigation, we find that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, a phenomenological origin of the lack of large-angle correlation. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of the anomaly is cosmological or due to unaccounted systematics. The data from the Planck surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will greatly help us to resolve its origin.
Shape phase transition in odd-even nuclei: From spherical to deformed gamma-unstable shapes
Boeyuekata, M.; Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.
2010-07-15
Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The case of a single j=9/2 fermion coupled to an even-even boson core is considered. This boson core transits from spherical to gamma-unstable shapes depending on the value of a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point is discussed. For that purpose, the ground-state energy surface in terms of the beta and gamma shape variables for the even core and odd-even energy surfaces for the different K states coming from j=9/2 are constructed. The evolution of each individual coupled state along the transition from the spherical [U(5)] to the gamma-unstable [O(6)] situation is investigated. One finds that the core-fermion coupling gives rise to a smoother transition than in the even-core case.
Coherent quadrupole-octupole modes and split parity-doublet spectra in odd-A nuclei
Minkov, N.; Drenska, S.; Yotov, P.; Lalkovski, S.; Bonatsos, D.; Scheid, W.
2007-09-15
A collective model describing coherent quadrupole-octupole oscillations and rotations with a Coriolis coupling between the even-even core and the unpaired nucleon is applied to odd nuclei. The particle-core coupling provides a parity-doublet structure of the spectrum, whereas the quadrupole-octupole motion leads to a splitting of the doublet energy levels. The formalism successfully reproduces the split parity-doublet spectra and the attendant B(E1) and B(E2) transition probabilities in a wide range of odd-A nuclei. It provides estimations for the influence of the Coriolis interaction on the collective motion and subsequently for the value of angular momentum projection K on which the spectrum is built. The analysis of the energy splitting and B(E1) transition probabilities between opposite parity counterparts suggests degenerate doublet structures at high angular momenta. The study provides information about the evolution of quadrupole-octupole collectivity in odd-mass nuclei.
Intrinsic Paramagnetic Meissner Effect Due to s -Wave Odd-Frequency Superconductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Bernardo, A.; Salman, Z.; Wang, X. L.; Amado, M.; Egilmez, M.; Flokstra, M. G.; Suter, A.; Lee, S. L.; Zhao, J. H.; Prokscha, T.; Morenzoni, E.; Blamire, M. G.; Linder, J.; Robinson, J. W. A.
2015-10-01
In 1933, Meissner and Ochsenfeld reported the expulsion of magnetic flux—the diamagnetic Meissner effect—from the interior of superconducting lead. This discovery was crucial in formulating the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity. In exotic superconducting systems BCS theory does not strictly apply. A classical example is a superconductor-magnet hybrid system where magnetic ordering breaks time-reversal symmetry of the superconducting condensate and results in the stabilization of an odd-frequency superconducting state. It has been predicted that under appropriate conditions, odd-frequency superconductivity should manifest in the Meissner state as fluctuations in the sign of the magnetic susceptibility, meaning that the superconductivity can either repel (diamagnetic) or attract (paramagnetic) external magnetic flux. Here, we report local probe measurements of faint magnetic fields in a Au /Ho /Nb trilayer system using low-energy muons, where antiferromagnetic Ho (4.5 nm) breaks time-reversal symmetry of the proximity-induced pair correlations in Au. From depth-resolved measurements below the superconducting transition of Nb, we observe a local enhancement of the magnetic field in Au that exceeds the externally applied field, thus proving the existence of an intrinsic paramagnetic Meissner effect arising from an odd-frequency superconducting state.
Evening chronotypes have the increased odds for bronchial asthma and nocturnal asthma.
Merikanto, Ilona; Englund, Ani; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo
2014-02-01
Earlier studies have found associations of chronotypes with a range of health-related factors. In the light of these findings, the behavioral trait of eveningness in particular associates with determinants that might have a negative impact on health. In this study, based on a random sample of population aged 25-74 years living in five large geographical areas in Finland (N = 6089), we tested whether the evening chronotypes have the increased odds for respiratory symptoms and diseases. As a result, after controlling for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, evening-types had wheezy breathing without respiratory infection, a diagnosed or treated bronchial asthma, awoken in shortness of breath, awoken in heavy to breath, wheezy breathing with dyspnea, wheezy breathing as such and medication for asthma more often than morning-types (odds ratios (ORs) of 1.5-1.9) and intermediate-types (ORs of 1.3-1.6). In addition, evening-types had current medication for asthma, and awoken in coughing more often (OR = 1.5 and OR = 1.4, respectively) than morning-types. Evening-types did not have a diagnosed or treated chronic bronchitis more frequently than others. Our results suggest that the behavioral trait of eveningness associates with the increased odds for the bronchial asthma and nocturnal asthma in particular. PMID:24131153
odd-skipped related 2 is required for fin chondrogenesis in zebrafish
Lam, Pui-ying; Kamei, Caramai N.; Mangos, Steve; Mudumana, Sudha; Liu, Yan; Drummond, Iain A.
2014-01-01
Background odd-skipped related 2 (osr2) encodes a vertebrate ortholog of the Drosophila odd-skipped zinc-finger transcription factor. Osr2 in mouse is required for proper palate, eyelid, and bone development. Zebrafish knock down experiments have also suggested a role for osr2, along with its paralog osr1, in early pectoral fin specification and pronephric development. Results We show here that osr2 has a specific function later in development, independent of osr1, in the regulation of sox9a expression and promoting fin chondrogenesis. mRNA in situ hybridization demonstrated osr2 expression in the developing floorplate and later during organogenesis in the pronephros and gut epithelium. In the pectoral fin buds, osr2 was specifically expressed in fin mesenchyme. osr2 knock down in zebrafish embryos disrupted both three and five zinc finger alternatively spliced osr2 isoforms and eliminated wild-type osr2 mRNA. osr2 morphants exhibited normal pectoral fin bud specification but exhibited defective fin chondrogenesis, with loss of differentiated chondrocytes. Defects in chondrogenesis were paralleled by loss of sox9a as well as subsequent col2a1 expression, linking osr2 function to essential regulators of chondrogenesis. Conclusions The zebrafish odd-skipped related 2 gene regulates sox9a and col2a1 expression in chondrocyte development and is specifically required for zebrafish fin morphogenesis. PMID:23913342
Multilevel built environment features and individual odds of overweight and obesity in Utah
Xu, Yanqing; Wen, Ming; Wang, Fahui
2015-01-01
Based on the data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2007, 2009 and 2011 in Utah, this research uses multilevel modeling (MLM) to examine the associations between neighborhood built environments and individual odds of overweight and obesity after controlling for individual risk factors. The BRFSS data include information on 21,961 individuals geocoded to zip code areas. Individual variables include BMI (body mass index) and socio-demographic attributes such as age, gender, race, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and whether an individual smokes. Neighborhood built environment factors measured at both zip code and county levels include street connectivity, walk score, distance to parks, and food environment. Two additional neighborhood variables, namely the poverty rate and urbanicity, are also included as control variables. MLM results show that at the zip code level, poverty rate and distance to parks are significant and negative covariates of the odds of overweight and obesity; and at the county level, food environment is the sole significant factor with stronger fast food presence linked to higher odds of overweight and obesity. These findings suggest that obesity risk factors lie in multiple neighborhood levels and built environment features need to be defined at a neighborhood size relevant to residents' activity space. PMID:26251559
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scholtens, Sara; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Tillman, Carin M.; Rydell, Ann-Margret
2012-01-01
Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social…